WorldWideScience

Sample records for armored vehicles appendix

  1. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Carros, Deborah L; Schaefer, Beth K; Truong, Linh; Palmer, Kevin A; Chun, Judy M; Smith, Jessica M; Abraham, Amanda M; Peters, Anthony R

    2007-01-01

    ...., and Armor Holdings, Inc., for armored vehicles. This report addresses armored vehicles, specifically the Buffalo Mine Protected Clearance Vehicle, the Cougar, the Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal Rapid Response Vehicle (JERRV...

  2. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Carros, Deborah L; Schaefer, Beth K; Truong, Linh; Palmer, Kevin A; Chun, Judy M; Smith, Jessica M; Abraham, Amanda M; Peters, Anthony R

    2007-01-01

    Congresswoman Louise M. Slaughter requested that the Inspector General (IG), DoD review the DoD procurement history for body armor and armored vehicles and determine whether officials properly followed contracting policies...

  3. Acquisition of the Armored Medical Evacuation Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The platform for the AMEV is an upgraded M2A0 Bradley Fighting Vehicle variant, which has the turret removed, the roof squared off and raised 13 inches, a 600 horsepower engine, and additional armor...

  4. Light Armored Vehicles in Operations Other Than War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    8Kenneth W. Estes, Marines Under Armor (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2000), 212. 6 attach and detach elements in task organizing for a...operations. Kenneth W. Estes writes in his book Marines Under Armor : “The light armored vehicles of the LAR battalions, by contrast [to tanks], continue...Martin’s Press, 1991. Estes, Kenneth W., Marines under Armor : The Marine Corps and the Armored Fighting Vehicle. 1916-2000. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval

  5. Field Expedient Armor Modifications to US Armored Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Report on US vs. German Armor,” Exhibit 3, p. 42. 37Ibid., Exhibit 2, p. 38. 38Kenneth W. Estes, Marines Under Armor , The Marine Corps and the...Washington, D.C., 1945), 62. 43Estes, Marines Under Armor , 81. 44Ibid. 45Cameron, “Armor Combat Development 1917-1945,” 17. 46Mayo, The Technical...Marines Under Armor , 53. 72William E. Bennett, Charles W. Fletcher, French G. Lewis, Gerald H. Shea, Rufus J. Cleghorn, James F. Beaver and Thomas

  6. Instant decoys for armored vehicles. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, R.; Leenders, J.

    2000-01-01

    The TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory is involved with projects that deal with vulnerability of armored vehicles. Such activities take place in both national and international programs and are especially performed in the group Weapon Effectiveness. One of the other groups within TNOPML is the group

  7. Negligible heat strain in armored vehicle officers wearing personal body armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Andrew P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study evaluated the heat strain experienced by armored vehicle officers (AVOs wearing personal body armor (PBA in a sub-tropical climate. Methods Twelve male AVOs, aged 35-58 years, undertook an eight hour shift while wearing PBA. Heart rate and core temperature were monitored continuously. Urine specific gravity (USG was measured before and after, and with any urination during the shift. Results Heart rate indicated an intermittent and low-intensity nature of the work. USG revealed six AVOs were dehydrated from pre through post shift, and two others became dehydrated. Core temperature averaged 37.4 ± 0.3°C, with maximum's of 37.7 ± 0.2°C. Conclusions Despite increased age, body mass, and poor hydration practices, and Wet-Bulb Globe Temperatures in excess of 30°C; the intermittent nature and low intensity of the work prevented excessive heat strain from developing.

  8. Armored Combat Vehicles Science and Technology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    APPLICATION OF SENSORS Investigate the seismic, acoustic, and electromagnetic signatures of military and intruder -type targets and the theoretical aspects...a prototype sampling system which has the capability to monitor ambieut air both outside and inside vehicles and provide an early warning to the crew...and through various processing modules provide automated functions for simultaneous tracking of targets and automitic recognition, 74 f’," SENSING

  9. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  10. Improving the Success of Light Armored Vehicle Drivers: A Qualitative Descriptive Narrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Dathan

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive narrative research was the first known study to collect participants' perceptions on the effectiveness of the Marine Corps' Light Armored Vehicle driver training. The general problem was the Marine Corps' vague guidance on curriculum development, instruction, and assessment for driver training of the Light armored…

  11. The Armys Armored Multi Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    1 Information in this section is taken from Christopher F. Foss, Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012...for the ABCT AMPV is 2,907 vehicles—a 10 vehicle increase over 2013 quantities. Discussions with the AMPV Program Manager revealed the 10 extra...Selected Weapon Programs, GAO-14-340SP, March 2014, p. 129. 14 CRS Meeting with AMPV Program Manager May 20, 2014. 15 Ibid. The Army’s Armored Multi

  12. New computer and communications environments for light armored vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanotti, John L.; Palmarini, Marc; Dumont, Marc

    2002-08-01

    Light Armoured Vehicles (LAVs) are being developed to meet the modern requirements of rapid deployment and operations other than war. To achieve these requirements, passive armour is minimized and survivability depends more on sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid threats. The performance, reliability, and ultimately the cost of these components, will be determined by the trends in computing and communications. These trends and the potential impact on DAS (Defensive Aids Suite) development were investigated and are reported in this paper. Vehicle performance is affected by communication with other vehicles and other ISTAR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance) battlefield assets. This investigation includes the networking technology Jini developed by SUN Microsystems, which can be used to interface the vehicle to the ISTAR network. VxWorks by Wind River Systems, is a real time operating system designed for military systems and compatible with Jini. Other technologies affecting computer hardware development include, dynamic reconfiguration, hot swap, alternate pathing, CompactPCI, and Fiber Channel serial communication. To achieve the necessary performance at reasonable cost, and over the long service life of the vehicle, a DAS should have two essential features. A fitted for, but not fitted with approach will provide the necessary rapid deployment without a need to equip the entire fleet. With an expected vehicle service life of 50 years, 5-year technology upgrades can be used to maintain vehicle performance over the entire service life. A federation of modules instead of integrated fused sensors will provide the capability for incremental upgrades and mission configurability. A plug and play capability can be used for both hardware and expendables.

  13. Integrated development of light armored vehicles based on wargaming simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarini, Marc; Rapanotti, John

    2004-08-01

    Vehicles are evolving into vehicle networks through improved sensors, computers and communications. Unless carefully planned, these complex systems can result in excessive crew workload and difficulty in optimizing the use of the vehicle. To overcome these problems, a war-gaming simulator is being developed as a common platform to integrate contributions from three different groups. The simulator, OneSAF, is used to integrate simplified models of technology and natural phenomena from scientists and engineers with tactics and doctrine from the military and analyzed in detail by operations analysts. This approach ensures the modelling of processes known to be important regardless of the level of information available about the system. Vehicle survivability can be improved as well with better sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid or destroy threats. To improve threat detection and reliability, Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) designs are based on three complementary sensor technologies including: acoustics, visible and infrared optics and radar. Both active armour and softkill countermeasures are considered. In a typical scenario, a search radar, providing continuous hemispherical coverage, detects and classifies the threat and cues a tracking radar. Data from the tracking radar is processed and an explosive grenade is launched to destroy or deflect the threat. The angle of attack and velocity from the search radar can be used by the soft-kill system to carry out an infrared search and track or an illuminated range-gated scan for the threat platform. Upon detection, obscuration, countermanoeuvres and counterfire can be used against the threat. The sensor suite is completed by acoustic detection of muzzle blast and shock waves. Automation and networking at the platoon level contribute to improved vehicle survivability. Sensor data fusion is essential in avoiding catastrophic failure of the DAS. The modular DAS components can be used with Light Armoured

  14. Transformation: Transition From a Heavy to a Lighter Family of Armored Fighting Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petty, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of World War II, the single event with greatest impact on the development of armor was the war that did not happen-the expected conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union...

  15. Design of Vibration Absorber using Spring and Rubber for Armored Vehicle 5.56 mm Caliber Rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of vibration absorber using spring and rubber for 5.56 mm caliber rifle armored vehicle. Such a rifle is used in a Remote-Controlled Weapon System (RCWS or a turret where it is fixed using a two degree of freedom pan-tilt mechanism. A half car lumped mass dynamic model of armored vehicles was derived. Numerical simulation was conducted using fourth order Runge Kutta method. Various types of vibration absorbers using spring and rubber with different configurations are installed in the elevation element. Vibration effects on horizontal direction, vertical direction and angular deviation of the elevation element was investigated. Three modes of fire were applied i.e. single fire, semi-automatic fire and automatic fire. From simulation results, it was concluded that the parallel configuration of damping rubber type 3, which has stiffness of 980,356.04 (N/m2 and damping coefficient of 107.37 (N.s/m, and Carbon steel spring whose stiffness coefficient is 5.547 x 106 (N/m2 provides the best vibration absorption. 

  16. Procurement Practices for the Composite Armored Vehicle and Composite Affordability Initiative Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether violations of procurement regulations occurred regarding procurement of selected components of the Army Crusader vehicle and the Joint Strike Fighter aircraft...

  17. The Combat System Design and Test Criteria for Iguana TM Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alper, Irfan

    1999-01-01

    ... acoustic/IR signatures. The Iguana(trademark), a tracked vehicle concept based on a recently patented suspension and track design, could deploy to hot spots world-wide on peacekeeping and combat missions which require extra flexibility to adapt...

  18. ModSAF-based development of operational requirements for light armored vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanotti, John; Palmarini, Marc

    2003-09-01

    Light Armoured Vehicles (LAVs) are being developed to meet the modern requirements of rapid deployment and operations other than war. To achieve these requirements, passive armour is minimized and survivability depends more on sensors, computers, countermeasures and communications to detect and avoid threats. The performance, reliability, and ultimately the cost of these systems, will be determined by the technology trends and the rates at which they mature. Defining vehicle requirements will depend upon an accurate assessment of these trends over a longer term than was previously needed. Modelling and simulation are being developed to study these long-term trends and how they contribute to establishing vehicle requirements. ModSAF is being developed for research and development, in addition to the original requirement of Simulation and Modelling for Acquisition, Rehearsal, Requirements and Training (SMARRT), and is becoming useful as a means for transferring technology to other users, researchers and contractors. This procedure eliminates the need to construct ad hoc models and databases. The integration of various technologies into a Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) can be designed and analyzed by combining field trials and laboratory data with modelling and simulation. ModSAF (Modular Semi-Automated Forces,) is used to construct the virtual battlefield and, through scripted input files, a "fixed battle" approach is used to define and implement contributions from three different sources. These contributions include: models of technology and natural phenomena from scientists and engineers, tactics and doctrine from the military and detailed analyses from operations research. This approach ensures the modelling of processes known to be important regardless of the level of information available about the system. Survivability of DAS-equipped vehicles based on future and foreign technology can be investigated by ModSAF and assessed relative to a test vehicle. A vehicle can

  19. Light Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Using former laboratory experience on examination the properties of silicate-polymer composite of low density and high protective ability against shaped charges armor specimens are designed and tested...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 591 - Section 591.5(f) Bond for the Entry of a Single Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT SUBJECT TO FEDERAL SAFETY, BUMPER AND THEFT PREVENTION STANDARDS Pt. 591, App. A Appendix A to Part 591—Section 591.5(f) Bond for the Entry of a Single Vehicle Department of Transportation... Vehicle A Appendix A to Part 591 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...

  1. Overview of the Capstone Depleted Uranium Study of Aerosols from Impact with Armored Vehicles: Test Setup and Aerosol Generation, Characterization, and Application in Assessing Dose and Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Guilmette, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Characterization and Risk Assessment Study was conducted to generate data about DU aerosols generated during the perforation of armored combat vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, and to apply the data in assessments of human health risks to personnel exposed to these aerosols, primarily through inhalation, during the 1991 Gulf War or in future military operations. The Capstone study consisted of two components: (1) generating, sampling and characterizing DU aerosols by firing at and perforating combat vehicles and (2) applying the source-term quantities and characteristics of the aerosols to the evaluation of doses and risks. This paper reviews the background of the study including the bases for the study, previous reviews of DU particles and health assessments from DU used by the U.S. military, the objectives of the study components, the participants and oversight teams, and the types of exposures it was intended to evaluate. It then discusses exposure scenarios used in the dose and risk assessment and provides an overview of how the field tests and dose and risk assessments were conducted

  2. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Xi to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Light-Duty Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Light-Duty Vehicles XI Appendix XI to Part 86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Enforcement Auditing of Light-Duty Vehicles 40% AQL Table 1—Sampling Plan Code Letter Annual sales of...

  4. A quantitative analysis of aerosols inside an armored vehicle perforated by a kinetic energy penetrator containing tungsten, nickel, and cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Kenneth; Cheng, Yung Sung; Holmes, Thomas D

    2007-04-01

    These tests were conducted to develop a database that could be used to assess risks to soldiers from exposure to aerosolized metallic particulates when the crew compartment of an Abrams tank is perforated by a kinetic energy penetrator. Quantitative data are reported for aerosols produced by kinetic energy penetrators containing tungsten, nickel, and cobalt. The following are addressed: (1) concentrations and rates of particle settling inside the vehicle, (2) particle size distribution, (3) inhalable and respirable particulates, (4) distribution of aerosol particles by mass, and (5) particle shapes. The scenario described in this report simulates a rare occurrence. The lessons learned, however, highlight a requirement for developing protocols for analyses of metals in body fluids and urine as soon as practical, and also for implementing targeted postdeployment medical surveillance programs that monitor both body burden for respired metals and pulmonary function.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks XII Appendix XII to... Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty...

  6. Improved Shaped Charge Armors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vodenicharov, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    .... The major activities that are carried out are design, fabrication and testing in proving ground conditions of armor samples of various characteristics, electron microscopic and X-ray structural...

  7. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  8. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Design study of an armor tile handling manipulator for the Fusion Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibanuma, K.; Honda, T.; Satoh, K.; Terakado, T.; Kondoh, M.; Sasaki, N.; Munakata, T.; Murakami, S.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual design of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), which is a D-T burning reactor following on JT-60 in Japan, has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In FER, a rail-mounted vehicle concept is planned to be adopted for in-vessel maintenance, such as maintenance of divertor plates and armor tiles. Advantages of this concept are the high stiffness of the rail as a base structure for maintenance and the high mobility of the vehicle along the rail. Twin armor tile handling manipulators installed on both sides of the vehicle have been designed. The respective manipulators for armor tile handling have 8 degrees of freedom in order to have access to any place of the first wall and to go through the horizontal port by operating manipulator joints. If the two types of manipulators for divertor plates and armor tiles are installed on the vehicle and the divertor handling manipulator carries a case filled with armor tiles, the replacement time of armor tiles will be reduced. In FER, moreover, maintenance of armor tiles, which is a scheduled maintenance, is planned to be carried out by the autonomous control using position sensors etc. In order to accumulate the data base for the development of the autonomous control of the manipulator in armor tile maintenance, the present paper describes basic mechanical characteristics (stress, deflection and natural frequency) of the armor tile handling manipulator calculated by static stress and dynamic eigenvalue analyses. (orig.)

  10. Blast-Resistant Improvement of Sandwich Armor Structure with Aluminum Foam Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shu; Qi, Chang

    2013-01-01

    Sandwich armor structures with aluminum foam can be utilized to protect a military vehicle from harmful blast load such as a landmine explosion. In this paper, a system-level dynamic finite element model is developed to simulate the blast event and to evaluate the blast-resistant performance of the sandwich armor structure. It is found that a sandwich armor structure with only aluminum foam is capable of mitigating crew injuries under a moderate blast load. However, a severe blast load causes...

  11. Runoff from armored slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Models exist for calculating overland flow on hillsides but no models have been found which explicitly deal with runoff from armored slopes. Flow on armored slopes differs from overland flow, because substantial flow occurs beneath the surface of the rock layer at low runnoff, and both above and below the surface for high runoff. In addition to the lack of a suitable model, no estimates of the PMP exist for such small areas and for very short durations. This paper develops a model for calculating runoff from armored embankments. The model considers the effect of slope, drainage area and ''flow concentration'' caused by irregular grading or slumping. A rainfall-duration curve based on the PMP is presented which is suitable for very small drainage areas. The development of the runoff model and rainfall-duration curve is presented below, along with a demonstration of the model on the design of a hypothetical tailings embankment

  12. Combat Vehicle Technology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    reducing fuel storage under armor , and using manual instead of automatic transmissions, these decisions involve definite operational trade-offs...turn. 20 The application of ceramic materials has made possible the adiabatic -aiesel concept that reduces under - armor cooling system size requirements...systems will eliminate all conventional torsion bar suspension volume under armor space claim, and will have a very direct effect on reducing vehicle

  13. Glass matrix armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the insides surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material

  14. Armored Composite Ammunition Pressure Vessel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, William

    1999-01-01

    ...). This ammunition containment system must not only meet environmental and handling requirements but also provide armor protection against impacting threats and reduce the response of the stowed...

  15. Physical Training for Armor Crewmen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Shane

    2003-01-01

    .... The author concluded that if his sample population represented the entire population then armor leaders were neglecting muscular strength, muscular endurance and flexibility in their physical readiness programs...

  16. Mosaic Transparent Armor System Final Report CRADA No. TC02162.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Breslin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-29

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and The Protective Group, Inc. (TPG) to improve the performance of the mosaic transparent armor system (MTAS) for transparent armor applications, military and civilian. LLNL was to provide the unique MTAS technology and designs to TPG for innovative construction and ballistic testing of improvements needed for current and near future application of the armor windows on vehicles and aircraft. The goal of the project was to advance the technology of MTAS to the point that these mosaic transparent windows would be introduced and commercially manufactured for military vehicles and aircraft.

  17. Armor in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    battles a-Riuot the insurgent enemy, especially with armor. French contingents were present in Tndo Chinh P-w early as 1852, but it was not until 1884...committed to Vietnam were straight infantry. These troons er•A tran -norted in hn4±{ copters and usually airlifted to the battle zone; however, once...0STAINf0 FROM VKTNAM NATIONAL MAP SERVICE (NOS) PHU-YEN OCTOBER 19665 OARLAC ......... KKAN1+ HOA QLWA- DUC TUYEN- DUC PHUOC- NINH_ C;ry OF -10 T CAM RANK TAY

  18. The Need to Mobilize Armor in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-20

    success. 1 Kenneth W. Estes, Marines Under Armor (Naval Institute Press,2000)34 2 Increasing Combat...4 Kenneth W. Estes, Marines Under Armor (Naval Institute Press,2000) 202 5 Kenneth W. Estes, Marines Under ... Armor (Naval Institute Press,2000) 198- 202 6 Kenneth W. Estes, Marines Under Armor (Naval Institute Press,2000) 203 8 mechanized unit was needed to

  19. Armored garment for protecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D [Albuquerque, NM; Brazfield, Richard [Albuquerque, NM; Lawrie, Catherine [Tijeras, NM; Lawrie, David [Tijeras, NM; Preece, Dale S [Watkins, CO

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  20. Expanding the Availability of Lightweight Aluminum Alloy Armor Plate Procured from Detailed Military Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kevin; Squillacioti, Richard; Cheeseman, Bryan; Placzankis, Brian; Gallardy, Denver

    For many years, the range of aluminum alloys for armor plate applications obtainable in accordance with detailed military specifications was very limited. However, the development of improved aluminum alloys for aerospace and other applications has provided an opportunity to modernize the Army portfolio for ground vehicle armor applications. While the benefits of offering additional alloy choices to vehicle designers is obvious, the process of creating detailed military specifications for armor plate applications is not trivial. A significant amount of material and testing is required to develop the details required by an armor plate specification. Due to the vast number of material programs that require standardization and with a limited amount of manpower and funds as a result of Standardization Reform in 1995, one typically requires a need statement from a vehicle program office to justify and sponsor the work. This presentation will focus on recent aluminum alloy armor plate specifications that have added capability to vehicle designers' selection of armor materials that offer possible benefits such as lower cost, higher strength, better ballistic and corrosion resistance, improved weldability, etc.

  1. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix D: Sensitivity analysis resport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Parametric analyses, using a hybrid vehicle synthesis and economics program (HYVELD) are described investigating the sensitivity of hybrid vehicle cost, fuel usage, utility, and marketability to changes in travel statistics, energy costs, vehicle lifetime and maintenance, owner use patterns, internal combustion engine (ICE) reference vehicle fuel economy, and drive-line component costs and type. The lowest initial cost of the hybrid vehicle would be $1200 to $1500 higher than that of the conventional vehicle. For nominal energy costs ($1.00/gal for gasoline and 4.2 cents/kWh for electricity), the ownership cost of the hybrid vehicle is projected to be 0.5 to 1.0 cents/mi less than the conventional ICE vehicle. To attain this ownership cost differential, the lifetime of the hybrid vehicle must be extended to 12 years and its maintenance cost reduced by 25 percent compared with the conventional vehicle. The ownership cost advantage of the hybrid vehicle increases rapidly as the price of fuel increases from $1 to $2/gal.

  2. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  3. Physical Training for Armor Crewmen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the physical requirements of armor crewmen and provides a method for training them to meet those requirements based on current Army doctrine and emerging fitness doctrine using...

  4. Transparent Armor Cost Benefit Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prokurat Franks, Lisa; Holm, David; Barnak, Rick

    2006-01-01

    ...; the increase in demand for transparent gun shields in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and early versions of jerry-rigged shields used in OIF, including Pope glass and Transparent Armored Gun Shields (TAGS...

  5. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials, APPENDIX A: Energy Use and Emissions from the Lifecycle of Diesel-Like Fuels Derived From Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark; Lipman, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    An Appendix to the Report, “A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materialsâ€

  6. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The design methodology, the design decision rationale, the vehicle preliminary design summary, and the advanced technology developments are presented. The detailed vehicle design, the vehicle ride and handling and front structural crashworthiness analysis, the microcomputer control of the propulsion system, the design study of the battery switching circuit, the field chopper, and the battery charger, and the recent program refinements and computer results are presented.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart S of... - Vehicle Procurement Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I to Subpart S of Part 86—Vehicle Procurement Methodology I. Test Sampling: The master owner list... randomized master owner list. The manufacturer or their representative shall perform the following steps: (a... order of their appearance on a randomized master owner list until the required number of vehicles are...

  8. Armor Battalion Force Structure in Force XXI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Briggs, David

    1998-01-01

    ... effectiveness of the armor unit in a cost effective manner. The initial stages of problem definition led to the identification of an initial effective need of developing a rapidly deployable system capable of effective armored combat...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty... vehicle has been used for severe duty (trailer towing for passenger cars, snow plowing, racing) 4. The...

  10. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 4. Sections 10, 11, and Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  11. Engineering model for body armor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Carton, E.P.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an engineering model for flexible body armor, as one of their energy based engineering models that describe the physics of projectile to target interactions (weaves, metals, ceramics). These models form the basis for exploring the possibilities for protection improvement. This

  12. User s Manual for Armor Stone Evaluation Model (ARMOR): Great Lakes Armor Stone Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Broderick and Ahrens (1982) defined damage to an armor layer by the normalized eroded cross-section area as S = Ae/(Dn50)2, where Ae is the measured...84. Broderick , L., and J. P. Ahrens. 1982. Rip-rap stability scale effects. Technical Paper 82- 3. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways

  13. Production and characterization of ceramics for armor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J.T.; Lopes, C.M.A.; Assis, J.M.K.; Melo, F.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication of devices for ballistic protection as bullet proof vests and helmets and armored vehicles has been evolving over the past years along with the materials and models used for this specific application. The requirements for high efficient light-weight ballistic protection systems which not interfere in the user comfort and mobility has driven the research in this area. In this work we will present the results of characterization of two ceramics based on alumina and silicon carbide. The ceramics were produced in lab scale and the specific mass, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructure, Vickers hardness, flexural resistance at room temperature and X-ray diffraction were evaluated. Ballistic tests performed in the selected materials showed that the ceramics present armor efficiency. (author)

  14. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities - Phase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    payload, 10,300 lb gross vehicle weight. The Expanded Capacity Vehicle (ECV, 1993-present) has a 6.5 liter turbo diesel Bolt on armor required...installed by the maintenance unit. A proposed ECV2 (not currently in production) has an improved 6.5 liter turbo diesel engine, a new transmission...frame (3 piece welded), integral “A” armor with attachment points for “B” armor kit, increased cab space (14 cubic feet), enhanced 6500 turbo diesel

  15. Flexible Dermal Armor : Designs Learned from Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Irene Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Designs derived from nature have become a perfect blueprint for today's engineers and scientists to follow and implement. One particularly noted area is the defense industry, wherein flexible dermal armor inspired by nature has been pioneering many sophisticated technologies and designs in recent years. Designers today are considering borrowing aspects of flexibility and mobility of natural dermal armors to enhance the maneuverability of man-made armor by imitating the following mechanisms : ...

  16. The Combined Arms Role of Armored Infantry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    imbalance of its mechanized formations. It lacked the capability of bringing infantry to battle under armor . [57] Without mobile means for its...equipped with firing ports, permitting mounted infantry to deliver fires while under armor . These fires are primarily burst-on-target, limited range, small...infantry with tanks under armor . Although Bradley-equipped forces may take on limited independent -* missions, they can do so only when the general

  17. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Integral Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the work performed with Production Products Manufacturing & Sales (PPMS), Inc., under the "Liquid Molded Composite Armor Smart Structures Using Embedded Sensors" Small Business Innovative Research...

  18. Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-30

    number of stowed kills Same basic load lasts longer range Gun/ammo parameters impact system weight, under - armor volume requirements Round volume...internal volume is reduced, the model assumes that the crew’s ability to operate while under armor will be impaired. If the size of a vehicle crew is...changing swept volume will alter under armor volume requirements for the total system; if system volume is fixed, changing swept volume will

  19. Patterned Armor Performance Evaluation for Multiple Impacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De

    2003-01-01

    .... Performance characteristics of an ideal patterned armor with respect to multiple hits are discussed, and the types of single-shot ballistic data needed to quantify that performance are presented...

  20. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study leading to the preliminary design of a five passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis are presented. The study methodology is described. Vehicle characterizations, the mission description, characterization, and impact on potential sales, and the rationale for the selection of the reference internal combustion engine vehicle are presented. Conclusions and recommendations of the mission analysis and performance specification report are included.

