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Sample records for armigera lepidoptera noctuidae

  1. Evaluation of advanced chickpea genotypes for resistance to pod borer, helicoverpa armigera (hubner) (lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the comparative varietal resistance in thirteen advanced desi chickpea genotypes against chickpea pod borer (CPB), Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2007-2008. Weekly observations showed that mean larval population of CPB in different genotypes ranged from 0.33 to 4.33 per meter row from first week of March to third week of April, where the pod damage varied from 7.4 to 14.2%. The results manifest that among the tested genotypes, B 8/02, showed the maximum resistant to CPB along with B 8/03, CH 4/02 and CH 9/02 with highest resistant to CPB, less larval population per plant, minimum pod damage and highest grain yield with increase of 256.8 to 285.7% with respect to check. Therefore, conclude that these genotypes can be used in crossing/evolving new elite chickpea varieties. (author)

  2. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24–48 h old), the larval (4–5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge. - Highlights: • Electron beam irradiation induced abnormal development of Helicoverpa armigera. • ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 197.8 Gy for egg. • ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 189.6 Gy for larva

  3. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Chung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Jang, Miyeon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24-48 h old), the larval (4-5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge.

  4. Bacillus subtillis RTSBA6 6.00, a new strain isolated from gut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) produces chymotrypsin-like proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde, Ashok A.; Shaikh, Faiyaz K.; Padul, Manohar V.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring bacterial communities with proteolytic activity from the gut of the Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) insect pests was the purpose of this study. As initial efforts to achieve this goal here we report the isolation of new Bacillus subtillis RTSBA6 6.00 strain from the gut of H. armigera and demonstrated as proteases producer. Zymographic analysis revealed 12 proteolytic bands with apparent molecular weights ranging from 20 to 185 kDa. Although some activity was ...

  5. Relative Fitness of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Seven Host Plants: A Perspective for IPM in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigada, C; Guimarães, K F; Parra, J R P

    2016-01-01

    The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a widespread pest of many cultivated and wild plants in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. In 2013, this species was reported in Brazil, attacking various host crops in the midwestern and northeastern regions of the country and is now found countrywide. Aiming to understand the effects of different host plants on the life cycle of H. armigera, we selected seven species of host plants that mature in different seasons and are commonly grown in these regions: cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, "FM993"), corn (Zea mays, "2B587"), soybean (Glycine max, "99R01"), rattlepods (Crotalaria spectabilis), millet (Pennisetum glaucum, "ADR300"), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, "AGROMEN70G35"), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, "SEMPRE VERDE"). The development time of immatures, body weight, survivorship, and fecundity of H. armigera were evaluated on each host plant under laboratory conditions. The bollworms did not survive on corn, millet, or sorghum and showed very low survival rates on rattlepods. Survival rates were highest on soybean, followed by cotton and cowpea. The values for relative fitness found on soybean, cotton, cowpea, and rattlepods were 1, 0.5, 0.43, and 0.03, respectively. Survivorship, faster development time, and fecundity on soybean, cotton, and cowpea were positively correlated. Larger pupae and greater fecundity were found on soybean and cotton. The results indicated that soybean, cotton, and cowpea are the most suitable plants to support the reproduction of H. armigera in the field. PMID:26798139

  6. The effects of radiation on the biology and reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiating male Helicoverpa armigera with a substerilizing dose (100 Gy) of gamma radiation on the growth, development and reproduction of subsequent generations was studied in the laboratory. This dose of gamma radiation had no significant detrimental effects on larval and pupal weights or on the duration of the pupal period in the F1 progeny. However, it lengthened the duration of the larval period by two days. In the F2 generation, the progeny of the Tf1FxTf1M cross had significantly lighter pupae. The effects of this substerilizing dose of radiation and of the resulting inherited sterility on the reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera were similar to those described for other species of Lepidoptera. No detrimental effects on P1 and F1 female fecundity were recorded. Crosses involving Tf1 females laid only about one half the number of eggs laid by the controls, however the range in the number of eggs laid by these females fell within the normal range for Helicoverpa armigera. Fertility of crosses involving P1 males was greatly affected; fertility in these females was only 61% of that exhibited by the controls. This deleterious effect was inherited in the F1 and F2 generations and was maximally expressed when F1 progeny of the NFxTM cross were inbred. Egg hatch was almost completely inhibited in sibling crosses while outcrosses of the F1 progeny showed a 64-70% reduction in egg hatch when compared to controls. (author)

  7. Effects of climate change on overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Climate change significantly affects insects' behaviors. Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most serious insect pests in the world. Much is known about the survival of the overwintering population and spring emergence of H. armigera. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on overwintering and spring emergence of H. armigera. This study investigated the effects of changes of air and soil temperatures and precipitation on overwintering pupae of H. armigera by analyzing historical data from Magaiti County in northwest China using statistical methods. The results showed that during the period of 1989-2006, the climate warming advanced the first-appearance date of overwintering pupae eclosion (FD) and end date of overwintering pupae eclosion (ED) by 1.276 and 0.193 days per year, respectively; the duration between the FD and ED (DFEPE) was prolonged by 1.09 days per year, which resulted in more eclosion of overwintering pupae. For a 1 °C increase in the maximum air temperature ( T max) in winter, the FD became earlier by 3.234 days. Precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED and produced little relative influence on DFEPE. A 1-mm increase of precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED by 0.850 and 0.494 days, respectively. Mean air temperature ( T mean) in March, with a 41.3 % relative influence, precipitation in winter, with a 49.0 % relative influence, and T mean in March, with a 37.5 % relative influence, were the major affecting factors on FD, ED, and DFEPE, respectively. T max in February with a 53.0 % relative influence was the major affecting factor on the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP). Increased soil temperatures in October and November and autumn and air temperatures in winter could decrease the MOP, though the relative influences were lower than T max in February. Increased precipitation in winter increased the MOP, but the relative influence was only 4.2 % because of little precipitation

  8. A simple and reliable method for discriminating between Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Chen; Yu-Chun Wu; Xin Chen; Ya-Jie Ji; De-Xinh Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and the oriental tobacco budworm H.assulta are sibling species,both being important agricultural pests.Morphologically,the two insects are almost indistinguishable at the egg,larval and pupal stages.One of the big challenges in the study of these insects,in particular in integrated pest management,is a timely and dependable identification of these insects at their early stages of development.Here,we report a H.armigera-specific nuclear DNA marker,and demonstrate that it can be employed to reliably discriminate between H.armigera and H.assulta by simple polymerase chain reaction amplification experiment.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA COI characterization of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Paraguay and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnemann, J A; James, W J; Walsh, T K; Guedes, J V C; Smagghe, G; Castiglioni, E; Tay, W T

    2016-04-07

    Since its detection in Brazil in 2013, the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has been reported in Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Here we present evidence extending the South American range of H. armigera to Uruguay, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I region. Molecular characterization of this gene region from individuals from Paraguay also supports previous morphological identification of H. armigera in Paraguay. Shared mtDNA haplotypes in H. armigera from Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay were identified. Additional surveying of populations in this region will be imperative to better monitor and understand factors that are underpinning its presence and successful adaptation in these South American regions. We discuss our findings with respect to the development of resistance pest management strategies of this invasive insect pest in a predominantly monoculture soybean crop landscape in the Southern Cone region.

  10. A brave new world for an old world pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Wee Tek; Soria, Miguel F; Walsh, Thomas; Thomazoni, Danielle; Silvie, Pierre; Behere, Gajanan T; Anderson, Craig; Downes, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta) within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas.

  11. A brave new world for an old world pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Tek Tay

    Full Text Available The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI and cytochrome b (Cyt b partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas.

  12. X-ray radiation and development inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of X-ray radiation on the development inhibition was evaluated for all stages of the life cycle of Helicoverpa armigera to determine a radiation dose for potential quarantine treatment against the insect. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation, and adult emergence from irradiated eggs were 413, 210, and 154 Gy, respectively. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence from irradiated larvae were 221 and 167 Gy, respectively. Pupa was the most tolerant to X-ray radiation. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence from irradiated pupae was as high as 2310 Gy, whereas that for inhibition of F1 egg hatching was only 66 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of hatching of F1 eggs which were laid by irradiated adults was estimated to 194 Gy. X-ray irradiation against H. armigera is recommended as an alternative method to methyl bromide fumigation for phytosanitary treatments during quarantine. X-ray radiation dose of 200 Gy is proposed as a potential quarantine treatment dose for H. armigera eggs and larvae. - Highlights: • X-ray irradiation induced abnormal development of Helicoverpa armigera. • ED99 value for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence of irradiated egg was estimated at 210 and 154 Gy, respectively. • ED99 value for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence of irradiated larva was estimated at 221 and 167 Gy, respectively

  13. Return migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during autumn in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H-Q; Wu, K-M; Ni, Y-X; Cheng, D-F; Guo, Y-Y

    2005-08-01

    The autumn migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was observed with radar and two types of light-trap at Langfang, Hebei province, China in 2001 and 2002. The sudden increase in the proportion of H. armigera moths in the searchlight trap indicated migration into the area and catches increased 10-fold during the second half of the night due to the landing of migrants before dawn. The moths' migratory flights took place at up to 2000 m above the ground, and moths flew differentially at times, and heights, when favourable (i.e. northerly) winds occurred. This facilitated the maximum displacement of moths towards the south during these 'return' migrations. The moths flew over the radar site at consistently high densities through the night, and the resulting flight durations of c. 10 h, at displacement speeds of 30-33 km h-1, would allow moths emerging in the far northeast of China (i.e. Liaoning and Jilin provinces and the Inner Mongolia autonomous region) to migrate into northern China (Hebei, Shandong and Henan provinces). The association of the seasonal migratory movements of H. armigera with crops in northern China is briefly discussed.

  14. Identification, isolation and characterization of the antifeedant constituent of Clausena anisata against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olufemi O.R.Pitan; O.O.Ayelaagbe; Hong-Lei Wang; Chen-Zhu Wang

    2009-01-01

    Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of Clausena anisata [(Willd.) Hook F. Ex Benth] leaves and roots were evaluated against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) for antifeedant activities. Antifeedant activity was confirmed, and was found to be higher in root extracts than those of the leaf. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of the root showed strongest antifeedant activities (DC50S [concentration (C) causing 50% deterrence compared with the control] 0.014% and 0.016% respectively), and root extracts were fractionated using silica gel column chromatography. One fraction of the chloroform and one of the petroleum ether root extracts was active; and on the basis of mass spectroscopy and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data, the active compounds in the two fractious were confirmed to be identical, and identified as osthol [2H-I-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)]. The highest concentratiun of osthol was found in the chloroform root extract. Antifeedant activities of the root extracts, as measured by DC50 values, were highly correlated with their osthol contents. Approximately 99% of the variation in bioactivity of the root extracts could be accounted for by variation in osthol content; osthol therefore, appeared to be an antifeedant component of C. Anisata to H. Armigera. This may provide a new approach to managing this pest.

  15. Effects of soil temperature and snow cover on the mortality of overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover. PMID:26514355

  16. Influence of CO2 and Temperature on Metabolism and Development of Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, S Md; Pavani, T; Nagaraja, T; Sharma, H C

    2016-02-01

    Climate change will have a major bearing on survival and development of insects as a result of increase in CO2 and temperature. Therefore, we studied the direct effects of CO2 and temperature on larval development and metabolism in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). The larvae were reared under a range of CO2 (350, 550, and 750 ppm) and temperature (15, 25, 35, and 45°C) regimes on artificial diet. Elevated CO2 negatively affected the larval survival, larval weight, larval period, pupation, and adult emergence, but showed a positive effect on pupal weight, pupal period, and fecundity. Increase in temperature exhibited a negative effect on larval survival, larval period, pupal weights, and pupal period, but a positive effect on larval growth. Pupation and adult emergence were optimum at 25°C. Elevated CO2 and temperature increased food consumption and metabolism of larvae by enhancing the activity of midgut proteases, carbohydrases (amylase and cellulase), and mitochondrial enzymes and therefore may cause more damage to crop production. Elevated CO2 and global warming will affect insect growth and development, which will change the interactions between the insect pests and their crop hosts. Therefore, there is need to gain an understanding of these interactions to develop strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change. PMID:26363173

  17. Adaptation of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Rearing on Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoui, Ehsan; Naseri, Bahram; Mohammadzadeh-Bidarani, Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    Food characteristics strongly regulate digestive enzymatic activity of insects through direct influences on their midgut mechanisms. Insect performance is better on diets that contain nutrients in proportions that fit its digestive enzymes. Little is known about the influences of rearing history on parasitism success of Habrobracon hebetor Say. This research focused on the effect of nutrient regulation on survival, development, and parasitism of H. hebetor. Life history and digestive enzyme activity of fourth-stage larvae of H. hebetor were studied when reared on Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. This parasitoid was then introduced to Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and above-mentioned parameters were also studied in the first and fourth generations after transfer. In term of parasitism success, H. hebetor preferred E. kuehniella over He. armigera. When the first and fourth generations of He. armigera-reared H. hebetor were compared, the rearing history affected the life history and enzymatic activity of the parasitoid. A better performance of H. hebetor was achieved after it was reared on He. armigera for the four generations. Because, digestive α-amylase and general protease of the parasitoid were matched with the new host, it used reserve energy for a better performance. Thus, a better performance of H. hebetor could be obtained when the parasitoid was reared on its original host for at least four generations. PMID:26839317

  18. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Wakil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance in cosmopolitan insect Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae forced the researchers for alternative control measures. In the present study, insecticidal efficacy of formulations of Azadirachta indica, a Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV, and new anthranilic diamide insecticide (chlorantraniliprole formulations was determined against 2nd, through 5th larval instars of H. armigera collected from diverse geographical locations in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Azadirachta indica was applied at 5 μL L-1; NPV at 2.1 x 10(5 polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB mL4 and chlorantraniliprole at 0.01 μL L-1, either alone or in combinations with each other. The bioassays were conducted at 27 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. The mortality varied greatly among treatments, larval instars, and locations. The combinations of NPV with A. indica and chlorantraniliprole caused higher mortality, pupation and produced an additive effect compared to their application singly in all the tested populations. The population from Rawalpindi was always susceptible while the Gujranwala was the resistant. The results herein suggest that the effectiveness of NPV and A. indica can be improved by the presence of chlorantraniliprole against the larvae of H. armigera.Se determinó la eficacia insecticida de formulaciones de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus (VPN y el nuevo insecticida diamida antranílico (clorantraniliprol en contra de segundo, tercero, cuarto y quinto estadios larvales de Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae recogidos de diversas ubicaciones geográficas de la provincia de Punjab, Pakistán. Azadirachta indica se aplicó en dosis de 5 μL L-1; VPN en dosis 2.1 x 10(5 POB mL-1 y clorantraniliprol fue 0,01 μL L-1 ya sea solos o en combinaciones. Los bioensayos se realizaron a 27 ± 1 °C y 65 ± 5% de humedad relativa. La mortalidad fue notablemente variada entre los tratamientos, estadios larvales y

  19. Different pairs of male and female of Campoletis chlorideae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitised the chick pea pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Myanmar, chickpea is of great importance not only for the export but also for local consumption. In 1999-2000, the total area of chickpea was 323,000 acres, with an annual production of 83,000 tons of which 352 metric tons were exported. Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a solitary larval parasitoid that parasitises the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Myanmar. H. armigera is the major insect pest causing damage to the chickpea crop and significantly reducing yields. The attack of pods seeds varies from 3 to 50%. Conservation of the parasitoid C. chlorideae is important to minimise damage by H. armigera during the reproductive stage of chickpea. Laboratory (potted plants) and field experiments were conducted at the Biological Control Laboratory, Paleik, Singaing Township during the 2002-2003 winter season. Results - Laboratory experiments: The number of C. chlorideae (2 pairs, 3 pairs, 4 pairs and 5 pairs / 30 larvae of H. armigera of 1st stage, 2nd stage, and 3rd stage) significantly and differently affected the survival of different stages of H. armigera larvae (p=0.0001 each R2 = 0.963, C. V 10.98) Replication effects of the experiment were not significant (p=0.1718). Different pairs of C. chlorideae significantly affected the mean survival of larvae H. armigera when the results of four different pairs of parasitoid C. chlorideae were compared (Tukey's studentized range test). The largest difference between the means was observed between 5 pairs and 2 pairs of parasitoids released and the smallest was between 4 and 3 pairs of parasitoids. The results from Tukey's studentised range test showed that 2 pairs of parasitoid C. chlorideae significantly affected the 30 larvae of H. armigera. Different pairs of the parasitoid C. chlorideae also significantly affected the mean parasitism when the results of three different stages of larvae of H. armigera were compared (Tukey's studentised test was used). The

  20. Cloning and Tissue-Specific Expression of a Chitin Deacetylase Gene from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Its Response to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guoying; Li, Xiumin; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Xiaoting; Li, Jigang

    2015-01-01

    Chitin deacetylases (CDAs) convert chitin into chitosan, the N-deacetylated form of chitin, which influences the mechanical and permeability properties of structures such as the cuticle and peritrophic matrices. In this article, a new CDA encoding gene, Hacda2, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with an open reading frame of 1,611 bp. The deduced protein composed of 536 amino acid residues with a signal peptide, a chitin-binding domain, a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain, and a polysaccharide deacetylase-like catalytic domain. The highest expression level of Hacda2 was detected in fat body among tissues tested in the fifth-instar larvae using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Feeding of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) diet changed the expression level of Hacda1, Hacda2, Hacda5a, and Hacda5b significantly and differentially in the third-instar larvae. Hacda5a and Hacda5b expression were initially down-regulated and then up-regulated, whereas, the expression level of Hacda1 and Hacda2 was suppressed constantly postfeeding on Bt diet. These results suggested that HaCDAs may be involved in the response of H. armigera larvae to Bt and may be helpful to elucidate the roles of HaCDAs in the action of Bt cry toxin. The potential of HaCDAs to be used as synergists of Bt insecticidal protein needs to be further tested. PMID:26163665

  1. Hybridization between Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): development and morphological characterization of F1 hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.C.; Dong, J.F.; Tang, Q.B.; Yan, Q.B.; Celbic, I.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Wang, C.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Reciprocal hybridizations between Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) were studied. The cross between females of H. armigera and males of H. assulta yielded only fertile males and sterile individuals lacking an aedeagus, valva or ostium bursae. A total of 492 larvae of the

  2. The olfactory basis for attraction of the Bollworm helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to host-plant flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Toby Johann

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate whether or not olfactory clues play a role in host plant location by the polyphagous moth, Helicoverpa armigera. Volatiles collected from flowers of African marigold, Tagetes erecta, and sweet pea, Lathyrus odouratus, were found to elicit electroantennographic (EAG) responses from the antennae of female H. armigera. Compounds active in GC-EAG analyses of T. erecta floral headspace samples, identified by GC-MS and comparison of retention times on p...

