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Sample records for arming participating moieties

  1. 32 CFR 705.35 - Armed Forces participation in events in the public domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense policies, and eliminate repeated correspondence. The request form should be returned to..., nor does it bar participation in non-public school events when the program is directed...

  2. Azomesogens with a heterocyclic moiety

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayrang S Dave; Meera Menon

    2000-06-01

    Azobenzene derivatives were among the first ten liquid crystalline compounds. But there have been no detailed investigations on azomesogens consisting of a heterocyclic moiety. Twelve different azo compounds have been condensed with nicotinic acid to evaluate the effect of variation of terminal group on the monosubstituted pyridine system. The relative thermal stabilities and the variation in the mesomorphic characteristics have also been studied.

  3. La participation des femmes dans le conflit interne armé au Pérou durant la période 1980-2000 The Participation of Women in Peru’s Internal Armed Conflict during the 1980-2000 Period La participación de las mujeres en el conflicto armado peruano durante 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Silva Santisteban

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1980 et 2000, le Pérou a vécu un conflit interne armé qui s’est soldé par un nombre de victimes sans précédent dans l’histoire de l’Amérique latine. Les protagonistes de la lutte armée furent aussi bien des collectifs subversifs (PCP-SL et MRTA que l’Armée et la Police ainsi que la population paysanne organisée en milices (rondes paysannes. Les conséquences furent évidemment dramatiques puisqu’en plus des nombreuses pertes humaines qu’il faut déplorer se combinait la tragique désagrégation du lien social. Les femmes qui participèrent directement ou indirectement au conflit, si elles ne sont pas aujourd’hui décédées, portent les stigmates des affrontements : cicatrices, viols, grossesses non désirées, stress post-traumatique. Il s’agit ici des victimes des deux camps, mais aussi de celles qui se sont converties en agent de la justice pour récupérer leurs proches, leurs époux et leurs fils, formant ainsi les premiers collectifs de revendication des droits de l’homme. Cependant, celles qui ont bénéficié de la reconnaissance médiatique sont sans nul doute celles qui ont perpétré les crimes : les femmes qui ont pris les armes comme militantes, combattantes ou comme membres des forces de l’ordre.Between 1980 and 2000, Peru experienced an internal armed conflict that resulted in victims in numbers unprecedented in the history of Latin America. The protagonists of the armed struggle included the subversive collectives (PCP-SL and MRTA, as much as the army, the police and the rural militias («ronde paysanne».  The consequences were dramatic in that the sheer human losses were compounded by a tragic unraveling of the social fabric. Women who participated directly or indirectly in the conflict – if they still live – bear the stigmata of their experience:  scars, rape, post-traumatic stress. Here, we consider the victims of both camps, but also those women who became justice agents making

  4. Synthesis of Nucleoside Derivatives Containing Benzophenoxazinone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu GAO; Wu Xin ZOU; Ling WU; Jin Shui LI; Ji Tao WANG; Ji Ben MENG

    2004-01-01

    Two new nucleoside derivatives containing benzophenoxazinone moiety were synthesized. Their luminescence spectra show that they have strong near infrared fluorescence. Our study provides a new method for direct introduction of near infrared fluorescent probe to bioactive molecules.

  5. La participation des femmes dans le conflit interne armé au Pérou durant la période 1980-2000*

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Santisteban, Rocío

    2012-01-01

    Entre 1980 et 2000, le Pérou a vécu un conflit interne armé qui s’est soldé par un nombre de victimes sans précédent dans l’histoire de l’Amérique latine. Les protagonistes de la lutte armée furent aussi bien des collectifs subversifs (PCP-SL et MRTA) que l’Armée et la Police ainsi que la population paysanne organisée en milices (rondes paysannes). Les conséquences furent évidemment dramatiques puisqu’en plus des nombreuses pertes humaines qu’il faut déplorer se combinait la tragique désagrég...

  6. Oxidation of the Primary Alcoholic Moiety Selectively in the Presence of the Secondary Alcoholic Moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both primary and secondary alcoholic moieties are very sensitive to oxidation reactions. But sometimes it is necessary to oxidized only the primary alcoholic moiety. Such cases are usually found in Food Industries. In this situation, TEMPO (1, 1, 6, 6-Tetramethyl-1-Piperidine Oxoammonium) was used as an oxidizing agent. In this paper, Alpha starch was successfully oxidized using TEMPO as the oxidizing agent in combination with sodium hypochlorite with and without sodium bromide. The oxidation of primary alcoholic moiety only and the remaining untouched secondary alcoholic moiety were proved by infrared spectroscopy method.

  7. Pro-Moieties of Antimicrobial Peptide Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eanna Forde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are a promising class of antimicrobial agents that have been garnering increasing attention as resistance renders many conventional antibiotics ineffective. Extensive research has resulted in a large library of highly-active AMPs. However, several issues serve as an impediment to their clinical development, not least the issue of host toxicity. An approach that may allow otherwise cytotoxic AMPs to be used is to deliver them as a prodrug, targeting antimicrobial activity and limiting toxic effects on the host. The varied library of AMPs is complemented by a selection of different possible pro-moieties, each with their own characteristics. This review deals with the different pro-moieties that have been used with AMPs and discusses the merits of each.

  8. La participation des femmes dans le conflit interne armé au Pérou durant la période 1980-2000 The Participation of Women in Peru’s Internal Armed Conflict during the 1980-2000 Period La participación de las mujeres en el conflicto armado peruano durante 1980-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío Silva Santisteban

    2012-01-01

    Entre 1980 et 2000, le Pérou a vécu un conflit interne armé qui s’est soldé par un nombre de victimes sans précédent dans l’histoire de l’Amérique latine. Les protagonistes de la lutte armée furent aussi bien des collectifs subversifs (PCP-SL et MRTA) que l’Armée et la Police ainsi que la population paysanne organisée en milices (rondes paysannes). Les conséquences furent évidemment dramatiques puisqu’en plus des nombreuses pertes humaines qu’il faut déplorer se combinait la tragique désagrég...

  9. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  10. Side chain polysiloxanes with phthalocyanine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ganicz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Side chain polysiloxane with 5-(pentyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine moieties is synthesized by hydrosilylation reaction. The phase behavior and thermooptical properties of the polysiloxane and starting 2-(pent-4-enyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine is examined by POM (Polarizing optical microscopy, TOA (thermooptical analysis, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, AFM (atomic force microscopy and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering studies. The effect of the attachment of phthalocyanine to polysiloxane chains over phase transitions and phase morphology is discussed in details.

  11. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  12. 2-Arylbenzoxazoles as CETP inhibitors: Substitution of the benzoxazole moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cameron J; Ali, Amjad; Chen, Liya; Hammond, Milton L; Anderson, Matt S; Chen, Ying; Eveland, Suzanne S; Guo, Qiu; Hyland, Sheryl A; Milot, Denise P; Sparrow, Carl P; Wright, Samuel D; Sinclair, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    A series of 2-arylbenzoxazole inhibitors of the cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) is described. Structure-activity studies focused on variation of the substitution of the benzoxazole moiety. Substitution at the 5- and 7-positions of the benzoxazole moiety was found to be beneficial for CETP inhibition. Compound 47 was found to be the most potent inhibitor in this series and inhibited CETP with an IC(50) of 28nM.

  13. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HETEROAROMATIC POLYMERS CONTAINING PYRIDINE MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanfeng; WANG Xiaolong; ZHANG Shujiang

    2006-01-01

    The progress on the molecular design, synthesis and characterizations of some kinds of pyridine-containing heteroaromatic polymers in main chain were reviewed in this paper, they would include polyimides (PIs), polypyrrolones (PPYs), poly(pyrrolone-imide)s (PPIs), and poly(pyrrolone-benzimidazone)s (PPBs) containing pyrldine moieties. The pyridine-containing polymers reported all exhibit good processability, excellent thermal properties and mechanical properties. However, the contribution of pyridine ring to polymers properties is still need to research further, the heteroarornatic polymers containing pyridine moieties have focused by more and more researchers.

  14. Synthesis of neosaponins and neoglycolipids containing a chacotriosyl moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2007-11-01

    Alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranose (chacotriose) is the oligosaccharide moiety of dioscin. Chacotriosyl trichloroacetimidate was synthesized from d-glucose and l-rhamnose, and glycosylated to mevalonate (diosgenin, cholesterol, and glycyrrhetic acid) to yield dioscin and neosaponins. In order to simplify the structure of the aglycone part, the mevalonate moiety was replaced with double-chain neoglycolipids that mimicked glycosyl ceramides. A cytotoxicity test revealed the importance of the glycosidic linkage of the naturally occurring beta-form and that dioscin and the neoglycolipid with the longest chain showed a moderate activity. PMID:17655835

  15. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Novel Sulfonylureas Containing Thiadiazol Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen novel sulfonylureas containing thiadiazole moiety were synthesized in a two-step reaction. Their structures were determined using IR, 1H NMR, HRFTMS, and elemental analysis. Herbicidal activities of these compounds were determined in the green house bio-assay. The results show that four compounds among them exhibit some activity toward four tested herbs.

  16. Enumerating secondary structures and structural moieties for circular RNAs

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, José A

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of the relationship between molecular sequence and structure is essential to improve our understanding of how function emerges. This particular genotype-phenotype map has been often studied in the context of RNA sequences, with the folded configurations standing as a proxy for the phenotype. Here, we count the secondary structures of circular RNAs of length $n$ and calculate the asymptotic distributions of different structural moieties, such as stems or hairpin loops, by means of symbolic combinatorics. Circular RNAs differ in essential ways from their linear counterparts. From the mathematical viewpoint, the enumeration of the corresponding secondary structures demands the use of combinatorial techniques additional to those used for linear RNAs. The asymptotic number of secondary structures for circular RNAs grows as $a^nn^{-5/2}$, with a depending on particular constraints applied to the secondary structure. The abundance of any structural moiety is normally distributed in th...

  17. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel fused heterocyclic moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareshvarma Seelam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of heterocyclic moieties the chemistry of 1,3,4-thiadiazole and their fused compounds continue to draw attention of organic chemists due to their various biological activities. Here a new class of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles which are incorporating with isoxazolo-thiazole moieties were synthesized by the reaction of chalcone derivatives of [ 1, 3, 4 ] thiadiazol-2-yl-thiazolidin-4-one with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by IR, NMR ( 1H & 13C and mass spectral studies. The new synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. The final results revealed that some of the compounds were exhibited well antimicrobial activity compared to the standard drugs.

  18. Glycan Moieties as Bait to Fish Plasma Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fei; Zhao, Qun; Sui, Zhigang; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Hao; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-05-17

    Plasma membrane proteome analysis is of significance for screening candidate biomarkers and drug targets. However, due to their low abundance and lack of specific groups that can enable their capture, the plasma membrane proteins (PMPs) are under-represented. On the basis of the fact that PMPs are embedded in or anchored to the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and the glycan moieties of proteins and lipids located on the plasma membrane are exposed outside of the cell surface, we proposed a strategy to capture PMPs, termed as glycan moieties-directed PMPs enrichment (GMDPE). With the glycan moieties exposed outside of the cells as bait to ensure the selectivity and the phospholipid bilayer as raft to provide the sensitivity, we applied this strategy into the plasma membrane proteome analysis of HeLa cells, and in total, 772 PMPs were identified, increased by 4.5 times compared to those identified by the reported cell surface biotinylation method. Notably, among them, 86 CD antigens and 16 ion channel proteins were confidently identified. All these results demonstrated that our proposed approach has great potential in the large scale plasma membrane proteome profiling.

  19. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: wegrzyn@biotech.univ.gda.pl [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  20. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  1. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  2. Small flexible structure for targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging moieties in precision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingjie; Qiu, Xiuchun; Zou, Chaoxia; Ran, Henry; Zhang, Fujun; Ke, Shi

    2016-01-01

    The goals of precision medicine are to link diagnostic and therapeutic agents, improve clinical outcomes, and minimize side effects. We present a simple, small, flexible three-armed core structure that can be conjugated to targeting, imaging, and therapeutic moieties. The targeting molecule can be a peptide, protein, or chemical compound. The diagnostic reporter can be optical and/or nuclear in nature, and can be replaced by chemo- and/or radiotherapeutic compounds for treatment using a single targeting molecule. Imaging components can be used to detect disease biomarkers, monitor treatment response, and guide surgery in real-time to create a tumor-free margin. Isotope impurity can be exploited to visualize whole-body distribution of therapeutic agents. The one-to-one ratio of targeting component to therapeutic agents facilitates dose calculation. The simple synthesis and flexible, modular nature of the agent facilitate high-purity, large-scale production. The core capacity to “seek, treat, and see” may advance precision medicine in the future. PMID:27027441

  3. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  4. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Vierck, J.L. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Hausman, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Station, Athens, GA 30604 (United States); Guan, L.L. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2P5 Canada (Canada); Fernyhough, M.E. [The Hartz Mountain Corporation, Secaucus, NJ 07094 (United States); Poulos, S.P. [The Coca-Cola Company, Research and Technology, Atlanta, GA 30313 (United States); Mir, P.S. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, CA T1J 4B1 (United States); Jiang, Z. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  5. Azomesogens with 1,2,4-trisubstituted benzene moiety

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R A Vora; A K Prajapati

    2002-08-01

    New mesogenic homologous series having an azo central linkage was synthesized by fixing a rigid 4-methyl phenyl azo group to resorcinol moiety. The terminal and lateral phenolic –OH groups were esterified, one by one, with 4--alkoxybenzoyl and acetyl group, respectively. All the twelve homologues synthesized exhibit mesomorphism. The methoxy to -decyloxy and -hexadecyloxy derivatives exhibit monotropic nematic mesophase whereas, -dodecyloxy and -tetradecyloxy derivatives exhibit enantiotropic nematic mesophase. The mesogenic properties of the present series was compared with those of other structurally related mesogenic series.

  6. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnöckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup −}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  7. SYNTHESIS OF MESOGENIC POLYESTERS WITH 2-DICHLOROMETHYLHYDROQUINONE MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qifeng; Guo Ailan

    1995-01-01

    A series of novel mesogenic polyesters with 2-dichloromethylhydroquinone moieties were synthesized by polycondensation of the novel diacyl chloride monomer 2-dichloromethyl-1,4-bis (4'-chloroformylbenzoyl) oxybenzene(Ⅰ) with α, ω-polymethylenediols including ethylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,6-hexanediol and 1,10-decanediol. The diacyl chloride monomer was synthesized by simultaneous transformations of both the carboxy and formaldehyde groups of 2-formyl-1, 4-bis (4'-carboxybenzoyl)oxybenzene into acyl chloride and dichloromethyl groups respectively. The syntheses of the monomer (Ⅰ) and the polymers were reported.

  8. Effect of a spacer moiety on radiometal labelled Neurotensin derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarin, A.; Valverde, I.E.; Mindt, T.L. [Univ. of Basel Hospital (Switzerland). Div. of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2013-07-01

    The binding sequence of the regulatory peptide Neurotensin, NT(8-13), represents a promising tumour-specific vector for the development of radiopeptides useful in nuclear oncology for the diagnosis (imaging) and therapy of cancer. A number of radiometal-labelled NT(8-13) derivatives have been reported, however, the effect of the spacer which connects the vector with the radiometal complex has yet not been investigated systematically. Because a spacer moiety can influence potentially important biological characteristics of radiopeptides, we synthesized three [DOTA({sup 177}Lu)]-X-NT(8-13) derivatives and evaluated the effect of a spacer (X) on the physico-chemical properties of the conjugate including lipophilicity, stability, and in vitro receptor affinity and cell internalization. (orig.)

  9. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  10. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  11. Authoring Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Papazu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Samsø, Denmark's Renewable Energy Island since 1997, is world renowned for being self-sufficient in renewable energy and for having achieved energy self-sufficiency and CO2 neutrality through successful processes of public participation. In this article I seek to show how these processes of public participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear. By turning to material participation, a concept inspired by Noortje Marres and Jennifer Gabrys, the efforts put into Samsø’s energy transformation by the islanders are given specificity. While much literature on public participation foregrounds public meetings and other spaces for deliberation and debate, material participation locates participation in everyday practice and work. On Samsø, the islanders’ participation was not an add-on to the project, it was an indispensable resource in itself. Building on extensive fieldwork I analyse how the islanders came to invest their time and resources in the Renewable Energy Island project, highlighting how, by materializing energy in concrete, local projects, energy and climate change-related projects can gain community-strengthening potentialities reaching beyond goals of energy self-sufficiency.

  12. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...

  13. Ambivalent participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom...

  14. Conceptualizing Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne

    Although participation is not a new issue, it would be fair to say that consequential participation, which implies young people engaging in meaningful dialogue with adults and institutions and influencing decision-making processes in matters that concern them, is still in its infancy. This document...

  15. CYBER HOSTILITIES: CIVILIAN DIRECT PARTICIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which hostilities are being conducted has changed in recent years. The battle field has transpired beyond the physical realm and now has a virtual component. Because of this, it is now easier than ever for civilians to get involved in hostilities. International Humanitarian Law applies to all situations of armed conflict and according to the principle of distinction, the parties to the conflict must, at all times, distinguish between civilians and combatants. The problem arises when the line between combatants and civilians starts to get blurry. Direct civilian participation in hostilities has been addressed in both Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and in 2009 the International Committee of the Red Cross published the Interpretive guidance on the notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under international humanitarian law. Another document that addresses the problem of civilian direct participation is the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare prepared by an international group of experts at the invitation of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in 2013. The guide prepared by the ICRC addresses the problem of civilian direct participation during conventional situations of armed conflict, while the Tallinn Manual addresses direct participation in situations of cyber warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study the application of civilian direct participation to situations of cyber warfare.

  16. Synthesis of Well-Defined Three-Arm Star-Branched Polystyrene through Arm-First Coupling Approach by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Shahabuddin; Fatem Hamime Ismail; Sharifah Mohamad; Norazilawati Muhamad Sarih

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a simple route to synthesize three-arm star-branched polystyrene. Atom transfer radical polymerization technique has been utilized to yield branched polystyrene involving Williamson coupling strategy. Initially a linear polymeric chain of predetermined molecular weight has been synthesized which is further end-functionalized into a primary alkyl bromide moiety, a prime requisition for Williamson reaction. The end-functionalized polymer is then coupled using 1,1,1-tris(4-hydro...

  17. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  18. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  19. Effects of hand clasping and arm folding on academic performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxiang Zang; Zaizhu Han; Yufeng Zang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Similar to handedness, hand clasping and arm folding are also lateral preferences.Previous studies showed a variation frequency for hand clasping and arm folding among different populations.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between patterns of lateral preferences (hand clasping or arm folding) and academic performance of middle school students.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTINGS: Cross-sectional investigation. The data were collected in the Beijing Zhongguancun High School in Beijing in May 2007. Data analysis was performed in the State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University during June to July 2007.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 102 senior-grade students from Beijing Zhongguancun High School, including 58 males and 44 females, were selected for this study.METHODS: Different forms of hand clasping and arm folding were recorded. More specifically, hand clasping was either right-thumb-top or left-thumb-top, and arm folding was either right-arm-top or left-arm-top. Students with congruent preference used right-thumb-top-right-arm-top or left-thumb-top-left-arm-top, and incongruent preference was displayed by right-thumb-top-left-arm-top or left-thumb-top-right-arm-top. Academic performances were collected from mid-term exams in six subjects (Chinese, Mathematics, English, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology), with a total points = 100 for each. A three-way (hand clasping, arm folding, and sex) ANOVA was performed to determine the effect on academic performances.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The relationship between hand clasping, arm folding, sex, and academic performance of students.RESULTS: (1) There was no significant difference in distribution frequency between right-thumb-top and left-thumb-top (P > 0.05), or between right-arm-top and left-arm-top (P > 0.05). The distribution frequency difference between boys and girls was not significant for any subtype (P > 0.05). (2) hand clasping had no significant main effect on any of the

  20. Mass spectrometric study of the amipurimycin hexopyranosidic sugar moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoster Ferreira, M. A.; Borges, C.; Oliveira, M. C.; Pocsfalvi, G.; Rauter, A. P.; Fernandes, A. C.

    1997-11-01

    Amipurimycin is a natural nucleoside that displays a remarkable activity in vitro and in vivo against Pyricularia oryzae, which is responsible for the rice blast disease. Six important precursors for the synthesis of the Amipurimycin sugar moiety were prepared. In order to obtain structural information a mass spectrometric study of these compounds was performed using liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (LSIMS) with high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on a four-sector instrument. Elimination of methanol is the preferential fragmentation path for five of the six protonated molecules, indicating that protonation plays an important role in the process, whilst for the other protonated molecule loss of water is the main fragmentation. Examination of the [M + Li]+ precursor ion spectra shows that loss of methanol does not occur in three of them, but in the other three gives rise to fairly abundant ions, indicating that in this case methanol elimination implies intramolecular hydrogen transfer, the resulting ion having a very stable structure.

  1. Injectable nanomaterials for drug delivery: carriers, targeting moieties, and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, David M; Sundaram, Padma; Byrne, Mark E

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutics such as nucleic acids, proteins/peptides, vaccines, anti-cancer, and other drugs have disadvantages of low bio-availability, rapid clearance, and high toxicity. Thus, there is a significant need for the development of efficient delivery methods and carriers. Injectable nanocarriers have received much attention due to their vast range of structures and ability to contain multiple functional groups, both within the bulk material and on the surface of the particles. Nanocarriers may be tailored to control drug release and/or increase selective cell targeting, cellular uptake, drug solubility, and circulation time, all of which lead to a more efficacious delivery and action of therapeutics. The focus of this review is injectable, targeted nanoparticle drug delivery carriers highlighting the diversity of nanoparticle materials and structures as well as highlighting current therapeutics and targeting moieties. Structures and materials discussed include liposomes, polymersomes, dendrimers, cyclodextrin-containing polymers (CDPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and gold nanoparticles. Additionally, current clinical trial information and details such as trial phase, treatment, active drug, carrier sponsor, and clinical trial identifier for different materials and structures are presented and discussed.

  2. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  3. ARM7-kehityskortti

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkonen, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa ARM-mikro-ohjain pohjainen kehityskortti. Kortin tuli olla soveltuva ARM-ohjelmoinnin opettamiseen. Työssä myös selvitettiin ARM-mikro-ohjaimen ohjelmointiympäristön käyttöönotto. Teoriaosassa käsitellään ARM-arkkitehtuuria, työssä käytettyjen Atmelin AT91R40008-mikro-ohjaimen sekä Philipsin LPC2105-mikro-ohjaimen ominaisuuksia. Erityisesti työssä keskitytään kehityskorttien suunnitteluun. Kehityskortin vaatimuksina oli, että se ...

  4. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  5. Effects of age, sex and arm on the accuracy of arm position sense – Left-arm superiority in healthy right-handers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eSchmidt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Position sense is an important proprioceptive ability. Disorders of arm position sense (APS often occur after unilateral stroke, and are associated with a negative functional outcome. In the present study we assessed horizontal APS by measuring angular deviations from a visually defined target separately for each arm in a large group of healthy subjects. We analyzed the accuracy and instability of horizontal APS as a function of age, sex and arm. Subjects were required to specify verbally the position of their unseen arm on a 0-90° circuit by comparing the current position with the target position indicated by a LED lamp, while the arm was passively moved by the examiner. Eighty-seven healthy subjects participated in the study, ranging from 20 to 77 years, subdivided into three age groups. The results revealed that APS was not a function of age or sex, but was significantly better in the non-dominant (left arm in absolute but not in constant errors across all age groups of right-handed healthy subjects. This indicates a right-hemisphere superiority for left arm position sense in right-handers and neatly fits to the more frequent and more severe left-sided body-related deficits in patients with unilateral stroke (i.e. impaired arm position sense in left spatial neglect, somatoparaphrenia or in individuals with abnormalities of the right cerebral hemisphere. These clinical issues will be discussed.

  6. The synthesis and cytotoxic activity of novel organogermanium sesquioxides with anthraquinone or naphthalene moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Four novel organogermanium sesquioxides with anthraquinone or naphthalene moiety were synthesized. The structures were characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analysis, and their cytotoxicities were evaluated against human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cell lines. The cytotoxicity could be improved by the introduction of planar aromatic chromophore moiety to the parent compound, Ge-132.

  7. BETA-GLUCURONYL CARBAMATE BASED PRO-MOIETIES DESIGNED FOR PRODRUGS IN ADEPT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENDERS, RGG; GERRITS, KAA; RUIJTENBEEK, R; SCHEEREN, HW; Haisma, Hidde; BOVEN, E

    1995-01-01

    A number of pro-moieties 8a - e designed for prodrug preparation have been synthesized (chart 2). The pro-moieties, containing a glucuronyl carbamate group linked to a spacer possessing a terminal carboxylic acid group, have been synthesized from isocyanates 6 and anomerically unprotected glucuronic

  8. Worker Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)

  9. The role of tactile support in arm levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Burkhard; Piesbergen, Christoph; Lucic, Kristina; Staudacher, Melina; Hagl, Maria

    2013-10-01

    How many persons need tactile support à la Milton H. Erickson to achieve arm levitation during hypnosis? How do these differ from those who do not need it? Hypnotic arm levitation was suggested three times consecutively to 30 medium suggestible students. Sixteen succeeded without any tactile support; 7 needed it one or two times; 5 needed it every time; and 2 achieved no arm levitation at all. Participants without any tactile support went more quickly into deeper hypnosis, experienced more involuntariness, less effort, and had higher electrodermal activity. This greater physiological activity seems necessary for hypnotic arm levitation as a form of "attentive hypnosis" in contrast to "relaxation hypnosis." A change in verbal suggestion from "imagine a helium balloon" to "leave levitation to your unconscious mind" revealed no differences. Several issues resulting from this exploratory arm levitation study are discussed. The idea of different proprioceptive-kinesthetic abilities is introduced and the profound need of co-creating an individual suggestion is emphasized.

  10. Phoenix Stretches its Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation The Phoenix spacecraft is scheduled to begin raising its robotic arm up and out of its stowed configuration on the third Martian day, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008) of the mission. This artist's animation, based on engineering models, shows how Phoenix will accomplish this task. First, its wrist actuator will rotate, releasing its launch-restraint pin. Next, the forearm moves up, releasing the elbow launch-restraint pin. The elbow will then move up and over in small steps, a process referred to as 'staircasing.' This ensures that the arm's protective biobarrier wrap, now unpeeled and lying to the side of the arm, will not get in the way of the arm's deployment. The arm is scheduled to straighten all the way out on Sol 4 (May 29, 2008), after engineers have reviewed images and telemetry data from the spacecraft showing that the biobarrier material has been cleared. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    ARM concept would leverage several key ongoing activities in human exploration, space technology, and planetary defense. The ARRM is planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026. Mission Objectives: The Asteroid Redirect Mission is designed to address the need for flight experience in cis-lunar space and provide opportunities for testing the systems, technologies, and capabilities that will be required for future human operations in deep space. A principle objective of the ARM is the development of a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle, and the demonstration that it can operate for many years in interplanetary space, which is critical for deep-space exploration missions. A second prime objective of ARM is to conduct a human spaceflight mission involving in-space inter-action with a natural object, in order to provide the systems and operational experience that will be required for eventual human exploration of the Mars system, including the moons Phobos and Deimos. The ARCM provides a focus for the early flights of the Orion program. Astronauts will participate in the scientific in-space investigation of nearly pristine asteroid material, at most only minimally altered by the capture process. The ARCM will provide the opportunity for human explorers to work in space with asteroid material, testing the activities that would be performed and tools that would be needed for later exploration of primitive body surfaces in deep space. The operational experience would be gained close to our home planet, making it a significantly more affordable approach to obtaining this experience. Target Asteroid Candidates: NASA has identified the NEA (341843) 2008 EV5 as the reference target for the ARRM, but is also carrying three other NEAs as potential options [(25143) Itokawa, (162173) Ryugu, and (101955) Bennu]. NASA is continuing to search for additional candidate asteroid targets for ARM. The final target selection for the ARRM will

  12. Release of Ftorafur from pH-sensitive hydrogels with hyperbranched poly(4-vinylbenzyl chloride) moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug release behavior of a hydrogel is related to its transport mechanism, which is dominated by structure of the hydrogel. Therefore, we prepared pH-sensitive poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) hydrogels with hyperbranched poly(4-vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBC; Mn = 2391 g/mol, PDI = 1.87, the minimum percent linearity = 12.4%) moieties (P4VP-PVBC) by atom transfer radical polymerizations (ATRP) in two steps. A PVBC moiety provides the hydrogel with a microenvironment, which may encapsulate guest molecules like drug. The presence of the microenvironment could affect drug transport in the hydrogel matrices. To understand this, we used Ftorafur as drug molecule, and investigated release behavior of the P4VP-based hydrogels. Diffusion and transport mechanism of Ftorafur in the P4VP-based hydrogels was analyzed by early-time and late-time approximation diffusion coefficients. It was found that the transport behavior of Ftorafur was related to the presence of the PVBC moiety and external pH. The presence of the PVBC moiety could sustain release of Ftorafur. - Highlights: ► pH-sensitive P4VP hydrogels with hyperbranched PVBC moieties was prepared by ATRP. ► The PVBC moieties may encapsulate guest molecules like drug. ► Diffusion and transport mechanism of Ftorafur in the P4VP hydrogels was analyzed. ► The presence of PVBC moieties could sustain release of Ftorafur from the hydrogel.

  13. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  14. Children In Armed Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan, Tejaswini

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive study. A child soldier is a child under the age of 18 that is recruited into the armed forces and engages in political violence. Child Soldiers are recruited by a state or non-state armed group and used as fighters, cooks, suicide bombers, human shields, messengers, spies, or for sexual purposes. This work of research describes the plight of child soldiers taking in context the scenario of different nations. The International mechanisms to combat this problem have also b...

  15. PHENIX Muon Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons (∼10-3). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described

  16. PHENIX Muon Arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akikawa, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Archuleta, J.B.; Archuleta, J.R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baldisseri, A.; Barker, A.B.; Barnes, P.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Batsouli, S.; Behrendt, J.; Bellaiche, F.G.; Bland, A.W.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Borel, H.; Brooks, M.L.; Brown, A.W.; Brown, D.S.; Bruner, N.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chavez, L.L.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Chung, M.S.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D.J.; Cobigo, Y.; Dabrowski, C.M.; Debraine, A.; DeMoss, J.; Dinesh, B.V.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Drapier, O.; Echave, M.A.; Efremenko, Y.V.; En' yo, H.; Fields, D.E.; Fleuret, F.; Fried, J.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Gadrat, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T.F.; Glenn, A.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hance, R.H.; Hart, G.W.; Hayashi, N.; Held, S.; Hicks, J.S.; Hill, J.C.; Hoade, R.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Horaguchi, T.; Hunter, C.T.; Hurst, D.E.; Ichihara, T.; Imai, K.; Isenhower, L.D.L. Davis; Isenhower, L.D.L. Donald; Ishihara, M.; Jang, W.Y.; Johnson, J.; Jouan, D.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kang, J.H.; Kapoor, S.S.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kinnison, W.W.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Koehler, D.; Kotchenda, L.; Kuberg, C.H.; Kurita, K.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G.S.; LaBounty, J.J.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lee, D.M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, M.X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lockner, E.; Lopez, J.D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, X.B.; McCain, M.C.; McGaughey, P.L.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R.E.; Mohanty, A.K.; Montoya, B.C.; Moss, J.M.; Murata, J.; Murray, M.M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nakada, Y.; Newby, J.; Obenshain, F.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S.F.; Plasil, F.; Pope, K.; Qualls, J.M.; Rao, G.; Read, K.F. E-mail: readkf@ornl.gov; Robinson, S.H.; Roche, G.; Romana, A.; Rosnet, P.; Roth, R.; Saito, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sandhoff, W.F.; Sanfratello, L.; Sato, H.D.; Savino, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Shaw, M.R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sim, K.S.; Skank, H.D.; Smith, D.E.; Smith, G.D. [and others

    2003-03-01

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons ({approx}10{sup -3}). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described.

  17. Effects of arm crossing on spatial perspective-taking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Furlanetto

    Full Text Available Human social interactions often require people to take a different perspective than their own. Although much research has been done on egocentric spatial representation in a solo context, little is known about how space is mapped in relation to other bodies. Here we used a spatial perspective-taking paradigm to investigate whether observing a person holding his arms crossed over the body midline has an impact on the encoding of left/right and front/back spatial relations from that person's perspective. In three experiments, we compared performance in a task in which spatial judgments were made from the perspective of the participant or from that of a co-experimenter. Depending on the experimental condition, the participant's and the co-experimenter's arms were either crossed or not crossed over the midline. Our results showed that crossing the arms had a specific effect on spatial judgments based on a first-person perspective. More specifically, the responses corresponding to the dominant hand side were slower in the crossed than in the uncrossed arms condition. Crucially, a similar effect was also found when the participants adopted the perspective of a person holding his arms crossed, but not when the other person's arms were held in an unusual but uncrossed posture. Taken together these findings indicate that egocentric space and altercentric space are similarly coded in neurocognitive maps structured with respect to specific body segments.

  18. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  19. One-Pot Synthesis of Cu(II Complex with Partially Oxidized TTF Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Oshio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The one-pot synthesis of a Cu(II complex with partially oxidized tetrathiafulvalene (TTF moieties in its capping MT-Hsae-TTF ligands, [CuII(MT-sae-TTF2] [CuICl2] was realized by the simultaneous occurrence of Cu(II complexation and CuIICl2 mediated oxidation of TTF moieties. The crystal structure was composed of one-dimensional columns formed by partially oxidized TTF moieties and thus the cation radical salt showed relatively high electrical conductivity. Tight binding band structure calculations indicated the existence of a Peierls gap due to the tetramerization of the TTF moieties in the one-dimensional stacking column at room temperature, which is consistent with the semiconducting behavior of this salt.

  20. Hydrogen Storage in Benzene Moiety Decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bing-Yun; LIANG Qi-Min; SONG Chen; XIA Yue-Yuan; ZHAO Ming-wen; LIU Xiang-Dong; ZHANG Hong-Yu

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen storage capacity of(5,5)single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs)decorated chemically with benzene moieties is studied by using molecular dynamics simulations(MDSs)and density functional theory(DFT) calculations.It is found that benzene molecules colliding on (5,5) SWNTs at incident energy of 50 eV form very stable configurations of benzene moiety adsorption on the wall of SWNTs.The MDSs indicate that when the benzene moiety decorated(5,5)SWNTs and a pristine(5,5)SWNT are put in a box in which hydrogen molecules are filled to a pressure of~26 atm,the hydrogen storage capacity of the benzene moiety decorated(5,5)SWNT is about 4.7wt.% and that of the pristine (5,5) SwNT is nearly 3.9 wt.%.

  1. A biomechanical analysis of the 'high guard' position of arms during walking in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Masayoshi; Ulrich, Beverly

    2006-12-01

    In this study, we investigated biomechanical contributions of the high guard position of the arms observed only in a subgroup of toddlers at very early stages of gait development. Six healthy toddlers who showed this peculiar arm posture were involved in this study. They participated in two data collection sessions (1 month apart). We used three-dimensional analysis of arm posture during gait to estimate the changes in forces and torques generated by the arms and acting on the upper trunk segment. Across visits, toddlers' increase in walking speeds coincided with lowering arm postures. Despite the apparent trend of changes in arm posture in this group of toddlers, the interaction between arm posture and upper trunk position created a variety of changes in forces and torques among individuals. Findings of this study exhibited an example of the exploration of dynamics by toddlers in the early stage of gait development.

  2. Effects of Arm Crossing on Spatial Perspective-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Tiziano; Gallace, Alberto; Ansuini, Caterina; Becchio, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Human social interactions often require people to take a different perspective than their own. Although much research has been done on egocentric spatial representation in a solo context, little is known about how space is mapped in relation to other bodies. Here we used a spatial perspective-taking paradigm to investigate whether observing a person holding his arms crossed over the body midline has an impact on the encoding of left/right and front/back spatial relations from that person’s perspective. In three experiments, we compared performance in a task in which spatial judgments were made from the perspective of the participant or from that of a co-experimenter. Depending on the experimental condition, the participant’s and the co-experimenter’s arms were either crossed or not crossed over the midline. Our results showed that crossing the arms had a specific effect on spatial judgments based on a first-person perspective. More specifically, the responses corresponding to the dominant hand side were slower in the crossed than in the uncrossed arms condition. Crucially, a similar effect was also found when the participants adopted the perspective of a person holding his arms crossed, but not when the other person’s arms were held in an unusual but uncrossed posture. Taken together these findings indicate that egocentric space and altercentric space are similarly coded in neurocognitive maps structured with respect to specific body segments. PMID:24752571

  3. The Influence of Arm Swelling Duration on Shoulder Pathology in Breast Cancer Patients with Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Dae-Hyun Jang; Min-Wook Kim; Se-Jeong Oh; Jae Min Kim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the pathological effect of the duration of arm swelling on the shoulder pathology in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Methods Forty seven breast cancer patients with unilateral arm lymphedema were assessed. The duration of the arm swelling and shoulder pain were recorded. Ultrasound examination of the shoulder joint was performed in all patients to detect any lesions. Results Abnormalities were detected by ultrasound in 41/47 (87.2%) study participants. Suba...

  4. Robot arm apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  5. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  6. Why do arms extract less oxygen than legs during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Holmberg, H-C; Rosdahl, H;

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether conditions for O2 utilization and O2 off-loading from the hemoglobin are different in exercising arms and legs, six cross-country skiers participated in this study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flow and gases were determined during skiing on a treadmill at approximately 76......% maximal O2 uptake (V(O2)max) and at V(O2)max with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise), and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). The percentage of O2 extraction was always higher for the legs than for the arms. At maximal...... exercise (diagonal stride), the corresponding mean values were 93 and 85% (n = 3; P

  7. Pivots for Pointing: Visually-Monitored Pointing Has Higher Arm Elevations than Pointing Blindfolded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuczko, Marta; Kennedy, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Observers pointing to a target viewed directly may elevate their fingertip close to the line of sight. However, pointing blindfolded, after viewing the target, they may pivot lower, from the shoulder, aligning the arm with the target as if reaching to the target. Indeed, in Experiment 1 participants elevated their arms more in visually monitored…

  8. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    ARM concept would leverage several key ongoing activities in human exploration, space technology, and planetary defense. The ARRM is planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026. Mission Objectives: The Asteroid Redirect Mission is designed to address the need for flight experience in cis-lunar space and provide opportunities for testing the systems, technologies, and capabilities that will be required for future human operations in deep space. A principle objective of the ARM is the development of a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle, and the demonstration that it can operate for many years in interplanetary space, which is critical for deep-space exploration missions. A second prime objective of ARM is to conduct a human spaceflight mission involving in-space inter-action with a natural object, in order to provide the systems and operational experience that will be required for eventual human exploration of the Mars system, including the moons Phobos and Deimos. The ARCM provides a focus for the early flights of the Orion program. Astronauts will participate in the scientific in-space investigation of nearly pristine asteroid material, at most only minimally altered by the capture process. The ARCM will provide the opportunity for human explorers to work in space with asteroid material, testing the activities that would be performed and tools that would be needed for later exploration of primitive body surfaces in deep space. The operational experience would be gained close to our home planet, making it a significantly more affordable approach to obtaining this experience. Target Asteroid Candidates: NASA has identified the NEA (341843) 2008 EV5 as the reference target for the ARRM, but is also carrying three other NEAs as potential options [(25143) Itokawa, (162173) Ryugu, and (101955) Bennu]. NASA is continuing to search for additional candidate asteroid targets for ARM. The final target selection for the ARRM will

  9. Subtilisin-catalyzed esterification of di- and oligosaccharides containing a d-fructose moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, S.; Nonini, M.; Ottolina, G. [Istituto di Biocatalisi e Riconoscimento Molecolare, C.N.R., via Mario Bianco 9, I-20131 Milan (Italy); Danieli, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Centro C.N.R.. di Studio sulle Sostanze Organiche Naturali, via Venezian 21, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    Several di- and oligosaccharides containing a d-fructose moiety have been acylated by protease subtilisin in anhydrous dimethylformamide in the presence of the activated ester trifluoroethyl butanoate. Under the reaction conditions used, all the substrates were converted into the corresponding monobutanoates in ca. 50% isolated yields. Structural determination of the products by {sup 13}C NMR indicated a strong preference of subtilisin towards the regioselective esterification of the primary hydroxyls of the fructose moiety and, specifically, of the C-1 OH, as already observed with sucrose. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Subtilisin-catalyzed esterification of di- and oligosaccharides containing a d-fructose moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several di- and oligosaccharides containing a d-fructose moiety have been acylated by protease subtilisin in anhydrous dimethylformamide in the presence of the activated ester trifluoroethyl butanoate. Under the reaction conditions used, all the substrates were converted into the corresponding monobutanoates in ca. 50% isolated yields. Structural determination of the products by 13C NMR indicated a strong preference of subtilisin towards the regioselective esterification of the primary hydroxyls of the fructose moiety and, specifically, of the C-1 OH, as already observed with sucrose. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Bifunctional Dye Containing Spirobenzopyran and Cinnamoyl Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申凯华; 崔东熏

    2005-01-01

    A novel bifunctional dye containing spirobenzopyran and cinnaznoyl moiety has been prepared and its photochromic behavior following irradiation at different wavelengths of monochrome UV light was investigated.The colourless bifunctional dye in film or solution exhibits unusual photochromism through structural and geometrical transformation from spirobenzopyran to merocyanine accompanying with photocrosslinking reaction in cinnamoyl moieties. Two kinds of photochemical reaction were achieved by irradiation at the different wavelengths of monochrome UV light (275 nm, 365 nm) selectively. The photochromic process of the bifunctional dye was discussed and the dynamic behaviors of the decolorization process were investigated.

  12. Soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens contain carbohydrate moieties important for immune reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Theander, T G; Jensen, J B;

    1987-01-01

    The importance of carbohydrate moieties for the antigenicity of purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from the asexual blood stage was tested. Digestion of the soluble antigens with alpha-D-galactosidase clearly affected the ability of the antigen to react with malaria-immune sera from ....... The results might have important implications for the strategy of developing a malaria vaccine.......The importance of carbohydrate moieties for the antigenicity of purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from the asexual blood stage was tested. Digestion of the soluble antigens with alpha-D-galactosidase clearly affected the ability of the antigen to react with malaria-immune sera from...