  1. Cost-Effective Manufacturing of Damage-Tolerant Integral Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    ...) technology demonstrator and Crusader self-propelled howitzer platforms. Present integral armor manufacturing processes involve adhesive bonding of a composite structure with ballistic armor tiles, spall shield, and nuisance cover...

  2. Analysis of Terminal Metallic Armor Plate Free-Surface Bulging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapacki, Jr, E. J

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the bulge formed on the free-surface of the terminal metallic plate of an armor array is shown to lead to reasonable estimates of the armor array's remaining penetration/perforation resistance...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The airframe may be treated as a rigid body. (ii) The airframe may have a plane of symmetry coinciding with the vertical plane of reference. (iii) The vehicle may have aerodynamic symmetry in roll. (iv) The... identify whether or not it burns during free fall, and provide the consumption rate during free fall. The...

  4. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-01-01

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  5. Computed tomography of the ''armored brain''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, B.; Nix, W.; Lanksch, W.

    1983-01-01

    A classified chronic subdural hematoma may cover the surface of the cerebral hemispheres to such an extent that one can talk of an ''armored brain''. Pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment are discussed based on the computed tomograms of five cases. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of behind the armor ballistic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Shu; Batra, R C

    2015-05-01

    The impact response of body armor composed of a ceramic plate with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced composite and layers of UHMWPE fibers shielding a block of ballistic gelatin has been experimentally and numerically analyzed. It is a surrogate model for studying injuries to human torso caused by a bullet striking body protection armor placed on a person. Photographs taken with a high speed camera are used to determine deformations of the armor and the gelatin. The maximum depth of the temporary cavity formed in the ballistic gelatin and the peak pressure 40mm behind the center of the gelatin front face contacting the armor are found to be, respectively, ~34mm and ~15MPa. The Johnson-Holmquist material model has been used to simulate deformations and failure of the ceramic. The UHMWPE fiber-reinforced composite and the UHMWPE fiber layers are modeled as linear elastic orthotropic materials. The gelatin is modeled as a strain-rate dependent hyperelastic material. Values of material parameters are taken from the open literature. The computed evolution of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin is found to qualitatively agree with that seen in experiments. Furthermore, the computed time histories of the average pressure at four points in the gelatin agree with the corresponding experimentally measured ones. The maximum pressure at a point and the depth of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin can be taken as measures of the severity of the bodily injury caused by the impact; e.g. see the United States National Institute of Justice standard 0101.06-Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production and characterization of ceramics for armor application; Producao e caracterizacao de ceramicas para blindagem balistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, J.T.; Lopes, C.M.A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Mecanica-Aeronautica; Assis, J.M.K.; Melo, F.C.L., E-mail: cmoniz@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The fabrication of devices for ballistic protection as bullet proof vests and helmets and armored vehicles has been evolving over the past years along with the materials and models used for this specific application. The requirements for high efficient light-weight ballistic protection systems which not interfere in the user comfort and mobility has driven the research in this area. In this work we will present the results of characterization of two ceramics based on alumina and silicon carbide. The ceramics were produced in lab scale and the specific mass, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructure, Vickers hardness, flexural resistance at room temperature and X-ray diffraction were evaluated. Ballistic tests performed in the selected materials showed that the ceramics present armor efficiency. (author)

  8. Armor breakup and reformation in a degradational laboratory experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Orrú, Clara; Blom, Astrid; Uijttewaal, Wim S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Armor breakup and reformation was studied in a laboratory experiment using a trimodal mixture composed of a 1mm sand fraction and two gravel fractions (6 and 10mm). The initial bed was characterized by a stepwise downstream fining pattern (trimodal reach) and a downstream sand reach, and the experiment was conducted under conditions without sediment supply. In the initial stage of the experiment an armor formed over the trimodal reach. The formation of the armor under partial transport condit...

  9. Heterogeneous packing and hydraulic stability of cube and cubipod armor units

    OpenAIRE

    GÓMEZ-MARTÍN, M. ESTHER; Medina, Josep R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the heterogeneous packing (HEP) failure mode of breakwater armor. HEP reduces packing density in the armor layer near and above the mean water level and increases packing density below it. With HEP, armor units may move in the armor layer, although they are not actually extracted from it. Thus, when HEP occurs, armor-layer porosity is not constant, and measurements obtained with conventional methods may underestimate armor damage. In this paper, the Virtual Net method ...

  10. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  11. 75 FR 25208 - Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... manufacturing community (including fiber producers, fabric producers, and armor manufacturers) and government..., passport issuing country, passport number, city of birth, country of birth, date of birth, gender, title...

  12. Analysis of Terminal Metallic Armor Plate Free-Surface Bulging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapacki, Jr, E. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Terminal ballistic performance evaluations of penetrators and armors are often performed via statistical analyses to obtain a velocity or obliquity at which the expected probability of perforation...

  13. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  14. Procurement and Delivery of Joint Service Armor Protected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-29

    from theater co mmanders. Army Deputy Chi ef ofS tarr G-3/517 of’ti cials stated thaI the Army con tinues to purchase I-IM MWVs to meel its li ght...8217 whi ch hi stori ca l co nt ract pricing data did not ex ist. Price Evaluation Team Reports M SC offi cials cstablishcd a pri cc eva luation tea m...noted thai the rcpo rt incorrectly li sts the price oCthe initial test vehic les as $88 million when it was actually $23 mill ion. Thi s inrormation is

  15. Evaluation of Weapons’ Combustion Products in Armored Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    H.S, SO HC ) Particulates Filter Gravimetry This program also addressed other pollutants including volatile organic compounds, aldehydes and nitro...the number of samples collected due to failure of pumps as a result of vibrational stress, precipitation , restriction of sample flow tube in vests, or

  16. Automation of Armored Four Wheel Counter Steer Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    additions to the cabin, such as displays, servos , and controls, require a small footprint and cannot impede critical systems (e.g., fire control) or...autopilot. The steering system engages until the man- ual/emergency override button is pressed . To engage the velocity control mode, the operator...engaged if the need arises. Once the error is cleared, pressing the manual override button places the system back into ready mode. FIGURE 3. The software

  17. Vehicle Armor Structure and Testing for Future Combat System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    D6641 measures the in-plane compressive strength, compressive modulus and in-plane Poisson ratio of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite...compressive strength, compressive modulus, and in-plane Poisson ratio of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials. In this test, one...compressive modulus and in-plane Poisson ratio of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials. In this test, one fiber orientation is vertical

  18. 76 FR 70165 - Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1573] Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, DOJ. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... jointly hosting a workshop focused on NIJ Standard-0101.06, Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor, and the...

  19. ’Stinger under Armor:’ An Analysis of Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines a concept for employment of the Stinger Air Defense Artillery weapon system known as ’Stinger under Armor .’ It traces the...areas air defense in the pre-FAADS era. This broader deficiency ultimately drove the need for ’Stinger under Armor ’ as a short-term solution to a current battlefield vulnerability.

  20. The Armored Infantry in the US Force Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-02

    armored infantry and tank integration occurred during the capture of the town of Troyes , France, in 1944, by Task Force West of the 4th Armored...Singling and Troyes . The same can not be said of the foot infantryman because normally he was not associated with tanks. Such was the case in the previously

  1. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  2. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.; Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated

  3. A Workshop for Planning the Efficient Transfer of Recent Ceramic Armor/Antiarmor Modeling Results to the Armor Design Community: Summary and Draft Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klopp, Richard

    1999-01-01

    In the mid-1980s DARPA began sponsoring several programs to develop ceramic armor for heavy armor applications, supported by DARPA and ARO funded technology base initiatives in modeling, experiments...

  4. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 3: Computer program listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A description and listing is presented of two computer programs: Hybrid Vehicle Design Program (HYVELD) and Hybrid Vehicle Simulation Program (HYVEC). Both of the programs are modifications and extensions of similar programs developed as part of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project.

  5. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 591 - Section 591.5(f) Bond for the Entry of More Than a Single Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) IMPORTATION OF VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT SUBJECT TO FEDERAL SAFETY, BUMPER AND THEFT PREVENTION STANDARDS Pt. 591... Federal motor vehicle safety, or bumper, or theft prevention standards; and WHEREAS, pursuant to 49 CFR... to conform to the Federal motor vehicle safety, bumper, and theft prevention standards; and WHEREAS...

  6. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Boron Rich Solids Sensors for Biological and Chemical Detection, Ultra High Temperature Ceramics, Thermoelectrics, Armor

    CERN Document Server

    Orlovskaya, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this book is to discuss the current status of research and development of boron-rich solids as sensors, ultra-high temperature ceramics, thermoelectrics, and armor. Novel biological and chemical sensors made of stiff and light-weight boron-rich solids are very exciting and efficient for applications in medical diagnoses, environmental surveillance and the detection of pathogen and biological/chemical terrorism agents. Ultra-high temperature ceramic composites exhibit excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance for hypersonic vehicle applications. Boron-rich solids are also promising candidates for high-temperature thermoelectric conversion. Armor is another very important application of boron-rich solids, since most of them exhibit very high hardness, which makes them perfect candidates with high resistance to ballistic impact. The following topical areas are presented: •boron-rich solids: science and technology; •synthesis and sintering strategies of boron rich solids; •microcantileve...

  7. Armor systems including coated core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  8. Damage Assessment in TiB2 Ceramic Armor Targets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rupert, Nevin

    2001-01-01

    The interaction between long rods and ceramics is only partially understood; however, this understanding is essential in the design of improved performance of impact-resistant materials and armor system design applications...

  9. The Future Role of Armor in Central-Eastern Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorincz, Gabor

    2003-01-01

    ... attrition based military cultures. It seems since the end of the Cold War the armor community has had identity problems caused by the events and the triggered military solutions of the last ten years...

  10. Designing an Innovative Composite Armor System for Affordable Ballistic Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Zheng-Dong; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yushun; Rose, Douglas; Socks, Adria; Ostberg, Donald

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper focuses on the frontal armor plate and back plate design problems with demonstration examples, including both results of the virtual prototyping and ballistic testing for proof-of-concept...

  11. Cost-Effective Manufacturing of Damage-Tolerant Integral Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the University of Delaware (UD) have developed an enabling technology to produce a polymer matrix composite-based integral armor with improved multihit ballistic capability...

  12. Reliability Analysis and Modeling of the U.S. Marine Corps Medium Tactical Wheeled Vehicle in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reuter, Matthew B

    2007-01-01

    .... Analysis and modeling of this repairable system's failure modes are conducted at the MTVR variant, major unit, armored status, and subsystem levels to develop an understanding of the vehicle's usage...

  13. The U.S. Combat and Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fleets: Issues and Suggestions for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    capac- ity and higher thermal operating temperatures, and improvements in ultracapacitors, which will enable improved regenerative braking ...associated with particular categories of combat vehi- cles and armored tactical wheeled vehicles, and with particular missions of such vehicles. (D...and an assessment of emerging threats • identify critical technology elements or integration risks asso- ciated with particular categories of vehicles

  14. Transparent ceramics for armor and EM window applications

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Parimal J.; Gilde, Gary A.; Dehmer, Peter G.; McCauley, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has focused increased attention on the development of transparent armor material systems for a variety of applications. Future combat and non-combat environments will require lightweight, threat adjustable, multifunctional, and affordable armor. Current glass/polycarbonate technologies are not expected to meet the increased requirements. Results over the past few years indicate that the use of transparent crystalline ceramics greatly improve t...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 591 - Power of Attorney and Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) IMPORTATION OF VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT SUBJECT TO FEDERAL SAFETY, BUMPER AND THEFT PREVENTION STANDARDS Pt. 591, App. C Appendix C to...

  16. Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    On November 17, 2003, Attorney General John Ashcroft announced the U.S. Department of Justice's Body Armor Safety Initiative in response to concerns from the law enforcement community regarding the effectiveness of body armor in use...

  17. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  18. Nondestructive characterization of UHMWPE armor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Jensen, Terrence; Eisenmann, David

    2012-05-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material increasingly used for fabricating helmet and body armor. In this work, plate specimens consolidated from thin fiber sheets in series 3124 and 3130 were examined with ultrasound, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Ultrasonic through-transmission scans using both air-coupled and immersion modes revealed that the 3130 series material generally had much lower attenuation than the 3124 series, and that certain 3124 plates had extremely high attenuation. Due to the relatively low inspection frequencies used, pulse-echo immersion ultrasonic testing could not detect distinct flaw echoes from the interior. To characterize the nature of the defective condition that was responsible for the high ultrasonic attenuation, terahertz radiation in the time-domain spectroscopy mode were used to image the flaws. Terahertz scan images obtained on the high attenuation samples clearly showed a distribution of a large number of defects, possibly small planar delaminations, throughout the volume of the interior. Their precise nature and morphology are to be verified by optical microscopy of the sectioned surface.

  19. Nondestructive characterization of UHMWPE armor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Jensen, Terrence; Eisenmann, David

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material increasingly used for fabricating helmet and body armor. In this work, plate specimens consolidated from thin fiber sheets in series 3124 and 3130 were examined with ultrasound, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Ultrasonic through-transmission scans using both air-coupled and immersion modes revealed that the 3130 series material generally had much lower attenuation than the 3124 series, and that certain 3124 plates had extremely high attenuation. Due to the relatively low inspection frequencies used, pulse-echo immersion ultrasonic testing could not detect distinct flaw echoes from the interior. To characterize the nature of the defective condition that was responsible for the high ultrasonic attenuation, terahertz radiation in the time-domain spectroscopy mode were used to image the flaws. Terahertz scan images obtained on the high attenuation samples clearly showed a distribution of a large number of defects, possibly small planar delaminations, throughout the volume of the interior. Their precise nature and morphology are to be verified by optical microscopy of the sectioned surface.

  20. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 2: Supplement to design trade-off studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of studies leading to the preliminary design of a hybrid passenger vehicle which is projected to have the maximum potential for reducing petroleum consumption in the near term are presented. Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicle tradeoffs, assessment of battery power source, and weight and cost analysis of key components are among the topics covered. Performance of auxiliary equipment, such as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, lighting and electrical accessories, heating and ventilation is discussed along with the selection of preferred passenger compartment heating procedure for the hybrid vehicle. Waste heat from the engine, thermal energy storage, and an auxiliary burner are among the approaches considered.

  1. Analyzing nature's protective design: The glyptodont body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Anton; Broeckhoven, Chris; Yadroitsev, Igor; Yadroitsava, Ina; le Roux, Stephan Gerhard

    2018-06-01

    Many animal species evolved some form of body armor, such as scales of fish and bony plates or osteoderms of reptiles. Although a protective function is often taken for granted, recent studies show that body armor might comprise multiple functionalities and is shaped by trade-offs among these functionalities. Hence, despite the fact that natural body armor might serve as bio-inspiration for the development of artificial protective materials, focussing on model systems in which body armor serves a solely protective function might be pivotal. In this study, we investigate the osteoderms of Glyptotherium arizonae, an extinct armadillo-like mammal in which body armor evolved as protection against predators and/or tail club blows of conspecifics. By using a combination of micro-computed tomography, reverse-engineering, stress simulations and mechanical testing of 3D printed models, we show that the combination of dense compact layers and porous lattice core might provide an optimized combination of strength and high energy absorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of the armoring technique for ITER Divertor Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litunovsky, Nikolay, E-mail: nlitunovsky@sintez.niiefa.spb.su [D.V. Efremov Reseasch Institute, 3, Doroga na Metallostroy, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Alekseenko, Evgeny; Makhankov, Alexey; Mazul, Igor [D.V. Efremov Reseasch Institute, 3, Doroga na Metallostroy, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    This paper describes the current status of the technique for armoring of Plasma Facing Units (PFUs) of the ITER Divertor Dome with flat tungsten tiles planned for application at the procurement stage. Application of high-temperature vacuum brazing for armoring of High Heat Flux (HHF) plasma facing components was traditionally developed at the Efremov Institute and successfully tried out at the ITER R and D stage by manufacturing and HHF testing of a number of W- and Be-armored mock-ups . Nevertheless, the so-called 'fast brazing' technique successfully applied in the past was abandoned at the stage of manufacturing of the Dome Qualification Prototypes (Dome QPs), as it failed to retain the mechanical properties of CuCrZr heat sink of the substrate. Another problem was a substantially increased number of armoring tiles brazed onto one substrate. Severe ITER requirements for the joints quality have forced us to refuse from production of W/Cu joints by brazing in favor of casting. These modifications have allowed us to produce ITER Divertor Dome QPs with high-quality tungsten armor, which then passed successfully the HHF testing. Further preparation to the procurement stage is in progress.

  3. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 658 - Devices That Are Excluded From Measurement of the Length or Width of a Commercial Motor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; (v) Tarp basket; (w) Tire carrier; and (x) Uppercoupler. 2. Devices excluded from length measurement... measurement are side rails running the length of the vehicle and rear doors, provided the only function of the...

  4. 77 FR 22345 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Body Armor in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Collection: Establishment survey and initial approval of collection. (2) Title of Form/Collection: Body Armor... Agency-Level Survey and Body Armor Individual-level Correctional Officer Survey. (3) Agency form number... approaches to overcome those barriers. (a) For the Body Armor Administrative Agency-Level Survey, the chief...

  5. 77 FR 39259 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Body Armor in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...: Establishment survey and initial approval of collection. (2) Title of Form/Collection: Body Armor in Correctional Institutions Survey. The collections include the forms Body Armor Administrative Agency-Level Survey and Body Armor Individual-level Correctional Officer Survey. (3) Agency form number, if any, and...

  6. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing...

  7. Performance of the PDX neutral beam wall armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Eubank, H.P.; Kozub, T.A.; Williams, M.D.

    1985-02-01

    The PDX wall armor was designed to function as an inner wall thermal armor, a neutral beam diagnostic, and a large area inner toroidal plasma limiter. In this paper we discuss its thermal performance as wall armor during two years of PDX neutral beam heating experiments. During this period it provided sufficient inner wall protection to permit perpendicular heating injections into normal and disruptive plasmas as well as injections in the absence of plasma involving special experiments, calibrations, and tests important for the optimization and development of the PDX neutral beam injection system. Many of the design constraints and performance issues encountered in this work are relevant to the design of larger fusion devices

  8. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Julich will be completed in the spring of 1994. The upgrade will extend the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating systems are also scheduled to be upgraded so that eventually a total of 8.0 MW auxiliary heating will be available through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles on the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test - II (ALT-II) were designed for 5-second operation with a total heating power of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto ALT-II by more than 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for ALT-II had to be redesigned in order to increase their thermal inertia and, thereby, avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. The armor tile thermal inertia had been increase primarily by expanding the radial thickness of the tiles from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in radial tile dimension will reduce the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The final armor tile design was a compromise between increasing the power handling capability and reducing the particle exhaust efficiency of ALT-II. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could only be avoided by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time

  9. Miniaturized hand held microwave interference scanning system for NDE of dielectric armor and armor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Karl F.; Little, Jack R.; Ellingson, William A.; Meitzler, Thomas J.; Green, William

    2011-01-01

    Inspection of ceramic-based armor has advanced through development of a microwave-based, portable, non-contact NDE system. Recently, this system was miniaturized and made wireless for maximum utility in field applications. The electronic components and functionality of the laboratory system are retained, with alternative means of position input for creation of scan images. Validation of the detection capability was recently demonstrated using specially fabricated surrogates and ballistic impact-damaged specimens. The microwave data results have been compared to data from laboratory-based microwave interferometry systems and digital x-ray imaging. The microwave interference scanning has been shown to reliably detect cracks, laminar features and material property variations. The authors present details of the system operation, descriptions of the test samples used and recent results obtained.

  10. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... control systems; (ix) Steering misalignment; and (x) Winds. (2) Each three-sigma trajectory must account... launch vehicle's thrust moment balances the aerodynamic moment while a constant rotation rate is imparted...-fall to impact. The debris model must describe the characteristics of each fragment, including its...

  11. Armor of cermet with metal therein increasing with depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, M.L.; Holt, A.C.; Cline, C.F.; Foreschner, K.E.

    1973-07-01

    The system described consists of a ceramic matrix having a gradient of fine ductile metallic particles dispersed therein in an amount of from 0.0%, commencing at the front or impact surface of the armor, to about 2 to 15% by volume along the interface to the back of the system. (auth)

  12. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  13. The Impact of Armor on the Design, Utilization and Survivability of Ground Vehicles: The History of Armor Development and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    85 Figure 59. An Example of Airless Tyre Installed on a Humvee (From Greenemeier 2008...the primary tasks of movement to contact , attack, exploitation and pursuit (Headquarters Department of the Army 2008, 3–6). • Defensive Operations...the road wheels and suspension systems against threats. Figure 41. A Jordanian Centurion MBT (Note the Side Skirt) (From IHS Jane’s 2012) 57

  14. Appendix C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, F. A.; Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix a model is formulated for the rotational capacity of reinforced concrete beams assuming rebar tension failure. The model is based on a classical approach and establishes the load-deflection curve of a reinforced concrete beam. The rotational capacity is then obtained as the area ...

  15. Appendix A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune; Heshe, Gert

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix a brief summary of experiments on reinforced concrete beams in three-point bending performed at Aalborg University is given. The aim of the investigation is to determine the full load-deflection curves for different beam sizes, different types of concrete and different amounts...

  16. Appendix B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, F. A.; Brincker, Rune

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix the failure behaviour of lightly reinforced concrete beams is investigated. A numerical model based on the fictitious crack approach according to Hillerborg [1] is established in order to estimate the load-deflection curve for lightly reinforced concrete beams. The debonding...

  17. Conformable Self-Healing Ballistic Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Patent No: US 7,966,923 B2 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...B2 5 Each unit of shell 10 of the ballistic annor of the subject invention further comprises fastening means 20 to attach each such shell IOta the...selectively affixing the conformable ballistic annor to the vehicle is a secure manner, both on a temporal)’ orpennanent basis. The ballistic

  18. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensitization of Naturally Aged Aluminum 5083 Armor Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    5 - 1 - SENSITIZATION OF NATURALLY AGED ALUMINUM 5083 ARMOR PLATE INTRODUCTION Aluminum -magnesium alloys are important for both ship...boundaries [3,4]. The magnesium-rich phase (normally β-Al3Mg2) is highly anodic with respect to the surrounding aluminum phase, thus is susceptible... alloys , and with varying amounts of debris scattered about the surface consistent with corrosion product, Figure 2b, that often forms over time within

  20. Mechanisms of stability of armored bubbles: FY 1996 Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossen, W.R.; Kam, S.I.

    1996-11-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies examine how a coating, or open-quotes armor,close quotes of partially wetted solid particles can stabilize tiny bubbles against diffusion of gas into the surrounding liquid, in spite of the high capillary pressures normally associated with such bubbles. Experiments with polymethylmethacrylate (PNMA) beads and carbonated water demonstrate that armored bubbles can persist for weeks in liquid unsaturated with respect to the gas in the bubbles. This question is of concern regarding gas discharges from waste tanks at the Hanford reservation. The stresses on the solid-solid contacts between particles in such cases is large and could drive sintering of the particles into a rigid framework. Stability analysis suggests that a slightly shrunken bubble would not expel a solid particle from its armor to relieve stress and allow the bubble to shrink further. Expulsion of particles from more stressed bubbles at zero capillary pressure is energetically favored in some cases. It is not clear, however, whether this expulsion would proceed spontaneously from a small perturbation or require a large initial disturbance of the bubble. In some cases, it appears that a bubble would expel some particles and shrink, but the bubble would approach a final, stable size rather than disappear completely. This simplified analysis leaves out several factors. For instance, only one perturbation toward expelling a solid from the armor is considered; perhaps other perturbations would be more energetically favored than that tested. Other considerations (particle deformation, surface roughness, contact-angle hysteresis, and adhesion or physical bonding between adjacent particles) would make expelling solids more difficult than indicated by this theoretical study

  1. Effects of Body Armor Fit on Marksmanship Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    SIMULATORS SIZES(DIMENSIONS) IOTV(IMPROVED OUTER TACTICAL VEST ) U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center...configurations were counterbalanced to control for order effect. Body Armor. The U.S. Army, standard issue Improved Outer Tactical Vest (IOTV) Generation III...targets at that great of an arc (≥50°) was not operationally realistic. Fig. 2 Improved outer tactical vest (IOTV) Gen III Table 1 Distribution of

  2. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor piercing...

  3. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The insulation resistance test set should have an output voltage not to exceed 500 volts dc and may be... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. 1755... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.406 Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. (a) Shield...

  4. Quantifying the effectiveness of shoreline armoring removal on coastal biota of Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timothy S; Toft, Jason D; Cordell, Jeffery R; Dethier, Megan N; Adams, Jeffrey W; Kelly, Ryan P

    2018-01-01

    Shoreline armoring is prevalent around the world with unprecedented human population growth and urbanization along coastal habitats. Armoring structures, such as riprap and bulkheads, that are built to prevent beach erosion and protect coastal infrastructure from storms and flooding can cause deterioration of habitats for migratory fish species, disrupt aquatic-terrestrial connectivity, and reduce overall coastal ecosystem health. Relative to armored shorelines, natural shorelines retain valuable habitats for macroinvertebrates and other coastal biota. One question is whether the impacts of armoring are reversible, allowing restoration via armoring removal and related actions of sediment nourishment and replanting of native riparian vegetation. Armoring removal is targeted as a viable option for restoring some habitat functions, but few assessments of coastal biota response exist. Here, we use opportunistic sampling of pre- and post-restoration data for five biotic measures (wrack % cover, saltmarsh % cover, number of logs, and macroinvertebrate abundance and richness) from a set of six restored sites in Puget Sound, WA, USA. This broad suite of ecosystem metrics responded strongly and positively to armor removal, and these results were evident after less than one year. Restoration responses remained positive and statistically significant across different shoreline elevations and temporal trajectories. This analysis shows that removing shoreline armoring is effective for restoration projects aimed at improving the health and productivity of coastal ecosystems, and these results may be widely applicable.