  3. Functional response of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Effect of prey and predator stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Hassanpour; Jafar Mohaghegh; Shahzad Iranipour; Gadir Nouri-Ganbalani; Annie Enkegaard

    2011-01-01

    Understanding predator-prey interactions has a pivotal role in biological control programs. This study evaluated the functional response of three larval instars of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), preying upon eggs and first instar larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hilbner. The first and second instar larvae of C. carnea exhibited typeⅡ functional responses against both prey stages. However, the third instar larvae of C. carnea showed a typeⅡ functional response to the first instar larvae of H. armigera, but a typeⅢ functional response to the eggs. For the first instar larvae of C. carnea, the attack rate on H. armigera eggs was significantly higher than that on the larvae, whereas the attack rate of the second instar C. carnea on H. armigera larvae was significantly higher than that on the eggs. For the third instar larvae of C. carnea, the attack rate on the larvae was 1.015± 0.278/h, and the attack coefficient on the eggs was 0.036± 0.005. The handling times of the third instar larvae on larvae and eggs were 0.087± 0.009 and 0.071± 0.001 h, respectively. The highest predation rate was found for the third instar larvae of C. carnea on H. armigera eggs. Results of this study revealed that the larvae of C. carnea, especially the third instar, had a good predation potential in controlling H. armigera eggs and larvae. However, for a comprehensive estimation of the bio-control abilities of C. carnea toward//, armigera, further field-based studies are needed.

  4. Transmission of wild-type and recombinant HaSNPV among larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgievska, L.; Vries, R.S.M.; Gao, P.; Sun, X.; Cory, J.S.; Vlak, J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    Horizontal transmission of insect viruses is a key factor in their cycling in agro-ecosystems. Here we study the transmission of the baculovirus HaSNPV among larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in cotton. Transmission of three HaSNPV genotypes was studied from larvae infected with a single virus

  5. Determination of lethal concentration (LC50 for different insecticides against third instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner (LEPIDOPTERA:NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamed

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of LorsbanTM, Alpha-cypermethrinTM and KarateTM was assessed by larval dip bioassay against third instar larvae of American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub. collected from a cotton field at Faisalabad and reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. Third instar larvae were used to assess the toxicity of insecticides after 48 hrs of insecticide treatments. Results showed that toxicity of Karate was above all with LC50 of 71.31ppm followed by Alpha-cypermethrin with LC50 287.87 and Lorsban 464.85, respectively. These results showed the increased resistance of H. armigera against Lorsban in F1 generation under laboratory conditions.

  6. Réponse des stades larvaires de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae à l'application de champignons entomopathogènes Metarhizium anisopliae et Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamò, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the nymphs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Two experiments on dose/mortality response between the instars of Helicoverpa armigera and two strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met 31 and Beauveria bassiana (Bb 11 were carried out in laboratory conditions. In the first experiment, M. anisopliae Met 31 was tested on the third instar of H. armigera, while in the second experiment, both Met 31 and Bb 11 were tested on the fourth instar. In all the experiments, the following different doses of conidia per insect were used: 104, 105, 106, 107. The following parameters were measured: mortality and sporulation rates, the number of pupae formed and the number of adults that emerged. Abbott's formula was used to correct the treatment mortality rates. LD50 was determined using Cox-regression. For the third instar in experiment one, no significant difference was observed between high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect. For instar L4, only the dose of 107 conidia per insect showed high mortality rates (74%. For the strain Bb 11, in spite of the variation observed between the mortality rates induced by high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect, no significant difference was recorded at the 5% level. No mycosis was observed from cadavers resulting from lower doses when tested on L4. The control recorded the highest numbers of pupae and adults. These two parameters were related to the level of dosage: the higher the dose, the lower the numbers of pupae and adults that emerged. For all the strains of fungi used, whatever the larval stage of H. armigera, the dose/mortality response was significant.

  7. Characterization of a new Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus variant causing epizootic on a previously unreported host, Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrelli, M L; Taibo, C; Fichetti, P; Sciocco-Cap, A; Arneodo, J D

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the first biological and molecular characterization of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the soybean and cotton pest Helicoverpa gelotopoeon. Studies were performed following a virus outbreak in a rearing facility and in wild H. gelotopoeon populations in Córdoba, Argentina. Host identity was corroborated by partial sequencing of the COI gene. Scanning electron microscope observations of purified OBs revealed their polyhedral morphology and an average diameter of 0.89±0.14μm. Ultrathin sections of infected larvae examined by transmission electron microscopy showed the intranuclear occurrence of polyhedra and virus particles in fat body cells. Nucleocapsids were singly enveloped. Phylogenetic analysis of lef-8, lef-9, polh, orf5/5b and hr3-orf62 viral sequences identified this new NPV isolate (hereafter HegeSNPV) as a variant of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV). Furthermore, HegeSNPV was closely related to the so-called "HzSNPV Group" within HearNPV, although having particular characteristics. PMID:26296927

  8. Species From the Heliothinae Complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tucumán, Argentina, an Update of Geographical Distribution of Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murúa, M. Gabriela; Cazado, Lucas E.; Casmuz, Augusto; Herrero, M. Inés; Villagrán, M. Elvira; Vera, Alejandro; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R.; Gastaminza, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The Heliothinae complex in Argentina encompasses Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and Chloridea virescens (Fabricius). In Tucumán, the native species H. gelotopoeon is one of the most voracious soybean pests and also affects cotton and chickpea, even more in soybean-chickpea succession cropping systems. Differentiation of the Heliothinae complex in the egg, larva, and pupa stages is difficult. Therefore, the observation of the adult wing pattern design and male genitalia is useful to differentiate species. The objective of this study was to identify the species of the Heliothinae complex, determine population fluctuations of the Heliothinae complex in soybean and chickpea crops using male moths collected in pheromone traps in Tucuman province, and update the geographical distribution of H. armigera in Argentina. The species found were H. gelotopoeon, H. armigera, H. zea, and C. virescens. Regardless of province, county, crop, and year, the predominant species was H. gelotopoeon. Considering the population dynamics of H. gelotopoeon and H. armigera in chickpea and soybean crops, H. gelotopoeon was the most abundant species in both crops, in all years sampled, and the differences registered were significant. On the other hand, according to the Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de Plagas (SINAVIMO) database and our collections, H. armigera was recorded in eight provinces and 20 counties of Argentina, and its larvae were found on soybean, chickpea, sunflower crops and spiny plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). This is the first report of H. armigera in sunflower and spiny plumeless thistle in Argentina. PMID:27324588

  9. Species From the Heliothinae Complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tucumán, Argentina, an Update of Geographical Distribution of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murúa, M Gabriela; Cazado, Lucas E; Casmuz, Augusto; Herrero, M Inés; Villagrán, M Elvira; Vera, Alejandro; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R; Gastaminza, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The Heliothinae complex in Argentina encompasses Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and Chloridea virescens (Fabricius). In Tucumán, the native species H. gelotopoeon is one of the most voracious soybean pests and also affects cotton and chickpea, even more in soybean-chickpea succession cropping systems. Differentiation of the Heliothinae complex in the egg, larva, and pupa stages is difficult. Therefore, the observation of the adult wing pattern design and male genitalia is useful to differentiate species. The objective of this study was to identify the species of the Heliothinae complex, determine population fluctuations of the Heliothinae complex in soybean and chickpea crops using male moths collected in pheromone traps in Tucuman province, and update the geographical distribution of H. armigera in Argentina. The species found were H. gelotopoeon, H. armigera, H. zea, and C. virescens. Regardless of province, county, crop, and year, the predominant species was H. gelotopoeon Considering the population dynamics of H. gelotopoeon and H. armigera in chickpea and soybean crops, H. gelotopoeon was the most abundant species in both crops, in all years sampled, and the differences registered were significant. On the other hand, according to the Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de Plagas (SINAVIMO) database and our collections, H. armigera was recorded in eight provinces and 20 counties of Argentina, and its larvae were found on soybean, chickpea, sunflower crops and spiny plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). This is the first report of H. armigera in sunflower and spiny plumeless thistle in Argentina. PMID:27324588

  10. Species From the Heliothinae Complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tucumán, Argentina, an Update of Geographical Distribution of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murúa, M Gabriela; Cazado, Lucas E; Casmuz, Augusto; Herrero, M Inés; Villagrán, M Elvira; Vera, Alejandro; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R; Gastaminza, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The Heliothinae complex in Argentina encompasses Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and Chloridea virescens (Fabricius). In Tucumán, the native species H. gelotopoeon is one of the most voracious soybean pests and also affects cotton and chickpea, even more in soybean-chickpea succession cropping systems. Differentiation of the Heliothinae complex in the egg, larva, and pupa stages is difficult. Therefore, the observation of the adult wing pattern design and male genitalia is useful to differentiate species. The objective of this study was to identify the species of the Heliothinae complex, determine population fluctuations of the Heliothinae complex in soybean and chickpea crops using male moths collected in pheromone traps in Tucuman province, and update the geographical distribution of H. armigera in Argentina. The species found were H. gelotopoeon, H. armigera, H. zea, and C. virescens. Regardless of province, county, crop, and year, the predominant species was H. gelotopoeon Considering the population dynamics of H. gelotopoeon and H. armigera in chickpea and soybean crops, H. gelotopoeon was the most abundant species in both crops, in all years sampled, and the differences registered were significant. On the other hand, according to the Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de Plagas (SINAVIMO) database and our collections, H. armigera was recorded in eight provinces and 20 counties of Argentina, and its larvae were found on soybean, chickpea, sunflower crops and spiny plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). This is the first report of H. armigera in sunflower and spiny plumeless thistle in Argentina.

  11. Antifeedant, larvicidal and growth inhibitory effects of ononitol monohydrate isolated from Cassia tora L. against Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Kathirvelu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2012-07-01

    Ononitol monohydrate isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Cassia tora L. using column chromatography was evaluated for its antifeedant, larvicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura at different concentrations of 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm. Leaf disc no-choice method was used for the bioassay. The compound showed significant antifeedant, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against H. armigera and S. litura. The compound also prolonged the larval-pupal duration of the insect at all the tested concentrations. The activities were concentration dependent for both the insects. Ononitol could be used as an agent to prepare botanical new pesticidal formulations.

  12. Genetic differentiation of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and H.Assulta (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) based on AFLP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING-LEI MING; CHEN-ZHU WANG

    2006-01-01

    Here we use amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to assess genetic differentiation of Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta. The results indicated that both species-specific fingerprints and cluster analysis showed the ability of AFLP technique to discriminate the two sibling species; among a total 1963 AFLP markers amplified from nine primer combinations: 777 (39.6%) were H. armigera-specific,602 (30.7%) were H. assultaspecific,and 584 (29.7%) were common bands. The mean number of H. armigera-specific bands was significantly more than that of H. assulta-specific bands for nine primer combinations (P<0.05); the intraspecific distance of H. armigera and H. assulta was 0.123 0 and 0.110 7 respectively,and the interspecific distance was 0.178 3. In addition,the percentage of polymorphic loci and estimated average heterozygosity were used to estimate genetic diversity of the two species. This study therefore demonstrates that AFLP analysis is a sensitive and reliable technique to study genetic differentiation and genetic relationships between species and provides sufficient molecular markers for future linkage map construction,location and eventual cloning of genes involved in traits differentiation.

  13. Combining Tpi and CO1 Genetic Markers to Discriminate Invasive Helicoverpa armigera From Local Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Gilligan, Todd M; Brambila, Julieta

    2016-10-01

    The recent establishment of the Old World pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) into South America has had significant economic consequences and places the rest of the hemisphere at risk, emphasizing the need for improved methods of monitoring. A major complication is that a sibling species endemic to the New World, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is morphologically very similar, with the two species capable of producing fertile hybrids in the laboratory. The consequences of such hybridization in the field are uncertain, but could result in significant and unpredictable changes in the timing, range, and pesticide susceptibilities of Helicoverpa infestations. The objective here is to provide new genetic resources applicable to Helicoverpa populations in northern Florida and neighboring states (a region at risk for H. armigera) that can distinguish the two species and possible hybrids. The genetic variability in segments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) and the Z-linked triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi) genes were determined for H. zea from the southeastern United States. These were compared to DNA sequences from H. armigera specimens from Morocco, Australia, and Europe. Phylogenetic network analysis showed a clear demarcation between the two species for all gene segments. These results extend earlier studies establishing CO1 as marker for discriminating the Helicoverpa species complex and introduce a new sex-linked genomic marker. The CO1 and Tpi markers in combination provide a more accurate and sensitive method than existing techniques for identifying hybridization between H. zea and H. armigera and could potentially be used to extrapolate the likely source of invasive H. armigera populations.

  14. A Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay to Diagnose and Separate Helicoverpa armigera and H. zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M Gilligan

    Full Text Available The Old World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, and the corn earworm, H. zea (Boddie, are two of the most important agricultural pests in the world. Diagnosing these two species is difficult-adults can only be separated with a complex dissection, and larvae cannot be identified to species using morphology, necessitating the use of geographic origin for identification in most instances. With the discovery of H. armigera in the New World, identification of immature Helicoverpa based on origin is no longer possible because H. zea also occurs in all of the geographic regions where H. armigera has been discovered. DNA barcoding and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analyses have been reported in publications to distinguish these species, but these methods both require post-PCR processing (i.e., DNA sequencing or restriction digestion to complete. We report the first real-time PCR assay to distinguish these pests based on two hydrolysis probes that bind to a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2 amplified using a single primer pair. One probe targets H. armigera, the second probe targets H. zea, and a third probe that targets a conserved segment of 18S rDNA is used as a control of DNA quality. The assay can be completed in 50 minutes when using isolated DNA and is successfully tested on larvae intercepted at ports of entry and adults captured during domestic surveys. We demonstrate that the assay can be run in triplex with no negative effects on sensitivity, can be run using alternative real-time PCR reagents and instruments, and does not cross react with other New World Heliothinae.

  15. Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Large scale rearing and the effect of gamma radiation on selected life history parameters of this pest in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective large scale rearing of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Huebner), has been developed in China. A 'celled unit' system was developed to replace the traditional test tube for cotton bollworm laboratory rearing. Larvae are reared at 26.5 deg. C, ∼ 70% RH, and a long day photoperiod of 14L:10D. Pupae are harvested at about day 20. Percent adult emergence is between 89-93%, and adult females lay an average of 768 eggs. Under this rearing system one generation is completed in 40-42 days and percent pupation is about 66-71%. Mature Helicoverpa armigera female and male pupae were treated with different doses of gamma radiation and out-crossed with untreated mates. Mating ability of both sexes was not affected by radiation. Treated females were highly sterile and laid significantly fewer eggs than untreated controls. Females treated with 300 Gy were completely sterile, while females treated with 250 Gy and 200 Gy still had minimal residual fertility. (author)

  16. Toxicidade e capacidade de ligação de proteínas Cry1 a receptores intestinais de Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Sebastião

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade e a capacidade de ligação das proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac e Cry1Ca, de Bacillus thuringiensis, a receptores intestinais de Helicoverpa armigera. Realizou-se análise de ligação das proteínas ativadas às vesículas de membrana da microvilosidade apical (VMMA do intestino médio deH. armigera, além de ensaios de competição heteróloga para avaliar sua capacidade de ligação. Cry1Ac destacou-se como a proteína mais tóxica, seguida por Cry1Ab e Cry1Aa. A proteína Cry1Ca não foi tóxica às lagartas e, portanto, não foi possível determinar os seus parâmetros de toxicidade CL50 e CL90. As proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab e Cry1Ac são capazes de se ligar a um mesmo receptor nas membranas intestinais, o que aumenta o risco do desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada. Portanto, a utilização conjunta dessas proteínas deve ser evitada.

  17. The influence of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from nonhost madras thorn, Pithecellobium dulce, seeds on H. armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Singh, Dushyant; Jamal, Farrukh

    2015-05-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of the Manila tamarind, Pithecellobium dulce (PDTI), was studied for its effects on growth parameters and developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera. PDTI exhibited inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin (∼86%; ∼1.33 ug/ml IC50). The inhibitory activity of PDTI was unaltered over a wide range of temperature, pH, and in the presence of dithiothreitol. Larval midgut proteases were unable to digest PDTI for up to 12 h of incubation. Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots analysis revealed a competitive inhibition mechanism and a Ki of ∼3.9 × 10(-8) M. Lethal dose (0.50% w/w) and dosage for weight reduction by 50% (0.25% w/w) were determined. PDTI showed a dose-dependent effect on mean larval weight and a series of nutritional disturbances. In artificial diet at 0.25% w/w PDTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food, of digested food, relative growth rate, and growth index declined, whereas approximate digestibility, relative consumption rate, metabolic cost, consumption index, and total developmental period were increased in larvae. This is the first report of antifeedant and antimetabolic activities of PDTI on midgut proteases of H. armigera.

  18. Effect of Artemisia annua L. essential oil on toxicity, enzyme activities, and energy reserves of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojarab-Mahboubkar Malahat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Artemisia annua L., a weed collected from northern Iran, was studied for its toxicity and physiological aspects on 4th instar larva of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Hübner in controlled conditions (26±1°C, 65±10% RH and 16 L : : 8 D h. The artificial diet was used as a medium for investigating the toxicity and the effect of LC10, LC30, LC50, and LC90 on the feeding efficiency of 4th instar larva. The essential oil in doses of LC10, LC30, LC50, and LC90 were estimated to be 2.01%, 3.86%, 6.07%, and 18.34%, respectively. The activity of α-amylase, protease, lipase, general esterases, and glutathione S-transferase and protein, triglyceride, glucose for treated larva were measured. The results showed that all of these parameters were decreased compared with the control. Hence, A. annua essential oil is suggested as a botanical for controlling this important pest of field crops.

  19. Bioefficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella extracts against tobacco cutworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Backiyaraj Muthusamy; Elumalai Arumugam; Kasinathan Dhamodaran; Mathivanan Thangarasu; Krishnappa Kaliyamoorthy; Elumalai Kuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Indian medicinal plant, Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella) at different concentrations against Lepidopteran agricultural field pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied using leaf disc no-choice method and oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities were also assessed by adapting the standard protocols. Results: The antifeedant activity of C. bonducella showed significant antifeedant activity in methanol extract. Oviposition deterrency is higher in methanol extract than the other solvent extracts. Similarly, maximum egg mortality was observed in methanol leaf extract of C. bonducella Lethal concentration, LC50 value of benzene, diethylether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. bonducella were 470.02, 469.00, 465.47, 460.52 and 443.87 mg/L respectively. The Chi-square values are significant at P< 0.05 level. Among five solventextracts, the methanol extract was responsible for strong lethal activity observed against selected pest species. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. bonducella could be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal agent against the field pest Helicoverpa armigera.

  20. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species. PMID:27263010

  1. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae

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    Alexandre Specht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29, Solanaceae (21, Fabaceae (18 and Lamiaceae (12.