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Valinomycin Analog Bearing a Pentafluorophenyl Active Ester Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Accolti, Lucia; Denora, Nunzio; La Piana, Gianluigi; Marzulli, Domenico; Siwy, Zuzanna S; Fusco, Caterina; Annese, Cosimo

    2015-12-18

    A valuable analog of the K(+)-ionophore valinomycin (1), bearing a pentafluorophenyl ester moiety, has been obtained by selective reaction between the tertiary hydroxyl moiety of analog 2 (available from valinomycin hydroxylation) and the isocyanate group of pentafluorophenyl N-carbonyl glycinate (3) catalyzed by bis(N,N-dimethylformamide)dichlorodioxomolybdenum(VI). LC-HRMS studies show that analog 4 undergoes easy derivatization under mild conditions by reaction with OH- and NH2-containing compounds. Mitochondrial depolarization assays suggest that 4 acts as a K(+)-ionophore, provided that the glycine carboxyl group is appropriately masked. PMID:26566090

  14. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  15. Motor Asymmetry Attenuation in Older Adults during Imagined Arm Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paizis, Christos; Skoura, Xanthi; Personnier, Pascaline; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Laterality is an important feature of motor behavior. Several studies have shown that lateralization in right-handed young adults (i.e., right versus left arm superiority) emerges also during imagined actions, that is when an action is internally simulated without any motor output. Such information, however, is lacking for elderly people and it could be valuable to further comprehend the evolution of mental states of action in normal aging. Here, we evaluated the influence of age on motor laterality during mental actions. Twenty-four young (mean age: 24.7 ± 4.4 years) and 24 elderly (mean age: 72.4 ± 3.6 years) participants mentally simulated and actually executed pointing movements with either their dominant-right or non-dominant-left arm in the horizontal plane. We recorded and analyzed the time of actual and mental movements and looked for differences between groups and arms. In addition, electromyographic activity from arm muscle was recorded to quantify any enhancement in muscle activation during mental actions. Our findings indicated that both groups mentally simulated arm movements without activating the muscles of the right or the left arm above the baseline level. This finding suggests that young and, notably, elderly adults are able to generate covert actions without any motor output. We found that manual asymmetries (i.e., faster movements with the right arm) were preserved in young adults for both actual and mental movements. In elderly adults, manual asymmetries were observed for actual but not for mental movements (i.e., equal movement times for both arms). These findings clearly indicate an age-related reduction of motor laterality during mental actions. PMID:24688468

  16. Motor asymmetry attenuation in older adults during imagined arm movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS ePAIZIS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Laterality is an important feature of motor behavior. Several studies have shown that lateralization in right-handed young adults (i.e., right versus left arm superiority emerges also during imagined actions, that is when an action is internally simulated without any motor output. Such information, however, is lacking for elderly people and it could be valuable to further comprehend the evolution of mental states of action in normal aging. Here, we evaluated the influence of age on motor laterality during mental actions. Twenty-four young (mean age: 24.7  4.4 years and twenty-four elderly (mean age: 72.4  3.6 years participants mentally simulated and actually executed pointing movements with either their dominant-right or nondominant-left arm in the horizontal plane. We recorded and analyzed the time of actual and mental movements and looked for differences between groups and arms. In addition, electromyographic activity from arm muscle was recorded to quantify any enhancement in muscle activation during mental actions. Our findings indicated that both groups mentally simulated arm movements without activating the muscles of the right or the left arm above the baseline level. This finding suggests that young and, notably, elderly adults are able to generate covert actions without any motor output. We found that manual asymmetries (i.e., faster movements with the right arm were preserved in young adults for both actual and mental movements. In elderly adults, manual asymmetries were observed for actual but not for mental movements (i.e., equal movement times for both arms. These findings clearly indicate an age-related reduction of motor laterality during mental actions.

  17. Motor Asymmetry Attenuation in Older Adults during Imagined Arm Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paizis, Christos; Skoura, Xanthi; Personnier, Pascaline; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Laterality is an important feature of motor behavior. Several studies have shown that lateralization in right-handed young adults (i.e., right versus left arm superiority) emerges also during imagined actions, that is when an action is internally simulated without any motor output. Such information, however, is lacking for elderly people and it could be valuable to further comprehend the evolution of mental states of action in normal aging. Here, we evaluated the influence of age on motor laterality during mental actions. Twenty-four young (mean age: 24.7 ± 4.4 years) and 24 elderly (mean age: 72.4 ± 3.6 years) participants mentally simulated and actually executed pointing movements with either their dominant-right or non-dominant-left arm in the horizontal plane. We recorded and analyzed the time of actual and mental movements and looked for differences between groups and arms. In addition, electromyographic activity from arm muscle was recorded to quantify any enhancement in muscle activation during mental actions. Our findings indicated that both groups mentally simulated arm movements without activating the muscles of the right or the left arm above the baseline level. This finding suggests that young and, notably, elderly adults are able to generate covert actions without any motor output. We found that manual asymmetries (i.e., faster movements with the right arm) were preserved in young adults for both actual and mental movements. In elderly adults, manual asymmetries were observed for actual but not for mental movements (i.e., equal movement times for both arms). These findings clearly indicate an age-related reduction of motor laterality during mental actions. PMID:24688468

  18. An Overview of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    of potential opportunities for participation with the ARM will be provided.

  19. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Tonghaosu Analogs Containing Phenoxy-phenyl Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li陈立; XU Han-Hong徐汉虹; YIN Biao-Lin尹标林; XIAO Chun肖春; HU Tai-Shan胡泰山; WU Yu-Lin吴毓林

    2004-01-01

    A new series of phenoxy-phenyl moieties containing tonghaosu analogs with varied B-ring 9 were synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Their insect antifeedant activity against Pieris brassicae and insecticidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus were investigated. Compound 9e exhibited excellent antifeeding activity.

  20. HIGH IMMOBILIZATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL MOIETIES ONTO MONODISPERSE MICROSPHERES BY DISPERSION POLYMERIZATION USING BICATIONIC VIOLOGEN SURFMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-liu Wang; Xiao-fang Yang; Lian-ying Liu; Wan-tai Yang

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve monodisperse particles with high content of antibacterial groups covalently bonded on surface,a bicationic viologen,N-hexyl-N'-(4-vinylbenzyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium bromide chloride (HVV) was devised as a surfmer in dispersion polymerization of styrene (St) using a mixture of methanol (or ethylene glycol) and water as media.Effects of content of HVV,its addition profile and composition of reaction media on particles size and incorporation of HVV moieties were mainly investigated.The attachment of silver and gold nanoparticles on particle surface under UV irradiation ascertained the surface-bonded HVV segments.SEM,TEM observations and XPS,zata potential measurements indicated that increase of initial HVV contents and addition of HVV (when polymerization had been performed for 3 h) led to grown particles and enhanced immobilization of HVV moieties.Using a mixture of ethylene glycol and water as reaction media,small particles (520-142 nm) with highly attached HVV moieties were prepared.Furthermore,antibacterial efficacy of the resultant particles against S.aureus was assayed,and particles with more HVV moieties anchored on surface demonstrated greater efficiency of antibacterial activity.

  1. Synthesis and Photocytotoxicity of Mono-functionalised Porphyrin with Valine Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Min SHI; Jian WU; Yi Feng WU; Kai Xian QIAN

    2004-01-01

    A mono-funtionalised tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) bearing valine moiety at the phenyl ring was synthesized for photocytotoxicity examination in four steps, starting from regiospecific mono-nitration of TPP at the phenyl ring. The in vitro photocytotoxicitic effect against SPC-A1 adenocarcinona cell line was tested.

  2. Synthesis of New Thiazole Derivatives Bearing A Sulfonamide Moiety Of Expected Anticancer And Radiosensitizing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a search for new cytotoxic agents with improved antitumor activity and selectivity, some new pyrano thiazole and thiazolopyranopyrimidine derivatives bearing sulfonamide moiety were synthesized. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antitumor activity alone and in combination with γ-irradiation. These new compounds were docked inside the active site of carbonic anhydrase II to predict their mechanism of action.

  3. Synthesis of quarternary ammonium salts with dithiocarbamate moiety and their antifungal activities against Helminthosporium oryzae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandeep Singh; Anita Garg; Anjali Sidhu; Vineet Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts containing dithiocarbamate moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities against Helminthosporium oryzae. All the synthesized compounds showed moderate to promising fungitoxicity against the test. Some of the synthesized compounds inflicted antifungal activity greater than the standard fungicide.

  4. Miktoarm core-crosslinked star copolymers with biologically active moieties on peripheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Miktoarm core-crosslinked star (CCS) copolymers featuring hydrophobic inner compartment based on poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), and hydrophilic multivalent exterior consisting of L-lysine dendritic wedges and estradiol or ferrocene moieties have been synthesized. Ring-opening polymerization (ROP...

  5. New mesogenic Schiff base esters comprising benzothiazole moiety:Synthesis and mesomorphic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sie Tiong Ha; Teck Ming Koh; Guan Yeow Yeap; Hong Cheu Lin; Jun Kit Beh; Yip Foo Win; Peng Lim Boey

    2009-01-01

    A homologous series of Schiff base esters,6-methoxy-2-(2-hydroxy-4-alkanoyloxybenzylidenamino)benzothiazoles,comprising a benzothiazole moiety as the core was synthesized.All the members of this series exhibited an enantiotropic nematic phase.The azomethine linkage along with the lateral hydroxyl and terminal methoxyl groups were found to exert an effect on the mesomorphic properties.

  6. Solvent-free microwave-assisted synthesis of oxadiazoles containing imidazole moiety

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priya V Frank; K S Girish; Balakrishna Kalluraya

    2007-01-01

    Microwave-assisted as well as conventional synthesis of 5-substituted-2-(2-methyl-4-nitro-1-imidazomethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles containing the nitroimidazole moiety is carried out and their antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activity is reported.

  7. The viability of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haopeng; Jae Ko, Yeon; Zhang, Xinxing; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnoeckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Jena, Puru [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have investigated the extent to which the aluminum moieties within selected magnesium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Magnesium-aluminum cluster anions were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, photoelectron spectra of Mg{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup −} (m, n = 1,6; 2,5; 2,12; and 3,11) were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on these four stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for the cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra). Calculations revealed that, unlike the cases of recently reported sodium-aluminum clusters, the formation of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters was limited in most cases by weak charge transfer between the magnesium atoms and their aluminum cluster moieties. Only in cases of high magnesium content, e.g., in Mg{sub 3}Al{sub 11} and Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 12}{sup −}, did the aluminum moieties exhibit Zintl anion-like characteristics.

  8. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Invitation to cervical cancer screening does increase participation in Germany: Results from the MARZY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radde, Kathrin; Gottschalk, Andrea; Bussas, Ulrike; Schülein, Stefanie; Schriefer, Dirk; Seifert, Ulrike; Neumann, Anne; Kaiser, Melanie; Blettner, Maria; Klug, Stefanie J

    2016-09-01

    The effect of different invitation models on participation in cervical cancer screening (CCS) was investigated in a randomized population-based cohort study in Germany. Participants were randomly selected via population registries and randomized into intervention Arm A (invitation letter) and Arm B (invitation letter and information brochure) or control Arm C (no invitation). The intervention and control arms were compared with regard to 3-year participation and the two invitation models were compared between intervention arms. Of the 7,758 eligible women aged 30-65 years, living in the city of Mainz and in the rural region of Mainz-Bingen, 5,265 were included in the analysis. Differences in proportions of women attending CCS were investigated and logistic regression was performed to analyze various factors influencing participation. In the intervention group, 91.8% participated in CCS compared to 85.3% in the control group (p education, migrant women and older women. No difference in participation was found between the intervention Arm A and Arm B. An accompanying information brochure did not motivate more women to undergo CCS. However, a written invitation statistically significantly increased participation in CCS in Germany. PMID:27083776

  10. Assembly factors for the membrane arm of human complex I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Byron; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory complex I is a product of both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The integration of seven subunits encoded in mitochondrial DNA into the inner membrane, their association with 14 nuclear-encoded membrane subunits, the construction of the extrinsic arm from 23 additional nuclear-encoded proteins, iron–sulfur clusters, and flavin mononucleotide cofactor require the participation of assembly factors. Some are intrinsic to the complex, whereas others participate transiently. The suppression of the expression of the NDUFA11 subunit of complex I disrupted the assembly of the complex, and subcomplexes with masses of 550 and 815 kDa accumulated. Eight of the known extrinsic assembly factors plus a hydrophobic protein, C3orf1, were associated with the subcomplexes. The characteristics of C3orf1, of another assembly factor, TMEM126B, and of NDUFA11 suggest that they all participate in constructing the membrane arm of complex I. PMID:24191001

  11. 77 FR 3371 - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... of the Armed Forces of the United States in certain United Nations peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations, I hereby certify that members of the U.S. Armed Forces participating in the United Nations... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of January 10, 2012 Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the...

  12. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  13. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  14. Space perception and body morphology: extent of near space scales with arm length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Lourenco, Stella F

    2007-02-01

    Numerous studies have found that the near space immediately surrounding the body is represented differently than more distant space. In a previous study, we found a gradual shift in attentional bias (on a line bisection task) between near and far space (Longo and Lourenco in Neuropsychologia 44:977-981, 2006). The present study concerns the possibility that arm length relates systematically to the rate at which this gradual shift between near and far space occurs. Participants bisected lines using a laser pointer at eight distances (within and beyond arm's reach), and the rate of shift was estimated by the slope of the least-squares regression line. A negative correlation was found between the slopes and arm length; participants with longer arms showed a more gradual shift in bias with increasing distance than those with shorter arms. These results suggest that, while near space cannot be considered categorically as that within arm's reach, there is a systematic relation between the extent ("size") of near space and arm length. Arm length may constitute an intrinsic metric for the representation of near space. PMID:17256162

  15. Observations of a Small Sample of Adolescents Experiencing an At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) for Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, Patrick; Tiffin, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Some commentaries express concern that the At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) designation can be stigmatizing and induce a lasting sense of personal fragility. However, no studies have actually explored the personal perspectives of those so categorized. The purpose of this study was to explore how adolescents with an ARMS label understand and experience their condition medically and personally. Six participants receiving an ARMS diagnosis were interviewed and the data analyzed using interpretative p...

  16. Arms control: misplaced focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, W.A.; Derber, C.

    1986-03-01

    Most of the nuclear debate consists of arguments about which weapons systems should be built, controlled, canceled, frozen, or retired. Short of virtually complete, multilateral nuclear disarmament, however, no change in the pace, balance, or even the direction of the arms race can make much difference in the risk of nuclear war, the damage should one occur, or the division of international political power. This includes Star Wars, the nuclear freeze, and even large cuts in or stabilization of offensive nuclear arsenals. A better starting point for nuclear politics would be the insight that nuclear weapons have completely changed the logic of power as it has been handed down through the ages. Military force, perfected to its highest level, has invalidated itself - for in a nuclearized world, any resort to force by a nuclear power risks escalation to its ultimate level, and thus to oblivion for all. Trying to rationalize and control the ultimate force is far less realistic and important than limiting the provocation of conflict and the use of force at lower, non-nuclear levels - by the United States, it clients, and, to the extent possible, its adversaries. 13 references.

  17. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  18. [Apothecaries' arms of Voltaire's family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigneau, M

    1998-01-01

    Apothecaries of Voltaire's family can be divided into two groups. Marceton Family: Claude Marceton, Hierosme and Pierre Testefolle, from Thouars. Arouet family: Jehan Arouet, Pierre Rochard and Jean Gougeard. Five of those apothecaries beand arms. PMID:11625327

  19. Preparation and evaluation of novel chiral stationary phases based on quinine derivatives comprising crown ether moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqiang; Zhao, Jianchao; Wu, Haixia; Wu, Haibo; Cai, Jianfeng; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-01-01

    The C9-position of quinine was modified by meta- or para-substituted benzo-18-crown-6, and immobilized on 3-mercaptopropyl-modified silica gel through the radical thiol-ene addition reaction. These two chiral stationary phases were evaluated by chiral acids, amino acids, and chiral primary amines. The crown ether moiety on the quinine anion exchanger provided a ligand-exchange site for primary amino groups, which played an important role in the retention and enantioselectivity for chiral compounds containing primary amine groups. These two stationary phases showed good selectivity for some amino acids. The complex interaction between crown ether and protonated primary amino group was investigated by the addition of inorganic salts such as LiCl, NH4Cl, NaCl, and KCl to the mobile phase. The resolution results showed that the simultaneous interactions between two function moieties (quinine and crown ether) and amino acids were important for the chiral separation.

  20. SUPPRESSION OF CELL ADHESION ON POLYACRYLONITRILE-BASED MEMBRANES BY THE ANCHORING OF PHOSPHOLIPID MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jun Huang; Xiao-dan Huang; Ai-fu Che; Zhi-kang Xu; Ke Yao

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the membrane surface of poly(acrylonitrile-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PANCHEMA) waschemically modified by anchoring of phospholipid moieties. The process involved the reaction of hydroxyl groups on the membrane surface with 2-chloro-2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane (COP) followed by the ring-opening reaction of COP with trimethylamine. Chemical differences between the original and the modified membranes were characterized by FT-IR and XPS. It was found that the amount of macrophage adhered on the modified membrane surface is substantially lower than that on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and PANCHEMA membranes under the same condition. The morphological change of the adherent cell is also suppressed by the generation ofphospholipid moieties on the membrane surface.

  1. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, James B., E-mail: jim@jamessund.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Causey, Corey P. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wolter, Scott D. [Department of Physics, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Parker, Charles B., E-mail: charles.parker@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Stoner, Brian R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Toone, Eric J. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Glass, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  2. Decisive Interactions between the Heterocyclic Moiety and the Cluster Observed in Polyoxometalate-Surfactant Hybrid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Otobe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic-organic hybrid crystals were successfully obtained as single crystals by using polyoxotungstate anion and cationic dodecylpyridazinium (C12pda and dodecylpyridinium (C12py surfactants. The decatungstate (W10 anion was used as the inorganic component, and the crystal structures were compared. In the crystal comprising C12pda (C12pda-W10, the heterocyclic moiety directly interacted with W10, which contributed to a build-up of the crystal structure. On the other hand, the crystal consisting of C12py (C12py-W10 had similar crystal packing and molecular arrangement to those in the W10 crystal hybridized with other pyridinium surfactants. These results indicate the significance of the heterocyclic moiety of the surfactant to construct hybrid crystals with polyoxometalate anions.

  3. Decisive interactions between the heterocyclic moiety and the cluster observed in polyoxometalate-surfactant hybrid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otobe, Saki; Fujioka, Natsumi; Hirano, Takuro; Ishikawa, Eri; Naruke, Haruo; Fujio, Katsuhiko; Ito, Takeru

    2015-04-16

    Inorganic-organic hybrid crystals were successfully obtained as single crystals by using polyoxotungstate anion and cationic dodecylpyridazinium (C12pda) and dodecylpyridinium (C12py) surfactants. The decatungstate (W10) anion was used as the inorganic component, and the crystal structures were compared. In the crystal comprising C12pda (C12pda-W10), the heterocyclic moiety directly interacted with W10, which contributed to a build-up of the crystal structure. On the other hand, the crystal consisting of C12py (C12py-W10) had similar crystal packing and molecular arrangement to those in the W10 crystal hybridized with other pyridinium surfactants. These results indicate the significance of the heterocyclic moiety of the surfactant to construct hybrid crystals with polyoxometalate anions.

  4. Synthesis and biological properties of amino acids and peptides containing a tetrazolyl moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, E. A.; Trifonov, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    Literature data published mainly in the last 15 years on the synthesis and biological properties of amino acid analogues and derivatives containing tetrazolyl moieties are analyzed. Tetrazolyl analogues and derivatives of amino acids and peptides are shown to be promising for medicinal chemistry. Being polynitrogen heterocyclic systems comprising four endocyclic nitrogen atoms, tetrazoles can behave as acids and bases and form strong hydrogen bonds with proton donors (more rarely, with acceptors). They have high metabolic stability and are able to penetrate biological membranes. The review also considers the synthesis and properties of linear and cyclic peptides based on modified amino acids incorporating a tetrazolyl moiety. A special issue is the discussion of the biological properties of tetrazole-containing amino acids and peptides, which exhibit high biological activity and can be used to design new drugs. The bibliography includes 200 references.

  5. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (ether imide)s Containing Phthalazinone and Isopropyl Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel poly(ether imide)s containing phthalazinone and isopropyl moieties derived from 2-(4-aminophenyl)-4-[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]-phthalazin-l-one and bisphenol-A diphthalic anhydride was synthesized by one-step solution condensation polymerization in m-cresol. The polymer was characterized by FTIR, NMR, molecular weights, glass transition temperature,thermal degradation temperature and WAXD.

  7. A Flexible Approach to the γ-Amino-β-hydroxy Acid Moiety of Hapalosin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄培强; 吴天俊; 叶剑良

    2003-01-01

    A flexible approach to ethyl (3R,4S)-N-Boc-4-amino-3-hydroxy-5-phenylpentanoate (N-Boc-AHPPA-OEt), the γ-amino-β-hydroxy acid moiety of hapalosin is described. The synthetic method features a ring-opening ethanolysis of an activated N-Boc-lactam, which is obtained via a diastereoselective reductive-alkylation of (R)-malimide derivative. The flexibility of the method resides in the introduction of the alkyl side chain by Grignard reagent addition.

  8. Studies on the hydrolysis of biocompatible acrylic polymers having aspirin-moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Z W; Li, F M; Feng, X D; Voong, S T

    1983-01-01

    Both the homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis of five new acrylic polymers having aspirin-moieties, i.e. polymers of beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl methacrylate, beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl methacrylate,beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy) ethyl acrylate, beta-hydroxy-gamma-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl methacrylate, beta-hydroxy-gamma-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl acrylate were investigated in acidic or alkaline medium at 30 degrees C or 60 degrees C, respectively. It was observed that the chief hydrolyzed product is always aspirin with minor amount of salicylic acid.

  9. Triptycene-based microporous polymer with pending tetrazole moieties for CO2 -capture application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Triptycene-based micorporous polymer is functionalized with CO2 -philic tetrazole moieties via ZnCl2 -catalyzed post-polymerization. Gas adsorption experiments indicate that it possesses high CO2 uptake capacity, reaching 134 cm(3) g(-1) (26.5 wt%) at 1.0 bar and 273 K, along with high selectivity towards CO2 over N2 and CH4 . The porous polymeric networks present the promising potentials as efficient adsorbents in clean energy applications.

  10. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Chiral α-Aminophosphonates Containing Fluorine Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Song; XUE Wei; ZHOU Xia; LU Ping; GAO Xing-Wen; DIAO Chun-Ling; SONG Bao-An; JIN Lin-Hong; XU Guang-Fang; ZHANG Guo-Ping; WANG Wei; HU De-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Chiral α-aminophosphonates were synthesized using (R) or (S)-1-phenylethylamine in the presence of BF3·Et2O under microwave irradiation in moderate to good yields. The new compounds were identified by 1H NMR, 19F NMR, IR and elemental analysis. Their antifungal activities were evaluated and some compounds were found to exhibit excellentantifungal activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antifungal activity of chiral α-aminophosphonates containing fluorine moiety.

  11. Synthesis and Biological Investigation of some Novel Sulfonamide and Amide Derivatives Containing Coumarin Moieties

    OpenAIRE

    Saeedi, Mina; Goli, Fereshteh; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    New sulfonamide and amide derivatives containing coumarin moieties; oxo-2H-chromen-sulfamoylphenylacetamides and oxo-2H-chromen-arylacetamides were synthesized starting from diverse 2-chloroacetamide derivatives and a wide range of coumarins. The structures of compounds were elucidated by IR and NMR spectra and also analytical elemental analysis. In the next step, the above mentioned compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Their antimicrobial activity was a...

  12. Dendrimers Containing Ferrocene and Porphyrin Moieties: Synthesis and Cubic Non-Linear Optical Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Eric G. Morales-Espinoza; Sanchez-Montes, Karla E.; Elena Klimova; Tatiana Klimova; Lijanova, Irina V.; Maldonado, José L.; Gabriel Ramos-Ortíz; Simón Hernández-Ortega; Marcos Martínez-García

    2010-01-01

    Dendrons with ferrocenyl ended groups joined by styryl moieties were attached to a porphyrin core. All the dendrons used for dendrimer synthesis showed trans configuration. The chemical structure of the first generation dendron was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic studies. The structure of the synthesized dendrimers was confirmed by 1H- and 13C-NMR, electrospray mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Cubic non-linear optical behavior of the ferrocene and porphyrin-containing dendrimers ...

  13. Preparation of Sticky Escherichia coli through Surface Display of an Adhesive Catecholamine Moiety

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Joseph P.; Choi, Min-Jung; Kim, Se Hun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Haeshin

    2014-01-01

    Mussels attach to virtually all types of inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments, and catecholamines composed of 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA), lysine, and histidine in mussel adhesive proteins play a key role in the robust adhesion. DOPA is an unusual catecholic amino acid, and its side chain is called catechol. In this study, we displayed the adhesive moiety of DOPA-histidine on Escherichia coli surfaces using outer membrane protein W as an anchoring motif for the firs...

  14. Regioselective transesterifications of cyclohexanone derivatives containing beta-keto and malonic ester moieties

    OpenAIRE

    Makarević, Janja; Žinić, Mladen

    1998-01-01

    The cyclohexanone derivatives 1–6 containing β-ketoester and α-disubstituted malonic ester moieties in the same molecule were found to undergo regioselective transesterifications with benzyl alcohol giving exclusively β-keto benzyl esters. On the contrary, the acyclic derivatives 9, 10 containing β-ketoester and α-monosubstituted malonic ester groups gave mixtures of transesterified products under the same reaction conditions.

  15. Effects of organic moieties on the photoluminescence spectra of perovskite-type tin bromide based compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavassiliou, George C.; Vidali, Maria-Sofia; Pagona, Georgia; Mousdis, George A.; Karousis, Nikolaos; Koutselas, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption (OA) spectra of some compounds of the type (SC)SnBr3, (BC)2SnBr4, and (SC)(BC)2Sn2Br7 (where SC is CH3NH3 + or Cs+; BC is C4H9NH3 + ,CH3C6H4CH2NH3 + ,C12H25NH3 + ,C18H37NH3 + and 1-naphthylmethyl ammonium group), in the forms of thin deposits on several substrates, are investigated. Generally, using the 350 nm as excitation line, the obtained PL spectra of compounds of the type (BC)2SnBr4 with short alkyl chain-length in the alkyl ammonium moiety, show broad and strong bands. For example, the PL spectra of compound (C4H9NH3)2SnBr4 exhibit a weak band at ca 475 nm, attributed to free-excitons and a broad and strong band at ca 570 nm, attributed to radiative decay of self-trapped excitons in the inorganic moiety. This is a bright yellow-orange emission, which can be seen by naked eye, even at room temperature. In the case of the compounds with long alkyl chain-length in the alkyl ammonium moiety, the PL spectra are dominated by an excitonic band, which occurs close to the corresponding fundamental OA edge. The PL spectrum of (1-naphthylmethyl ammonium)2SnBr4 shows the strong red band with main maxima at ca 603 and 642 nm, arising from tetramers of naphthyl moieties. Also, the PL spectra of the compounds of the type (SC)SnBr3 and (SC)(BC)2Sn2Br7, after grinding, show strong bands at 600-620 nm.

  16. Synthesis, Antiviral Bioactivity of Novel 4-Thioquinazoline Derivatives Containing Chalcone Moiety

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Wan; Deyu Hu; Pei Li; Dandan Xie; Xiuhai Gan

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel 4-thioquinazoline derivatives containing chalcone moiety were designed, synthesized and systematically evaluated for their antiviral activity against TMV. The bioassay results showed that most of these compounds exhibited moderate to good anti-TMV activity. In particular, compounds M2 and M6 possessed appreciable protection activities against TMV in vivo, with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 138.1 and 154.8 μg/mL, respectively, which were superior to that of Ri...

  17. Enrichment of humic material with hydroxybenzene moieties intensifies its physiological effects on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Ralph; Menzel, Stefanie; Tiedt, Sophie; Kubsch, Georg; Stösser, Reinhardt; Bährs, Hanno; Putschew, Anke; Saul, Nadine; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2011-10-15

    Dissolved humic substances are taken up by organisms and interact on various molecular and biochemical levels. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, such material can promote longevity and increase its reproductive capacity; moreover, the worms tend to stay for longer in humic-enriched environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the chemical enrichment of humic substances with hydroxybenzene moieties intensifies these physiological effects. Based on the leonardite humic acid HuminFeed (HF), we followed a polycondensation reaction in which this natural humic substance and a dihydroxybenzene (hydroquinone or benzoquinone) served as reaction partners. Several analytical methods showed the formation of the corresponding copolymers. The chemical modification boosted the antioxidant properties of HF both in vitro and in vivo. Humic substances enriched with hydroxybenzene moieties caused a significantly increased tolerance to thermal stress in C. elegans and extended its lifespan. Exposed nematodes showed delayed linear growth and onset of reproduction and a stronger pumping activity of the pharynx. Thus, treated nematodes act younger than they really are. In this feature the modified HF replicated the biological impact of hydroquinone-homopolymers and various plant polyphenol monomers, thereby supporting the hydroxybenzene moieties of humic substances as major effective structures for the physiological effects observed in C. elegans. PMID:21902274

  18. Peptide nanofibers modified with a protein by using designed anchor molecules bearing hydrophobic and functional moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyachi, Ayaka; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Matsumura, Sachiko; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2010-06-11

    Self-assembly of peptides and proteins is a key feature of biological functions. Short amphiphilic peptides designed with a beta-sheet structure can form sophisticated nanofiber structures, and the fibers are available as nanomaterials for arranging biomolecules. Peptide FI (H-PKFKIIEFEP-OH) self-assembles into nanofibers with a coiled fine structure, as reported in our previous work. We have constructed anchor molecules that have both a binding moiety for the fiber structure and a functional unit capable of capturing target molecules, with the purpose of arranging proteins on the designed peptide nanofibers. Designed anchors containing an alkyl chain as a binding unit and biotin as a functional moiety were found to bind to peptide fibers FI and F2i (H-ALEAKFAAFEAKLA-NH(2)). The surface-exposed biotin moiety on the fibers could capture an anti-biotin antibody. Moreover, hydrophobic dipeptide anchor units composed of iminodiacetate connected to Phe-Phe or Ile-Ile and a peptide composed of six histidine residues connected to biotin could also connect FI peptide fibers to the anti-biotin antibody through the chelation of Ni(2+) ions. This strategy of using designed anchors opens a novel approach to constructing nanoscale protein arrays on peptide nanomaterials. PMID:20419712

  19. Polymeric media comprising polybenzimidazoles N-substituted with organic-inorganic hybrid moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Michael G [Pocatello, ID

    2009-12-15

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be included in a separator medium. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The separatory medium may exhibit an H.sub.2, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.3, or CO.sub.2 gas permeability greater than the gas permeability of a comparable separatory medium comprising the PBI compound without substitution. The separatory medium may further include an electronically conductive medium and/or ionically conductive medium. The separatory medium may be used as a membrane (semi-permeable, permeable, and non-permeable), a barrier, an ion exhcange media, a filter, a gas chromatography coating (such as stationary phase coating in affinity chromatography), etc.

  20. Towards a digital body: the virtual arm illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of the human brain with computers is an interesting new area of applied neuroscience, where one application is replacement of a person’s real body by a virtual representation. Here we demonstrate that a virtual limb can be made to feel part of your body if appropriate multisensory correlations are provided. We report an illusion that is invoked through tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real right hand with synchronous virtual visual stimulation on an aligned 3D stereo virtual arm projecting horizontally out of their shoulder. An experiment with 21 male participants showed displacement of ownership towards the virtual hand, as illustrated by questionnaire responses and proprioceptive drift. A control experiment with asynchronous tapping was carried out with a different set of 20 male participants who did not experience the illusion. After 5 minutes of stimulation the virtual arm rotated. Evidence suggests that the extent of the illusion was also correlated with the degree of muscle activity onset in the right arm as measured by EMG during this period that the arm was rotating, for the synchronous but not the asynchronous condition. A completely virtual object can therefore be experienced as part of one’s self, which opens up the possibility that an entire virtual body could be felt as one’s own in future virtual reality applications or online games, and be an invaluable tool for the understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying body ownership.

  1. Slender Spring Systems, for a close-to-body dynamic arm support for people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunning, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to develop a wearable, passive, dynamic arm support that provides users with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) with support to perform activities of daily living. The arm support needs to be inconspicuous and not stigmatizing, to encourage the users to participate in

  2. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  3. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  4. Investigation of the incidence of "undesirable" molecular moieties for high-throughput screening compound libraries in marketed drug compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axerio-Cilies, Peter; Castañeda, Ivan P; Mirza, Amin; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2009-03-01

    A database of 1070 marketed drug compounds was compiled and analyzed in order to assess the occurrence of moieties described in the literature as "undesirable" for high-throughput screening compound libraries due to their ability to perturb assay formats. The study revealed a total of 277 compounds, 26% of the database, contained at least one of the moieties. As some of the drug compounds contained more than one "undesirable" moiety, the total number was 352. Electrophilic reactive groups, particularly aliphatic esters, were the most abundant type with 55% of the total. Half of the drug compounds incorporating the "undesirable" moieties were synthetic organic molecules. These findings suggest that "undesirable" moieties do not pose a major hindrance during clinical trials, the most expensive phase of drug development. In addition, their early elimination in the preclinical stage excludes large regions of known drug space due to the reliance on biochemical and cell-based assays. In general, it can be concluded that compounds with "undesirable" moieties should not simply be eliminated from compound screening libraries but rather be flagged as potentially problematic. A possible solution is to segregate the compounds containing suspect moieties and screen them when deemed appropriate. PMID:18692938

  5. Design of Robotic Arm Control System Mimics Human Arm Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam Al-Ammri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control system to make the robotic hand mimic human hand motion in real time and offline mode. The human hand tracking system is a wearable sensing arm (potentiometers used to determine the position in space and to sense the grasping task of human hand. The maskable sensing arm was designed with same geometrical arrangement of robotic hand that needs to be controlled. The control software of a robot was implemented using Visual Basic and supported with graphical user interface (GUI. The control algorithm depends on joint to joint mapping method to match between the motions at each joint of portable sensing arm with corresponding joint of a robot in order to make the robot mimic the motion.

  6. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  7. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  8. Arm Swing as a Potential New Prodromal Marker of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelman, Anat; Bernad-Elazari, Hagar; Thaler, Avner; Giladi-Yacobi, Eytan; Gurevich, Tanya; Gana-Weisz, Mali; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Raymond, Deborah; Doan, Nancy; Bressman, Susan B.; Marder, Karen S.; Alcalay, Roy N.; Rao, Ashwini K.; Berg, Daniela; Brockmann, Kathrin; Aasly, Jan; Waro, Bjørg Johanne; Tolosa, Eduardo; Vilas, Dolores; Pont-Sunyer, Claustre; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Giladi, Nir

    2016-01-01

    Background Reduced arm swing is a well-known clinical feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD), often observed early in the course of the disease. We hypothesized that subtle changes in arm swing and axial rotation may also be detectable in the prodromal phase. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the LRRK2-G2019S mutation, arm swing, and axial rotation in healthy nonmanifesting carriers and noncarriers of the G2019S mutation and in patients with PD. Methods A total of 380 participants (186 healthy nonmanifesting controls and 194 PD patients) from 6 clinical sites underwent gait analysis while wearing synchronized 3-axis body-fixed sensors on the lower back and bilateral wrists. Participants walked for 1 minute under the following 2 conditions: (1) usual walking and (2) dual-task walking. Arm swing amplitudes, asymmetry, variability, and smoothness were calculated for both arms along with measures of axial rotation. Results A total of 122 nonmanifesting participants and 67 PD patients were carriers of the G2019S mutation. Nonmanifesting mutation carriers walked with greater arm swing asymmetry and variability and lower axial rotation smoothness under the dual task condition when compared with noncarriers (P < .04). In the nonmanifesting mutation carriers, arm swing asymmetry was associated with gait variability under dual task (P = .003). PD carriers showed greater asymmetry and variability of movement than PD noncarriers, even after controlling for disease severity (P < .009). Conclusions The G2019S mutation is associated with increased asymmetry and variability among nonmanifesting participants and patients with PD. Prospective studies should determine if arm swing asymmetry and axial rotation smoothness may be used as motor markers of prodromal PD. PMID:27430880

  9. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  10. Nuclear arms: ethics, strategy, politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolsey, R.J. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The range of debate over strategy and arms control today is broader than it was in the late 1950s and early 1960s. In part this is because the early 1980s debate has involved questioning of the fundamental notion of deterrence - by no less than the American Catholic bishops. Today's debate has also seen a national nuclear freeze campaign that, although its congressional supporters have held firmly to a bilateral approach, was tilted perceptibly towards unilateralism by noncongressional leaders at their national conference in February 1983. In one way or another the authors wrestle with different aspects of one central question: could the beginning steps for any consensus be possible, in today's climate, on strategic issues. Ethical issues are addressed in the first 3 papers: Charles Krauthammer, On Nuclear Morality; Patrick Glynn, The Moral Case for the Arms Buildup; and Michael Quinlarc, Thinking Deterrence Through. Three chapters on strategic considerations include: Brent Snowcroft, Understanding the US Strategic Arsenal; William J. Perry, Technological Prospects for US Strategic Forces; and Richard Burt, The Strategic and Political Lessons of INF. Arms control and politics is treated in chapters by: Walter B. Slocombe, Arms Control: Prospects; and Colin S. Gray, Arms Control: Problems. The nonnuclear dimensions of strategy are discussed in chapters by Amory B. and L. Hunter Lovins, Reducing Vulnerability - The Energy Jugular; and Robert Kupperman, Vulnerable America. The chapters on space and defense are: Hans Mark, Arms Control and Space Technology; and Newt Gingrich and John Madison, Space and National Defense. The concluding chapters are by Sen. Sam Nunn, The Need to Reshape Military Stategy; and the editor, R. James Woolsey, The Politics of Vulnerability, 1980-1983.

  11. Crystal Structures of Two Calix[4]arene Isomers with Benzaldehyde Moiety and Their Photophysical Properties with Terbium(Ⅲ) Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 张衡益; 刘育

    2005-01-01

    Two calix[4]arene isomers with benzaldehyde moieties, i.e., 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis[2-(o-formyl-phenoxy)ethoxy]-26,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene (3) and 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis[2-(p-formylphenoxy)-ethoxy]-26,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene (4), were synthesized according to a newly designed route in high yields, and their crystal structures have been determined by X-ray crystallographic study. The photophysical behavior on complexation of calix[4]arene derivatives 3 and 4 with terbium(Ⅲ) nitrate was investigated in anhydrous acetonitrile at 25℃ by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. The crystallographic structure of 3 indicated that the eight oxygen atoms formed a preorganized ionophoric cavity due to intramolecular π-π stacking, which could encapsulate lanthanide ions tightly. In sharp contrast, the compound 4 formed a linear array by intermolecular π-π stacking, hence the oxygen atoms of pendant arms could not coordinate with metal ions, giving a poor binding ability to Tb3+. The absorption spectra of 3 with Tb3+ showed clearly a new broad intense absorption at 385nm. Interestingly, the narrow emission line spectrum has also been observed for compound 3 with Tb3+, and the results obtained were discussed from the viewpoint of energy transfer mechanism between host structures and the properties of lanthanide ions.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of aromatic and aliphatic ether bridged polymers containing carbazole moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, İsmet, E-mail: kayaismet@hotmail.com; Temizkan, Kevser; Aydın, Aysel

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: Novel ether bridged polymers containing carbazole moieties were synthesized via elimination of HBr. Fluorescence measurements of the polymers were performed using N,N′-dimethyl formamide solutions. The morphologic properties of the polymers were investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Thermal stabilities were determined TGA measurements. -- Highlights: • Novel ether bridged polymers containing carbazole moieties were synthesized via elimination of HBr. • Fluorescence measurements of the polymers were performed using DMF solutions. • The morphologic properties of the polymers were investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy. • Thermal stabilities were determined TGA measurements. -- Abstract: In this study, the polymers were synthesized ether bridged containing carbazole moieties via HBr elimination. Also, these polymers include the aliphatic chains at the different lengths and aromatic groups in their structures. However, the polymers were characterized by FT-IR, NMR and UV–vis spectroscopy, and their thermal stabilities were determined via TGA measurements. Fluorescence measurements were performed using N,N′-dimethyl formamide solutions and also, the optimization of the concentrations to obtain maximal emission intensity was investigated in N,N′-dimethyl formamide. The morphologic properties of the polymers were investigated at different particle sizes by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the number average molecular weight (M{sub n}), weight average molecular weight (M{sub w}) and polydispersity index (PDI) values of the polymers were determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) technique. Resultantly, the remarkable properties related to the fluorescence and thermal measurements of the polymers were obtained. Therefore, these polymers could be used in various application fields because of the fluorescent and thermal properties.

  13. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Novel Sulfonylureas Containing 1,2,4-Triazolinone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuo; PAN Li; LI Yong-hong; WANG Su-hua; LI Zheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    A series of new sulfonylureas incorporating 1,2,4-triazolinone moiety was synthesized,which were further bio-assayed for the herbicidal activity against four herbs,representative of monocotyledons and dicotyledons.Some of them exhibited high potency to inhibit the growth of dicotyledons(Bassica napus and Amaranthus retroflexus) in the pot experiment.Compounds 9a and 9b also displayed an excellent herbicidal activity against Bassica napus at a concentration of 15 g/hectare,which were comparable with commercial triasulfuron.

  14. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF POLYACETYLENES CONTAINING CARBAZOLE AND AMINO ACID MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿金清

    2009-01-01

    Novel 9-proparylcarbazole monomers containing amino acid moieties,2-N(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-alanine- 9-proparylcarbazole ester(1),2-N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-O-cyclohexyl-L-glutamic acid-9-proparylcarbazole ester(2) and 2-N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-phenylalanine-9-proparylcarbazole ester(3) were synthesized and polymerized with (nbd)Rh~+[η~6-C_6H_5B~-(C_6H_5)_3]to give the corresponding polymers with number-average molecular weights ranging from 7050 to 10500 in 70%-86%yields.The polymers were completely...

  15. New metathesis catalyst bearing chromanyl moieties at the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicka, Agnieszka; Suchodolski, Szymon; Wojtkielewicz, Agnieszka; Morzycki, Jacek W; Witkowski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of a new type of Hoveyda-Grubbs 2(nd) generation catalyst bearing a modified N-heterocyclic carbene ligands is reported. The new catalyst contains an NHC ligand symmetrically substituted with chromanyl moieties. The complex was tested in model CM and RCM reactions. It showed very high activity in CM reactions with electron-deficient α,β-unsaturated compounds even at 0 °C. It was also examined in more demanding systems such as conjugated dienes and polyenes. The catalyst is stable, storable and easy to purify. PMID:26877801

  16. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Novel Heterocyclic Compounds Containing a Sulfonamido Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. El-Bordany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming for the synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds containing a sulfonamido moiety suitable for use as antibacterial agents, the precursor ethyl {[4-N-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-ylsulfamoyl]phenylazo}cyanoacetate was reacted with a variety of active methylene compounds producing pyran, pyridine and pyridazine derivatives. Also, the reactivity of the precursor hydrazone towards hydrazine derivatives to give pyrazole and oxazole derivatives was studied. On the other hand, treatment of the same precursor with urea, thiourea and/or guanidine hydrochloride furnished pyrimidine and thiazine derivatives, respectively. The newly synthesized compounds were tested for antibacterial activity, whereby eight compounds were found to have high activities.

  17. New metathesis catalyst bearing chromanyl moieties at the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Hryniewicka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a new type of Hoveyda–Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst bearing a modified N-heterocyclic carbene ligands is reported. The new catalyst contains an NHC ligand symmetrically substituted with chromanyl moieties. The complex was tested in model CM and RCM reactions. It showed very high activity in CM reactions with electron-deficient α,β-unsaturated compounds even at 0 °C. It was also examined in more demanding systems such as conjugated dienes and polyenes. The catalyst is stable, storable and easy to purify.

  18. DFT study and microbiology of some coumarin-based compounds containing a chalcone moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špirtović-Halilović Selma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, a series of coumarin-based compounds containing a chalcone moiety were studied for their in vitro and in silico properties. DFT global chemical reactivity descriptors (chemical hardness, total energy, electronic chemical potential and electrophilicity are calculated for four synthesized compounds and used to predict their relative stability and reactivity. The antibacterial activities of all compounds have been screened against Bacillus subtilis (ATCC No. 6633 and Bacillus cereus (ATCC No. 11778. Quantum-chemical calculations indicate that antibacterial activity correlates well with chemical reactivity descriptors of molecules.

  19. Investigation of Antifouling Properties of Surfaces Featuring Zwitterionic α-Aminophosphonic Acid Moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Natalie; Zimmermann, Phyllis; Heisig, Peter; Klitsche, Franziska; Maison, Wolfgang; Theato, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Zwitterionic thin films containing α-amino phosphonic acid moieties were successfully introduced on silicon surfaces and their antifouling properties were investigated. Initially, the substrates were modified with a hybrid polymer, composed of poly(methylsilsesquioxane) (PMSSQ) and poly(4-vinyl benzaldehyde) (PStCHO). Next, a Kabachnik-Fields post-polymerization modification (sur-KF-PMR) of the functionalized aldehyde surfaces was conducted with different amines and dialkyl phosphonates. After subsequent deprotection reaction of dialkyl phosphonates, the obtained zwitterionic surfaces were characterized by various techniques and we found excellent antifouling properties of the resulting films. PMID:26332285

  20. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Nonsymmetric Liquid Crystal Dimer Containing Biphenyl and Azobenzene Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sandy Subala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calamitic liquid crystalline dimer containing azobenzene moiety and a decyloxy biphenyl linked by flexible spacers {4-[7-(4′-decyloxy-biphenyl-4-yloxy-alkyloxy]-phenyl}-(4-decyl-phenyl-diazene has been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The transition temperatures and phase behaviours were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC and Polarizing Optical Microscope (POM. The synthesized compounds exhibited enantiotropic liquid crystal phase with higher spacer display nematic and smectic C phases while lower spacer shows nematic and smectic A phases.