  5. Soft Body Armor: An Overview of Materials, Manufacturing, Testing, and Ballistic Impact Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Atlantic Treaty Organization NIJ National Institute of Justice OTV Outer tactical vest PBI Polybenzimidazole PBO Polybenzobisoxazole PET ...grenades and mortar rounds, is performed in accordance with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 2920.6...LEVELS IN SOFT BODY ARMOR The design of woven fabrics for armor applications is complex because it requires an understanding of the related

  6. 106-17 Telemetry Standards. Annex A.4. Asynchronous Recorder Multiplexer Output Re-Constructor (ARMOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Output Re-Constructor 1. General This standard defines the recommended multiplexer format for single-channel data recording on small-format (1/2 in...which is 1-based, is determined by the position of the channel’s module in the ARMOR system . The first input channel found in the ARMOR system is

  7. Dragon Skin - How It Changed Body Armor Testing in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    members of this committee who have their kids at one time or another wearing body armor in theater, either Iraq or Afghanistan. And that includes... YouTube has pictures of Dragon Skin body armor testing on the Internet and Wikipedia has posted a carefully documented description of the history of

  8. Development and Verification of Body Armor Target Geometry Created Using Computed Tomography Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-13

    Computed Tomography Scans by Autumn R Kulaga, Kathryn L Loftis, and Eric Murray Approved for public release; distribution is...Army Research Laboratory Development and Verification of Body Armor Target Geometry Created Using Computed Tomography Scans by Autumn R Kulaga...Development and Verification of Body Armor Target Geometry Created Using Computed Tomography Scans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  9. Quantifying the effectiveness of shoreline armoring removal on coastal biota of Puget Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shoreline armoring is prevalent around the world with unprecedented human population growth and urbanization along coastal habitats. Armoring structures, such as riprap and bulkheads, that are built to prevent beach erosion and protect coastal infrastructure from storms and flooding can cause deterioration of habitats for migratory fish species, disrupt aquatic–terrestrial connectivity, and reduce overall coastal ecosystem health. Relative to armored shorelines, natural shorelines retain valuable habitats for macroinvertebrates and other coastal biota. One question is whether the impacts of armoring are reversible, allowing restoration via armoring removal and related actions of sediment nourishment and replanting of native riparian vegetation. Armoring removal is targeted as a viable option for restoring some habitat functions, but few assessments of coastal biota response exist. Here, we use opportunistic sampling of pre- and post-restoration data for five biotic measures (wrack % cover, saltmarsh % cover, number of logs, and macroinvertebrate abundance and richness from a set of six restored sites in Puget Sound, WA, USA. This broad suite of ecosystem metrics responded strongly and positively to armor removal, and these results were evident after less than one year. Restoration responses remained positive and statistically significant across different shoreline elevations and temporal trajectories. This analysis shows that removing shoreline armoring is effective for restoration projects aimed at improving the health and productivity of coastal ecosystems, and these results may be widely applicable.

  10. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Repair of manufacturing defects in the armor of plasma facing units of the ITER Divertor Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litunovsky, Nikolay; Alekseenko, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Lyanzberg, Dmitriy; Makhankov, Aleksey; Rulev, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Sporadic manufacturing defects in ITER Divertor Dome PFUs may be repaired. • We have developed a repair technique for ITER Divertor Dome PFUs. • Armor repair technique for ITER Divertor Dome PFUs is successfully tested. -- Abstract: The paper describes the repair procedure developed for removal of manufacturing defects occurring sporadically during armoring of plasma facing units (PFUs) of the ITER Divertor Dome. Availability of armor repair technique is prescribed by the procurement arrangement for the ITER Divertor Dome concluded in 2009 between the ITER Organization and the ITER Domestic Agency of Russia. The paper presents the detailed description of the procedure, data on its effect on the joints of the rest part of the armor and on the grain structure of the PFU heat sink. The results of thermocycling of large-scale Dome PFU mock-ups manufactured with demonstration of armor repair are also given

  12. Magnetic non-destructive evaluation of ruptures of tensile armor in oil risers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Benitez, J A; Padovese, L R

    2012-01-01

    Risers are flexible multilayered pipes formed by an inner flexible metal structure surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also known as armor wires. Since these risers are used to link subsea pipelines to floating oil and gas production installations, and their failure could produce catastrophic consequences, some methods have been proposed to monitor the armor integrity. However, until now there is no practical method that allows the automatic non-destructive detection of individual armor wire rupture. In this work we show a method using magnetic Barkhausen noise that has shown high efficiency in the detection of armor wire rupture. The results are examined under the cyclic and static load conditions of the riser. This work also analyzes the theory behind the singular dependence of the magnetic Barkhausen noise on the applied tension in riser armor wires. (paper)

  13. Repair of manufacturing defects in the armor of plasma facing units of the ITER Divertor Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litunovsky, Nikolay, E-mail: nlitunovsky@sintez.niiefa.spb.su; Alekseenko, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Lyanzberg, Dmitriy; Makhankov, Aleksey; Rulev, Roman

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Sporadic manufacturing defects in ITER Divertor Dome PFUs may be repaired. • We have developed a repair technique for ITER Divertor Dome PFUs. • Armor repair technique for ITER Divertor Dome PFUs is successfully tested. -- Abstract: The paper describes the repair procedure developed for removal of manufacturing defects occurring sporadically during armoring of plasma facing units (PFUs) of the ITER Divertor Dome. Availability of armor repair technique is prescribed by the procurement arrangement for the ITER Divertor Dome concluded in 2009 between the ITER Organization and the ITER Domestic Agency of Russia. The paper presents the detailed description of the procedure, data on its effect on the joints of the rest part of the armor and on the grain structure of the PFU heat sink. The results of thermocycling of large-scale Dome PFU mock-ups manufactured with demonstration of armor repair are also given.

  14. Front-facing fluoropolymer-coated armor composite

    OpenAIRE

    Gamache, Raymond M.; Roland, Charles M.; Fragiadakis, Daniel M.

    2018-01-01

    Patent A front-facing armor system utilizing a composite laminate backed by a high hardness substrate. The composite laminate comprises a series of first and second layers. The first layer of the bi-layer laminate system is a polymer with a density of at least 1.8 g/ᵌ and having both an amorphous and crystalline phase, and having phase transformation pressure of at least 0.5 GPa at a temperature of 20° C. The second layer of each bi-layer provides acoustic impedance ...

  15. Appendix A : literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This appendix contains a review of the literature and other background information : germane to the experimental and analytical research presented in subsequent appendices. Table : 1 lists the sections and topics contained in this appendix and those ...

  16. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) for Automated Classification of Bradley Fighting Vehicle Shock Absorbers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sincebaugh, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    .... We then explain the design and capabilities of the SSATS graphical user interface (GUI), which includes the integration of a neural network classification scheme. We finish by discussing recent results of utilizing the system to test and evaluate Bradley armored vehicle shock absorbers.

  17. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  18. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review. [203 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University.

  19. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University

  20. Ballistic Application of Coir Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite in Multilayered Armor

    OpenAIRE

    Luz, Fernanda Santos da; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lima, Eduardo Sousa; Lima Júnior, Édio Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Multilayered armor systems (MAS) composed of relatively lighter materials with capacity to provide personal ballistic protection are being extensively investigated and used in armor vests. A typical MAS to stand high impact energy 7.62 mm bullet has a front ceramic followed by an aramid fabric laminate, such as Kevlar™. Since both the army and municipal police personnel might need to wear an armor vest, a large number of vests needs to be supplied. In the case of Kevlar™, one of the most expe...

  1. Imperfection analysis of flexible pipe armor wires in compression and bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Niels Højen; Lyckegaard, Anders; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by a specific failure mode known as lateral wire buckling occurring in the tensile armor layers of flexible pipes. The tensile armor is usually constituted by two layers of initially helically wound steel wires with opposite lay directions. During pipe...... ability of the wires. This may cause the wires to buckle in the circumferential pipe direction, when these are restrained against radial deformations by adjacent layers. In the present paper, a single armoring wire modeled as a long and slender curved beam embedded in a frictionless cylinder bent...

  2. Laser-induced micro-jetting from armored droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2015-06-23

    We present findings from an experimental study of laser-induced cavitation within a liquid drop coated with a granular material, commonly referred to as “armored droplets” or “liquid marbles.” The cavitation event follows the formation of plasma after a nanosecond laser pulse. Using ultra-high-speed imaging up to 320,610 fps, we investigate the extremely rapid dynamics following the cavitation, which manifests itself in the form of a plethora of micro-jets emanating simultaneously from the spaces between particles on the surface of the drop. These fine jets break up into droplets with a relatively narrow diameter range, on the order of 10 μm. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Coated armor system and process for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2010-11-23

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  4. Armor stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghim, M. N.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters. A simple physical argument is used to derive a new stability formula based on the assumption that the maximum wave force causing damage of armor layer is proportional to the maximum wave momentum flux near...... the structure toe. The main goal of the present paper is to provide an estimation technique based on this physical principle to predict the deformation of the front slope in terms of the eroded area. The proposed method is verified by comparison with model test data. It is found that by using the maximum wave...... momentum flux approach the damage to the front slope (eroded area) can be very well predicted. Moreover, a simple method to estimate the eroded area based on measured or calculated berm recession (Rec) and depth of intersection of reshaped and initial profile (hf) is presented. The performance...

  5. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax with Body Armor from a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response...

  6. Extending the Operational Relevance of the Current Heavy Mechanized and Armor Force to 2020 and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boston, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    Can the U.S. Army's current heavy mechanized and armor force adapt emerging Joint Vision 2020 operational concepts, in order to remain relevant to the land power requirements of combatant commanders across...

  7. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax With Body Armor From a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response...

  8. Virtual Experiments to Determine Behind-Armor Debris for Survivability Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prakash, Anand

    2004-01-01

    .... This data is currently generated by conducting laboratory experiments in a standard set-up in which each threat projectile is fired on the actual armor and the BAD pattern is captured on witness plates...

  9. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax with Body Armor from a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    .... The finite element model of the human thorax is validated by comparing the model's results to experimental data obtained from cadavers wearing a protective body armor system undergoing a projectile impact...

  10. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax With Body Armor From a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    .... The finite element model of the human thorax is validated by comparing the model's results to experimental data obtained from cadavers wearing a protective body armor system undergoing a projectile impact...

  11. Co-Injection Resin Transfer Molding for Optimization of Integral Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, B

    1998-01-01

    ... enhancement over existing defense industry practices. CIRTM was invented and developed for single-step manufacturing of integral armor by enabling simultaneous injection of multiple resins into multi-layer preform...

  12. Function-Oriented Material Design of Joints for Advance Armors Under Ballistic Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Zheng-Dong; Wang, Hui; Raju, Basavaraju

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a system of software tools based on a new design methodology for the efficient composite armor structural design under ballistic impact loading conditions...

  13. Physics and Technology of Transparent Ceramic Armor: Sintered Al2O3 vs Cubic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krell, Andreas; Hutzler, Thomas; Klimke, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Sintered sub-micrometer alumina (alpha-Al2O3) is the hardest transparent armor. However, its trigonal structure gives rise to a strong thickness effect that makes thicker components translucent. Cubic ceramics (no birefringence...

  14. A numerical study on the disturbance of explosive reactive armors to jet penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-dong Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The disturbance of flat and V-shaped sandwich reactive armor configurations to shaped-charge jet is studied by a numerical approach. The disturbing and cutting effects of the two reactive armor configurations to the jet are successfully captured. The predicted disturbance characteristics and patterns are in fairly good agreement with the X-ray photographic observations. The residual depth of penetration into a semi-infinitive homogeneous steel target behind the reactive armor is computed for a series of jet/armor parameters. For the flat configuration, it is demonstrated that the residual penetration depth is not significantly reduced for a normal impact while it is reduced up to 75% for an oblique impact. In comparison, the V-shaped configuration reduces the penetration depth of the jet to 90%, and it is observed that the penetration depth is not sensitive to the V-shaped angle.

  15. Dynamic lift on an artificial static armor layer during highly unsteady open channel flow

    OpenAIRE

    Spiller, Stephan Mark; Ruther, Nils; Friedrich, Heide

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic lift acting on a 100 mm × 100 mm section of a static armor layer during unsteady flow is directly measured in a series of physical experiments. The static armor layer is represented by an artificial streambed mold, made from an actual gravel bed. Data from a total of 190 experiments are presented, undertaken in identical conditions. Results show that during rapid discharge increases, the dynamic lift on the streambed repeatedly exhibits three clear peaks. The magnitude of the obse...

  16. Numerical simulations of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier target

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Sangqaing; Cai Xinghui; Wang Guoliang; Gao Yunliang; Lu Jiangren

    2015-01-01

    FEM models of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier deck are established, which are validated by related experimental data. Base on the models, the process of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier deck with different incidence angles and attack angles are carried out. The results show that incidence angles have no remarkable influence on penetration capability of the projectile under the circumstance of zero attack angle. Ductility reaming damage mode and...

  17. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...properties and of the attendant ballistic-impact failure mechanisms in prototypical friction stir welding (FSW) joints found in armor structures made of high...mechanisms, friction stir welding M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, A. Arakere, C-F. Yen, B. A. Cheeseman Clemson University Office of Sponsored Programs 300

  18. Ballistic protection performance of curved armor systems with or without debondings/delaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of pre-existing defect in an armor system on its ballistic performance. • Development of finite element models for the ballistic performance of armor systems. • Prediction of the ballistic limit and back face deformation of curved armor systems. - Abstract: In order to discern how pre-existing defects such as single or multiple debondings/delaminations in a curved armor system may affect its ballistic protection performance, two-dimensional axial finite element models were generated using the commercial software ANSYS/Autodyn. The armor systems considered in this investigation are composed of boron carbide front component and Kevlar/epoxy backing component. They are assumed to be perfectly bonded at the interface without defects. The parametric study shows that for the cases considered, the maximum back face deformation of a curved armor system with or without defects is more sensitive to its curvature, material properties of the ceramic front component, and pre-existing defect size and location than the ballistic limit velocity. Additionally, both the ballistic limit velocity and maximum back face deformation are significantly affected by the backing component thickness, front/backing component thickness ratio and the number of delaminations

  19. Effect of surface texture and structure on the development of stable fluvial armors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Stephane; Friedrich, Heide

    2018-04-01

    Stable fluvial armors are found in river systems under conditions of partial sediment transport and limited sediment supply, a common occurrence in nature. Stable armoring is also readily recreated in experimental flumes. Initially, this bed stabilizing phenomenon was examined for different flow discharges and solely related to surface coarsening and bedload transport reduction. The models developed suggest a specific armor composition (i.e., texture) dependent on the parent bed material and formative discharge. Following developments in topographic remote sensing, recent research suggests that armor structure is an important control on bed stability and roughness. In this paper, replicated flume runs during which digital elevation models (DEMs) were collected from both exposed and flooded gravel beds are used to interpret armoring manifestations and to assess their replicability. A range of methodologies was used for the analysis, providing information on (i) surface grain size and orientation, (ii) bed-elevation distributions, (iii) the spatial coherence of the elevations at the grain-scale, (iv) surface slope and aspect, (v) grain imbrication and (vi) the spatial variability in DEM properties. The bed-surface topography was found to be more responsive than bed-material size to changes in flow strength. Our experimental results also provide convincing evidence that gravel-beds' response to water-work during parallel degradation is unique (i.e., replicable) given the formative parameters. Based on this finding, relationships between the armors' properties and formative parameters are proposed, and are supported by adding extensive data from previous research.

  20. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 541 - Criteria for Selecting Light Duty Truck Lines Likely To Have High Theft Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Likely To Have High Theft Rates C Appendix C to Part 541 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt. 541, App. C Appendix C to Part 541—Criteria for Selecting Light Duty Truck Lines Likely To Have High Theft Rates Scope These criteria specify the factors the...

  2. 2011 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    day sight/display – Reduced trigger delay/gun tube stabilization – Under armor 50 cal – Improved 105MM ammo protection GAP: Lethality...to power on-board systems with a reduced noise signature o The unit will be integrated in the left sponson of the hull, and will be under armor o

  3. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of armor grade silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portune, Andrew Richard

    Ceramic materials have traditionally been chosen for armor applications for their superior mechanical properties and low densities. At high strain rates seen during ballistic events, the behavior of these materials relies upon the total volumetric flaw concentration more so than any single anomalous flaw. In this context flaws can be defined as any microstructural feature which detriments the performance of the material, potentially including secondary phases, pores, or unreacted sintering additives. Predicting the performance of armor grade ceramic materials depends on knowledge of the absolute and relative concentration and size distribution of bulk heterogeneities. Ultrasound was chosen as a nondestructive technique for characterizing the microstructure of dense silicon carbide ceramics. Acoustic waves interact elastically with grains and inclusions in large sample volumes, and were well suited to determine concentration and size distribution variations for solid inclusions. Methodology was developed for rapid acquisition and analysis of attenuation coefficient spectra. Measurements were conducted at individual points and over large sample areas using a novel technique entitled scanning acoustic spectroscopy. Loss spectra were split into absorption and scattering dominant frequency regimes to simplify analysis. The primary absorption mechanism in polycrystalline silicon carbide was identified as thermoelastic in nature. Correlations between microstructural conditions and parameters within the absorption equation were established through study of commercial and custom engineered SiC materials. Nonlinear least squares regression analysis was used to estimate the size distributions of boron carbide and carbon inclusions within commercial SiC materials. This technique was shown to additionally be capable of approximating grain size distributions in engineered SiC materials which did not contain solid inclusions. Comparisons to results from electron microscopy

  4. Fracture mechanical analysis of tungsten armor failure of a water-cooled divertor target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Muyuan; Werner, Ewald [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); You, Jeong-Ha, E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The FEM-based VCE method and XFEM were employed for computing K{sub I} (or J-integral) and predicting progressive cracking, respectively. • The most probable pattern of crack formation is radial cracking in the tungsten armor block. • The most probable site of cracking is the upper interfacial region of the tungsten armor block adjacent to the top position of the copper interlayer. • The initiation of a major crack becomes likely, only when the strength of tungsten armor block is significantly reduced from its original strength. - Abstract: The inherent brittleness of tungsten at low temperature and the embrittlement by neutron irradiation are its most critical weaknesses for fusion applications. In the current design of the ITER and DEMO divertor, the high heat flux loads during the operation impose a strong constraint on the structure–mechanical performance of the divertor. Thus, the combination of brittleness and the thermally induced stress fields due to the high heat flux loads raises a serious reliability issue in terms of the structural integrity of tungsten armor. In this study, quantitative estimates of the vulnerability of the tungsten monoblock armor cracking under stationary high heat flux loads are presented. A comparative fracture mechanical investigation has been carried out by means of two different types of computational approaches, namely, the extended finite element method (XFEM) and the finite element method (FEM)-based virtual crack tip extension (VCE) method. The fracture analysis indicates that the most probable pattern of crack formation is radial cracking in the tungsten armor starting from the interface to tube and the most probable site of cracking is the upper interfacial region of the tungsten armor adjacent to the top position of the copper interlayer. The strength threshold for crack initiation and the high heat flux load threshold for crack propagation are evaluated based on XFEM simulations and computations

  5. Fabrication, testing and modeling of a new flexible armor inspired from natural fish scales and osteoderms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintapalli, Ravi Kiran; Mirkhalaf, Mohammad; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Khayer; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Crocodiles, armadillo, turtles, fish and many other animal species have evolved flexible armored skins in the form of hard scales or osteoderms, which can be described as hard plates of finite size embedded in softer tissues. The individual hard segments provide protection from predators, while the relative motion of these segments provides the flexibility required for efficient locomotion. In this work, we duplicated these broad concepts in a bio-inspired segmented armor. Hexagonal segments of well-defined size and shape were carved within a thin glass plate using laser engraving. The engraved plate was then placed on a soft substrate which simulated soft tissues, and then punctured with a sharp needle mounted on a miniature loading stage. The resistance of our segmented armor was significantly higher when smaller hexagons were used, and our bio-inspired segmented glass displayed an increase in puncture resistance of up to 70% compared to a continuous plate of glass of the same thickness. Detailed structural analyses aided by finite elements revealed that this extraordinary improvement is due to the reduced span of individual segments, which decreases flexural stresses and delays fracture. This effect can however only be achieved if the plates are at least 1000 stiffer than the underlying substrate, which is the case for natural armor systems. Our bio-inspired system also displayed many of the attributes of natural armors: flexible, robust with ‘multi-hit’ capabilities. This new segmented glass therefore suggests interesting bio-inspired strategies and mechanisms which could be systematically exploited in high-performance flexible armors. This study also provides new insights and a better understanding of the mechanics of natural armors such as scales and osteoderms. (paper)

  6. 2009 Combat Vehicles Conference (BRIEFING CHARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-14

    Strategy to Field 531 Systems Targeting Under Armor and FS3 Integration on A3 BFIST on the Move Our #1 Priority is to Support Units Engaged in O C i...Armored Knight Program • Targeting Under Armor /On the Move effort underway to • The M1200 Armored Knight provides increase survivability of...increased survivability Sustainment Survivability 32 10/13/2009 BFIST Program Overview • Targeting Under Armor /On the Move effort underway to

  7. Utilization of a Vehicle Integrated Intelligence (V(INT)2) System in Armor Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    weaknesses or deficiencies in the plan such as blind spots or fire integration plans likely to result in either overkill or underkill (e.g., gaps). The...movement is used with this formation. 108 A PL TI.I TK2 . *Thiso~ A oiiaini sdweee h Figue 5-4. CmbatWedg PLL PS I 10 M4w ;ok *Thi modificatio isue-heee-h

  8. The Armys Armored Multi Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    but many non-infantry carrier versions of the M-113 were retained in service. According to reports , about 3,000 M-113 variants are currently still in...1 Information in this section is taken from Christopher F. Foss, Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012, 32nd Edition...for EAB AMPVs. AMPV Completes Critical Design Review According to reports , the AMPV successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) 16 on

  9. The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    but many non-infantry carrier versions of the M-113 were retained in service. According to reports , about 3,000 M-113 variants are currently still in...1 Information in this section is taken from Christopher F. Foss, Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012, 32nd Edition...for EAB AMPVs. AMPV Completes Critical Design Review According to reports , the AMPV successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) 16 on

  10. The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    3, 2015. 24 Letter to Secretary Frank Kendall, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisitions, Technology, and Logistics, from Rep. Mike Rogers et al...Showing the text of the Carl Levin and Howard P. “Buck” McKeon National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015], December 2, 2014

  11. 40 CFR Appendix III to Subpart S... - As-Received Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light... Reading 7. Build Date 8. MIL light on/off status 9. Readiness code status 10. Stored OBD codes 11.Any conditions referenced in appendix II to this subpart which result in vehicle being rejected from program. ...

  12. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates in the Threespine Stickleback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, J.; Bolnick, D.I.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Mazur, M.M.; Mori, S.; Nakano, T.; Peichel, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Faced with sudden environmental changes, animals must either adapt to novel environments or go extinct. Thus, study of the mechanisms underlying rapid adaptation is crucial not??only for the understanding of natural evolutionary processes but also for the understanding of human-induced evolutionary change, which is an increasingly important problem [1-8]. In the present study, we demonstrate that the frequency of completely plated threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in an urban freshwater lake (Lake Washington, Seattle, Washington) within the last 40 years. This is a dramatic example of "reverse evolution," [9] because the general evolutionary trajectory is toward armor-plate reduction in freshwater sticklebacks [10]. On the basis of our genetic studies and simulations, we propose that the most likely cause of reverse evolution is increased selection for the completely plated morph, which we suggest could result from higher levels of trout predation after a sudden increase in water transparency during the early 1970s. Rapid evolution was facilitated by the existence of standing allelic variation in Ectodysplasin (Eda), the gene that underlies the major plate-morph locus [11]. The Lake Washington stickleback thus provides a novel example of reverse evolution, which is probably caused by a change in allele frequency at the major plate locus in response to a changing predation regime. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A D; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-11-26

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period.

  15. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  16. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  17. Application of nondestructive ion beam analysis to measure variations in the elemental composition of armor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallone, Arthur. E-mail: art.pallone@murraystate.edu; Demaree, John; Adams, Jane. E-mail: jadams@arl.army.mil

    2004-06-01

    Lightweight, state-of-the-art armors rely on ceramics for their enhanced performance. One goal of the United States Army is to expand the industrial base of companies that provide the armors. A systematic study of armor performance as a function of ceramic stoichiometry will result in a better understanding of the fundamental relations between composition and mechanical performance. One ceramic of interest is aluminum oxynitride (AlON). The stoichiometries of representative samples of AlON were investigated with the nondestructive techniques of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and resonant nuclear reaction analysis. Future tests of the performance of the AlON samples are to be correlated with the stoichiometries, and hence will lead to optimum, standardized processes for the manufacture of the AlON.

  18. Manufacturing process scale-up of optical grade transparent spinel ceramic at ArmorLine Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilman, Joseph; Voyles, John; Nick, Joseph; Shaffer, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While transparent Spinel ceramic's mechanical and optical characteristics are ideal for many Ultraviolet (UV), visible, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR), and multispectral sensor window applications, commercial adoption of the material has been hampered because the material has historically been available in relatively small sizes (one square foot per window or less), low volumes, unreliable supply, and with unreliable quality. Recent efforts, most notably by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T), have scaled-up manufacturing processes and demonstrated the capability to produce larger windows on the order of two square feet, but with limited output not suitable for production type programs. ArmorLine Corporation licensed the hot-pressed Spinel manufacturing know-how of TA and T in 2009 with the goal of building the world's first dedicated full-scale Spinel production facility, enabling the supply of a reliable and sufficient volume of large Transparent Armor and Optical Grade Spinel plates. With over $20 million of private investment by J.F. Lehman and Company, ArmorLine has installed and commissioned the largest vacuum hot press in the world, the largest high-temperature/high-pressure hot isostatic press in the world, and supporting manufacturing processes within 75,000 square feet of manufacturing space. ArmorLine's equipment is capable of producing window blanks as large as 50" x 30" and the facility is capable of producing substantial volumes of material with its Lean configuration and 24/7 operation. Initial production capability was achieved in 2012. ArmorLine will discuss the challenges that were encountered during scale-up of the manufacturing processes, ArmorLine Optical Grade Spinel optical performance, and provide an overview of the facility and its capabilities.