  2. Mitigation of Insecticide Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) by Conjunctive Use of Trap Crops, Neem and Trichogramma chilonis Ishii in Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    A. Regupathy; P. Duraimurugan

    2005-01-01

    Trichogramma chilonis Ishii was evaluated against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) under field conditions. Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) was applied on cotton crop leaving trap crops (okra and pigeonpea) commencing from 46 DAS at weekly interval to increase the pushing of H. armigera away from cotton. Application of NSKE on cotton improved the oviposition preference ratio from 1:1.35 and 1:1.40 to 1:3.02 and 1:2.43 on cotton:okra and cotton:pigeonpea, respectively. Egg parasit...

  3. Cry1Fa对Cry1Ac抗性棉铃虫的毒力评价%Evaluation of the toxicity of Cry1Fa to the Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm,Helicoverpa armigera(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏纪珍; 郭予元; 高希武; 张涛; 梁革梅

    2012-01-01

    为了防治多种鳞翅日害虫,表达Cry1 Fa的转基因玉米和棉花已在美国商业化种植.明确棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera对Cry1Fa与Cry1 Ac的交互抗性及这两种杀虫蛋白之间的协同作用,可以为表达Cry1 Fa+Cry1 Ac的转双价抗虫棉花的合理应用提供依据.本实验测定了Cry1 Fa对棉铃虫敏感品系(96S)及用Cry1Ac筛选的抗性品系(BtR,抗性倍数2194.15倍)的毒力,发现Cry1 Fa对敏感棉铃虫的毒力远低于Cry1 Ac,LC50值是Cry1 Ac的504.80倍;而且抗性品系BtR对Cry1Fa存在19.98倍的交互抗性.Cry1 Fa与Cry1 Ac混用可以提高Cry1 Fa毒杀敏感棉铃虫的效果,尤其是Cry1 Fa浓度较低时,加入Cry1Ac,可以显著增加Cry1 Fa的毒力;但只有加入较高浓度的Cry1 Fa时才能增加Cry1 Ac的毒力.由于BtR品系已经对Cry1 Ac产生抗性,Cry1Ac对抗性棉铃虫的毒力明最降低;在较高浓度的Cry1Ac中加入Cry1 Fa可以显著增加棉铃虫的死亡率(P=0.0015,F=6.88,df=6),但最高死亡率仅为58.33%.D-饱和最优试验的结果证实,Cry1 Ac对于敏感棉铃虫的死亡率的影响达到显著水平(t1=13.76>t0.os),Cry1Ac 与 Cry1Fa的交互作用对毒力的影响也达到显著水平(t22=2.42>t0.05;t11=6.95>t0.05;t12=3.43>t0.05).Cry1Ac和Cry1Fa对抗性棉铃虫死亡率的影响都达到显著水平(t1=3.03>t0.05;t2=2.59>t0.05),但Cry1 Ac是决定抗、感棉铃虫死亡率的关键因素;Cry1Ac与Cry1 Fa最佳浓度配比范围都是1.41~2.10 μg/cm2;在抗性品系中,Cry1 Ac和Cry1 Fa的交互作用不显著.所以,尽管Cry1F+Cry1A作物扩大了杀虫谱,但棉铃虫对这两种蛋白存在交互抗性,而且这两种蛋白混用对治理抗Cry1 Ac棉铃虫的效果不理想,因此不建议在中国种植表达Cry1F+Cry1A的棉花.%Cry 1 Fa-expressing corn and cotton have been commercially planted in U. S in order to effectively control several Lepidoptera pests. Making clear the cross-resistance of cotton bollworms (Helicoverpa armigera

  4. Identificação morfológica e molecular de Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e ampliação de seu registro de ocorrência no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever métodos para a caracterização morfológica e molecular de Helicoverpa armigera e ampliar o registro de ocorrência da praga no Brasil. As mariposas foram obtidas de lagartas coletadas nas culturas de algodão, milho e soja, com uso de armadilhas luminosas. As coletas foram realizadas na Bahia, no Distrito Federal, no Mato Grosso e no Paraná. A identificação foi baseada na genitália masculina e nas análises das sequências dos genes mitocondriais do citocromo B e da região cox1-tRNALeu-cox2. A genitália masculina foi comparada com as descrições morfológicas na literatura, e as sequências de genes, com as depositadas no GenBank. Ambas as análises confirmaram a presença de H. armigera nos locais de coleta. Ampliou-se o registro de ocorrência da praga para a região Sul do país.

  5. 棉铃虫幼虫中栓锥感器对肌醇和糖类的电生理反应%Responses of medial sensillum of Helicoverpa armigera (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae to inositol and sugars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪凝; 汤清波; 蒋金炜; 马英; 胡锡敏; 闫凤鸣

    2011-01-01

    The gustatory electrophysiological responses of medial sensillum of the polyphagous caterpillar, Helicoverpa armigera, to 7 kinds of sugars, inositol and their mixtures were measured by top recording technology. The responding cells in medial sensillum corresponding different stimulus and the interactions of different compounds in mixtures during the process of electrophysiological responses were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) the electrophysiological responses of medial sensillum to D-inositol, D-fructose, xylose, D-arabinose, D-glucose, maltose, D-trehalose and L-rhamnose were obvious, but the responding patterns between sugars and innositol were different trom a concentration-dependent responses in inositol and non-concentration-dependent responseses in sugars; (2) the differences of responding patterns between the pure sugar compounds and the mixture of fructose, arabinose and trehalose were not significant, indicating the same cell responding the 3 kinds of sugars; (3) Responses of the mixtures of fructose and inositol indicated that inositol-sensitive cell responded to fructose. The firing rate of mixture of fructose and inositol were higher than that of the two pure compounds, suggesting the synergistic interaction of responses of the two stimulus. All the results suggested that the inisitol-sensitive cell in medial sensillum of the polyphagous species of H. armigera may be one of “broad-spectrum” taste cells.%利用电生理学技术,以多食性的棉铃虫为研究对象,测定幼虫下颚中栓锥感器对7种糖和肌醇及其混合物的味觉电生理反应,分析不同物质诱导中栓锥感器内对应的味觉感受细胞及不同物质之间诱导昆虫电生理反应的交互作用.结果表明:(1)棉铃虫幼虫下颚中栓锥感器对肌醇、果糖、木糖、阿拉伯糖,葡萄糖、麦芽糖、海藻糖和鼠李糖的单一物质都有明显的电生理反应,但是对肌醇和糖类的反应模式不同,肌醇诱导的反

  6. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  7. The mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete 15,553 bp mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Stricosta albicosta, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was assembled from next generation sequencing data. Annotation showed that 13 predicted protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs have an order and orientation typical of ...

  8. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  9. Introgression of Helicoverpa armigera Resistance from Cajanus acutifolius-a Wild Relative from Secondary Gene Pool of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan)

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak R. Jadhav; Nalini Mallikarjuna; Sharma, Hari C; Kulbhushan B. Saxena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to introgress Helicoverpa armigera resistance from wild relative Cajanus acutifolius into pigeonpea, (Cajanus cajan L.), an important grain legume in South Asia, East Africa and the West Indies. Pigeonpea grain yields on farmer’s fields are quite low, largely because of damage by insect pests, of which legume pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is the important pest worldwide. Pod borer has developed high levels of resistance to chemical i...

  10. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Goulart Montezano; Alexandre Specht; Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez; Vânia Ferreira Roque-Specht; Neiva Monteiro de Barros

    2013-01-01

    Biotic potential and reprodutcive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in the laboratory: This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) under controlled conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase). The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 15 couples was evaluated. The longevity of females (10.80 days) was not significantly higher than those of ...

  11. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Do...

  12. Using haplotypes to monitor the migration of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Texas and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the western hemisphere. Two morphologically identical host strains of fall armyworm exist, the rice-strain and corn-strain, with the latter inflicting substantial eco...

  13. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  14. Two new species of Utetheisa Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Roque-Albelo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species, Utetheisa connerorum and Utetheisa henrii (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae are described from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. The latter inhabits the highlands of San Cristobal Island while the former is widely distributed on most of the islands of the archipelago. Their habitus and genitalia are illustrated. Based on a study of the holotype, Utetheisa galapagensis (Wallengren was found to be restricted to San Cristobal Island, contrary to previous reports, and is redescribed here. A key is provided to separate all six Galapagos species of Utetheisa based on external characters.

  15. A new Mniotype Franclemont (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) species from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulai, Peter; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2016-01-01

    The Blepharita Hampson - Mniotype Franclemont-Polymixis Hübner - Mniopamea Hacker & Peks, generic complex is a favourite of Noctuidae researchers due to its richness in evolutional lineages, the debatable taxonomic placement of certain species among the first three genera and the taxonomic interpretation of the genera themselves. This rich and diverse complex includes some fairly separable species of which the taxonomic placement has been changed during the last decades, particularly as a result of the very similar basic configuration of the genitalia. The most relevant comprehensive studies on the generic complex are given by Boursin (1964), Varga (1979), Hacker (1990), Hacker & Peks (1990), Hacker (1992), Hacker & Ronkay (1992), Hreblay & Ronkay (1997, 1998), Hreblay et al. (1998), Hreblay & Ronkay (1999), Ronkay et al. (2001), Benedek & Ronkay (2002). The most recent study on the Mniotype adusta species graup is given by Volynkin et al. (2014), whereas on the Polymixis by Saldaitis et al. (2015). The fourth member of the complex namely Mniopamea, is the latest erected genera, of which the two described species by Hacker (1992) are close relatives of the formerly known Mniotype timida (Staudinger, 1888). PMID:27394572

  16. DESEMPENHO DE DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) EM OVOS DE Spodoptera eridania (CRAMER) (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    José Romário Carvalho; Dirceu Pratissoli; Hugo Bolsoni Zago; Lauana Pellanda de Souza; Carlos Magno Ramos Oliveira; Vinícius Pereira dos Santos; Kharen Priscilla de Oliveira Silva Salomão

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino and Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto and Platner, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner and Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on eggs of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae). We used two populations of T. pretiosum (commercial and laboratory rearing) and a population of other species were used in the e...

  17. Comparison of haplotype frequencies differentiate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Florida and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nagoshi, R. N.; Silvie, Pierre; Meagher, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Populations can be subdivided into two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains (corn-strain and rice-strain) that differ in their host plant preferences. These strains can be distinguished by using polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. Additional sequence analysis of this locus identified two sites that were highly p...

  18. Origin and taxonomic status of the Palearctic population of the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moyal, Pascal; Tokro, P.; BAYRAM, A.; Savopoulou-Soultani, M.; Conti, E; Eizaguirre, M.; Le Rü, Bruno; Avand-Faghih, A.; Frerot, B.; Andreadis, S

    2011-01-01

    The major pest of maize in Mediterranean Europe, the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has a fragmented distribution, north and south of the Sahara. The present study aimed: (1) to clarify the uncertain taxonomic status of the Palearctic and sub-Saharan populations which were first considered as different species and later on as subspecies (Sesamia nonagrioides nonagrioides and Sesamia nonagrioides botanephaga) and (2) to investigate the origin of the Palear...

  19. Action of sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on reproductive function in successive generations Sesame nonagrioides; Lepidoptera noctuidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different sub sterilizing gamma ray doses on Sesame nonagrioides Lef., Lepidoptera Noctuidae is herein studies. It appears from the observed resultats that : - doses of 70 Gy are those required to obtain sub sterile insects. - F1 males from subterile parents present sterility superior to that of parents without any reduction in sexual competitivity on acouplement frequency. - On the 3 successive generations that we studies, the sex ratio is modified and a great residual sterility is observed.

  20. 低剂量60Co-γ辐射对棉铃虫蛾羽化、寿命、趋光行为和性信息素滴度的影响%Effects of low-dose 60Co-γ radiation on the emergence, longevity,phototactic behavior and sex pheromone titer in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫硕; 朱家林; 张璟; 朱威龙; 张青文; 刘小侠

    2012-01-01

    To illustrate the effects of low-dose 60Co-γ radiation on the development, phototactic behavior and sex pheromone titer in Helicoverpa armigera ( Hübner) , we examined the emergence rate, the deformity rate and longevity of H. armigera adults under five doses of radiation, and determined the rate of phototaxis and sex pheromone titer of H. armigera by phototactic behavior trial and pheromone extraction method. The results indicated that ( 1) there were no effects of 60Co-ü radiation on adult emergence, deformity and longevity of the moth except for the irradiation of 20 Gy, under which the emergence rate was remarkably decreased by 16. 67% ( female) and 20. 00% ( male) , and the deformity rate was increased by 10.00% (both female and male). (2) Both in photophase and scotophase, the rate of phototaxis and sex pheromone titer were increased. The biggest jump of the rate of phototaxis occurred in 3-day-old females in photophase (28. 33%±3. 33% -91. 67% ±4.41% ) , while that of sex pheromone titer occurred in 5-day-old females in scotophase (36. 27 ±4. 26 ng -59. 13 ±4. 63 ng) , indicating that this dose irradiation (50 Gy) probably promoted the occurrence of phototactic behavior and the production of sex pheromone, while the radiation at five doses had no significant effects on phototaxis. (3) There was a declining trend following an increasing trend of the rate of phototaxis and sex pheromone titer as age increased. The biggest jump of the rate of phototaxis occurred in females in photophase and males in scotophase both after radiation (91.67%±4.41% -3.33%±1.67%), while that of sex pheromone titer occurred in females in scotophase after radiation (71. 00 ± 5. 22 ng - 3. 63 ± 1.47 ng). (4) There were no obvious differences in the emergence rate, the deformity rate, longevity and the rate of phototaxis between females and males in most treatments. This research may provide some theoretical basis for exploring the changes in phototaxis and physiological and

  1. Biologia de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae na cultura da soja Biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Magrini

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em campos de soja. Os experimentos foram conduzidos durante os períodos agrícolas de 1992 a 1997. Em cada ano foram realizadas duas avaliações, com 20 repetições para cada fase do ciclo de A. gemmatalis. Os insetos levados ao campo foram criados por duas gerações, em laboratório, sobre folhas de soja da variedade hospedeira à temperatura de 27 ± 1 oC, fotofase de 14 horas e 60 ± 10 % UR até a fase de pupa. Foram determinados o número, viabilidade e período de incubação de ovos e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade dos adultos, ritmo de postura e razão sexual. A viabilidade média para a fase de ovo variou de 43,0 % (1996 a 76,3 % (1997, sendo a duração média de 3,60 dias. O período larval dos indivíduos que originaram fêmeas variou de 8,95 (1993 a 16,75 dias (1997 e a viabilidade média foi de 17,2 %. O períCodo de pupas fêmeas e de machos foi praticamente o mesmo nos anos estudados (9,80 e 10,61 dias, respectivamente. A longevidade dos adultos fêmeas variou entre 9,10 (1997 a 12,90 dias (1996. A média de ovos colocados foi de 73,5, dos quais 42,3 % viáveis. A razão sexual média foi de 0,50. O período de postura, ocorreu até o 7o (1997 ou 13o dias (1996 com o acme no 2o dia. O ciclo médio de vida da fêmea (ovo - adulto foi de 26,51 dias.The biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae was studied in soybean fields. The experiments were conducted during the seasons of 1992 through 1997. Two evaluations were performed each year with 20 replications for each phase of A. gemmatalis. The insects taken to the field were reared in laboratory for two generations on leaves of the host soybean variety, at 27 ± 1 oC, 14 - hour photophase, and 60 ± 10 % RH, up to the pupal phase. The number, viability and period of incubation of the eggs as well as the viability of the larval and pupal stages, longevity of adults, egg

  2. Bioactivity of Pseudocalymma alliaceum (Lam.) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) against Spodoptera litura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidotera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar; Tamilarasu Chinnamani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, larvicidal and insect growth inhibitory activities of crude extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum tested against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods: Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera.Results:Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant, insecticidal activity against S. litura and H. armigera. Maximum percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were found on treatment with ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by extract treated larvae. Ethyl acetate extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum, showed higher percentage of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities.Conclusions:This is the first report on S. litura and H. armigera. Further, the active compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts will be useful for controlling economically important insect pests.

  3. Hemocyte quantitative changes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae infected by AgMNPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Goulart de Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial effects of the infection by AgMNPV in the total and differential counts of the hemocytes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae were studied. The total number of the hemocytes did not decrease in infected larvae, as it occurred in non infected larvae. In infected larvae, the hemocyte types showed the following frequencies: plasmatocytes - 47.8%, esferulocytes - 25.9%, granulocytes - 15.8%, oenocytoids - 7.2%, prohemocytes - 2.8%, vermicytes - 0,5%. Only the percentage of the granulocytes was different among infected and non infected larvae, indicating that these cells responded quickly to the initial viral infection. These results showed the effective role of the hemocytes in the response of the A. gemmatalis to the infection by AgMNPV. The comprehension of the immunological mechanisms of this insect is an important tool to understand its biological control.Os efeitos iniciais da infecção por AgMNPV nas contagens total e diferencial dos hemócitos em Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foram estudados. O número total de hemócitos não diminuiu nas larvas infectadas, como ocorreu nas larvas não infectadas. Nas larvas infectadas, os tipos de hemócitos apresentaram as seguintes freqüências: plasmatócitos - 47,8%, esferulócitos - 25,9%, granulócitos - 15,8%, oenocitóides - 7,2%, prohemócitos - 2,8%, vermiformes - 0,5%. Apenas a porcentagem de granulócitos foi diferente entre larvas infectadas e não infectadas, indicando que estas células responderam rapidamente à infecção viral inicial. Estes resultados mostraram o papel efetivo que dos hemócitos na resposta de A. gemmatalis à infecção por AgMNPV. A compreensão dos mecanismos imunológicos deste inseto é uma ferramenta importante para compreender seu controle biológico.

  4. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    María R. Rossetti; María T. Defagó; María C. Carpinella; Sara M. Palacios; Graciela Valladares

    2008-01-01

    En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%), sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, e...

  5. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva; André Cirilo de Sousa Almeida; Tony de Lima Moura; Anderson Rodrigo da Silva; Silvia de Sousa Freitas; Flávio Gonçalves de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group) and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological v...

  6. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-André Calatayud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species. This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  7. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Guoping Li; Dominic Reisig; Jin Miao; Fred Gould; Fangneng Huang; Hongqiang Feng

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2A...

  8. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree. PMID:27193276

  9. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, over the Sea in Northern China.

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    Xiao Wu

    Full Text Available The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae.

  10. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  11. Flight attraction of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae to cotton headspace and synthetic volatile blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eBorrero-Echeverry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect olfactory system discriminates odor signals of different biological relevance, which drive innate behavior. Identification of stimuli that trigger upwind flight attraction towards host plants is a current challenge, and is essential in developing new, sustainable plant protection methods, and for furthering our understanding of plant-insect interactions. Using behavioral, analytical and electrophysiological studies, we here show that both females and males of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, use blends of volatile compounds to locate their host plant, cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvales, Malvaceae. Female S. littoralis were engaged in upwind orientation flight in a wind tunnel when headspace collected from cotton plants was delivered through a piezoelectric sprayer. Although males took off towards cotton headspace significantly fewer males than females flew upwind towards the sprayed headspace. Subsequent assays with antennally active synthetic compounds revealed that a blend of nonanal, (Z-3 hexenyl acetate, (E-β-ocimene, and (R-(+-limonene was as attractive as cotton headspace to females and more attractive to males. DMNT and (R-(--linalool, both known plant defense compounds may have reduced the flight attraction of both females and males; more moths were attracted to blends without these two compounds. Our findings provide a platform for further investigations on host plant signals mediating innate behavior, and for the development of novel insect plant protection strategies against S. littoralis.