  2. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing Piperazine Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Design and synthesis of triazole library antifungal agents having piperazine side chains, analogues to fluconazole were documented. The synthesis highlighted utilization of the click chemistry on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and IR. The influences of piperazine moiety on in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi.

  3. The lipid moiety of brincidofovir is required for in vitro antiviral activity against Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Laura K; Flint, Mike; Dyall, Julie; Albariño, César; Olinger, Gene G; Foster, Scott; Sethna, Phiroze; Hensley, Lisa E; Nichol, Stuart T; Lanier, E Randall; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-01-01

    Brincidofovir (BCV) is the 3-hexadecyloxy-1-propanol (HDP) lipid conjugate of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV). BCV has established broad-spectrum activity against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses; however, its activity against RNA viruses has been less thoroughly evaluated. Here, we report that BCV inhibited infection of Ebola virus in multiple human cell lines. Unlike the mechanism of action for BCV against cytomegalovirus and other dsDNA viruses, phosphorylation of CDV to the diphosphate form appeared unnecessary. Instead, antiviral activity required the lipid moiety and in vitro activity against EBOV was observed for several HDP-nucleotide conjugates.

  4. Intervalence transfer of ferrocene moieties adsorbed on electrode surfaces by a conjugated linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Brown, Lauren E.; Konopelski, Joseph P.; Chen, Shaowei

    2009-03-01

    Effective intervalence transfer occurred between the metal centers of ferrocene moieties that were adsorbed onto a ruthenium thin film surface by ruthenium-carbene π bonds, a direct verification of Hush's four-decade-old prediction. Electrochemical measurements showed two pairs of voltammetric peaks where the separation of the formal potentials suggested a Class II behavior. Additionally, the potential spacing increased with increasing ferrocene surface coverage, most probably as a consequence of the enhanced contribution from through-space electronic interactions between the metal centers. In contrast, the incorporation of a sp 3 carbon spacer into the ferrocene-ruthenium linkage led to the diminishment of interfacial electronic communication.

  5. Design, synthesis and antiproliferative activities of diaryl urea derivatives bearing N-acylhydrazone moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei Zhang; Yan Fang Zhao; Xin Zhai; Wei Jie Fan; Jun Ling Ren; Chun Fu Wu; Ping Gong

    2012-01-01

    A new series of diaryl urea derivatives bearing N-acylhydrazone moiety were designed and synthesized.All the target compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against human leukemia cell line (HL-60),human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell hne (A549) and human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) in vitro by standard MTT assay.The pharmacological results indicated that some compounds exhibited promising antitumor activities.Compound lj showed the most potent antiproliferative activity against the tested three cell lines with IC50 values of 0.13 μmol/L,0.7 μ mol/L and 0.5 μmol/L,respectively.

  6. An efficient synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of Schiff bases containing 9,10-anthracenedione moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method has been developed for the synthesis of novel Schiff bases containg anthraquinone moiety using dodeca-Tungstosilicic acid/P2O5 under solvent free conditions at room temperature. The reaction was completed in 1-3 minutes with excellent yields. This method was found to be more efficient, easy and hazardous free for the synthesis of azomethines. The development of these type of methadologies in synthetic chemistry may contribute to green chemistry. The structures of synthesized novel Schiff bases was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, LCMS, FTIR and CHN analysis.

  7. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry - Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, James B.; Causey, Corey P.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Toone, Eric J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-05-01

    The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen-oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  8. Synthesis and Evaluation of 125I Labeled Chalcone Derivatives Containing Bithiophene Moiety as Potential Aβ Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Cheng; CUI Meng-chao; LIANG, ZHI-GANG; Liu, Ting-Ting

    2015-01-01

    In continuation of the investigation on the bithiophene structure as potential Aβ probes, two halogenated chalcone derivatives containing bithiophene moiety were designed and evaluated as imaging probes for Aβ plaques. In vitro fluorescence staining indicated that they could stain Aβ plaques in the brain sections of AD model mice specifically, in vitro binding assay further confirmed that they displayed high binding affinities to Aβ aggregates (Ki=2.33 nM and 0.88 nM). One radio-iodinated pro...

  9. Synthesis of new simplified hemiasterlin derivatives with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety.

    OpenAIRE

    The, Chinh Pham; Thi, Tuyet Anh Dang; Hoang, Thi Phuong; Ngo, Quoc Anh; Doan, Duy Tien; Thi, Thu Ha Nguyen; Thi, Tham Pham; Thi, Thu Ha Vu; JEAN, M; P. VAN DE WEGHE; Van, Tuyen Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    International audience In this Letter, we report a convenient and efficient method for the synthesis of new simplified derivatives of hemiasterlin in which the α,α-dimethylbenzylic moiety A is replaced by α,β-unsaturated aryl groups as Michael acceptor. Most of these derivatives have a strong cytotoxic activity on three human tumor cell lines (KB, Hep-G2 and MCF7). Analogs 17b and 17f showed a high cytotoxicity against KB and Hep-G2 cancer cell lines comparable to paclitaxel and ellipticin...

  10. Synthesis of Andrographolide Glucopyranoside and Selective Cleavage of O-acetyl Groups in Sugar Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-Min; LIU Hong-Min

    2008-01-01

    Andrographolide glucopyranosides were synthesized from andrographolide and tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl bromide via a Koenigs-Knorr reaction and deacetylation with a moderate deacetylation reagent dibutyltin oxide in methanol for the first time.The structures of the andrographolide derivatives were confirmed by IR, NMR,and HRMS.Deprotection of the acetylated andrographolide glucopyranoside with dibutyltin oxide in methanol selectively removed all acetyl groups of the sugar moiety, whereas the acetyl group of the andrographolide part and the base- or acid-sensitive functional groups were retained.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of some new biquinoline derivatives containing a thiazole moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirav K. Shah; Nimesh M. Shah; Manish P. Patel; Ranjan G. Patel

    2012-01-01

    A series of new biquinoline derivatives containing a thiazole moiety were synthesized by a one-pot,base-catalyzed cyclocondensation reaction of 2-chloro-3-formyl quinoline,malononitrile and enaminone.All the synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis,FT-IR,1H NMR and 13C NMR data.All the synthesized compounds were screened against three bacterial pathogens,namely Bacillus cereus,B.substilis and Escherichia coli and for antifungal activity against three fungal pathogens,Aspergillus niger,Fusarium oxisporum and Rhizopus using the disc diffusion method.

  12. User participation in implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Benedicte; Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    Systems development has been claimed to benefit from user participation, yet user participation in implementation activities may be more common and is a growing focus of participatory-design work. We investigate the effect of the extensive user participation in the implementation of a clinical...... system by empirically analyzing how management, participating staff, and non-participating staff view the implementation process with respect to areas that have previously been linked to user participation such as system quality, emergent interactions, and psychological buy-in. The participating staff...... experienced more uncertainty and frustration than management and non-participating staff, especially concerning how to run an implementation process and how to understand and utilize the configuration possibilities of the system. This suggests that user participation in implementation introduces a need...

  13. Structural Conservation Practices in U.S. Corn Production: Evidence on Environmental Stewardship by Program Participants and Non-Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Schaible, Glenn D.; Kim, C. S.; Lambert, Dayton M.

    2007-01-01

    This study used the 2005 ERS CEAP-ARMS data for corn production to first compare key operator, field, farm, economic, and environmental characteristics of conservation program participants with non-participants, by farm-size class. We then estimate a cost-function based technology adoption model of producer decisions regarding the allocation of field-level acres between corn production and infield and perimeter-field conservation structures to examine how these conservation choices differ bet...

  14. Novel chiral stationary phases based on peptoid combining a quinine/quinidine moiety through a C9-position carbamate group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibo; Wang, Dongqiang; Song, Guangjun; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-04-01

    By connecting a quinine or quinidine moiety to the peptoid chain through the C9-position carbamate group, we synthesized two new chiral selectors. After immobilizing them onto 3-mercaptopropyl-modified silica gel, two novel chiral stationary phases were prepared. With neutral, acid, and basic chiral compounds as analytes, we evaluated these two stationary phases and compared their chromatographic performance with chiral columns based on quinine tert-butyl carbamate and the previous peptoid. From the resolution of neutral and basic analytes under normal-phase mode, it was found that the new stationary phases exhibited much better enantioselectivity than the quinine tert-butyl carbamate column; the peptoid moiety played an important role in enantiorecognition, which controlled the elution orders of enantiomers; the assisting role of the cinchona alkaloid moieties was observed in some separations. Under acid polar organic phase mode, it was proved that cinchona alkaloid moieties introduced excellent enantiorecognitions for chiral acid compounds; in some separations, the peptoid moiety affected enantioseparations as well. Overall, chiral moieties with specific enantioselectivity were demonstrated to improve the performance of peptoid chiral stationary phase efficiently.

  15. Ranking the European armed forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeres, R.J.M.; Bogers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of collectiveness aimed for in European defence policy raises issues such as burden sharing and relative performance measurement of the European Armed Forces (EAF). This paper compares EAF performance rates on three dimensions: input, throughput and output. In order to express performance

  16. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  17. Rhetorical Histories and Arms Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the use of historical events as rhetorical artifacts has sustained cold war assumptions and attitudes; that rhetorical events provide composites for rhetorical histories which become the basis for argumentative appeals; and that these rhetorical histories continue to permeate American diplomacy in general and arms negotiations in…

  18. Multiple Identifications in Multi-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Viswanathan, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of identifying the top $m$ arms in a multi-armed bandit game. Our proposed solution relies on a new algorithm based on successive rejects of the seemingly bad arms, and successive accepts of the good ones. This algorithmic contribution allows to tackle other multiple identifications settings that were previously out of reach. In particular we show that this idea of successive accepts and rejects applies to the multi-bandit best arm identification problem.

  19. CT imaging with a mobile C-arm prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryauka, Arvi; Tubbs, David; Langille, Vinton; Kalya, Prabhanjana; Smith, Brady; Cherone, Rocco

    2008-03-01

    Mobile X-ray imagery is an omnipresent tool in conventional musculoskeletal and soft tissue applications. The next generation of mobile C-arm systems can provide clinicians of minimally-invasive surgery and pain management procedures with both real-time high-resolution fluoroscopy and intra-operative CT imaging modalities. In this study, we research two C-arm CT experimental system configurations and evaluate their imaging capabilities. In a non-destructive evaluation configuration, the X-ray Tube - Detector assembly is stationary while an imaging object is placed on a rotating table. In a medical imaging configuration, the C-arm gantry moves around the patient and the table. In our research setting, we connect the participating devices through a Mobile X-Ray Imaging Environment known as MOXIE. MOXIE is a set of software applications for internal research at GE Healthcare - Surgery and used to examine imaging performance of experimental systems. Anthropomorphic phantom volume renderings and orthogonal slices of reconstructed images are obtained and displayed. The experimental C-arm CT results show CT-like image quality that may be suitable for interventional procedures, real-time data management, and, therefore, have great potential for effective use on the clinical floor.

  20. C-terminal moiety of Tudor contains its in vivo activity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Anne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early Drosophila embryos, the germ plasm is localized to the posterior pole region and is partitioned into the germline progenitors, known as pole cells. Germ plasm, or pole plasm, contains the polar granules which form during oogenesis and are required for germline development. Components of these granules are also present in the perinuclear region of the nurse cells, the nuage. One such component is Tudor (Tud which is a large protein containing multiple Tudor domains. It was previously reported that specific Tudor domains are required for germ cell formation and Tud localization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the function of Tud the distribution and functional activity of fragments of Tud were analyzed. These fragments were fused to GFP and the fusion proteins were synthesized during oogenesis. Non-overlapping fragments of Tud were found to be able to localize to both the nuage and pole plasm. By introducing these fragments into a tud mutant background and testing their ability to rescue the tud phenotype, I determined that the C-terminal moiety contains the functional activity of Tud. Dividing this fragment into two parts reduces its localization in pole plasm and abolishes its activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: I conclude that the C-terminal moiety of Tud contains all the information necessary for its localization in the nuage and pole plasm and its pole cell-forming activity. The present results challenge published data and may help refining the functional features of Tud.

  1. Effect of carbazole as a donor moiety on the second-order nonlinearity of organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Guilia; Berkovic, Garry; Kotler, Zvi; Ben-Asuly, Amos; Mazor, Royi; Shapiro, Lev; Khodorkovsky, Vladimir

    1999-10-01

    The second order nonlinearity of conjugated organic molecules involving, 1,3 indandione derivatives as an acceptor moiety has been studied. Varying the donor from dialkylamino to the chemically similar substituent, N- carbazolyl resulted in a drastic reduction of electric field induced second harmonic (beta) values. For some molecules, even a small negative value of (beta) was received. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the decrease occurs as a result of two overlapping transitions, which contribute to (beta) with opposite signs. The charge transfer band gives a positive (beta) zzz along the molecular long axis, while a transition essentially within the carbazole moiety provides a negative (beta zzz contribution to (beta EFISH. Thus, these molecules must be described with a 2D model as opposed to the 'classical' model of 1D nonlinear optical chromophores. The prediction of the 2D model was verified experimentally by using a combination of two methods, EFISH and Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering, which probe different combination of the (beta) tensor elements.

  2. Preservation of peptide moieties in three Spanish sulfur-rich Tertiary kerogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, J.C. del [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Seville (Spain). Inst. de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia; Olivella, M.A.; Heras, F.X.D. de las [Escola Universitaria Politecnica de Manresa, Catalonia (Spain); Knicker, H. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde

    2004-09-01

    Thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and solid-state {sup 15}N NMR were utilized for the characterization of refractory organic nitrogen in Tertiary Spanish kerogens. The samples included sulfur-rich oil shales from the Ribesalbes (Serravallian), Libros (Tortonian) and Cerdanya (Tortonian) basins. Analysis using solid state {sup 15}N NMR showed that part of the refractory nitrogen in the kerogens corresponds to amide groups. Moreover, the release of amino acid derivatives after pyrolysis in the presence of TMAH indicated that this amide-N arose from peptide moieties. The amino acids released from the kerogens were dominated by high amounts of glycine and alanine. Minor amounts of aspartic acid, serine, {alpha}-aminobutyric acid and other unidentified amino acids were also detected. Because proteinaceous structures, including small peptides, are generally considered as being highly sensitive to diagenetic degradation, encapsulation of labile peptide material into aliphatic structures in S-rich kerogens (probably via lipid sulfurization) has been proposed to explain the survival of these moieties. Substantial amounts of fatty acids (as methyl esters) were also released from all the kerogens after pyrolysis/TMAH, indicating their highly aliphatic character. The production of both fatty acids and amino acids from the kerogens supports the encapsulation process. (author)

  3. [New synthesis of the anticoagulant pentasaccharide idraparinux and preparation of its analogues containing sulfonic acid moieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczeg, Mihály

    2012-01-01

    Two novel synthetic pathways were elaborated for the preparation of idraparinux, a heparin-related fully O-sulfated, O-methylated anticoagulant pentasaccharide. Both methods based upon a [2+3] block synthesis utilizing the same trisaccharide acceptor which was coupled to either a uronic acid disaccharide donor or its nonoxidized precursor. Two bioisosteric sulfonic acid analogues of idraparinux were also prepared, in which two or three primary sulfate esters were replaced by sodium-sulfonatomethyl moieties. The sulfonic acid groups were formed on a monosaccharide level and the obtained carbohydrate sulfonic acid esters were found to be excellent donors and acceptors in the glycosylation reactions. The disulfonic-acid analogue was prepared in a [2+3] block synthesis by using a trisaccharide disulfonic acid as an acceptor and a glucuronide disaccharide as a donor. For the synthesis of the pentasaccharide trisulfonic acid, a more-efficient approach, which involved elongation of the trisaccharide acceptor with a non-oxidized precursor of the glucuronic acid followed by post-glycosidation oxidation at the tetrasaccharide level and a subsequent [1+4] coupling reaction, was elaborated. In vitro evaluation of the anticoagulant activity of the reference compound idraparinux and the new sulfonic acid derivatives revealed that the disulfonate analogue inhibited the blood-coagulation-proteinase factor Xa with outstanding efficacy; however, the introduction of the third sulfonic acid moiety resulted in a notable decrease in the anti-Xa activity. PMID:23230650

  4. Synthesis and Properties of Poly(aryl ether ketone) Copolymers Containing 2,7-Naphthalene Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Poly(aryl ether ketone) copolymers containing 2,7-naphthylene and hydroquinone(HQ) moieties with various compositions were prepared by the reaction of 4,4′-difluorobenzophenone(DFB) 2,7-naphthylene and hydroquinone in the presence of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate(19∶1, mass ratio) in diphenyl sulfone(DPS). The thermal analysis results of the copolymers show that the glass transition temperatures(Tgs) increase, while the melting temperatures(Tm) and the 5.0% weight loss temperatures(Td) decrease with the increase of the 2,7-naphthalene moieties. For the copolymers synthesized at a molar fraction of 2,7-naphthalene in the difluoro monomers being over 0.30, no peaks corresponding to the cold crystallization temperature and the melting temperature could be detected, indicating that these copolymers are almost amorphous. The crystal structures of the copolymers with a molar fraction of 2,7-naphthalene being less than 0.30 are rhombic.

  5. Revealing the role of catechol moieties in the interactions between peptides and inorganic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Priyadip; Reches, Meital

    2016-08-18

    Catechol (1,2-dihydroxy benzene) moieties are being widely used today in new adhesive technologies. Understanding their mechanism of action is therefore of high importance for developing their applications in materials science. This paper describes a single-molecule study of the interactions between catechol-related amino acid residues and a well-defined titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface. It is the first quantified measurement of the adhesion of these residues with a well-defined TiO2 surface. Single-molecule force spectroscopy measurements with AFM determined the role of different substitutions of the catechol moiety on the aromatic ring in the adhesion to the surface. These results shed light on the nature of interactions between these residues and inorganic metal oxide surfaces. This information is important for the design and fabrication of catechol-based materials such as hydrogels, coatings, and composites. Specifically, the interaction with TiO2 is important for the development of solar cells. PMID:27503417

  6. Synthesis, Antiviral Bioactivity of Novel 4-Thioquinazoline Derivatives Containing Chalcone Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 4-thioquinazoline derivatives containing chalcone moiety were designed, synthesized and systematically evaluated for their antiviral activity against TMV. The bioassay results showed that most of these compounds exhibited moderate to good anti-TMV activity. In particular, compounds M2 and M6 possessed appreciable protection activities against TMV in vivo, with 50% effective concentration (EC50 values of 138.1 and 154.8 μg/mL, respectively, which were superior to that of Ribavirin (436.0 μg/mL. The results indicated that chalcone derivatives containing 4-thioquinazoline moiety could effectively control TMV. Meanwhile, the structure-activity relationship (SAR of the target compounds, studied using the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR method of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA based on the protection activities against TMV, demonstrated that the CoMFA model exhibited good predictive ability with the cross-validated q2 and non-cross-validated r2 values of 0.674 and 0.993, respectively. Meanwhile, the microscale thermophoresis (MST experimental showed that the compound M6 may interaction with the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein (TMV CP.

  7. Displacement Through Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Citizen participation is often regarded as a means to increase local democracy. Seldom is participation viewed as a means to legitimate disruptive practices of states. However, participation can become a tool for the effective implementation of policy rather than a means to enhance justice, if no po

  8. School Lunch Program Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchino, Lori; Ranney, Christine K.

    1990-01-01

    Reductions in participation in National School Lunch Program in 1981-82 are of concern to hunger groups and legislators. Extent to which Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts (OBRA) of 1980-81 contributes to participation decline was measured by simulation model in New York State. Results suggest that OBRA increased participation; declining…

  9. Participation in adult learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This entry presents an internationally comparative overview of adult learning patterns. Emphasis is placed on who is participating in adult learning and the observed unequal chances to participate. The entry covers three overarching questions that are central to participation research: a) What...

  10. Connecting Participant Observation Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCurdy, Patrick; Uldam, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue for the importance of considering participant observation roles in relation to both insider/outsider and overt/covert roles. Through combining key academic debates on participant observation, which have separately considered insider/outsider and overt/covert participant...

  11. On the nature of motor planning variables during arm pointing movement: Compositeness and speed dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Van Hoan; Isableu, Brice; Berret, Bastien

    2016-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of the variables and rules underlying the planning of unrestrained 3D arm reaching. To identify whether the brain uses kinematic, dynamic and energetic values in an isolated manner or combines them in a flexible way, we examined the effects of speed variations upon the chosen arm trajectories during free arm movements. Within the optimal control framework, we uncovered which (possibly composite) optimality criterion underlays at best the empirical data. Fifteen participants were asked to perform free-endpoint reaching movements from a specific arm configuration at slow, normal and fast speeds. Experimental results revealed that prominent features of observed motor behaviors were significantly speed-dependent, such as the chosen reach endpoint and the final arm posture. Nevertheless, participants exhibited different arm trajectories and various degrees of speed dependence of their reaching behavior. These inter-individual differences were addressed using a numerical inverse optimal control methodology. Simulation results revealed that a weighted combination of kinematic, energetic and dynamic cost functions was required to account for all the critical features of the participants' behavior. Furthermore, no evidence for the existence of a speed-dependent tuning of these weights was found, thereby suggesting subject-specific but speed-invariant weightings of kinematic, energetic and dynamic variables during the motor planning process of free arm movements. This suggested that the inter-individual difference of arm trajectories and speed dependence was not only due to anthropometric singularities but also to critical differences in the composition of the subjective cost function. PMID:27132233

  12. Characterization of progesterone-binding moieties in the little skate Raja erinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, M; Callard, I P

    1998-01-01

    In this study we report evidence of a [3H]progesterone-binding moiety in the liver and oviduct of the little skate Raja erinacea. It is characterized by high affinity, low capacity and DNA-cellulose-binding activity. Furthermore Western blot analysis revealed that monoclonal antibodies against the chicken progesterone receptor (PR) subunits A and B cross-reacted with a 110-kDa band in the liver and a 80-kDa band in the oviduct. When analyzed by DEAE-Sepharose ion-exchange column chromatography, [3H]progesterone-binding molecules resolved into two peaks, one nonadherent and one adherent to the column. The liver adherent peak eluted in a linear gradient at a NaCl concentration of about 0.07 M and resolved on Western blot as a single band of a 110 kDa. The oviduct adherent peak eluted at about 0.14 M NaCl and resolved on Western blot as a single band of 80 kDa. Competition studies showed that the progesterone-binding moiety in the cytosol was specific for progesterone. On the contrary, the nuclear component is not specific for progesterone; it also binds testosterone and estradiol 17 beta in the oviduct, and progesterone, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol 17 beta, mibolerone, and R5020 in the liver. The [3H]progesterone-binding activity was monitored in both liver and oviduct of females in different reproductive stages. Females were separated into three groups; laying, nonlaying, and immature. [3H]Progesterone-binding activity levels were higher in the liver of immature than of nonlaying skates, and it was undetectable in laying skates. [3H]Progesterone binding was higher in the oviduct of laying and nonlaying skates than of immature skates. This PR-binding moiety has many characteristics of a true receptor: high affinity, low capacity, binds to DNA, and cross-reacts with antibodies against chicken PR. However, while the cytosolic form of this progesterone-binding component was quite specific for P, nuclear extracted material was nonspecific. If these

  13. Arm vs. Combined Leg and Arm Exercise: Blood Pressure Responses and Ratings of Perceived Exertion at the Same Indirectly Determined Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Di Blasio; Andrea Sablone; Paola Civino; Emanuele D'Angelo; Sabina Gallina; Patrizio Ripari

    2009-01-01

    Pre-participation screening is very important for prescribing and practising exercise safely. The aim of this study was to investigate both ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood pressure responses in two different types of exercises with matching duration and indirectly determined working heart rate (HR). Participants were 23 male students, who were generally healthy but sedentary. The time course of their RPE and blood pressure during a 50- minute work-out session on an arm crank erg...

  14. Difference of carboxybetaine and oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties in altering hydrophobic interactions: a molecular simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qing; White, Andrew D; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Polycarboxybetaine and poly(ethylene glycol) materials resist nonspecific protein adsorption but differ in influencing biological functions such as enzymatic activity. To investigate this difference, we studied the influence of carboxybetaine and oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties on hydrophobic interactions using molecular simulations. We employed a model system composed of two non-polar plates and studied the potential of mean force of plate-plate association in carboxybetaine, (ethylene glycol)4, and (ethylene glycol)2 solutions using well-tempered metadynamics simulations. Water, trimethylamine N-oxide, and urea solutions were used as reference systems. We analyzed the variation of the potential of mean force in various solutions to study how carboxybetaine and oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties influence the hydrophobic interactions. To study the origin of their influence, we analyzed the normalized distributions of moieties and water molecules using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results showed that oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties repel water molecules away from the non-polar plates and weaken the hydrophobic interactions. Carboxybetaine moieties do not repel water molecules away from the plates and therefore do not influence the hydrophobic interactions.

  15. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  16. Antidepressant potential of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic moieties: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Siddiqui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is currently the fourth leading cause of disease or disability worldwide. Antidepressant is approved for the treatment of major depression (including paediatric depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (in both adult and paediatric populations, bulimia nervosa, panic disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used to alleviate mood disorders, such as major depression and dysthymia and anxiety disorders such as social anxiety disorder. Many drugs produce an antidepressant effect, but restrictions on their use have caused controversy and off-label prescription a risk, despite claims of superior efficacy. Our current understanding of its pathogenesis is limited and existing treatments are inadequate, providing relief to only a subset of people suffering from depression. Reviews of literature suggest that heterocyclic moieties and their derivatives has proven success in treating depression.

  17. Synthesis and anticandidal evaluation of new benzothiazole derivatives with hydrazone moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurttaş, Leyla; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım; Göger, Gamze; Demirci, Fatih

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we have performed the synthesis of new N'-(arylidene)-4-[(benzothiazol-2-yl)thio]butanoylhydrazide derivatives (3a-s) bearing azole moiety and hydrazone group in a lipophilic structural framework. The target compounds were prepared by a three step synthetic procedure starting from 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. The structures of the target compounds were elucidated by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectra and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the obtained compounds has been determined against a number of clinic and fluconazole-resistant Candida strains by using microdilution method. Compounds (3a-3s) exhibited anticandidal activity in different ratios varying between the range of MIC: 50 and 200 µg/mL. PMID:26247354

  18. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Herbicidal Activities of 2-Cyanoacrylates Containing 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tingting; Miao Wenke; Wu Shanshan; Bing Guifang; Zhang Xin; Qin Zhenfang; Yu Haibo; Qin Xue; Fang Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Three series of novel 2-cyanoacrylates 7a-7f, 9a-9f, 10a-10f containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring moieties were synthesized as herbicidal inhibitors of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) electron transportation. Their structures were clearly verified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis (or HRMS analysis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioassay showed that a suitable group at the 3-position of acrylates was essential for high herbicidal activ-ity. In particular, compound 7e showed the best herbicidal activities and gave 100% inhibitory activity against rape and amaranth pigweed at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha. Introduction of substituent with higher polarity such as sulfinyl or sulfonyl to the 5-position of 1,3,4-thiadiazole decreased herbicidal activities.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some new amide moiety bearing quinoxaline derivatives as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Mohsen, U; Yurttaş, L; Acar, U; Özkay, Y; Kaplacikli, Z A; Karaca Gencer, H; Cantürk, Z

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to synthesize some new quinoxaline derivatives bearing amide moiety and to evaluate their antimicrobial activity. A set of 16 novel compounds of N-[2,3-bis(4-methoxy/methylphenyl)quinoxalin-6-yl]-substituted benzamide derivatives were synthesized by reacting 2,3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-aminoquinoxaline or 2,3-bis(4-methylphenyl)-6-aminoquinoxaline with benzoyl chloride derivatives in tetrahydrofuran and investigated for their antimicrobial activity. The structures of the obtained final compounds were confirmed by spectral data (IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and MS). The antimicrobial activity of the compounds were determined by using the microbroth dilution method. Antimicrobial activity results revealed that synthesized compounds exhibited remarkable activity against Candida krusei (ATCC 6258) and Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019).

  20. The effect of the formyl group position upon asymmetric isomeric diarylethenes bearing a naphthalene moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjie Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new isomeric asymmetric diarylethenes with a naphthyl moiety and a formyl group at the para, meta or ortho position of the terminal benzene ring were synthesized. Their photochromism, fluorescent-switch, and electrochemical properties were investigated. Among these diarylethenes, the one with a formyl group at the ortho position of benzene displayed the largest molar absorption coefficients and fluorescence quantum yield. The cyclization quantum yields of these compounds increased in the order of para para > ortho. Additionally, all of these diarylethenes functioned as effective fluorescent switches in both solution and PMMA films. Cyclic voltammograms proved that the formyl group and its position could effectively modulate the electrochemical behaviors of these diarylethene derivatives.

  1. Synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial activity of N-arylquinoline derivatives bearing 2-morpholinoquinoline moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jigar A. Makawana; Manish P. Patel; Ranjan G. Patel

    2012-01-01

    A new series of N-arylquinoline derivatives 5a-x bearing 2-morpholinoquinoline moiety has been synthesized by one pot base catalyzed cyclocondensation reaction of 2-morpholinoquinoline-3-carbaldehydes 2a-c,malononitrile 3 and β-enaminones 4a-h.All the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against six bacterial pathogens,namely Streptococcus pneumoniae,Clostridium tetani,Bacillus subtilis,Salmonella typhi,Vibrio cholerae,Escherichia coli and against two fungal pathogens,Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans using broth microdilution MIC method.Of the compounds studied,majority of the compounds were found to active against C.tetani,B.subtilis and C.albicans as compared to first-line standard drugs.

  2. Crowned spiropyran fluoroionophores with a carboxyl moiety for the selective detection of lithium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubing, D B; Heng, S; Abell, A D

    2016-04-12

    The absorbance and fluorescence spectra of carboxylated spiropyrans containing methyl-1-aza-12-crown-4, methyl-1-aza-15-crown-5, methyl-1-aza-18-crown-6 moieties are compared. Characteristic changes in spectra after addition of the alkali metal salts of Li(+), Na(+), K(+) and Cs(+) were observed. Chromism induced by the binding of the metal cations was observed as an increase in absorbance and fluorescence. Of these metal cations, the Li(+) ion produced the largest change in all three spiropyran systems. Reversible photoswitching of the spiropyran-metal complexes was observed on irradiation with alternating 352 nm UV and white light. This results in reversible fluorescence based sensing of lithium ions with potential for use in a biological sensor device. PMID:27001932

  3. A hydrophilic fluorescent polymer containing naphthalimide moiety as chemosensor for microbioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A novel hydrophilic copolymer P(NI-HEMA) containing the pendant group of naphthalimide moiety has been prepared. In the aqueous buffer solution, its film on the glass substrate shows an obvious fluorescence change and excellent linear relevance in the pH range of 5.8-8.0. Specifically, using the isobestic point at 406 nm as excitation wavelength can avoid the UV irradiation and the tedious calibration process. The film stability and hydrophilicity of copolymer P(NI-HEMA) were studied. Because of the easy synthesis, low price and high linear relevance to pH, the hydrophilic chemosensor film of P(NI- HEMA) could be potentially applied as a low-cost pH indicator for high-throughput bioprocessing in microreactors.

  4. A hydrophilic fluorescent polymer containing naphthalimide moiety as chemosensor for microbioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN LiangJun; ZHU WeiHong; MENG XianLe; GUO ZhiQian; TIAN He

    2009-01-01

    A novel hydrophilic copolymer P(NI-HEMA) containing the pendant group of naphthalimide moiety has been prepared. In the aqueous buffer solution, its film on the glass substrate shows an obvious fluo-rescanca change and excellent linear relevance in the pH range of 5.8--8.0. Specifically, using the is- obestic point at 406 nm as excitation wavelength can avoid the UV irradiation and the tedious calibra-tion process. The film stability and hydrophilicity of copolymer P(NI-HEMA) were studied. Because of the easy synthesis, low price and high linear relevance to pH, the hydrophilic chemosensor film of P(NI-HEMA) could be potentially applied as a low-cost pH indicator for high-throughput bioprocessing in microreactors.

  5. Synthesis and Biological Investigation of some Novel Sulfonamide and Amide Derivatives Containing Coumarin Moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Mina; Goli, Fereshteh; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    New sulfonamide and amide derivatives containing coumarin moieties; oxo-2H-chromen-sulfamoylphenylacetamides and oxo-2H-chromen-arylacetamides were synthesized starting from diverse 2-chloroacetamide derivatives and a wide range of coumarins. The structures of compounds were elucidated by IR and NMR spectra and also analytical elemental analysis. In the next step, the above mentioned compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Their antimicrobial activity was assigned using the conventional agar dilution method and the antioxidant activity was assessed using two methods, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Although the compounds showed no remarkable antimicrobial activities, most of them exhibited good antioxidant activities. Compounds 5b showed the most potent DPPH activity, whereas 8c was the most efficient compound in FRAP assay. PMID:25276188

  6. A one-pot reaction to synthesize two types of fluorescent materials containing benzothiazolyl moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianzhi; Zhang, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yuling; Chai, Haifang; Fan, Duowang; Ma, Ying; Yao, Shanglei; Li, Wentao

    2013-05-01

    Two different types of fluorescent materials containing benzothiazolyl moiety, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenol derivatives and 3-(benzothiazol-2-yl)coumarin derivatives, were synthesized synchronously using ethyl cyanoacetate, appropriate aromatic aldehyde and 2-aminothiophenol as the starting materials under the catalysis of benzoic acid by one-pot reaction. This method has the advantages of mild reaction conditions, easy processing and low waste. All synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR spectra. The structures of 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenol derivatives, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenol (BTP) and 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)naphthol (BTN), were determined by X-ray single crystal analysis. The UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra of all synthesized compounds were investigated. The 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenol derivatives exhibit bright green emissions and 3-(benzothiazol-2-yl)coumarin derivatives emit bright blue light in solutions.

  7. Anion Sensing Properties of New Colorimetric Chemosensors Based on Thiourea and Urea Moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wan; Kim, Jung Hwan; Hwang, Jae Young; Park, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Sang [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    A new colorimetric sensors containing thiourea (1-(4-nitrophenyl)-3-quinolin-6-ylthiourea: 1) and urea(1-(4- nitrophenyl)-3-quinolin-6-ylurea: 2) moieties for fluoride were designed and synthesized. These simple receptors were characterized their stoichiometry, and investigates the mechanism of their selectivity as anion receptors. The addition of tetrabutylammonium fluoride salts to the solution of receptors caused a dramatically and clearly observable color changes from colorless to yellow. To examine their application as anion receptors by UV-vis and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy results revealed their higher selectivity for fluoride ion than other anions. The receptors and fluoride ion formed a 1:1 stoichiometry complex through strong hydrogen bonding interactions in the first step, followed by a process of deprotonation in presence of an excess of F{sup -} in DMSO solvent

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of novel small peptides with aminophosphonates moiety as NOP receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenova, Emilia D; Todorov, Petar T; Mateeva, Polina I; Zamfirova, Rositza N; Pavlov, Nikola D; Todorov, Simeon B

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was the synthesis and the biological screening of new analogs of Ac-RYYRWK-NH2, modified at the N-terminal with 1-[(methoxyphosphono)methylamino]cycloalkanecarboxylic acids. The four newly synthesized ligands for the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptor (NOP) have been prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis--Fmoc-strategy. These compounds were tested for agonistic activity in vitro on electrically stimulated smooth-muscle preparations isolated from vas deferens of Wistar rats. Our data showed that substitution of Arg at position 1 with aminophosphonates moiety decreased significantly the affinity of ligands to the NOP receptor. Furthermore, the enlargement of the cycle (with 5-8 carbon atoms) additionally diminished both the activity and the selectivity for NOP-receptor.

  9. Extracellular matrix moieties, cytokines, and enzymes: dynamic effects on immune cell behavior and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaday, G G; Lider, O

    2000-02-01

    Tissue injury caused by infection or physical damage evokes inflammatory reactions and events that are necessary for regaining homeostasis. Central to these events is the translocation of leukocytes, including monocytes, neutrophils, and T lymphocytes, from the vascular system, through endothelium, and into the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding the injured tissue. This transition from the vasculature into the site of inflammation elicits remarkable changes in leukocyte behavior as cells adhere to and migrate across ECM before carrying out their effector functions. Growing evidence suggests that, through its interactions with cytokines and degradative enzymes, the ECM microenvironment has a specialized role in providing intrinsic signals for coordinating leukocyte actions. Recent advances also reveal that enzymatic modifications to ECM moieties and cytokines induce distinctive cellular responses, and are likely part of the mechanism regulating the perpetuation or arrest of inflammation. This article reviews the findings that have elucidated the dynamic relationships among these factors and how they communicate with immune cells during inflammation. PMID:10670574

  10. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of thiophene based azo dyes incorporating pyrazolone moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa A. Gouda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of thiophene incorporating pyrazolone moieties 5a–f and 6a–c were synthesized via diazo coupling of diazonium salt of 3-substituted-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophenes 1a–c with 3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one or 3-amino-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one, respectively. Newly synthesized dyes were applied to polyester fabric as disperse dyes in which their color measurements and fastness properties were evaluated. These dyes showed generally red to blue shifted color with high extinction coefficient in comparison with aniline-based azo dyes. The antitumor activity of the synthesized dyes was evaluated. The results showed clearly that most of them exhibited good activity and compounds 5c and 5d exhibited moderate activity.

  11. IMMOBILIZATION OF POTENTIALLY BIOACTIVE MOIETIES ONTO POLYETHER WITH POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)-SULFONATE SPACER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jian; FENG Linxian; QIU Yongxin; YU Xiaojie; YANG Shilin

    1997-01-01

    A new reactive graft copolymer, poly(tetramethylene glycol)-graft-ω-propyl sodium sulfonate-poly(ethylene glycol) (PTMG-g-PEG-CH2CH2CH2SO-3Na+), was synthesized by the cationic polymerization of α-ω-bifunctional PEG macromonomer ((o)CH2-PEG--CH2CH2CH2SO3Na ) and THF. The obtained copolymer exhibits the expected structure as indicated by the result of characterization. Two amino acids (L-arginine, L-tyrosine) were covalently attached to the copolymer after converting the sulfonate group to sulfonyl chloride. So the new reactive graft copolymer (PTMG-g-PEG-CH2CH2CH2SO-3Na+) is expected to be very useful in attachment of potentially bioactive moieties to polymer via a hydrophilic PEG spacer.

  12. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability.

  13. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Levofloxacin Derivatives Containing a Substituted Thienylethyl Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Mohammadhosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study Piperazinyl quinolones such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin are an important group of quinolone antimicrobials which are widely used in the treatment of various infectious diseases. In the present study, we synthesized a new series of levofloxacin derivatives and evaluated their antibacterial activities. Methods:The N-substituted analogs of levofloxacin 6a-j were prepared by nucleophilic reaction of Ndesmethyl levofloxacin 11 with thienylethyl bromide derivatives 8 or 9. All target compounds were tested using conventional agar dilution method in comparison to levofloxacin and N-desmethyl levofloxacin and their MIC values were determined against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Results:All compounds showed significant antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mug/mL; however, the activity against Gram-negative bacteria was lower (MIC = 1.56-100 mug/mL. As is evident from the data, oxime derivatives 6e, 6h and 6i are superior in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.04-0.19 mug/mL, and their activities were found to be 5-25 times better than N-desmethyl levofloxacin 11 and equal or better than levofloxacin 4. Conclusion:We have designed and synthesized novel quinolone derivatives bearing functionalized thienylethyl moiety on the piperazine ring of levofloxacin. The results of antibacterial screening against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria revealed that the introduction of functionalized thienylethyl moiety on the piperazine ring of levofloxacin can improve the activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria are responsible for a wide range of infectious diseases, and rising resistance in this group is causing increasing concern. Thus, this study introduces structural features of levofloxacin scaffold for development of new candidates in the field of anti-Gram positive chemotherapy.

  14. Virtual reality aided training of combined arm and leg movements of children with CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, Robert; Dislaki, Evangelia; Keller, Urs; Koenig, Alexander; Van Hedel, Hubertus; Nagle, Aniket

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) occurs in over 2 out of 1000 live births and can impair motor control and cognition. Our goal was to create a robotic rehabilitation environment that mimics real-life situations by allowing simultaneous exercise of upper and lower limbs. We chose to use the Lokomat as a gait robot and added a novel removable arm robot, called PASCAL (pediatric arm support robot for combined arm and leg training), that was integrated into the Lokomat environment. We also added a virtual reality (VR) environment that enables the subject to perform motivating game-like scenarios incorporating combined arm and leg movements. In this paper we summarize the design of PASCAL and present the novel virtual environment including first experimental results. The next step will be to test whether a combined application of the virtual environment and the two simultaneously working robots is feasible in healthy participants, and finally to clinically evaluate the entire system on children with CP. PMID:23400183

  15. Revealing the spiral arms through radial migration and the shape of the Metallicity Distribution Function

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Medina, L A; Moreno, E; Peimbert, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations show that the Milky Way's metallicity distribution function (MDF) changes its shape as a function of radius. This new evidence of radial migration within the stellar disc sets additional constrains on Galactic models. By performing controlled test particle simulations in a very detailed, observationally motivated model of the Milky Way, we demonstrate that, in the inner region of the disc, the MDF is shaped by the joint action of the bar and spiral arms, while at outer radii the MDF is mainly shaped by the spiral arms. We show that the spiral arms are able to imprint their signature in the radial migration, shaping the MDF in the outskirts of the Galactic disc with a minimal participation of the bar. Conversely, this work has the potential to characterize some structural and dynamical parameters of the spiral arms based on radial migration and the shape of the MDF.

  16. Patterns of public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Jean; Tumilty, Emma; Max, Catherine; Lu, Lanting; Tantivess, Sripen; Hauegen, Renata Curi; Whitty, Jennifer A; Weale, Albert; Pearson, Steven D; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Wang, Hufeng; Staniszewska, Sophie; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Cubillos, Leonardo

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The paper summarizes data from 12 countries, chosen to exhibit wide variation, on the role and place of public participation in the setting of priorities. The purpose of this paper is to exhibit cross-national patterns in respect of public participation, linking those differences to institutional features of the countries concerned. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is an example of case-orientated qualitative assessment of participation practices. It derives its data from the presentation of country case studies by experts on each system. The country cases are located within the historical development of democracy in each country. Findings - Patterns of participation are widely variable. Participation that is effective through routinized institutional processes appears to be inversely related to contestatory participation that uses political mobilization to challenge the legitimacy of the priority setting process. No system has resolved the conceptual ambiguities that are implicit in the idea of public participation. Originality/value - The paper draws on a unique collection of country case studies in participatory practice in prioritization, supplementing existing published sources. In showing that contestatory participation plays an important role in a sub-set of these countries it makes an important contribution to the field because it broadens the debate about public participation in priority setting beyond the use of minipublics and the observation of public representatives on decision-making bodies. PMID:27468773

  17. Mapping eParticipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2007-01-01

    , and methods. We extend the analysis to define four central research challenges for the field: understanding technology and participation; the strategic challenge; the design challenge; and the evaluation challenge. This article thus contributes to a developing account of eParticipation, which will help future...

  18. Participation beyond observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    , however, the researchers typically uphold the notion that all they methodically engage in is participant observation. The paper argues that important aspects of children’s living and understanding may be lost when considering them mere objects of one’s visual and verbal research practices. First I delve...... on investigating children’s perspectives through participant observation, but also ontological and political ones....