  19. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Anderson, Michael; Williams, Brian; Blanchard, Jake; Snead, Lance; HAPL Team

    2005-12-01

    The high average power laser program is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first wall (FW) will be subject to high energy density radiation and high doses of high energy helium implantation. Tungsten has been identified as the candidate material for a FW armor. The fundamental concern is long term thermo-mechanical survivability of the armor against the effects of high temperature pulsed operation and exfoliation due to the retention of implanted helium. Even if a solid tungsten armor coating would survive the high temperature cyclic operation with minimal failure, the high helium implantation and retention would result in unacceptable material loss rates. Micro-engineered materials, such as castellated structures, plasma sprayed nano-porous coatings and refractory foams are suggested as a first wall armor material to address these fundamental concerns. A micro-engineered FW armor would have to be designed with specific geometric features that tolerate high cyclic heating loads and recycle most of the implanted helium without any significant failure. Micro-engineered materials are briefly reviewed. In particular, plasma-sprayed nano-porous tungsten and tungsten foams are assessed for their potential to accommodate inertial fusion specific loads. Tests show that nano-porous plasma spray coatings can be manufactured with high permeability to helium gas, while retaining relatively high thermal conductivities. Tungsten foams where shown to be able to overcome thermo-mechanical loads by cell rotation and deformation. Helium implantation tests have shown, that pulsed implantation and heating releases significant levels of implanted helium. Helium implantation and release from tungsten was modeled using an expanded kinetic rate theory, to include the effects of pulsed implantations and thermal cycles. Although, significant challenges remain micro-engineered materials are shown to constitute potential

  20. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Anderson, Michael; Williams, Brian; Blanchard, Jake; Snead, Lance

    2005-01-01

    The high average power laser program is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first wall (FW) will be subject to high energy density radiation and high doses of high energy helium implantation. Tungsten has been identified as the candidate material for a FW armor. The fundamental concern is long term thermo-mechanical survivability of the armor against the effects of high temperature pulsed operation and exfoliation due to the retention of implanted helium. Even if a solid tungsten armor coating would survive the high temperature cyclic operation with minimal failure, the high helium implantation and retention would result in unacceptable material loss rates. Micro-engineered materials, such as castellated structures, plasma sprayed nano-porous coatings and refractory foams are suggested as a first wall armor material to address these fundamental concerns. A micro-engineered FW armor would have to be designed with specific geometric features that tolerate high cyclic heating loads and recycle most of the implanted helium without any significant failure. Micro-engineered materials are briefly reviewed. In particular, plasma-sprayed nano-porous tungsten and tungsten foams are assessed for their potential to accommodate inertial fusion specific loads. Tests show that nano-porous plasma spray coatings can be manufactured with high permeability to helium gas, while retaining relatively high thermal conductivities. Tungsten foams where shown to be able to overcome thermo-mechanical loads by cell rotation and deformation. Helium implantation tests have shown, that pulsed implantation and heating releases significant levels of implanted helium. Helium implantation and release from tungsten was modeled using an expanded kinetic rate theory, to include the effects of pulsed implantations and thermal cycles. Although, significant challenges remain micro-engineered materials are shown to constitute potential

  1. Beryllium armored mockups for fusion high flux application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.; Mazul, I.; Watson, R.

    1998-01-01

    One of the main requirements to use Be as a candidate for plasma facing component in ITER is providing a reliable joint between Be and Cu-alloy heat sink structure. In this work authors present the results of recent activity on this way. To create Be/CuCrZr joints the unique fast e-beam brazing technology was developed in Russia. The numbers of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were manufactured in Efremov Institute by fast e-beam brazing using Cu-Sn-In-Ni brazing alloy. These mock-ups were tested by Sandia Laboratory at the EBTS electron beam facility. The goals of the tests were to define the allowable dimensions of the armour tiles for the heat loads of more than 10 MW/m 2 , to find the limit of bond strength for the Be/CuCrZr joint and response to heat loads and to estimate the life time of the brazed tiles by thermo-cyclic testing. The screening and thermal fatigue results are presented. With the aim to check the applicability of developed fast brazing process to DS-Cu alloy (GlidCop) the actively cooled mock-up produced by fast brazing Be onto GlidCop structure was manufactured and tested in Efremov Institute, main results are discussed. Summarizing testing data authors show that the CuCrZr or DS-Cu heat sink armored with beryllium can survive high heat fluxes (≥10 MW/m 2 ) during thousand heating/cooling cycles without serious damaging in the armour material and its joint. (author)

  2. Overview of benefits, challenges, and requirements of wheeled-vehicle mounted infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John Lester; Clayton, Paul; Olsson, Stefan F.

    2013-06-01

    Requirements for vehicle mounted infrared sensors, especially as imagers evolve to high definition (HD) format will be detailed and analyzed. Lessons learned from integrations of infrared sensors on armored vehicles, unarmored military vehicles and commercial automobiles will be discussed. Comparisons between sensors for driving and those for situation awareness, targeting and other functions will be presented. Conclusions will be drawn regarding future applications and installations. New business requirements for more advanced digital image processing algorithms in the sensor system will be discussed. Examples of these are smarter contrast/brightness adjustments algorithms, detail enhancement, intelligent blending (IR-Vis) modes, and augmented reality.

  3. Experimental study of thermal comfort on stab resistant body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tingchao; Qian, Xinming; Yuan, Mengqi; Jiang, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the impacts of exercise intensity and sequence on human physiology parameters and subjective thermal sensation when wearing stab resistant body armor under daily working conditions in China [26 and 31 °C, 45-50 % relative humidity (RH)], and to investigate on the relationship between subjective judgments and objective parameters. Eight male volunteers were recruited to complete 3 terms of exercises with different velocity set on treadmill for 90 min at 26 °C and 31 °C, 45-50 % RH. In Exercise 1 volunteers were seated during the test. In Exercise 2, volunteers walked with the velocity of 3 km/h in the first 45 min and 6 km/h in the left 45 min. In Exercise 3, volunteers walked with the velocity of 6 km/h in the first 45 min and 3 km/h in the left 45 min. The body core temperature, skin temperature and subjective judgments were recorded during the whole process. Analysis of variance was performed among all the tests. Individual discrepancy of Exercise 1 is larger than that of Exercise 2 and 3. On the premise of the same walking distance and environmental conditions, core temperature in Exercise 3 is about 0.2 °C lower than that in Exercise 2 in the end; and with the velocity decrease from 6 km/h to 3 km/h in the end, thermal tolerance of Exercise 3 is about 1 degree lower than that in Exercise 2. Skin temperatures of human trunk were at least 1 °C higher than that of limbs. Activity narrows the individual discrepancy on core temperature. Within experimental conditions, decreasing of intensity at last stage makes the core temperature lower and the whole process much tolerable. The core temperature is more sensitive to the external disturbance on the balance of the whole body, and it can reflect the subjective thermal sensation and physical exertion.

  4. Standard Methodology for Assessment of Range of Motion While Wearing Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    76 STANDING STATURE (with Footwear ...Thanks also to Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center and the Soldier Integrated Protection Team and those project officers who...being fit into their best body armor size for that configuration): • Standing Stature (with footwear ) • Seated Stature At the goniometer station

  5. Mock-up development of new warship protective armor structure and feasibility analysis of ship installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Pan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the installation of the new design of protective armor structure on larger warships,a study into the installation process of the structure of this armor is carried out to improve installation efficiency and ensure the protective effect. This paper proposes a typical composite armor structure design which is composed of ‘silicate aerogel/ballistic ceramic/high-strength polyethylene/silicate aerogel’. The study analyzes the modeling design,down-selection of materials and equipment,and real ship mock-up technical development. The reliability and application of high strength polyethylene in response to high temperatures in the real ship installation process is discussed. The results show that high-temperatures during welding have no negative impact on the high strength polyethylene of the armored structure. The design demonstrates that this installation process is feasible and can be provided as an alternative solution by virtues of its good maneuverability,controllable precision,checkable quality and high reliability.

  6. Experimental studies on tungsten-armor impact on nuclear responses of solid breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Nakao, M.; Verzilov, Y.; Ochiai, K.; Wada, M.; Kubota, N.; Kondo, K.; Yamauchi, M.; Enoeda, M.; Nishitani, T.

    2005-01-01

    In order to experimentally evaluate the tungsten armor impact on tritium production of the solid breeding blanket being developed by JAERI for tokamak-type DEMO reactors, neutronics integral experiments have been performed by using DT neutrons at Fusion Neutron Source (FNS) facility of JAERI. Solid breeding blanket mockups relevant to the DEMO blanket have been applied in this study. The mockups are constructed by a set of layers consisting of 0 - 25.2 mm thick tungsten, 16 mm thick F82H, 12 mm thick Li 2 TiO 3 and 100 - 200mm thick beryllium with cross-section of 660 x 660 mm in maximum. Pellets of Li 2 CO 3 are embedded inside the Li 2 TiO 3 layers to measure the tritium production rate. By installing the 5, 12.6 and 25.2 mm thick tungsten armors, sum of the integrated tritium productions at the pellets are reduced by about 2, 3 and 6 % relative to the case without the armor, respectively. Numerical calculations have been conducted using the Monte Carlo code. Calculation results for sum of the integrated tritium productions in the case with the tungsten armor agree well with the experiment data within 4% and 19% under condition without and with a neutron reflector, respectively. (author)

  7. Calculation of Equivalent Resistance for Ground Wires Twined with Armor Rods in Contact Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground wire breakage accidents can destroy the stable operation of overhead lines. The excessive temperature increase arising from the contact resistance between the ground wire and armor rod in the contact terminal is one of the main reasons causing the breakage of ground wires. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate the equivalent resistance for ground wires twined with armor rods in contact terminals. According to the actual distribution characteristics of the contact points in the contact terminal, a three-dimensional electromagnetic field simulation model of the contact terminal was established. Based on the model, the current distribution in the contact terminal was obtained. Subsequently, the equivalent resistance of a ground wire twined with the armor rod in the contact terminal was calculated. The effects of the factors influencing the equivalent resistance were also discussed. The corresponding verification experiments were conducted on a real ground wire on a contact terminal. The measurement results of the equivalent resistance for the armor rod segment showed good agreement with the electromagnetic modeling results.

  8. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer...

  9. Structural impact of armor monoblock dimensions on the failure behavior of ITER-type divertor target components: Size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Muyuan; You, Jeong-Ha, E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of size effects was conducted numerically for W monoblock. • Decreasing the width of W monoblock leads to a lower risk of failure. • The Cu interlayer was not affected significantly by varying armor thickness. • The predicted trends were in line with the experimental observations. - Abstract: Plenty of high-heat-flux tests conducted on tungsten monoblock type divertor target mock-ups showed that the threshold heat flux density for cracking and fracture of tungsten armor seems to be related to the dimension of the monoblocks. Thus, quantitative assessment of such size effects is of practical importance for divertor target design. In this paper, a computational study about the thermal and structural impact of monoblock size on the plastic fatigue and fracture behavior of an ITER-type tungsten divertor target is reported. As dimensional parameters, the width and thickness of monoblock, the thickness of sacrificial armor, and the inner diameter of cooling tube were varied. Plastic fatigue lifetime was estimated for the loading surface of tungsten armor and the copper interlayer by use of a cyclic-plastic constitutive model. The driving force of brittle crack growth through the tungsten armor was assessed in terms of J-integral at the crack tip. Decrease of the monoblock width effectively reduced accumulation of plastic strain at the armor surface and the driving force of brittle cracking. Decrease of sacrificial armor thickness led to decrease of plastic deformation at the loading surface due to lower surface temperature, but the thermal and mechanical response of the copper interlayer was not affected by the variation of armor thickness. Monoblock with a smaller tube diameter but with the same armor thickness and shoulder thickness experienced lower fatigue load. The predicted trends were in line with the experimental observations.

  10. Modeling ground vehicle acoustic signatures for analysis and synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, G.; Stanfield, R.

    1995-01-01

    Security and weapon systems use acoustic sensor signals to classify and identify moving ground vehicles. Developing robust signal processing algorithms for this is expensive, particularly in presence of acoustic clutter or countermeasures. This paper proposes a parametric ground vehicle acoustic signature model to aid the system designer in understanding which signature features are important, developing corresponding feature extraction algorithms and generating low-cost, high-fidelity synthetic signatures for testing. The authors have proposed computer-generated acoustic signatures of armored, tracked ground vehicles to deceive acoustic-sensored smart munitions. They have developed quantitative measures of how accurately a synthetic acoustic signature matches those produced by actual vehicles. This paper describes parameters of the model used to generate these synthetic signatures and suggests methods for extracting these parameters from signatures of valid vehicle encounters. The model incorporates wide-bandwidth and narrow- bandwidth components that are modulated in a pseudo-random fashion to mimic the time dynamics of valid vehicle signatures. Narrow- bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate frequency, amplitude and phase information contained in a single set of narrow frequency- band harmonics. Wide-bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate parameters of a correlated-noise-floor model. Finally, the authors propose a method of modeling the time dynamics of the harmonic amplitudes as a means adding necessary time-varying features to the narrow-bandwidth signal components. The authors present results of applying this modeling technique to acoustic signatures recorded during encounters with one armored, tracked vehicle. Similar modeling techniques can be applied to security systems

  11. Mock-up test results of monoblock-type CFC divertor armor for JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashijima, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)], E-mail: higashijima.satoru@jaea.go.jp; Sakurai, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yokoyama, K.; Kashiwa, Y.; Masaki, K.; Shibama, Y.K.; Takechi, M.; Shibanuma, K.; Sakasai, A.; Matsukawa, M.; Kikuchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) tokamak project starts under both the Japanese domestic program and the international program 'Broader Approach'. The maximum heat flux to JT-60SA divertor is estimated to {approx}15 MW/m{sup 2} for 100 s. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed a divertor armor facing high heat flux in the engineering R and D for ITER, and it is concluded that monoblock-type CFC divertor armor is promising for JT-60SA. The JT-60SA armor consists of CFC monoblocks, a cooling CuCrZr screw-tube, and a thin oxygen-free high conductivity copper (OFHC-Cu) buffer layer between the CFC monoblock and the screw-tube. CFC/OFHC-Cu and OFHC-Cu/CuCrZr joints are essential for the armor, and these interfaces are brazed. Needed improvements from ITER engineering R and D are good CFC/OFHC-Cu and OFHC-Cu/CuCrZr interfaces and suppression of CFC cracking. For these purposes, metalization inside CFC monoblock is applied, and we confirmed again that the mock-up has heat removal capability in excess of ITER requirement. For optimization of the fabrication method and understanding of the production yield, the mock-ups corresponding to quantity produced in one furnace at the same time is also produced, and the half of the mock-ups could remove 15 MW/m{sup 2} as required. This paper summarizes the recent progress of design and mock-up test results for JT-60SA divertor armor.

  12. Inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)

  13. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  14. Statistical description of flume experiments on mixed-size bed-load transport and bed armoring processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the statistical properties of experiments on non-uniform bed-load transport as well as the mechanism of bed armoring processes. Despite substantial effort made over the last two decades, the ability to compute the bed-load flux in a turbulent system remains poor. The major obstacles include the poor understanding of the formation of armor lays on bed surfaces. Such a layer is much flow-resistible than the underlying material and therefore significantly inhibits sediment transport from the reach. To study the problem, we conducted a flume study for mixed sand/gravel sediments. We observed that aggregated sediment blocks were the most common characters in armor layers - the largest sizes resist hydraulic forces, while the smaller sizes add interlocking support and prevent loss of fine material through gaps between the larger particles. Fractional transport rates with the existing of armor layers were measured with time by sediment trapping method at the end of flume. To address the intermittent and time-varying behavior of bed-load transport during bed armoring processes, we investigated the probability distribution of the fractional bed-load transport rates, and the underlying dynamic model derived from the continuous time random walk framework. Results indicate that it is critical to consider the impact of armor layers when a flow is sufficient to move some of the finer particles and yet insufficient to move all the larger particles on a channel bed.

  15. 40 CFR 205.57-2 - Test vehicle sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to a test request in accordance with this subpart will be selected in the manner specified in the... then using a table of random numbers to select the number of vehicles as specified in paragraph (c) of... with the desig-nated AQL are contained in Appendix I, -Table II. (c) The appropriate batch sample size...

  16. Weldability and Impact Energy Properties of High-Hardness Armor Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrilo, Aleksandar; Geric, Katarina; Jovanovic, Milos; Vukic, Lazic

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the weldability of high-hardness armor steel by the gas metal arc welding method has been investigated. The study was aimed at determining the weakness points of manual welding compared to automated welding through microhardness testing, the cooling rate, tensile characteristics and nondestructive analysis. Detailed studies were performed for automated welding on the impact energy and microhardness in the fusion line, as the most sensitive zone of the armor steel weld joint. It was demonstrated that the selection of the preheating and interpass temperature is important in terms of the cooling rate and quantity of diffusible and retained hydrogen in the weld joint. The tensile strength was higher than 800 MPa. The width of the heat-affected zone did not exceed 15.9 mm, measured from the weld centerline, while the impact energy results were 74 and 39 J at 20 and - 40 °C, respectively.

  17. Second International Research Conference on the History of Arms and Armor in Kyiv, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Toichkin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present report provides a short description of a conference titled “Second International Research Conference on the History of Arms and Armor in Kyiv, Ukraine”. It was the second scientific conference dedicated to the study of historical weapons in Ukraine. A number of international experts in the field of historical arms and armor were invited to the conference. Each researcher had been asked to provide a short and a long article on a specific research subject. The short articles had already been published in a peer-review booklet that was handed out before the start of the conference. The long articles will be published together as a large collection of paper in future.

  18. A parametric design of ceramic faced composite armor subject to air weapon threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y N; Sun, Q

    2015-01-01

    By taking into consideration the two categories of military projectile threats to aircraft structures, an optimal layer configuration of ceramic faced composite armor was designed in this paper. Using numerical simulations and the same layer arrangement of ceramic, UHMWPE, and carbon fiber laminates, a parametric finite element model using LS-DYNA code was built. Several thickness combinations were analyzed in order to determine the final lightest configuration that is capable of supporting a high-speed impact load and HEI blast wave load, which implements a high anti-penetration design for aircraft armor. This configuration can be used to improve the anti-impact ability of aircraft structures as well as achieve a structure/function integration design that considers a lighter weight. (paper)

  19. Flow and Turbulence at Rubble-Mound Breakwater Armor Layers under Solitary Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the flow and turbulence at the armor layer of rubble-mound breakwaters during wave action. The study focused on the details of the flow and turbulence in the armor layer and on the effect of the porous core on flow and stability....... To isolate the processes involved with the flow in the porous core, experiments were conducted with increasing complexity. Specifically, three parallel experiments were performed including (1) an impermeable smooth breakwater slope, (2) an impermeable breakwater slope with large roughness elements added...... to the breakwater, and (3) a porous breakwater where the porous core was added below the breakwater front. One breakwater slope of 1:1.5 was applied. In this paper the focus is on the details of a single sequence of wave approach, run-up, and rundown. To isolate this sequence the experiments were performed applying...

  20. Development of conductively cooled first wall armor and actively cooled divertor structure for ITER/FER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Yamada, M.; Sakata, S.; Okada, K.; Toyoda, M.; Shimizu, K.; Tsujimura, S.; Iimura, M.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Seki, M.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the design requirements for the plasma facing components in ITER/FER, we have performed design studies on the conductively cooled first wall armor and the divertor plate with sliding supports. The full-scale armor tiles were fabricated for heat load tests, and good thermal performances were obtained in heat load tests of 0.2-0.4 MW/m 2 . It is shown by the thermomechanical analysis on the divertor plate that thermal stresses and bending deformation are reduced significantly by using the sliding supports. The divertor test module with the sliding supports has been fabricated to investigate its fabricability and to verify the functions of the sliding supports during a high heat load of about 10 MW/m 2 . (orig.)

  1. Ballistic Performance of Mallow and Jute Natural Fabrics Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Marçal, Rubens Lincoln Santana Blazutti; Lima Júnior, Édio Pereira; Margem, Jean Igor

    2017-01-01

    Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites have recently been investigated as a component of multilayered armor system (MAS). These composites were found to present advantages when replacing conventional high strength synthetic aramid fabric laminate composite (KevlarTM, with same thickness, as MAS second layer. Continuous and loose natural fibers were up to now mostly used to reinforce these ballistic composites. Only two natural fabrics reinforced polymer composite were so far used with sa...

  2. Thermal-stress analysis and testing of DIII-D armor tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Anderson, P.M.; Reis, E.E.; Smith, J.P.; Smith, P.D.; Croesmann, C.; Watkins, J.; Whitley, J.

    1987-10-01

    It is planned to install about 1500 new armor tiles in the DIII-D tokamak. The armor tiles currently installed in DIII-D are made by brazing Poco AXF-5Q graphite onto Inconel X-750 stock. A small percentage of these have failed by breakage of graphite. These failures were believed to be related to significant residual stress remaining in graphite after brazing. Hence, an effort was undertaken to improve the design with all-graphite tiles. Three criteria must be satisfied by the armor tiles and the hardware used to attach the tiles to the vessel walls: tiles should not structurally fail, peak tile temperature must be less than 2500 K, and peak vessel stresses must be below acceptable levels. A number of alternate design concepts were first analyzed with the two-dimensional finite element codes TOPAZ2D and NIKE2D. Promising designs were optimized for best parameters such as thicknesses, etc. The two best designs were further analyzed for thermal stresses with the three-dimensional codes P/THERMAL and P/STRESS. Prototype tiles of a number of materials were fabricated by GA and tested at the Plasma Materials Test Facility of the Sandia National Laboratory at Albuquerque. The tests simulated the heat flux and cooling conditions in DIII-D. This paper describes the 2-D and 3-D thermal stress analyses, the test results and logic which led to the selected design of the DIII-D armor tiles. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Vehicle regulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, all vehicles using public roads must meet so-called permanent requirements. This is enforced by the police and, for some categories, also during the MOT. In the Netherlands, most types of motor vehicle1 can only be introduced to the market if they meet the entry requirements. For

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. III Appendix III to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation Suppose that a manufacturer called Mizer...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 625 - Dependent Travel Waiver of Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... business in or while using a Government vehicle. Dates of travel are from _____ to _____ 19__. I do hereby... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dependent Travel Waiver of Liability A Appendix A...—Dependent Travel Waiver of Liability “I (Name of dependent) will be accompanying _____, (Name of employee...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle is...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable to...

  8. Characteristics of behind armor blunt trauma produced by bullets with different structural materials: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-qing WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of structural materials of bullets on behind armor blunt trauma (BABT. Methods Ten healthy male Landraces were randomly divided into two groups (5 each: 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet group and SS109 5.56-mm rifle bullet group. The kinetic energy of two types of bullets was adjusted to the same level (about 1880J by the way of grow downwards gunpowder. Then the animals as protected with both grade NIJ Ⅲ ceramic hard armor and grade Ⅱ police soft body armor, were shot at the left midclavicular line of fourth intercostal space (shooting distance was 25m. The damage to the animals was observed. Other 2 healthy male Landraces were selected, and biomechanical sensor was subcutaneously implanted into the soft tissue in precordium and intracalvarium to detect the pressure at the time point of bullet contact under the protection of armor, and the relationship between pressure and damage was analyzed. Results Respiration, heart rate and systolic arterial pressure of animals in two groups were all elevated after injury, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. No obvious change was found on blood oxygen saturation of both groups. Gross anatomy showed the predominant local injury was cardiac and pulmonary contusions. The area of pulmonary hemorrhage of 7.62mm group was 6.00%±3.18%, significantly higher than that of 5.56mm group (3.59%±2.11%, P<0.05. Histopathological examination revealed acute injuries of lung tissues, myocardial tissue and cerebral cortical neurons. The contents of cardiac troponin T (TnT, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB isoenzyme were all increased 3 hours after injury, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Biomechanical testing showed the pressure of precordium and intracalvarium was elevated at the moment of bullet contact, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Conclusions

  9. The Appendix on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitley, S. [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Barts and the Royal London, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: siobhanwhitley@yahoo.co.uk; Sookur, P.; McLean, A.; Power, N. [Barts and the Royal London, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Appendicitis can be a difficult clinical diagnosis to make. A negative appendicectomy rate of 20% has traditionally been accepted as the consequences of appendiceal perforation can be grave. Cross-sectional imaging is increasingly being employed in the investigation of adults with suspected appendicitis. This review will demonstrate the appearance of the normal appendix on computed tomography (CT) and its appearance in a range of inflammatory and neoplastic processes including appendicitis, Crohn's disease, infections, and benign and malignant tumour000.

  10. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  11. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  12. A study on the nondestructive test optimum design for a ground tracked combat vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Byeong Ho; Seo, Jae Hyun; Gil, Hyeon Jun [Defence Agency for Technology and Quality, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hyeong [Hanwha Techwin Co.,Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sang Chul [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, a nondestructive test (NDT) is performed to inspect the optimal design of a ground tracked combat vehicle for self-propelled artillery, tank, and armored vehicles. The minimum qualification required for personnel performing the NDT of a ground tracked combat vehicle was initially established in US military standards, and then applied to the Korean defense specifications to develop a ground tracked combat vehicle. However, the qualification standards of an NDT inspector have been integrated into NAS410 through the military and commercial specifications unification project that were applied in the existing aerospace/defense industry public standard. The design method for this study was verified by applying the optimal design to the liquid penetrant testing Al forging used in self-propelled artillery. This confirmed the reliability and soundness of the product.