  12. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  13. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree.

  14. Partial Life History of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Summer Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonga, M N; Davis, J A

    2016-08-01

    The soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major defoliating pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in Louisiana. However, other alternate host crops in the agroecosystem have the potential to impact C. includens populations. Life table statistics of C. includens on four host plants were evaluated. C. includens larvae were fed leaves of three cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars 'DP 143 B2RF,' 'DP 174 RF,' and 'PHY 485 WRF'; cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers 'California Blackeye'; three soybean cultivars 'Lyon,' 'PI 227687,' and 'RC 4955'; and sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck 'Evangeline.' All C. includens larvae reared on cotton cultivars DP 143 B2RF and PHY 485 WRF experienced 100% mortality during the first instar. Total developmental period of preadult C. includens was significantly shorter on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye but longer on sweetpotato Evangeline. Sweetpotato Evangeline had the highest amount of leaf tissue consumed and soybean Lyon had the least. Pupal weight was highest when insects fed on cotton DP 174 RF and lowest on soybean PI 227687. Life table statistics showed that the highest intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were attained when insects were reared on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye whilst the lowest were recorded on soybean PI 227687. This study provides valuable information on the role of alternative host crops on the partial life history of C. includens in Louisiana agroecosystems. PMID:27375294

  15. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  17. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zaiqi; Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  18. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  19. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia First record of Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae on pear trees and poplars in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dapoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.The Alto Valle of Río Negro and Neuquén is the main production zone of pomme fruits from Argentina. The main pest is Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Changes operated in control strategies in the last years have brought changes in the biodiversity of fruit orchards. During the season 2008/09, Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was detected in a fruit establishment of Vista Alegre (Neuquén under organic production causing serious damages on fruits and leaves of pear trees and in the leaves of Populus spp. Hypercompe indecisa is reported for the first time in Patagonia and is the first record of this species on Populus spp.and Pyrus communis L.

  20. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Valverde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina. Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in soybeans crops in Tucumán province (Argentina. Biological information on habits, hosts and distribution is provided.

  1. Pigeonpea genotypes influence parasitization preference and survival and development of the Helicoverpa armigera larval parasitoid, Campoletis chlorideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Shiddalingappa V; Sharma, Hari C; Basavan Goud, Kondikallu

    2014-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to identify pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh and the wild relative of pigeonpea, Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) (accession ICPW 125,) genotypes that are hospitable to the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval parasitoid, Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) for the management of this pest in pigeonpea based cropping systems. Percentage parasitization of the H. armigera larvae by the C. chlorideae females was greater under no-choice conditions than under multi-choice conditions because of forced parasitization under no-choice conditions. Lowest parasitization was recorded on the wild relative, ICPW 125, which may be due to long nonglandular hairs and low survival of H. armigera larvae. Parasitization of H. armigera larvae was greater under no-choice, dual-choice and/or multi-choice conditions on ICPL 87, ICPL 87119 and ICPL 87091, which are susceptible to H. armigera, than on the pod borer-resistant genotypes ICPL 332WR, ICPL 84060 and ICPB 2042; while survival and development of the parasitoid was better on H. armigera larvae fed on ICPL 87, ICPL 87119, LRG 41, ICP 7035 and ICPL 87091 than on ICPL 332WR, ICPL 84060, ICPB 2042 and ICPW 125. The genotypes ICPL 87, ICPL 87119, LRG 42 and ICPL 87091 that are hospitable to C. chloridae, are better suited for use in integrated pest management to minimize the losses due to H. armigera in pigeonpea. PMID:25110629

  2. Ovicidal activity of botanical oil formulations against Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susaimanickam Maria Packiam; Kathirvelu Baskar; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal activity of different botanical oil formulations againstHelicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. Methods: Different botanical oils were formulated with different ratio to evaluate the ovicidal activity against H. armigera and S. litura at 5, 10, 15 and 20μl/L concentrations. Results: All the oil formulations showed the ovicidal activity against H. armigera and S. litura. The maximum ovicidal actvity of 76.74 and 69.36% was noticed at 20μl/L concentration in formulation 3 PONNEEM. Formulation 4 Pongam oil showed lower ovicidal activity of 31.34 and 24.76% against H. armigera and S. litura respectively. Among the formulations, PONNEEM exhibited statistically superior ovicidal activity against both insect pests. Conclusions: the present study clearly showed PONNEEM as a pontenial biopesticide to control the egg stage of economically important pests of H. armigera and S. litura. This is the first report for the ovicidal activity of PONNEEM against these two insect pests.

  3. Characterization of a single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X W; Carner, G R

    2000-05-01

    A single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolated from Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) (ThorNPV) in Indonesia has tetrahedral occlusion bodies (OBs) with a width of 1. 22 microm (range = 0.803-1.931 microm). The length of the virion with an envelope averaged 0.29 and 0.23 microm without an envelope. ThorNPV was propagated in Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) and its authenticity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the polyhedrin gene of the ThorNPV produced in T. orichalcea and P. includens. Polyhedrin amino acid sequence analysis revealed that ThorNPV belongs to Group II of baculoviruses and is closely related to Trichoplusia ni single nucleocapsid NPV, sharing 97.6% sequence identity. Infectivity of ThorNPV against third instar P. includens was low, with a LD(50) value of 65,636 OBs/larva. Electron microscopy of infected tissues showed many polyhedra without virions embedded, which might explain the low virulence against P. includens. Differences in virion occlusion rates between individual cells in the same tissue suggested that the inoculum consisted of at least two variants that differed in the gene(s) controlling virion occlusion. In a host range test using the LD(50) value to P. includens against Spodoptera exigua, S. frugiperda, S. eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Helicoverpa zea, Trichoplusia ni, and P. includens, P. includens was the only species infected. The virus infected primarily the fat body, tracheal epithelium, and hypodermis. The genomic size of the ThorNPV is 135 kb. PMID:10843835

  4. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa. PMID:26855414

  5. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic.

  6. Fitness costs limit the development of resistance to indoxacarb and deltamethrin in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, Ali H; Ahmad, Munir; Crickmore, Neil

    2008-12-01

    Insecticide resistance in Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been documented from all over the world and is often associated with reduced fitness. Fitness costs could delay the development of resistance depending upon the prevailing conditions. We were interested in establishing whether a field-collected population from Washington County, MS, was resistant to spinosad, indoxacarb, and deltamethrin and whether any such resistance was associated with fitness costs. Bioassays results showed that the insecticides were equally toxic to the field population. Upon laboratory selection (generations [G]3 to G8), the resistance ratio increased only 2-, 3-, and 1-fold for spinosad, deltamethrin, and indoxacarb, respectively, compared with the field population. In contrast, the resistance ratios increased 213-, 65-, and 55-fold compared with an unselected population at G9. The estimated realized heritability (h2) after six generations of selection was 0.17, 0.03, and 0.12, respectively, and the number of generations required for 10-fold increase in LC50 of Spino-SEL, Indoxa-SEL, and Delta-SEL was estimated to be 14.3, 50, and 14.3. Comparison of life traits between the selected and unselected populations revealed that the selected populations laid a significantly lower number of eggs and that a lower percentage of eggs hatched. This also was reflected in both the net replacement rate and the intrinsic rate of population increase, which were both lower for the selected populations. It also was observed that the mean relative growth rate of the larvae was lower for the selected populations; not only did the larvae take longer to pupate but the mean weight of the prepupae from the selected populations was lower. Our data suggest that due to fitness costs the development of resistance to the insecticides was limited such that after six generations of selection the larvae were no less susceptible to the insecticides than the field population although were

  7. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory

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    Débora Goulart Montezano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotic potential and reprodutcive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory: This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782 under controlled conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase. The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 15 couples was evaluated. The longevity of females (10.80 days was not significantly higher than those of males (9.27 days. The mean durations of the pre, post and oviposition periods were 2.067, 0.600 and 8.133 days, respectively. The mean fecundity per female was 1,398 eggs and the mean fertility was 1,367.50 larvae. On average, females copulated 1.133 times. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of mating and fecundity (r = 0.881, P <0.001. However a strong negative correlation was observed between the number of copulations and the duration of the pre-oviposition period (r = -0.826, P = 0.002 and longevity (r = -0.823, P = 0.001. The biotic potential of S. eridania was estimated at 1.894 x 10(25 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 560.531 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 35.807 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.177, with a finite rate of increase (l of 1.193, per week

  8. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Evaldo Pires; Clovis Manica; Roberta Nogueira; Jeandson Carneiro; William Rodrigues; Marcus Soares

    2014-01-01

    Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. are plants species commonly used for medicinal and gastronomic purposes, respectively. Caterpillars of the Spodoptera genus are generalists due to the wide variety of plants species used as food souce. The aim of this research was record the occurrence of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sinop, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and also record C. barbatus and O. basilicum as potencial host plants for this insect species. It is r...

  9. Comparison of haplotype frequencies differentiate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Florida and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rod N; Silvie, Pierre; Meagher, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Populations can be subdivided into two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains (corn-strain and rice-strain) that differ in their host plant preferences. These strains can be distinguished by using polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene. Additional sequence analysis of this locus identified two sites that were highly polymorphic in the corn-strain population and that produced four different haplotype subgroups. Comparisons of the frequency distribution of these haplotypes found no seasonal or plant host specificities, but they did demonstrate that the Brazil corn-strain population is different from corn-strain fall armyworm found in Florida. The development of a rapid means of distinguishing fall armyworm populations originating from Brazil versus Florida provides an opportunity for investigating and comparing the genetic complexity and long-range movements of this important agricultural pest.

  10. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni.

  11. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  12. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia

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    Graciela DAPOTO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez a H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.

  13. Introgression of Helicoverpa armigera Resistance from Cajanus acutifolius-a Wild Relative from Secondary Gene Pool of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan

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    Deepak R. Jadhav

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to introgress Helicoverpa armigera resistance from wild relative Cajanus acutifolius into pigeonpea, (Cajanus cajan L., an important grain legume in South Asia, East Africa and the West Indies. Pigeonpea grain yields on farmer’s fields are quite low, largely because of damage by insect pests, of which legume pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is the important pest worldwide. Pod borer has developed high levels of resistance to chemical insecticides. Currently, there are no cultivars of pigeonpea with high levels of resistance to H. armigera. Therefore, there is a need to identify and introgress resistance genes from the wild relatives of this crop. Wild relative of pigeonpea, Cajanus acutifolius (ICPW 15613 and the interspecific derivatives C. acutifolius x C. cajan have shown resistance to H. armigera. The results showed that all the test lines and C. acutifolius had high levels of flavonoids such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin in the flowers and buds, which may have resulted in less damage due to H. armigera larvae. Most of the test lines had more than 15.00 g of seed weight (100 seed weight and beige seed color. These lines can be used for pigeonpea improvement for resistance to H. armigera.

  14. Targeting chitinase gene of Helicoverpa armigera by host-induced RNA interference confers insect resistance in tobacco and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Reddy, K R K; Rajam, M V

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a devastating agricultural insect pest with broad spectrum of host range, causing million dollars crop loss annually. Limitations in the present conventional and transgenic approaches have made it crucial to develop sustainable and environmental friendly methods for crop improvement. In the present study, host-induced RNA interference (HI-RNAi) approach was used to develop H. armigera resistant tobacco and tomato plants. Chitinase (HaCHI) gene, critically required for insect molting and metamorphosis was selected as a potential target. Hair-pin RNAi construct was prepared from the conserved off-target free partial HaCHI gene sequence and was used to generate several HaCHI-RNAi tobacco and tomato plants. Northern hybridization confirmed the production of HaCHI gene-specific siRNAs in HaCHI-RNAi tobacco and tomato lines. Continuous feeding on leaves of RNAi lines drastically reduced the target gene transcripts and consequently, affected the overall growth and survival of H. armigera. Various developmental deformities were also manifested in H. armigera larvae after feeding on the leaves of RNAi lines. These results demonstrated the role of chitinase in insect development and potential of HI-RNAi for effective management of H. armigera.

  15. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  16. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Valverde; D. Carolina Berta; Marcelo Geronimo Gomez

    2012-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina). Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Le...

  17. Finding in the Fruška Gora National Park of Cryphia amasina (Draudt, 1931 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae, a species new for the fauna of Serbia

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    Stojanović D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the finding of Cryphia amasina (Draudt 1931 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae, a species for the fauna of Serbia. Specimens of Cryphia amasina were found in the Fruška Gora National Park, which is located in the North Serbian province Vojvodina. This finding is a result of the more comprehensive entomological research conducted by the author in this area since 2001. different collecting methods (including bulb traps, malaise traps, butterfly nets, and caterpillar breeding were used in the research. The specimens of Cryphia amasina were caught using a light trap with a 150W bulb in the morning hours.

  18. [Characterization of the damage of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to structures of cotton plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karen B Dos; Meneguim, Ana M; Santos, Walter J Dos; Neves, Pedro M O J; Santos, Rachel B Dos

    2010-01-01

    The cotton plant, Gossypium hirsutum, hosts various pests that damage different structures. Among these pests, Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are considered important. The objectives of this study were to characterize and to quantify the potential damage of S. eridania and S. cosmioides feeding on different structures of cotton plants. For this purpose, newly-hatched larvae were reared on the following plant parts: leaf and flower bud; leaf and boll; flower bud or boll; and leaf, flower bud and boll. The survival of S. cosmioides and S. eridania was greater than 80% and 70% for larvae fed on cotton plant parts offered separately or together, respectively. One larva of S. eridania damaged 1.7 flower buds, but did not damage bolls, while one larva of S. cosmioides damaged 5.2 flower buds and 3.0 cotton bolls. Spodoptera eridania and S. cosmioides can be considered species with potential to cause economic damage to cotton plants because they can occur throughout cotton developmental stages causing defoliation and losses of reproductive structures. Therefore, the results validate field observations that these two species of Spodoptera are potential pests for cotton. PMID:20878002

  19. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Characterization and Compartmentalization

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    Ali Darvishzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to gain a better understanding of the digestive physiology. The physiology and biochemistry of the insect digestive enzyme had an important role in the study of novel insecticidal strategies. The Egyptian cotton leafworm alimentary canal consists of a short foregut, a long midgut and a short hindgut. Application of pH indicators showed that alimentary canal was alkaline. Our results showed that activities of gut α-amylase were different in three parts of the insect gut. Also shown the greatest activity of α-amylase observed in the midgut followed by hindgut and foregut, respectively. However, there were not significant differences in activity of the enzyme in the midgut and hindgut. The optimal pH α-amylase in foregut, midgut and hindgut were 10.0. Zymogram analysis of different part of gut showed four bands in midgut, hind gut and two bands in foregut. Therefore, in midgut of S. littoralis, four isoenzymes were present. These results explain why more amylase activity was seen in these regions in the spectrophotometric assay.

  20. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  1. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  2. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

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    Guoping Li

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L. that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring.

  3. Copitarsia decolora (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae escaping from discarded asparagus: data in support of a pathway risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, J R; Maldonado, M Huamán

    2006-10-01

    This research was undertaken to gather data in support of an assessment of the likelihood that Copitarsia decolora (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a pest of asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L., and other crops, could escape from the pathway followed by asparagus from the field to the consumer. Asparagus that is destroyed by cooking and consumption, being run through a trash compactor or garbage disposal, or being buried in a landfill probably cannot support development of C. decolora larvae. Much asparagus is discarded in dumpsters, however, and the time between disposal and removal to the landfill provides an opportunity for C. decolora to escape into the environment. Results of this study indicate that C. decolora cannot survive to the pupal stage on rotten asparagus, and survival on dried asparagus is low. However, larvae can survive at least 1 wk on both types of deteriorating asparagus held at 23.5 degrees C. In field trials, a small percentage of C. decolora larvae crawled out of a dumpster filled with asparagus after 1 wk. PMID:17066789

  4. Monitoring Susceptibility of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Field Populations to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrem, Jared S; Pan, Zaiqi; Flexner, John Lindsey; Owens, Elizabeth; Binning, Rachel; Higgins, Laura S

    2016-04-01

    Zea mays L. (maize) hybrids producing the Cry1F protein from Bacillus thuringiensis were first commercialized in the United States in 2003. These products demonstrated varying levels of moderate control, but not immunity to Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (western bean cutworm). Susceptibility of western bean cutworm to Cry1F protein was assessed in field populations collected in the mid- and western United States in 2003, 2004, 2013, and 2014 using diet bioassay. A meta-analysis of 32 western bean cutworm field collections assessed for susceptibility to Cry1F was conducted to investigate changes in susceptibility over time. Based on meta-analysis results, these data suggest a 5.2-fold increase in median lethal concentration (LC50) response to Cry1F in the 2013–2014 populations compared with collections that were assessed 10 yr earlier. Widespread use of Cry1F-producing maize hybrids over the past 10 yr may have contributed to favoring western bean cutworm populations with tolerance to the Cry1F protein.

  5. Biological activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (Solanaceae) against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner and armyworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidotera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar; Selvaraj Premalatha; Kuppusamy Elumalai

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (S. pseudocapsicum) seed extracts against Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods:Hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate seed extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera. Results:Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant and insecticidal activities against S. litura and H. armigera. Percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were maximum in treatment of ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by seeds on extract treated larvae. Conclusions: Ethyl acetate extracts of S. pseudocapsicum, showed higher efficiency of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities. Hence, it can be used to controll agricultural insect pests, S. litura and H. armigera.

  6. Avaliação de acessos de milho para resistência a Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em laboratório Evaluation of a maize collection to Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae resistance in laboratory

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    Francisca Wilma Neide de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se uma coleção de milho para resistência à lagarta de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith (Lepidóptera: Noctuidae em testes de laboratório da UFRA. Utilizou-se 25 acessos de milho proveniente do banco de germoplasma da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, em um experimento inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições. Observou-se diariamente o desenvolvimento dos insetos durante as fases de larva e pupa, para registrar as alterações biológicas promovidas pelos acessos de milho. Os dados observados foram submetidos à ANOVA, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste SNK e através da análise de regressão linear, determinou-se o grau de dependência entre o consumo foliar de S. frugiperda na fase larval e a respectiva biomassa do inseto na fase pupal. Os resultados mostraram que houve influência dos acessos de milho sobre o desenvolvimento da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho. Os acessos que promoveram a menor percentagem de viabilidade de lagartas foram AM 013, RO 009 e MA 002, enquanto RR 168 e PA 110 foram os menos consumidos pelas lagartas de S. frugiperda.A collection of maize was evaluated to corn population resistance to the corn caterpillar Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in laboratory at UFRA. There were used 25 corn population from the germoplasm bank of Embrapa Maize and Sorghum Research Center with three repetitions. The development of this insect was daily observed, from the caterpillar phase to the pupal, to register the biological differences promoted by maize population. The observed data were submitted to ANOVA, the averages were compared by the SNK test and the linear regression analysis was determined between leaf consumption and the respective pupal biomass. The results showed that the maize population affected the larval development. The least larval viability was observed on populations AM 013, RO 009 and MA 002, and the leaf consumption by S.frugiperda larvae was on RR 168 and PA 110.