  19. Inhibition of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase reaction by the mycarose moiety of the antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin and tylosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S M; Kofoed, C; Vester, B

    2000-01-01

    investigated by chemical probing of domains II and V of 23 S rRNA. The common binding site is around position A2058, while effects on U2506 depend on the presence of the mycarose sugar. Also, protection at position A752 indicates that a mycinose moiety at position 14 in 16-member ring macrolides interact...... transferase reaction bind to the ribosomes concurrently with hygromycin A. Data are presented to argue that a disaccharide at position 5 in the lactone ring of macrolides is essential for inhibition of peptide bond formation and that the mycarose moiety is placed near the conserved U2506 in the central loop...

  20. Reaction of quinones and guanidine derivatives: simple access to bis-2-aminobenzimidazole moiety of benzosceptrin and other benzazole motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Minh Quan; Ermolenko, Ludmila; Retailleau, Pascal; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Al-Mourabit, Ali

    2014-02-01

    A new strategy for the synthesis of 2-aminobenzimidazol-6-ols via a reaction of quinones with guanidine derivatives is reported. Sequential application of this methodology provided a simple access to the first benzosceptrin analogue bearing a bis-2-aminoimidazole moiety. A concomitant addition of two guanidines to the naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine-5,6-dione, which includes the redox neutral debenzylation and guanidine-assisted cleavage of the 2-aminopyrimidine part resulted in the synthesis of the free challenging contiguous bis-2-aminoimidazole moiety of benzosceprins in one step. PMID:24479902

  1. The Mediating Effects of Child Strengths and Hopes on Academic Achievement for Palestinian Children Exposed to Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of academic achievement among Palestinian children, including child and parent characteristics, exposure to armed conflict, child strengths, and children's hope. Participants were 1,697 children of both genders. The mean age of participants was 12 years, 10 months. Results of the final hierarchical multiple…

  2. Labelling of central neural system receptor ligands with the fac-[Tc(CO)3]+ moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Development of Agents for the Imaging of CNS Receptors based on 99mTc, many efforts were made to find an improved system or alternative methods for the labelling of various central nervous system (CNS) receptor binding agents based on the fac-[Tc(CO)3]+ fragment. Within the same period the chemistry of the fac-[Tc(CO)3]+ fragment has been developed as a useful label more and more not only for the labelling of CNS receptor ligands but also for peptides, antibodies and other biologically active molecules such as B12. Especially the latter molecule is known to be taken up as well through the blood-brain barrier but is obviously not an CNS receptor ligand. One of the most important achievements over the whole period of the project has been the final formulation of a kit useful for the preparation of [99mTc(OH2)3(CO)3]+ without the requirement for using free CO. Much time was invested in that particular topic, since it will allow this relevant moiety to be applied not only on a routine basis but also for research into CNS ligands. A major achievement has thus been the commercial availability of these kits by the beginning of 2002. During the period of the project, a number of new systems were introduced, some of which were specially designed not only for CNS receptor ligands but also for other biomolecules. Among these is that for the syntheses of highly lipophilic ligands, the complex formation of which is based on classical co-ordination chemistry. In addition, the feasibility of the mixed ligand concept from a chemical point of view has been proved in principle. A number of complexes have been prepared where the CNS receptor ligand is attached to the monodentate ligand system. In principle it can also be attached to the bidentate moiety, allowing a screening of the biological behaviour as a function of the co-ligand. A major breakthrough could be achieved with the aqueous synthesis of cymantren

  3. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  4. Lever arm dysfunction in cerebral palsy gait

    OpenAIRE

    Theologis, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal structures act as lever arms during walking. Muscle activity and the ground reaction against gravity exert forces on the skeleton, which generate torque (moments) around joints. These lead to the sequence of movements which form normal human gait. Skeletal deformities in cerebral palsy (CP) affect the function of bones as lever arms and compromise gait. Lever arm dysfunction should be carefully considered when contemplating treatment to improve gait in children with CP.

  5. Perfluorinated Moieties Increase the Interaction of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers with Lipid Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Christian; Blaffert, Jacob; Li, Zheng; Kressler, Jörg; Blume, Alfred

    2016-08-16

    The interaction of amphiphilic and triphilic block copolymers with lipid monolayers has been studied. Amphiphilic triblock copolymer PGMA20-PPO34-PGMA20 (GP) is composed of a hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) middle block that is flanked by two hydrophilic poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) side blocks. The attachment of a perfluoro-n-nonyl residue (F9) to either end of GP yields a triphilic polymer with the sequence F9-PGMA20-PPO34-PGMA20-F9 (F-GP). The F9 chains are fluorophilic, i.e., they have a tendency to demix in hydrophilic as well as in lipophilic environments. We investigated (i) the adsorption of both polymers to differently composed lipid monolayers and (ii) the compression behavior of mixed polymer/lipid monolayers. The lipid monolayers are composed of phospholipids with PC or PE headgroups and acyl chains of different length and saturation. Both polymers interact with lipid monolayers by inserting their hydrophobic moieties (PPO, F9). The interaction is markedly enhanced in the presence of F9 chains, which act as membrane anchors. GP inserts into lipid monolayers up to a surface pressure of 30 mN/m, whereas F-GP inserts into monolayers at up to 45 mN/m, suggesting that F-GP also inserts into lipid bilayer membranes. The adsorption of both polymers to lipid monolayers with short acyl chains is favored. Upon compression, a two-step squeeze-out of F-GP occurs, with PPO blocks being released into the aqueous subphase at 28 mN/m and the F9 chains being squeezed out at 48 mN/m. GP is squeezed out in one step at 28 mN/m because of the lack of F9 anchor groups. The liquid expanded (LE) to liquid condensed (LC) phase transition of DPPC and DMPE is maintained in the presence of the polymers, indicating that the polymers can be accommodated in LE- and LC-phase monolayers. These results show how fluorinated moieties can be included in the rational design of membrane-binding polymers. PMID:27442444

  6. Stereochemically Distinct Cyclotetrasiloxanes Containing 3-Pyridyl Moieties and Their Functional Coordination Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Mahesh S; Vijayakanth, Thangavel; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy

    2016-03-21

    Synthesis of new cyclotetrasiloxane scaffolds containing peripherally functionalized 3-pyridyl moieties, [MeSiO(CH═CH(3)Py)]4 (L(1)) and [MeSiO(CH2CH2(3)Py)]4 (L(2)), and their reactivity studies with certain d(10) metal ions are reported. The ligand L(1) is obtained by the Heck-coupling reaction of tetramethyl tetravinyl tetrasiloxane (D4(vi)) and 3-bromopyridine in the presence of the Pd(0) catalysts. The as-synthesized ligand L(1) shows the presence of three stereoisomers, cis-trans-cis (L(1A)), cis-cis-trans (L(1B)), and all-trans (L(1C)), which are quantitatively separated by column chromatography. Subsequent reduction of L(1A), L(1B), and L(1C) with triethylsilane in the presence of catalytic amounts of Pd/C leads to the formation of the ligands L(2A), L(2B), and L(2C) with retention of stereochemistry due to the precursor moieties. Treatment of ZnI2 with L(1A) gives a one-dimensional coordination framework [(L(1A))4(ZnI2)2]∞, 1. These 1D-chains are further connected by π-π stacking interactions between the pyridyl groups of the adjacent chains leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network with the topology of a PtS net. The reaction of silver nitrate with ligand L(1B) gives a chain like one-dimensional cationic coordination polymer {[(L(1B))4Ag2]·2NO3·H2O·CH3OH }∞, 2, consisting of two different kinds of 32-membered macrocycles. Treatment of the all-trans ligand L(2C) with copper(I) iodide salt results in the formation of a cubane-type Cu4I4 cluster MOF [(L(2C))4Cu4I4]∞, 3, in a two-dimensional 4-connected uninodal sql/Shubnikov tetragonal plane net topology represented by the Schläfli symbol {4(4).6(2)}. This MOF displays a thermochromic luminescence behavior due to Cu4I4 clusters showing an orange emission at 298 K and a blue emission at 77 K. PMID:26958986

  7. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of novel levofloxacin derivatives containing a substituted thienylethyl moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhosseini Negar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Piperazinyl quinolones such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin are an important group of quinolone antimicrobials which are widely used in the treatment of various infectious diseases. In the present study, we synthesized a new series of levofloxacin derivatives and evaluated their antibacterial activities. Methods The N-substituted analogs of levofloxacin 6a–j were prepared by nucleophilic reaction of N-desmethyl levofloxacin 11 with thienylethyl bromide derivatives 8 or 9. All target compounds were tested using conventional agar dilution method in comparison to levofloxacin and N-desmethyl levofloxacin and their MIC values were determined against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Results All compounds showed significant antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.04-6.25 μg/mL; however, the activity against Gram-negative bacteria was lower (MIC = 1.56–100 μg/mL. As is evident from the data, oxime derivatives 6e, 6h and 6i are superior in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.04–0.19 μg/mL, and their activities were found to be 5–25 times better than N-desmethyl levofloxacin 11 and equal or better than levofloxacin 4. Conclusion We have designed and synthesized novel quinolone derivatives bearing functionalized thienylethyl moiety on the piperazine ring of levofloxacin. The results of antibacterial screening against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria revealed that the introduction of functionalized thienylethyl moiety on the piperazine ring of levofloxacin can improve the activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria are responsible for a wide range of infectious diseases, and rising resistance in this group is causing increasing concern. Thus, this study introduces structural features of levofloxacin scaffold for development of new candidates in the field of anti-Gram positive

  8. Changing patterns of US arms transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomone, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis has three purposes. First is to explore the changing patterns of US arms transfers from Fiscal Year 1950 (FY 1950) through Fiscal Year 1980 (FY 1980). Second, is to describe and assess the decision-making process for arms transfers within the US Government. Third is to examine and critique the conventional wisdom concerning US arms transfers, to support that wisdom, or to offer an alternate empirically supported view. The conventional wisdom about US arms transfer is that they have been rising at an alarming rate, and that this is the result of an arms transfer decision-making process which is out of control. This belief is founded on an empirically based proposition that arms transfers have been rising at an alarming rate. However, this proposition has never been empirically validated. To explore this conventional wisdom, the author establishes the historical, political and defense policy contexts for US arms transfers over the period FY 1950 through FY 1980. The author critiques the conventional wisdom about US arms transfers, analyzes the many ways that arms transfers have been measured, and explores the impediments to accurate measurement and assessment of the phenomenon.

  9. Narrative Arts in A Farewell to Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鋆

    2015-01-01

    Most of Hemingway's contributions to literature lie in his artistic version,as well as his art of narration.This paper means to give an analysis of A Farewell to Arms from its art of narration.Drawing from theories of narratology,the dissertation focuses on the analysis of narrative time,narrative person and narrative voice as they are presented in A Farewell to Arms.The aim of this dissertation is to make an objective analysis of Hemingway's narrative power in A Farewell to Arms from narrative perspectives,and tries to find out why A Farewell to Arms are enduring and great.

  10. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  11. The Design of Humanoid Robot Arm Based on Morphological and Neurological Analysis of Human Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Yongseon; Ko, Nak Yong; Bae, Youngchul

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have presented the implementation and performance evaluation for SERCOS based humanoid robot arm by using morphological and neurological analysis of human arm. Moreover, we reviewed the possibility of application of these robot arms. First, we proposed robot development methodology of open architecture based on ISO15745 for "opening of humanoid robot." Then, we verified the method of implementation of humanoid robot arm and its application to the real world. We have implemen...

  12. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eDura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm.This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility

  13. Treatment related impairments in arm and shoulder in patients with breast cancer: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, J.T.; Beurskens, C.H.G.; Wees, P.J. van der; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women in the developed world. As a result of breast cancer treatment, many patients suffer from serious complaints in their arm and shoulder, leading to limitations in activities of daily living and participation. In this systematic lite

  14. Intuitive Decisionmaking: Tacit Knowing in Action by U.S. Armed Forces Officers in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Jon H.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative inquiry was a naturalistic exploration of participants' perception or understanding of their intuitive decisionmaking processes. A bounded case study explored how a purposeful sampling of U.S. Armed Forces officers--primarily U.S. Army officers--perceived or understood intuitive decisionmaking in the context of their…

  15. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Participating in Clinical Trials: About Clinical Trials In This Topic About Clinical Trials Risks and Benefits Terms ... with Your Doctor Taking Medicines The information in this topic was provided by the National Library of ...

  16. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study With Human Subjects A clinical trial is a research study that involves human subjects. The purpose of ...

  17. Learning through Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, David; Prentiss, William C.

    1970-01-01

    An experimental program at Valencia Junior College (Florida) allows every student to actively participate in all phases of the political science course. A variety of multimedia materials, which the students help to develop and evaluate, are used. (BB)

  18. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Home > Health topics A-Z > Participating in Clinical Trials: About Clinical Trials In This Topic About Clinical Trials Risks ... centers across the country. The National Institutes of Health funds much of this basic research. Screening Trials ...

  19. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that could identify a disease in its early stages. Usually, trial participants must show signs of the ... Trials Clinical trials of drugs are usually described based on their phase. The U.S. Food and Drug ...

  20. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  1. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study With Human Subjects A clinical ... to treat or cure a disease. Phases of Clinical Trials Clinical trials of drugs are usually described based ...

  2. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study With Human Subjects A clinical trial is a research study that involves human subjects. The purpose ...

  3. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn More Participating in Clinical Trials Videos quiz yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Talking with Your Doctor Taking Medicines The information in ...

  4. Duplex and Triplex Formation of Mixed Pyrimidine Oligonucleotides with Stacking of Phenyl-triazole Moieties in the Major Groove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Krog; Døssing, Holger; Jensen, Frank;

    2011-01-01

    nucleosides, improved duplex formation with a complementary RNA and improved triplex formation with a complementary DNA duplex were observed. The improvement is due to π-π stacking of the phenyl-triazole moieties in the major groove. The strongest stacking and most pronounced positive influence on thermal...

  5. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order...

  6. Size and Political Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren

    This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size.......This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size....

  7. The involvement of women in anti-establishment armed groups: deviance in the service of a citizenship enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Felices-Luna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies of women’s involvement in armed conflict and the majority of the existing research has gender as its main concern. However, through empirical research, this article will attempt to shows that gender is not a relevant issue when women discuss their motivations and experiences in being part of armed struggle. The interviewees refute the deviant label attributed to them and represent themselves as social and political actors. Thus, the analysis of their discourse leads us to see womens’ involvement in armed struggle as an active practice of citizenship, given that participating in political and war enterprises has traditionally been considered an essential component of citizenship.

  8. Phytochemical meanings of tetrahydro-β-carboline moiety in strictosidine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudžuković, Nicole; Schinnerl, Johann; Brecker, Lothar

    2016-02-15

    Synthesis of 13 different tetrahydro-β-carbolines (THBC) was accomplished by applying the Pictet-Spengler reaction with seven aldehydes, which have been coupled with tryptamine (6) and l-tryptophan methyl ester (7), respectively. The resulting products represent analogues of strictosidine (1) and carboxystrictosidine (5). They were investigated with respect to possible effects on herbivores in feeding bioassays upon the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Maximum inhibition averages were 42% after four and 46% after six days for the most effective product (19) at 1000ppm. Additionally, the frass of this particular bioassay was investigated via HPLC-UV for THBC digestion. All synthesized THBCs were also tested for their radical scavenger activity by monitoring their interaction with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Compounds 16-20, 24 and 25 exhibited radical scavenging activity, ranging from 50% to 74% compared to that of α-tocopherol. All results were discussed with respect to possible contributions of tetrahydro-β-carboline moieties in bioactivities of strictosidine (1) and its biodegradation products. PMID:26749326

  9. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF POLYACETYLENES CONTAINING CARBAZOLE AND AMINO ACID MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Jiang; Jin-qing Qu; Huan-qin Chen

    2009-01-01

    Novel 9-proparylcarbazole monomers containing amino acid moieties, 2-N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-alanine-9-proparylcarbazole ester (1), 2-N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-O-cyclohexyI-L-glutamic acid-9-proparylcarbazole ester (2) and 2-N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-phenylalanine-9-proparylcarbazole ester (3) were synthesized and polymerized with (nbd)Rh~+[η~6-C_6H_5B~-(C_6H_5)_3 ] to give the corresponding polymers with number-average molecular weights ranging from 7050 to 10500 in 70%-86% yields. The polymers were completely soluble in toluene, CHCl_3 , CH_2Cl_2, THF and DMSO, but insoluble in hexane, diethyl ether and MeOH. The specific rotation studies revealed that poly(1)-poly(3) do not took predominantly one-handed helical structures in the solvents although they possess chiral groups. The polymers emitted fluorescence in 0.40%-2.35% quantum yields. The cyclic voltammograms of the polymers indicated that the polymers exhibited electrochemical properties.

  10. Preparation and characterization of new poly-pyrrole having side chain liquid crystalline moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, S. Hossein, E-mail: hosseini_sh44@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Babaee Express Way, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Babaee Express Way, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-06-01

    We have synthesized a novel liquid-crystalline (LC)-conducting polymer by introducing LC group into pyrrole monomer and polymerizing it with FeCl{sub 3}. The N-substituted pyrrole with LC group (Py-RedII) was prepared by direct reaction of potassium pyrrole salt with 2-[N-ethyl-N-[4-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]-phenyl]amino]ethyl-3-chloropropionate (RedII). The polymerization of this monomer was successful, giving a conjugated polymer system with liquid crystalline moieties in moderate yield. The polymer obtained was soluble in organic solvents and had a thermotropic liquid crystallinity with mosaic texture characterized by polarizing optical microscopy. Phase transitions, thermal analysis and rheological studies were also evaluated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Spectral properties of poly (2-[N-ethyl-N-[4-[(nitrophenyl)azo]phenyl]amino]ethyl-N-pyrrolyl propionate) (PPy-RedII) were characterized by UV, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopies. The photoluminescence spectrum of the film showed that maximum photoluminescence peak emission is located at 437 nm, corresponding to the photon energy of 2.5 eV. Electrical conductivity of PPy-RedII was studied by the four-probe method and produced a conductivity of 7.5 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1}.

  11. Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of anthracene derivatives containing electron-withdrawing oxide moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jhin-yeong; Na, Eun Jae; Park, Soo Na [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seok Jae [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@wow.hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Blue fluorescent material is important for application in full-color displays. • We have synthesized emitters based on anthracene connected with oxide moieties. • 1C shows a highly efficient blue EL emission due to electron-injection property. - Abstract: A series of new blue-emitting materials: (4-(10-(naphthalen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl)phenyl)(phenyl)methanone (1); 9-(naphthalen-2-yl)-10-(4-((diphenyl)phosphine oxide)phenyl)anthracene (2); 9-(naphthalen-2-yl)-10-(4-(phenylsulfonyl)phenyl)anthracene (3) were designed and synthesized via Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. Multilayer OLEDs were fabricated in the following sequence: ITO (180 nm)/NPB (50 nm)/blue materials 1–3 (30 nm)/TPBi (15 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). All devices showed the efficient blue EL emissions. In particular, the device using 1 as an emitter exhibited efficient blue electroluminescent properties with a maximum luminous, power, external quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates of 0.36 cd/A, 0.90 lm/W, 0.55% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} and (x = 0.16, y = 0.20) at 10.0 V, respectively.

  12. Sulforaphane Analogues with Heterocyclic Moieties: Syntheses and Inhibitory Activities against Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Hui Shi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that sulforaphane (SFN selectively inhibits the growth of ALDH+ breast cancer stem-like cells.Herein, a series of SFN analogues were synthesized and evaluated against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and SUM-159, and the leukemia stem cell-like cell line KG-1a. These SFN analogues were characterized by the replacement of the methyl group with heterocyclic moieties, and the replacement of the sulfoxide group with sulfide or sulfone. A growth inhibitory assay indicated that the tetrazole analogs 3d, 8d and 9d were significantly more potent than SFN against the three cancer cell lines. Compound 14c, the water soluble derivative of tetrazole sulfide 3d, demonstrated higher potency against KG-1a cell line than 3d. SFN, 3d and 14c significantly induced the activation of caspase-3, and reduced the ALDH+ subpopulation in the SUM159 cell line, while the marketed drug doxrubicin(DOX increased the ALDH+ subpopulation.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Cancer Activity of Hydrazide Derivatives Incorporating a Quinoline Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingul, Murat; Tan, Owen; Gardner, Christopher R; Sutton, Selina K; Arndt, Greg M; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B; Kumar, Naresh; Black, David StC

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the novel (E)-N'-((2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)methylene)-3-(phenylthio)propanehydrazide scaffold 18 has led to the development of a new series of biologically active hydrazide compounds. The parent compound 18 and new quinoline derivatives 19-26 were prepared from the corresponding quinoline hydrazones and substituted carboxylic acids using EDC-mediated peptide coupling reactions. Further modification of the parent compound 18 was achieved by replacement of the quinoline moiety with other aromatic systems. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against the SH-SY5Y and Kelly neuroblastoma cell lines, as well as the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Analogues 19 and 22 significantly reduced the cell viability of neuroblastoma cancer cells with micromolar potency and significant selectivity over normal cells. The quinoline hydrazide 22 also induced G₁ cell cycle arrest, as well as upregulation of the p27(kip1) cell cycle regulating protein. PMID:27428941

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Cancer Activity of Hydrazide Derivatives Incorporating a Quinoline Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bingul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the novel (E-N′-((2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-ylmethylene-3-(phenylthiopropanehydrazide scaffold 18 has led to the development of a new series of biologically active hydrazide compounds. The parent compound 18 and new quinoline derivatives 19–26 were prepared from the corresponding quinoline hydrazones and substituted carboxylic acids using EDC-mediated peptide coupling reactions. Further modification of the parent compound 18 was achieved by replacement of the quinoline moiety with other aromatic systems. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against the SH-SY5Y and Kelly neuroblastoma cell lines, as well as the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Analogues 19 and 22 significantly reduced the cell viability of neuroblastoma cancer cells with micromolar potency and significant selectivity over normal cells. The quinoline hydrazide 22 also induced G1 cell cycle arrest, as well as upregulation of the p27kip1 cell cycle regulating protein.

  15. Flexible enantioselectivity of tryptophanase attributable to benzene ring in heterocyclic moiety of d-tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Akihiko; Ozaki, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    The invariance principle of enzyme enantioselectivity must be absolute because it is absolutely essential to the homochiral biological world. Most enzymes are strictly enantioselective, and tryptophanase is one of the enzymes with extreme absolute enantioselectivity for L-tryptophan. Contrary to conventional knowledge about the principle, tryptophanase becomes flexible to catalyze D-tryptophan in the presence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Since D-amino acids are ordinarily inert or function as inhibitors even though they are bound to the active site, the inhibition behavior of D-tryptophan and several inhibitors involved in this process was examined in terms of kinetics to explain the reason for this flexible enantioselectivity in the presence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Diammonium hydrogenphosphate gave tryptophanase a small conformational change so that D-tryptophan could work as a substrate. As opposed to other D-amino acids, D-tryptophan is a very bulky amino acid with a benzene ring in its heterocyclic moiety, and so we suggest that this structural feature makes the catalysis of D-tryptophan degradation possible, consequently leading to the flexible enantioselectivity. The present results not only help to understand the mechanism of enzyme enantioselectivity, but also shed light on the origin of homochirality.

  16. Synthesis of N-hydroxycinnamides capped with a naturally occurring moiety as inhibitors of histone deacetylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Jan; Chen, Ching-Chow; Chao, Shi-Wei; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Hsu, Fen-Lin; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Hung, Ming-Fang; Chang, Chung-I

    2010-04-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are regarded as promising therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. All reported HDAC inhibitors contain three pharmacophoric features: a zinc-chelating group, a hydrophobic linker, and a hydrophobic cap for surface recognition. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of osthole, a hydrophobic Chinese herbal compound, as the surface recognition cap in hydroxamate-based compounds as inhibitors of HDAC. Nine novel osthole-based N-hydroxycinnamides were synthesized and screened for enzyme inhibition activity. Compounds 9 d, 9 e, 9 g exhibited inhibitory activities (IC(50)=24.5, 20.0, 19.6 nM) against nuclear HDACs in HeLa cells comparable to that of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; IC(50)=24.5 nM), a potent inhibitor clinically used for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). While compounds 9 d and 9 e showed SAHA-like activity towards HDAC1 and HDAC6, compound 9 g was more selective for HDAC1. Compound 9 d exhibited the best cellular effect, which was comparable to that of SAHA, of enhancing acetylation of either alpha-tubulin or histone H3. Molecular docking analysis showed that the osthole moiety of compound 9 d may interact with the same hydrophobic surface pocket exploited by SAHA and it may be modified to provide class-specific selectivity. These results suggest that osthole is an effective hydrophobic cap when incorporated into N-hydroxycinnamide-derived HDAC inhibitors. PMID:20209563

  17. Preparation of sticky Escherichia coli through surface display of an adhesive catecholamine moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joseph P; Choi, Min-Jung; Kim, Se Hun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Haeshin

    2014-01-01

    Mussels attach to virtually all types of inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments, and catecholamines composed of 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA), lysine, and histidine in mussel adhesive proteins play a key role in the robust adhesion. DOPA is an unusual catecholic amino acid, and its side chain is called catechol. In this study, we displayed the adhesive moiety of DOPA-histidine on Escherichia coli surfaces using outer membrane protein W as an anchoring motif for the first time. Localization of catecholamines on the cell surface was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, cell-to-cell cohesion (i.e., cellular aggregation) induced by the displayed catecholamine and synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the cell surface support functional display of adhesive catecholamines. The engineered E. coli exhibited significant adhesion onto various material surfaces, including silica and glass microparticles, gold, titanium, silicon, poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(urethane), and poly(dimethylsiloxane). The uniqueness of this approach utilizing the engineered sticky E. coli is that no chemistry for cell attachment are necessary, and the ability of spontaneous E. coli attachment allows one to immobilize the cells on challenging material surfaces such as synthetic polymers. Therefore, we envision that mussel-inspired catecholamine yielded sticky E. coli that can be used as a new type of engineered microbe for various emerging fields, such as whole living cell attachment on versatile material surfaces, cell-to-cell communication systems, and many others. PMID:24123747

  18. OPTICAL PHASE CONJUGATION RESPONSE OF PHOTOINDUCED POLYMER FILMS CONTAINING AZOBENZENE MOIETIES WITH CHIRAL GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-da Xu; Yong Zhang; Xing-he Fan; Xin-hua Wan; Qi-feng Zhou

    2002-01-01

    An optically active monomer containing azobenzene moieties with chiral group (s-2-methyl-butyl), 4-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyloxy]-4'-(s-2-methyl-1-butyloxycarbonyl) azobenzene (M1) was synthesized. Polymer (PM1) possessing optical phase conjugated response was obtained by homopolymerization of the optically active monomer (M1) using free radical polymerization. The polymer was very soluble in common solvents and good optical quality films could be easily fabricated by spin coating. The optical phase conjugated responses of the polymer PM1 were measured by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM). In comparison with polymer containing no chiral group, it was found from the preliminary measurement of photoisomeric change that optical phase conjugated response of the PM1 in the long-range order hexagonal symmetry microstructure could be easily controlled by choosing the appropriate polarization direction of the irradiating beams (514.5 nm) and the irradiating number, presumably due to the chiral group in the PM1 molecular structure. For the case of the polymer investigated here, a chiral group side chain was introduced to increase optical phase conjugated response intensity with different polarization directions of the irradiating beams, which aims originally at searching for a new photoactive material.

  19. POLYAMIDES WITH PENDANT 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE AND PYRIDINE MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yagoub Mansoori; Behzad Koohi-Zargar; Hemayat Shekaari; Mohammad Reza Zamanloo; Gholam Hassan Imanzadeh

    2012-01-01

    A novel aromatic diamine,2-(5-(3,5-diaminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)pyridine (POBD),containing a pyridine ring and a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety,was synthcsized.It was used in a polycondensation with various aromatic and aliphatic diacid chlorides to generate a series of new aromatic polyamides with pendant 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups.The prepared polyamides were characterized by IR,elemental analysis and through the synthesis of model compounds.Thermophysical properties of the synthesized polyamides have been studied by DSC,TGA and inherent viscosity measurements.Relatively high inherent viscosity values (0.76-1.62 dL/g,in 0.125% H2SO4 at 25℃) were observed for these compounds.Number average molecular weight (Mn) of the polymers was measured by vapor phase osmometry (VPO).The introduction of bulky side chains in the structure of aromatic polyamides led to increased solubility of these polymers in common polar and aprotic solvents,such as DMF,DMSO,NMP and DMAc,which allowed thin films to be cast from polymer solutions.The highest molecular weight (Mn =51190) was observed for polymer (Ⅸ),which was prepared from pyridine-2,6-dichlorocarbonyl.

  20. Novel Efficient Light-Emitting Polyfluorene Derivatives Modified by Electron-Deficient Moieties with Nonlinear Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Qiang(彭强); HUANG,Yan(黄艳); LU,Zhi-Yun(卢志云); QIN,Sheng-Ying(秦圣英); XIE,Ming-Gui(谢明贵); GAO,Wei-Xianb(高维先); PENG,Jun-Biao(彭俊彪); CAO,Yong(曹镛)

    2004-01-01

    Two novel fluorene-based copolymers (PFSD and PFMD) containing squaric acid or maleimide unit in the main chain were synthesized in good yields by Suzuki coupling reaction. The resulting polymers possess excellent thermal stability, high electron affinity and high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields. They can fluoresce in yellow-light range due to either the charge transfer between a fluorene segment and an electron-deficient containing squaric acid/maleimide segment of the polymers or the Forster energy transfer between different polymer chains.The results from PL measurements of the isothermally heated polymer thin films show that the commonly observed aggregate excimer formation in polyfluorenes is very effectively suppressed in these two polymers due to the nonlinear structures of maleimide and squaric acid moieties. Double-layer polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED)were fabricated using the resulting polymers as the emitting layers and Ba or Mg :Ag (V :V= 10 :1) as cathodes.All the devices show bright yellow emission (562-579 nm) with different maximum external quantum efficiencies (0.006%-1.13%). Compared with the other devices, indium-tin oxide (ITO)/polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT):polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSS)/PFMD/Mg:Ag has the higher maximum external quantum efficiency of 1.13% at 564 cd/m2 with a bias of 8.4 V.

  1. Oxidatively generated damage to the guanine moiety of DNA: Mechanistic aspects and formation in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear DNA and other molecules in living systems are continuously exposed to endogenously generated oxygen species. Such species range from the unreactive superoxide radical (O2.-)-the precursor of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-to the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (OH.). Exogenous chemical and physical agents, such as ionizing radiation and the UVA component of solar light, can also oxidatively damage both the bases and the 2-deoxyribose moieties of cellular DNA. Over the last two decades, researchers have made major progress in understanding the oxidation degradation pathways of DNA that are most likely to occur from either oxidative metabolism or exposure to various exogenous agents. In the first part of this Account, we describe the mechanistic features of one-electron oxidation reactions of the guanine base in isolated DNA and related model compounds. These reactions illustrate the complexity of the various degradation pathways involved. Then, we briefly survey the analytical methods that can detect low amounts of oxidized bases and nucleosides in cells as they are formed. Recent data on the formation of oxidized guanine residues in cellular DNA following exposure to UVA light, ionizing radiation, and high-intensity UV pulses are also provided. We discuss these chemical reactions in the context of (OH.) radical, singlet oxygen, and two-quantum photoionization processes. (authors)

  2. Syntheses and Surface Properties of Polyacrylonitrile-based Copolymer Membranes Containing Sugar Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiao-jun; WAN Ling-shu; DAI Zheng-wei; KOU Rui-qiang; XU Zhi-kang

    2005-01-01

    To improve the hydrophilicity of polyacrylonitrile-based membranes, sugar moieties were incorporated into acrylonitrile-based copolymers via the radical copolymerization of α-allyl glucoside(AG) with acrylonitrile(AN) with 2,2'-azobis-iso-butyronitrile(AIBN) as the initiator in dimethyl sulphoxide(DMSO). It was found that the yield increased with the increase of the initiator concentration and reaction time, while it decreased with the increase of the monomer molar ratio of AG to AN. Raising the AG proportion in the monomer mixture resulted in the increase of the AG content in the copolymer. Mv of the copolymers decreased with increasing the AG monomer fraction in feed. The copolymers were fabricated into dense membranes and their surface properties were studied by means of the water contact angle measurement and platelet adhesion tests. It was found that the static water contact angle on the membrane decreased significantly from 70° to 33° with the increase of the AG content. The adhesive number of platelets on the membrane surface also decreased significantly with increasing AG content in the copolymers. These results demonstrate that the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the acrylonitrile-based copolymer membranes could be improved efficiently by the copolymerization of acrylonitrile with vinyl carbohydrates.

  3. Facile Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some New Heterocyclic Compounds Incorporating a Biologically Active Sulfamoyl Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile and convenient synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds containing a sulfamoyl moiety suitable for use as antimicrobial agents was reported. The precursor 3-oxo-3-phenyl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenylpropionamide was coupled smoothly with arenediazonium salt producing hydrazones which reacted with malononitrile or triethylorthoformate affording pyridazine and triazine derivatives, respectively. Also, the reactivity of the same precursor with DMF-DMA was followed by aminotriazole; aromatic aldehydes was followed by hydrazine hydrate, triethylorthoformate, or thiourea affording triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, pyrazole, acrylamide, and dihydropyrimidine derivatives, respectively. On the other hand, treatment of the precursor propionamide with phenyl isothiocyanate and KOH in DMF afforded the intermediate salt which was treated with dilute HCl followed by 2-bromo-1-phenylethanone affording carboxamide derivative. While the same intermediate salt reacted in situ with chloroacetone, ethyl 2-chloroacetate, 3-(2-bromoacetyl-2H-chromen-2-one, methyl iodide, or 2-oxo-N-phenylpropane hydrazonoyl chloride afforded the thiophene, ketene N,S-acetal, and thiadiazole derivatives, respectively. The structure of the new products was established based on elemental and spectral analysis. Antimicrobial evaluation of some selected examples from the synthesized products was carried out whereby four compounds were found to have moderate activities and one compound showed the highest activity.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Thermally Stable Photocurable Polymer with Cyclohexane Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Mm; Yu, Seong Hun; Lee, Jun Young

    2016-03-01

    Photocurable polymers with high transparency and thermal stability were synthesized by reaction between a commercial epoxy resin (NC9110) containing cyclohexane moiety and various kinds of cinnamic acids such as trans-cinnamic acid (CA), 3-hydroxy-trans-cinnamic acid (HCA) and 4-methoxy-trans-cinnamic acid (MCA). The photocurable polymers were synthesized with equal equivalent weight ratio of epoxy and cinnamate group. The chemical structures of the synthesized polymers were confirmed by 1H-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. Optical transmittance and thermal stability of the photocured polymers were investigated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. It was confirmed that the polymers could form thin films with very smooth surface and could be efficiently cured by UV irradiation. It was also found that the polymer after curing showed a good thermal stability and optical transmittance. There was no significant transmittance change after heat treatment at 250 degrees C for 1 h and showed no noticeable weight loss up to 360 degrees C.

  5. Design, Synthesis, Acaricidal Activity, and Mechanism of Oxazoline Derivatives Containing an Oxime Ether Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Li, Chaojie; Zheng, Yanlong; Wei, Xingcun; Ma, Qiaoqiao; Wei, Peng; Liu, Yuxiu; Qin, Yaoguo; Yang, Na; Sun, Yufeng; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling; Wang, Qingmin

    2014-03-27

    Two series of novel 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazolines containing an oxime ether moiety were designed and synthesized via the key intermediate N-(2-chloro-1-(p-tolyl)ethyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide. The bioassay results showed that the target compounds with an oxime ether substituent at the para position of 4-phenyl exhibited excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus in the laboratory. Moreover, all of the target compounds had much higher activities than etoxazole, as the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of the target compounds I-a-I-l and II-a-II-n against T. cinnabarinus were all over 90% at 0.001 mg L(-1), but etoxazole gave only 30% and 40% respectively at the same concentration. The activity order of compounds with regard to acaricidal activity in vivo was almost consistent with their affinity activity with sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) of Blattella germanica in vitro, hence, it was supposed that the acaricidal mechanism of action of the target compounds was that they can bind with the site of SUR and therefore inhibit chitin synthesis. Moreover, the eminent effect of the compound II-l, [2-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde O-(4-(2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-4-yl)benzyl) oxime], against Panonychus citri and T. cinnabarinus in the field indicated that II-l exhibited a promising application prospect as a new candicate for controlling spider mites in the field. PMID:24673392

  6. Coordinating arms and legs on a hybrid rehabilitation tricycle: the metabolic benefit of asymmetrical compared to symmetrical arm movements

    OpenAIRE

    Meyns, Pieter; Van De Walle, Patricia; Hoogkamer, Wouter; Kiekens, Carlotte; Desloovere, Kaat; Duysens, Jaak

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used propulsion method for handcycling is moving the arms symmetrically. Previous studies indicated that during outdoor handcycling symmetrical arm movements are more efficient. During locomotor movements, however, arm movements are performed asymmetrically in combination with leg movements. We questioned which combination of arm and leg movements is more efficient during combined arm and leg cycling for stationary use.

  7. Locomotor-like leg movements evoked by rhythmic arm movements in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    Full Text Available Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs.

  8. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  9. Why we cannot grow a human arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, John L

    2013-11-01

    There are several significant issues that prevent us from growing a human arm now, or within the next 10-20 years. From a tissue engineering perspective, while we can grow many of the components necessary for construction of a human arm, we can only grow them in relatively small volumes, and when scaled up to large volumes we lack the ability to develop adequate blood/nerve supply. From a genetic engineering perspective, we will probably never be able to turn on the specific genes necessary to "grow an arm" unless it is attached to a fetus and this presents enormous ethical issues related to farming of human organs and structures. Perhaps the most daunting problem facing the transplantation of a tissue engineered or transplanted arm is that of re-innervation of the structure. Since the sensory and motor nerve cells of the arm are located outside of the structure, re-innervation requires those nerves to regenerate over relatively large distances to repopulate the nervous system of the arm. This is something with which we have had little success. We can grow repair parts, but "growing an arm" presents too many insurmountable problems. The best we could possibly do with tissue engineering or genetic engineering would be the equivalent of a fetal arm and the technical problems, costs, and ethical hurdles are enormous. A more likely solution is a functional, permanent, neuroelectronically-controlled prosthesis. These are nearly a reality today.

  10. Small Arms Marksmanship Manual, NAVPERS 93863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The Navy's small arms marksmanship training program is designed to achieve proficiency for Navy personnel in handling the rifle, pistol andshotgun. The minimum objective of this program is to qualify Navy personnel as "Marksman," and ensure that personnel who are issued small arms for security, recreation, or competitions are fully qualified in…

  11. Books in Action: The Armed Services Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, John Y., Ed.

    In an effort to reach a wide audience, the Center for the Book in the Library of Congress presents this book in honor of the 40th anniversary celebration of the Armed Services Editions (ASE), the paperback books distributed during World War II. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: "The Armed Services Editions: An…

  12. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...

  13. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as a gay

  14. The participating researcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    2014-01-01

    on the fringe (Kunsten ude på kanten). Each focus on participation in different ways: Theatre Talks focus in the participating of new audiences in theatres attending and talking about their experience with each other. Stepping Stone is a project addressing the involvement of children and youth as creative...... and abilities. The cases will be analyzed with focus on the strategy of participation and the value implications of this for each of them. The second part of the paper will address the role of the researcher as a part of each of these participatory cultural projects as designer, applied researcher, consultant...... to offers new ways of understanding the role of research and evaluation in relation to cultural programs and policy-making in the field of culture. This includes developing more interactive, participatory and procedural evaluation methods. Hopefully this ambition will be an inspiration for others to develop...

  15. Characterizing eParticipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanford, Clive Carlton; Rose, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    differences in approaches to organization science: Rethinking Burrell and Morgan and their legacy. Organization Science, 7(2), 191-207] taxonomy of discourses in organizational science to provide an overall categorization scheme for research in the area, and map the literature. The article thus contributes to......eParticipation is an emerging research area which, like most emerging areas, lacks a clear literature base or research approach. This study maps out some of the academic theories and disciplines that the new area addresses, using conventional literature study techniques. We identify 99 articles...... that are considered to be highly relevant to eParticipation. We develop a definitional schema that suggests different ways of understanding an emerging research area, and use this schema to identify key academic articles that help to define eParticipation. We adapt Deetz's [(1996). Describing...

  16. eParticipation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony

    2012-01-01

    Research on the use of information technology to support democratic decision-making (eParticipation) is experiencing ongoing growth, stimulated by an increasing attention from both practitioner and research communities. This study provides the first longitudinal analysis of the development of the e......Participation field based on a shared framework, capturing the directions that the research field of eParticipation is taking in recent developments. Drawing on a literature search covering the period from April 2006 to March 2011, this study identifies, analyzes, and classifies 122 research articles within...... also suggests new analytical categories of research. Drawing on the analysis, inputs for a research agenda are suggested. These include the need to move beyond a technological perspective, encouraging the ongoing shift of research focus from government to citizens and other stakeholders, and the need...

  17. Participation under Compulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of Social Software in teaching and learning are a research subject of great interest, especially in higher education. Even though the opportunities to encourage students’ participation are promising, there is a neglected area we intend to illuminate: heteronomy. Compulsion and external control are used to foster participation. In our study we examined 16 international evaluation and research papers which describe the implementation of Social Software to enhance students’ participation within courses. Several contradictions within these descriptions were revealed. One may realise that students pretend to “play the game” due to assessment regulations. The tension between students’ self-responsibility and external control in education needs to be reflected systematically.

  18. European Patterns of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas Fehmerling; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 (2008), the article finds that satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the government is an important predictor alongside the institutional macro-level variable. The article combines a critical tradition, which suggests that political participation is motivated by a feeling...... of dissatisfaction with the government and feelings of being member of a discriminated group affect the level of extra-parliamentary participation, and second, how different welfare regimes condition the extend to which these groups chose to act. In a comparative multilevel design, using data from the European...... of dissatisfaction with an institutional perspective in which certain institutional conditions are seen as enablers for citizens to actively participate in political life. Our results show that the overall level of extra-parliamentary activity in the Scandinavian countries is higher than in the other European...

  19. Participation and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers to partic......We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers...... to participation conceptualised as various degrees of codetermination in organisations and in research processes?’ The anthology is part of a follow-up on an initiative taken in 2010 by Professor Werner Fricke, editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Action Research for many years. His vision was to create...

  20. Children's participation in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... and often only communicate with children at biannual meetings - the minimum required by law. The purpose of Teledialogue is to use participatory methods to develop an IT-enabled concept for children and social workers to maintain communication between the biannual meetings. Social workers and children...... are thus the primary participants in this design process. This presentation describes the inclusion and participation of the placed children in Teledialogue. With an outset in Actor-Network Theory (ANT) two points are made: 1) that children were participating in shaping the design long before they were...

  1. Arm locking with Doppler estimation errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yinan; Wand, Vinzenz; Mitryk, Shawn; Mueller, Guido, E-mail: yinan@phys.ufl.ed [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    At the University of Florida we developed the University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) in order to study LISA interferometry with hardware in the loop at a system level. One of the proposed laser frequency stabilization techniques in LISA is arm locking. Arm locking uses an adequately filtered linear combination of the LISA arm signals as a frequency reference. We will report about experiments in which we demonstrated arm locking using UFLIS. During these experiments we also discovered a problem associated with the Doppler shift of the return beam. The initial arm locking publications assumed that this Doppler shift can perfectly be subtracted inside the phasemeter or adds an insignificant offset to the sensor signal. However, the remaining Doppler knowledge error will cause a constant change in the laser frequency if unaccounted for. Several ways to circumvent this problem have been identified. We performed detailed simulations and started preliminary experiments to verify the performance of the proposed new controller designs.

  2. Conflits armés et environnement

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsouma, Al–Hamandou; Bouchard, Michel-André

    2013-01-01

    Les conflits armés sont source de catastrophes majeures pour l’environnement. Dans les années 60, la défoliation de la jungle vietnamienne par l’armée américaine a interpellé la conscience collective sur la protection de l’environnement en situation de conflit armé (Pearce, 2000). La guerre du Golfe de 1990-1991, avec l’utilisation des armes à l’uranium appauvri et l’incendie des puits de pétrole a fait de la protection de l’environnement lors des conflits armés une préoccupation internationa...