  13. Hydroxyapatite-armored poly(ε-caprolactone) microspheres and hydroxyapatite microcapsules fabricated via a Pickering emulsion route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Syuji; Okada, Masahiro; Nishimura, Taiki; Maeda, Hayata; Sugimoto, Tatsuya; Hamasaki, Hiroyuki; Furuzono, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Yoshinobu

    2012-05-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle-armored poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microspheres were fabricated via a "Pickering-type" emulsion solvent evaporation method in the absence of any molecular surfactants. It was clarified that the interaction between carbonyl/carboxylic acid groups of PCL and the HAp nanoparticles at an oil-water interface played a crucial role in the preparation of the stable Pickering-type emulsions and the HAp nanoparticle-armored microspheres. The HAp nanoparticle-armored PCL microspheres were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, morphology, and chemical compositions using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The presence of HAp nanoparticles at the surface of the microspheres was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Pyrolysis of the PCL cores led to the formation of the corresponding HAp hollow microcapsules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vacuum UV spectroscopy of armor erosion from plasma gun disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, P.D.; Gahl, J.M.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Arkhipov, K.; Bakhtin, V.; Toporkov, D.; Ovchinnokov, I.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Titov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive simulations of tokamak disruptions have provided a picture of material erosion that is limited by the transfer of energy from the incident plasma to the armor solid surface through a dense vapor shield. Two transmission grating vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrographs were designed and utilized to study the plasma-material interface in plasma gun simulation experiments. Target materials included POCO graphite, ATJ graphite, boron nitride and plasma-sprayed tungsten. Detailed spectra were recorded with a spatial resolution of ca. 0.7mm resolution on VIKA at Efremov and on 2MK-200 at Troitsk. Time-resolved data with 40-200ns resolution were then recorded along with the same spatial resolution on 2MK-200. The VIKA plasma gun directly illuminated a target with a high-intensity plasma pulse of 2-100MJm -2 with low-energy ions of ca. 100eV. The 2MK-200 plasma gun illuminated the target via a magnetic cusp that permitted only deuterium to pass with energies of ca. 1keV, but which produced a fairly low intensity of 2MJm -2 . Power densities on target ranged from 10 7 to 10 8 Wcm -2 . Emitted spectra were recorded from 15 to 450A over a distance from 0 to 7cm above the armor target surface. The data from both plasma gun facilities demonstrated that the hottest plasma region was sitting several millimeters above the armor tile surface. This apparently constituted the absorption region, which confirmed past computer simulations. Spectra indicated both the species and ionization level that were being ablated from the target, demonstrating impurity content, and showing plasma ablation velocity. Graphite samples clearly showed CV lines as well as impurity lines from O V and O VI. The BN tiles produced textbook examples of BIV and BV, and extensive NIV, V and VI lines. These are being compared with radiation-hydrodynamic calculations. (orig.)

  15. Biological armors under impact—effect of keratin coating, and synthetic bio-inspired analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achrai, B; Wagner, H D; Bar-On, B

    2015-01-01

    A number of biological armors, such as turtle shells, consist of a strong exoskeleton covered with a thin keratin coating. The mechanical role upon impact of this keratin coating has surprisingly not been investigated thus far. Low-velocity impact tests on the turtle shell reveal a unique toughening phenomenon attributed to the thin covering keratin layer, the presence of which noticeably improves the fracture energy and shell integrity. Synthetic substrate/coating analogues were subsequently prepared and exhibit an impact behavior similar to the biological ones. The results of the present study may improve our understanding, and even future designs, of impact-tolerant structures. (paper)

  16. An Analysis Plan for the ARCOMS II (Armor Combat Operations Model Support II) Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    In order to facilitate Armor Combat Modeling, the data analysis shculd focus upon the methods which transform the data intc descriptive or predictive ...discussed in Chapter III tc predict the Farameter for probability of detection in time ŕt. This should be compared with the results of the N.4gh -t Vision...J 6A 46.) I-I 0 f U-CL 0~ z o -Z 06 09 03 v 0 0 SJldnYS 10 ON Ipgr Cp o LSTm n at emn itgas 4AA rI z ;A (AZ - 090.0 UlA0 -O ON 404 Fiur CAd &P CC

  17. Development of a remote handling system for replacement of armor tiles in the Fusion Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, J.; Kakudate, S.; Oka, K.; Seki, M.

    1995-01-01

    The armor tiles of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) planned by JAERI are categorized as scheduled maintenance components, since they are damaged by severe heat and particle loads from the plasma during operation. A remote handling system is thus required to replace a large number of tiles rapidly in the highly activated reactor. However, the simple teaching-playback method cannot be adapted to this system because of deflection of the tiles caused by thermal deformation and so on. We have developed a control system using visual feedback control to adapt to this deflection and an end-effector for a single arm. We confirm their performance in tests. (orig.)

  18. Army Training Study: Training Effectiveness Analysis (TEA) Summary. Volume 1. Armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-08

    c. r tf(e rx =r) rfs it ,, 0’( r’( r , a S’ f "’ u nn Ir Irf I I. * 222 ARM’- NN :TuDY TWANINC EFFCIUENEZ-: ANALISIS TEA : MMARY ’JLUM~ I ARMOR U...selected 5 ’.e o. 11 module clusters , read the objectives fr.r te firs. im’dule, studied whatever available Yesource mnatterial he wished, and reported...ambitious an undertaking, since the percentage of trainees who completed SrTh1 averaged 66% over all task clusters . A completion rate of 52% was reported

  19. Development of high conductive C/C composite tiles for plasma facing armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Namiki, K.; Tsujimura, S.; Toyoda, M.; Seki, M.; Takatsu, H.

    1991-01-01

    C/C composites with high thermal conductivity were developed in unidirectional, two-dimensional and felt types, and were fabricated as full-scale armor tile. Their thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the plasma-side surface is 250∝550 W/mdeg C, that is comparable to that of pyrolytic graphite. It was shown by heat load tests that the C/C composites have low surface erosion characteristics and high thermal shock resistance. Various kinds of C/C composites were successfully bonded to metal substrate, and their mechanical strength and thermal shock resistance were tested. (orig.)

  20. Armor: An αβγ assembly for irradiated fuel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraud, M.

    1967-04-01

    The assembly ARMOR which was built with a view to carrying out research on irradiated fuels consists of an αβγ enclosure made up of 11 cells in line. After a general description of the assembly in its present form, the various functions are reviewed: introduction of the samples, chemical de-canning, dissolution of the irradiated uranium pellets, preparation of solutions for mass spectrometric analyses, disposal of the effluents and of the solid waste. The assembly-has been working since 1961. During the 5 to 6 years operation, various improvements have been made and a certain number of observations have been collected concerning the work. (author) [fr

  1. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  2. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  3. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  4. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizik F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile’s core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  5. The genetic architecture of parallel armor plate reduction in threespine sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela F Colosimo

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available How many genetic changes control the evolution of new traits in natural populations? Are the same genetic changes seen in cases of parallel evolution? Despite long-standing interest in these questions, they have been difficult to address, particularly in vertebrates. We have analyzed the genetic basis of natural variation in three different aspects of the skeletal armor of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus: the pattern, number, and size of the bony lateral plates. A few chromosomal regions can account for variation in all three aspects of the lateral plates, with one major locus contributing to most of the variation in lateral plate pattern and number. Genetic mapping and allelic complementation experiments show that the same major locus is responsible for the parallel evolution of armor plate reduction in two widely separated populations. These results suggest that a small number of genetic changes can produce major skeletal alterations in natural populations and that the same major locus is used repeatedly when similar traits evolve in different locations.

  6. Development, installation, and initial operation of DIII-D graphite armor tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E.; Smith, J.P.; Smith, P.D.

    1988-04-01

    An upgrade of the DIII-D vacuum vessel protection system has been completed. The ceiling, floor, and inner wall have been armored to enable operation of CIT-relevant doublenull diverted plasmas and to enable the use of the inner wall as a limiting surface. The all- graphite tiles replace the earlier partial coverage armor configuration which consisted of a combination of Inconel tiles and graphite brazed to Inconel tiles. A new all-graphite design concept was chosen for cost and reliability reasons. The 10 minute duration between plasma discharges required the tiles to be cooled by conduction to the water-cooled vessel wall. Using two and three- dimensional analyses, the tile design was optimized to minimize thermal stresses with uniform thermal loading on the plasma-facing surface. Minimizing the stresses around the tile hold-down feature and eliminating stress concentrators were emphasized in the design. The design of the tile fastener system resulted in sufficient hold-down forces for good thermal conductance to the vessel and for securing the tile against eddy current forces. The tiles are made of graphite, and a program to select a suitable grade of graphite was undertaken. Initially, graphites were compared based on published technical data. Graphite samples were then tested for thermal shock capacity in an electron beam test facility at the Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA) in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. 4 refs., 6 figs

  7. Fugitive emissions control on dry copper tailing with crushed rock armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    Four inactive copper tailing impoundments totalling 1,900 acres near Ajo in southwestern Arizona were covered on horizontal surfaces with a 2 in. nominal thickness of crushed rock to control particulate emissions. The tailings are typically dominated by sand-sized particles but may also include significant PM 10 fractions towards the centers of the impoundments. The technology was selected by Phelps Dodge Corporation, after investigation of several alternatives, as a permanent and practical cover that essentially eliminates fugitive emissions. It simulates the natural desert pavement that characterizes this arid area of the Sonoran Desert. Rocky overburden was crushed to minus 3 in. diameter and broadcast on dry surfaces of tailing impoundments with all-terrain, balloon-tired spreaders. Stony residues in the rock armor tend to cement together following rainfall, forming a crust that enhances surface stability and erosion control. Slopes with windblown tailing deposition were covered to a nominal 6 in. thickness by conventional dozer pushing and blading of minus 10 in. rock over the sides. Athel trees, planted extensively since 1970 on two of the four inactive impoundments, provided partial control of fugitives, but were subjected to harsh environmental conditions, including abrasion from saltating particles. The rock armor functions as a mulch which is expected to improve water relations for existing vegetation and areas seeded with native species. New surface microenvironments, and the virtual elimination of surface creep and saltation, are expected to support native plant growth under favorable climatic conditions

  8. Enhancement in ballistic performance of composite hard armor through carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gibson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes in composite hard armor is discussed in this study. The processing techniques to make various armor composite panels consisting of Kevlar®29 woven fabric in an epoxy matrix and the subsequent V50 test results for both 44 caliber soft-point rounds and 30 caliber FSP (fragment simulated projectile threats are presented. A 6.5% improvement in the V50 test results was found for a combination of 1.65 wt% loading of carbon nanotubes and 1.65 wt% loading of milled fibers. The failure mechanism of carbon nanotubes during the ballistic event is discussed through scanning electron microscope images of the panels after the failure. Raman Spectroscopy was also utilized to evaluate the residual strain in the Kevlar®29 fibers post shoot. The Raman Spectroscopy shows a Raman shift of 25 cm−1 for the Kevlar®29 fiber utilized in the composite panel that had an enhancement in the V50 performance by using milled fiber and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Evaluating both scenarios where an improvement was made and other panels without any improvement allows for understanding of how loading levels and synergistic effects between carbon nanotubes and milled fibers can further enhance ballistic performance.

  9. The natural armors of fish: A comparison of the lamination pattern and structure of scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Sandra; Lavoie, Ellen; Linley, Tim; Devaraj, Arun; Ossa, E Alex; Arola, D

    2017-09-01

    Fish scales exhibit a unique balance of flexibility, strength and toughness, which is essential to provide protection without encumbering locomotion. Although the mechanical behavior and structure of this natural armor are of recent interest, a comparison of these qualities from scales of different fish species has not been reported. In this investigation the armor of fish with different locomotion, size and protection needs were analyzed. Scales from the Arapaima gigas, the tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were compared in terms of the stacking sequence of individual plies and their microstructure. The scales were also compared with respect to anatomical position to distinguish site-specific functional differences. Results show that the lamination sequence of plies for the carp and tarpon exhibit a Bouligand structure with relative rotation of 75° between consecutive plies. The arapaima scales exhibit a cross-ply structure, with 90° rotation between adjacent plies. In addition, results indicate that the volume fraction of reinforcement, the number of plies and the variations in thickness with anatomical position are unique amongst the three fish. These characteristics should be considered in evaluations focused on the mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The natural armors of fish: A comparison of the lamination pattern and structure of scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcia, Sandra; Lavoie, Ellen; Linley, Tim; Devaraj, Arun; Ossa, E. Alex; Arola, D.

    2017-09-01

    Fish scales exhibit a unique balance of flexibility, strength and toughness, which is essential to provide protection without encumbering locomotion. Although the mechanical behavior and structure of this natural armor are of recent interest, a comparison of these qualities from scales of different fish species has not been reported. In this investigation the armor of fish with different locomotion, size and protection needs were analyzed. Scales from the Arapaima gigas, the tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were compared in terms of the stacking sequence of individual plies and their microstructure. The scales were also compared with respect to anatomical position to distinguish site-specific functional differences. Results show that the lamination sequence of plies for the carp and tarpon exhibit a Bouligand structure with relative rotation of 75° between consecutive plies. The arapaima scales exhibit a cross-ply structure, with 90° rotation between adjacent plies. In addition, results indicate that the volume fraction of reinforcement, the number of plies and the variations in thickness with anatomical position are unique amongst the three fish. These characteristics should be considered in evaluations focused on the mechanical behavior.

  11. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Topics covered in this appendix include: General Rules-Code of Safe Practices; 2. Personal Protective Equipment; Hazardous Material Control; Traffic Control; Fire Prevention; Sanitation and First Aid; Confined Space Safety Requirements; Ladders and Stairways; Scaffolding and Lift Safety; Machinery, Vehicles, and Heavy Equipment; Welding and Cutting-General; Arc Welding; Oxygen/Acetylene Welding and Cutting; Excavation, Trenching, and Shoring; Fall Protection; Steel Erection; Working With Asbestos; Radiation Safety; Hand Tools; Electrical Safety; Nonelectrical Work Performed Near Exposed High-Voltage Power-Distribution Equipment; Lockout/Tagout Requirements; Rigging; A-Cranes; Housekeeping; Material Handling and Storage; Lead; Concrete and Masonry Construction

  12. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility, Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-06-26

    Topics covered in this appendix include: General Rules-Code of Safe Practices; 2. Personal Protective Equipment; Hazardous Material Control; Traffic Control; Fire Prevention; Sanitation and First Aid; Confined Space Safety Requirements; Ladders and Stairways; Scaffolding and Lift Safety; Machinery, Vehicles, and Heavy Equipment; Welding and Cutting-General; Arc Welding; Oxygen/Acetylene Welding and Cutting; Excavation, Trenching, and Shoring; Fall Protection; Steel Erection; Working With Asbestos; Radiation Safety; Hand Tools; Electrical Safety; Nonelectrical Work Performed Near Exposed High-Voltage Power-Distribution Equipment; Lockout/Tagout Requirements; Rigging; A-Cranes; Housekeeping; Material Handling and Storage; Lead; Concrete and Masonry Construction.

  13. Appendix F - Sample Contingency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This sample Contingency Plan in Appendix F is intended to provide examples of contingency planning as a reference when a facility determines that the required secondary containment is impracticable, pursuant to 40 CFR §112.7(d).

  14. Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) Task and Media Analysis for the U.S. Marine Corps LAV-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-26

    recommendations for literature to be ordered from DTIC. Finally, the Marketing Manager for International Laser Systems, Mr. Haro Schneider, was...in FIRE ( nline ).X 7.3.2 Wait five seconds. Press misfire reset warning indicator. x E-32 .. , HANDS-ON TRAINING TRAINING REQUIRED REQUIRED 7.3.3 Close

  15. 29 CFR (non - mandatory) Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1926-List of National Consensus Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false mandatory) Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1926-List of National Consensus Standards (Non Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Consensus Standards ANSI/SIA A92.2-1990Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices ANSI/SIA A92.3...

  16. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  17. PELE侵彻复合装甲数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of PELE Penetrating Composite Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李干; 王志军; 王妍; 李硕

    2016-01-01

    为了探究横向增强型侵彻体(PELE)侵彻复合装甲后的毁伤效果,采用显式非线性动力分析软件AUTODYN,对装填特氟龙(聚四氟乙烯)的侵彻膨胀弹以900 m/s着靶速度侵彻复合靶板的过程进行了数值模拟,得到PELE弹对复合靶侵彻破坏效应及相关参数.结果表明:聚碳酸酯(玻璃纤维)、聚氨酯(泡沫塑料)与凯夫拉复合装甲的结构均被PELE的横向效应所破坏;复合装甲的夹心材料不同,靶板的破坏程度也不尽相同;复合装甲能对PELE的横向效应起到一定的抑制作用,而凯夫拉材料抑制作用较好.%In order to analyze the damage effect of the penetrator with enhanced lateral efficiency( PELE) penetrating composite armor, an explicit nonlinear dynamic analysis software AUTODYN was used to simulate the process of PELE filled with Teflon( polytetrafluoroethylene) penetrating composite target plate using the speed of 900 m/s, and the destructive effect and relevant parameters of PELE penetrating composite armor were obtained finally. The result shows that the composite armor constructed by polycarbonate( glass fibre) ,polyurethane and Kevlar is damaged seriously by lateral efficiency of PELE. The different composite-armors have different damage. The composite armor has definite inhibitory effect on lateral efficiency of PELE,and the inhibitory effect of Kevlar is better.

  18. Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fleet Requirements. Volume 3. Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    64C, in each case). (3) Annual operating mileage, by payload class ( runners , only). (a) 1/4 T 7200 mi. (b) 5/4 T 6200 mi. (c) 2-1/2 T 3200 mi. (d... runners /nonrunners in Europe. Those figures should still be used. The following figures should be used for CONUS: 0) 1/4 T (2) 5/4 T (3) 2-1/2 T (4...0 a» * 4« M » Ml 00 a* MM «*« «• 0M • * *« «0 » kite MM • • 00 00 aa «0

  19. Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC) annual progress report, 1991--1992. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-07

    This report contains the following appendices: Appendix A - Requirements for Undergraduate Level; Appendix B - Requirements for Graduate Level; Appendix C - Graduate Degree In Environmental Engineering; Appendix D - Non-degree Certificate Program; Appendix E - Curriculum for Associate Degree Program; Appendix F - Curriculum for NCC Program; Appendix G - Information 1991 Teleconference Series; Appendix H - Information on 1992 Teleconference Series; Appendix I - WERC interactive Television Courses; Appendix J - WERC Research Seminar Series; Appendix K - Sites for Hazardous/Radioactive Waste Management Series; Appendix L- Summary of Technology Development of the Second Year; Appendix M - List of Major Publications Resulting from WERC; Appendix N - Types of Equipment at WERC Laboratories.

  20. Development of remote replacement system for armor tiles of first wall of FER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Junichi; Yoshizawa, Shunji; Nakano, Yasuo; Kuboyama, Takashi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    A remote system has been developed to replace automatically armor tiles of first walls with a single manipulator arm for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). The system is composed of a manipulator arm and an end-effector (a tile replacement hand), which have a gripper of the tiles, a nutrunner to rotate attatching bolts of them and a vision sensor to measure positions of them. The system can replace the tiles by means of a visual feedback system using vision sensor, even if the positions of the tiles would have changed. As a result of tests, it has been proved that the end-effector is useful and the control system is practicable. (author)

  1. One Dimension Analytical Model of Normal Ballistic Impact on Ceramic/Metal Gradient Armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lisheng; Zhang Qingjie; Zhai Pengcheng; Cao Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    An analytical model of normal ballistic impact on the ceramic/metal gradient armor, which is based on modified Alekseevskii-Tate equations, has been developed. The process of gradient armour impacted by the long rod can be divided into four stages in this model. First stage is projectile's mass erosion or flowing phase, mushrooming phase and rigid phase; second one is the formation of comminuted ceramic conoid; third one is the penetration of gradient layer and last one is the penetration of metal back-up plate. The equations of third stage have been advanced by assuming the behavior of gradient layer as rigid-plastic and considering the effect of strain rate on the dynamic yield strength

  2. One Dimension Analytical Model of Normal Ballistic Impact on Ceramic/Metal Gradient Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisheng; Zhang, Qingjie; Zhai, Pengcheng; Cao, Dongfeng

    2008-02-01

    An analytical model of normal ballistic impact on the ceramic/metal gradient armor, which is based on modified Alekseevskii-Tate equations, has been developed. The process of gradient armour impacted by the long rod can be divided into four stages in this model. First stage is projectile's mass erosion or flowing phase, mushrooming phase and rigid phase; second one is the formation of comminuted ceramic conoid; third one is the penetration of gradient layer and last one is the penetration of metal back-up plate. The equations of third stage have been advanced by assuming the behavior of gradient layer as rigid-plastic and considering the effect of strain rate on the dynamic yield strength.

  3. The Properties of Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Coatings on Armor-Grade Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Adamiak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an examination of the properties of arc-sprayed aluminum on alloyed armor-grade steel. Thermal arc spraying was conducted with a EuTronic Arc Spray 4 wire arc sprayer. Aluminum wire 1.6 mm in diameter was used to produce dense, abrasion- and erosion-resistant coatings approx. 1.0 mm thick with and without nickel/5% aluminum-buffered subcoating. Aluminum coatings were characterized in accordance with ASTM G 65-00 abrasion resistance test, ASTM G 76-95 erosion resistance tests, ASTM C 633-01 adhesion strength, HV0.1 hardness tests and metallographic analyses. Results demonstrate properties of arc-sprayed aluminum and aluminum-nickel material coatings that are especially promising in industrial applications where erosion-, abrasion- and corrosion-resistant coating properties are required.

  4. Armored brain in patients with hydrocephalus after shunt surgery: review of the literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud M

    2012-01-01

    Armored brain or chronic calcified subdural hematoma is a rare complication of cerebrospinal fluid diversion with few cases reported in the literature. Seventeen patients with this pathology have been published. A complete review of the literatures regarding this topic has been collected and discussed. The author also presents a 12- year old boy with triventricular hydrocephalus who had undergone ventriculoperitoneal medium pressure shunt system since birth. The patient presented to our clinic with a 2-year history of seizures. The patient was conscious and without neurological deficits on examination. Computed tomography of the brain showed bilateral high density mass with surface calcification. X ray skull and MRI confirmed the calcified subdural hematoma bilaterally. We preferred conservative treatment and the patient continued his antiepileptic treatment. At one year follow up, the patient had the same neurological state. The case highlights the importance of frequent follow up CT brain after shunt surgery.

  5. Preliminary in Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Spadaccio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-L-lactide/poly-8-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings.

  6. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  7. Conceptual thermal-mechanical design of the TFTR first wall armor against neutral beam impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, J.W.H.; Flaherty, R.

    1976-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is designed to operate in a pulsed mode with relatively low duty cycles. Each pulse consists of a short plasma heat-up period, a reaction period, followed by a relatively long cooldown period. Plasma heating is accomplished by ohmic heating by a current induced change in the magnetically linked ohmic heating coils, followed by neutral beam injection for further preheat and the initiation of fusion reactions. During normal operation, the bulk of the neutral beam energy will be absorbed by the plasma, while the remainder will impinge on the vacuum vessel wall. The amount of thermal energy deposited on an unprotected wall is expected to be excessive, limiting the frequency of pulses and requiring frequent wall replacement. A faulted condition would cause penetration of an unprotected wall. As a consequence, a wall armoring (or liner) concept was developed to protect the vacuum vessel wall and to permit ease of liner replacement

  8. Study of Nano Powder for Improvement the Mechanical Properties of Armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raid Salih Jawad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During this research nano alumina particles are used as reinforce material to improve characterization of armor. The work involves use of polyester resin as matrix. The properties obtained of resulted samples showed clearly improvement. Where values show linear increases in hardness from low value 77.3 gf/mm of pure polyester to high value 81.6 of polystyrene - 30 wt % nano alumina. Values of thermal conductivity greatly influenced by amount of porosity and so on the density of the sample, where pure polyester has low value 0.0661 W/mk of thermal conductivity and polyester – 30 wt % nano aluminapossess conductivity 0.3411 W/mk.

  9. Thermal shock fracture of graphite armor plate under the heat load of plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Tomoyoshi; Seki, Masahiro; Ohmori, Junji

    1989-01-01

    Experiments on the thermal shock brittle fracture of graphite plates were performed. Thermal loading which simulated a plasma disruption was produced by an electron beam facility. Pre-cracks produced on the surface propagated to the inside of the specimen even if the thermal stress on the surface was compressive. Two mechanisms are possible to produce tensile stress around the crack tip under thermal shock conditions. Temperature, thermal stress, and the stress intensity factor for the specimen were analyzed based on the finite element method for various heating conditions. The trend of experimental results under the asymmetric heating agrees qualitatively with the analytical results. This phenomenon is important for the design of plasma facing components made of graphite. Establishment of a lifetime prediction procedure including fatigue, fatigue crack growth, and brittle fracture is needed for graphite armors. (orig.)

  10. NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THE APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to present the clinical observations of neoplastic lesions of the appendix (one carcinoid and two mucous cysts and to discuss various manners of treatment and prognosis. Material and methods: The authors of the following paper present a description of three cases of appendix tumours, two patients with a mucous cyst and a patient with carcinoid, against the background of all the appendectomies performed at the Clinical Department of General, Endocrine and Oncological Surgery of the Provincial Polyclinical Hospital in Kielce in the years 2005–2011. Results : Within the 7-year period, a total of 11 719 surgical operations have been performed, where 834 (7.1% were that of appendectomy. Among all of the removed vermiform appendixes, neoplastic lesions occurred in three cases constituting a mere 0.3% of all of the appendectomies performed within that period. In two of the cases there was a suspicion of mucous cysts before the surgical operation. In none of the above-mentioned cases was is possible to ultimately establish the diagnosis before the operation. The patients were subjected to a simple appendectomy. The patients are in good clinical health, with no signs of relapse. Conclusions : The presented cases of patients with appendix tumours illustrate the difficulty of preoperative detection of a neoplastic lesion. This is mainly due to a scantily symptomatic course or symptoms typical of appendicitis. In light of this, histopathological examination of each appendix should be treated as obligatory.

  11. Assessing a Suitable Contribution of the French Armor Branch to the Doctrinal Development of Violence: Mastering Operations in the Urban Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millet, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    .... This study analyzes the current state of the French Army doctrinal development of armor employment in the violence-mastering mode in the urban environment and compare it to the lessons learned...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 600 - Fuel Economy Label Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel Economy Label Formats VIII... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 600—Fuel Economy Label Formats EC01MY92.117 EC01MY92.118 EC01MY92.119 EC01MY92.120...