  7. DESEMPENHO DE DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE EM OVOS DE Spodoptera eridania (CRAMER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

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    José Romário Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino and Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto and Platner, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner and Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae. We used two populations of T. pretiosum (commercial and laboratory rearing and a population of other species were used in the experiment. Cards azure, containing 20 eggs (age <12 h of S. eridania were exposed for 24 hours of parasitism. We evaluated the following biological parameters: number of eggs parasitized, percentage of emergence, number of individuals per egg, sex ratio, duration of egg-adult and longevity of the offspring. The parasitism differed among Trichogrammaspecies, ranging from 3.85 (19.25% and 9.90 (49.50% parasitized eggs per female. The emergence percentage was higher than 75%. The sex ratio was higher for T. pretiosum population Tbug (0.99, while the lower observed valuefor T. atopovirilia and T. exiguum, 0.77 and 0.79, respectively. The time from egg to adult was lower for the species T. pretiosum population Tbug, T. pratissolii and T. atopovirilia (9.00 days, respectively. The descendants of the population Tbug were those with greater longevity (2.85 days. Considering the results of parasitism, the species T. pretiosum and T. pratissolii demonstrated better rates, and thus promising for use in biological control program for S. eridania.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho dos parasitoides Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino e Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto e Platner, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman e Platner e Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Spodopteraeridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Foram utilizadas duas populações de T. pretiosum (comercial e de criação de laborat

  8. Malpighia emarginata DC. bagasse acetone extract: Phenolic compounds and their effect on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Tamara R Marques

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Annually, several tons of residues that are rich in phenolic compounds are produced during the processing of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. juice. Adding value to these residues is of great interest, since they can be a viable solution in the search for natural substances with insecticidal action and low impact on the environment and humans. Taking into account the economic losses from the attacks by the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in different crops, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the extract of acerola bagasse flour (ABF against this insect and determine the phenolic compounds in this extract. Bagasse of acerola (BRS238 or Frutacor clon generated after juice production, was frozen and lyophilized. To obtain the extract, 6 g ABF was mixed with 60 mL acetone:water solution (7:3 v/v, and the extract was lyophilized. Spodoptera frugiperda caterpillars, 48 h-old, obtained by the maintenance breeding, were transferred to glass tubes supplied with an artificial diet containing the ABF extract at 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L-1 diet. The following variables were evaluated: duration and survival of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, sex ratio, adult longevity, oviposition period, number of egg masses, and total number of eggs. The ABF extract contained several phenolic compounds including gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, catechin, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid, and quercetin. The extract was toxic to S. frugiperda, prolonging the pre-pupal stage and increasing the mortality of caterpillars.

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, John W; Leonard, B Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A; Stout, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved. PMID:26332833

  10. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Four Crop Plants.

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    John W Gordy

    Full Text Available Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, gibberellic acid (GA, harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (FAW (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  11. Phylogenetic Molecular Species Delimitations Unravel Potential New Species in the Pest Genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d’Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  12. Phylogenetic molecular species delimitations unravel potential new species in the pest genus Spodoptera Guenee, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae.

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    Pascaline Dumas

    Full Text Available Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence. As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808, S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833 and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904 with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852. They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858 and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities.

  13. Acute, sublethal, and combination effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis on the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Vojoudi, Samad; Mahdavi, Vahid; Parsaeyan, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous and cosmopolitan insect pest that causes damage to various plants. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner sub sp . kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were evaluated on third instar H. armigera under laboratory conditions. The LC50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 12.95 and 96.8 µg a.i./mL, respectively. A total mortality of 56.7% was caused on third instar larvae when LC20 values of the insecticides were applied in combination with each other. The LT50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 4.8 and 3.6 days, respectively. The results of the sublethal study showed that the application of LC30 value of azadirachtin and Bt reduced the larval and pupal weight and increased larval and pupal duration of H. armigera. The longevity and fecundity of female adults were affected significantly by the insecticides. Female fecundity was reduced by the treatments, respectively. The lowest adult emergence ratio and pupation ratio were observed in the azadirachtin treatment. The results indicated that both insecticides have high potential for controlling of the pest. PMID:25373177

  14. Biologia de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) em diferentes cultivares de soja e culturas de entressafra

    OpenAIRE

    Favetti, Bruna Magda

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade) é um inseto desfolhador polífago, que eventualmente era encontrado na cultura da soja. No entanto, surtos populacionais fizeram com que esta espécie se tornasse um problema, sendo necessário seu controle, feito através de inseticidas químicos. As possíveis causas para estas infestações seriam o excesso no uso de inseticidas, bem como a rotação e sucessão de culturas, que provêm uma oferta contínua de alimento, o que mantém esta es...

  15. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae, New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Evaldo Pires

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Coleus barbatus Benth e Ocimum basilicum L. são espécies de plantas comumente utilizadas com fins medicinais e gastronômicos, respectivamente. Lagartas do gênero Spodoptera são generalistas devido à ampla variedade de plantas que utilizam como recurso alimentar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi registrar a ocorrência de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil, e ainda, relatar C. barbatus e O. basilicum como potenciais plantas hospedeiras para esta espécie de inseto. Recomenda-se ainda a inclusão de S. cosmioides em monitoramentos visando o Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP nestas plantas.

  16. Natural Occurrence of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales on Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Camila Rossoni

    2013-07-01

    Resumo. Relata-se a ocorrência natural de um fungo entomopatogênico sobre a lagarta Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em uma área de soja convencional situada no município de Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul. A lagarta foi coletada a campo e levada ao laboratório de microbiologia da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD, onde permaneceu em câmera úmida por aproximadamente 7 dias. Posteriormente, o fungo foi isolado em meio de cultura (BDA para identificação da espécie do entomopatógeno. O fungo foi identificado como Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales e, isso representa o primeiro registro de parasitismo, dessa espécie, sobre a lagarta-da-soja no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul.

  17. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda. PMID:26868417

  18. Bioatividade de óleos essenciais de espécies de eucalipto para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Taciany Ferreira; Fevero, Silvio; Conte, Cíntia de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a ação tóxica e fagoinibidora de óleos essenciais de Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus urograndis e E. urophylla para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em milho em ensaios de laboratório e semi-campo. Após a coleta, o material botânico fresco foi processado por turbólise na proporção de 200g de matéria fresca para 1 L de água, e depois submetida à extração de óleo essencial em extrator Clevenger por 3 h. Os ól...

  19. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies. PMID:26675917

  20. Biological and molecular characterization of a multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus from Thysanoplusia orichalcea (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Carner, Gerald R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A; Arif, Basil M

    2005-02-01

    A multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (ThorMNPV) that was co-isolated with a single nucleocapid ThorSNPV from mixed infected larvae of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptea: Noctuidae) is characterized. Scanning electron microscopy of ThorMNPV showed a dodecahedral-shaped occlusion body (OB). The occluded virions contained one to as many as eight nucleocapsids/virion. Virion band profiles in gradient centrifugation were consistent in at least 10 rounds of centrifugation from different virion sample preparations. The ThorMNPV had high virulence to third instar Trichoplusia ni and Pseudoplusia includens with LD50 values of 17 and 242OBs per larva, respectively. However, ThorMNPV did not cause mortality in Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and Helicoverpa zea. ThorMNPV replicates in cells of various tissues such as the fat body and tracheal epithelium cells. T. ni High 5 cells were permissive to ThorMNPV in terms of infection and viral DNA transfection, but SF-21 was less permissive and the infection process was slower. Production of OBs by ThorMNPV in the nuclei of SF-21 was not well pronounced. The genome size of ThorMNPV was estimated to be 136 kb. The polyhedrin gene open reading frame (ORF) was cloned and completely sequenced. The promoter sequence is identical to that of Autographa californica MNPV. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of the polh, lef-8, and lef-9 revealed that ThorMNPV is a member of the Group I NPVs and is related but distinct from the AcMNPV/Rachiplusia ou NPV/Bombyx mori NPV cluster. PMID:15766929

  1. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em hospedeiros alternativos Fitness stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on alternative hosts

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    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A principal praga-alvo na cultura do milho é a lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, que, pela sua ampla distribuição temporal e geográfica constitui-se em uma das espécies mais nocivas nas regiões tropicais das Américas. O objetivo foi avaliar o estádio de adaptação de S. frugiperda em 17 espécies hospedeiras, cultivadas ou selvagens, mais comuns no agroecossistema brasileiro. As plantas foram cultivadas em cinco épocas, entre 2006 e 2008, utilizando o milho como padrão. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram individualizadas e confinadas em copo plástico (50 mL, onde foram alimentadas com seções de folha nova de cada hospedeiro. O alimento foi substituído a cada dois dias por folhas frescas. Quatro variáveis biológicas foram avaliadas e utilizadas para se calcular um Índice de Adaptação (IA. Os resultados indicaram que a sobrevivência inicial de S. frugiperda variou de 100%, no milho, a 46%, no arroz. O período larval variou de 12,6 dias, no milho, a 27,1 dias, na grama batatais. A biomassa de pupa variou de 173,1 mg, no carrapicho, a 294,2 mg, no milho. O índice de adaptação, calculado com base nas variáveis biológicas de S. frugiperda, nos hospedeiros avaliados, variou de 17,43, no milho cultivado na época I, a 1,46, na cana-de-açúcar na época III. Para corrigir o efeito de época sobre o índice de adaptação de S. frugiperda nos hospedeiros, foi calculado o Índice Relativo de Adaptação (IRA, com base no índice de adaptação no milho (100%. Assim, com base no índice relativo de adaptação, estimado em condições de laboratório, os hospedeiros alternativos ao milho, para S. frugiperda, podem ser assim ordenados, do maior para o menor índice: sorgo granífero, sorgo selvagem, milheto, capim-tanzânia, amendoim, capim-marandu, capim-braquiária, caruru-de-porco, trigo, soja, algodão, feijão, arroz, capim-carrapicho, grama batatais e cana

  2. Bird predation on cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in wheat fields and chlorpyrifos effects on brain cholinesterase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, L.C.; DeWeese, L.R.; Schladweiler, P.

    1986-01-01

    Horned larks, Eremophila alpestris (L.), and McCown's longspurs, Calcarius mccownii (Lawrence), were collected at intervals from two winter wheat fields in Montana [USA] after aerial application of chlorpyrifos to control cutworms. Both bird species had a high (95-100%) incidence of Lepidoptera, mostly pale western cutworms, Agrotis orthogonia Morrison, in their stomachs at 3 days postspray. Incidence of cutworms and other insects in stomachs of birds from sprayed fields was lower at 9 and 16 days postspray than in control birds, presumably due to insecticide-caused reduction of insects. Effects of birds on population dynamics of insect pests in wheat are unknown, but birds do contribute to cutworm mortality. Predation is one of the limiting factors to cutworm increase and can supplement insecticidal control. Brain cholinesterase activity in horned larks collected from the sprayed fields at 3 and 9 days postspray was significantly lower than in unexposed larks, but at 16 days the difference was not significant. Although nontarget birds clearly were exposed to chlorpyrifos and manifested a sublethal physiological response, toxic effects were less severe than those resulting from endrin application for cutworm control in wheat. More study is needed of larger chlorpyrifos-treated fields under a variety of conditions to fully assess effects on nontarget life.

  3. Adaptation of an artificial diet for Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) laboratory rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) was studied on three artificial diets with different protein sources (d1 = white bean, yeast extract, soybean flour, powder milk and wheat germ; d2 = 'carioca' bean and yeast extract; d3 = corn flour, wheat germ and yeast extract). The objective of this research was to determine the most suitable diet for mass rearing S. cosmioides in laboratory. The species is highly polyphagous, and for this reason we hypothesized that diets that are suitable for other Lepidoptera can allow its development and fulfill the minimum requirements of biological quality, quantity and economy. Although S. cosmioides has completed the biological cycle on the three diets, the d1 was the most suitable for its rearing and produced the fastest development, higher total survival and pupae weight, as well as higher net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and finite rate of natural increase (l). The number of instars varied from six to seven, predominating six in d1 and d3; in d2, half the population presented six instars and half seven. Females presented pupae duration significantly lower that the males in all diets, thus emerging earlier. Adult longevity was not affected by the diets, while total fecundity was higher in d1 and d2. In conclusion, the diet 1 is recommended to mass rearing S. cosmioides in the laboratory. (author)

  4. Adaptation of an artificial diet for Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) laboratory rearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavaresco, Alvimar [EPAGRI, Estacao Experimetal de Canoinhas, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: bavaresco@epagri.rct-sc.br; Garcia, Mauro S.; Gruetzmacher, Anderson D.; Ringenberg, Rudiney; Foresti, Josemar [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade

    2004-03-15

    The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) was studied on three artificial diets with different protein sources (d1 = white bean, yeast extract, soybean flour, powder milk and wheat germ; d2 = 'carioca' bean and yeast extract; d3 = corn flour, wheat germ and yeast extract). The objective of this research was to determine the most suitable diet for mass rearing S. cosmioides in laboratory. The species is highly polyphagous, and for this reason we hypothesized that diets that are suitable for other Lepidoptera can allow its development and fulfill the minimum requirements of biological quality, quantity and economy. Although S. cosmioides has completed the biological cycle on the three diets, the d1 was the most suitable for its rearing and produced the fastest development, higher total survival and pupae weight, as well as higher net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and finite rate of natural increase (l). The number of instars varied from six to seven, predominating six in d1 and d3; in d2, half the population presented six instars and half seven. Females presented pupae duration significantly lower that the males in all diets, thus emerging earlier. Adult longevity was not affected by the diets, while total fecundity was higher in d1 and d2. In conclusion, the diet 1 is recommended to mass rearing S. cosmioides in the laboratory. (author)

  5. Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination.

  6. Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination. PMID:25373181

  7. Alterations in the Helicoverpa armigera midgut digestive physiology after ingestion of pigeon pea inducible leucine aminopeptidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam R Lomate

    Full Text Available Jasmonate inducible plant leucine aminopeptidase (LAP is proposed to serve as direct defense in the insect midgut. However, exact functions of inducible plant LAPs in the insect midgut remain to be estimated. In the present investigation, we report the direct defensive role of pigeon pea inducible LAP in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and responses of midgut soluble aminopeptidases and serine proteinases upon LAP ingestion. Larval growth and survival was significantly reduced on the diets supplemented with pigeon pea LAP. Aminopeptidase activities in larvae remain unaltered in presence or absence of inducible LAP in the diet. On the contrary, serine proteinase activities were significantly decreased in the larvae reared on pigeon pea LAP containing diet as compared to larvae fed on diet without LAP. Our data suggest that pigeon pea inducible LAP is responsible for the degradation of midgut serine proteinases upon ingestion. Reduction in the aminopeptidase activity with LpNA in the H. armigera larvae was compensated with an induction of aminopeptidase activity with ApNA. Our findings could be helpful to further dissect the roles of plant inducible LAPs in the direct plant defense against herbivory.

  8. Trampeo como una herramienta básica hacia la identificación de Copitarsia sp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en la Sabana de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Altamar V., Pilar; Pérez, Diana; Daniel RODRÍGUEZ CAICEDO

    2015-01-01

    Copitarsia sp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), es plaga de cultivos comerciales de ornamentales de corte. En Colombia, el manejo tradicional se basa en el uso de insecticidas químicos, generando las conocidas consecuencias al ambiente y a la salud pública. El desarrollo de estrategias más amigables con el ambiente, como el uso de semioquímicos y enemigos naturales, requieren información concreta de la especie para ser implementados. Por esta razón se quiere determinar cuál(es) son la(s) especie(s) ...

  9. Caracterización molecular con marcadores aflp’s de los biotipos de spodoptera frugiperda (lepidoptera: noctuidae) pertenecientes a los departamentos de Córdoba, Meta y Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo Hernández, Mariela Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) (J. E. Smith) es una polilla que se ha diferenciado genéticamente en dos biotipos denominados “maíz” y “arroz” en todo el Hemisferio Occidental. En Colombia, particularmente en el departamento del Tolima, una investigación anterior se basó en la identificación de los biotipos de este insecto con el uso de una PCR-RFLP del gen COI y una PCR del gen FR como marcadores diagnóstico de la especie, sin embargo, dada la baja variabilidad genética de est...

  10. Effect of Individual and Combined Treatment with Azadirachtin and Spodoptera littoralis Multicapsid Nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV, Baculoviridae on the Egyptian Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed H. Shaurub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tetranortriterpenoid, azadirachtin, and the entomopathogenic virus, nucleopolyhedrovirus, are used as safe and new control measures for combating agricultural insect pests instead of the use of synthetic insecticides. They can be mixed together as an integrated pest management strategy. Thus, the current investigation was designed to determine the mortality, duration and weight gain of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae, and the yield of Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV (Baculoviridae when the fourth larval instars were treated individually with the LC50 of azadirachtin and of SpliMNPV, and in combination with each other using the LC25, compared to non-treated larvae (control. The results obtained showed that combined treatment significantly enhanced the larval mortality by about 58.40 %, i.e. potentiation. Both individual and combined treatment significantly decreased the larval weight gain, whereas the larval duration was significantly increased, with the highest change in case of combined treatment. Azadirachtin–NPV mixture significantly decreased the viral yield (number of polyhedral inclusion bodies/g fresh larval body weight by about 36.05 % compared to the individual treatment with the NPV. It can be concluded that although azadirachtin enhanced the pathogenicity (% larval kill of SpliMNPV to S. littoralis, azadirachtin–SpliMNPV mixture is unlikely to be useful for the mass production of this viral isolate. Thus, these laboratory observations require validation in field studies under commercial growing conditions.