  3. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  4. eParticipation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an update of the existing eParticipation research state of the art, and a longitudinal analysis of the development of the eParticipation field based on a shared framework of analysis. Drawing on a literature search covering the period from April 2006 to March 2011 included, 123......, sometimes in counterintuitive directions. Drawing on the analysis, the conclusion section provides inputs for a research agenda. These include the need to move beyond a technological perspective, and encouraging the ongoing shift of research focus from government to citizens and other stakeholders....

  5. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical...

  6. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  7. Arms Control and Strategic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yumin

    2014-01-01

    This essay intends to offer a comment on concepts, trends and attitudes concerning arms control and strategic stability with reference to the current international security situation. It also offers observations from two different perspectives about strategic stability: one proceeds from the concept of universal security and aims to prevent conflicts and instability from disrupting regional and international security environment on which nation states depend so much for their peaceful development; the other starts from maintaining the global leadership by a super power and aiming to contain any challenge that sways or is likely to sway its dominating status. If China and the United States commit themselves to the undertaking of a new type of major powers relationship that stresses win-win cooperation, they will be able to contribute greatly to a stable international security architecture that is good for world peaceful development.

  8. Synthesis and herbicidal activity evaluation of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jian-yi; Xu, Xiao-yun; Tang, Zi-long; Gu, Yu-cheng; Shi, De-qing

    2016-02-15

    A series of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety 3a-3l were designed and synthesized by a Lewis acid (magnesium perchlorate) catalyzed the Kabachnik-Fields reaction. The bioassays {in vitro, in vivo [Glass House 1 (GH1) and Glass House 2 (GH2)]} showed that most of compounds 3 exhibited excellent and selective herbicidal activities; for example, in GH1 test, compounds 3b, 3d, 3f, 3h and 3j showed excellent and wide spectrum herbicidal activities at the dose of 1000 g/ha, and compounds 3b and 3j exhibited 100% inhibition activities against the four plants in both post- and pre-emergence treatments. Moreover, most of compounds 3 showed higher inhibition against Amaranthus retroflexus and Digitaria sanguinalis than Glyphosate did in pre-emergence treatment. In GH2 test, the four compounds (3b, 3d, 3h and 3j) exhibited 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus and Ipomoea hederacea in post-emergence treatment and displayed 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus in pre-emergence treatment at the rate of 250 g/ha, and compound 3b showed the best and broad spectrum herbicidal activities against the six test plants. However, the four compounds displayed weaker herbicidal activities against Lolium perenne and Echinochloa crus-galli than the other four plants at the rate of 250 g/ha in both pre- and post-emergence treatments. So, compounds 3 can be used as a lead compound for further structure optimization for developing potential selective herbicidal agent. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were also investigated. PMID:26786699

  9. Nickel(ii) radical complexes of thiosemicarbazone ligands appended by salicylidene, aminophenol and aminothiophenol moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochem, Amélie; Gellon, Gisèle; Jarjayes, Olivier; Philouze, Christian; du Moulinet d'Hardemare, Amaury; van Gastel, Maurice; Thomas, Fabrice

    2015-07-28

    The nickel(ii) complexes of three unsymmetrical thiosemicarbazone-based ligands featuring a sterically hindered salicylidene (1), aminophenol (2) or thiophenol (3) moiety were synthesized and structurally characterized. The metal ion lies in an almost square planar geometry in all the complexes. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) curve of 1 shows an irreversible oxidation wave at E = 0.49 V, which is assigned to the phenoxyl/phenolate redox couple. The CV curves of 2 and 3 display a reversible one-electron oxidation wave (E1/2 = 0.26 and 0.22 V vs. Fc(+)/Fc, respectively) and an one-electron reduction wave (E1/2 = -1.55 and -1.46 V, respectively). The cations 2(+) and 3(+) as well as the anions 2(-) and 3(-) were generated. The EPR spectra of the cations in THF show a rhombic signal at g1 = 2.034, g2 = 2.010 and g3 = 1.992 (2(+)) and g1 = 2.069, g2 = 2.018, g3 = 1.986 (3(+)) that is consistent with a main radical character of the complexes. The difference in anisotropy is assigned to the different nature of the radical, iminosemiquinonate vs. iminothiosemiquinonate. The anions display an isotropic EPR signal at giso = 2.003 (2(+)) and 2.006 (3(+)), which is indicative of a main α-diimine radical character of the compounds. Both the anions and cations exhibit charge transfer transitions of low to moderate intensity in their visible spectrum. Quantum chemical calculations (B3LYP) reproduce both the g-values and Vis-NIR spectra of the complexes. The radical anions readily react with dioxygen to give the radical cations. 2(+) catalyzes the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol into benzaldehyde. PMID:26086684

  10. Enhancement of transfection efficiency for HeLa cells via incorporating arginine moiety into chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Arginine-rich peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their distinct internalization mechanism. It was reported that arginine and guanidino moieties were able to translocate through cell membranes and played a critical role in the process of membrane permeation. In this work, arginine was conjugated to the backbone of chitosan to form a novel chitosan derivative, arginine modified chitosan (Arg-CS). Arg-CS/DNA complexes were prepared according to the method of coacervation process. The physicochemical properties of Arg-CS and Arg-CS/DNA complexes were characterized and the transfection activity and efficiency mediated by Arg-CS/DNA complexes were investigated taking HeLa cells as target cells. Arg-CS was characterized by FTIR and 13C NMR. Arg-CS/DNA polyelectrolyte complexes were investigated by agarose gel retardation, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that the Arg-CS/DNA complexes started to form at N/P ratio of 2:1, and the size of particles varied from 100 to 180 nm. The cytotoxicity of Arg-CS and their complexes with plasmid DNA were determined by MTT assay for HeLa cells, and the results suggested that Arg-CS/DNA complexes were slightly less toxic than Arg-CS. Moreover, the derivative alone and their complexes showed significantly lower toxicity than PEI and PEI/DNA complexes, respectively. Taking HeLa cells as target cells and using pGL3-control as reporter gene, the luciferase expression mediated by Arg-CS was greatly enhanced to about 100 folds compared with the luciferase expression mediated by chitosan at different pH media. These results suggest that Arg-CS is a promising candidate as a safe and efficient vector for gene delivery and transfection.

  11. Modulation of peritoneal macrophage activity by the saturation state of the fatty acid moiety of phosphatidylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.C. Grando

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine (PC on macrophage activity, peritoneal lavage cells were cultured in the presence of phosphatidylcholine rich in saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (sat PC and unsat PC, respectively, both used at concentrations of 32 and 64 µM. The treatment of peritoneal macrophages with 64 µM unsat PC increased the production of hydrogen peroxide by 48.3% compared to control (148.3 ± 16.3 vs 100.0 ± 1.8%, N = 15, and both doses of unsat PC increased adhesion capacity by nearly 50%. Moreover, 64 µM unsat PC decreased neutral red uptake by lysosomes by 32.5% compared to the untreated group (67.5 ± 6.8 vs 100.0 ± 5.5%, N = 15, while both 32 and 64 µM unsat PC decreased the production of lipopolysaccharide-elicited nitric oxide by 30.4% (13.5 ± 2.6 vs 19.4 ± 2.5 µM and 46.4% (10.4 ± 3.1 vs 19.4 ± 2.5 µM, respectively. Unsat PC did not affect anion production in non-stimulated cells or phagocytosis of unopsonized zymosan particles. A different result pattern was obtained for macrophages treated with sat PC. Phorbol 12-miristate 13-acetate-elicited superoxide production and neutral red uptake were decreased by nearly 25% by 32 and 64 µM sat PC, respectively. Sat PC did not affect nitric oxide or hydrogen peroxide production, adhesion capacity or zymosan phagocytosis. Thus, PC modifies macrophage activity, but this effect depends on cell activation state, fatty acid saturation and esterification to PC molecule and PC concentration. Taken together, these results indicate that the fatty acid moiety of PC modulates macrophage activity and, consequently, is likely to affect immune system regulation in vivo.

  12. Natural variability in acyl moieties of sugar esters produced by certain tobacco and other Solanaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroumova, Antoaneta B M; Zaitlin, Dave; Wagner, George J

    2016-10-01

    A unique feature of glandular trichomes of plants in the botanical family Solanaceae is that they produce sugar esters (SE), chemicals that have been shown to possess insecticidal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Sugar esters of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) provide pest resistance, and are important flavor precursors in oriental tobacco cultivars. Acyl moieties of SEs in Nicotiana spp., petunia, and tomato are shown to vary with respect to carbon length and isomer structure (2-12 carbon chain length; anteiso-, iso-, and straight-chain). Sugar esters and their acyl groups could serve as a model to explore the basis of phenotypic diversity and adaptation to natural and agricultural environments. However, information on the diversity of acyl composition among species, cultivars, and accessions is lacking. Herein, described is the analysis of SE acyl groups found in 21 accessions of Nicotiana obtusifolia (desert tobacco), six of Nicotiana occidentalis subsp. hesperis, three of Nicotiana alata, two of N. occidentalis, four modern tobacco cultivars, five petunia hybrids, and one accession each of a primitive potato (Solanum berthaultii) and tomato (Solanum pennellii). A total of 20 different acyl groups was observed that were represented differently among cultivars, species, and accessions. In Nicotiana species, acetate and iso- and anteiso-branched acids prevailed. Straight-chain groups (2-8 carbons) were prominent in petunias, while octanoic acid was prominent in N. alata and N. × sanderae. Two unexpected acyl groups, 8-methyl nonanoate and decanoate were found in N. occidentalis subsp. hesperis. Longer chain groups were found in the petunia, tomato, and potato species studied. PMID:27262877

  13. The Struggle for Territorial Control in Colombia: An Analysis of the Dynamics of the Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Henao Duque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on the theory of armed conflict and examines its application to the insurgents´ struggle with the State for political and territorial control in Colombia during 1999-2010.  The analysis examines three sub-periods during this period and several geographic regions to analyze the effect of varying levels of participant capability on the dynamics of the conflict, as measured by the intensity of the conflict over time.  We conclude that as long as there are asymmetries between the State and the insurgency, armed confrontation is likely to continue.

  14. From spectator to participant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Kofoed, Jens

    The book collects experiences and methods for citizens’ participation in order to strengthen the local Agenda 21 process. 5 different types of methods is presented: Methods of analyses and evaluation, methods of dialogue, methods for action, methods for networking, and finely methods for involvin...

  15. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... was provided by the National Library of Medicine Topic last reviewed: December 2013 For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study With Human Subjects A clinical trial is ...

  16. Communication Games: Participant's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Karen R.

    Using a series of communicational games, the author leads the participant through self-awareness, verbal and nonverbal communication, decision-making, problem-solving, and skills in perception, listening, and small group, organizational, and cultural communications. The thesis behind the book is that model-making, role-playing, or other forms of…

  17. From understanding to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2013-01-01

    , multimodal process in which language together with bodily senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste) and a sense of place contribute to a phenomenon being recognized (as shared). Participation can result in inclusion or exclusion, a claim which is discussed with the help of a pilot study from...

  18. Public Participation GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2004-01-01

    information in environmental planning and gives an overview over the various approaches to public participation. The current advances in Web-based GIS in many countries contain great possibilities for supporting good governance based on information and knowledge on the one hand and active involvement...

  19. Walking - Sensing - Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam; Browning, David

    Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider...

  20. Participation som organisatorisk praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe; Jønsson, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Hensigten med artiklen er at give et bidrag til forståelsen af begrebet organisatorisk participation både teoretisk og ud fra praksis. Det gøres ud fra analyser og tematiseringer af participationens mangfoldighed, participationssystemers konstituering, participationens substans og finalitet samt...

  1. Participation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Valoyi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which employees would like to participate in decision making concerning various organisational issues, especially those concerning: the work itself, working conditions, human resources issues, and corporate policy and planning. The sample consisted of 146 participants, including managers, middle managers, and junior officials from a South African development corporation. A questionnaire to measure employees' desire to participate in decision making was specially constructed for this investigation. It has found that employees with higher academic qualifications were more desirous to participate in decision-making at all levels than employees with lower academic qualifications. This was also true for employees in higher job grades than in lower job grades. Men were more desirous to participate in decision making than women. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die huidige studie was om vas te stel in watter mate werknemers sal wil deelneem aan die besluit- nameproses van organisasies, veral rakende die volgende sake: die werk self, werksomstandighede, menslike hulpbronaangeleenthede en korporatiewe beleid en beplanning. Die steekproef het uit 146 deelnemers, insluitende bestuurders, middelvlakbestuurders en junior amptenare van'n Suid Afrikaanse ontwikkelingskorporasie, bestaan. nVraelys wat die begeerte van werknemers meet om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem, is spesiaal vir die doel van hierdie ondersoek, ontwerp. Dit is bevind dat werknemers met hoer akademiese kwalifikasies meer begerig is om aan die besluitnameproses op alle vlakke deel te neem as werknemers met laer akademiese kwalifikasies. Dit was ook waar vir werknemers in hoervlakposte vergeleke met werknemers in laervlakposte. Mans was ook meer begerig om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem as vroue. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel fluconazole analogues bearing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety as potent antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jun; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Lei; Chai, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Qingjie; Yu, Shichong; Zou, Yan; Meng, Qingguo; Wu, Qiuye

    2015-04-01

    A novel series of fluconazole based mimics incorporating 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety were designed and synthesized. All the title compounds were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and Q-TOF-MS. Preliminary results revealed that most of analogues exhibited significant antifungal activity against seven pathogenic fungi. Compounds 9g and 9k (MIC80 ≤ 0.125 μg/mL, respectively) were found more potent than the positive controls itraconazole and fluconazole as broad-spectrum antifungal agents. The observed docking results showed that the 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety enhanced the affinity binding to the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51).

  3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel fluconazole analogues bearing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety as potent antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jun; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Lei; Chai, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Qingjie; Yu, Shichong; Zou, Yan; Meng, Qingguo; Wu, Qiuye

    2015-04-01

    A novel series of fluconazole based mimics incorporating 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety were designed and synthesized. All the title compounds were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and Q-TOF-MS. Preliminary results revealed that most of analogues exhibited significant antifungal activity against seven pathogenic fungi. Compounds 9g and 9k (MIC80 ≤ 0.125 μg/mL, respectively) were found more potent than the positive controls itraconazole and fluconazole as broad-spectrum antifungal agents. The observed docking results showed that the 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety enhanced the affinity binding to the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51). PMID:24838380

  4. Irradiation of ethylene/styrene copolymers: evidence of sensitization of the aromatic moiety as counterpart of the radiation protection effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, M; Bessy, E; Harris, H; Lutz, P J; Ramillon, J-M; Ngono-Ravache, Y; Balanzat, E

    2012-02-16

    Molecules containing aromatics systems are more stable in the presence of ionizing radiations than alkanes. In the same way, introducing aromatic rings into aliphatic compounds increases their stability. The protective effect is nonlocal and likely results from the transfer of energy and species from the aliphatic moiety to the aromatic one. For years, it was commonly assumed that the aromatic moiety, which is very radiation resistant, accommodates the extra energy remaining unaffected. The use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, online with high energy ion beam irradiation of ethylene/styrene random copolymers, allows us to bring experimental evidence that the benzene rings are sensitized by transfer reactions and consequently that this effect is more important in polymers with low benzene ring molar content. PMID:22236059

  5. Glycosidic moiety changes the spectroscopic properties of DL-α-tocopherol in DMSO/water solution and in organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunert, G.; Polewski, P.; Walejko, P.; Markiewicz, M.; Witkowski, S.; Polewski, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study we estimated how conjugation with a sugar moiety influences the spectral properties of tocopherol and relate the spectroscopic properties of glycosides to solvent properties such as viscosity and polarity. Spectroscopic properties (absorption, fluorescence, fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence lifetime) of three DL-α-tocopheryl glycosides (DL-α-tocopheryl orthoacetate derivative and glycosides of DL-α-tocopherol model compounds: 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol and Trolox) were studied in DMSO/water solution. In all investigated compounds dissolved in DMSO/water mixture the absorption and emission maxima were blue-shifted. The fluorescence lifetimes were longer compared with those obtained for the parent compounds, except for the Trolox glucoside, in which it was shorter. The observed effect is connected with an increase in the electronic energy in the ground state due to electron rearrangement in the chromanol system caused by interaction with the sugar moiety. The extent of the spectral shift is related to the sugar moiety substituted at the phenolic oxygen rather than to substitution at the 2a position in the chromanol ring. The fluorescent properties of DL-α-tocopheryl glucoside in organic solvents were measured. The Stokes shift was related to the orientational polarizability of the solvents. The study of viscosity suggested two different mechanisms explaining the results observed in a low- and high-viscosity environment. The results indicated the fundamental role of interactions between the chromophore and sugar moiety in a low-viscosity environment. The results obtained at high values of viscosity are discussed in terms of a frictional boundary solvent-solute interaction model.

  6. Design, synthesis, and self-assembly of optically active perylenetetracarboxylic diimide bearing two peripheral chiral binaphthyl moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optically active perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) bearing two optically active binaphthyl moieties has been designed and synthesized. The self-assembly properties of these novel PTCDI derivatives in DMF/H2O were systematically investigated by electronic absorption, circular dichroism (CD) spectra, IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Observation of CD signal in the whole absorption region of PTCDI chromophore, indicates effective chiral information transfer from the chiral binaphthyl units to the central PTCDI chromophore at molecular level. The intermolecular π–π interaction between PTCDI rings together with the additionally formed hydrogen bonds between the crown ether moieties of (S)-1 and additional water molecules and the chiral discrimination of periphery chiral side chains induces further intensified asymmetrical perturbation of the chiral binaphthyl units to the central PTCDI chromophore during the self-assembly process, resulting in the formation of right-handed helical arrangement of corresponding molecules in a stack of PTCDI chromophores in aggregates. In addition, the formed nanostructures were revealed to show good semiconducting properties. - Graphical abstract: An optically active perylenetetracarboxylic diimide bearing two optically active binaphthyl moieties has been prepared. Self-assembly properties of this novel PTCDI derivative in DMF/H2O were systematically investigated. Experimental results indicate the effective chiral information transfer and expression at molecular and intermolecular level. Highlights: ► An optically active perylenetetracarboxylic diimide bearing two optically active binaphthyl moieties has been prepared. ► Self-assembly properties of this novel PTCDI derivative in DMF/H2O were systematically investigated. ► Experimental results indicate the effective chiral information transfer and expression at molecular

  7. Structural diversity of the lipid A and core oligosaccharide moieties of the lipopolysaccharides from nontypeable and serotype f Haemophilus influenzae

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Håkan

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes structural studies of the oligosaccharide and lipid A moieties of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) isolated from disease-causing Haemophilus influenzae strains. The nontypeable strains were clinical isolates from the middle ear of children suffering from otitis media and the serotype f strains had been collected from three adults with respiratory tract infections. The LPS molecules are situated on the cell wall of H. influenzae strains and they play a ver...

  8. Novel mechanism of bioluminescence: oxidative decarboxylation of a moiety adjacent to the light emitter of Fridericia luciferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinnyi, Maxim A; Kaskova, Zinaida M; Rodionova, Natalja S; Baranov, Mikhail S; Gorokhovatsky, Andrey Yu; Kotlobay, Alexey; Solntsev, Kyril M; Tsarkova, Aleksandra S; Petushkov, Valentin N; Yampolsky, Ilia V

    2015-06-01

    A novel luciferin from a bioluminescent Siberian earthworm Fridericia heliota was recently described. In this study, the Fridericia oxyluciferin was isolated and its structure elucidated. The results provide insight into a novel bioluminescence mechanism in nature. Oxidative decarboxylation of a lysine fragment of the luciferin supplies energy for light generation, while a fluorescent CompX moiety remains intact and serves as the light emitter. PMID:25913753

  9. Synthesis and Olfactory Evaluation of Bulky Moiety-Modified Analogues to the Sandalwood Odorant Polysantol®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Sánchez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new bulky moiety-modified analogues of the sandalwood odorant Polysantol® have been synthesized by aldol condensation of appropriate aldehydes with butanone, deconjugative α-methylation of the resulting α,β-unsaturated ketones, and reduction of the corresponding β,γ-unsaturated ketones. The final compounds were evaluated organoleptically and one of them seemed to be of special interest for its natural sandalwood scent.

  10. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Zakrzewski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates were synthesized in 30–100% yield using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolylphosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix.

  11. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Jerzy; Huras, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates) were synthesized in 30-100% yield using a Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II) acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolyl)phosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix. PMID:26199672

  12. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Zakrzewski; Bogumiła Huras

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates) were synthesized in 30–100% yield using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II) acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolyl)phosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix.

  13. Invited to Participate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Dam

    This thesis presents an ethnography of e-health and patient participation in heart care. Drawing on Science & Technology Studies (STS) and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), the thesis goes beyond the common narrative of e-health as a solution and vehicle for transforming healthcare...... towards more patient-centered practices and explores what patient-involving e-health, in practice, can become. With the user test of an e-health system for ICD-patients as the pivotal case, the thesis unpacks what happens when patients are invited to become participants and, in particular, information...... providers through e-health as well as other devices. It does so from a highly interventionist approach where the author uses her role as facilitator of the user test to conduct an ethnographic experiment. The thesis consists of four papers. Concurrently but with different analytical devices, the papers...

  14. Participating in patient education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Antoft, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The paper builds on previous ethnographic research in Denmark focusing on the significance of participating in a locally developed patient education programme for everyday life (Kristiansen et.al. 2015). It presents a secondary analysis. Group based patient education can be understood as a health...... point is applied in order to illustrate two central status passages taking place at the locally developed patient education programme: 1) The status passage from novice to an experienced person with chronic illness, and 2) The transformation from adolescence to adulthood living with a chronic illness...... studies within the field of patient education and how it can enhance our understanding of the social practices at play and the identity transitions occurring as a result of the chronic illness itself and the participation at the programme. Further we reflect on potential practical implications of our...

  15. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  16. Photo-induced in situ crosslinking of polymer brushes with dimethyl maleimide moieties for dynamically stimulating stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaka, Yoshinori; Nishijima, Yuka; Yusa, Shin-Ichi; Takeda, Naoya

    2016-09-01

    We designed photo-crosslinkable polymer brushes with dimethylmaleimide moieties, in order to demonstrate dynamic stimulation of cell differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The polymer brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using dimethylmaleimide ethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate on a chain transfer agent-immobilized glass surface. The polymer brushes were crosslinked by photodimerization of the dimethylmaleimide moieties within polymer chains with stem cells present on the surface. In order to evaluate the effects of in situ photo-induced crosslinking of the polymer brushes on gene expression of stem cells, human bone marrow MSCs were cultured under static and dynamic culture conditions for 7 days. Expression of the osteocalcin (Ocn) gene in MSCs was used as an indicator of osteoblast differentiation under dynamic culture conditions. Structural conversion from non-crosslinked polymer brushes to crosslinked polymer brushes increased the expression of Ocn by 1.4-fold in the presence of adhered cells, compared with non-crosslinked polymer brushes under static culture conditions. These results suggest that MSCs recognized surface conversion from non-crosslinked to crosslinked structures, which resulted in altered differentiation lineages. Therefore, photo-crosslinkable surfaces with dimethyl maleimide moieties are potential novel materials for dynamically stimulating MSC differentiation. PMID:27255343

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzothiazole derivatives bearing the ortho-hydroxy-N-acylhydrazone moiety as potent antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Zhang, Guangyan; Han, Xiaoqi; Bao, Guanglong; Wang, Lihui; Zhai, Xin; Gong, Ping

    2014-12-01

    A novel series of benzothiazole derivatives bearing the ortho-hydroxy-N-acylhydrazone moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their procaspase-3 kinase activation activities and antiproliferative activities against five cancer cell lines (NCI-H226, SK-N-SH, HT29, MKN-45, and MDA-MB-231). Most target compounds showed moderate to excellent cytotoxic activity against all five tested cancer lines. The most promising compound 18e (procaspase-3 EC50  = 0.31 µM) with IC50 values ranging from 0.24 to 0.92µM against all tested cell lines was 4.24-12.2 times more active than PAC-1 (procaspase-3 EC50  = 0.41 µM). Structure-activity relationship studies indicated that the phenyl group on the 2-hydroxyphenyl ring (moiety A) was critical for pharmacological activity in vitro. In addition, introduction of a benzyloxyl group on moiety A and a mono-electron-withdrawing group at the 4-position of the benzyloxyl group were more favorable for antitumor activity. Moreover, reduction of the electron density in the phenyl ring of the benzyloxy group led to a dramatic decrease in the procaspase-3 kinase activation activity. PMID:25230149

  18. Photo-induced in situ crosslinking of polymer brushes with dimethyl maleimide moieties for dynamically stimulating stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaka, Yoshinori; Nishijima, Yuka; Yusa, Shin-Ichi; Takeda, Naoya

    2016-09-01

    We designed photo-crosslinkable polymer brushes with dimethylmaleimide moieties, in order to demonstrate dynamic stimulation of cell differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The polymer brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using dimethylmaleimide ethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate on a chain transfer agent-immobilized glass surface. The polymer brushes were crosslinked by photodimerization of the dimethylmaleimide moieties within polymer chains with stem cells present on the surface. In order to evaluate the effects of in situ photo-induced crosslinking of the polymer brushes on gene expression of stem cells, human bone marrow MSCs were cultured under static and dynamic culture conditions for 7 days. Expression of the osteocalcin (Ocn) gene in MSCs was used as an indicator of osteoblast differentiation under dynamic culture conditions. Structural conversion from non-crosslinked polymer brushes to crosslinked polymer brushes increased the expression of Ocn by 1.4-fold in the presence of adhered cells, compared with non-crosslinked polymer brushes under static culture conditions. These results suggest that MSCs recognized surface conversion from non-crosslinked to crosslinked structures, which resulted in altered differentiation lineages. Therefore, photo-crosslinkable surfaces with dimethyl maleimide moieties are potential novel materials for dynamically stimulating MSC differentiation.

  19. The effect of intramolecular donor–acceptor moieties with donor–π-bridge–acceptor structure on the solar photovoltaic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of intramolecular donor–acceptor polymers containing different contents of (E-1-(2-ethylhexyl-6,9-dioctyl-2-(2-(thiophen-3-ylvinyl-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole (thiophene-DOPI moiety and 4,4-diethylhexylcyclopenta[ 2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (CPDT unit was synthesized via Grignard metathesis (GRIM polymerization. The synthesized random copolymers and homopolymer of thiophene-DOPI contain the donor–π-bridge–acceptor conjugated structure to tune the absorption spectra and energy levels of the resultant polymers. UV-vis spectra of the three polymer films exhibit panchromatic absorptions ranging from 300 to 1100 nm and low band gaps from 1.38 to 1.51 eV. It is found that more thiophene-DOPI moieties result in the decrease of band gap and lower the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO values of polymers. Photovoltaic performance results indicate that if the content of the intramolecular donor–acceptor moiety is high enough, the copolymer structure may be better than homopolymer due to more light-harvesting afforded by both monomer units.

  20. Participation in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Jan-Olof

    2014-01-01

    With todays planners and urban designers often using the participatory process, it is worth knowing that there are different ways that participation is used and to what ends. This thesis looks into three projects in Malmö, Sweden, all with their distinct character and approach to participatory practice. The three projects are labeled "initiative", "invitational" and "members only" - types of participatory practices. The methodology revolves around interviews with...

  1. Pep talk or participation

    OpenAIRE

    Cremers, J.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution to a Conference in Oslo (on 29 and 30 August 2011) provides evidence on the role workers and their representatives can play in supporting sustainable companies. Evidence shows that, generally, management alone is not able to implement the policies needed for sustainable companies. In terms of sustainable human resources, management by itself - even when it is willing to participate in cooperative industrial relations and social dialogue - in most cases lacks the skills and k...

  2. From delegation to participation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipkin, Jonathan.

    1999-01-01

    Examining the period between 1958 (the inception of the Fifth Republic) and 1981 (election of François Mitterrand as President and Socialist parliamentary majority), my research sought to answer the question: why and how did grass-roots mobilisation in favour of citizen participation develop in two French cities, Grenoble and Toulouse? The thesis first develops a general conceptual framework within which to analyse each locality. It elaborates the notion that there existed two...

  3. A molecular hybrid polyoxometalate-organometallic moieties and its relevance to supercapacitors in physiological electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnathambi, Selvaraj; Ammam, Malika

    2015-06-01

    Supercapacitors operating in physiological electrolytes are of great relevance for both their environmentally friendly aspect as well as the possibility to be employed for powering implantable microelectronic devices using directly biological fluids as electrolytes. Polyoxometalate (POMs) have been proven to be useful for supercapacitors in acidic media. However, in neutral pH, POMs are usually not stable. One relevant alternative is to stabilize POMs by pairing them with organic moieties to form hybrids. In this study, we combined K6P2Mo18O62·12H2O (P2Mo18) with Ru(bpy)3Cl2.6H2O (Ru(bpy)). The synthesis was carried out with and without the mild reducing agent KI. The hybrids were characterized by CHN analysis, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and cyclic voltammetry. CHN elemental analysis revealed that one mole [P2Mo18O62]6- is paired with 3 mol [Ru(bpy)3]2+ to form [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O. With KI present, [P2Mo18O62]6- is linked to 3.33 mol to yield [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O. Excess of Ru(bpy) in [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O was further confirmed by TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and cyclic voltammetry. In turn, hybrid composition is found to strongly influence the supercapacitor behavior. The hybrid rich in Ru(bpy) is found to perform better for supercapacitors in physiological electrolytes. 125 F g-1 and 68 F g-1 are the capacitance values obtained with [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O and [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O, respectively. In terms of specific energy densities, 3.5 Wh kg-1 and 2 Wh kg-1 were obtained for both hybrid simultaneously. The difference in supercapacitor performance between both hybrids is also noticed in impedance spectroscopy which showed that [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O has lower electron transfer resistance if compared to [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O. Finally, if compared of parent K6P2Mo18O62·12H2O, the stability of both hybrids is found to be highly improved.

  4. Characterisation of the Native Lipid Moiety of Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obal, Gonzalo; Ramos, Ana Lía; Silva, Valeria; Lima, Analía; Batthyany, Carlos; Bessio, María Inés; Ferreira, Fernando; Salinas, Gustavo; Ferreira, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Antigen B (EgAgB) is the most abundant and immunogenic antigen produced by the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus granulosus. It is a lipoprotein, the structure and function of which have not been completely elucidated. EgAgB apolipoprotein components have been well characterised; they share homology with a group of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) present exclusively in cestode organisms, and consist of different isoforms of 8-kDa proteins encoded by a polymorphic multigene family comprising five subfamilies (EgAgB1 to EgAgB5). In vitro studies have shown that EgAgB apolipoproteins are capable of binding fatty acids. However, the identity of the native lipid components of EgAgB remains unknown. The present work was aimed at characterising the lipid ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo. EgAgB was purified to homogeneity from hydatid cyst fluid and its lipid fraction was extracted using chloroform∶methanol mixtures. This fraction constituted approximately 40–50% of EgAgB total mass. High-performance thin layer chromatography revealed that the native lipid moiety of EgAgB consists of a variety of neutral (mainly triacylglycerides, sterols and sterol esters) and polar (mainly phosphatidylcholine) lipids. Gas-liquid chromatography analysis showed that 16∶0, 18∶0 and 18∶1(n-9) are the most abundant fatty acids in EgAgB. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering demonstrated that EgAgB comprises a population of particles heterogeneous in size, with an average molecular mass of 229 kDa. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the nature of the hydrophobic ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo and indicate that the structure and composition of EgAgB lipoprotein particles are more complex than previously thought, resembling high density plasma lipoproteins. Results are discussed considering what is known on lipid metabolism in cestodes, and taken into account the Echinococcus spp. genomic information regarding both lipid

  5. Characterisation of the native lipid moiety of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Obal

    Full Text Available Antigen B (EgAgB is the most abundant and immunogenic antigen produced by the larval stage (metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus. It is a lipoprotein, the structure and function of which have not been completely elucidated. EgAgB apolipoprotein components have been well characterised; they share homology with a group of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs present exclusively in cestode organisms, and consist of different isoforms of 8-kDa proteins encoded by a polymorphic multigene family comprising five subfamilies (EgAgB1 to EgAgB5. In vitro studies have shown that EgAgB apolipoproteins are capable of binding fatty acids. However, the identity of the native lipid components of EgAgB remains unknown. The present work was aimed at characterising the lipid ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo. EgAgB was purified to homogeneity from hydatid cyst fluid and its lipid fraction was extracted using chloroform∶methanol mixtures. This fraction constituted approximately 40-50% of EgAgB total mass. High-performance thin layer chromatography revealed that the native lipid moiety of EgAgB consists of a variety of neutral (mainly triacylglycerides, sterols and sterol esters and polar (mainly phosphatidylcholine lipids. Gas-liquid chromatography analysis showed that 16∶0, 18∶0 and 18∶1(n-9 are the most abundant fatty acids in EgAgB. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering demonstrated that EgAgB comprises a population of particles heterogeneous in size, with an average molecular mass of 229 kDa. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the nature of the hydrophobic ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo and indicate that the structure and composition of EgAgB lipoprotein particles are more complex than previously thought, resembling high density plasma lipoproteins. Results are discussed considering what is known on lipid metabolism in cestodes, and taken into account the Echinococcus spp. genomic information regarding

  6. Characterisation of the native lipid moiety of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obal, Gonzalo; Ramos, Ana Lía; Silva, Valeria; Lima, Analía; Batthyany, Carlos; Bessio, María Inés; Ferreira, Fernando; Salinas, Gustavo; Ferreira, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Antigen B (EgAgB) is the most abundant and immunogenic antigen produced by the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus granulosus. It is a lipoprotein, the structure and function of which have not been completely elucidated. EgAgB apolipoprotein components have been well characterised; they share homology with a group of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) present exclusively in cestode organisms, and consist of different isoforms of 8-kDa proteins encoded by a polymorphic multigene family comprising five subfamilies (EgAgB1 to EgAgB5). In vitro studies have shown that EgAgB apolipoproteins are capable of binding fatty acids. However, the identity of the native lipid components of EgAgB remains unknown. The present work was aimed at characterising the lipid ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo. EgAgB was purified to homogeneity from hydatid cyst fluid and its lipid fraction was extracted using chloroform∶methanol mixtures. This fraction constituted approximately 40-50% of EgAgB total mass. High-performance thin layer chromatography revealed that the native lipid moiety of EgAgB consists of a variety of neutral (mainly triacylglycerides, sterols and sterol esters) and polar (mainly phosphatidylcholine) lipids. Gas-liquid chromatography analysis showed that 16∶0, 18∶0 and 18∶1(n-9) are the most abundant fatty acids in EgAgB. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering demonstrated that EgAgB comprises a population of particles heterogeneous in size, with an average molecular mass of 229 kDa. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the nature of the hydrophobic ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo and indicate that the structure and composition of EgAgB lipoprotein particles are more complex than previously thought, resembling high density plasma lipoproteins. Results are discussed considering what is known on lipid metabolism in cestodes, and taken into account the Echinococcus spp. genomic information regarding both lipid

  7. Muscle-type nicotinic receptor blockade by diethylamine, the hydrophilic moiety of lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando eAlberola-Die

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine bears in its structure both an aromatic ring and a terminal amine, which can be protonated at physiological pH, linked by an amide group. Since lidocaine causes multiple inhibitory actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, this work was aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of diethylamine (DEA, a small molecule resembling the hydrophilic moiety of lidocaine, on Torpedo marmorata nAChRs microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes. Similarly to lidocaine, DEA reversibly blocked acetylcholine-elicited currents (IACh in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 close to 70 μM, but unlike lidocaine, DEA did not affect IACh desensitization. IACh inhibition by DEA was more pronounced at negative potentials, suggesting an open-channel blockade of nAChRs, although roughly 30% inhibition persisted at positive potentials, indicating additional binding sites outside the pore. DEA block of nAChRs in the resting state (closed channel was confirmed by the enhanced IACh inhibition when pre-applying DEA before its co-application with ACh, as compared with solely DEA and ACh co-application. Virtual docking assays provide a plausible explanation to the experimental observations in terms of the involvement of different sets of drug binding sites. So, at the nAChR transmembrane (TM domain, DEA and lidocaine shared binding sites within the channel pore, giving support to their open-channel blockade; besides, lidocaine, but not DEA, interacted with residues at cavities among the M1, M2, M3 and M4 segments of each subunit and also at intersubunit crevices. At the extracellular (EC domain, DEA and lidocaine binding sites were broadly distributed, which aids to explain the closed channel blockade observed. Interestingly, some DEA clusters were located at the α-γ interphase of the EC domain, in a cavity near the orthosteric binding site pocket; by contrast, lidocaine contacted with all α-subunit loops conforming the ACh binding site, both in α-γ and

  8. Development of a 3D immersive videogame to improve arm-postural coordination in patients with TBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassavaugh Nicholas D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI disrupts the central and executive mechanisms of arm(s and postural (trunk and legs coordination. To address these issues, we developed a 3D immersive videogame-- Octopus. The game was developed using the basic principles of videogame design and previous experience of using videogames for rehabilitation of patients with acquired brain injuries. Unlike many other custom-designed virtual environments, Octopus included an actual gaming component with a system of multiple rewards, making the game challenging, competitive, motivating and fun. Effect of a short-term practice with the Octopus game on arm-postural coordination in patients with TBI was tested. Methods The game was developed using WorldViz Vizard software, integrated with the Qualysis system for motion analysis. Avatars of the participant's hands precisely reproducing the real-time kinematic patterns were synchronized with the simulated environment, presented in the first person 3D view on an 82-inch DLP screen. 13 individuals with mild-to-moderate manifestations of TBI participated in the study. While standing in front of the screen, the participants interacted with a computer-generated environment by popping bubbles blown by the Octopus. The bubbles followed a specific trajectory. Interception of the bubbles with the left or right hand avatar allowed flexible use of the postural segments for balance maintenance and arm transport. All participants practiced ten 90-s gaming trials during a single session, followed by a retention test. Arm-postural coordination was analysed using principal component analysis. Results As a result of the short-term practice, the participants improved in game performance, arm movement time, and precision. Improvements were achieved mostly by adapting efficient arm-postural coordination strategies. Of the 13 participants, 10 showed an immediate increase in arm forward reach and single-leg stance time. Conclusion

  9. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallée, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  10. The arms race between fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  11. Molecular clouds in the Carina arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R. S.; Grabelsky, D. A.; May, J.; Alvarez, H.; Bronfman, L.; Thaddeus, P.

    1985-01-01

    From a new survey of the 2.6 mm line of CO in the southern Milky Way, 37 molecular clouds were identified along the Carina arm from l = 282 deg to 336 deg with masses generally greater than 10 to the 5th solar mass. The clouds lie approximately every 700 pc along a spiral segment that is nearly 25 kpc long and has a pitch of about 10 deg. The total mass of these clouds is 40 x 10 to the 6th solar mass, or rougly 1 x 10 to the 6th solar mass each on average. The abrupt tangent point in molecular clouds at l = 280 deg and the characteristic loop structure in the l-v diagram are unmistakable evidence of a CO spiral arm in Carina. This arm apparently connects with the northern hemisphere Sagittarius arm to form a single 10 deg spiral which extends more than two-thirds of the way around the Galaxy.

  12. 78 FR 30731 - Armed Forces Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-12402 Filed 5-21-13; 11:15 am] Billing code..., liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. And on Armed Forces Day, we honor those who serve bravely...

  13. Arming and firing system for DISTANT RUNNER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia A and F systems Division 1132 provided arming and firing support for the DISTANT RUNNER Test Program at White Sands Missile Range. This report describes the field support and the firing system that was used

  14. Drug Injection to Sites other than Arm: A Study of Iranian heroin injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad eKarimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For almost all injecting drug users (IDUs, the first injection is done to the arm. Years after in their injection career, they shift to using other sites for intravenous access. Although injection to sites other than arm is considered as a risky behavior, literature is poor regarding this behavior. We aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of using intravenous (IV access points other than arm among a national sample of IDUs in Iran. In a secondary analysis of the national drug dependence survey in 2007, we enrolled all 863 IDUs with at least once daily heroin injections. Data on socio-demographics, drug use data and injection related behavior entered to a backward logistic regression to determine the predictors of our main outcome which was injection to any IV access points other than arm. From all participants, 54.8% reported current injection in sites other than arm. Injection sites were femoral venous sinus (17.0%, groin (14.5%, neck (11.5%, other sites (3.0%, or missing (8.8%. Logistic regression revealed that living alone (OR=1.789, 95% CI=1.218 to 2.629, being Sonni (OR=3.475, 95% CI=1.775 to 6.801, Having higher family income (OR=1.002, 95% CI=1.001 to 1.003, higher age at first drug use (OR=1.039, 95% CI=1.009 to 1.069, more injection duration (OR=1.071, 95% CI=1.041 to 1.102, and more injection frequency (OR=1.255, 95% CI=1.072 to 1.471 were associated with higher likelihood of use of IV access points other than arm. Use of the other sites than arm for IV injection shows an attachment to some socio-demographics, drug use data, and injection related characteristics which can be used by policy makers in harm reduction planning.

  15. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM): Exploration of a Former Binary NEA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as a capability demonstration for future human exploration, including use of high-power solar electric propulsion, which allows for the efficient movement of large masses through deep space. The ARM will also demonstrate the capability to conduct proximity operations with natural space objects and crewed operations beyond the security of quick Earth return. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), currently in formulation, will visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, conduct a demonstration of a slow push planetary defense technique, and redirect the multi-ton boulder into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts aboard an Orion spacecraft will dock with the robotic vehicle to explore the boulder and return samples to Earth. The ARM is part of NASA's plan to advance technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. The ARM and subsequent availability of the asteroidal material in cis-lunar space, provide significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The current reference target for the ARM is NEA (341843) 2008 EV5, which may have been the primary body of a former binary system (Busch et al., 2011; Tardivel et al., 2016). The ARRM will perform several close proximity operations to investigate the NEA and map its surface. A detailed investigation of this object may allow a better understanding of binary NEA physical characteristics and the possible outcomes for their evolution. An overview of the ARM robotic and crewed segments, including mission operations, and a discussion of potential opportunities for participation with the ARM will be provided in this presentation.

  16. Comparison of Arm and Interarm Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Kim, H. G.; Moon, D. S.; Stark, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    The physical properties of the molecular clouds in the arm and interarm region of the inner Galalxy are compared. We used Bell Laboratories Galactic Plane 13CO Survey data and UMSB Galactic Plane 12CO Survey data. The LCO/M of the interarm molecular clouds is much smaller that of arm molecular clouds. Several physical properties, including abundance ratio of molecular clouds in two regions are discussed.

  17. Firm exit and armed conflict in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Andriana; Rodriguez, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two unique panel data sets to study the causal effect that armed conflict has over entrepreneurial activity in Colombia. Using a fixed effect estimation methodology at the plant level and controlling for the possible endogeneity of armed conflict through the use of instrumental variables, we find that a one standard deviation in the number of guerrilla and paramilitary attacks in a municipality increases the probability of firm exit in 8.1 percentage points. This effect is str...

  18. The Implications of a New ERa in Arms Control -- Perspectives and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 13, 2003 the INMM hosted a workshop in Washington, DC entitled 'The Implications of a New Era in Arms Control on Regional Nonproliferation and Nuclear Materials Management'. In this paper we summarize the workshop's highlights and provide our analysis of the dominant themes. Ambassador Linton Brooks, Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), delivered the keynote address and focused on four points that are key to understanding the new era: (1) The demise of traditional East/West arms control; (2) The new strategic relationship between Russia and the United States; (3) The blurring of the distinction between nonproliferation and counter-terrorism; (4) The growing recognition that the nonproliferation regime is no longer adequate and needs to be strengthened. He issued a set of challenges to the workshop participants: if his premises were right, what should replace the lexicon of arms control? He described a four-part strategy for nuclear materials protection in Russia, and asked if that model should be replicated globally - potentially by leveraging the new relationship with Russia. Should it be through the IAEA, bilaterally, or some other mechanism? Asserting that the old Nonproliferation Treaty regime was inadequate, he asked what should replace it, and how do we bring it about? Three panel discussions were presented: (1) Implications of a New Era in US/Russia Arms Control Agreements; (2) Implications of a New in Arms Control Upon Regional Nuclear Nonproliferation: South Asia/East Asia/Middle East; and (3) Nuclear Materials Management in a New Era of Arms Control In the first panel, Daryl Kimball, Executive Director of the Arms Control Association argued that arms control agreements provided predictability in the reduction of arms, and had been successful in advancing the methods of verification. Lucas Fischer, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Arms Control at the US State Department acknowledged that INF and START provide a basis

  19. Cultural participation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, David; Kann-Rasmussen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Europe has a ‘problem’; it is becoming a ‘less cultural continent’ as fewer Europeans are ‘engaging in cultural activities’. This conclusion has been reached due to the findings of the latest cross national cultural participation survey. This paper questions the existence of this ‘problem......’ and instead suggests that there is a shared problematisation across Europe sustained by common discursive archaeology that employs various discursive strands in relation to a dominant institutional discourse. The argument is that the ‘problem’ of ‘non-participation’ legitimates a ‘solution’ that predates its...