  13. A Preliminary Report on the Strength and Metallography of a Bimetallic Friction Stir Weld Joint Between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness Steel Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness steel armor. ABSTRACT One half inch thick plates of 6061-T6 aluminum...alloy and High Hardness steel armor (MIL- STD-46100) were successfully joined by the friction stir welding (FSW) process using a tungsten-rhenium...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A preliminary report on the strength and metallography of a bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL

  14. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  15. High energy ballistic and fracture comparison between multilayered armor systems using non-woven curaua fabric composites and aramid laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Oliveira Braga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For personal protection against high kinetic energy projectiles, multilayered armor systems (MAS are usually the best option. They combine synergistically the properties of different materials such as ceramics, composites and metals. In the present work, ballistic tests were performed to evaluate multilayered armor systems (MAS using curaua non-woven fabric epoxy composites as second layer. A comparison to a MAS using aramid (Kevlar™ fabric laminates was made. The results showed that the curaua non-woven fabric composites are suitable to the high ballistic applications, and are promising substitutes for aramid fabric laminates. Keywords: Composite, Natural fiber, Curaua fiber, Non-woven fabric, Aramid laminate, Ballistic test

  16. Connected vehicles and cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles are a next-generation technology in vehicles and in infrastructure that will make travel safer, cleaner, and more efficient. The advanced wireless technology enables vehicles to share and communicate information with each other and...

  17. Use of Body Armor Protection Levels with Squad Automatic Weapon Fighting Load Impacts Soldier Performance, Mobility, and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Industrial Security Manual , Section ll-19 or DoD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation, Chapter IX. For Unclassified/Limited...accomplished using PSAW Statistics 18.0 ( SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Separate analyses were performed to test each of the three hypotheses stated. However...the Soldier and diminish his/her lethality or survivability , which may be an area of consideration for future research. 4.2 Consequences of Body Armor

  18. Investigation of Fire-Vulnerability-Reduction Effectiveness of Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel in Armored Vehicular Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-30

    FORT LEE VA 23801 ATTN DRXMD-MS LEXINGTON KY 40511 HQ, US ARHY ARMOR SCHOOL ATTN ATSB- TD HQ, US ARMY T&E COMMANI) FORT KNOX KY 40121 ATTN DRSTE-TO-O 1...CDM P 0 BOX 4005 FORT BELVOIR VA 22060 CHAMPAIGN IL 61820 CDR IHQ US ARMY INFANTRY SCHOOL , US ARMY TRAINING & DOCTRINE CMD ATTN ATSH-CD-MS-M ATTN ATCD

  19. Bone histology sheds light on the nature of the "dermal armor" of the enigmatic sauropod dinosaur Agustinia ligabuei Bonaparte, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellardini, Flavio; Cerda, Ignacio A.

    2017-02-01

    Agustinia ligabuei is an Early Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur from the northwest of Patagonia that is currently the topic of debate with respect to its phylogenetic position and atypical dermal armor. The presence of four morphotypes of laminar and transversely elongated putative osteoderms was used to consider Agustinia as an armored sauropod. Regarding the different hypotheses about the identity of the bony structures of Agustinia (e.g., osteoderms, cervical or dorsal ribs, hypertrophied elements), a comparative histological analysis has been carried out. Histological evidence is presented herein and reveals that none of the morphotypes of Agustinia shows a primary bone tissue formed by structural fiber bundles as in other sauropod dinosaur osteoderms. Furthermore, on the basis of their gross morphology and microstructure, the bony structures originally classified as types 1 + 4 and 3 are more comparable respectively with dorsal and cervical ribs than any other kind of dermal or bony element. Due to poor preservation, the nature of the type 2 cannot be assessed but is here tentatively assigned to a pelvic girdle element. Although a phylogenetic reassessment of Agustinia is not the purpose of this paper, our paleohistological analyses have broader implications: by not supporting the dermal armor hypothesis for Agustinia, its inclusion in Lithostrotia is not justified in the absence of other diagnostic features.

  20. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  1. Appendix C: safety design rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief discussion of the rationale for safety design of fusion plants is presented in the main text. Further detail safety considerations are presented in this appendix in the form of charts and tables. The author present some of the major safety criteria and other criteria used in blanket selection here

  2. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  3. Physiological, Biomechanical, and Maximal Performance Comparisons of Female Soldiers Carrying Loads Using Prototype U.S. Marine Corps Modular Lightweight Load-Carrying Equipment (MOLLE) with Interceptor Body Armor and U.S. Army All-Purpose Lightweight Individual Carrying Equipment (ALICE) with PASGT Body Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harman, Everett

    1999-01-01

    The experiment evaluated the physiological, biomechanical, and maximal performance responses of 12 female soldiers carrying loads with prototype Modular Lightweight Load-Carrying Equipment with Interceptor body armor (MOLLE...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 541 - Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the Requirements of This Standard B Appendix B to Part 541... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt. 541, App. B...

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  6. The design of the poloidal divertor experiment tokamak wall armor and inner limiter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Ulrickson, M.

    1982-01-01

    The inner wall protective plates for the Poloidal Divertor Experiment Tokamak are designed to absorb 8 MW of neutral deuterium beam power at maximum power densities of 3 kW/cm 2 for pulse lengths of 0.5 s. Preliminary studies indicate that the design could survive several pulses of l-s duration. The design consists of a tile and mounting plate structure. The mounting plates are water cooled to allow short duty cycles and beam calorimetry. The temperature and flow of the coolant are measured to obtain the injected power. A thermocouple array on the tiles provides beam position and power density profiles. Several material combinations for the tiles were subjected to thermal tests using both electron and neutral beams, and titanium-carbidecoated graphite was selected as the tile material. The heat transfer coefficient of the tile backing plate structure was measured to determine the maximum pulse rate allowable. The design of the armor system allows the structure to be used as a neutral beam power diagnostic and as an inner plasma limiter. The electrical and cooling systems external to the vacuum vessel are discussed

  7. Dissolution of methane bubbles with hydrate armoring in deep ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Margarita; Socolofsky, Scott

    2017-11-01

    The deep ocean is a storehouse of natural gas. Methane bubble moving upwards from marine sediments may become trapped in gas hydrates. It is uncertain precisely how hydrate armoring affects dissolution, or mass transfer from the bubble to the surrounding water column. The Texas A&M Oilspill Calculator was used to simulate a series of gas bubble dissolution experiments conducted in the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory High Pressure Water Tunnel. Several variations of the mass transfer coefficient were calculated based on gas or hydrate phase solubility and clean or dirty bubble correlations. Results suggest the mass transfer coefficient may be most closely modeled with gas phase solubility and dirty bubble correlation equations. Further investigation of hydrate bubble dissolution behavior will refine current numeric models which aid in understanding gas flux to the atmosphere and plumes such as oil spills. Research funded in part by the Texas A&M University 2017 Undergraduate Summer Research Grant and a Grant from the Methane Gas Hydrates Program of the US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  8. An armored-cable-based fiber Bragg grating sensor array for perimeter fence intrusion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Varghese, Paulose; Phua, Jiliang; Foo, Siang Fook

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an armored-cable-based optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array, for perimeter fence intrusion detection, is demonstrated and some of the field trial results are reported. The field trial was conducted at a critical local installation in Singapore in December 2010. The sensor array was put through a series of both simulated and live intrusion scenarios to test the stability and suitability of operation in the local environmental conditions and to determine its capabilities in detecting and reporting these intrusions accurately to the control station. Such a sensor array can provide perimeter intrusion detection with fine granularity and preset pin-pointing accuracy. The various types of intrusions included aided or unaided climbs, tampering and cutting of the fence, etc. The unique sensor packaging structure provides high sensitivity, crush resistance and protection against rodents. It is also capable of resolving nuisance events such as rain, birds sitting on the fence or seismic vibrations. These sensors are extremely sensitive with a response time of a few seconds. They can be customized for a desired spatial resolution and pre-determined sensitivity. Furthermore, it is easy to cascade a series of such sensors to monitor and detect intrusion events over a long stretch of fence line. Such sensors can be applied to real-time intrusion detection for perimeter security, pipeline security and communications link security.

  9. The RAppArmor Package: Enforcing Security Policies in R Using Dynamic Sandboxing on Linux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Ooms

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of cloud computing and scientific super computers brings great potential for making R accessible through public or shared resources. This allows us to efficiently run code requiring lots of cycles and memory, or embed R functionality into, e.g., systems and web services. However some important security concerns need to be addressed before this can be put in production. The prime use case in the design of R has always been a single statistician running R on the local machine through the interactive console. Therefore the execution environment of R is entirely unrestricted, which could result in malicious behavior or excessive use of hardware resources in a shared environment. Properly securing an R process turns out to be a complex problem. We describe various approaches and illustrate potential issues using some of our personal experiences in hosting public web services. Finally we introduce the RAppArmor package: a Linux based reference implementation for dynamic sandboxing in R on the level of the operating system.

  10. Recent High Heat Flux Tests on W-Rod-Armored Mockups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Richard E.; Youchison, Dennis L.; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Lutz, Thomas J.; Miszkiel, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    In the authors initial high heat flux tests on small mockups armored with W rods, done in the small electron beam facility (EBTS) at Sandia National Laboratories, the mockups exhibited excellent thermal performance. However, to reach high heat fluxes, they reduced the heated area to only a portion (approximately25%) of the sample. They have now begun tests in their larger electron beam facility, EB 1200, where the available power (1.2 MW) is more than enough to heat the entire surface area of the small mockups. The initial results indicate that, at a given power, the surface temperatures of rods in the EB 1200 tests is somewhat higher than was observed in the EBTS tests. Also, it appears that one mockup (PW-10) has higher surface temperatures than other mockups with similar height (10mm) W rods, and that the previously reported values of absorbed heat flux on this mockup were too high. In the tests in EB 1200 of a second mockup, PW-4, absorbed heat fluxes of approximately22MW/m 2 were reached but the corresponding surface temperatures were somewhat higher than in EBTS. A further conclusion is that the simple 1-D model initially used in evaluating some of the results from the EBTS testing was not adequate, and 3-D thermal modeling will be needed to interpret the results

  11. Characterization of dermal plates from armored catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis reveals sandwich-like nanocomposite structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Donna; Calderon, Carlos; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2015-05-01

    Dermal plates from armored catfish are bony structures that cover their body. In this paper we characterized structural, chemical, and nanomechanical properties of the dermal plates from the Amazonian fish Pterygoplichthys pardalis. Analysis of the morphology of the plates using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the dermal plates have a sandwich-like structure composed of an inner porous matrix surrounded by two external dense layers. This is different from the plywood-like laminated structure of elasmoid fish scales but similar to the structure of osteoderms found in the dermal armour of some reptiles and mammals. Chemical analysis performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed similarities between the composition of P. pardalis plates and the elasmoid fish scales of Arapaima gigas. Reduced moduli of P. pardalis plates measured using nanoindentation were also consistent with reported values for A. gigas scales, but further revealed that the dermal plate is an anisotropic and heterogeneous material, similar to many other fish scales and osteoderms. It is postulated that the sandwich-like structure of the dermal plates provides a lightweight and tough protective layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing the Effects of Different Body Armor Systems on the Occupational Performance of Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Hinton, Ben; Norris, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    Policing duties may inherently be dangerous due to stab, blunt trauma and ballistic threats. The addition of individual light armor vests (ILAVs) has been suggested as a means to protect officers. However, the addition of the extra load of the ILAV may affect officer ability to conduct occupational tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine if wearing any of three different ILAVs made by different companies with their preferred materials and designs (ILAV A, 4.68 percent body weight, ILAV B, 4.05 percent body weight, & ILAV C, 3.71 percent body weight) affected occupational task performance when compared to that in normal station wear. A prospective, within-subjects repeated measures design was employed, using a counterbalanced randomization in which each ILAV was worn for an entire day while officers completed a variety of occupationally relevant tasks. These tasks included a victim drag, car exit and 5-meter sprint, step down and marksmanship task. To compare the effects of the ILAVs on these tasks, a multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted, with post hoc pairwise comparisons using a Bonferroni adjustment. Results showed that performance in each task did not vary between any of the ILAV or normal station wear conditions. There was less variability in the marksmanship task with ILAV B, however. The results suggest that none of the ILAVs used in this study were heavy enough to significantly affect task performance in the assessed tasks when compared to wearing normal station wear. PMID:29723995

  13. Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor for Personal Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fábio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lima, Édio Pereira; da Luz, Fernanda Santos

    2017-10-01

    Lighter and less expensive polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers have been investigated as possible components of a multilayered armor system (MAS) for personal protection against high-velocity ammunition. Their ballistic performance was consistently found comparable with that of conventional Kevlar® synthetic aramid fiber. Among the numerous existing natural fibers with the potential for reinforcing polymer composites to replace Kevlar® in MAS, mallow fiber has not been fully investigated. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the ballistic performance of epoxy composites reinforced with 30 vol.% of aligned mallow fibers as a second MAS layer backing a front ceramic plate. The results using high-velocity 7.62 ammunition show a similar indentation to a Kevlar® layer with the same thickness. An impedance matching calculation supports the similar ballistic performance of mallow fiber composite and Kevlar®. Reduced MAS costs associated with the mallow fiber composite are practical advantages over Kevlar®.

  14. Evaluation of dose attenuation factor of armored car against radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Fujii, Katsutoshi; Murayama, Takashi

    2002-03-01

    The Tokyo Fire Department developed an armored car against radiation accidents. The car is covered by lead shields for attenuating dose from gamma rays. Dose from neutrons also can be attenuated by pouring water into tanks attached to the surface of the car. However, dose attenuation factors of the radiation shields had been determined by an estimation of single-layer shield, and more precise evaluation of multi-layer shield was required. By request from the Tokyo Fire Department, a precise evaluation of the dose attenuation in multi-layer shield was carried out. The evaluation was made by a Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation code MCNP4B for the shields used in the front, side and back of the car. Three types of the radiation sources ( 252 Cf as a neutron source, 60 Co as a gamma ray source, and radiation source corresponding to the JCO criticality accident) were considered in the calculation. Benchmark experiments using neutron and gamma ray sources were also performed for ensuring the evaluation method. As a result, it was found out that doses of neutron and gamma ray were attenuated to approximately 10% and 25% by the thickest shield, respectively. These values were close to the ones which had already obtained by the estimation of single-layer shield. (author)

  15. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    buoyant underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength...underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength; an...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating

  16. Mucinous adenocarcinona of the appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Roberto Furst Crenitte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of malignancy in the vermiform appendix is quite rare. The most common histological malignant neoplasia found in this tiny portion of the gastrointestinal tract is represented by the mucinous adenocarcinoma. This entity predominates in males around 50 years of age, and clinical presentation usually mimics or occurs along with an acute appendicitis. Early diagnosis is outside the rule since most cases at this stage are symptomless. The authors present the case of a 59-year-old female patient who looked for medical attention complaining of abdominal pain. Physical examination and laboratory workup were poor in diagnostic findings. The computed tomography images were compatible with the diagnosis of appendicitis and/or appendiceal neoplasia. The patient underwent a laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. The histological examination disclosed a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix stage T4a, N0, M0. The patient outcome was uneventful and was referred to an oncological center.

  17. Leiomyoma of the appendix: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Cho, Hyun Cheol; Son, Mi Young [Dae-Gu Veterans Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    Leiomyomas of the appendix are rare and most are encountered incidentally during exploration of the abdomen for some other disease, during postmortem examination, or in the course of routine pathologic examinations of surgical specimens. We report here the findings of ultrasonography, CT and surgery of a case of leiomyoma that arose from the appendix; this lesion was pathologically confirmed.

  18. Interval Appendicectomy and Management of Appendix Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wholly conservative management without interval appendicectomy was instituted for 13 patients diagnosed as having appendix mass between 1998 and 2002 in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Within three days of admission, one patient developed clinical features of ruptured appendix and ...

  19. SiC Armor Tiles via Magnetic Compaction and Pressureless Sintering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chelluri, Bhanu; Knoth, Ed A; Franks, L. P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the SBIR, entitled "Continuous Dynamic Processing of Ceramic Tiles for Ground Vehicle Protection", was to create a high rate, cost effective manufacturing method for producing silicon carbide (SiC...

  20. Modeling Space-Time Dependent Helium Bubble Evolution in Tungsten Armor under IFE Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiyang Hu; Shahram Sharafat; Nasr Ghoniem

    2006-01-01

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is a coordinated effort to develop Laser Inertial Fusion Energy. The implosion of the D-T target produces a spectrum of neutrons, X-rays, and charged particles, which arrive at the first wall (FW) at different times within about 2.5 μs at a frequency of 5 to 10 Hz. Helium is one of several high-energy charged particle constituents impinging on the candidate tungsten armored low activation ferritic steel First Wall. The spread of the implanted debris and burn helium energies results in a unique space-time dependent implantation profile that spans about 10 μm in tungsten. Co-implantation of X-rays and other ions results in spatially dependent damage profiles and rapid space-time dependent temperature spikes and gradients. The rate of helium transport and helium bubble formation will vary significantly throughout the implanted region. Furthermore, helium will also be transported via the migration of helium bubbles and non-equilibrium helium-vacancy clusters. The HEROS code was developed at UCLA to model the spatial and time-dependent helium bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence, and migration under transient damage rates and transient temperature gradients. The HEROS code is based on kinetic rate theory, which includes clustering of helium and vacancies, helium mobility, helium-vacancy cluster stability, cavity nucleation and growth and other microstructural features such as interstitial loop evolution, grain boundaries, and precipitates. The HEROS code is based on space-time discretization of reaction-diffusion type equations to account for migration of mobile species between neighboring bins as single atoms, clusters, or bubbles. HAPL chamber FW implantation conditions are used to model helium bubble evolution in the implanted tungsten. Helium recycling rate predictions are compared with experimental results of helium ion implantation experiments. (author)

  1. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    liter turbo diesel Bolt on armor required upgraded suspension, engine, and steering Mattracks or wheels Imbalance in cupola required motorized...liter turbo diesel engine, a new transmission, improved suspension and frame for an increased armor capability, 1,800- 4,400 lb payload and GVW 18,000...space (14 cubic feet), enhanced 6500 turbo diesel engine, higher capacity transmission, air induction system and exhaust systems. Lessons

  2. 75 FR 78268 - Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ...In an effort to obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice (NIJ) will make available to the general public the draft ``NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement, Corrections, and Public Safety.'' The opportunity to provide comments on this document is open to industry technical representatives, criminal justice agencies and organizations, research, development and scientific communities, and all other stakeholders and interested parties. Those individuals wishing to obtain and provide comments on the draft document under consideration are directed to the following Web site: http://www.justnet.org.

  3. Tactical Reconnaissance and Security for the Armor Battalion Commander: Is the Scout Platoon Combat Capable or Combat Ineffective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-27

    reconnaissance force back to a heavy ele ,._.it capable of security missions and limited 10 reconnaissance. Vletnam continued the platoon’s emphasis on...College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 30 November 1988 (CARL Ref. AOR215860). JouroaI ~ el Bacevich, LTC A. J. "Training Scouts." Armor, September 1987, pp. 37...Swanson, Major Steven G. " Bronco Nine Speaks His Mind." MIlitaryInteigence, April-June 1990, pp. 8- 10, 12. "The Bustle Rack." Armo,; March-April 1990

  4. The Natural Armor of Fish: An Exploration of a Biological Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Sandra C.

    In the search for advanced structural materials, scientists are finding inspiration from materials in nature and biological composites. The need for lighter protective materials has directed attention to armored skins, which possess a combination of flexibility, puncture resistance and capacity for energy dissipation. This rare combination of properties is found in the armored skin of modern fish, and achieved by overlapping scales with exceptional specific strength and toughness. The main objectives of this research were to develop new understanding on the constituent layers and lamination patterns of elasmoid scales from teleost fish, and understand their importance to the mechanical properties relevant to armor performance. The investigation consists of five aims that address properties of the scales as a structural material, the spatial variations over the body of fish, the microstructure and properties of the individual layers, and the design and performance of the interface between these layers. An exploration of scales from Cyprinus carpio showed that the fracture resistance of elasmoid fish scales is largely dependent on the anatomical position and the corresponding microstructure. Elasmoid scales were found to consist of three principle layers, including the external highly mineralized limiting layer (LL), as well as the external (EE) and internal (IE) elasmodine, which consist of a number of lamina (or plies) of unidirectional type I collagen fibrils. While the fracture resistance increased with scale thickness, it was highly correlated with the number of plies in the elasmodine and ratio of mineralized plies in the EE. Furthermore, the hierarchical structure of the scales and the molecular level bonds were found to be of importance. Removal of the intra molecular water enabled inter-peptide bonding of the collagen fibrils, which increased the strength and elastic modulus. Furthermore, mineral crystals at the intra-fibrilar spaces impeded the formation of

  5. Bridge vehicle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  6. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...

  7. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag

  8. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  9. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-10

    401) 832-1511. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited 20081027289 Attorney Docket No. 96674 SUPERCAVITATING ...methods and more specifically to systems and methods for controlling a trajectory of a supercavitating vehicle. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...1 [0005) Some investigations into reducing the drag of high-speed, underwater vehicles have focused attention on supercavitating underwater vehicles

  10. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  11. Graphene-Armored Aluminum Foil with Enhanced Anticorrosion Performance as Current Collectors for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingzhan; Tang, Miao; Chen, Shulin; Ci, Haina; Wang, Kexin; Shi, Liurong; Lin, Li; Ren, Huaying; Shan, Jingyuan; Gao, Peng; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin

    2017-12-01

    Aluminum (Al) foil, as the most accepted cathode current collector for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), is susceptible to local anodic corrosions during long-term operations. Such corrosions could lead to the deterioration or even premature failure of the batteries and are generally believed to be a bottleneck for next-generation 5 V LIBs. Here, it is demonstrated that Al foil armored by conformal graphene coating exhibits significantly reinforced anodic corrosion resistance in both LiPF 6 and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide (LiTFSI) based electrolytes. Moreover, LiMn 2 O 4 cells using graphene-armored Al foil as current collectors (LMO/GA) demonstrate enhanced electrochemical performance in comparison with those using pristine Al foil (LMO/PA). The long-term discharge capacity retention of LMO/GA cell after ≈950 h straight operations at low rate (0.5 C) reaches up to 91%, remarkably superior to LMO/PA cell (75%). The self-discharge propensity of LMO/GA is clearly relieved and the rate/power performance is also improved with graphene mediations. This work not only contributes to the long-term stable operations of LIBs but also might catalyze the deployment of 5 V LIBs in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Space vehicle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  13. Ariane transfer vehicle scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude

    1990-10-01

    ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

  14. Sediment mobility and bed armoring in the St Clair River: insights from hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Parker, Gary; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Oberg, Kevin; Mier, Jose M.; Best, James L.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Ashmore, Peter; Krishnappan, Bommanna G.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2012-01-01

    The lake levels in Lake Michigan-Huron have recently fallen to near historical lows, as has the elevation difference between Lake Michigan-Huron compared to Lake Erie. This decline in lake levels has the potential to cause detrimental impacts on the lake ecosystems, together with social and economic impacts on communities in the entire Great Lakes region. Results from past work suggest that morphological changes in the St Clair River, which is the only natural outlet for Lake Michigan-Huron, could be an appreciable factor in the recent trends of lake level decline. A key research question is whether bed erosion within the river has caused an increase in water conveyance, therefore, contributed to the falling lake level. In this paper, a numerical modeling approach with field data is used to investigate the possibility of sediment movement in the St Clair River and assess the likelihood of morphological change under the current flow regime. A two-dimensional numerical model was used to study flow structure, bed shear stress, and sediment mobility/armoring over a range of flow discharges. Boundary conditions for the numerical model were provided by detailed field measurements that included high-resolution bathymetry and three-dimensional flow velocities. The results indicate that, without considering other effects, under the current range of flow conditions, the shear stresses produced by the river flow are too low to transport most of the coarse bed sediment within the reach and are too low to cause substantial bed erosion or bed scour. However, the detailed maps of the bed show mobile bedforms in the upper St Clair River that are indicative of sediment transport. Relatively high shear stresses near a constriction at the upstream end of the river and at channel bends could cause local scour and deposition. Ship-induced propeller wake erosion also is a likely cause of sediment movement in the entire reach. Other factors that may promote sediment movement, such as ice

  15. Mobility Analyses of Standard- and High-Mobility Tactical Support Vehicles (HIMO Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    l, APPENDIX G: PARTICIPANTS IN SCENARIO EXERCISES ... ....... Gl I ?S LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Summary of Vehicle Caracteristics and Some...15 1 :1010 2 :1111 Organid silts and clays ( plastic ) >7-30 0 11212 1 1 1313Peat (nou plastic ) _._>_3_0 0 .1414 Li Groups with Different Materiai in 0...diameter LL = Liquid limit PI - Plasticity index Drainage potential classified by occurrence of water table as follows: Class 0 Water table occurs at

  16. Appendectomy: Surgical Removal of the Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blocked opening can be from an illness, thick mucus, hard stool, or a tumor. Appendix Large intestine ... any thing over 10 pounds. A gallon of milk weighs 9 pounds. 6 Your Recovery and Discharge ...

  17. Appendix E - Sample Production Facility Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This sample Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan in Appendix E is intended to provide examples and illustrations of how a production facility could address a variety of scenarios in its SPCC Plan.

  18. Flight-vehicle structures education in the US: Assessment and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1987-01-01

    An assessment is made of the technical contents of flight-vehicle structures curricula at 41 U.S. universities with accredited aerospace engineering programs. The assessment is based on the technical needs for new and projected aeronautical and space systems as well as on the likely characteristics of the aerospace engineering work environment. A number of deficiencies and areas of concern are identified and recommendations are presented for enhancing the effectiveness of flight-vehicle structures education. A number of government supported programs that can help aerospace engineering education are listed in the appendix.

  19. 18 CFR Appendix B to Subpart H of... - Appendix B to Subpart H of Part 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix B to Subpart H of Part 35 B Appendix B to Subpart H of Part 35 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based...