  11. Selective effects of natural and synthetic insecticides on mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its predator Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner S; Costa, Mariana A; Cruz, Ivan; Silveira, Rodrigo D; Serrao, Jose E; Zanuncio, Jose C

    2010-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious pest of corn in several American countries. It is mainly controlled with synthetic insecticides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the natural products, neem oil and pyroligneous extract, and the synthetic insecticide, lufenuron, at 2.50 mL water (0.25%) on the mortality of 2-, 4- and 6-day-old caterpillars of S. frugiperda, and their selectivities against fourth instar larvae of Eriopis connnexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Four- and 6-day-old S. frugiperda caterpillars showed higher mortality after exposure to neem oil (83.33 +/- 0.83 and 89.58 +/- 0.90%, respectively) and lufenuron (95.83 +/- 0.96 and 85.41 +/- 0.83%), compared to pyroligneous extract (68.75 +/- 0.69 and 31.25 +/- 0.31%). The deleterious effect of pyroligneous extract was higher in 2- (83.33 +/- 0.83% mortality) and 4-day-old (68.75 +/- 0.69%) S. frugiperda caterpillars than in 6-day-old caterpillars (31.25 +/- 0.31%). Larval mortality of the predator E. connexa was lower with neem oil and pyroligneous extract (25.00 +/- 0.33%) than with lufenuron (91.66 +/- 1.22%). Neem oil is thus recommended for control of S. frugiperda because of its high toxicity, combined with its relatively low toxicity to larvae of the natural enemy E. connexa. PMID:20603748

  12. Heritability of Wing Size and Shape of the Rice and Corn Strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas-Hoyos, N; Márquez, E J; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2016-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) represents a pest of economic importance in all Western Hemisphere. This polyphagous species has diverged into two populations that have been mainly recognized with various mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers and named "the rice" and "the corn" strains. In Colombia, both strains have evolved prezygotic and postzygotic isolation. They differ in tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab endotoxins) and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and methomyl. In 2014, a wing morphometric analysis made in 159 individuals from a colony showed that both strains significantly differ in wing shape. The species also exhibits sexual dimorphism in the rice strain as in females wing size is larger than in males. Here, we continued this work with another wing morphometric approach in laboratory-reared strains to calculate wing size and shape heritabilities using a full-sib design and in wild populations to determine if this method distinguishes these strains. Our results show that male heritabilities of both traits were higher than female ones. Wild populations were significantly different in wing shape and size. These results suggest that wing morphometrics can be used as an alternative method to molecular markers to differentiate adults from laboratory-reared populations and wild populations of this pest, particularly in males of this species. Finally, Q ST values obtained for wing size and shape further demonstrated that both strains are genetically differentiated in nature. PMID:27044394

  13. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency. PMID:24665696

  14. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenaria sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated.

  15. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  16. Biology, Ecology, and Evolving Management of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sweet Corn in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Daniel L; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-08-01

    The corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous pest found throughout the United States, where it attacks many field and vegetable crops. Although H. zea has long been a traditional pest of sweet corn, its importance to this crop has increased dramatically over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize information critical for current and future management of H. zea in sweet corn production in the United States. First, we discuss the pest status of H. zea and its life history, including migration, infestation and larval development, diapause, overwintering, and abiotic factors that affect its biology. Next we describe monitoring methods, crop protection decision-making processes, chemical control options, and the use of genetic technologies for control of H. zea Alternative H. zea management options including biological control, cultural controls, host plant resistance, and pheromone disruption are also reviewed. The role of climate change and its effects on H. zea and its ecology are discussed, as well as the recent invasion of its relative, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), which is a major pest of corn in other parts of the world. To conclude, we suggest future research opportunities for H. zea and H. armigera management in sweet corn. PMID:27329622

  17. CONTROLE QUÍMICO E BIOLÓGICO DA BROCA-PELUDA, Hyponeuma sp. (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE, NA CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvelena Vanzolini Segato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar é uma cultura que vem se expandindo gradativamente e vem mostrando grandepotencial econômico. Devido às diversas condições climáticas e demais fatores, muitas lavouras estão sendoinfestadas por novas pragas. Uma das mais recentes é a broca-peluda, Hyponeuma taltula (Schaus (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae, com poucas informações geradas e sem medidas de controle até o momento.O presente estudo teve porobjetivo avaliar a eficácia de inseticidas e fungos entomopatogênicos no controle da broca-peluda em cana-deaçúcar,em Ribeirão Preto, SP. O ensaio foi instalado na variedade SP 81-3250, cana-soca, em um delineamento emblocos casualizados, onde cinco tratamentos foram repetidos quatro vezes, em parcelas de 42 m2. Os tratamentosforam: (i Beauveria bassiana (Boveriz®Biocontrol, 5x1013 conídios ha-1; (ii Metarhizium anisopliae(Metarriz®Biocontrol, 5x1013 conídios ha-1; (iii carbofurano (Furadan® 350 SC, 5 L ha-1; (iv tiametoxam (Actara®250 WG, 1,5 Kg ha-1; (v testemunha. As avaliações foram periódicas, contando-se o número de lagartas vivas emum metro linear por repetição. Os fungos testados não foram eficazes no controle da broca-peluda, provavelmentepor que foram aplicados em período seco. Os inseticidas carbofurano e tiametoxam foram eficientes no controle dapraga a partir dos 14 dias após a aplicação, mas tiametoxam causou redução de 93,4% aos 28 dias após a aplicação,sendo esse o inseticida mais eficiente.The sugarcane is a crop that has been expanding gradually and is showing great economic potential.Due to various weather conditions and other factors, many crops are infested by new pests. One of the most recent isHyponeuma taltula (Schaus (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, with little information generated and without controlmeasures so far. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi to controlHyponeuma sp. in sugarcane, in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo state. The

  18. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Ni, Xinzhi; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula A; Meagher, Robert L; Kerns, David; Levy, Ronnie; Yang, Xiangbing; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-07-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target pest of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established using single-pair mating of field individuals collected from seven locations in four states of the southern U.S.: Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The objective of the investigation was to detect resistance alleles in field populations to Cry2Ab2, a common Bt protein produced in transgenic maize and cotton. For each F2 family, 128 F2 neonates were screened on leaf tissue of Cry2Ab2 maize plants in the laboratory. A conservative estimate of the frequency of major Cry2Ab2 resistance alleles in S. frugiperda from the four states was 0.0023 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0003-0.0064. In addition, six families were considered to likely possess minor resistance alleles at a frequency of 0.0082 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0033-0.0152. One F2 family from Georgia (GA-15) was confirmed to possess a major resistance allele to the Cry2Ab2 protein. Larvae from this family survived well on whole maize plants expressing Cry2Ab2 protein and demonstrated a significant level (>15-fold) of resistance when fed with the same protein incorporated in a meridic diet. The detection of the major resistance allele along with the relatively abundant minor resistance alleles revealed in this study may have important implications for resistance management. PMID:27311896

  19. Mortality of Oryzophagus oryzae (Costa Lima, 1936 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Larvae Exposed to Bacillus thuringiensis and Extracts of Melia azedarach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diouneia Lisiane Berlitz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Oryzophagus oryzae (Costa Lima 1936 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae cause important crop losses in southern Brazil. Control is possible by the use of the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and extracts of Melia azedarach. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, in vivo, of O. oryzae and S. frugiperda submitted to two isolates of B. thuringiensis and the aqueous extract of M. azedarach. The LC50 for O. oryzae due to bacteria was 5.40μg/mL (Bt 2014-2 and due to plant extract 0.90μg/mL. For S. frugiperda, the Bt 1958-2 bacterial suspension (1.10(10UFC/mL caused a 100% of corrected mortality, showing that the purified Cry proteins caused a CL10 of 268μg/mL five days after the treatments, and M. azedarach toxins caused a CL50 173μg/mL four days after the treatment. Corrected mortality for O. oryzae and S. frugiperda in the interaction between the bacterial and plant toxins were 11 and 6%, respectively. In the PCR analysis of B. thuringiensis isolates, DNA fragments were enlarged and corresponded to the cry1 and cry2 genes for Bt 1958-2. Thus, it could be concluded that the usage of Bt 2014-2 active against O. oryzae larvae; Bt 1958-2 for S. frugiperda and, for both the insect species, M. azedarach aqueous extract could be used.

  20. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Ni, Xinzhi; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula A; Meagher, Robert L; Kerns, David; Levy, Ronnie; Yang, Xiangbing; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-07-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target pest of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established using single-pair mating of field individuals collected from seven locations in four states of the southern U.S.: Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The objective of the investigation was to detect resistance alleles in field populations to Cry2Ab2, a common Bt protein produced in transgenic maize and cotton. For each F2 family, 128 F2 neonates were screened on leaf tissue of Cry2Ab2 maize plants in the laboratory. A conservative estimate of the frequency of major Cry2Ab2 resistance alleles in S. frugiperda from the four states was 0.0023 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0003-0.0064. In addition, six families were considered to likely possess minor resistance alleles at a frequency of 0.0082 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0033-0.0152. One F2 family from Georgia (GA-15) was confirmed to possess a major resistance allele to the Cry2Ab2 protein. Larvae from this family survived well on whole maize plants expressing Cry2Ab2 protein and demonstrated a significant level (>15-fold) of resistance when fed with the same protein incorporated in a meridic diet. The detection of the major resistance allele along with the relatively abundant minor resistance alleles revealed in this study may have important implications for resistance management.

  1. Biological characteristics of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for three consecutive generations under different temperatures: understanding the possible impact of global warming on a soybean pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, D M; Hoffmann-Campo, C B; de Freitas Bueno, A; de Freitas Bueno, R C O; de Oliveira, M C N; Moscardi, F

    2012-06-01

    Climate changes can affect the distribution and intensity of insect infestations through direct effects on their life cycles. Experiments were carried out during three consecutive generations to evaluate the effect of different temperatures (25°C, 28°C, 31°C, 34°C and 37±1°C) on biological traits of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The insects were fed on artificial diet and reared in environmental chambers set at 14 h photophase. The developmental cycle slowed with the increase in the temperature, within the 25°C to 34°C range. Male and female longevities were reduced with an increase in temperature from 25°C to 28°C. Egg viability was highest at 25°C, and the sex ratio was not influenced by temperature, in the three generations. There was no interactive effect between development time and temperature on pupal weight. The results suggested that the increase in the temperature negatively impacted A. gemmatalis development inside the studied temperature range, indicating a possible future reduction of its occurrence on soybean crops, as a consequence of global warming, mainly considering its impact on tropical countries where this plant is cropped. A. gemmatalis was not able to adapt to higher temperatures in a three-generation interval for the studied temperature range. However, a gradual increase and a longer adaptation period may favor insect selection and consequently adaptation, and must be considered in future studies in this area. Moreover, it is important to consider that global warming might turn cold areas more suitable to A. gemmatalis outbreaks. Therefore, more than a future reduction of A. gemmatalis occurrence due to global warming, we might expect changes regarding its area of occurrence on a global perspective.

  2. Fauna of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) in a pasture area in Altamira, Eastern Amazon, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L P; Specht, A; Teston, J A

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated the nocturnal fauna of Noctuidae in a pasture area in Altamira, Pará. Samples were collected monthly for two nights at the new moon period, from August 2007 to July 2008. We collected a total of 345 specimens (N) of 66 species (S). The most abundant species were Ptichodes basilans (Guenée) (n = 87), Leucania jaliscana (Schaus), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (n = 28) and Argidia palmipes Guenée (n = 21). For the entire period, the following indexes were found: Shannon diversity H'= 3.20 and Brillouin H = 2.94, evenness of Shannon E'= 0.76 and Brillouin E= 0.76, and Berger-Parker dominance BP= 0.252. The greatest diversity was found in the dry season. According to the estimates of species richness, it is possible that between 14 to 72 more species exist in the region. PMID:25627612

  3. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

    , undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...... occurs as two distinct subspecies on Madeira Island and Deserta Grande, respectively. We also comment on taxonomic and nomenclatorial problems in a number of species and provide information on host plants in Madeira and other biological details. Index to Latin names of Lepidoptera and host plants are...

  4. ПОДГРЫЗАЮЩИЕ СОВКИ (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE, NOCTUINAE) ОСТРОВОВ СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНОГО КАСПИЯ

    OpenAIRE

    Абдурахманов, А.

    2013-01-01

    In this article there is a list of noctuid moths (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE, NOCTUINAE) harmful for agriculture. These species can be divided into two groups: the first group that is harmful for melons (vegetable) and technical (tobacco) plants, and the second group harmful for grain plants. There is a list of rare and disappearing species of noctuid moths as well as a new species of noctuid moth for Russia at the end of the article.

  5. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 1. Two new species of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuinae, Agrotini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The white gypsum dune ecosystem in the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico is the largest gypsum dune field on earth, covering 712.25 km2. White Sands National Monument in Otero County, New Mexico, protects approximately 40%, 297.85 km2, of this dune field. In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, resulting in the discovery of two new species, Euxoa lafontainei Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. and Protogygia whitesandsensis Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. described herein. Adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for Euxoa lafontainei, and adults and male genitalia are illustrated for Protogygia whitesandsensis and its relatives.

  6. TOXIC ACTIVITY AND DELAYED EFFECTS OF FIVE BOTANICAL OILS ON THE FOLLOWING GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER PARENTS TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, N A; El-Kady, M B; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Z M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is carried out to evaluate the toxic efficiency and delayed effects of five botanical oils on the greasy cut worm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a trial for the attainment of a possible use of an alternative safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. So as to minimize or prevent the repeated usage of conventional insecticides, then reduce the environmental pollution as well as the occurring hazards to man and domestic animal due to the use of the pesticides alone. Four tested concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5% v/v) from each of camphor, red basil, menthol, rose and anise oils, were bioassayed by treating the offered castor oil bean leaves, to the 4th instar larvae along 48h, under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2 °C and 65±5% R.H. The obtained results showed that the five tested oils were found to have more or less toxic activity and drastic effects on the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated parent generation of the insect, in particular, pupae, emerged adult moths and laid eggs/female. In this respect camphor and red basil oils were highly effective, followed by menthol oil, anise oil and the least effective one was rose oil. Moreover, the assessed unprofitable delayed effects on the going on of the biological performance within the treated insects showed the adverse effects on the fitness components of the consequent generations (fs) post (p) one treatment with each of the bioassyed oils. The prevalence of adverse effects and disturbance in the going on biological performance through the period of (p) generation; which is followed by the distinct failure of insect development in (f1) generation were recorded for each of the tested menthol oil at 0.5 and 1.5% (v/v); camphor oil at 1.5 and 2.5% and red basil oil at 2.5% (v/v). While anise and rose oils were somewhat less efficient causing the distinct failure of the following generations up to the 3rd and/or the 6th ones

  7. Evaluation of pyrethroids toxicity in a laboratory strain and a fi eld population of Rachiplusia nu (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae using two bioassay techniques Evaluación de la toxicidad de piretroides en una cepa de laboratorio y una población de campo de Rachiplusia nu (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae usando dos métodos de bioensayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Russo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important crop in Argentina and Rachiplusia nu (Gueneé (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is one of its main pests. In this study, the toxicity of five pyrethroids applied topically and by exposure to films on filter paper was evaluated on third instar larvae from a laboratory strain and a field population of R. nu. Four cyanopyrethroids and one non-cyanopyrethroid (permethrin were tested. All cyanopyrethroids showed the same order of increasing toxicity, regardless of the form of application and origin of the larvae: cypermethrin La soja es el cultivo más importante en la República Argentina y Rachiplusia nu (Gueneé (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, una de sus principales plagas. En este estudio se evaluó la toxicidad de cuatro cianopiretroides y un no-cianopiretroide, aplicados en forma tópica o por exposición a filmes sobre papeles de filtro, en ninfas del tercer estadio de una cepa de laboratorio y una población de campo de R. nu. Todos los cianopiretroides mostraron el mismo orden de toxicidad creciente, independientemente de la forma de aplicación y del origen de las larvas: cipermetrina < ?-cihalotrina < deltametrina < ß-ciflutrina. Los valores de Dosis de Volteo para el 50% (DV50 y de Tiempo de Volteo para el 50% (TV50 aumentaron en función de la solubilidad de los cianopiretroides en agua. El no-cianopiretroide permetrina mostró un comportamiento diferente: fue el insecticida más tóxico para la cepa de laboratorio cuando se hizo una aplicación tópica, pero el menos tóxico cuando las larvas fueron expuestas a filmes sobre papeles de filtro. En general, todos los piretroides fueron más tóxicos para las larvas criadas en laboratorio que para las provenientes del campo. La estimación de los valores de Factor de Resistencia (FR permitió establecer que la población de campo presentaba resistencia moderada o baja a permetrina, cipermetrina y ?-cihalotrina, cuando los insecticidas fueron aplicados en forma tópica. Sin

  8. [Approach to Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) phylogeny based on the sequence of the cytocrhome oxydase I (COI) mitochondrial gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldamando, Clara Inés; Marquez, Edna Judith

    2012-09-01

    The genus Spodoptera includes 30 species of moths considered important pests worldwide, with a great representation in the Western Hemisphere. In general, Noctuidae species have morphological similarities that have caused some difficulties for assertive species identification by conventional methods. The purpose of this work was to generate an approach to the genus phylogeny from several species of the genus Spodoptera and the species Bombyx mori as an out group, with the use of molecular tools. For this, a total of 102 S. frugiperda larvae were obtained at random in corn, cotton, rice, grass and sorghum, during late 2006 and early 2009, from Colombia. We took ADN samples from the larval posterior part and we analyzed a fragment of 451 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxydase I (COI), to produce a maximum likelihood (ML) tree by using 62 sequences (29 Colombian haplotypes were used). Our results showed a great genetic differentiation (K2 distances) amongst S. frugiperda haplotypes from Colombia and the United States, condition supported by the estimators obtained for haplotype diversity and polymorphism. The obtained ML tree clustered most of the species with bootstrapping values from 73-99% in the interior branches; with low values also observed in some of the branches. In addition, this tree clustered two species of the Eastern hemisphere (S littoralis and S. litura) and eight species of the Western hemisphere (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli and S. pulchella). In Colombia, S. frugiperda, S. ornithogalli and S. albula represent a group of species referred as "the Spodoptera complex" of cotton crops, and our work demonstrated that sequencing a fragment of the COI gene, allows researchers to differentiate the first two species, and thus it can be used as an alternative method to taxonomic keys based on morphology. Finally, the ML tree did not cluster S. frugiperda with S. ornithogalli

  9. Ultramorphology of digestive tract of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae at final larval development/ Ultramorfologia do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no final do desenvolvimento larval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antônio Toledo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tract of insects is an important natural, physical, and chemical defense barrier against pathogen invasion. Certain lepidopteran caterpillars are serious pests of agricultural crops and their biology has received much attention, but little is known about the larval noctuid gut. The morphological analysis of the digestive tract in Anticarsia gemmatalis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM is a good model for studies about its defense mechanism. The material was fixed (2,5% glutaraldehyde solution; 0.1M-phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, post-fixed (1% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dried at critical point, gold coated and analyzed in a SEM 515-Philips. A. gemmatalis digestive tract consists of a straight duct of varying length and diameter, subdivided in three main regions: the foregut formed by the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and crop; the midgut that is the largest portion of the digestive tract without noticeable morphological differentiation along its length; and the hindgut that is morphologically differentiated in pylorus, ileum, colon, and rectum. Although the general morphology of the A. gemmatalis digestive tract is quite similar to the other Lepidoptera species, the anatomical array of the crop muscular layers is quite different comparing with the description for other larval insect.O trato digestivo dos insetos constitui uma importante barreira físico-química natural contra invasão de patógenos. Algumas larvas de lepidópteros são consideradas pragas agrícolas potenciais e sua biologia tem recebido muita atenção; no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a morfologia do sistema digestivo. A análise morfológica do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis em nível ultraestrutural é um método bastante eficaz para o estudo dos seus mecanismos de defesa. Os materiais foram fixados (solução de glutaraldeído 2,5%; 0.1M tampão fosfato, pH 7.3, pós-fixados (tetróxido de ósmio 1% no mesmo tampão, desidratados em

  10. Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves; Morfologia do canal alimentar de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) alimentadas com folhas tratadas com nim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Alicely A.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Oliveira, Jose V. de; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola]. E-mail: aliceliac@yahoo.com.br; valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal

    2009-01-15

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto{sup R}) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 deg C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Bouein's aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto{sup R}), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron. (author)

  11. Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (NeemsetoR) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 deg C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Bouein's aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (NeemsetoR), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron. (author)

  12. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.J.; Luo, J.Y.; Werf, van der W.; Ma, Y.; Xia, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in confe

  13. Survival of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt Maize and Cross-Pollinated Refuge Ears From Seed Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, André Luiz Barreto; Alves, Analiza Piovesan; Wang, Yiwei; Hong, Bonnie; Flexner, John Lindsey; Catchot, Angus; Buntin, David; Cook, Donald

    2016-02-01

    Refuge is mandated in the United States where genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) expressing insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) are cultivated. Currently, refuge is deployed in different ways including blocks, field strips, or seed blends containing Bt and non-Bt maize. Seed blends provide practical advantages for refuge implementation. However, concerns related to the movement of insect larvae, potential differential survival of heterozygous resistant larvae, reduction in insect production, and cross-pollination of ears resulting in sublethal selection, have delayed seed blend use for Lepidoptera in the southern United States, where maize plantings are used as refuge for Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). In this study, we evaluated the relative survival of H. zea in Bt events and in seed blends compared with pure stand refuge and the relative survival of H. zea on the individual components of the pyramid 1507xMON810xMIR162. The results showed variation on the production of H. zea in refuge plants from seed blends compared with pure stand refuge plants. The relative survival of H. zea on the events 1507, MON810, MIR162, and 1507xMON810xMIR162 ranked similarly across the three locations tested. These results can be used in computer simulation modeling efforts to evaluate the feasibility of seed blends as a refuge deployment strategy with the pyramid 1507xMON810xMIR162. Because the reduction on survival of H. zea due to blending was variable, a sensitivity analysis that includes all possible scenarios of reduction in survival should be considered. PMID:26357846

  14. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie;

    2012-01-01

    established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe...... for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries......, Madeira and Azores) 21.6%, North America 16.5%, Australasia 7.2% and the neotropics just 5.2%. Th e route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confi ned to man-made habitats, with 52.5% occuring in parks...