  20. Assemble four-arm DNA junctions into nanoweb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DNA is of structural polymorphism, which is useful in nanoarchitecture; especially, four-arm DNA junc tions can be used to assemble nanowebs. The static four-arm DNA junctions were designed and synthesized. One-arm DNA and two-arm DNA came out simultaneously with the four-arm DNA junction's formation. A new method, termed the two-step method, was proposed and the productivity of four-arm DNA junctions was increased. A nanoweb was assembled successfully, but it showed irregularity itself. It was not the same as we expected. We consider that it is aresult from the flexibility of four-arm DNA junction.

  1. Arm & Interarm Star Formation in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, Kelly; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between spiral arms and star formation in the grand-design spirals NGC 5194 and NGC 628 and in the flocculent spiral NGC 6946. Filtered maps of near-IR (3.6 micron) emission allow us to identify "arm regions" that should correspond to regions of stellar mass density enhancements. The two grand-design spirals show a clear two-armed structure, while NGC 6946 is more complex. We examine these arm and interarm regions, looking at maps that trace recent star formation - far-ultraviolet (GALEX NGS) and 24 micron emission (Spitzer, SINGS) - and cold gas - CO (Heracles) and HI (Things). We find the star formation tracers and CO more concentrated in the spiral arms than the stellar 3.6 micron flux. If we define the spiral arms as the 25% highest pixels in the filtered 3.6 micron images, we find that the majority (60%) of star formation tracers occurs in the interarm regions; this result persists qualitatively even when considering the potential impact of finite data resolution and diffu...

  2. ARM assembly language with hardware experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Elahi, Ata

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on approach to learning ARM assembly language with the use of a TI microcontroller. The book starts with an introduction to computer architecture and then discusses number systems and digital logic. The text covers ARM Assembly Language, ARM Cortex Architecture and its components, and Hardware Experiments using TILM3S1968. Written for those interested in learning embedded programming using an ARM Microcontroller. ·         Introduces number systems and signal transmission methods   ·         Reviews logic gates, registers, multiplexers, decoders and memory   ·         Provides an overview and examples of ARM instruction set   ·         Uses using Keil development tools for writing and debugging ARM assembly language Programs   ·         Hardware experiments using a Mbed NXP LPC1768 microcontroller; including General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) configuration, real time clock configuration, binary input to 7-segment display, creating ...

  3. Spaceflight participant visits CERN!

    CERN Multimedia

    Kathryn Coldham

    2016-01-01

    On 15 July, CERN welcomed spaceflight participant Anousheh Ansari.   Anousheh Ansari’s grin stretches from ear to ear, during an intriguing conversation with Nobel laureate Samuel C.C. Ting at AMS POCC. (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN) Iranian-American Anousheh Ansari was the first-ever female spaceflight participant, spending eight days on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006. She now has a new addition to her list of extraordinary sights ­– the home of the world’s largest particle accelerator: CERN.   On 15 July, Anousheh Ansari came to CERN and, unsurprisingly, visited the control room of the experiment attached to the ISS: the AMS. At the AMS Payload Operations Control Centre (AMS POCC) on CERN’s Prévessin site, she met the Nobel laureate Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the AMS experiment. Ansari and her accompanying guests were thrilled to expand their knowledge about CERN, its research and its...

  4. PARTICIPANTS IN INSOLVENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RARES-SEBASTIAN PUIU-NAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the officials and other participants in insolvency. The main purpose of the insolvency procedure is to cover all the debts of the debtor side, in favor of his creditor side. The most important regulations regarding this issue consist in Law no. 85/2006, according to it in the insolvency procedure are to be appointed the following officials: insolvency courts of justice, insolvency judge, receiver, liquidator. All these officials have to act in celerity, in order to promptly perform acts and operations provided by law and to respect and provide other participants’ rights and obligations. My article present in the beginning the insolvency courts of justice, their material and territorial competence and the procedure rules. Next chapters are dedicated to the insolvency judge, receiver and liquidator and analyze the following issues: their appointment, their powers, their auxiliary officials and their ceasing of the powers. Some regards on the British law and French law are also included. The next chapter is dedicated to the participants to the insolvency procedure: the creditors general assembly, creditors committee and special administrator, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  5. The Participation Decision Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Y. Ficaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 participation decision study involved exploration into the impact of the external education environment on the decision for private school participation in Federal funding, one deliberately declining player in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB choice and competition equation. In the qualitative collective case, three religiously triangulated Michigan private school decision-makers submitted to semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the external environmental factors was through the lens of Gould and Eldredge’s (1977 environmentally oriented theory, punctuated equilibria philosophy of change. Analysis involved layering, direct interpretation, categorical aggregation, and cross-comparison of two external environmental categories identified at literature review (NCLB-content and privatization-dynamic with numerous major and sub-groupings and space for newly emergent material. The category privatization-dynamics emerged as significant influence, as did the major theme trust and the sub-themes motivational intent, competency, consistency, grapevine, creativity or inspiration, restrictions on curriculum, lack of awareness of opportunities available, and fear of failure. The study included five specific recommendations for leaders of change to explain, predict, and improve organizational performance toward greater synchronization in operation of the NCLB choice and competition mechanisms.

  6. The Influence of Arm Swelling Duration on Shoulder Pathology in Breast Cancer Patients with Lymphedema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hyun Jang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the pathological effect of the duration of arm swelling on the shoulder pathology in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema.Forty seven breast cancer patients with unilateral arm lymphedema were assessed. The duration of the arm swelling and shoulder pain were recorded. Ultrasound examination of the shoulder joint was performed in all patients to detect any lesions.Abnormalities were detected by ultrasound in 41/47 (87.2% study participants. Subacromial subdeltoid bursal thickening was found in 26/47 (55.3% participants, distension of the biceps brachii tendon sheath was found in 14/47 (29.8% and a supraspinatus tendon tear was found in 13/47 (27.7%. Patients with a supraspinatus tendon tear were found to have a significantly longer duration of lymphedema (1310 days vs. 398 days, p = 0.032.The duration of arm lymphedema has a progressive pathological effect on rotator cuff. Clinicians should adopt an early management approach of shoulder pain in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

  7. Participation constraints in pension systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.W.J. Beetsma; W.E. Romp

    2013-01-01

    We explore voluntary participation in pension arrangements. Individuals only participate when participation is more attractive than autarky. The benefit of participation is that risks can be shared with future generations. We apply our analysis to a pay-as-you-go system, a funded system without buff

  8. Association of Inter-arm Blood Pressure Difference with Asymptomatic Intracranial and Extracranial Arterial Stenosis in Hypertension Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Qian, Yuesheng; Tang, Xiaofeng; Ling, Huawei; Chen, Kemin; Li, Yan; Gao, Pingjin; Zhu, Dingliang

    2016-01-01

    Inter-arm blood pressure (BP) difference has been associated with ischemic stroke. Local atherosclerosis of stroke differ among vulnerable individuals, whereas intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is more frequently affected Asians, and extracranial arterial stenosis (ECAS) is more prevalent among whites. We hereby sought to explore the association of inter-arm BP difference with ICAS and ECAS in stroke-free hypertensive patients in Chinese population. All the 885 subjects were evaluated of ICAS and ECAS through computerized tomographic angiography. Both arm BP was measured simultaneously by Vascular Profiler-1000 device. In the continuous study, ICAS was significantly associated with age, male, average brachial SBP, diabetes, anti-hypertensive treatment and inter-arm DBP difference. ECAS was associated with age, inter-arm SBP and LDL. In the categorical study, subjects with the top quartile of inter-arm DBP difference (≥4 mmHg) showed significantly higher risk of ICAS (OR = 2.109; 95% CI, 1.24–3.587). And the participants with the top quartile of inter-arm SBP difference (≥6 mmHg) showed significantly higher risk of ECAS (OR = 2.288; 95% CI, 1.309–3.998). In conclusion, we reported a diverse association of inter-arm SBP/DBP difference with the ICAS/ECAS. Inter-arm DBP difference might be the early symbol of ICAS in Chinese population, which need further verification in long-term cohort study. PMID:27412818

  9. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    environment did not improve; on the contrary, it deteriorated. The article highlights cultural and structural obstacles to the process, including an inadequate understanding of organisational learning and a narrow focus on market and competition. The endeavours did not consistently increase delegation......The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working...... and participation. In order to develop a more sustainable and viable psychosocial working environment, a broader and more democratic notion of organisational learning and managing is proposed....

  10. (Radio)active participation

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    This year, for the first time, CERN hosted the Rencontres internationales lycéennes de la radioprotection: a three-day event in which some 200 students from 16 schools in France and elsewhere came together to discuss the topic of radiation protection and to deepen their understanding of the field.   Participants of the Rencontres internationales lycéennes de la radioprotection 2014. Each year since 2008, the Centre d’étude sur l’évaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucléaire français (CEPN, the French centre for studies of the evaluation of nuclear protection) and the Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire français (IRSN, the French institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety), in partnership with various other bodies*, have been organising radiation protection workshops. Aimed at students between the ages of 15 and 18 from France and beyo...

  11. Participation for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De La Harpe, Retha; Korpela, Mikko;

    2014-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is more and more promoted as a driver and facilitator of economic growth and development in low and middle income countries. ICT for Development (ICT4D) though has mixed successes. Sustainability of solutions and usability respectively usefulness...... is rare. The workshop aims at bringing together the PD researchers working with under-privileged communities and attracting researchers from the ICT4D communities to the PD conference. The goal is to share experiences and start a discussion on how participation, ICT and development might relate....... for the intended beneficiaries have been reported as causes. Participatory approaches to development have been proposed to address these causes. Participatory Design (PD) seems like a perfect fit. However, at the Participatory Design Conferences, research that addresses PD in low and middle income countries...

  12. Paradoxes of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis

    2015-01-01

    Processes of participatory forestry reform in the Global South in recent decades present us with a paradox. While ostensibly aimed at promoting participation by forest adjacent communities, these reforms more often appear to sustain domination by forest administrations or private enterprises...... and have increasingly been associated with inequitable social outcomes. Part of the explanation for this must be sought in the professionalization promoted by these reforms in the sense of scientific management approaches and structured and detailed systems of information gathering, dissemination...... and procedurally demanding framings that inhibit implementation, downplay politics and promote inequality. The contributions to this special issue illustrate empirical pathways to unpack and question the framing of participatory forestry as professionalization by pointing to its anti-democratic and social...

  13. Creation of an artificial metalloprotein with a Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst moiety through the intrinsic inhibition mechanism of α-chymotrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Takashi; Imai, Chie; Yoshida, Takefumi; Saito, Takashi; Hayashi, Takashi; Hirota, Shun

    2012-02-01

    An L-phenylalanyl chloromethylketone-based inhibitor equipped with a Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst moiety was regioselectively incorporated into the cleft of α-chymotrypsin through the intrinsic inhibition mechanism of the protein to construct an artificial organometallic protein.

  14. Dual Arm Work Module Development and Appplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    The dual arm work module (DAWM) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) as a development test bed to study issues related to dual arm manipulation, including platform cotilguration, controls, automation, operations, and tooling. The original platform was based on two Schilling Titan II manipulators mounted to a 5-degree-of- freedom (DOF) base fabricated by RedZone Robotics, Inc. The 5-DOF articulation provided a center torso rotation, linear actuation to change the separation between the arms, and arm base rotation joints to provide "elbows up," elbows down," or "elbows out" orientation. A series of tests were conducted on operations, tooling, and task space scene analysis (TSSA)-driven robotics for overhead transporter- mounted and crane hook-deployed scenarios. A concept was developed for DAWM deployment from a large remote work vehicle, but the project was redirected to support dismantlement of the Chicago Pile #5 (CP-5) reactor at Argonne National Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1997. Support of CP-5 required a change in focus of the dual arm technology from that of a development test bed to a system focussed for a specific end user. ORNL teamed with the Idaho National Environmental ,Engineering Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Technology Center to deliver a crane-deployed derivative of the DAWM, designated the dual arm work platform (DAWP). RTDP staff supported DAWP at CP-5 for one FY; Argonne staff continued operation through to dismantlement of the reactor internals. Lessons learned from this interaction were extensive. Beginning in FY 1999, dual arm development activities are again being pursued in the context of those lessons learned. This paper describes the progression of philosophy of the DAWM from initial test bed to lessons learned through interaction at CP-5 and to the present investigation of telerobotic assist of teleoperation and TSSA- driven robotics.

  15. Electrochemical investigation into the electron transfer mechanism of a diiron hexacarbonyl complex bearing a bridging naphthalene moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The electron transfer of a diiron hexacarbonyl complex with naphthalene moiety as its bridging linkage undergoes both ECE and EE pathways. In the ECE process, the second reduction potential is inversed, not more negative than the first one, and the dianion derived from the EE process may isomerise to that generated from the ECE process. - Highlights: • A diiron hexacarbonyl complex with naphthalene moiety as its bridging linkage. • In the electron transfer, both ECE and EE pathways co-exist. • In the ECE process, the second reduction potential is inversed, not more negative than the first one. - Abstract: Electrochemical investigations and chemical reduction of the diiron hexacarbonyl complex bearing a 1,8-naphthalene moiety bridging linkage into which a ferrocenyl group was deliberately incorporated were performed. The complex exhibited two reduction and two oxidation processes in dichloromethane. Our results revealed that the first reduction could be assigned to an ECE (Electrochemical, Chemical and Electrochemical) mechanism with the second potential inversed. When the monoanion generated in the first reduction underwent, in part, the ECE mechanism, the rest of the monoanion continued to accept the second electron without involving a coupled chemical reaction, so called EE (Electrochemical and Electrochemical) mechanism. The two mechanisms co-existed in the electron transfer and compete with each other. By both increasing scanning rate and lowering temperature, the coupled reaction in the ECE mechanism could be effectively suppressed whereas the second reduction is highly irreversible. The coupled chemical reaction following the EE process might lead to the same dianion as that produced in the ECE processes. Although chemical reduction and re-oxidation were unsuccessful of confirming the transformation between the two dianions, DFT calculations did support this proposed chemical reaction

  16. Lanthanide coordination polymers based on multi-donor ligand containing pyridine and phthalate moieties: Structures, luminescence and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Liu, Lang [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Wang, Li-Ya, E-mail: wlya@lynu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmacy Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473601 (China); Song, Hong-Liang; Qiang Shi, Zhi; Wu, Xu-Hong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Ng, Seik-Weng [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 80203 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-10-15

    A new family of five lanthanide-organic coordination polymers incorporating multi-functional N-hetrocyclic dicarboxylate ligand, namely, [Ln{sub 2}(Hdpp){sub 2}(dpp){sub 2}]{sub n}Ln=Pr(1), Eu(2), Gd(3), Dy(4), Er(5) (H{sub 2}dpp=1-(3, 4-dicarboxyphenyl) pyridin-4-ol) have been fabricated successfully through solvothermal reaction of 1-(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)-4-hydroxypyridin-1-ium chloride with trivalent lanthanide salts, and have been characterized systematically. The complexes 1–5 are isomorphous and isostructural. They all feature three dimensional (3D) frameworks based on the interconnection of 1D double chains composed of the binuclear moiety [Ln{sub 2}(Hdpp){sub 2}]{sup 4+} basic carboxylate as secondary building unit (SBU). The results of magnetic analysis shows the same bridging fashion of carboxylic group in this case results in the different magnetic properties occurring within lanthanide polymers. Moreover, the Eu(III) and Dy(III) complexes display characteristic luminescence emission in the visible regions. - Graphical abstract: A new family of lanthanide-organic frameworks incorporating multi-donor twisted ligand has been fabricated successfully, and has been characterized systematically. The complexes 1–5 are isostructural, and all feather three dimensional (3D) frameworks based on the interconnection of 1D double stride chains composed of the binuclear moiety [Ln{sub 2}(Hdpp){sub 2}]{sup 2+} basic carboxylate as secondary building unit (SBU). Display Omitted - Highlights: • New family of lanthanide–organic coordination polymers incorporating multifunctional N-hetrocyclic dicarboxylate ligand has been fabricated. • They have been characterized systematically. • They all feather three dimensional frameworks based on the binuclear moiety of [Ln{sub 2}(Hdpp){sub 2}]{sup 2+}. • The Eu(III) and Dy(III) analogues exhibit intense photoluminescence.

  17. Lanthanide coordination polymers based on multi-donor ligand containing pyridine and phthalate moieties: Structures, luminescence and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new family of five lanthanide-organic coordination polymers incorporating multi-functional N-hetrocyclic dicarboxylate ligand, namely, [Ln2(Hdpp)2(dpp)2]nLn=Pr(1), Eu(2), Gd(3), Dy(4), Er(5) (H2dpp=1-(3, 4-dicarboxyphenyl) pyridin-4-ol) have been fabricated successfully through solvothermal reaction of 1-(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)-4-hydroxypyridin-1-ium chloride with trivalent lanthanide salts, and have been characterized systematically. The complexes 1–5 are isomorphous and isostructural. They all feature three dimensional (3D) frameworks based on the interconnection of 1D double chains composed of the binuclear moiety [Ln2(Hdpp)2]4+ basic carboxylate as secondary building unit (SBU). The results of magnetic analysis shows the same bridging fashion of carboxylic group in this case results in the different magnetic properties occurring within lanthanide polymers. Moreover, the Eu(III) and Dy(III) complexes display characteristic luminescence emission in the visible regions. - Graphical abstract: A new family of lanthanide-organic frameworks incorporating multi-donor twisted ligand has been fabricated successfully, and has been characterized systematically. The complexes 1–5 are isostructural, and all feather three dimensional (3D) frameworks based on the interconnection of 1D double stride chains composed of the binuclear moiety [Ln2(Hdpp)2]2+ basic carboxylate as secondary building unit (SBU). Display Omitted - Highlights: • New family of lanthanide–organic coordination polymers incorporating multifunctional N-hetrocyclic dicarboxylate ligand has been fabricated. • They have been characterized systematically. • They all feather three dimensional frameworks based on the binuclear moiety of [Ln2(Hdpp)2]2+. • The Eu(III) and Dy(III) analogues exhibit intense photoluminescence

  18. Improvement of thermal properties and flame retardancy of epoxy-amine thermosets by introducing bisphenol containing azomethine moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel bisphenol 1, 4'-bis{4-[(4-hydroxy phenyliminomethylidene] phenoxy} benzene (BHPB, which contains azomethine moiety and flexible aromatic ether linkage, was synthesized and introduced into the curing system composed of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA and diamine. The curing behavior of DGEBA/diamine changed dramatically due to the introduction of BHPB. The resultant epoxy thermosets containing BHPB had high Tgs (127-160 °C, high Td, 5% (>=330°C and high integral procedure decomposition temperature (IPDT values (662-1230°C and good flame retardancy for their high Limited Oxygen Index (LOI values (above 29.5.

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel α-Aminoamides Containing an Indole Moiety for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haotian; Fan, Shiyong; Cheng, Jingchao; Zhang, Ping; Zhong, Bohua; Shi, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    The α-aminoamide family of sodium ion channel blockers have exhibited analgesic effects on neuropathic pain. Here, a series of novel α-aminoamides containing an indole ring were designed and synthesized. These compounds were evaluated in mice using a formalin test and they exhibited significant anti-allodynia activities. However, the analgesic mechanism of these compounds remains unclear; a subset of the synthesized compounds can only moderately inhibit the sodium ion channel, Nav1.7, in a whole-cell patch clamp assay. Overall, these results suggest that introduction of an indole moiety to α-aminoamide derivatives can significantly improve their bioactivity and further study is warranted. PMID:27347907

  20. Functionalization of Cyclodextrins with N-Hydroxyphthalimide Moiety: A New Class of Supramolecular Pro-Oxidant Organocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melone, Lucio; Petroselli, Manuel; Pastori, Nadia; Punta, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) is an organocatalyst for free-radical processes able to promote the aerobic oxidation of a wide range of organic substrates. In particular, NHPI can catalyze the hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This property could be of interest for biological applications. This work reports the synthesis of two β-cyclodextrin derivatives (CD5 and CD6) having a different degree of methylation and bearing a NHPI moiety. These compounds, having different solubility in water, have been successfully tested for the hydroperoxidation of methyl linoleate, chosen as the PUFA model molecule.

  1. Synthesis and In Vitro Antimicrobial Evaluation of New 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles Bearing 5-Chloro-2-methoxyphenyl Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavapatna N. Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives, 4(a–h, containing 5-chloro-2-methoxy benzohydrazide moiety were synthesized by the reaction of 5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate with different aromatic carboxylic acids. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, mass spectra, and also by elemental analysis. All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antimicrobial studies revealed that compounds 4c, 4f, and 4g showed significant activity against tested strains.

  2. Synthesis of some new heterocyclic compounds bearing a sulfonamide moiety and studying their combined anticancer effect with γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In search for new cytotoxic agents with improved anticancer profile, some new halogen-containing quinoline and pyrimido[4,5-b]quinoline derivatives bearing a free sulfonamide moiety were synthesized. All the newly synthesized target compounds were subjected to in vitro anticancer screening against human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). The most potent compounds, as concluded from the in vitro anticancer screening, were selected to be evaluated again for their in vitro anticancer activity in combination with radiation. Also, the newly synthesized compounds were docked in the active site of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme

  3. Antifouling behaviour of silicon surfaces modified with self-assembled monolayers containing both ethylene glycol and charged moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Cheuk Chi Albert; Ciampi, Simone; Harper, Jason B.; Gooding, J. Justin

    2010-08-01

    Herein reported is the synthesis of functionalised oligoethylene glycol molecules, with an azido group at one end and an ionisable group at the other end, and their attachment onto alkyne-terminated silicon(100) surfaces using 'click' chemistry. The modified surfaces were characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle goniometry. The antifouling behaviour of these surfaces was assessed and it was shown that while surfaces presenting both charged and ethylene glycol moieties are antifouling, the antifouling effectiveness is influenced by the surface charge as modulated via the pH of the solution.

  4. CYTOCHROME P450 REGULATION: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ITS HEME AND APOPROTEIN MOIETIES IN SYNTHESIS, ASSEMBLY, REPAIR AND DISPOSAL123

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Maria Almira; Sinclair, Peter R.; De Matteis, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Heme is vital to our aerobic universe. Heme cellular content is finely tuned through an exquisite control of synthesis and degradation. Heme deficiency is deleterious to cells, whereas excess heme is toxic. Most of the cellular heme serves as the prosthetic moiety of functionally diverse hemoproteins, including cytochromes P450 (P450s). In the liver, P450s are its major consumers with >50% of hepatic heme committed to their synthesis. Prosthetic heme is the sine qua non of P450 catalytic biot...

  5. One-pot synthesis and antifungal activity against plant pathogens of quinazolinone derivatives containing an amide moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jia; Ma, Yangmin; Ren, Decheng; Cheng, Pei; Zhao, Jiawen; Zhang, Fan; Yao, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    An efficient one-pot, three-component synthesis of quinazolinone derivatives containing 3-acrylamino motif was carried out using CeO2 nanoparticles as catalyst. Thirty-nine synthesized compounds were obtained with satisfied yield and elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Four phytopathogenic fungi were chosen to test the antifungal activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Compounds 4ag, 4bb, 4bc showed broad antifungal activities against at least three fungi, and dramatic effects of substituents on the activities were observed. Docking studies were established to explore the potential antifungal mechanism of quinazolinone derivatives as the chitinase inhibitors, and also verified the importance of the amide moiety. PMID:27040656

  6. Synthesis of Diarylpyrazoles Containing a Phenylsulphone or Carbonitrile Moiety and their Chalcones as Possible Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar, Ekhlass; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A.; Hany S. Ibrahim; Mansour, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    A series of chalcone-based diarylpyrazoles containing a phenylsulphone or carbonitrile moiety was synthesized. Thus, 3-acetylpyrazoles 6a–c and 10a–c were used as useful substrates in facile synthesis of functional pyrazoles 7a–f and 11a–f, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity and ulcerogenic effect were evaluated and some of the obtained products possessed a significant anti-inflammatory activity. 1-[1-(3-Methylphenyl)-5-phenyl-4-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]ethanone (6b) showed ...

  7. Pretilt Angles of Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) with the Application of Copolymers Possessing Chalconyl and Cholesteryl Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeoung-Yeon; Seo, Dae-Shik; Son, Jong Ho; Suh, Dong Hack

    2000-11-01

    We performed the synthesis of a new copoly (M4Ch-ChMA), copoly ((4-methacryloyloxy) chalcone-cholestery methacrylate), with chalconyl and cholesteryl moiety characteristics for photoalignment materials. Good thermal stabilities of the synthesized copolymers are confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurement. The pretilt angles of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) are reduced as UV exposure time is increased on the copolymer surfaces. A pretilt angle of 81° in NLC was observed with UV exposure of 3 min on the copolymer-3 surface. The NLCs pretilt angle is attributed to increased chalcone with increasing the UV exposure time.

  8. Core Muscle Activation in One-Armed and Two-Armed Kettlebell Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Gunnarskog, Aril; Jungård, Georg-Andrè; Slåttland, Roy-Andrè; Vraalsen, Øyvind F; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis, oblique external, and lower and upper erector spinae at both sides of the truncus in 1-armed and 2-armed kettlebell swing. Sixteen healthy men performed 10 repetitions of both exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell in randomized order. For the upper erector spinae, the activation of the contralateral side during 1-armed swing was 24% greater than that of the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p kettlebell swing with 1 arm resulted in greater neuromuscular activity for the contralateral side of the upper erector spinae and ipsilateral side of the rectus abdominis, and lower activation of the opposite side of the respective muscles. PMID:26473519

  9. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) and ARM-ACME 2.5 Final Campaign Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tom, M. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sweeney, C. [NOAA Earth Systems Research Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 5-year multi-institution and multi-agency airborne study of atmospheric composition and carbon cycling at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, with scientific objectives that are central to the carbon-cycle and radiative-forcing goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP region; 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative-forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM SGP region, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  10. Spiral arms as cosmic ray source distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M.; Kissmann, R.; Strong, A. W.; Reimer, O.

    2015-04-01

    The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy with (or without) a bar-like central structure. There is evidence that the distribution of suspected cosmic ray sources, such as supernova remnants, are associated with the spiral arm structure of galaxies. It is yet not clearly understood what effect such a cosmic ray source distribution has on the particle transport in our Galaxy. We investigate and measure how the propagation of Galactic cosmic rays is affected by a cosmic ray source distribution associated with spiral arm structures. We use the PICARD code to perform high-resolution 3D simulations of electrons and protons in galactic propagation scenarios that include four-arm and two-arm logarithmic spiral cosmic ray source distributions with and without a central bar structure as well as the spiral arm configuration of the NE2001 model for the distribution of free electrons in the Milky Way. Results of these simulation are compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution. Also, effects on the cosmic ray flux and spectra due to different positions of the Earth relative to the spiral structure are studied. We find that high energy electrons are strongly confined to their sources and the obtained spectra largely depend on the Earth's position relative to the spiral arms. Similar finding have been obtained for low energy protons and electrons albeit at smaller magnitude. We find that even fractional contributions of a spiral arm component to the total cosmic ray source distribution influences the spectra on the Earth. This is apparent when compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution as well as with respect to the Earth's position relative to the spiral arm structure. We demonstrate that the presence of a Galactic bar manifests itself as an overall excess of low energy electrons at the Earth. Using a spiral arm geometry as a cosmic ray source distributions offers a genuine new quality of modeling and is used to explain features in cosmic ray spectra at the Earth

  11. Spiral Arms as Cosmic Ray Source Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M; Strong, A W; Reimer, O

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that the distribution of suspected cosmic ray sources are associated with the spiral arm structure of galaxies. It is yet not clearly understood what effect such a cosmic ray source distribution has on the particle transport in our Galaxy. We use the PICARD code to perform high-resolution 3D simulations of electrons and protons in galactic propagation scenarios that include four-arm and two-arm logarithmic spiral cosmic ray source distributions with and without a central bar structure as well as the spiral arm configuration of the NE2001 model for the distribution of free electrons in the Milky Way. Results of these simulation are compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution. Also, effects on the cosmic ray flux and spectra due to different positions of the Earth relative to the spiral structure are studied. We find that high energy electrons are strongly confined to their sources and the obtained spectra largely depend on the Earth's position relative to the spiral arms. Similar f...

  12. Dynamic Stock Market Participation of Households with Heterogeneous Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers’ decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers’ investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 5% of labor...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers’ life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed participation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers’ life cycle....

  13. Engagement of the Slovak Armed Forces in Future Crisis Management Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades, the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (AF SR) have participated in more than thirty operations under major international organizations and coalitions. Despite the political interest to sustain active engagement of the AF SR in international crisis management operations, the declining level of capabilities coupled with the urgent need to modernize most of the military equipment compels the Slovak Ministry of Defense to commence a complex optimization process. Eve...

  14. 77 FR 68155 - The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute TRIGA Reactor: Facility Operating License No. R-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... NRC's E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to... filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007) apply to appeals of NRC... COMMISSION The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute TRIGA Reactor: Facility Operating License No....

  15. Postural adjustments during spontaneous and goal-directed arm movements in the first half year of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Fits, IBM; Klip, AWJ; van Eykern, LA; Hadders-Algra, M

    1999-01-01

    We studied the development of postural control during goal-directed reaching and spontaneous arm movements in early infancy. Two groups of infants participated. The first group consisted of 10 healthy infants, who were assessed four times at the ages of 3, 4, 5 and 6 months. Each assessment consiste

  16. Colombian Lay People's Willingness to Forgive Different Actors of the Armed Conflict: Results from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, Wilson; Pineda Marin, Claudia; Murcia Leon, Maria Camila; Perilla Garzon, Diana Carolina; Mullet, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study examined lay people's willingness to forgive acts that were committed by actors of the armed conflicts in Colombia. The participants (100 persons living in Bogota) were shown vignettes describing cases in which a member of the guerilla or a member of the former paramilitary forces asks for forgiveness to a victim's family, and were…

  17. Different strategy of hand choice after learning of constant and incremental dynamical perturbation in arm reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie eHabagishi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, we encounter situations where we must quickly decide which hand to use for a motor action. Here, we investigated whether the hand chosen for a motor action varied over a short timescale (i.e., hours with changes in arm dynamics. Participants performed a reaching task in which they moved a specified hand to reach a target on a virtual reality display. During the task, a resistive viscous force field was abruptly applied to only the dominant hand. To evaluate changes in hand choice caused by this perturbation, participants performed an interleaved choice test in which they could freely choose either hand for reaching. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of temporal changes on arm dynamics and hand choice, we exposed the same participants to another condition in which the force field was introduced gradually. When the abrupt force was applied, use of the perturbed hand significantly decreased and not changed during the training. In contrast, when the incremental force was applied, use of the perturbed hand gradually decreased as force increased. Surprisingly, even though the final amount of force was identical between the two conditions, hand choice was significantly biased toward the unperturbed hand in the gradual condition. These results suggest that time-varying changes in arm dynamics may have a greater influence on hand choice than the amplitude of the resistant force itself.

  18. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  19. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  20. Fusion of hand and arm gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquin, D.; Benoit, E.; Sawada, H.; Ionescu, B.

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve the link between an operator and its machine, some human oriented communication systems are now using natural languages like speech or gesture. The goal of this paper is to present a gesture recognition system based on the fusion of measurements issued from different kind of sources. It is necessary to have some sensors that are able to capture at least the position and the orientation of the hand such as Dataglove and a video camera. Datagloge gives a measure of the hand posture and a video camera gives a measure of the general arm gesture which represents the physical and spatial properties of the gesture, and based on the 2D skeleton representation of the arm. The measurements used are partially complementary and partially redundant. The application is distributed on intelligent cooperating sensors. The paper presents the measurement of the hand and the arm gestures, the fusion processes, and the implementation solution.

  1. Characterizing spiral arm and interarm star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kreckel, K; Schinnerer, E; Groves, B; Adamo, A; Hughes, A; Meidt, S

    2016-01-01

    Interarm star formation contributes significantly to a galaxy's star formation budget, and provides an opportunity to study stellar birthplaces unperturbed by spiral arm dynamics. Using optical integral field spectroscopy of the nearby galaxy NGC 628 with VLT/MUSE, we identify 391 HII regions at 35pc resolution over 12 kpc^2. Using tracers sensitive to the underlying gravitational potential, we associate HII regions with either arm (271) or interarm (120) environments. We find that most HII region physical properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) are independent of environment. We calculate the fraction of Halpha luminosity due to the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) background contaminating each HII region, and find the DIG surface brightness to be higher within HII regions compared to the surroundings, and slightly higher within arm HII regions. Use of the temperature sensitive [SII]/Halpha line ratio map instead of the Halpha surface brightness to identify HII region boundaries does not ch...

  2. Enhanced anticancer activity of nanopreparation containing an MMP2-sensitive PEG-drug conjugate and cell-penetrating moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Wang, Tao; Perche, Federico; Taigind, Anton; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-10-15

    In response to the challenges of cancer chemotherapeutics, including poor physicochemical properties, low tumor targeting, insufficient tumor cell internalization/bioavailability, and side effects, we developed a unique tumor-targeted micellar drug-delivery platform. Using paclitaxel as a model therapeutic, a nanopreparation composed of a matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2)-sensitive self-assembly PEG 2000-paclitaxel conjugate (as a prodrug and MMP 2-sensitive moiety), transactivating transcriptional activator peptide-PEG1000-phosphoethanolamine (PE) (a cell-penetrating enhancer), and PEG1000-PE (a nanocarrier building block) was prepared. Several major drug delivery strategies, including self-assembly, PEGylation, the enhanced permeability and retention effect, stimulus sensitivity, a cell-penetrating moiety, and the concept of prodrug, were used in design of this nanoparticle in a collaborative manner. The nanopreparation allowed superior cell internalization, cytotoxicity, tumor targeting, and antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo over its nonsensitive counterpart, free paclitaxel and conventional micelles. This uniquely engineered nanoparticle has potential for effective intracellular delivery of drug into cancer cells. PMID:24062440

  3. Polyoxypregnane steroids with an open-chain sugar moiety from Marsdenia tenacissima and their chemoresistance reversal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sheng; To, Kenneth Kin-Wah; Ma, Liang; Yin, Chun; Tang, Chunping; Chai, Stella; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Lin, Ge; Ye, Yang

    2016-06-01

    A polyoxypregnane aglycone, 12β-O-acetyl-11α-O-isobutyryltenacigenin B, and four polyoxypregnane glycosides with a pachybionic acid ester moiety, 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-isobutyryltenacigenin B, 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-tigloyltenacigenin B, 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-2-methylbutyryltenacigenin B, and 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-tigloyltenacigenin B, were isolated from the canes of Marsdenia tenacissima, together with a disaccharide derivative. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations were further determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. With the exception of the disaccharide derivative, all five compounds are unusual naturally occurring polyoxypregnane glycosides bearing an open-chain sugar moiety. Two of these exhibit a wide spectrum of chemoresistance reversal activity, and potential mechanisms were studied accordingly. PMID:26988729

  4. Synthesis and properties of novel photosensitive poly(arylene ether sulfone) containing chalcone moiety in the main chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Pushan [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Lei [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Aiqing [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li Xiangdan, E-mail: xiangdanli@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lee, Myong-Hoon, E-mail: mhlee2@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Polymer/Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A series of novel photosensitive poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (PAESs) containing chalcone moiety in the main chain have been successfully synthesized. {yields} The photo-crosslinking of polymer film was carried out under UV irradiation without photoinitiator. {yields} The resulting polymers showed good thermal stability and excellent chemical stability after crosslinking. - Abstract: A new series of photosensitive poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing chalcone moiety in the main chain were synthesized from 4,4'-dihydroxychalcone (4DHC), 4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulfone (DFDPS) and bisphenol A (BPA). This series of polymers were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR, UV spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymers were stable up to 400 deg. C, which indicates that the polymers possess good thermal properties. The polymers were found to be soluble in polar solvents and chlorinated solvents. However, the polymers were insoluble in hydrocarbons and in hydroxyl group-containing solvents. After the irradiation of UV light, the thin polymer film was crosslinked to give an insoluble film in the absence of a photoinitiator or sensitizers. The rate of photocrosslinking was also examined and discussed.

  5. Effect of block length on the self-assembly of end-capping perfluoroalkyl moieties on the polymer surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Most research on copolymers with fluorinated monomers has focused on the relationship between fluorinated monomer content and the corresponding surface structure. However,the influence of the non-fluorinated block on the surface structure of the copolymer film is unknown. Various molecular weight poly(butyl methacrylates) (PBMA) end-capped with 2-perfluorooctylethyl methacrylate (FMA) units (PBMA-ec-FMA) have been synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The effect of the PBMA block length on the surface structure and properties of the polymers both in the solid state and in solution was investigated using various techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that longer PBMA blocks enhanced both the enrichment of the fluorinated moieties and the order of the packing orientation of the perfluoroalkyl side chains on the surface. This enhancement was attributed mainly to the molecular aggregate structure of the end-capped polymers with long PBMA blocks in the solution and to the interfacial structure at the air/liquid interface,which favors the -(CF2)7CF3 moieties self-assembling on the polymer surface during film formation. This observation suggests that the polyacrylate block structure in fluorinated diblock copolymers,in addition to the fluorinated monomer content,plays an important role in structure formation on the solid surface.

  6. Arms control and disarmament: A new conceptual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    tool for disarmament and security researchers for many years and its arms control survey and other publications are widely used authoritative sources of information. DDA has benefited from a cross fertilization of ideas and the contribution to capacity building in the security field. It was an honour for the Department to have co-sponsored the discussion that follows and is grateful to the members of SIPRI that participated. The Secretary-General hopes that this publication will serve to disseminate more widely the ideas and proposals presented by the participants and contribute to the long-range disarmament thinking in the next century

  7. Characterizing Spiral Arm and Interarm Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, K.; Blanc, G. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Groves, B.; Adamo, A.; Hughes, A.; Meidt, S.

    2016-08-01

    Interarm star formation contributes significantly to a galaxy’s star formation budget and provides an opportunity to study stellar birthplaces unperturbed by spiral arm dynamics. Using optical integral field spectroscopy of the nearby galaxy NGC 628 with VLT/MUSE, we construct Hα maps including detailed corrections for dust extinction and stellar absorption to identify 391 H ii regions at 35 pc resolution over 12 kpc2. Using tracers sensitive to the underlying gravitational potential, we associate H ii regions with either arm (271) or interarm (120) environments. Using our full spectral coverage of each region, we find that most physical properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) of H ii regions are independent of environment. We calculate the fraction of Hα luminosity due to the background of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) contaminating each H ii region, and find the DIG surface brightness to be higher within H ii regions than in the surroundings, and slightly higher within arm H ii regions. Use of the temperature-sensitive [S ii]/Hα line ratio instead of the Hα surface brightness to identify the boundaries of H ii regions does not change this result. Using the dust attenuation as a tracer of the gas, we find depletion times consistent with previous work (2 × 109 yr) with no differences between the arm and interarm, but this is very sensitive to the DIG correction. Unlike molecular clouds, which can be dynamically affected by the galactic environment, we see fairly consistent properties of H ii regions in both arm and interarm environments. This suggests either a difference in star formation and feedback in arms or a decoupling of dense star-forming clumps from the more extended surrounding molecular gas.

  8. Towards tailor-made participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Public participation has become an important element of governance in many Western European countries. However, among scholars and practitioners there is a recognition that participatory governance processes tend to produce systematic exclusions. Knowledge about 'who' participates and 'how' they ...

  9. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  10. Implementing DDR in Settings of Ongoing Conflict: The Organization and Fragmentation of Armed Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Richards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is common for armed groups to splinter (or “fragment” during contexts of multi-party civil war, current guidance on Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR does not address the challenges that arise when recalcitrant fighters, unwilling to report to DDR, break ranks and form new armed groups. This Practice Note addresses this issue, drawing lessons from the multi-party context of the DRC and from the experiences of former members of three armed groups: the Rally for Congolese Democracy-Goma (RCD-Goma, the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP, and the DRC national army (FARDC. While the findings indicate that the fragmentation of armed groups may encourage desertion and subsequent participation in DDR, they also show that active armed groups may monitor DDR programs and track those who demobilize. Remobilization may follow, either as active armed groups target ex-combatants for forced re-recruitment or as ex-combatants remobilize in armed groups of their own choice. Given these dynamics, practitioners in settings of partial peace may find it useful to consider non-traditional methods of DDR such as the use of mobile patrols and mobile disarmament units. The temporary relocation of ex-combatants to safe areas free from armed groups, or to protected transitional assistance camps, may also help to minimize remobilization during the reintegration phase.

  11. Offset between stellar spiral arms and gas arms of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, L G

    2015-01-01

    Spiral arms shown by different components may not be spatially coincident, which can constrain formation mechanisms of spiral structure in a galaxy. We reassess the spiral arm tangency directions in the Milky Way through identifying the bump features in the longitude plots of survey data for infrared stars, radio recombination lines (RRLs), star formation sites, CO, high density regions in clouds, and HI. The bump peaks are taken as indications for arm tangencies, which are close to the real density peaks near the spiral arm tangency point but often have $\\sim$ 1$^\\circ$ offset to the interior of spiral arms. The arm tangencies identified from the longitudes plots for RRLs, HII regions, methanol masers, CO, high density gas regions, and HI gas appear nearly the same Galactic longitude, and therefore there is no obvious offset for spiral arms traced by different gas components. However, we find obvious displacements of 1.3$^\\circ-$ 5.8$^\\circ$ between gaseous bump peaks from the directions of the maximum densi...

  12. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowle, D. [Mission Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  13. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  14. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as a gay-friendly workplace, or do they have lots of negative experiences? At the request of the State Secretary for Defence, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP carried out a study on the acc...

  15. Simulations of tidally induced spiral arms

    CERN Document Server

    Semczuk, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The origin of grand design spiral structure in galaxies is still under debate but one of promising scenarios involves tidal interactions. We use N-body simulations to study the evolution of a Milky Way-size galaxy in a Virgo-like cluster. The galaxy is placed on a typical eccentric orbit and evolved for 10 Gyr. We find that grand design spiral arms are triggered by pericenter passages and later on they wind up and dissipate. The arms formed in the simulations are approximately logarithmic, but are also dynamic, transient and recurrent.

  16. The quest for the bionic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Douglas T

    2014-06-01

    The current state of research of upper extremity prosthetic devices is focused on creating a complete prosthesis with full motor and sensory function that will provide amputees with a near-normal human arm. Although advances are being made rapidly, many hurdles remain to be overcome before a functional, so-called bionic arm is a reality. Acquiring signals via nerve or muscle inputs will require either a reliable wireless device or direct wiring through an osseous-integrated implant. The best way to tap into the "knowledge" present in the peripheral nerve is yet to be determined.

  17. Citizen participation in community activities

    OpenAIRE

    Bitnarová, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis on the Citizen participation in community activities deals with the applicable legislation of the forms of the citizen participation in community activities and afterwards it evaluates the system of the citizen participation in governance in the city of Louny and gives proposals and recommendations for higher extent of the citizen participation. The first chapter comprises a legal entity status of municipalities, their scope of authority and characteristic of particular a...