  20. 18 CFR Appendix A to Subpart H of... - Appendix A to Subpart H of Part 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix A to Subpart H of Part 35 A Appendix A to Subpart H of Part 35 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based...

  1. Activities of HIP joining of plasma-facing armors in the blanket first-wall in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang-Il, E-mail: yijung@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Yong; Choi, Byoung-Kwon; Lee, Jung-Suk; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Park, Dong-Jun; Park, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • HIP joints of Be/CuCrZr, Be/FMS, W/FMS were demonstrated. • The process conditions for HIP joining were developed. • For the joining of Be, coating interlayers as well as thick diffusion barrier was developed. • For the joining of W, double-staged HIP was applied for the joint integrity. • No significant defects nor a brittle failure were observed along the joint interface. - Abstract: Joining technology for dissimilar materials was developed for the fabrication of an ITER blanket first-wall, which consisted of Be, CuCrZr, and stainless steel (SS). The Be/CuCrZr/SS joint was fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method. Beryllium armor was joined to the CuCrZr/SS block at 580 °C under 100 MPa. The optimal interlayer coatings of Cr/Cu and Ti/Cr/Cu were developed using an ion-beam assisted physical vapor deposition. Beryllium is also a candidate armor material for the TBM first-wall. Successful joining of Be to ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) was accomplished using an HIP method by introducing the thick diffusion barrier. A thick diffusion barrier of a Cu foil(10 μm) limited the excessive diffusion and prevented the formation of brittle phases at the Be/FMS interface. Be and FMS were bonded at 650–850 °C; however, a temperature of lower than 750 °C was recommended to avoid material degradation of FMS. In addition, the joining of W to FMS has been developed. Tungsten is another armor material applicable to more severe plasma conditions. The large difference in the thermal expansion between W and FMS was resolved by introducing the Ti interlayer and Mo separator. Moreover, the double-staged HIP (the first stage at 900 °C and 100 MPa and the second stage at 750 °C and 70 MPa) was applied to suppress the edge delamination of W/FMS joints during thermal history.

  2. Vehicle underbody fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  3. 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference. Volume 1. Wednesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-22

    supporting arms under armor (FO/FAC) helpful • Mobile Data Automated Communications Terminal (MDACT) • Useful if connectivity can be maintained • Consider...other uses • Ability to coordinate supporting arms under armor (FO/FAC) helpful • Mobile Data Automated Communications Terminal (MDACT) • Useful if

  4. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  5. Trust in vehicle technology

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Guy, H.; Stanton, Neville, A.; Salmon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Driver trust has potentially important implications for how vehicle technology is used and interacted with. In this paper it will be seen how driver trust functions and how it can be understood and manipulated by insightful vehicle design. It will review the theoretical literature to define steps that can be taken establish trust in vehicle technology in the first place, maintain trust in the long term, and even re-establish trust that has been lost along the way. The implication throughout i...

  6. On Autonomous Articulated Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Nayl, Thaker

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to address the problems of modeling, path planning and path following for an articulated vehicle in a realistic environment and in the presence of multiple obstacles.In greater detail, the problem of the kinematic modeling of an articulated vehicle is revisited through the proposal of a proper model in which the dimensions and properties of the vehicle can be fully described, rather than considering it as a unit point. Based on this approach, nonlinear and line...

  7. Camouflage design and head measurement characteristic of Indonesian armoured vehicle helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sya'bana, Yukhi Mustaqim Kusuma; Sanjaya, K. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper discussed camouflage design helmet for armored vehicles with comparing head measurement of Indonesian anthropometric. Design process conduct with considering of design aspects involves function, materials, operational, technology, user, and appearance (camouflage). As an application of Indonesian National Army that qualifies factors needs: safety, comfort, practical and service. MIL-H-44099A Military Specification: Helmet, Ground Troops And Parachutists is minimum limitation standard of military helmet production. Head measurement for product design process guide is presented. Model simulation and helmet measurement using the design for ego and design for more types ergonomics concept. Appearance shape concept is engaging camouflage towards background and environment to deceive enemy viewpoint. Helmet prototype has tested ergonomically to an Indonesian National Army soldier and stated that the helmet size is a comfort and fitted on the head when in use.

  8. ONE OF THE LONGEST APPENDIX: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat Rao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The vermiform appendix is an organ that can have variable sizes. We are prompted to report here one of the longest appendix removed, measuring about 16cm in length. INTRODUCTION : The vermiform appendix is an organ that can vary in size, site, and presence, as well as in other clinical and functional aspects. We describe here one of the longest appendix removed, measuring about 16cm in length in a case of acute appendicitis

  9. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  10. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 275 - Obtaining Customer Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Customer Authorization B Appendix B to... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. B Appendix B to Part 275—Obtaining Customer Authorization A. A DoD law... feasible, obtain the customer's consent. B. Any authorization obtained under paragraph A. of this appendix...

  11. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 14. Appendix I: Communicating with Deaf and Hearing Impaired Patients. Appendix II: Medical Terminology. Appendix III: EMS Organizations. Appendix IV: Legislation (Ohio). Glossary of Terms. Index. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, contains appendixes, a glossary, and an index. The first appendix is an article on communicating with deaf and hearing-impaired patients. Appendix 2, the largest section in this manual, is an introduction to medical…

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph 2 of this appendix, the trefoil symbol required for RADIOACTIVE labels and placards and required to be...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 240 - Medical Standards Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical Standards Guidelines F Appendix F to Part 240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... F Appendix F to Part 240—Medical Standards Guidelines (1) The purpose of this appendix is to provide...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 420 - Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Downrange from 100 nm beyond the launch point, world population data are available from: Total landmass area... appendix B. This appendix also provides an applicant options to simplify the method where population at... and, for an appendix B flight corridor, trajectory information. (2) Population data. Total population...

  15. Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix: a case report | Alese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tumours of the appendix are emerging as diseases of increasing concern due to a rising incidence1. We present a case of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix in an elderly patient. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix from Nigeria. Key Words: Appendiceal tumour, ...

  16. Management of appendix mass in a Nigerian rural district | Umunna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The traditional management of an appendix mass is conservative, followed by interval appendicectomy. Interval appendicectomy is now controversial. Aim: To present an experience with the management of appendix mass among a rural people in Nigeria. Methods: Patients presenting with appendix masses ...

  17. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Y. Fujimoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias, Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish.

  18. Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, William F.; Reid, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys are now common throughout much of peninsular Florida. In this paper, we present preliminary observations on interactions between a Pterygoplichthys species, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), and endangered native Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan, 1824), in artesian spring systems in Florida's St. Johns River drainage. The introduced catfish have become abundant in spring habitats, sites used by manatees as winter thermal refuges. In the spring runs, Pterygoplichthys regularly attaches to manatees and grazes the epibiota on their skin. On occasion, dozens of Pterygoplichthys congregate on individual manatees. Manatee responses varied widely; some did not react visibly to attached catfish whereas others appeared agitated and attempted to dislodge the fish. The costs and/or benefits of this interaction to manatees remain unclear.

  19. High Thermal Dissipation of Al Heat Sink When Inserting Ceramic Powders by Ultrasonic Mechanical Coating and Armoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Yu; Huang, Guan-Rong; Wang, Kuang-Kuo; Chen, Chin-Fu; Huang, J C

    2017-04-26

    Aluminum alloys, which serve as heat sink in light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, are often inherent with a high thermal conductivity, but poor thermal total emissivity. Thus, high emissive coatings on the Al substrate can enhance the thermal dissipation efficiency of radiation. In this study, the ultrasonic mechanical coating and armoring (UMCA) technique was used to insert various ceramic combinations, such as Al₂O₃, SiO₂, or graphite, to enhance thermal dissipation. Analytic models have been established to couple the thermal radiation and convection on the sample surface through heat flow equations. A promising match has been reached between the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements. With the adequate insertion of ceramic powders, the temperature of the Al heat sinks can be lowered by 5-11 °C, which is highly favorable for applications requiring cooling components.

  20. Radioactive wastes. Management prospects. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2003-01-01

    These appendixes complete the article BN3661 entitled 'Radioactive wastes. Management prospects'. They develop the principles of the different separation processes under study and make a status of the conditioning matrices that are envisaged: 1 - principles of advanced separation (separation of U, Np, Pu, Tc and I; separation of Am and Cm in two extraction steps (Diamex and Sanex processes); separation of Am and Cm in a single extraction step (Paladin process); separation of Am and Cm (Sesame process); separation of Cs (Calixarene process); 2 - principles of separation in pyro-chemistry: separation under inert atmosphere (non-oxidizing); separation in oxidizing conditions; 3 - conditioning matrices under study for separate elements: objectives and methodology, matrices for iodine, for cesium and for actinides. (J.S.)

  1. External Quality Assessment for the Detection of Measles Virus by Reverse Transcription-PCR Using Armored RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available In recent years, nucleic acid tests for detection of measles virus RNA have been widely applied in laboratories belonging to the measles surveillance system of China. An external quality assessment program was established by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories to evaluate the performance of nucleic acid tests for measles virus. The external quality assessment panel, which consisted of 10 specimens, was prepared using armored RNAs, complex of noninfectious MS2 bacteriophage coat proteins encapsulated RNA of measles virus, as measles virus surrogate controls. Conserved sequences amplified from a circulating measles virus strain or from a vaccine strain were encapsulated into these armored RNAs. Forty-one participating laboratories from 15 provinces, municipalities, or autonomous regions that currently conduct molecular detection of measles virus enrolled in the external quality assessment program, including 40 measles surveillance system laboratories and one diagnostic reagent manufacturer. Forty laboratories used commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR kits, with only one laboratory applying a conventional PCR method developed in-house. The results indicated that most of the participants (38/41, 92.7% were able to accurately detect the panel with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Although a wide range of commercially available kits for nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used by the participants, only two false-negative results and one false-positive result were generated; these were generated by three separate laboratories. Both false-negative results were obtained with tests performed on specimens with the lowest concentration (1.2 × 104 genomic equivalents/mL. In addition, all 18 participants from Beijing achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Overall, we conclude that the majority of the laboratories evaluated have reliable diagnostic capacities for the detection

  2. Impact of the surface quality on the thermal shock performance of beryllium armor tiles for first wall applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, B., E-mail: b.spilker@fz-juelich.de; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Different surface qualities of S-65 beryllium are tested under high heat flux conditions. • After 1000 thermal shocks, the loaded area exhibits a crucial destruction. • Stress accelerated grain boundary oxidation/dynamic embrittlement effects are linked to the thermal shock performance of beryllium. • Thermally induced cracks form between 1 and 10 pulses and grow wider and deeper between 10 and 100 pulses. • Thermally induced cracks form and propagate independently from surface grooves and the surface quality. - Abstract: Beryllium will be applied as first wall armor material in ITER. The armor has to sustain high steady state and transient power fluxes. For transient events like edge localized modes, these transient power fluxes rise up to 1.0 GW m{sup −2} with a duration of 0.5–0.75 ms in the divertor region and a significant fraction of this power flux is deposited on the first wall as well. In the present work, the reference beryllium grade for the ITER first wall application S-65 was prepared with various surface conditions and subjected to transient power fluxes (thermal shocks) with ITER relevant loading parameters. After 1000 thermal shocks, a crucial destruction of the entire loaded area was observed and linked to the stress accelerated grain boundary oxidation (SAGBO)/dynamic embrittlement (DE) effect. Furthermore, the study revealed that the majority of the thermally induced cracks formed between 1 and 10 pulses and then grew wider and deeper with increasing pulse number. The surface quality did not influence the cracking behavior of beryllium in any detectable way. However, the polished surface demonstrated the highest resistance against the observed crucial destruction mechanism.

  3. Vehicle electrification. Quo vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, N. [GM Global Research and Development, Warren, MI (United States); Eberle, U.; Formanski, V.; Grebe, U.D.; Matthe, R. [General Motors Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    This publication describes the development of electrified propulsion systems from the invention of the automobile to the present and then provides an outlook on expected technology progress. Vehicle application areas for the various systems are identified based on a range of energy supply chains and the technological limits of electric powertrain components. GM anticipates that vehicle electrification will increase in the future. Battery-electric vehicles will become competitive for some applications, especially intra-urban, short-distance driving. Range-extended electric vehicles provide longer driving range and offer full capability; with this technology, electric vehicles can serve as the prime vehicle for many customers. Hydrogen-powered fuel cell-electric powertrains have potential for application across most of the vehicle segments. They produce zero emissions during all phases of operation, offer short refueling times, but have powertrain cooling and hydrogen storage packaging constraints. While the market share of electrified vehicles is expected to increase significantly, GM expects conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines to also have a long future - however, a lot of them will be supported by various levels of electrification. (orig.)

  4. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, W.G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can

  5. Vehicle barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper

  6. Optimal vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Safety Department of TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) investigates the application of modern control methods in the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) field, as a strategic research topic of the Beyond Safe framework. The aim of IVDC is to

  7. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  8. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  9. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahem, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  10. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  11. Ground Vehicle Convoying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  12. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  13. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  14. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  15. High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle Rollover Accidents and Injuries to U.S. Army Soldiers by Reported Occupant Restraint Use, 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Michael C; Giffin, Robert P; Pakulski, Kraig A; Davis, W Sumner; Bernstein, Stephen A; Wise, Daniel V

    2017-05-01

    The high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) is a light military tactical vehicle. During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, the U.S. Army modified the HMMWV into a combat vehicle by adding vehicle armor, which made the vehicle more difficult to control and more likely to roll over. Consequently, reports of fatal rollover accidents involving up-armored HMMWVs began to accumulate during the up-armoring period (August 2003 to April 2005). Furthermore, the lack of occupant restraint use prevalent in a predominantly young, male, and enlisted military population compounded the injuries resulting from these accidents. In this retrospective case series analysis, we describe the characteristics of U.S. Army HMMWV rollover accidents, occupants, and injuries reported worldwide from fiscal year 1992 to 2013 based on reported occupant restraint use. We conducted all analyses using Microsoft Excel 2010 and SAS version 9.1. Because this analysis does not constitute human subjects research, no institutional review board review was required. First, we obtained U.S. Army HMMWV accident records from the U.S. Army Combat Readiness Center, and selected those records indicating a HMMWV rollover had occurred. Next, we successively deduplicated the records at the accident, vehicle, occupant, and injury levels for descriptive analysis of characteristics at each level. For each occupant position, we calculated relative, attributable, and population attributable risks of nonfatal and fatal injury based on reported occupant restraint use. Finally, we analyzed body part injured and nature of injury to characterize the injury patterns that HMMWV occupants in each position sustained based on restraint use. We performed a χ 2 test of homogeneity to assess differences in injury patterns between restrained and unrestrained occupants. A total of 819 U.S. Army HMMWV rollover accidents worldwide were reported from October 1991 through May 2013 involving 821 HMMWVs and

  16. Appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Thulin, Mats

    2009-01-01

    A taxonomic and floristic account of all the additional or new species in Etyhiopia and/or Eritrea that have been discovered while Vols 2 - 7 of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea were being published.......A taxonomic and floristic account of all the additional or new species in Etyhiopia and/or Eritrea that have been discovered while Vols 2 - 7 of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea were being published....

  17. Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides a glossary and bibliography which includes a listing of the following: general reference books, field guides, children's books, films, filmstrips, slides, videos, coloring books, games, posters, software, activity sources, where to get more information, Ranger Rick Ocean Index, and a metric conversion chart. (RT)

  18. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  19. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  20. Crohn's disease limited to the vermiform appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Andersen, J C

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen cases of Crohn's disease confined to the vermiform appendix were seen during a 12-year period. They constituted 16.9% of patients with primary resection of the bowel for Crohn's disease in the same period, but only 0.4% of the cases of acute appendicitis. In 10 of the 13 cases there was ......Thirteen cases of Crohn's disease confined to the vermiform appendix were seen during a 12-year period. They constituted 16.9% of patients with primary resection of the bowel for Crohn's disease in the same period, but only 0.4% of the cases of acute appendicitis. In 10 of the 13 cases...... to approach that of recurrence after resection in other parts of the intestines. Collective review of this and three other relatively large case series gave an estimated recurrence rate of 3.5%. We conclude that in Crohn's disease initially confined to the appendix the course appears to be indolent....

  1. An Investigation of Three Extremity Armor Systems: Determination of Physiological, Biomechanical, and Physical Performance Effects and Quantification of Body Area Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    Fragmentation Protective Body Armor, had a filler made of ballistic nylon, which was sealed in a waterproof , vinyl envelope. As the name indicates...toe-off and peak braking and propulsive forces. GRF is a distributed force that acts over the entire surface of the foot or the shoe that is in...Catlin, M. J., & Dressendorfer, R. H. (1979). The effect of shoe weight on the energy cost of running [Abstract]. Medicine and Science in Sports

  2. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 25 - Appendix D to Part 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. D Appendix D to Part 25 Criteria for... any compartment. (7) The degree of automation provided in the aircraft systems to afford (after...

  3. 36 CFR Appendix A to Part 14 - Appendix A to Part 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtain the benefits of _____(Cite statute); and I further certify that the right-of-way herein described... RIGHTS-OF-WAY Pt. 14, App. A Appendix A to Part 14 Where necessary, these forms should be modified so as...

  4. Appendix to Power Dissipation in Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation of the archite......This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation...

  5. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr

  6. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  7. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  8. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  9. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  10. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  12. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) research program applications and road weather applic...

  13. Connected vehicle standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel by : allowing cars, buses, trucks, trains, traffic signals, smart phones, and other devices to : communicate through a safe, interoperable wireless network. A connected vehic...

  14. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  15. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  16. Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; hide

    1993-01-01

    Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

  17. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  18. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  19. Space Vehicle Valve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  20. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  1. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  2. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  3. Highly Skilled Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Acosta Reche; Stratis Kanarachos; Mike V Blundell

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that collision mitigation on low grip surfaces might require autonomous vehicles to execute maneuvers such as drift, trail braking or Scandinavian flick. In order to achieve this it is necessary to perceive the vehicle states and their interaction with the environment, and use this information to determine the chassis limits. A first look at the virtual automotive sensing problem is provided, followed by a description of Rally driving modeling approaches. Finally, a c...

  4. Space robot simulator vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  5. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  6. Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

  7. Preliminary design data package. Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-25

    The design requirements, design philosophy, method and assumptions, and preliminary computer-aided design of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle including its electric and heat power units, control equipment, transmission system, body, and overall vehicle characteristics are presented. (LCL)

  8. The environmental survey manual: Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy operating facilities. This appendix contains procedures for chemical analysis of organics, inorganics, and radioisotopes

  9. Primary lymphoma of appendix: Ultrasound finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotillos Parra, V.E.; Belda Serrano, J.; Mota Castilla, A.; Falomir Gil, G.; Abreu Maqueda, V.; Trigueris Sanchez, M.; Hernandez Barcelo, J.E.; Martinez Diaz, F.

    1994-01-01

    We present an uncommon case of primary lymphoma of the appendix in a patient who complained of discomfort in lower right quadrant. The findings revealed by ultrasound, barium enema and CT scan are reported and the diagnostic aspects of this appendiceal tumor and others are discussed. (Author) 6 refs

  10. Energy 21. Preconditions and results. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This appendix comprises the following 5 scenarios: Reference scenario for electricity and district heating supply; Action plan scenario for electricity and district heat supply; Energy balances for reference and action plan scenarios; Investments and operating costs for user installations; Projection of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector. (EG)

  11. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  12. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  13. Extensive jaw mobility in suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae): a morphological and kinematic analysis of substrate scraping mode of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Dominique; Geerinckx, Tom; Vlassenbroeck, Jelle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Loricariidae, or suckermouth armored catfishes, possess upper and lower jaws that are ventrally oriented and that bear teeth that touch the substrate from which algae and other food items are scraped. The ventral orientation and the highly specialized morphology of the jaws, characterized by protrusible upper jaws and left-right decoupled lower jaws, are observed in Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, the species investigated here. Kinematic data of the scraping feeding movements, obtained by external high-speed and x-ray recordings, are used to quantify jaw movement, especially to test for upper jaw mobility and versatility during substrate scraping. Our results show that the mobility of the jaws is indeed high compared with what is standard for catfishes. The upper jaw's ability to perform a substantial degree of rostrocaudal movement is quite unique for catfishes. The ventromedially oriented lower jaws, with the teeth and the coronoid process at opposite sides, display an extensive mobility: they rotate around the suspensorial articulation and around their longitudinal axis, resulting in an extended scraping movement and thereby covering a large surface area. The lower jaws also show a left-right asymmetry in their movements during scraping. Thus, our results suggest that the extreme morphological specializations of the jaws in loricariid catfishes are linked to an increased mobility and functional versatility, allowing these animals to efficiently scrape algae from substrates with irregular surfaces.

  14. The dynamic and quasi-static mechanical response of three aluminum armor alloys: 5059, 5083 and 7039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bergquist, Sara J., E-mail: sara.perezbergquist@gmail.com [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States); Gray, G.T.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Perez-Bergquist, Alex [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Aluminum alloys for use in armor applications. {yields} Mechanical response in dynamic and quasi-static regimes with temperature dependence. {yields} Shear localization with evidence of early stages of dynamic recrystallization. - Abstract: The mechanical response and microstructural evolution of aluminum alloys 5083, 5059 and 7039 was examined in compression and shear in both the quasi-static (0.001 s{sup -1}) and dynamic ({approx}2000 s{sup -1}) strain rate regimes. Electron Back Scattered Diffraction was utilized for detailed post-mortem analysis of the specimens following loading. The mechanical responses in shear were found to be strain-rate sensitive. At the slowest strain rates, all of the alloys had relatively large volumes of highly deformed material with 5083 and 5059 having the largest shear affected volumes. The dynamic strain rate test samples all formed highly compact shear localized volumes across the sheared zone with 7039 consistently displaying the narrowest shear regions. The morphology of these shear bands, along with the limited hardening during deformation, indicate a mechanism change at the higher strain rates. Higher resolution orientation image mapping has shown that between the three alloys there are varying degrees of crystallographic order within the shear bands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed various stages of dynamic recrystallization were present suggesting that while low strain rate deformation is controlled by dislocation multiplication and glide, high strain and strain-rate deformation is influenced in part due to mechanical recrystallization.

  15. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  16. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  17. The electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez duran, R.

    2010-01-01

    The decarbonization of transport is a key element in both energy and environmental European policies as well as one of the levers that will help us achieve the goals of improving energy efficiency, reducing CO 2 emissions and energy dependence. The use of electricity compared to other low-carbon fuels such as bio fuels and hydrogen has the advantage of its existing infrastructure (power generation plants, transmission and distribution networks), being only necessary to developed recharging infrastructures. We emphasize the role of electricity networks and their evolution, which will enable to manage demand and maximise the potential of renewable energies. The idea of an electric vehicle is not a recent one but dates back to the beginning of the last century, when first units appeared. Unfortunately, technological barriers were too high at the time to let them succeed. Namely those barriers limited the range of the electric vehicle due to problems with battery recharges. Nowadays, those difficulties have almost been solved and we can state that institutional support and coordination among all actors involved have made the electric vehicle a plausible reality. While the technological improvements needed for the electric vehicle to become cost competitive are carried out, the plug-in hybrid vehicle represents the intermediate step to reach a total decarbonization of transport. Endesa is committed to this revolution in transport mobility and believes that now is the right time to focus our efforts on it. Our goal is to contribute to a more balanced and sustainable world in the near future. (Author)

  18. Proceedings: The Appendix 'K' relief workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The licensing and operation of commercial LWRs were impacted significantly when Appendix 'K' requirements for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) analyses were implemented in 1974. The Appendix K requirements included both criteria and mandatory assumptions for LOCA analysis. Plants must meet these criteria, using analysis methods that have included very conservative assumptions, such as estimating decay heat energy as 20% greater than the 1971 American Nuclear Society standard. Additional constraints were placed on the application of specific models and correlations. The Appendix K requirements had a significant impact on licensing, analysis, fuel design, reload management, plant operation, and some supporting equipment. The overall impact of Appendix K could be translated into increased costs of millions of dollars per year to utilities. The Appendix 'K' Relief Workshop provided an improved understanding of the trade-offs -- both benefits and efforts required -- inherent in continuing to use existing analysis methods or adopting BE analysis under revised NRC rule. A range of options is available to each utility. The workshop explored options and benefits to the utility industry from LOCA/ECCS rule change. A forum for complete and open discussion of the issues germaine to the question of BE methodology versus existing methodology in view of LOCA/ECCS rule changes was incorporated. Both regulatory and utility perspectives on the implementation of proposed changes were discussed. Existing and planned efforts in developing and implementing BE uncertainty methodologies for plant-licensing application have been included. The individual papers have been cataloged separately

  19. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  20. TORSION OF THE VERMIFORM APPENDIX: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Imtiaz Wani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rare condition with few cases reported in the literature. Various factors predispose to torsion. Various factors predispose to torsion. We report a case of primary torsion of the vermiform appendix. The clinical presentation was indistinguishable from acute appendicitis and the diagnosis was made at operation. Appendix was preileal in position and the direction of torsion was anticlockwise. There was intrinsic torsion with no obvious factor for torsion identified. Appendectomy was performed.

  1. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  2. Remote vehicle survey tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Wagner, D.G.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs

  3. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  4. CT appearance of the normal appendix in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburrini, Stefania; Brunetti, Arturo; Brown, Michele; Sirlin, Claude B.; Casola, Giovanna

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (1) the normal range of the appendix on computed tomography (CT), (2) the correlation of patient age and sex with the visibility and appearance of the appendix on CT, and (3) the normal variations in wall thickness, intraluminal content, and location of the appendix. Three hundred seventy-two outpatients underwent abdominopelvic CT. The scans were reviewed on the picture archiving and communication system and appendiceal outer-to-outer wall diameter, wall thickness, location, content and its correlation with appendix diameter were analyzed. The appendix was visualized in 305/372 patients. Its location relative to the cecum was highly variable. The diameter range was 3-10 mm; in 42% of cases the diameter was greater than 6 mm. When the intraluminal content (185/305) was visualized, the diameter was slightly superior to the mean (p=0.0156). In 329 CT scans in which oral contrast material was given, the appendix was filled by contrast material in 74/329 patients. The appendix wall thickness was measurable in 22/305 patients (average 0.15 cm). There is significant overlap between the normal and abnormal CT appearance of the appendix. Consequently the diagnosis of acute appendicitis should be based not only on the appearance of the appendix but also on the presence of secondary signs. (orig.)