  15. Ação de inseticidas naturais no controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em milho cultivado em agroecossistema de várzea Action of natural insecticide in control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in corn crop cultivated in low agroecossistem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Farid Maia Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficiência de inseticidas naturais no controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, na cultura do milho em agroecossistema de várzea, sob infestação natural. O experimento foi conduzido a campo na área experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado - Estação Experimental Terras Baixas, no ano agrícola 2005/2006. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial (9x2, com 9 tratamentos: T1- NeemAzal-T/S (0,25%; T2- NeemAzal-T/S (0,5%; T3- Rotenat CE (0,5%; T4- Natuneem agrícola (0,5%; T5- Rotenat CE + Natuneem agrícola (0,25+0,25%; T6- Dalneem emulsionável (0,5%; T7- Organic neem (0,5%; T8- Match CE (0,1% (padrão e T9- Água (testemunha com duas épocas de semeadura e quatro repetições. Realizaram-se três aplicações dos tratamentos por época, determinando-se a porcentagem de plantas atacadas oito dias após cada aplicação e o rendimento de grãos em kg ha-1. Obteve-se diferença significativa no controle da lagarta-do-cartucho entre épocas de semeadura com maior eficiência de controle para a primeira época, destacando-se dentre os inseticidas naturais o NeemAzal-T/S (0,5% e o Dalneem emulsionável (0,5%, com grande potencial de uso em semeaduras realizadas no mês de novembro. O rendimento de grãos entre épocas não diferiu estatisticamente, destacando-se dentre os inseticidas naturais o NeemAzal - T/S a 0,5%, tornando-se uma alternativa no controle da S. frugiperda. Há uma correlação negativa e significativa entre plantas atacadas e rendimento de grãos em kg ha-1, com maior potencial de controle para a primeira época de semeadura.The efficiency of natural insecticide was studied in control Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in corn crop cultivated in low agroecossistem, under natural infestation. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of Embrapa Clima Temperado - Estação Experimental Terras Baixas, agricultural

  16. Temperature and refrigeration time of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae pupae affect biological parameters of Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae?Temperatura e tempo de refrigeração de pupas de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae afetam parâmetros biológicos de Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Luiz Pastori

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de parasitoides em hospedeiros conservados em baixa temperatura, sem perda da qualidade, é importante para criações massais e, por isso, a reprodução de Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae foi avaliada em pupas de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae após armazenamento a 0oC ou 5oC. No experimento um, pupas de A. gemmatalis, com até 24 horas de idade, foram armazenadas a 0oC, 5oC ou 25oC (testemunha por um, três, seis, nove ou 12 dias e expostas ao parasitismo por 10 fêmeas de T. diatraeae por 24 horas. No experimento dois, pupas de A. gemmatalis, com até 24 horas de idade foram expostas ao parasitismo por 10 fêmeas de T. diatraeae por 24 horas e, posteriormente mantidas a 25oC até o parasitoide atingir o estágio de pupa, quando foram armazenados a 0oC, 5oC ou 25oC (testemunha por um, três, seis, nove ou 12 dias. No experimento um, o parasitismo de T. diatraeae em pupas armazenadas de A. gemmatalis foi superior a 90%, exceto a 25oC por 12 dias. A emergência, o número de indivíduos e a longevidade dos descendentes machos e fêmeas da geração F1 reduziram com o armazenamento (0oC ou 5oC. No experimento dois, o armazenamento de parasitoides a 5oC por um dia aumentou a emergência, não alterou o período de duração do ciclo de vida com o número de indivíduos semelhante a testemunha. A razão sexual e a largura da cápsula cefálica de machos e de fêmeas de T. diatraeae foram semelhantes a testemunha nos experimentos. Armazenar a frio (0oC ou 5oC pupas de A. gemmatalis não parasitadas ou contendo o estágio imaturo (pupa do parasitoide no seu interior, por mais de um dia, afeta negativamente a reprodução de T. diatraeae.Development of parasitoids in hosts kept at low temperatures, without loss of quality, is important for mass rearing. Accordingly, reproduction of Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae was evaluated on

  17. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  18. Ação transovariana de lufenuron (50 g/l sobre adultos de Spodoptera Frugiperda (j. e. smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e seu efeito sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Transovarian action of lufenuron on adults of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effect on the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a ação transovariana do lufenuron em Spodoptera frugiperda e sua seletividade ao parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum. Casais da praga foram isolados em gaiolas de PVC e alimentados com solução de mel a 10% na testemunha, e nos outros tratamentos, foi adicionado à solução de mel o regulador de crescimento de insetos Match® CE nas proporções de 12,5; 15,0 e 17,5 g i.a/l. Para verificação da ação transovariana, diariamente foram coletadas as posturas, contado o número de ovos e, posteriormente, o número de larvas eclodidas. Quarenta ovos provenientes de cada tratamento foram colados em cartelas de papel (cartolina e expostos ao parasitismo, dentro de tubos de vidro de 1,0 x 3,5 cm, contendo uma fêmea de T. pretiosum no seu interior. Cartelas contendo 40 ovos de S. frugiperda foram imersas em soluções de lufenuron com a mesma concentração dos tratamentos anteriores e, posteriormente, expostas ao parasitismo por T. pretiosum. O lufenuron afetou consideravelmente a viabilidade dos ovos de S. frugiperda. Pelos resultados obtidos nos ensaios, relativos ao parasitóide, demonstram-se a seletividade do regulador de crescimento lufenuron e a possibilidade de sua utilização em programas de Manejo Integrado, juntamente com o parasitóide de ovos T. pretiosum.The transovarian action of insect growth regulator lufenuron in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effects on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, were evaluated. Pest couples were isolated in PVC's cages and provided with 10% honey solution as control. In the others treatments, the honey solution was mixed with the insect growth regulator Match® CE using the following concentrations of 12.5; 15.0 and 17.5 g i.a./l. For verification of the transovarian action, the eggs were collected daily, with the number of the hatched larvae being subsequently counted. Forty eggs from each treatment were fixed in

  19. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883 (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883, previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time.

  20. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:22207799

  1. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini)

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Metzler; Gregory Forbes

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time.

  2. Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de açúcares solúveis sobre populações de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e de Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em plantas de batata, cultivares Achat e Monalisa, influenciadas por dosagens de nitrogênio e potássio, e teor mínimo de açúcares solúveis. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: concentração de nutrientes minerais e açúcar em folha verde, folha senescente, folha em abcisão, haste, tubérculo e planta total usando extratos de infusão em etanol 80%. A maior infestação por larvas de D. speciosa foi na cultivar Monalisa a 150 kg.ha-1 de N + K com 27,03% a PThe occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum theor of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensibilized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing.

  3. The seesaw effect of winter temperature change on the recruitment of cotton bollworms Helicoverpa armigera through mismatched phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Shi, Peijian; Hui, Cang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Knowing how climate change affects the population dynamics of insect pests is critical for the future of integrated pest management. Rising winter temperatures from global warming can drive increases in outbreaks of some agricultural pests. In contrast, here we propose an alternative hypothesis that both extremely cold and warm winters can mismatch the timing between the eclosion of overwintering pests and the flowering of key host plants. As host plants normally need higher effective cumulative temperatures for flowering than insects need for eclosion, changes in flowering time will be less dramatic than changes in eclosion time, leading to a mismatch of phenology on either side of the optimal winter temperature. We term this the "seesaw effect." Using a long-term dataset of the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern China, we tested this seesaw hypothesis by running a generalized additive model for the effects of the third generation moth in the preceding year, the winter air temperature, the number of winter days below a critical temperature and cumulative precipitation during winter on the demography of the overwintering moth. Results confirmed the existence of the seesaw effect of winter temperature change on overwintering populations. Pest management should therefore consider the indirect effect of changing crop phenology (whether due to greenhouse cultivation or to climate change) on pest outbreaks. As arthropods from mid- and high latitudes are actually living in a cooler thermal environment than their physiological optimum in contrast to species from lower latitudes, the effects of rising winter temperatures on the population dynamics of arthropods in the different latitudinal zones should be considered separately. The seesaw effect makes it more difficult to predict the average long-term population dynamics of insect pests at high latitudes due to the potential sharp changes in annual growth rates

  4. Noctuídeos (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae coletados em quatro Áreas Estaduais de Conservação do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Owlet moths (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae collected in four protected areas located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a composição das comunidades de Noctuidae na Reserva Biológica do Ibirapuitã (Alegrete e nos Parques Estaduais do Turvo (Derrubadas, Rondinha (Sarandi e Espigão Alto (Barracão. Dez armadilhas luminosas foram utilizadas para coletar os insetos, de novembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, amostrando-se uma noite por local. Os lepidópteros foram identificados aos níveis de família, subfamília e, quando viável, até espécie. Foram coletados 6.374 noctuídeos pertencentes a 249 táxons, distribuídos em 17 subfamílias. Os resultados indicam a existência de número maior de noctuídeos no Estado e a importância das Unidades Estaduais de Conservação para a manutenção da biodiversidade.The objective of this work was to analyze the composition of the Noctuidae communities at Reserva Biológica de Ibirapuitã (Alegrete and at Parque Estadual do Turvo (Derrubadas, Parque Estadual de Rondinha (Sarandi and Parque Estadual do Espigão Alto (Barracão. Ten light traps were used to collect the insects from November/2000 to February/2001, sampling one night per area. The lepidopterous were identified at family and subfamily levels and, when it was possible, at genera and species levels. A total of 6,374 noctuids belonging to 249 taxa, distributed in 17 subfamilies were collected. The large number of species observed in all areas emphasize the importance of Conservation State Unity for the biodiversity maintenance.

  5. Perspectives of digestive pest control with proteinase inhibitors that mainly affect the trypsin-like activity of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Pereira

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the main characteristics of the proteolytic activities of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and their sensitivity to proteinase inhibitors and activators. Midguts of last instar larvae reared on an artificial diet were homogenized in 0.15 M NaCl and centrifuged at 14,000 g for 10 min at 4ºC and the supernatants were used in enzymatic assays at 30ºC, pH 10.0. Basal total proteolytic activity (azocasein hydrolysis was 1.14 ± 0.15 absorbance variation min-1 mg protein-1, at 420 nm; basal trypsin-like activity (N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide, BApNA, hydrolysis was 0.217 ± 0.02 mmol p-nitroaniline min-1 mg protein-1. The maximum proteolytic activities were observed at pH 10.5 using azocasein and at pH 10.0 using BApNA, this pH being identical to the midgut pH of 10.0. The maximum trypsin-like activity occurred at 50ºC, a temperature that reduces enzyme stability to 80 and 60% of the original, when pre-incubated for 5 and 30 min, respectively. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the proteolytic activities with an IC50 of 0.39 mM for azocasein hydrolysis and of 1.35 mM for BApNA hydrolysis. Benzamidine inhibited the hydrolysis with an IC50 of 0.69 and 0.076 mM for azocasein and BApNA, respectively. The absence of cysteine-proteinases is indicated by the fact that 2-mercaptoethanol and L-cysteine did not increase the rate of azocasein hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the presence of serine-proteinases and the predominance of trypsin-like activity in the midgut of Lepidoptera insects, now also detected in A. gemmatalis, and suggest this enzyme as a major target for pest control based on disruption of protein metabolism using proteinase inhibitors.

  6. Expression profiling of olfactory receptor gene Ⅱ in the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)%斜纹夜蛾嗅觉受体基因Ⅱ的表达谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茜; 吴仲南; 杜永均; 诸葛启钏

    2011-01-01

    气味调控斜纹夜蛾Spodoptera litura的觅食、交配和产卵等行为,而嗅觉受体(olfactory receptor,OR)作为气味的直接受体,是嗅觉神经信号产生的起点,是嗅觉信息的编码及信号的传递通路的重要组成部分.本研究通过RTPCR和Western blot技术,对斜纹夜蛾嗅觉受体基因Ⅱ(Spodoptera litura olfactory receptor geneⅡ,SlitOR2)(GenBank登录号:DQ845292)的组织特异性和不同发育阶段表达情况进行分析鉴定.半定量RT-PCR研究结果表明,SlitOR2主要在成虫期的触角中表达,其他部位和发育期未检测到表达.Western blot鉴定结果表明SlitOR2主要在成虫触角表达,与半定量RT-PCR结果基本一致.但在成虫足、头和中期蛹中也看到有微量蛋白表达.可能是与目的蛋白大小类似的其他非特异性蛋白条带,也可能是该蛋白在成虫足部、头部和中期蛹中有微量表达,因为足部的跗节和头部的口喙也分布有少量的嗅觉感器.目的条带单一清晰,表明制备的多肽抗体特异性较好,可以用于后续相关实验.%Odour chemically mediates foraging, mating and oviposition behaviour of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura ( Fabricius) ( Lepidoptera, Noctuidae ). The olfactory receptor is a direct receptor of odours and a key component of olfactory system, which plays an important role in encoding and transmission pathway of olfactory signal. By using RT-PCR and Western blot techniques, the tissue-specific expression of S. Litura olfactory receptor gene II ( SIUOR2 ) ( GenBank accession no. DQ845292) in different developmental stages was analyzed and identified. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that SIUOR2 mRNA was mainly expressed in the adult antennae. Western blot result showed SlitOR2 was expressed mainly in the adult antennae, which was consistent with the previous semi-quantitative RT-PCR results. But there were also trace proteins which are expressed in the adult legs, head and mid

  7. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor; Landero Ivonne; Vázquez Adolfo I; Moreno José MP; Ramos-Elorduy Julieta; Camacho Víctor HM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the mo...

  8. Insecticidal and antifeedant activities of clerodane diterpenoids isolated from the Indian bhant tree, Clerodendron infortunatum, against the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Gholamreza; Srivastava, Chitra; Walia, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The Indian bhant tree, Clerodendron infortunatum L. (Lamialus: Lamiaceae), is a well-known medicinal plant, but little information about its bioefficacy against agricultural pests exists. This scarcity was addressed in the present study, in which dried leaves of C. infortunatum were subjected to extraction with hexane and methanol and then partitioned using different solvents of varying polarity. In a preliminary bioassay, the antifeedant effects of the crude extracts and fractions were tested on a highly polyphagous pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), using the no-choice test method with cabbage leaf discs. The methanol fraction resulted in maximum antifeedant activity. This fraction was further subjected to crystallization and column chromatography in order to isolate the compounds responsible for the activity. Three pure compounds were isolated and identified as clerodin (CL), 15-methoxy-14, 15-dihydroclerodin (MD), and 15-hydroxy-14, 15-dihyroclerodin (HD). The antifeedant activity of these compounds was studied using a choice as well as a no-choice test method with 24 and 48 hr observation periods. Insecticidal activity was measured using the topical application method at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3% concentrations, and data were recorded 24, 48, and 72 hr after treatment. In the no-choice test conditions, compounds CL and MD showed significantly higher antifeedant activity compared to the key ingredient in many commercial pesticides, azadirachtin, at its highest concentration. Compound HD also showed very good antifeedant activity, which did not differ significantly from that of azadirachtin. In the choice test conditions, all three compounds and azadirachtin showed 100% antifeedant activity at the highest concentration. Antifeedant Index (AI50) values of CL, MD, and HD were 6, 6, and 8 ppm in choice tests, and increased to 8, 9, and 11 ppm in the no-choice tests, respectively. Insecticidal activity of the isolated

  9. Inheritance of electrophysiological responses to leaf saps of host- and nonhost plants in two helicoverpa species and their hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Q.B.; Huang, L.Q.; Wang, C.Z.; Tang, Q.B.T.; Zhan, H.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The polyphagous cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and the oligophagous oriental tobacco budworm Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) display contrasting heritable feeding preferences for cotton and pepper leaves. In this study, electrophysiological response patterns to c

  10. Solexa sequencing based transcriptome analysis of Helicoverpa armigera larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jigang; Li, Xiumin; Chen, Yongli; Yang, Zhongxiang; Guo, Sandui

    2012-12-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is a polyphagous Lepidoptera pest which causes great economic losses in crop production worldwide. In contrast to its agricultural importance, advances in the molecular aspects of this insect are quite limited. In the present study, Illumina's SOLEXA sequencing was adopted to determine the transcriptome of young H. armigera larvae. About 7 gigabases of raw sequence data was generated and assembled into 116,601 contigs with an average length of 389 base pairs after data preprocess. 37,352 of these contigs were annotated by searching against Uniref 100 of UniProt database. The annotated sequences were functionally classified into three groups including biological process (15,632 sequences), cellular component (9,562 sequences) and molecular function (19,258 sequences). KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis showed that 1,409 contigs predicted to encode enzymes with enzyme commission numbers were mapped into 220 KEGG pathways in total. Finally, contigs with simple sequence repeats were derived from this dataset. PMID:23065207

  11. Kastamonu Orman İşletme Müdürlüğü Lepidoptera Faunası

    OpenAIRE

    AKKUZU, Erol; EROL, Serkan; DINGILOĞLU, Eda; ÖZDİKMENLİ, Gizem; AYBERK, Hamit

    2015-01-01

    This study named as “Lepidoptera Fauna of the Forest Enterprise Directorate of Kastamonu” was made for determining distribution and presence of Lepidoptera fauna in Kastamonu Forest Enterprise region between 20102013 years. Light traps and sweep nets were used to collect the samples from the study area. A total of 70 species belonging to 15 families were identified. The family Nymphalidae was the richest with a number of 13 species. This was followed by Noctuidae (12), Pieridae (10), Geometri...