  18. Social Participation and Hours Worked

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolini, Stefano; Bilancini, Ennio

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between social participation and the hours worked in the market. Social participation is the component of social capital that measures individuals? engagement in groups, associations and non-governmental organizations. We provide a model of consumer choice where social participation may be either a substitute or a complement to material consumption ? depending on whether participation is instrumentally or non-instrumentally motivated ? and where a local environ...

  19. Use it and improve it or lose it: interactions between arm function and use in humans post-stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukikazu Hidaka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available "Use it and improve it, or lose it" is one of the axioms of motor therapy after stroke. There is, however, little understanding of the interactions between arm function and use in humans post-stroke. Here, we explored putative non-linear interactions between upper extremity function and use by developing a first-order dynamical model of stroke recovery with longitudinal data from participants receiving constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT in the EXCITE clinical trial. Using a Bayesian regression framework, we systematically compared this model with competitive models that included, or not, interactions between function and use. Model comparisons showed that the model with the predicted interactions between arm function and use was the best fitting model. Furthermore, by comparing the model parameters before and after CIMT intervention in participants receiving the intervention one year after randomization, we found that therapy increased the parameter that controls the effect of arm function on arm use. Increase in this parameter, which can be thought of as the confidence to use the arm for a given level of function, lead to increase in spontaneous use after therapy compared to before therapy.

  20. Learning beyond Competence to Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The essence of progressive education today is a view of learning centered on participation. In adulthood, the quest to participate and the quest to learn may ultimately be regarded as one and the same. Research on the learning journeys of adults undertaking a basic computer course are used to support these ideas. The participants in this study…

  1. The Addition of SPECT/CT Lymphoscintigraphy to Breast Cancer Radiation Planning Spares Lymph Nodes Critical for Arm Drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheville, Andrea L., E-mail: Cheville.andrea@mayo.edu [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Brinkmann, Debra H.; Ward, Shelly B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Durski, Jolanta [Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Laack, Nadia N.; Yan, Elizabeth; Schomberg, Paula J.; Garces, Yolanda I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Suman, Vera J. [Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Background: This prospective cohort study was designed to determine whether the amount of radiation delivered to the nonpathological lymph nodes (LNs) that drain the arm can be significantly reduced by integrating single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scans into radiation treatment planning. Methods: SPECT-CT scans were acquired for the 28 patients with stage I or II breast cancer and fused with the routinely obtained radiation oncology planning CT scans. Arm-draining LNs were contoured with 0.5-cm margins automatically using a threshold of 50% maximum intensity. Two treatment plans were generated: 1 per routine clinical practice (standard; STD) and the second (modified; MOD) with treatment fields modified to minimize dose to the arm-draining LNs visible on SPECT/CT images without interfering with the dosage delivered to target tissues. Participants were treated per the MOD plans. Arm volumes were measured prior to radiation and thereafter at least three subsequent 6-month intervals. Results: Sixty-eight level I-III arm-draining LNs were identified, 57% of which were inside the STD plan fields but could be blocked in the MOD plan fields. Sixty-five percent of arm-draining LNs in the STD versus 16% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥10 Gy, and 26% in the STD versus 4% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥40 Gy. Mean LN radiation exposure was 23.6 Gy (standard deviation 18.2) with the STD and 7.7 Gy (standard deviation 11.3) with the MOD plans (P<.001). No participant developed lymphedema. Conclusions: The integration of SPECT/CT scans into breast cancer radiation treatment planning reduces unnecessary arm-draining LN radiation exposure and may lessen the risk of lymphedema.

  2. The Addition of SPECT/CT Lymphoscintigraphy to Breast Cancer Radiation Planning Spares Lymph Nodes Critical for Arm Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: This prospective cohort study was designed to determine whether the amount of radiation delivered to the nonpathological lymph nodes (LNs) that drain the arm can be significantly reduced by integrating single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scans into radiation treatment planning. Methods: SPECT-CT scans were acquired for the 28 patients with stage I or II breast cancer and fused with the routinely obtained radiation oncology planning CT scans. Arm-draining LNs were contoured with 0.5-cm margins automatically using a threshold of 50% maximum intensity. Two treatment plans were generated: 1 per routine clinical practice (standard; STD) and the second (modified; MOD) with treatment fields modified to minimize dose to the arm-draining LNs visible on SPECT/CT images without interfering with the dosage delivered to target tissues. Participants were treated per the MOD plans. Arm volumes were measured prior to radiation and thereafter at least three subsequent 6-month intervals. Results: Sixty-eight level I-III arm-draining LNs were identified, 57% of which were inside the STD plan fields but could be blocked in the MOD plan fields. Sixty-five percent of arm-draining LNs in the STD versus 16% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥10 Gy, and 26% in the STD versus 4% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥40 Gy. Mean LN radiation exposure was 23.6 Gy (standard deviation 18.2) with the STD and 7.7 Gy (standard deviation 11.3) with the MOD plans (P<.001). No participant developed lymphedema. Conclusions: The integration of SPECT/CT scans into breast cancer radiation treatment planning reduces unnecessary arm-draining LN radiation exposure and may lessen the risk of lymphedema

  3. ENZYME HYDROLYSIS OF SOYBEAN SAPONIN SUGAR-MOIETY%酶法水解大豆苷中的含糖部分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晶; 徐龙权; 翟滨; 苏志国; 金凤燮

    2001-01-01

    @@ Saponin is the general name of low polymerized glycosides and in which the steroid or terpenoid is aglycone.The soybean saponin is composed of the triterpenoid aglycones (sapogenols)and sugar-moiety.Soybean saponin was divided into group A,group B,group E and group DDMP by the aglycones[1-3].It has been shown that soybean saponin has a lot of physiological activities and pharmacological action.For example,it can be used to resist cancer,adjust immunity,prevent and treat heart blood vessel disease.In addition, soybean saponin has been extensively used in cosmetics.However,the soybean saponin has dry mouth feel(DMF)which decreases the quality of soybean food products.Many facts have verified that sugar-moiety is very important to the biological activity of saponin[4].For example,in ginseng saponin of binary alcohol,the saponins which contain five sugar-moieties such as Ra1,Ra2,Ra3,have low activity,however,saponins containing one sugar-moiety like Rh2 have very strong activity of resisting cancer.When the sugar-moiety of soybean saponin was removed out,some special activities like resisting oxidation and resisting thrombus emerged and the DMF would decrease.But,reports concerning the sugar-moiety hydrolysis of soybean saponin by enzyme have not been found.In the paper,the enzyme hydrolysis of soybean saponin sugar-moiety and the strains producing hydrolytic enzyme of saponin were studied.

  4. High Spectral Resolution Infrared and Raman Lidar Observations for the ARM Program: Clear and Cloudy Sky Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revercomb, Henry; Tobin, David; Knuteson, Robert; Borg, Lori; Moy, Leslie

    2009-06-17

    This grant began with the development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM. The AERI has provided highly accurate and reliable observations of downwelling spectral radiance (Knuteson et al. 2004a, 2004b) for application to radiative transfer, remote sensing of boundary layer temperature and water vapor, and cloud characterization. One of the major contributions of the ARM program has been its success in improving radiation calculation capabilities for models and remote sensing that evolved from the multi-year, clear-sky spectral radiance comparisons between AERI radiances and line-by-line calculations (Turner et al. 2004). This effort also spurred us to play a central role in improving the accuracy of water vapor measurements, again helping ARM lead the way in the community (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003). In order to add high-altitude downlooking AERI-like observations over the ARM sites, we began the development of an airborne AERI instrument that has become known as the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (Scanning-HIS). This instrument has become an integral part of the ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (ARM-UAV) program. It provides both a cross-track mapping view of the earth and an uplooking view from the 12-15 km altitude of the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft when flown over the ARM sites for IOPs. It has successfully participated in the first two legs of the “grand tour” of the ARM sites (SGP and NSA), resulting in a very good comparison with AIRS observations in 2002 and in an especially interesting data set from the arctic during the Mixed-Phase Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) in 2004.

  5. [Forensic-medical aspects of injuries inflicted by nonlethal arms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhanian, A R; Babakhanian, R B; Isakov, V D

    2005-01-01

    Special literature (surgical, forensic-medical and criminalistic) is reviewed on classification, mechanisms of a harmful action and characteristics of injuries inflicted by non-lethal arms. Some details of such arms construction and damaging action are given. PMID:16130323

  6. Does computer use affect the incidence of distal arm pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Lassen, Christina Funch; Vilstrup, Imogen;

    2012-01-01

    To study how objectively recorded mouse and keyboard activity affects distal arm pain among computer workers.......To study how objectively recorded mouse and keyboard activity affects distal arm pain among computer workers....

  7. Comparative evaluation of T11 target structure and its deglycosylated derivative nullifies the importance of glycan moieties in immunotherapeutic efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sirshendu Chatterjee; Sagar Acharya; Pankaj Kumar; Ananya Chatterjee; Suhnrita Chaudhuri; Anirban Ghosh; Swapna Chaudhuri

    2012-01-01

    Sheep red blood cell (SRBC),a non-specific biological response modifier that has long been used as a classical antigen,has been shown to exert an immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities in experimental animals.The active component of SRBC,which is responsible for such effects,was found to be a cell surface acidic glycoprotein molecule,known as T11 target structure (T11TS).In the present study,T11TS was isolated and purified to homogeneity using a five-step protocol involving isolation of sheep erythrocyte membrane from packed cell volume,20% ammonium sulfate cut of the crude membrane proteins mixture,immunoaffinity purification using mouse anti-sheep CD58 mAb (L180/1) tagged matrix,preparative gel electrophoresis,and gel electroelution process.Finally,the purity and identity of the proteins were confirmed by the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric analysis.The in silico glycosylation site analysis showed that the extracellular domain contained three N-glycosylation sites (N-12,N-62,and N-111) and one O-glycosylation site (T-107).However,the experimental analysis negated the presence of O-linked glycan moieties on T11TS.To investigate the role of glycan moieties in the current immunotherapeutic regime,T11TS and its deglycosylated form (dT11TS) were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in N-ethyl-N-nitrosoureainduced immune-compromised mice at 0.4 mg/kg body weight.It was observed that both the forms of T11TS could activate the compromised immune status of mice by augmenting immune receptor expression (CD2,CD25,CD8,and CD11b),T-helper 1 shift of cytokine network,enhanced cytotoxicity,and phagocytosis activity.Therefore,the results nullify the active involvement of the N-linked glycan moieties in immunotherapeutic efficacy of T11TS.

  8. Long arm decompression osteotomy for hallux limitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephen C; Frank, Ryan P

    2005-04-01

    This article presents a new osteotomy for stage I or II hallux limitus. The long arm decompression osteotomy can be used to shorten and plantarflex the first metatarsal. The indications, surgical technique, advantages, and disadvantages are described in detail. PMID:15833423

  9. Watchdog for ARM Radar Network Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-28

    WARNO is a software system designed to monitor the radars in the ARM Radar Network. It allows real time monitoring and tracking of instrument state and condition. It provides a web portal on the front end to interact with users, a REST API webpoint for interactions with third party systems, and an internal distributed architecture to allow it to be deployed at multiple sites.

  10. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-09-01

    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO).

  11. Analytical forms of chaotic spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsoula, M.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Contopoulos, G.

    2016-07-01

    We develop an analytical theory of chaotic spiral arms in galaxies. This is based on the Moser theory of invariant manifolds around unstable periodic orbits. We apply this theory to the chaotic spiral arms, which start from the neighbourhood of the Lagrangian points L1 and L2 at the end of the bar in a barred-spiral galaxy. The series representing the invariant manifolds starting at the Lagrangian points L1, L2, or unstable periodic orbits around L1 and L2, yield spiral patterns in the configuration space. These series converge in a domain around every Lagrangian point, called `Moser domain', and represent the orbits that constitute the chaotic spiral arms. In fact, these orbits are not only along the invariant manifolds, but also in a domain surrounding the invariant manifolds. We show further that orbits starting outside the Moser domain but close to it converge to the boundary of the Moser domain, which acts as an attractor. These orbits stay for a long time close to the spiral arms before escaping to infinity.

  12. STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 13CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

  13. Arms and the man - or child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After almost half a century of remote technology research the telerobotic arm is still less dexterous than the nuclear industry might wish. The authors review R and D in this area of man-machine interfacing, and take a look down the road ahead. (author)

  14. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment explores new hardware and software platforms that, in the future, may be more suited to its data intensive workloads. One such alternative hardware platform is the ARM architecture, which is designed to be extremely power efficient and is found in most smartphones and tablets. CERN openlab recently installed a small cluster of ARM 64-bit evaluation prototype servers. Each server is based on a single-socket ARM 64-bit system on a chip, with 32 Cortex-A57 cores. In total, each server has 128 GB RAM connected with four fast memory channels. This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto these new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the "external" packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adj...

  15. Light Duty Utility Arm Software Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes how validation testing of the software will be implemented for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm System (LDUA). The purpose of LDUA software validation testing is to demonstrate and document that the LDUA software meets its software requirements specification

  16. Dynamics of Non-steady Spiral Arms in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Junichi; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Wada, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional N-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms originates in the continual repetition of this nonlinear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the corotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, the energy and angular momentum of the stars change, thereby causing radial migration of the stars. During this process, the kinetic energy of random motion (random energy) of the stars does not significantly increase, and the disk remains dynamically cold. Owing to this low degree of disk heating, short-lived spiral arms can recurrently develop over many rotational periods. The resultant structure of the spiral arms in the N-body simulations is consistent with the observational nature of spiral galaxies. We conclude that the formation and structure of spiral arms in isolated disk galaxies can be reasonably understood by nonlinear interactions between a spiral arm and its constituent stars.

  17. DYNAMICS OF NON-STEADY SPIRAL ARMS IN DISK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional N-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms originates in the continual repetition of this nonlinear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the corotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, the energy and angular momentum of the stars change, thereby causing radial migration of the stars. During this process, the kinetic energy of random motion (random energy) of the stars does not significantly increase, and the disk remains dynamically cold. Owing to this low degree of disk heating, short-lived spiral arms can recurrently develop over many rotational periods. The resultant structure of the spiral arms in the N-body simulations is consistent with the observational nature of spiral galaxies. We conclude that the formation and structure of spiral arms in isolated disk galaxies can be reasonably understood by nonlinear interactions between a spiral arm and its constituent stars.

  18. Revealing the spiral arms through radial migration and the shape of the Metallicity Distribution Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Peimbert, A.

    2016-08-01

    Recent observations show that the Milky Way's metallicity distribution function (MDF) changes its shape as a function of radius. This new evidence of radial migration within the stellar disc sets additional constraints on Galactic models. By performing controlled test particle simulations in a very detailed, observationally motivated model of the Milky Way, we demonstrate that, in the inner region of the disc, the MDF is shaped by the joint action of the bar and spiral arms, while at outer radii the MDF is mainly shaped by the spiral arms. We show that the spiral arms are able to imprint their signature in the radial migration, shaping the MDF in the outskirts of the Galactic disc with a minimal participation of the bar. Conversely, this work has the potential to characterise some structural and dynamical parameters of the spiral arms based on radial migration and the shape of the MDF. Finally, the resemblance obtained with this approximation to the MDF curves of the Galaxy as seen by APOGEE, show that a fundamental factor influencing their shape is the Galactic potential.

  19. Revealing the spiral arms through radial migration and the shape of the metallicity distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Peimbert, A.

    2016-11-01

    Recent observations show that the Milky Way's metallicity distribution function (MDF) changes its shape as a function of radius. This new evidence of radial migration within the stellar disc sets additional constraints on Galactic models. By performing controlled test particle simulations in a very detailed, observationally motivated model of the Milky Way, we demonstrate that, in the inner region of the disc, the MDF is shaped by the joint action of the bar and spiral arms, while at outer radii the MDF is mainly shaped by the spiral arms. We show that the spiral arms are able to imprint their signature in the radial migration, shaping the MDF in the outskirts of the Galactic disc with a minimal participation of the bar. Conversely, this work has the potential to characterize some structural and dynamical parameters of the spiral arms based on radial migration and the shape of the MDF. Finally, the resemblance obtained with this approximation to the MDF curves of the Galaxy as seen by APOGEE, show that a fundamental factor influencing their shape is the Galactic potential.

  20. Does arm swing emphasized deliberately increase the trunk stability during walking in the elderly adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakubo, Sho; Doi, Takehiko; Sawa, Ryuichi; Misu, Shogo; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Ono, Rei

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether trunk stability while walking changes when arm swing is deliberately altered in elderly individuals. Participants included 21 community-dwelling elderly individuals (7 men and 14 women; age, 81.8 ± 5.0 years). We measured trunk acceleration by using a wireless miniature sensor unit containing a tri-axial linear accelerometer under 3 walking conditions: normal walking (normal condition), deliberately walking without any arm swing (no swing condition), and walking with a deliberately emphasized arm swing (over swing condition). To evaluate trunk stability during walking, we calculated harmonic ratios (HRs) based on trunk tri-axial acceleration signals (anteroposterior: AP, vertical: VT, and mediolateral: ML). HR-AP and HR-VT were not significantly different across the 3 conditions, but HR-ML in the over swing condition was significantly higher than that in the other 2 conditions by generalized estimating equations (GEE) adjusted for walking speed (p<0.05). These findings indicate that trunk stability in the ML direction increased when the elderly individuals walked with a deliberately emphasized arm swing.

  1. What Types of Participants?: Patterns of Political Participation in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Imbrasaitė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantity and quality of political participation is extremely important for the consolidation of democracy. There is no comprehensive analysis of the conventional modes of political participation and their distribution among population in Lithuania. This study focuses on the differences between different types of participants in political acts in post-communist Lithuania. Based on the survey conducted in Lithuania in 2006, the article concludes that the lack of civic resources, the development of individualization and rapid social differentiation that caused different perceptions of economic inequality and insecurity among different groups of the population have influenced political participation patterns in Lithuania.

  2. Design of a Dynamic Arm Support (DAS) for gravity compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Gijs; Römer, GertWillem R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Dynamic Arm Support, or briefly the Das, is a new medical device that serves to compensate for lost arm function of the severely disabled. The target group suffers from insufficient muscle force to move its arms over the usual Range of Motion (RoM). The purpose of the Das is to assist its user d

  3. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  4. Predictive validity of the Hand Arm Risk assessment Method (HARM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, M.; Boocock, M.; Coenen, P.; Heuvel, S. van den; Bosch, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Hand Arm Risk assessment Method (HARM) is a simplified risk assessment method for determining musculoskeletal symptoms to the arm, neck and/or shoulder posed by hand-arm tasks of the upper body. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of HARM using data collected from a

  5. Dynamics of Non-Steady Spiral Arms in Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Junichi; Wada, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional $N$-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms are originated in the continual repetition of this non-linear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the co-rotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, ...

  6. Anchoring the "floating arm": Use of proprioceptive and mirror visual feedback from one arm to control involuntary displacement of the other arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, C; Guerraz, M

    2015-12-01

    Arm movement control takes advantage of multiple inputs, including those originating from the contralateral arm. In the mirror paradigm, it has been suggested that control of the unseen arm, hidden by the mirror, is facilitated by the reflection of the other, moving arm. Although proprioceptive feedback originating from the moving arm, (the image of which is reflected in the mirror), is always coupled with visual feedback in the mirror paradigm, the former has received little attention. We recently showed that the involuntary arm movement following a sustained, isometric contraction, known as the "floating arm" or "Kohnstamm phenomenon", was adjusted to the passive-motorized displacement of the other arm. However, provision of mirror feedback, that is, the reflection in the mirror of the passively moved arm, did not add to this coupling effect. Therefore, the interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm may to a large extent have a proprioceptive origin rather than a visual origin. The objective of the present study was to decouple mirror feedback and proprioceptive feedback from the reflected, moving arm and evaluate their respective contributions to interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm. First (in Experiment 1, under eyes-closed conditions), we found that masking the proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm (by co-vibrating the antagonistic biceps and triceps muscles) suppressed the interlimb coupling between involuntary displacement of one arm and passive displacement of the other. Next (in Experiment 2), we masked proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm and specifically evaluated mirror feedback. We found that interlimb coupling through mirror feedback (though significant) was weaker than interlimb coupling through proprioceptive feedback. Overall, the present results show that in the mirror paradigm, proprioceptive feedback is stronger and more consistent than visual-mirror feedback in terms of the impact on interlimb coupling.

  7. STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF PHOSPHROUS-CONTAINING POLY(ARYL ETHER KETONE) WITH BISPHENOL-A MOIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A phosphrous-containing poly(aryl ether ketone) was synthesized derived from bisphenol-A and bis[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)phenyl] phenyl phosphine oxide (FPPPO) by nucleophilic substitution reaction. The structure of the polymer was characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 31p-NMR. The thermal property of the PAEK was measured by DSC and TGA.The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer was 205℃, and the 5% weight loss temperature under nitrogen was 475℃. Good solubility of the polymer in organic solvents, such as N-methylpyrrolidone, dimethylformamide,dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulfoxide and chloroalkanes was observed, flexible film was obtained from the polymer's CH2Cl2 solution. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the PAEK was 40, which indicated that organic phosphorus moiety can offer good flame retardant property to the polymer.

  8. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(morpholenyl) benzonitrile in solution: Effects of hetero atom in the donor moiety

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tuhin Pradhan; Harun Al Rasid Gazi; Ranjit Biswas

    2010-07-01

    An intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) molecule with an extra hetero atom in its donor moiety has been synthesized in order to investigate how ICT reaction is affected by hetero atom replacement. Photo-physical and photo-dynamical properties of this molecule, 4-(morpholenyl)benzonitrile (M6C), have been studied in 20 different solvents. The correlation between the reaction driving force (- ) and activation barrier ( #) has been explored in order to understand the solvent effects (static and dynamic) on the photo-excited ICT reaction in this molecule. A Kramer’s model analysis of the experimentally observed reaction rate constants indicates a solvent-averaged activation barrier of ∼ 4 in the absence of solvent dynamical control. The reaction in M6C is therefore not a barrier-less reaction but close to the limit where conventional kinetics might break down.

  9. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel α-Aminoamides Containing an Indole Moiety for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haotian Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The α-aminoamide family of sodium ion channel blockers have exhibited analgesic effects on neuropathic pain. Here, a series of novel α-aminoamides containing an indole ring were designed and synthesized. These compounds were evaluated in mice using a formalin test and they exhibited significant anti-allodynia activities. However, the analgesic mechanism of these compounds remains unclear; a subset of the synthesized compounds can only moderately inhibit the sodium ion channel, Nav1.7, in a whole-cell patch clamp assay. Overall, these results suggest that introduction of an indole moiety to α-aminoamide derivatives can significantly improve their bioactivity and further study is warranted.

  10. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Bromophenol Derivatives Incorporating Indolin-2-One Moiety as Potential Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of bromophenol derivatives containing indolin-2-one moiety were designed and evaluated that for their anticancer activities against A549, Bel7402, HepG2, HeLa and HCT116 cancer cell lines using MTT assay in vitro. Among them, seven compounds (4g–4i, 5h, 6d, 7a, 7b showed potent activity against the tested five human cancer cell lines. Wound-healing assay demonstrated that compound 4g can be used as a potent compound for inactivating invasion and metastasis by inhibiting the migration of cancer cells. The structure–activity relationships (SARs of bromophenol derivatives had been discussed, which were useful for exploring and developing bromophenol derivatives as novel anticancer drugs.

  11. Investigating the use of endogenous quinoid moieties on carbon fibre as means of developing micro pH sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashleigh; Phair, Jolene; Benson, John; Meenan, Brian; Davis, James

    2014-10-01

    The redox profile obtained from electrochemically oxidised carbon fibre was exploited as a foundation from which to design a reusable pH probe. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the surface after anodisation revealed an increase in the population of endogenous quinone moieties. Square wave voltammograms recorded in various buffer solutions (pH3-9) yielded a distinct and unambiguous oxidation process through which to ascribe the peak potential - with the latter found to shift in a sub-Nernstian (-0.052 V/pH) manner. The design of a discrete 2-electrode reusable probe which provides a rapid assessment of pH is described and a preliminary characterisation of the electrochemical performance is critically assessed.

  12. New Poly(amide-imide)/Nanocomposites Reinforced Silicate Nanoparticles Based on N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl Alanine Containing Ether Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Shabanian, Meisam; Dadfar, Ehsan

    2012-02-01

    A series of Poly(amide-imide)/montmorillonite nanocomposites containing N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl alanine moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide-imide) (PAI) 5 as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl alanine 3 with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether 4 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP), CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). The resulting nanocomposite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that organo-modified clay was dispersed homogeneously in PAI matrix. TGA indicated an enhancement of thermal stability of new nanocomposites compared with the pure polymer.

  13. Thermal and Optical Properties of New Poly(amide-imide)/Nanocomposite Reinforced by Layer Silicate Containing Diphenyl Ether Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Faramarzi, Ellahe; Shabanian, Meisam

    2011-04-01

    New poly(amide-imide)-montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing Bis(4-N-trimellitylimido) diphenyl ether moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide-imide) (PAI) 4 was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of Bis(4-N-trimellitylimido) diphenyl ether 3 with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether 2 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP), CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films 4a and 4b with 10 and 20 mass% silicate particles respectively, were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using Uv-vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and water uptake measurements.

  14. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF SULFONATED POLY(ARYLENE ETHER) CONTAINING TRIPHENYL METHANE MOIETIES FROM ISOCYNATE MASKED BISPHENOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether) containing triphenylmethane moieties was synthesized by the sulfonation of a designed parent polymer using chlorosulfonic acid as sulfonation agent. The sulfonation took place at the para position of the pendant phenyl rings because of the specially designed parent polymer. The position and degree of sulfonation were characterized by 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The sulfonated polymers are highly soluble in common organic solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide, dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and can be readily cast into tough and smooth films from solutions. The films showed good thermal and hydrolysis stabilities. Moreover, Fenton's reagent test revealed that the films exhibited superior stability to oxidation. The proton conductivities of the films were comparable with Nation 117 under same conditions. The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared with the asmade film (706 EW, 100 μm dry thickness) shows better cell performance than Nation 115-MEA in the whole current density range.

  15. Synthesis of C60(O)3: an open-cage fullerene with a ketolactone moiety on the orifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nana; Yang, Xiaobing; Zhou, Zishuo; Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Showxin; Gan, Liangbing

    2013-02-01

    Four isomers are currently known for the trioxygenated fullerene derivative C(60)(O)(3), three regioisomers with all of the oxygen addends as epoxy groups and the unstable ozonide isomer with a 1,2,3-trioxlane ring. Here we report the synthesis of an open-cage isomer for C(60)(O)(3) with a ketolactone moiety embedded into the fullerene skeleton through a three-step procedure mediated by fullerene peroxide chemistry. Two fullerene skeleton carbon-carbon bonds are cleaved in the process. The open-cage derivative C(60)(O)(3) can be converted back to C(60) through deoxygenation with PPh(3). Single crystal X-ray structure confirmed the open-cage structure. PMID:23311689

  16. Synthesis and Properties of Dimesogenic Compounds Containing Cholesterol and 4-(trans-4-n-Alkylcyclohexyl)- benzoic Acid Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU, Haibo; HOU, Ruibin; CHEN, Tie; YIN, Bingzhu; MUHAMMAD, Jamil; JEON, Youngja

    2009-01-01

    A series of novel dimesogenic compounds containing cholesterol and 4-(trans-4-n-alkylcyclohexyl)benzoic acid moieties were synthesized. The two mesogenic units of these compounds are linked with ω-oxyalkanoyl spacers of varying lengths. The chemical structure and mesomorphic properties of this series of compounds were characterized by FT-IR, MS, 1H NMR, polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and DSC techniques. The average viscosity and helical twisting power (HTP) in host liquid crystals of selected dimesogenic compounds were also measured. It was found that most of the present novel series of compounds exhibited only cholesteric mesophase with lower phase transition temperatures, and the average viscosity and HTP of selected compounds were similar to or superior to cholesteryl nonylate.

  17. Ferrocenyl Paclitaxel and Docetaxel Derivatives: Impact of an Organometallic Moiety on the Mode of Action of Taxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Anna; Błauż, Andrzej; Żal, Aleksandra; Arabshahi, Homayon John; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Hartinger, Christian G; Rychlik, Błażej; Plażuk, Damian

    2016-08-01

    A series of ferrocenyl analogues and derivatives of paclitaxel and docetaxel were synthesised and assayed for their antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects, impact on the cell cycle distribution and ability to induce tubulin polymerisation. The replacement of the 3'-N-benzoyl group of paclitaxel with a ferrocenoyl moiety, in particular, led to formation of an analogue that was at least one order of magnitude more potent in terms of antiproliferative activity than the parent compound (IC50 values of 0.11 versus 1.11 μm, respectively), but still preserved the classical taxane mode of action, that is, microtubule stabilisation leading to mitotic arrest. Molecular docking studies revealed an unexpected binding pocket in the tubulin structure for the ferrocenoyl group introduced in the paclitaxel backbone. PMID:27376707

  18. Effect of molecular aggregation on the photo-induced anisotropy in amorphous polymethacrylate bearing an aminonitroazobenzene moiety

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, B J; Choi, D H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated H-type molecular aggregation in a simply spin-coated amorphous homopolymer film of polymethacrylate containing push-pull azobenzene moieties. It was found that the aggregate formation was strongly influenced by thermal treatment and that the aggregate created in the polymer film could be easily disrupted by irradiation of a linearly polarized light. In the first writing cycle of aggregated polymer film, photo-induced birefringence showed a steep increase to the highest value followed by a gradual decrease to the certain asymptotic value under longer irradiation of linearly polarized light. This unique behavior could be attributed to the cooperative motion and the disruption of the aggregated molecules under continuous irradiation of light.

  19. Embedded ARM Control Robotic Arm using BoaWeb server – a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Sirisha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s market, the competing microprocessors are ARM (Advanced Risc Microprocessor, Intel, AMD. ARM is preferred since it has been powering portable devices for decades and has simple architecture to keep the energy waste to be minimum. The electronics advancements and embedded technology advancements have become a challenging field in today’s techno world. In paper, the diligent features of embedded systems are introduced. It deals about how a robot is controlled using embedded operating system and ARM. Based on the combination of ARM, DSP and ARM Linux, the robot is controlled. The paper introduces development of embedded robot control system using Wi-Fi and also IOT. The embedded control system design includes four aspects. i.e., system structure, functions, hardware design and software design. By using these aspects (hardware and software adjustments, many robotic applications can be developed. Due to the fast execution speed and reasonable Ethernet speed in ARM processor, this system can be used in industrial oriented applications where there is very much necessity of safety and security.

  20. Design, synthesis, broad-spectrum antiproliferative activity, and kinase inhibitory effect of triarylpyrazole derivatives possessing arylamides or arylureas moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal El-Din, Mahmoud M; El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Abdel-Maksoud, Mohammed S; Yoo, Kyung Ho; Oh, Chang-Hyun

    2016-08-25

    A novel series of 1,3,4-triarylpyrazole derivatives possessing terminal arylamide or arylurea terminal moieties has been designed and synthesized. Their in vitro antiproliferative activities were investigated against a panel of 58 cell lines of nine different cancer types at the NCI, USA. The urea analogues 2b, 2c, and 2f as well as the amide derivatives 3e and 3f exerted the highest mean % inhibition values over the 58 cell line panel at 10 μM, and thus were further tested in 5-dose testing mode to determine their GI50, TGI, and LC50 values. The above mentioned compounds have shown stronger antiproliferative activities in terms of potency and efficacy upon comparing their results with Sorafenib as a reference compound. Among them, compounds 2c and 2f possessing 3,4-dichlorophenylurea terminal moiety showed the highest mean %inhibition value of about 99.85 and 104.15% respectively over the 58-cell line panel at 10 μM concentration. Also compounds 2b, 3e, and 3f exhibited mean % inhibition over 80% at 10 μM concentration. The GI50 value of compound 3e over K-562 cancer cell line was 0.75 μM. Accordingly, compound 2f was screened over seven kinases at a single-dose concentration of 10 μM to profile its kinase inhibitory activity. Interestingly, the compound showed highly inhibitory activities (90.44% and 87.71%) against BRAF (V600E) and RAF1 kinases, respectively. Its IC50 value against BRAF (V600E) was 0.77 μM. Compounds 2b, 2c, 2f, 3e, and 3f exerted high selectivity towards cancer cell lines than L132 normal lung cells. PMID:27155467

  1. 5,6-Dimethoxybenzofuran-3-one Derivatives: a Novel Series of Dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors Bearing Benzyl Pyridinium Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdollahi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been focused on design and synthesis of multi-target anti Alzheimer compounds. Utilizing of the dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors has gained more interest to treat the Alzheimer’s disease. As a part of a research program to find a novel drug for treating Alzheimer disease, we have previously reported 6-alkoxybenzofuranone derivatives as potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. In continuation of our work, we would like to report the synthesis of 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone derivatives bearing a benzyl pyridinium moiety as dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.MethodsThe synthesis of target compounds was carried out using a conventional method. Bayer-Villiger oxidation of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde furnished 3,4-dimethoxyphenol. The reaction of 3,4-dimethoxyphenol with chloroacetonitrile followed by treatment with HCl solution and then ring closure yielded the 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone. Condensation of the later compound with pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde and subsequent reaction with different benzyl halides afforded target compounds. The biological activity was measured using standard Ellman’s method. Docking studies were performed to get better insight into interaction of compounds with receptor.ResultsThe in vitro anti acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase activity of compounds revealed that, all of the target compounds have good inhibitory activity against both Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase enzymes in which compound 5b (IC50 = 52 ± 6.38nM was the most active compound against acetylcholinesterase. The same binding mode and interactions were observed for the reference drug donepezil and compound 5b in docking study.ConclusionsIn this study, we presented a new series of benzofuranone-based derivatives having pyridinium moiety as potent dual acting Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.

  2. Quantum mechanics study of repulsive π-π interaction and flexibility of phenyl moiety in the iron azodioxide complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuemin; Liu, Yucheng; Murru, Siva; Tzeng, Nianfeng; Srivastava, Radhey S.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, repulsive π-π interactions within iron azodioxide complex Fe[Ph(O)NN(O)Ph]3 were quantum mechanically characterized using DFT, MP2 and CCSD(T) methods. Flexibility of six phenyl moieties in this complex structure was also investigated by structural optimization approach using the DFT methods. Our MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations of the closest pair provided interaction energy of 6.62 and 8.29 kcal/mol respectively, which indicate a strongest repulsion among these intra-molecular π-π interactions. Interaction energy of the particular π-π pair calculated from 24 hybrid DFT methods ranges from 4.56 kcal/mol from BHandH method to 15.15 kcal/mol from O3LYP method. Cares should be exercised when interpreting interaction energy and geometry optimization from DFT simulation of systems containing π-π interaction. Comparison between the DFT results and the benchmark CCSD(T) results shows that the DFT calculations of π-π interaction are reasonable but still need to be interpreted with caution. Furthermore, MP2 interaction energy of -44.69 kcal/mol between two substituted π systems/phenyl rings Ph(O)N-moieties suggested that above energetically unfavorable π-π interaction can be compensated by the covalent bond N-N in a single ligand Ph(O)NN(O)Ph, which allows for a reasonable stability across the complex molecules. Optimizations of the entire complex molecule using B3LYP and M06HF methods produced a large variation of π-π distances and orientations, which implied that the complex molecule may perform catalysis at room temperature.

  3. Investigating the use of endogenous quinoid moieties on carbon fibre as means of developing micro pH sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ashleigh; Phair, Jolene; Benson, John; Meenan, Brian; Davis, James, E-mail: james.davis@ulster.ac.uk

    2014-10-01

    The redox profile obtained from electrochemically oxidised carbon fibre was exploited as a foundation from which to design a reusable pH probe. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the surface after anodisation revealed an increase in the population of endogenous quinone moieties. Square wave voltammograms recorded in various buffer solutions (pH 3–9) yielded a distinct and unambiguous oxidation process through which to ascribe the peak potential — with the latter found to shift in a sub-Nernstian (− 0.052 V/pH) manner. The design of a discrete 2-electrode reusable probe which provides a rapid assessment of pH is described and a preliminary characterisation of the electrochemical performance is critically assessed. - Graphical abstract: The redox profile obtained from electrochemically oxidised carbon fibre was exploited as a foundation from which to design a reusable pH probe. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the surface after anodisation revealed an increase in the population endogenous quinone moieties. Square wave voltammograms recorded in various buffer solutions (pH 3–9) yielded a distinct and unambiguous oxidation process through which to ascribe the peak potential — with the latter found to shift in a sub-Nernstian (− 0.052 V/pH) manner. The design of a discrete 2-electrode reusable probe which provides a rapid assessment of pH is described and a preliminary characterisation of the electrochemical performance is critically assessed. - Highlights: • In situ creation of pH sensitive quinone groups on carbon fibre • Versatile and accessible approach to manufacturing disposable pH sensors • Miniature probe design enables monitoring pH in small volumes. • Detailed surface characterisation of electrochemically modified carbon fibre.

  4. Time, Attitude, and User Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Assimilation of a standard ERP system to an organization is difficult. User involvement seems to be the crux of the matter. However, even the best intentions for user involvement may come to nothing. A case study of a five-year ERP implementation process reveals that a main reason may...... be that the perception of usefulness of the system in any given phase of the implementation is heavily dependent on preceding events—the process. A process model analysis identifies eight episodes and nine encounters in the case showing that the user’s attitude towards the ERP system changes between acceptance...... participation, it is argued that the changes could be explained as a slide from influential user participation toward pseudo participation and back to influential participation, and that user participation in the context of ERP implementations raises new issues regarding user participation. Thus further...

  5. Researching participation in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    It is a widespread perception that the challenge of increasing participation in adult education and training has intensified due to the transformation from industrial to knowledge based societies and the transformation implies that it becomes pivotal to increase the supply of highly qualified...... labour. This has fostered an interest in examining why and how people engage in adult education, how participation and especially non-participation in adult education can be explained and how participation rates can be increased. In this paper I outline different traditions within research on recruitment...... to and participation in adult education and training focusing primarily on unskilled and low skilled workers. I present how the traditions contribute to the perception of what effects participation and argue that the existing traditions must be extended and a new framework must be applied in order to understand how...

  6. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Rissel; Cameron Munro; Adrian Bauman

    2013-01-01

    Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney) asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year) estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28....

  7. Citizen participation in public accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil; Lewis, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we offer an analytical framework sensitive to the quality of citizen participation, which is measured in terms of transferred power from the governors to the citizens, and in terms of the degree to which citizens have access to accountability measures. We do this by combining...... Arnstein’s (1969) classic ladder of participation with a focus on citizen participation in regard to bureaucratic accountability, centered on efficiency and learning (cf. Bovens et al. 2008)....

  8. A Global Obstacle-avoidance Map for Anthropomorphic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more humanoid robots are used in human society, and they face a wide variety of complicated manipulation tasks, which are mainly to be achieved by their anthropomorphic arms. Obstacle avoidance for the anthropomorphic arm must be a fundamental consideration to guarantee the successful implementation of these tasks. Different from traditional methods searching for feasible or optimal collision-free solutions for the anthropomorphic arm, a global obstacle- avoidance map for the whole arm is proposed to indicate the complete set of feasible solutions. In this map, the motion of the arm can be appropriately planned to intuitively control the configuration of the arm in motion. First, the cubic spline function is adopted to interpolate some well-chosen path points to generate a smooth collision-free path for the wrist of the anthropomorphic arm. Second, based on the path function of the wrist, the time and the self-rotation angle of the arm about the “shoulder-wrist” axis are used to parameterize all possible configurations of the arm so that a global two- dimensional map considering the obstacle avoidance can be established. Subsequently, a collision-free self-rotation angle profile of the arm can be well planned. Finally, the joint trajectories of a specific anthropomorphic arm, which correspond to the planned path of the wrist and self-rotation angle profile of the arm, can be solved on the basis of the general kinematic analysis of the anthropomorphic arm, and the specific structure. Several simulations are conducted to verify that the proposed collision-free motion planning method for anthropomorphic arms has some advantages and can be regarded as a convenient and intuitive tool to control the configuration of the anthropomorphic arm in motion, without collision with obstacles in its surroundings.

  9. Scheduling participants of Assessment Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens; Løber, Janni

      Assessment Centres are used as a tool for psychologists and coaches to observe a number of dimensions in a person's behaviour and test his/her potential within a number of chosen focus areas. This is done in an intense course, with a number of different exercises which expose each participant......'s ability level in the chosen focus areas. The participants are observed by assessors with the purpose of gathering material for reaching a conclusion on each participant's personal profile. We consider the particular case that arises at the company Human Equity (www.humanequity.dk), where Assessment...

  10. In vivo characterization of NcsB3 to establish the complete biosynthesis of the naphthoic acid moiety of the neocarzinostatin chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Vu Thi Thu; Oh, Tae Jin; Yamaguchi, Tokutaro; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2010-10-01

    Neocarzinostatin (NCS) is an enediyne antibiotic produced by Streptomyces carzinostaticus. The NCS chromophore consists of an enediyne core, a sugar moiety, and a naphthoic acid (NA) moiety. The latter plays a key role in binding the NCS chromophore to its apoprotein to protect and stabilize the bioactive NCS chromophore. In this study, we expressed three genes: ncsB (naphthoic acid synthase), ncsB3 (P450 hydroxylase), and ncsB1 (O-methyltransferase), in Streptomyces lividans TK24. The three genes were sufficient to produce 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoic acid. Production was analyzed and confirmed by LC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we report the functional characterization of ncsB3 and thereby elucidate the complete biosynthetic pathway of NA moiety of the NCS chromophore. PMID:20735485

  11. SYNTHESIS OF BIMODAL POLYETHYLENE WITH UNSYMMETRICAL α-DIIMINE NICKEL COMPLEXES: INFLUENCE OF LIGAND BACKBONE AND UNSYM-SUBSTITUTED ANILINE MOIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-yang Gao; Feng-shou Liu; Hai-bin Hu; Fang-ming Zhu; Qing Wu

    2013-01-01

    A series of unsymmetrical α-diimine nickel complexes with various backbones and substituted aniline moieties were synthesized and characterized.The crystallographic analysis of the nickel complexes confirmed the existence of mesoand rac-configuration in solid structure.Nickel complexes after activation by MAO were screened for ethylene polymerization to evaluate backbone substituent effect on synthesis of bimodal PE.Acenaphthyl nickel complex with planar backbone afforded a bimodal PE with a broad polydispersity,whereas camphyl nickel complex with rigid and bulky backbone afforded a monomodal PE with a narrow polydispersity.Steric effect of aniline moiety for acenaphthyl nickel complex was also examined,and bimodal PE with dominant high-molecular-weight fraction was obtained by modifying substituents on aniline moiety.

  12. Immediate Effects of Smoking on Cardiorespiratory Responses During Dynamic Exercise: Arm Versus Leg Ergometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Liang eChen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the immediate effects of smoking on cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic arm and leg exercises. Methods: This randomized crossover study recruited 14 college students. Each participant underwent 2 sets of arm-cranking (AC and leg-cycling (LC exercise tests. The testing sequences of the control trial (participants refrained from smoking for 8 hours before testing and the experimental trial (participants smoked 2 cigarettes were randomly chosen. We observed immediate changes in pulmonary function and heart rate variability after smoking and before the exercise test. The participants then underwent graded exercise tests of their arms and legs, respectively, until reaching exhaustion. We compared the peak work achieved and the time to exhaustion during the exercise tests with various cardiorespiratory indices [i.e., heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE]. The main effects of the time and the trial, as well as their interaction effects on outcome measures, were investigated using repeated measure ANOVA.Results: Five minutes after smoking, the participants exhibited reduced forced vital capacities and forced expiratory volumes in the first second (P < .05, in addition to elevated resting heart rates (P < .001. The high-frequency, low-frequency, and the total power of the heart rate variability were also reduced (P < .05 at rest. For the exercise test periods, smoking reduced the time to exhaustion (P = .005 and the ventilatory threshold (P < .05 in the LC tests, whereas there were no significant effects in the AC tests. A trend analysis revealed a significant (P < .001 trial-by-time interaction effect for heart rate, VO2, and VE during the graded exercise test. Lower VO2 and VE levels were exhibited in the exercise response of the smoking trial than in that of the control LC trials, whereas there was no discernable inter-trial difference in the AC trials. Moreover, the differences in heart rate

  13. Corroboration of the predominant localization of radioactivity on the dimethylallyl pyrophosphate-derived moiety of linalool biosynthesized from radioisotopically labeled leucine by higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tange, K.; Okita, H.; Nakao, Y.; Hirata, T.; Suga, T. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-06-01

    The co-feeding experiment of leucine-4,5-/sup 3/H and mevalonic-2-/sup 14/C acid corroborated the preferential localization of radioactivity on the 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate-derived moiety of linalool in its biosynthesis from radioisotopically labeled leucine by Cinnamomum Camphora Sieb. var. linalooliferum Fujita, in contrast to the predominant location of the activity on its isopentenyl pyrophosphate-derived moiety in the biosynthesis from mevalonic acid. Also, it was established that the imbalance in the localization of radioactivity is not influenced by exogenous administration of leucine or inhibition of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase.