  5. Power Supply and Integration in Future Combat Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khalil, Gus; Barshaw, Edward; Danielson, Eugene; Chait, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ...). To meet these requirements, hybrid electric power system has been identified as the best alternative to support the demand for propulsion, continuous axillary power demand and pulsed power demand for weapons and armor...

  6. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  7. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  8. Vehicle brake testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  9. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M.

    2009-09-01

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  10. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiho Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models available in markets are correlated to the market share of electric vehicles. On the other hand, relationship between recharging infrastructure—an important factor for electric vehicle adoption in many studies—and market share of electric vehicles turned out to be insignificant in this study. From a political point of view, we argue that policy makers need to allocate more resources to research and development in order to extend driving range at the early stage of electric vehicle deployment in the markets.

  11. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  12. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  13. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  14. 2006 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-25

    stressed or worn out beyond economic repair due to combat operations by repairing, rebuilding, or procuring replacement equipment. These...lives Vehicle Hardening Logistics Solutions for the Warfighter • Unique and economical surge capability • Support in coordination with op tempo...Speed, • Diagnostics Indicators – DECU Health Check Indicator, Utility Bus Comm Failure, 1553 Bus Comm Failure; MPU Critical Failure, Cautions and

  15. Automated Vehicle Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Agustinus Deddy Arief; Heriansyah, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    An automated vehicle monitoring system is proposed in this paper. The surveillance system is based on image processing techniques such as background subtraction, colour balancing, chain code based shape detection, and blob. The proposed system will detect any human's head as appeared at the side mirrors. The detected head will be tracked and recorded for further action.

  16. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  17. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  18. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  19. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than those...

  20. Green vehicle : slippery turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, C.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the many challenges facing the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly vehicles in Canada from scooters, to bicycles to motorcycles, as experienced by Zapworld, a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of electric bicycles and power-assist kits. There are many environmental advantages to small electric vehicles, however, the distribution network for this new product is virtually non-existent. Zap-Quebec, a subsidiary of Zapworld, has made efforts to bring notoriety to the product by targeting aging cycle enthusiasts and promoting the electric bicycle as viable transportation means for short commutes, for camping, to get around factories, and for security guards. Since September 2000 independent dealers in Montreal have participated in a pilot project in which more than 15,000 electric bikes have been made available for rent as a pleasure vehicle for tourists. No accidents have ever been reported and the feedback has been positive. It was emphasized that legislators must understand the value behind small electric vehicles and draft legislation accordingly. tabs., figs

  1. Towards autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We are moving towards an age of autonomous vehicles. Cycles of innovation initiated in the public and private sectors : have led one into another since the 1990s; and out of these efforts have sprung a variety of Advanced Driver Assistance : Systems ...

  2. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...

  3. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions....... The contributions are organized in topical sections named: road; rail; and air....

  4. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuklinski, Robert

    2008-01-01

    .... The segmented ring wing is controlled by a ring actuator. The ring actuator may be used to control the angle of attack of the ring wing. Alternately, or in combination the flow over the ring wing may be neutralized by using the cavitator of the vehicle to globally enlarge the cavity and thus limit the flow.

  5. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  6. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  7. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  8. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  9. Bridge-Vehicle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  10. Vehicle track interaction safety standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Vehicle/Track Interaction (VTI) Safety Standards aim to : reduce the risk of derailments and other accidents attributable : to the dynamic interaction between moving vehicles and the : track over which they operate. On March 13, 2013, the Federal : R...

  11. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOTs) connected vehicle research : program is a multimodal initiative to enable safe, interoperable, networked wireless : communications among vehicles, infrastructure, and personal communications : dev...

  12. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  13. Vehicle classification using mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In this research, the feasibility of using mobile traffic sensors for binary vehicle classification on arterial roads is investigated. Features (e.g. : speed related, acceleration/deceleration related, etc.) are extracted from vehicle traces (passeng...

  14. VIII international electric vehicle symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings from the symposium are presented. Major topics discussed include: battery technology, powertrains; hybrid vehicles, marketing and economics, propulsion, and electric vehicle design and performance. Each paper has been separately indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank

    2003-01-01

    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  16. Tracked vehicles in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.; Walton, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    A programme of remote inspections has been conducted on the Magnox steel reactor pressure vessel at Trawsfynydd Power Station using climbing vehicles. Tracked remotely operated vehicles supported the inspection programme by assisting with the delivery and recovery of the climbing vehicles and facilitating the use of various accessory packages. This paper presents details of the support project, the tracked vehicles and of the uses made of them during the inspection programme. (author)

  17. Advanced Vehicle and Power Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    optimize vehicle operation, and capture vehicle kinetic energy during braking ( regenerative energy). As much as two-thirds of this imported oil comes... categories . Figure 4 provides a visual representation of many of the HEV and BEV options available on the 2010 GSA Schedule. Figure 4 - GSA...gallon • Renewable energy generated 24 • Vehicle miles driven by vehicle category • Implementation costs – Infrastructure modifications required

  18. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchheim, R.

    1993-01-01

    Electric cars must have the same safety standards as those which are now state of the art for the compact class of car. Electric vehicles should substitute for conventional vehicles and should not lead to an increase in the stock of vehicles. The current subject of 'side impact protection' shows that design measures are necessary for this, which cannot be achieved in the smallest vehicles. (orig.) [de

  19. Suckermouth armored catfish resolve the paradox of simultaneous respiration and suction attachment: a kinematic study of Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerinckx, Tom; Herrel, Anthony; Adriaens, Dominique

    2011-03-01

    Suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) use their suckermouth for inspiration, feeding, and attachment to substrates. The sucker consists of a pre-valvular cavity, formed by a modified lip disc, and is separated from the larger post-valvular buccal cavity by a muscular oral valve. The combination of respiration and suction attachment seems paradoxal, as a properly functioning suction device would need a sucker without leakage (yet inspiration must occur via the sucker), and continuous subambient pressure in the sucker cavity (even during expiratory mouth floor elevation). In the loricariid Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, the anatomy of the suckermouth structures was examined, and a kinematic analysis was performed to acquire insights into how respiration and attachment are combined. High-speed external and X-ray recordings show that suckermouth attachment influences respiratory parameters such as decreasing excursion amplitudes of mouth floor elements, and the way water enters the mouth via furrows in the lip disc. Respiration, however, continues during attachment and is not blocked. Our data show that the muscular oral valve actively separates the post-valvular buccal cavity from the pre-valvular sucker cavity. Volume changes of this pre-valvular cavity are opposite to those of the post-valvular cavity and assure sucker function even during expiration. These volume changes are caused by movements of the lower lip, the lower jaws, and the oral valve. The lateral inflow furrow openings, controlled by the maxillary barbels, can occur unilaterally. Morphological and kinematic data also show that the opercle is anatomically and functionally decoupled from the gill opening. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  20. Carcinoid tumor of the cecal appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo Mauri, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    The carcinoid tumors of the cecal appendix are the most frequent of all appendicular tumors, with no clinical manifestations in general. The general objective of this paper was to present an interesting case of carcinoid tumor found in a 26 years-old woman, whose clinical picture was diagnosed as subacute appendicitis. She was hospitalized and treated with antibiotics with good recovery and discharged 10 days later. She had no abdominal tumors confirmed clinically and echographically at that time. Three months later, the patient was operated on and underwent cecal appendicectomy. The pathological anatomy analysis yielded argentaffinoma in the distal third of the cecal appendix with mucosal infiltration. She was referred to the oncology service to be followed up. She has been free from any complication with good recovery for 10 years. The annual ultrasound and the CT scan show that there is neither regional adenopathy nor hepatic metastasis

  1. Responses to Three USARIEM Job Analysis Questionnaires (JAQs) Conducted with Cavalry Scouts and Armor Crewmen (MOSs 19D and 19K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-18

    gun for one fire command 56 24 Boxes of rounds loaded for the .50 Cal Machine Gun on an Abrams Tank 56 25 Mean estimates of time spent by 19Ds...Number of rounds loaded for one fire command 55 22 Total boxes of rounds loaded for .50 cal machine gun on an Abrams tank 56 23 Number of Soldiers...and 19K MOSs, respectively). A total o f 8,580 Army calvary scouts and 6,613 armor crewmen in the USA Army as of May or June of 2014 were invited

  2. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....43 ((Yct + Ys) / (Dct + Ds)) + 0.57 ((Yht + Ys) / (Dht + Ds)). (iv) For purposes of adjusting emissions for regeneration: Re = ((Yr1 − Yct) + (Yr2 − Ys) + (Yr3 − Yht)) / (Dct + Ds + Dht). Yr = Ywm + Re... cold start test, in miles. Dht = The measured distance from the “transient” phase of the hot start test...

  3. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Researchers are developing fuel cells that can be silver four-door sedan being driven on a roadway and containing the words "hydrogen fuel cell electric" across the front and rear doors. This prototype hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle was

  4. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  5. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  6. Methanol plant ship: Appendix. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The document is an appendix to the final report on a proposed methanol plant ship off of the coast of Trinidad. The document incorporates the results of the redetermination of capital required to implement the project. It also presents a revised cost analysis, with better accuracy, for the project. The projected operating revenues and revised expenses are also given. As a continuation of the information presented in the final report, the methanol market and proposed products are discussed in the report

  7. Appendix B - GPRA06 biomass program documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    This appendix discusses the assumptions and methods employed in the biomass benefits analysis that is part of the fiscal year 2006 GPRA benefits analysis for all of the Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) research and deployment programs. The biomass benefits analysis focuses on the benefits of future achievements by the program and excludes retrospective benefits and benefits resulting from industry’s own initiative and funding.

  8. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... 1300 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0054] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix to Part 395 - Delegations of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegations of Authority Appendix to Part 395...) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE LEGAL SERVICES AGENCY Pt. 395, App. Appendix to Part 395—Delegations of Authority... terminate the service, of an employee in the interest of national security. 2. Authorize and approve...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 360 - Customer File Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customer File Structure F Appendix F to Part... POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. F Appendix F to Part 360—Customer File Structure This is the structure of the data file to provide to the FDIC information related to each customer who...

  11. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 311 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 311 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 311, App. A Appendix A to Part...,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The undersigned shall require that the language of this...

  12. 36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1191 - Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical D Appendix D to Part 1191 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE...; ARCHITECTURAL BARRIERS ACT (ABA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Pt. 1191, App. D Appendix D to Part 1191—Technical...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 563e - Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ratings A Appendix A to Part 563e Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Pt. 563e, App. A Appendix A to Part 563e—Ratings (a) Ratings in general. (1) In assigning a rating, the OTS evaluates a...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 716 - SAMPLE CLAUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-dealers, and insurance agents”]; • Non-financial companies, such as [provide illustrative examples, such... CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 716, App. B Appendix B to Part 716—SAMPLE CLAUSES This appendix only... disclose nonpublic personal information about you to the following types of third parties: • Financial...

  15. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 160 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as [provide illustrative examples, such as “mortgage bankers”]; • Non-financial companies, such as... FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 160, App. B Appendix B to Part 160—Sample Clauses This appendix only applies to privacy notices provided before January 1, 2011. Financial institutions, including a group of financial...

  16. Exposition concerning small windmills. Appendix to main report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This appendix to the main report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'' includes background information on the report, profiles of the participating companies and of those visited in Denmark and abroad, questionnaires and interview schemes sent to the participating companies, surveys of producers of Danish and foreign producers of small windmills and an appendix to the economical calculations found within the report. (AB)

  17. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 341 - Tables of Redemption Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables of Redemption Values Appendix... RETIREMENT PLAN BONDS Pt. 341, App. Appendix to Part 341—Tables of Redemption Values Table of Redemption Values Providing an Investment Yield of 33/4 Percent per Annum for Bonds Bearing Issue Dates Beginning...

  18. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in Btu...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 41 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] D Appendix D to Part 41 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendix D to Part 41[Reserved] ...

  20. 12 CFR Appendixes A-B to Part 41 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] A Appendixes A-B to Part 41 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendixes A-B to Part 41 [Reserved] ...

  1. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 210 - Adjudication and Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjudication and Enforcement A Appendix A to Part 210 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Pt. 210, App. A Appendix A to Part 210—Adjudication and...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Alternative Safety Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222—Alternative Safety Measures Introduction A public authority seeking... requirements associated with an SSM as listed in appendix A is revised or deleted, data or analysis supporting...); d. Photographic or video equipment deployed to capture images sufficient to document the violation...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 360 - Deposit File Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... • STATE = State government. • COMM = Commercial. • CORP = Corporate. • BANK = Bank Owned. • DUE TO = Other... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deposit File Structure C Appendix C to Part 360... RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. C Appendix C to Part 360—Deposit File Structure This is the...

  4. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 45 - DD Form 215

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 215 C Appendix C to Part 45 National... CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. C Appendix C to Part 45—DD Form 215 EC21OC91.050 ...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 536 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 536 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 536, App. A Appendix A to Part 536—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 343 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 343, App. A Appendix A to Part 343—Consumer... Consumer Protection (DSC), Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, at the following address: 550 17th Street... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 14 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 14 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 14, App. A Appendix A to Part 14—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 345 - CRA Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CRA Notice B Appendix B to Part 345 Banks and... REINVESTMENT Pt. 345, App. B Appendix B to Part 345—CRA Notice (a) Notice for main offices and, if an... Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) evaluates our record of...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 228 - CRA Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CRA Notice B Appendix B to Part 228 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Pt. 228, App. B Appendix B to Part 228—CRA Notice (a) Notice for main offices and... Federal Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), the Federal Reserve Board (Board) evaluates our record of...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 25 - CRA Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CRA Notice B Appendix B to Part 25 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Pt. 25, App. B Appendix B to Part 25—CRA Notice (a) Notice for main offices... the Federal Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), the Comptroller of the Currency evaluates our record of...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 411 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 411 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 411, App. A Appendix A to Part 411—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...

  13. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 132 - Model Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Notice A Appendix A to Part 132 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance PROHIBITION ON FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING Pt. 132, App. A Appendix A to Part 132—Model Notice [Date] [Name of foreign sender or...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 233 - Model Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING (REGULATION GG) Part 233, App. A Appendix A to Part 233—Model Notice... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Notice A Appendix A to Part 233 Banks and... that your institution processed payments through our facilities for Internet gambling transactions...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 37 - FTA Regional Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FTA Regional Offices B Appendix B to Part 37 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Pt. 37, App. B Appendix B to Part 37—FTA Regional Offices Region I, Federal Transit...

  16. 31 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples A Appendix A to Subpart C of... A to Subpart C of Part 29—Examples This appendix contains sample calculations of Federal Benefit Payments in a variety of situations. Optional Retirement Examples Example 1: No Unused Sick Leave A. In...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 825-Index - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] A Appendix A to Part 825-Index Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Appendix A to Part 825—Index [Reserved] ...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix F to Part 825 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] F Appendix F to Part 825 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Appendix F to Part 825 [Reserved] ...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008 ...

  20. Pathways for School Finance in California. Technical Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in California" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in California" simulates alternatives to California's current school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes…

  1. Torsion of the vermiform appendix: A case report | Wani | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rare condition with few cases reported in the literature. Various factors predispose to torsion. Various factors predispose to torsion. We report a case of primary torsion of the vermiform appendix. The clinical presentation was indistinguishable from acute appendicitis and the diagnosis ...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 600 - Audit Report Distributees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit Report Distributees B Appendix B to Part 600 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Pt. 600, App. B Appendix B to Part 600—Audit Report Distributees Distributee: Manager, Eastern Region, Office of Inspector...

  3. Significance of acquired diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Hjorth, Sofie Vetli; Engel, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms.......To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms....

  4. 25 CFR Appendix B to Part 276 - Financial Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial Reporting Requirements B Appendix B to Part 276...—Financial Reporting Requirements A. Purpose and scope. This appendix prescribes requirements for grantee to report financial information to the Bureau and to request advances and reimbursement when a letter-of...

  5. 43 CFR Appendix A to Part 10 - Sample Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sample Summary A Appendix A to Part 10... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Pt. 10, App. A Appendix A to Part 10—Sample Summary The following is a generic sample and should be used as a guideline for preparation of summaries tailoring the information to the...

  6. Second report of the national platform electromobility. Appendix; Zweiter Bericht der Nationalen Plattform Elektromobilitaet. Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    In the National Platform Electromobility, representatives from industry, science, politics, unions and societies in Germany agreed on a systematic, market-oriented and technology-open approach to become the main supplier and main market for electromobility up to the year 2020. Within the appendix of the second report to the National Platform Electromobility the following aspects are considered: (1) Content and criteria for the identification and evaluation of the emphases of flagship projects; (2) Flagship projects of the national conference on education; (3) Review on standardization activities; (4) A consistent design of public charging infrastructure; (5) Saving the distribution and financing of the public charging infrastructure; (6) Costs and payment reserves vehicle; (7) Criteria of tenders and awarding showcase projects; (8) Innovation promotion in Germany for renewable electromobility (I.D.E.E.) - standpoint of the WWF, climate alliance of the local authorities and the federal association renewable energies.

  7. Electric vehicle equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2013-08-13

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for interfacing an electric vehicle with an electric power grid are disclosed. An exemplary apparatus may include a station communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE), a vehicle communication port for interfacing with a vehicle management system (VMS), and a processor coupled to the station communication port and the vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVSE via the station communication port, receive EVSE attributes from the EVSE, and issue commands to the VMS to manage power flow between the electric vehicle and the EVSE based on the EVSE attributes. An electric vehicle may interface with the grid by establishing communication with the EVSE, receiving the EVSE attributes, and managing power flow between the EVE and the grid based on the EVSE attributes.

  8. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  9. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  10. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  11. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  12. Vehicle State Estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; van Boekel, J.J.P.; Iersel, van S.S.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the electric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  13. Vehicle state estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Boekel, J.J.P. van; Iersel, S.S. van; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the elctric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  14. Vehicle Tracking System, Vehicle Infrastructure Provided with Vehicle Tracking System and Method for Tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A vehicle tracking system is described comprising - a plurality of sensor nodes (10) that each provide a message (D) indicative for an occupancy status of a detection area of an vehicle infrastructure monitored by said sensor node, said sensor nodes (10) being arranged in the vehicle infrastructure

  15. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  16. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to internet.

  17. Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Systems ( JAUGS ). JAUGS is a JRP technology initiative under the cognizance of the Aviation and Missile Command Research, Development and Engineering Center...AMRDEC). The JAUGS focus is on developing a high-level command and control architecture for UGVs. As defined in the JRP Glossary, “ JAUGS is an upper...vehicle platforms and missions. JAUGS uses the Society of Automotive Engineers Generic Open Architecture framework to classify UGV interfaces and

  18. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    III Composite 4.3% Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV...eliminating the inefficiencies associated with idling, vehicle braking and low engine speed part load efficiency, many improvements can be realized...literature. They can be divided into the following two categories : (1) Time dependent speed profiles, shown in Figure 4, usually defined by the federal

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  20. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  1. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  2. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  3. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2017-01-01

    This intermediate textbook is appropriate for students in vehicle dynamics courses, in their last year of undergraduate study or their first year of graduate study. It is also appropriate for mechanical engineers, automotive engineers, and researchers in the area of vehicle dynamics for continuing education or as a reference. It addresses fundamental and advanced topics, and a basic knowledge of kinematics and dynamics, as well as numerical methods, is expected. The contents are kept at a theoretical-practical level, with a strong emphasis on application. This third edition has been reduced by 25%, to allow for coverage over one semester, as opposed to the previous edition that needed two semesters for coverage. The textbook is composed of four parts: Vehicle Motion: covers tire dynamics, forward vehicle dynamics, and driveline dynamics Vehicle Kinematics: covers applied kinematics, applied mechanisms, steering dynamics, and suspension mechanisms Vehicle Dynamics: covers applied dynamics, vehicle planar dynam...

  4. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  5. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  6. Effects of vehicle power on passenger vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hu, Wen

    2017-07-04

    During the past 2 decades, there have been large increases in mean horsepower and the mean horsepower-to-vehicle weight ratio for all types of new passenger vehicles in the United States. This study examined the relationship between travel speeds and vehicle power, defined as horsepower per 100 pounds of vehicle weight. Speed cameras measured travel speeds and photographed license plates and drivers of passenger vehicles traveling on roadways in Northern Virginia during daytime off-peak hours in spring 2013. The driver licensing agencies in the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia provided vehicle information numbers (VINs) by matching license plate numbers with vehicle registration records and provided the age, gender, and ZIP code of the registered owner(s). VINs were decoded to obtain the curb weight and horsepower of vehicles. The study focused on 26,659 observed vehicles for which information on horsepower was available and the observed age and gender of drivers matched vehicle registration records. Log-linear regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on mean travel speeds, and logistic regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on the likelihood of a vehicle traveling over the speed limit and more than 10 mph over the limit. After controlling for driver characteristics, speed limit, vehicle type, and traffic volume, a 1-unit increase in vehicle power was associated with a 0.7% increase in mean speed, a 2.7% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the speed limit by any amount, and an 11.6% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the limit by 10 mph. All of these increases were highly significant. Speeding persists as a major factor in crashes in the United States. There are indications that travel speeds have increased in recent years. The current findings suggest the trend toward substantially more powerful vehicles may be contributing to higher speeds. Given the strong association between travel speed and crash

  7. Launch vehicle selection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  8. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment Pt. 18, Subpt. D, App. II Appendix II to Subpart D of...

  9. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  10. Fast brazing development for the joining of the beryllium armor layer for the ITER First Wall panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buodot, C.; Boireau, B.; Lorenzetto, P.; Macel, D.

    2006-01-01

    In order to reduce cost and manufacturing time induction brazing is being developed as an alternative to Hot Isostatic Pressing for the joining of the beryllium armor onto the copper alloy heat sink material for the manufacture of First Wall panels for the ITER Blanket. The copper alloy that is currently adopted by ITER is a Copper Chromium Zirconium alloy. Its good mechanical properties are obtained by precipitation hardening by means of an ageing heat treatment at a temperature of about 480 o C. In order to avoid over-ageing and keep acceptable mechanical properties, brazing at higher temperatures must therefore be done as fast as possible. The flat geometry of a panel is not familiar for induction process; nevertheless, a development work was done validating the feasibility of joining beryllium tiles onto a copper chromium zirconium flat surface of a panel by induction brazing process. The development was done in 2 stages: validation of the capability of the induction process to realise a heat cycle on a dummy panel and in parallel, validation of the brazing parameters giving acceptable mechanical results on the beryllium CuCrZr joint. A flat pancake inductor was manufactured and tested on a dummy panel in an induction brazing vessel manufactured for this purpose. Several heating cycles were done with the aim of defining a cycle that gives uniform temperature at the interface of all the beryllium tiles on the entire panel surface. These cycles gave us a temperature range in which the brazing can be performed. A special device for brazing small mock up was also manufactured. This was for the metallurgical characterisation program. Many brazing samples where done and mechanically characterised. Unfortunately, this first metallurgical stage led to unacceptably low shear test values. A complete analysis of this non conformance put in evidence that the bad results were due to the braze material that was not adapted to this process. By changing the braze material

  11. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  12. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  13. The Mounting process and dielectric tests of the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6(220 Kv); Montaje y pruebas dielectricas de la estacion blindada en gas SF6 (220 kV) 'Parque Caballero'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decoud, Carlos; Bobadilla, Alberto [ANDE - Administracion Nacional de Electricidad, Assuncion (Paraguay)

    2001-07-01

    This document approaches the aspects referring to the mounting and also dielectric tests for the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6. This type of installation represents a innovation regarding substations in urban centres. The most relevant items in relation to the mounting process are shown in a summarized way, as well as the aspects related to dielectric tests executed during the substation commissioning.

  14. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  15. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. • Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used in emergency settings. • Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. • Magnetic resonance imaging is widely used in pregnant population. • T1 bright appendix sign can be a specific sign representing normal appendix.

  16. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  17. Standard for Ground Vehicle Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Zone Dry climates (2), humid mesothermal (3), See Appendix A humid microthermal (4), undifferentiated highland (6) Condition Dry, wet, snow See...represent the Dry, the Humid Mesothermal, and the Humid Microthermal climate zones, respectively. Scenarios ERDC-GSL was sponsored by WARSIM to...Coast D. Humid Microthermal Climates Humid Continental, Warm Summer, Humid Continental, Cool Summer, Sub-Arctic E. Polar Climates Tundra, Ice Caps F

  18. Energy management and vehicle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

  19. Accelerated Lane-Changing Trajectory Planning of Automated Vehicles with Vehicle-to-Vehicle Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of lane changing using automated vehicles and the frequency of turning lanes in city settings, this paper aims to generate an accelerated lane-changing trajectory using vehicle-to-vehicle collaboration (V2VC. Based on the characteristics of accelerated lane changing, we used a polynomial method and cooperative strategies for trajectory planning to establish a lane-changing model under different degrees of collaboration with the following vehicle in the target lane by considering vehicle kinematics and comfort requirements. Furthermore, considering the shortcomings of the traditional elliptical vehicle and round vehicle models, we established a rectangular vehicle model with collision boundary conditions by analysing the relationships between the possible collision points and the outline of the vehicle. Then, we established a simulation model for the accelerated lane-changing process in different environments under different degrees of collaboration. The results show that, by using V2VC, we can achieve safe accelerated lane-changing trajectories and simultaneously satisfy the requirements of vehicle kinematics and comfort control.

  20. Aerodynamic Problems of Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Chol Chou

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available The airflow along the surface of a launch vehicle together with vase flow of clustered nozzles cause problems which may affect the stability or efficiency of the entire vehicle. The problem may occur when the vehicle is on the launching pad or even during flight. As for such problems, local steady-state loads, overall steady-state loads, buffet, ground wind loads, base heating and rocket-nozzle hinge moments are examined here specifically.