  14. Design of a novel 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Parameter optimization for a novel 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm was presented by using a statistics method called the statistics parameters optimization method based on index atlases.Several kinematics and mechanics performance evaluation indices were proposed and discussed,according to the kinematics and mechanics analyses of the mechanical arm.Considering the assembly technique,a prototype of the 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm was developed,which provided a basis for applications of the 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm.The novel 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm can be applied to the modern industrial fields requiring high stiffness,lower inertia and good technological efficiency.A novel 6-DOF hybrid humanoid mechanical arm was built,in which the present mechanical arm was connected with a spherical 3-DOF parallel manipulator.

  15. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Gotthelf, Eric V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ≈20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ≥3σ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ∼50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ≈ 10{sup –14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  16. Moving the Participation Agenda Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Malcolm; Davis, John; Prout, Alan; Tisdall, Kay

    2004-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the other papers in this Special Issue on children's and young people's participation, by outlining the nature of the ESRC Seminar Series from which all are derived and by developing the main themes discussed at the seminars. The focus of this Issue is participation by children and young people as this relates to…

  17. Who Benefits from Participative Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to explore the moderating role of teachers' personality traits from the Big Five typology on the relationship between participative management and teacher outcomes with respect to performance, satisfaction and strain. The study suggests that participative management may produce different results depending on teachers'…

  18. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  19. Parametric instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Uchiyama, T.; Miyoki, S.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Numata, K.

    2008-07-01

    We evaluated the parametric instabilities of LCGT (Japanese interferometric gravitational wave detector project) arm cavity. The number of unstable modes of LCGT is 10-times smaller than that of Advanced LIGO (USA). Since the strength of the instabilities of LCGT depends on the mirror curvature more weakly than that of Advanced LIGO, the requirement of the mirror curvature accuracy is easier to be achieved. The difference in the parametric instabilities between LCGT and Advanced LIGO is because of the thermal noise reduction methods (LCGT, cooling sapphire mirrors; Advanced LIGO, fused silica mirrors with larger laser beams), which are the main strategies of the projects. Elastic Q reduction by the barrel surface (0.2 mm thickness Ta2O5) coating is effective to suppress instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity. Therefore, the cryogenic interferometer is a smart solution for the parametric instabilities in addition to thermal noise and thermal lensing.

  20. Parametric instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Miyoki, S; Ohashi, M; Kuroda, K; Numata, K

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the parametric instabilities of LCGT (Japanese interferometric gravitational wave detector project) arm cavity. The number of unstable modes of LCGT is 10-times smaller than that of Advanced LIGO (U.S.A.). Since the strength of the instabilities of LCGT depends on the mirror curvature more weakly than that of Advanced LIGO, the requirement of the mirror curvature accuracy is easier to be achieved. The difference in the parametric instabilities between LCGT and Advanced LIGO is because of the thermal noise reduction methods (LCGT, cooling sapphire mirrors; Advanced LIGO, fused silica mirrors with larger laser beams), which are the main strategies of the projects. Elastic Q reduction by the barrel surface (0.2 mm thickness Ta$_2$O$_5$) coating is effective to suppress instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity. Therefore, the cryogenic interferometer is a smart solution for the parametric instabilities in addition to thermal noise and thermal lensing.

  1. Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lejing; Weidert, Simon; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro Michael; Riquarts, Christian; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    The Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm (CamC) system that extends a regular mobile C-arm by a video camera provides an X-ray and video image overlay. Thanks to the mirror construction and one time calibration of the device, the acquired X-ray images are co-registered with the video images without any calibration or registration during the intervention. It is very important to quantify and qualify the system before its introduction into the OR. In this communication, we extended the previously performed overlay accuracy analysis of the CamC system by another clinically important parameter, the applied radiation dose for the patient. Since the mirror of the CamC system will absorb and scatter radiation, we introduce a method for estimating the correct applied dose by using an independent dose measurement device. The results show that the mirror absorbs and scatters 39% of X-ray radiation.

  2. Special Gripper for a Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel SELLES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New structures for gripping objects in robotic manipulation processes are oriented to the new arrangement of mechanical structures using new materials and processing technologies and innovative procedures for the implementation of contact gripping element links to an object with a high degree of adaptively of applications together with the ability to alter the structure of grip and limiting the intensity of the contact stiffness variation of snap elements custody and pliability. The application of elastomeric materials and surface finishes is important. This paper presents both a new gripper design for robot arms but also the search of the selected materials to make an experimental evaluation of technical parameters that are used to assess their application potential and suitability for the targeted applications. Also the results and conclusions for gripper testing in manipulation operations with two different robot arms are presented.

  3. Leisure Sport Participation in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicos Kartakoullis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to the limited existing research on the participation patterns of Cypriots in leisure and sports. Leisure and sport are viewed collectively while adapting the notion put forth by The Council of Europe (2007 defining leisure sports as sports activities aimed at the preservation and improvement of physical condition, health and fun. The purpose of this paper is to examine the leisure sport participation patterns of Cypriots, specifically: (1 participation patterns in leisure sports, (2 reasons for participating in leisure sports, (3 cost and participation in leisure sport, (4 leisure sport spectatorship, and (5 vacationing and leisure sport experiences. Data was commissioned and collected by the Centre for Leisure, Tourism and Sports (University of Nicosia for the Cyprus Sport Organisation. A telephone-survey of 1000 Cypriots, men and women, aged 15+, from coast-to-coast in Cyprus using stratified random sampling was employed. The sample was weighted by gender, age, district and region of residence. The results indicate that: (1 almost half of the Cypriot population participates in leisure sports, (2 participation in leisure sports decreases with age, (3 participation in leisure sports tends to be driven by health benefits, (4 most Cypriots participate in leisure sport at no cost, (5 television is the most common means reported for spectatorship, and (6 some Cypriots plan their vacations around leisure sport experiences. The results indicate the relevant importance of the leisure sport culture in Cyprus while also reflecting on age and cost related factors that may influence participation in leisure sports.

  4. Memories of the armed struggle in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Margarita Pasquali

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and develops some of the edges on working of the guerrilla that emerge in the memories of the former militants of the armed organizations in Argentina. Beginig from this journey we will have access to the registration that one has presently on it, which will allows us to establish part of the subjective environment of the moment, the main characters consideration of the activism and their significance in the general context of the militancy.

  5. Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Larsen, Esben Salling;

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... and realistic goals, systematically developing recruitment, development, and retention policies, and the superiority of an all-volunteer force over conscription in fulfilling this societal imperative....

  6. Multi-Armed Bandits in Metric Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinberg, Robert; Upfal, Eli

    2008-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit problem, an online algorithm chooses from a set of strategies in a sequence of trials so as to maximize the total payoff of the chosen strategies. While the performance of bandit algorithms with a small finite strategy set is quite well understood, bandit problems with large strategy sets are still a topic of very active investigation, motivated by practical applications such as online auctions and web advertisement. The goal of such research is to identify broad and natural classes of strategy sets and payoff functions which enable the design of efficient solutions. In this work we study a very general setting for the multi-armed bandit problem in which the strategies form a metric space, and the payoff function satisfies a Lipschitz condition with respect to the metric. We refer to this problem as the "Lipschitz MAB problem". We present a complete solution for the multi-armed problem in this setting. That is, for every metric space (L,X) we define an isometry invariant which bounds f...

  7. The Perseus arm in the anticenter direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguió, M.; Grosbøl, P.; Figueras, F.

    2015-05-01

    The stellar overdensity due to the Perseus arm has been detected in the anticenter direction through individual field stars. For that purpose, a Str&{uml;o}mgren photometric survey covering 16° ^2 was developed with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope. This photometry allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for these stars using a new method based on atmospheric models and evolutionary tracks. The analysis of the surface density as a function of distance for intermediate young stars in this survey allowed us to detect an overdensity at 1.6±0.2 kpc from the Sun, that can be associated with the Perseus arm, with a surface density amplitude of ˜14%. The significance of the detection is above 4σ for all the cases. The fit for the radial scale length of the Galactic disk provided values in the range [2.9,3.5] kpc for the population of the B4-A1 stars. We also analyzed the interstellar visual absorption distribution, and its variation as a function of distance is coherent with a dust layer before the Perseus arm location.

  8. Elastic lever arm model for myosin V

    CERN Document Server

    Vilfan, A

    2005-01-01

    We present a mechanochemical model for myosin V, a two-headed processive motor protein. We derive the properties of a dimer from those of an individual head, which we model both with a 4-state cycle (detached, attached with ADP.Pi, attached with ADP and attached without nucleotide) and alternatively with a 5-state cycle (where the power stroke is not tightly coupled to the phosphate release). In each state the lever arm leaves the head at a different, but fixed, angle. The lever arm itself is described as an elastic rod. The chemical cycles of both heads are coordinated exclusively by the mechanical connection between the two lever arms. The model explains head coordination by showing that the lead head only binds to actin after the power stroke in the trail head and that it only undergoes its power stroke after the trail head unbinds from actin. Both models (4- and 5-state) reproduce the observed hand-over-hand motion and fit the measured force-velocity relations. The main difference between the two models c...

  9. Tags and seals for arms control verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-09-18

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags might be considered as single-point markers, seals as two-point couplings, and nets as volume containment. The functions of an arms control tag can be considered to be two-fold: to provide field verification of the identity of a treaty-limited item (TLI), and to have a means of authentication of the tag and its tamper-revealing features. Authentication could take place in the field or be completed elsewhere. For CFE, the goal of tags and seals can be to reduce the overall cost of the entire verification system.

  10. Sports participation with arachnoid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.

  11. High Glass Transition and Optical Transparency of Novel Organosoluble Polyamides Containing 4-tert-Butyltoluene Moiety%High Glass Transition and Optical Transparency of Novel Organosoluble Polyamides Containing 4-tert-Butyltoluene Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪称意; 赵晓燕; 李光; 江建明

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel polyamides 3a-3d containing 4-tert-butyltoluene moiety, were prepared using the phosphorylation polycondensation technique. FT-IR and 1↑H NMR techniques were used to investigate the chemical structures of 3a-3d. The results confirmed that they agreed with the proposed structures for 3a-3d completely. The 3a-3d had inherent viscosities ranging from 0.71 to 1.67 dL·g^-1. All the polyamides showed excellent solubility, with the dissolvability at a concentration of 10 wt% in most amide polar solvents. Flexible and tough polyamide films could be prepared by casting from DMAc (N,N-dimethylacetamide) solvent. Their films were nearly colorless and exhibited high optical transparency, with the UV cutoff wavelength in the range of 346-363 nm and transmittance higher than 80% at 450 nm. They also exhibited high glass transition temperatures in the range of 310---343℃ and the onset decomposition temperatures in the range of 435-462 ℃ in nitrogen atmosphere. Meanwhile, these polyamide films possess good mechanical properties with tensile strengths of 76.4-86.1 MPa and elongations at break of 11.2%-27.3%. Due to those properties, these polyamides could be considered as photoelectric and microelectronic materials.

  12. Mediated Discourses of Transnational Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukova Klausen, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the social and discursive aspects of transnational living and participation. By introducing the notion of transnational networking it articulates transnational participation as a type of social and discursive connecting through which places, practices, aspects of identities...... national and cultural memberships and demonstrates how transnational participation is organized not from one national terrain to anbother but across diverse social and discursive practices....... become represented, categorized and enacted across and beyond symbolic and geo-political national terrains. The multimodal, social-semiotic, discourse analysis focuses on semiotic shifts and discursive transformations through which the actors categorize symbols, artefacts and accounts across and beyond...

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIRAL ARMS IN LATE-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, Z. N.; Reid, M. J., E-mail: mreid@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184, and NGC 5194 (M51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outermost parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ∼5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these characteristics are consistent with properties seen in the large N-body simulations of D'Onghia et al. and others.

  14. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  15. Synthesis of a chiral amino acid with bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane moiety and its incorporation into linear and cyclic antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, Stephan; Pätzel, Michael; Szeimies, Günter; Dathe, Margitta; Bienert, Michael

    2007-06-01

    The synthesis of the lipophilic chiral amino acid 1 bearing the bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane moiety is described. Linear and cyclic hexapeptides of the type Arg-Arg-Xaa-Yaa-Arg-Phe containing 1 instead of one or two tryptophan residues are prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis and the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of the peptides obtained are discussed.

  16. A New Metabolite with a unique 4-pyranone-ylactam-1,4-thiazine moiety from a Hawaiian-plant associated fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    An endophytic fungus Paraphaeosphaeria neglecta FT462 isolated from the Hawaiian-plant Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm produced one unusual compound (1, paraphaeosphaeride A) with the 4-pyranone-'-lactam-1,4-thiazine moiety, along with two new compounds (2 and 3, paraphaeosphaerides B and C, resp...

  17. Effects of Study Design and Allocation on participant behaviour - ESDA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sheeran Paschal; Attia John; Wilson Amanda; McCambridge Jim; Kypri Kypros; Bowe Steve; Vater Tina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background What study participants think about the nature of a study has been hypothesised to affect subsequent behaviour and to potentially bias study findings. In this trial we examine the impact of awareness of study design and allocation on participant drinking behaviour. Methods/Design A three-arm parallel group randomised controlled trial design will be used. All recruitment, screening, randomisation, and follow-up will be conducted on-line among university students. Participan...

  18. The Transformation of Employee Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni; Knudsen, Herman; Lind, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on the relationship between employee participation, influence and the work environment. The main part of the literature points to a positive connection in line with how it has been almost institutionalised in Karasek and Theorell´s demand control......-model. However, more recent research into psychosocial work environment problems questions the model’s assumption of high job control compensating for high job demands. Taking its point of departure in a `deconstruction´ of the concept of participation based on research on employee participation from the past...... few decades, the article discuss what factors and changes have resulted in that increased employee participation does not seem to result in a healthy work environment. The article concludes on the limitations of the demand control-model in modern working life given contextual changes in the employer...

  19. [Participation in cardiac rehabilitation after coronary bypass surgery: good news, bad news].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Yaakov

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation programs have the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality and increase quality of life after acute coronary events and coronary bypass surgery (CABG). Unfortunately, the proportion of eligible patients that participate in cardiac rehabilitation remains low, despite coverage of such programs by the Israeli National Health Insurance. A low participation rate is especially prominent in women, elderly, minorities and low socioeconomic classes. In this edition of Harefuah, Gendler et at conducted an interventional study aimed at increasing the participation of patients in cardiac rehabilitation programs after CABG in 5 cardiothoracic wards across Israel. They interviewed 489 patients in the intervention arm and 472 patients in the control arm before surgery and a year later. The intervention included dissemination of information on cardiac rehabilitation to the medical staff and patients. Following the intervention, cardiac rehabilitation increased almost twofold in veteran-Israeli males and females. Although it increased significantly in USSR-born male immigrants, their absolute rate of participation remained low (13.6%). No USSR-born female participated in rehabilitation, either before or after the intervention. The good news is that a simple, inexpensive intervention can increase participation in cardiac rehabilitation after CABG surgery. The bad news is that this potentially lifesaving activity remains unattended by most USSR-born immigrants, and particularly by females. Additional research is required to explore the cultural, social and economic barriers of this phenomenon. PMID:23367745

  20. Borrowers’ Participation in Group Borrowing

    OpenAIRE

    Tutlani, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Borrowers’ participation in MFI group lending credit market is not insured because of the alternative sources of credit available. The question arises what is the ideal MFI interest rate to ensure borrowers’ participation which at the same time being financially viable for MFI. The paper attempts to answer this question and analyzes the borrowers’ trade-off of borrowing from MFI or from moneylender (ML). Results show that borrowers may find comparative advantage in borrowing individ...

  1. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information Processing’s EGOV conference (IFIP EGOV 2015), and its sister conference, the 7th Electronic Participation (ePart) conference, held in Thessaloniki, Greece, from 30 August to 2 September 2015, with t...

  2. The Evaluation of Physical Stillness with Wearable Chest and Arm Accelerometer during Chan Ding Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Ming Chang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chan Ding training is beneficial to health and emotional wellbeing. More and more people have taken up this practice over the past few years. A major training method of Chan Ding is to focus on the ten Mailuns, i.e., energy points, and to maintain physical stillness. In this article, wireless wearable accelerometers were used to detect physical stillness, and the created physical stillness index (PSI was also shown. Ninety college students participated in this study. Primarily, accelerometers used on the arms and chest were examined. The results showed that the PSI values on the arms were higher than that of the chest, when participants moved their bodies in three different ways, left-right, anterior-posterior, and hand, movements with natural breathing. Then, they were divided into three groups to practice Chan Ding for approximately thirty minutes. Participants without any Chan Ding experience were in Group I. Participants with one year of Chan Ding experience were in Group II, and participants with over three year of experience were in Group III. The Chinese Happiness Inventory (CHI was also conducted. Results showed that the PSI of the three groups measured during 20–30 min were 0.123 ± 0.155, 0.012 ± 0.013, and 0.001 ± 0.0003, respectively (p < 0.001 ***. The averaged CHI scores of the three groups were 10.13, 17.17, and 25.53, respectively (p < 0.001 ***. Correlation coefficients between PSI and CHI of the three groups were −0.440, −0.369, and −0.537, respectively (p < 0.01 **. PSI value and the wearable accelerometer that are presently available on the market could be used to evaluate the quality of the physical stillness of the participants during Chan Ding practice.

  3. The Evaluation of Physical Stillness with Wearable Chest and Arm Accelerometer during Chan Ding Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kang-Ming; Chun, Yu-Teng; Chen, Sih-Huei; Lu, Luo; Su, Hsiao-Ting Jannis; Liang, Hung-Meng; Santhosh, Jayasree; Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Liu, Shing-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chan Ding training is beneficial to health and emotional wellbeing. More and more people have taken up this practice over the past few years. A major training method of Chan Ding is to focus on the ten Mailuns, i.e., energy points, and to maintain physical stillness. In this article, wireless wearable accelerometers were used to detect physical stillness, and the created physical stillness index (PSI) was also shown. Ninety college students participated in this study. Primarily, accelerometers used on the arms and chest were examined. The results showed that the PSI values on the arms were higher than that of the chest, when participants moved their bodies in three different ways, left-right, anterior-posterior, and hand, movements with natural breathing. Then, they were divided into three groups to practice Chan Ding for approximately thirty minutes. Participants without any Chan Ding experience were in Group I. Participants with one year of Chan Ding experience were in Group II, and participants with over three year of experience were in Group III. The Chinese Happiness Inventory (CHI) was also conducted. Results showed that the PSI of the three groups measured during 20-30 min were 0.123 ± 0.155, 0.012 ± 0.013, and 0.001 ± 0.0003, respectively (p < 0.001 ***). The averaged CHI scores of the three groups were 10.13, 17.17, and 25.53, respectively (p < 0.001 ***). Correlation coefficients between PSI and CHI of the three groups were -0.440, -0.369, and -0.537, respectively (p < 0.01 **). PSI value and the wearable accelerometer that are presently available on the market could be used to evaluate the quality of the physical stillness of the participants during Chan Ding practice. PMID:27447641

  4. Syntheses of D-A-A Type Small Molecular Donor Materials Having Various Electron Accepting Moiety for Organic Photovoltaic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyeon; Park, Sangman; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Lee, Jaemin; Lee, Changjin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2016-03-01

    Small molecular donor, DTDCTB achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 6.6 ± 0.2% in vacuum-deposited planar mixed heterojunction (PMHJ) structure. However, the same material just recorded PCE of 0.34% in solution processed small molecule based bulk heterjunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic cells. For the improvement of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), In this study, we designed and synthesized several D-A-A (donor-acceptor-acceptor) type molecular electron donating materials. Ditolylaminothienyl moiety as an electron donating group connected to 1,2,5-benzothiadiazole as a conjugated electron accepting unit, simultaneously with an electron accepting terminal group such as cyano alkyl acetate and N-alkyl rhodanine. The thermal, photophysical, and electrochemical properties of prepared small molecules were investigated by DSC, UV/Vis spectroscopy and Cyclic Voltametry, respectively. As a result, 0.89% of PCE can be obtained from OPV using a mixture of DTATBTER and PCBM as an active layer with a Voc of 0.87 V, a Jsc of 3.20 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 31.9%.

  5. Fluorescent sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase inhibitors incorporating 1,2,3-triazole moieties: Kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Fabrizio; Ferraroni, Marta; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-15

    Fluorescent sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors (CAIs) were essential for demonstrating the role played by the tumor-associated isoform CA IX in acidification of tumors, cancer progression towards metastasis and for the development of imaging and therapeutic strategies for the management of hypoxic tumors which overexpress CA IX. However, the presently available such compounds are poorly water soluble which limits their use. Here we report new fluorescent sulfonamides 7, 8 and 10 with increased water solubility. The new derivatives showed poor hCA I inhibitory properties, but were effective inhibitors against the hCA II (KIs of 366-127 nM), CA IX (KIs of 8.1-36.9 nM), CA XII (KIs of 4.1-20.5 nM) and CA XIV (KIs of 12.8-53.6 nM). A high resolution X-ray crystal structure of one of these compounds bound to hCA II revealed the factors associated with the good inhibitory properties. Furthermore, this compound showed a three-fold increase of water solubility compared to a similar derivative devoid of the triazole moiety, making it an interesting candidate for ex vivo/in vivo studies. PMID:26682703

  6. Syntheses, crystal structures, and water adsorption behaviors of jungle-gym-type porous coordination polymers containing nitro moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazuhiro; Onishi, Fumiaki; Yamasaki, Yukari; Kita, Hidetoshi

    2009-10-01

    NO 2 containing dicarboxylate bridging ligands, nitroterephthalate (bdc-NO 2) and 2,5-dinitroterephthalate (bdc-(NO 2) 2), afford porous coordination polymers, {[Zn 2(bdc-NO 2) 2(dabco)]· solvents} n ( 2⊃ solvents) and {[Zn 2(bdc-(NO 2) 2) 2(dabco)]· solvents} n ( 3⊃ solvents). Both compounds form jungle-gym-type regularities, where a 2D square grid composed of dinuclear Zn 2 units and dicarboxylate ligands is bridged by dabco molecules to extend the 2D layers into a 3D structure. In 2⊃ solvents and 3⊃ solvents, a rectangle pore surrounded by eight Zn 2 corners contains two and four NO 2 moieties, respectively. Thermal gravimetry (TG) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) measurements reveal that both compounds maintain the frameworks regularities without guest molecules and with solvents such as MeOH, EtOH, i-PrOH, and Me 2CO. Adsorption measurements reveal that dried 2 and 3 adsorb H 2O molecules to be {[Zn 2(bdc-NO 2) 2(dabco)]·4H 2O} n ( 2⊃4H 2O) and {[Zn 2(bdc-(NO 2) 2) 2(dabco)]·6H 2O} n ( 3⊃6H 2O), showing the pore hydrophilicity enhancement caused by NO 2 group introduction.

  7. Influence of galloyl moiety in interaction of epicatechin with bovine serum albumin: a spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Pal

    Full Text Available The health benefits stemming from green tea are well known, but the exact mechanism of its biological activity is not elucidated. Epicatechin (EC and epicatechin gallate (ECG are two dietary catechins ubiquitously present in green tea. Serum albumins functionally carry these catechins through the circulatory system and eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS induced injury. In the present study ECG is observed to have higher antioxidant activity; which is attributed to the presence of galloyl moiety. The binding affinity of these catechins to bovine serum albumin (BSA will govern the efficacy of their biological activity. EC and ECG bind with BSA with binding constants 1.0 × 10(6 M(-1 and 6.6 × 10(7 M(-1, respectively. Changes in secondary structure of BSA on interaction with EC and ECG have been identified by circular dichroism (CD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. Thermodynamic characterization reveals the binding process to be exothermic, spontaneous and entropy driven. Mixed binding forces (hydrophobic, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding exist between ECG and BSA. Binding site for EC is primarily site-II in sub-domain IIIA of BSA and for ECG; it is site-I in sub-domain IIA. ECG with its high antioxidant activity accompanied by high affinity for BSA could be a model in drug designing.

  8. The Lipid Moiety of Haemozoin (Malaria Pigment and P. falciparum Parasitised Red Blood Cells Bind Synthetic and Native Endothelin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Basilico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelin1 (ET-1 is a 21-amino acid peptide produced by the vascular endothelium under hypoxia, that acts locally as regulator of vascular tone and inflammation. The role of ET-1 in Plasmodium falciparum malaria is unknown, although tissue hypoxia is frequent as a result of the cytoadherence of parasitized red blood cell (pRBC to the microvasculature. Here, we show that both synthetic and endothelial-derived ET-1 are removed by parasitized RBC (D10 and W2 strains, chloroquine sensitive, and resistant, resp. and native haemozoin (HZ, malaria pigment, but not by normal RBC, delipidized HZ, or synthetic beta-haematin (BH. The effect is dose dependent, selective for ET-1, but not for its precursor, big ET-1, and not due to the proteolysis of ET-1. The results indicate that ET-1 binds to the lipids moiety of HZ and membranes of infected RBCs. These findings may help understanding the consequences of parasite sequestration in severe malaria.

  9. Dimerization of 30Kc19 protein in the presence of amphiphilic moiety and importance of Cys-57 during cell penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Ho; Sohn, Youngsoo; Yeo, Ji Woo; Park, Ju Hyun; Lee, Hong Jai; Ryu, Jina; Rhee, Won Jong; Park, Tai Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the recombinant 30Kc19 protein, originating from silkworm hemolymph of Bombyx mori has attracted attention due to its cell-penetrating property and potential application as a protein delivery system. However, this observation of penetration across cell membrane has raised questions concerning the interaction of the protein-lipid bilayer. Here, we report a dimerization propensity of the 30Kc19 protein in the presence of amphiphilic moieties; sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or phospholipid. Native PAGE showed that the 30Kc19 monomer formed a dimer when SDS or phospholipid was present. In the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay, supplementation of the 30Kc19 protein to mammalian cell culture medium showed dimerization and penetration; due to phospholipids at the cell membrane, the main components of the lipid bilayer. Mutagenesis was performed, and penetration was observed by 30Kc19 C76A and not 30Kc19 C57A, which meant that the presence of cysteine at position 57 (Cys-57) is involved in dimerization of the 30Kc19 at the cell membrane during penetration. We anticipate application of the native 30Kc19 protein with high cell-penetrating efficiency for delivery of cargos to various cell types. The intracellular cargo delivery using the 30Kc19 protein is a non-virus derived (e.g. TAT) delivery method, which can open up new approaches for the delivery of therapeutics in bioindustries, such as pharma- and cosmeceuticals.

  10. Liquid crystalline polymers IX Main chain thermotropic poly (azomethine – ethers containing thiazole moiety linked with polymethylene spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A new homologous series of thermally stable thermotropic liquid crystalline poly(azomethine-ethers based on thiazole moiety were synthesized by solution polycondensation of 4,4`-diformyl-α,ω-diphenoxyalkanes, I–IV or 4,4`-diformyl-2,2`-dimethoxy-α,ω-diphenoxyalkanes V–VIII with the new bis(2-aminothiazole monomer X. A model compound XI was synthesized from X with benzaldehyde and characterized by elemental and spectral analyses. The inherent viscosities of the resulting polymers were in the range 0.43–1.34 dI/g. All the poly(azomethine-ethers were insoluble in common organic solvents but dissolved completely in concentrated H2SO4 and formic acid. The mesomorphic properties of these polymers were studied as a function of the diphenoxyalkane space length. Their thermotropic liquid crystalline properties were examined by DSC and optical polarizing microscopy and demonstrated that the resulting polymers form nematic mesophases over wide temperature ranges. The thermogravimetric analyses of those polymers were evaluated by TGA and DSC measurements and correlated to their structural units. X-ray analysis showed that polymers having some degree of crystallinity in the region 2θ = 5–60°. In addition, the morphological properties of selected examples were tested by scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Syntheses of D-A-A Type Small Molecular Donor Materials Having Various Electron Accepting Moiety for Organic Photovoltaic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyeon; Park, Sangman; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Lee, Jaemin; Lee, Changjin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2016-03-01

    Small molecular donor, DTDCTB achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 6.6 ± 0.2% in vacuum-deposited planar mixed heterojunction (PMHJ) structure. However, the same material just recorded PCE of 0.34% in solution processed small molecule based bulk heterjunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic cells. For the improvement of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), In this study, we designed and synthesized several D-A-A (donor-acceptor-acceptor) type molecular electron donating materials. Ditolylaminothienyl moiety as an electron donating group connected to 1,2,5-benzothiadiazole as a conjugated electron accepting unit, simultaneously with an electron accepting terminal group such as cyano alkyl acetate and N-alkyl rhodanine. The thermal, photophysical, and electrochemical properties of prepared small molecules were investigated by DSC, UV/Vis spectroscopy and Cyclic Voltametry, respectively. As a result, 0.89% of PCE can be obtained from OPV using a mixture of DTATBTER and PCBM as an active layer with a Voc of 0.87 V, a Jsc of 3.20 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 31.9%. PMID:27455734

  12. Synthesis and Thermal Crosslinking Behavior of Poly(aryl ether ketone)s Containing 1,4-Naphthalene Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Ya-ming; ZHANG Yun-he; CHEN Xing-bo; WANG Gui-bin; JIANG Zhen-hua

    2005-01-01

    A new monomer, 1,4-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl) naphthalene(compound 2) was synthesized via a two-step reaction. 1,4-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid chloride(compound 1) was prepared by using the acyl chlorization reaction of 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid with thionyl chloride. The Friedel-Crafts acylation of compound 1 with fluorobenzene afforded compound 2 in a 80% yield. The polycondensation of compound 2 with various bisphenols in tetramethylene sulfone(TMS) in the presence of excess potassium carbonate as a condensation reagent was carried out at 210 ℃ to quantitatively afford the corresponding poly(aryl ether ketone)s(compounds 3_8) containing 1,4-naphthalene moieties. Thermal analyses showed that the polymers have Tg values ranging from 496 to 500 K and are thermally stable in air with initial mass loss above 500 ℃. These novel polymers exhibited an excellent solubility in organic solvents including NMP, DMAc, and chloroform, etc. In addition, the glass transition temperatures of these polymers increased and the polymers became insoluble in chloroform after treated at 260 ℃, indicating the occurrence of a thermal crosslinking reaction.

  13. Synthesis and photophysical properties of novel chloroquinoline based chalcone derivates containing 1,2,3-triazole moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Harjinder; Sindhu, Jayant; Khurana, Jitender M., E-mail: jmkhurana@chemistry.du.ac.in

    2015-02-15

    A series of novel chloroquinoline based chalcones containing 1,2,3-triazole moiety were synthesized. All new compounds were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, mass spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The absorbance, fluorescence spectra and quantum yield of all compounds were investigated in methanol. Photophysical properties of 1-(1-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) -3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (3a) were investigated in detail. The effect of various solvents over emission spectra of 3a was studied using Kamlet–Taft and Catalan polarity scales. The quantum yield of 3a in various solvents was also recorded. The ground state and excited state dipole moments of compound 3a were determined using solvatochromic methods. The ground state dipole moment was estimated to be 1.081 D, while excited state dipole moment was found in the range of 11.969–3.801 D. Thermal stability of compound 3a and its precursor was also investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. - Highlights: • Novel quinoline based chalcones-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized. • The photophysical properties of all compounds were investigated in methanol. • The excited state and ground state dipole moment is estimated from various methods. • Kamlet–Taft and Catalan solvatochromism was investigated.

  14. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28.9%. Two other national surveys which asked participants to recall (unprompted any physical activity done for exercise, recreation or sport in the previous 12 months, estimated cycling in the past year as 11.1% and 6.5%. While unprompted recall of cycling as a type of physical activity generates lower estimates of cycling participation than specific recall questions, both assessment approaches produced similar patterns of cycling by age and sex with both approaches indicating fewer women and older adults cycling. The different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.

  15. Comparison of Illumina and 454 Deep Sequencing in Participants Failing Raltegravir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jonathan Z.; Chapman, Brad; Charlebois, Patrick; Hofmann, Oliver; Weiner, Brian; Porter, Alyssa J.; Samuel, Reshmi; Vardhanabhuti, Saran; ZHENG, LU; Eron, Joseph; Taiwo, Babafemi; Zody, Michael C; Henn, Matthew R.; Daniel R Kuritzkes; Hide, Winston

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of raltegravir-resistant HIV-1 minority variants (MVs) on raltegravir treatment failure is unknown. Illumina sequencing offers greater throughput than 454, but sequence analysis tools for viral sequencing are needed. We evaluated Illumina and 454 for the detection of HIV-1 raltegravir-resistant MVs. Methods: A5262 was a single-arm study of raltegravir and darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-naïve patients. Pre-treatment plasma was obtained from 5 participants with raltegra...

  16. Comparison of Illumina and 454 Deep Sequencing in Participants Failing Raltegravir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jonathan Z.; Brad Chapman; Patrick Charlebois; Oliver Hofmann; Brian Weiner; Porter, Alyssa J.; Reshmi Samuel; Saran Vardhanabhuti; Lu Zheng; Joseph Eron; Babafemi Taiwo; Zody, Michael C; Henn, Matthew R.; Daniel R Kuritzkes; Winston Hide

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of raltegravir-resistant HIV-1 minority variants (MVs) on raltegravir treatment failure is unknown. Illumina sequencing offers greater throughput than 454, but sequence analysis tools for viral sequencing are needed. We evaluated Illumina and 454 for the detection of HIV-1 raltegravir-resistant MVs. METHODS: A5262 was a single-arm study of raltegravir and darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-naïve patients. Pre-treatment plasma was obtained from 5 participants with raltegra...

  17. A method for measurement of static lever arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianglu; Qin, Shiqiao; Wang, Xingshu; Wu, Wei; Hu, Feng; Zheng, JiaXing

    2016-01-01

    Lever arm effect has to be considered in transfer alignment technology. Between static lever arm and dynamic lever arm, the former has larger amplitude, and it is the major error source in transfer alignment. How to measure and solve it become an important problem. This paper takes vehicle as a rigid body. Assume that static lever arm does not change in a short time, based on two inertial measurement units(IMU), data are measured and constituted several matrixes properly. After that, by using least square method, static lever arm is solved finally. Simulation experiments are implemented, results show that static lever arm can be solved effectively. Further study shows that, the precision of the method can be improved by preprocessing low pass filter.

  18. Process Support for Increasing Participation in eParticipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Maier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of user acceptance of e-participation initiatives has been attributed to several factors, among them lack of motivation, poor transparency of process and lack of traceability of contributions. These deficits cannot be overcome by compliance with usability and accessibility guidelines. To increase user participation it is suggested to align such initiatives with the requirements of civil society groups who are more successful in mobilising public engagement and less with government requests. To enable and empower such groups to set up and maintain e-participation initiatives, a functional navigator for guiding users in configuring a platform as well as process support components are required. The latter focus on the transitions between different phases. The paper outlines how such an approach can be implemented to achieve a transparent circular flow of information and opinion between citizens and policy-makers in a collaborative environment which supports formal and informal political actors to work in partnership.

  19. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F. [Fish and Wildlife Science and Allocation, Ministry of Environment, Province of British Columbia

    2009-07-01

    This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate

  20. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  1. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-06-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  2. Hemispace asymmetries and laterality effects in arm positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, K; Abernethy, B; Yamauchi, M; Funase, K; Nishihira, Y

    1995-12-01

    Hemispace asymmetries and laterality effects were examined on an arm positioning reproduction task. Sixteen male subjects were asked to reproduce both abductive and adductive positioning movements with the left or right arm within either the left or the right hemispace. Hemispace was manipulated using a 90 degrees head-rotation paradigm. A left hemispace advantage in positioning accuracy was predicted for both left and right arm movements on the grounds that the perceptual-motor control of positioning movements made in left hemispace is primarily mediated by the right hemisphere which is known to be advantageous for tasks which are spatial in nature (Heilman, Bowers, & Watson, 1984). No arm laterality effects were predicted to occur because the proximal musculature involved in the control of arm movements is innervated from both contralateral and ipsilateral cerebral hemispheres (Brinkman & Kuypers, 1973). Results showed that the predicted left hemispace advantage was evident for the right arm on the positioning variability measure alone, whereas it was absent for all other possible conditions on all error measures. Laterality (arm) effects were absent as predicted. The experiment also demonstrated a greater degradation of reproduction performance under the "crossed" arm-hemispace conditions than under the "uncrossed" conditions. A plausible explanation for the uncrossed advantage for the task is that under normal conditions, a single hemisphere is primarily responsible for both controlling the contralateral arm and directing attention to the contralateral hemispace, and consequently potential interhemispheric interference is minimized. A clear response bias effect in movement reproduction was also evident as a function of the direction of concurrent arm movement and head rotation. Arm movements made in the same direction as head rotation were systematically undershot in reproduction to a much greater degree than arm movements made in the opposite direction to head

  3. Naval trends in ASEAN: is there a new arms race?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Frank Curtis

    1995-01-01

    Global military spending is decreasing. However this trend does not apply to some regions of the world, specifically Southeast Asia. This thesis describes the ongoing naval arms buildup in this region and examines why it is occurring when the rest of the world is decreasing military spending. Next, this thesis asks if this arms build-up is dangerous. Unlike many other arms races around the world, the Southeast Asian build-up is not particularly dangerous because of the parallel development of...

  4. THE POSITION OF RUSSIA IN THE WORLD ARMS MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Tuliakova I.R.

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the role of Russia in the world arms market. Two world wars and arms race of the late twentieth century led to the formation of the defense- industrial complex. Russian military products are exported to many countries. Currently, Russia is the main supplier of arms to the world market. But there are serious limits to the expansion of military production

  5. ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, Jimmy W

    2015-05-01

    This procedure exists to define the key milestones, necessary steps, and process rules required to commission and operate an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), with a specific focus toward on-time product delivery to the ARM Data Archive. The overall objective is to have the physical infrastructure, networking and communications, and instrument calibration, grooming, and alignment (CG&A) completed with data products available from the ARM Data Archive by the Operational Start Date milestone.

  6. Stronger than Justice : Armed Group Impunity for Sexual Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Muvumba Sellström, Angela

    2015-01-01

    What conditions lead to confidence among civil war combatants that they will not face accountability for perpetrating sexual violence? This study investigates the causes of impunity for sexual violence among armed actors. It develops a theoretical framework which identifies three explanations for armed group impunity for sexual violence, namely (1) flawed prohibitions inside an armed group; (2) negligent enforcement by its authorities; and (3) pardons in the form of amnesties during the peace...

  7. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  8. Well ARMed and FiRM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Zenios, Stavros A.

    2007-01-01

    of mortgage loans of a homeowner and apply it to data from the Danish market. Even in the presence of mortgage origination costs it is shown that most risk averse homeowners will do well to consider a diversified portfolio of both fixed (FRM) and adjustable (ARM) rate mortgages. This is particularly so if one......Individual homeowners are offered today a wide range of mortgage options for financing the purchase of a house. Usually, homeowners are also granted an option to repay the mortgage loan, and in some countries - such as Denmark - it is particularly efficient to do so as market conditions change...

  9. Upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Frost, Poul;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We recently constructed a general population job exposure matrix (JEM), The Shoulder JEM, based on expert ratings. The overall aim of this study was to convert expert-rated job exposures for upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements to measurement scales. METHODS: The...... Spearman rank correlations and the explained variance[Formula: see text] according to linear regression analyses (36 job groups). We used the linear regression equations to convert the expert-rated job exposures for all 172 job groups into predicted measured job exposures. Bland-Altman analyses were used...

  10. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  11. ANALIZA KOMUNIKACIJSKIH PROTOKOLOV NA PLATFORMI ARM

    OpenAIRE

    Vegan, Janez

    2015-01-01

    Magistrsko delo obravnava zajem, analizo in prikaz signalov različnih komunikacijskih protokolov v realnem času. Podrobno so predstavljena strojna in programska oprema ter razvojna okolja, s pomočjo katerih smo realizirali sistem za analizo protokolov. V okviru magistrskega dela smo razvili program za platformo ARM, ki na LCD-zaslonu v realnem času prikazuje vsebino zajetih podatkov po protokolih IR (SIRC, NEC, RC6), I2C, SPI in UART. Razvili smo tudi program za stm32F100, ki oddaja v protoko...

  12. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite......This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...

  13. ARM assembly language fundamentals and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hohl, William

    2009-01-01

    Written by the director of ARM's worldwide academic program, this volume gives computer science professionals and students an edge, regardless of their preferred coding language. For those with some basic background in digital logic and high-level programming, the book examines code relevant to hardware and peripherals found on today's microcontrollers and looks at situations all programmers will eventually encounter. The book's carefully chosen examples teach easily transferrable skills that will help readers optimize routines and significantly streamline coding, especially in the embedded sp

  14. HS06 Benchmark for an ARM Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  15. HS06 Benchmark for an ARM Server

    CERN Document Server

    Kluth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  16. The professionalisation of the Netherlands armed force

    OpenAIRE

    Van Veldhuizen-Rothenbuecher, Ida

    2001-01-01

    The fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cold War led in 1991 to the decision to gradually reduce and restructure the Netherlands armed forces. It was process consisting of dozens of reorganisations. The idea was that the reorganisation and reduction would go hand in hand, not only operationally but also financially. Firstly, only one in three men were actually still called up in order to fulfil conscription duties lasting more or less a year. There was one more condition for the transf...

  17. Age and disease at an arms length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    How are the boundaries of disease and health, age, life and death negotiated through technology and active aging? The paper focuses on how disease and age are dealt with by active elderly at activity centres in the Copenhagen area. New health technologies lead to new expectations to the longevity...... a chronic (previously fatal) disease. The active elderly often stick to their image of themselves as active, youthful and energetic in spite of a chronic disease. Old age and disease is not what they identify with and seems to be conceived at an arms length. In the paper the author explores how health...

  18. Simulation of Octopus Arm Based on Coupled CPGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The octopus arm has attracted many researchers’ interests and became a research hot spot because of its amazing features. Several dynamic models inspired by an octopus arm are presented to realize the structure with a large number of degrees of freedom. The octopus arm is made of a soft material introducing high-dimensionality, nonlinearity, and elasticity, which makes the octopus arm difficult to control. In this paper, three coupled central pattern generators (CPGs are built and a 2-dimensional dynamic model of the octopus arm is presented to explore possible strategies of the octopus movement control. And the CPGs’ signals treated as activation are added on the ventral, dorsal, and transversal sides, respectively. The effects of the octopus arm are discussed when the parameters of the CPGs are changed. Simulations show that the octopus arm movements are mainly determined by the shapes of three CPGs’ phase diagrams. Therefore, some locomotion modes are supposed to be embedded in the neuromuscular system of the octopus arm. And the octopus arm movements can be achieved by modulating the parameters of the CPGs. The results are beneficial for researchers to understand the octopus movement further.

  19. Design and Engineering of a Chess-Robotic Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Elouafiq, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of the "Chess-Bot" project, this study's goal is to choose the right model for the robotic arm that the "the Chess-Bot" will use to move the pawn from a cell to another. In this paper, there is the definition and the structure of a robot arm. Also, the different engineering and kinematics fundamentals of the robot and its components will be detailed. Furthermore, the different structures of robotic arms will be presented and compared based on different criteria. Finally, a model for "the Chess-Bot" arm will be synthesized based on accurate algorithms and equations.

  20. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.