  12. 棉铃虫中肠cDNA文库的构建及EST分析%cDNA library construction and EST analysis of the larval midgut of Helicoverpa armnigera ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹朗云; 曹广春; 张谦; 张彦; 梁革梅; 吴孔明; 郭予元

    2011-01-01

    Midgut is the main target for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) action, and a number of insect midgut proteins have been proposed as putative Bt toxin receptors. In order to study the resistance mechanism of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera to Bt, we constructed a larval midgut cDNA library of the cotton bollworm using the Switching Mechanism at 5' end of the RNA Transcript (SMART)technique.The total RNA of 5th instar larval midgut was extracted and the double-stranded cDNA synthesized. After the normalization treatment, cDNAs were digested and ligated into vector, and then the recombinants were transformed into competent cells. The titer was tested and the cDNA library was amplified and sequenced. The quality evaluation showed that the library had a complexity of 2 × 106 pfu/mL, and the recombination rate was 100%. The average length of inserted cDNA fragments was over 1 000 bp, and 50% fragments were in the full-length form. A total of 1 098 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated successfully after editing and trimming the vector and ambiguous sequences, and 789 unigene sequences were identified, including 132 contigs and 657 singlets. The assembled 789 ESTs were analyzed with Blast in NT, NR and SWISSPORT database of NCBI. The Blast analysis showed that 218 ESTs (27.62%) had no comparable sequences in databases, 119 ESTs (15.08%) had no definite annotations, and the rest 452 ESTs (57.29%) had high homologies with the available sequences, which had definite annotation with over 300 protein products. Through this study, a high-quality cDNA library of the larval midgut of H. armigera has been constructed, which will be a useful tool for studing gene functions in H. armigera midgut.%中肠是苏云金芽孢杆菌Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)发挥作用的主要部位,中肠上很多蛋白被认为是Bt毒素的结合蛋白.为了探索棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera对Bt的抗性机制,我们运用RNA转录过程中的5'

  13. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-06

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  14. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  15. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  16. Estudo do parasitismo dos ovos de Autographa gamma (Lep.: Noctuidae) em culturas de tomate e beterraba

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia GARCIA; Oliveira, Luísa; Tavares, João

    1999-01-01

    IV Encontro Nacional de Protecção Integrada, 3–4 Outubro, 1997, Angra do Heroísmo, Açores. Este trabalho visou o estudo do parasitismo dos ovos de Autographa gamma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em culturas de tomate e beterraba. Para tal, realizou-se uma prospecção de ovos de A. gamma em dois campos de cultura, um de tomate e outro de beterraba, localizados na Ribeira Grande, ilha de São Miguel. Esta prospecção decorreu durante os períodos vegetativos estivais, nos anos de 1992, 1993 e...

  17. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of eleven noctuid species (Insecta, Lepidoptera) captured in blacklight traps on Terceira Island (Azores)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Virgílio; Araújo, M. G. Gomes de; Tavares, João

    1998-01-01

    The adult flight periods of Agrotis segetum (DENNIS & SCHIFFERMÜLLER), Noctua pronuba (LINNAEUS), Noctua atlantica (WARREN), Peridroma saucia (HÜBNER), Xestia c-nigrum (LINNAEUS), Mythimna loreyi (DUPONCHEL), Phlogophora meticulosa (LINNAEUS), Phlogophora interrupta(WARREN), Mesapamea storai (REBEL), Autographa gamma (LINNAEUS), and Trichoplusia orichalcea (FABRICIUS) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were studied between November 1992 and November 1993, at Terra Chã (110 m), Granja (310 m), Faj...

  18. Biology and thermal requirements of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavaresco, Alvimar [EPAGRI, Estacao Experimetal de Canoinhas, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: alvimarbavaresco@bol.com.br; Garcia, Mauro S.; Gruetzmacher, Anderson D.; Foresti, Josemar; Ringenberg, Rudiney [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade

    2002-01-15

    The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) was studied under different temperatures and its thermal requirements were determined, aiming to aid the rearing of this insect in the laboratory. Embryonic and post-embryonic periods were evaluated at seven different temperatures (14, 18, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C) under environmental chamber conditions, with 14h photophase. The caterpillars were reared on an artificial diet containing white bean, soybean meal, yeast extract, wheat germ and powder milk as source of protein. The extent of the embryonic period decreased with the increase of temperature within the 14 deg C to 25 deg C temperature range, remaining constant between 28 deg C and 32 deg C. For the other phases (caterpillar, pre-pupa and pupa) an inverse relationship between temperature and duration was observed within the 14 deg C to 30 deg C temperature range, extending to 32 deg C for pupae. Duration of pupal phase for males was larger than for females resulting in asynchronous adult emergence. The temperature thresholds for the embryonic, larval, pre-pupal, pupal periods and total cycle were 9.34 deg C, 11.65 deg C, 9.65 deg C, 11.08 deg C and 11.23 deg C, with thermal constants of 62,73 degree-days (DD), 254.61DD, 33.42DD, 177.55DD and 525.11DD, respectively. Evaluating the pupal phase alone, the threshold temperatures were 11.25 deg C for males and 10.81deg C for females, with thermal constants of 188.26DD for males and 165.47DD for females. For total cycle, the threshold temperature and the thermal constant for males were 11.28 deg C and 535.85DD, whereas for females the same variables had values of 11.15 deg C and 513.17DD. So, the most adequate temperature for the development of S. cosmioides is within the range of 25 deg C and 28 deg C, where 9.6 to 11.7 generations of the insect can be annually obtained, in laboratory conditions. (author)

  19. Biology and thermal requirements of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) was studied under different temperatures and its thermal requirements were determined, aiming to aid the rearing of this insect in the laboratory. Embryonic and post-embryonic periods were evaluated at seven different temperatures (14, 18, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C) under environmental chamber conditions, with 14h photophase. The caterpillars were reared on an artificial diet containing white bean, soybean meal, yeast extract, wheat germ and powder milk as source of protein. The extent of the embryonic period decreased with the increase of temperature within the 14 deg C to 25 deg C temperature range, remaining constant between 28 deg C and 32 deg C. For the other phases (caterpillar, pre-pupa and pupa) an inverse relationship between temperature and duration was observed within the 14 deg C to 30 deg C temperature range, extending to 32 deg C for pupae. Duration of pupal phase for males was larger than for females resulting in asynchronous adult emergence. The temperature thresholds for the embryonic, larval, pre-pupal, pupal periods and total cycle were 9.34 deg C, 11.65 deg C, 9.65 deg C, 11.08 deg C and 11.23 deg C, with thermal constants of 62,73 degree-days (DD), 254.61DD, 33.42DD, 177.55DD and 525.11DD, respectively. Evaluating the pupal phase alone, the threshold temperatures were 11.25 deg C for males and 10.81deg C for females, with thermal constants of 188.26DD for males and 165.47DD for females. For total cycle, the threshold temperature and the thermal constant for males were 11.28 deg C and 535.85DD, whereas for females the same variables had values of 11.15 deg C and 513.17DD. So, the most adequate temperature for the development of S. cosmioides is within the range of 25 deg C and 28 deg C, where 9.6 to 11.7 generations of the insect can be annually obtained, in laboratory conditions. (author)

  20. Misplaced Neotropical Agaristinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, with descriptions of new taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor O. Becker

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The following taxa, formerly misplaced, are transferred to Agaristinae based on characters of genitalia and, especially, on the presence of a prominence on the frons of head, a character absent in the Arctiinae: Acyclania Dognin, 1911, Chlanidophora Berg, 1877 and Graphelysia Hampson, 1911 from the Arctiinae; Cyanohypsa Giacomelli, 1911 from the Pericopinae [= Pericopini]; Oxytaphora Dyar, 1917 from the Amphipyrinae; Cabralia judsoni Schaus, 1933 from the Ophiderinae [= Catocalinae] to Rhosus Walker, 1854 [= Rhosus judsoni (Schaus comb. nov.]; Caularisia gen. nov. is proposed to include C. zikani (Schaus, 1933 comb. nov.; Gerra radiata sp. nov. is described from Brazil; Caridarctia Hampson, 1901 syn. nov. [= Chlanidophora Berg]; Chlanidophora mariae Köhler, 1924 syn. nov. [= Acyclania tenebrosa Dognin], Aucula particolor Dyar, 1914 syn. nov. and Gerra pulchra Draudt, 1919 syn. nov. [= Darcetina sublata (Walker, [1865

  1. Binary floral lure attractive to velvetbean caterpillar adults (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in northern Florida, revealed that linalool was synergistic in attractiveness with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to the migratory moth velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner). This noctuid was the most common species collected from traps w...

  2. Review of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) genetic complexity and migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a significant economic pest in the western hemisphere, causing substantial losses in corn, sorghum, forage and turf grasses (Luginbill 1928, Sparks 1979). Although fall armyworm does not survive severe winters, it infests most of the central...

  3. Larval description of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last-instar larva of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) is described for the first time. Specimens in this study were reared from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Chenopodiaceae), Bolivia, La Paz, 4 km S Viacha, Quipaquipani, 3880 m. The larva of Copitarsia incommoda is compared with larvae of Copi...

  4. A new Perigrapha Lederer, 1857 from South Kazakhstan (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volynkin, Anton V; Titov, Sergey V; Knyazev, Svyatoslav A

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Perigrapha, P. yasawii sp. n. is described from Syrdarya river valley, South Kazakhstan. The adults and male genitalia of the new and related species are illustrated. PMID:25284659

  5. Antixenosis of bean genotypes to Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Morando

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate bean genotypes for resistance to soybean looper (Chrysodeixis includens. Initially, free-choice tests were carried out with 59 genotypes, divided into three groups according to leaf color intensity (dark green, light green, and medium green, in order to evaluate oviposition preference. Subsequently, 12 genotypes with high potential for resistance were selected, as well as two susceptible commercial standards. With these genotypes, new tests were performed for oviposition in a greenhouse, besides tests for attractiveness and consumption under laboratory conditions (26±2ºC, 65±10% RH, and 14 h light: 10 h dark photophase. In the no-choice test with adults, in the greenhouse, the 'IAC Jabola', Arcelina 1, 'IAC Boreal', 'Flor de Mayo', and 'IAC Formoso' genotypes were the least oviposited, showing antixenosis-type resistance for oviposition. In the free-choice test with larvae, Arcelina 4, 'BRS Horizonte', 'Pérola', H96A102-1-1-1-52, 'IAC Boreal', 'IAC Harmonia', and 'IAC Formoso' were the less consumed genotypes, which indicates antixenosis to feeding. In the no-choice test, all genotypes (except for 'IAPAR 57' expressed moderate levels of antixenosis to feeding against C. includens larvae.

  6. Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gyulai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new Anagnorisma species, A. chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, A. eucratides (Boursin, 1960. The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran.

  7. Estágios imaturos de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Immature stages of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício M. Zenker

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 é composto por trinta espécies de distribuição cosmopolita, encontradas com maior freqüência em locais de clima mais quente. Quinze espécies são pragas agrícolas, apresentando alto grau de polifitofagia, alimentando-se de importantes culturas como soja, milho, arroz e batata inglesa. A morfologia dos estágios imaturos dos representantes deste gênero é pouco conhecida, sendo que um terço das espécies não possui descrição de seus estágios imaturos. Entre as espécies ocorrentes no Brasil, sem tais informações, destaca-se Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858. Este trabalho caracterizou detalhadamente seus principais aspectos morfológicos, passíveis de serem utilizados na identificação taxonômica dos estágios imaturos; contém dados referentes à morfologia, destacando-se a área micropilar dos ovos, quetotaxia, fiandeira e coloração da fase de lagarta e disposição dos apêndices e aberturas naturais nas pupas.There are 30 species in the genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 worldwide distributed, occurring mainly in the warm regions. Fifteen species are considered plagues feeding on several important agricultural crops as soybean, corn, rice and potato. The immature stages morphology of this genus is not well known. In about one third of the most economically relevant species, the caterpillar is not described and, also, few information related to the chrysalis and the eggs are available. Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858 is one of the most important pest among the noctuids occurring in Brazil with no information about its immature stages. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations of the immature stages of S. cosmioides, as micropilar area of the egg, chaetotaxy, spinneret, caterpillar ground color, arrangement of the appendages and natural openings of the pupa, are presented for the first time. Taxonomic remarks are also provided.

  8. Estágios imaturos de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) Immature stages of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício M. Zenker; Alexandre Specht; Elio Corseuil

    2007-01-01

    O gênero Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 é composto por trinta espécies de distribuição cosmopolita, encontradas com maior freqüência em locais de clima mais quente. Quinze espécies são pragas agrícolas, apresentando alto grau de polifitofagia, alimentando-se de importantes culturas como soja, milho, arroz e batata inglesa. A morfologia dos estágios imaturos dos representantes deste gênero é pouco conhecida, sendo que um terço das espécies não possui descrição de seus estágios imaturos. Entre as espé...

  9. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of five noctuid species (Insecta, Lepidoptera) captured in blacklight traps on São Miguel - Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Michael; Tavares, João; Vieira, Virgílio

    1995-01-01

    The adult flight periods of Agrotis ipsilon (HÜFNAGEL), Agrotis segetum (DENNIS & SCHIFERMÜLLER), Noctua pronuba LINNAEUS, Peridroma saucia (HÜBNER) and Xestia c-nigrum (LINNAEUS) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) were studied between July of 1988 and December of 1989, at Ribeira Grande, Arribanas and Lagoa do Congro on the island of São Miguel, using Pennsylvania blacklight traps. While there was evidence of considerable fluctuations in density, A. ipsilon, A. segetum, P. saucia and X c-nigrum ...

  10. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of Autographa gamma (L.) and Trichoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius) (Lep., Noctuidae) from São Miguel (Azores)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Michael; Tavares, João; Vieira, Virgílio

    1995-01-01

    A dinâmica do estado adulto de Autographa gamma (L.) e Trichoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) foi estudada entre Julho de 1988 e Dezembro de 1989, através de armadilhas luminosas do tipo pensilvânia instaladas em três localidades da ilha de São Miguel (Ribeira Grande, Arribanas e Lagoa do Congro). Para as três localidades, foram evidenciadas flutuações de densidade consideráveis. A. gamma foi observada continuamente nas três localidades, enquanto T. orichalcea foi captur...

  11. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  12. Genomics and genetic engineering of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedroviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.

    2001-01-01

    The single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SNPV) of the bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has been extensively used to control this insect around the world, especially in China. However, in order to compete with chemical insecticides - mainly for speed of action -novel approaches are sought to improv

  13. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  14. Immune responses of Helicoverpa armigera to different kinds of pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiao-Fan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects react against pathogens through innate immunity. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera is an important defoliator and an extremely destructive pest insect of many crops. The elucidation of the mechanism of the immune response of H. armigera to various pathogens can provide a theoretical basis for new approaches to biologically control this pest. Results Four kinds of pathogens Bacillus thuringiensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, and Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus harbored green fluorescence protein and polyhedron (AcMNPV-GFP were used to challenge the insect. The cellular and humoral immune responses to the pathogens were analyzed in the challenged H. armigera. The results show that in the five kinds of haemocytes, only granulocytes phagocytized the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. All haemocytes can be infected by AcMNPV. Fourteen immune-related genes including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs such as peptidoglycan recognition proteins (HaPGRP and HaPGRP C and Gram-Negative Bacteria-Binding Protein (HaGNBP, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs such as cecropin-1, 2 and 3 (HaCec-1, 2 and 3, lysozyme (HaLys, attacin (HaAtt, gallerimycin-like (HaGall, gloverin-like (HaGlo, moricin-like (HaMor, cobatoxin-like (HaCob, galiomicin-like (HaGali, and immune inducible protein (HaIip appeared in different expression profiles to different pathogen infections. The transcripts of 13 immune related genes (except HaPGRPC are obviously up-regulated by Gram-positive bacteria. HaCec-1 and 3, HaMor, HaAtt, HaLys, HaIip, HaPGRP and HaGNBP are greatly up-regulated after fungal infection. HaGNBP, HaCec-2, HaGall, HaGlo, HaMor, HaCob, HaGali obviously increased in Gram-negative bacterial infection. Only five genes, HaGNBP, HaCec-1, HaGali, HaGlo, and HaLys, are weakly up-regulated after viral infection. The AMP transcripts had higher expression levels than the

  15. 粘虫类钙粘蛋白基因的克隆、序列分析及时空表达%Cloning, sequence analysis and spatio-temporal expression of cadherin-like protein gene in the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 江幸福; 罗礼智; 胡毅; 张蕾

    2011-01-01

    The cadherin-like proteins, located in the brush border membrane vesicles ( BBMV) of insect midgut, are major receptors of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein. The complete cDNA sequence of cadherin-like protein gene was amplified from the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata, using RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The full cDNA sequence (named as Msclp, GenBank accession no. JF951432) is 5 642 bp in length, encoding 1 757 amino acid residues, and the deduced amino acid sequence shows typical characteristics of the known insect cadherin proteins, including a signal peptide, a proprotein region, twelve cadherin repeats, a membrane-proximal region, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic region. The predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point are 196. 786 kD and 4. 5, respectively. The cadherin-like protein from M. Separata shows the close relationship to cadherin proteins from Helicoverpa assulta, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua, with the amino acid identities of 61.77% , 61.66% , 61.26% and 58. 14% , respectively. The real-time RT-PCR results showed that relative expression levels of cadherin-like gene were significantly different in different instars of larvae (P < 0. 01) , which was the highest in the 4th instar larvae and the lowest in the newly-hatched larvae. The cadherin-like gene was majorly expressed in the midgut and very lowly expressed in other parts of the larval body. The results provide the basis for revealing the insecticidal mechanism of Bt to oriental armyworm, and the resistance mechanism of oriental armyworm to Bt.%昆虫中肠膜类钙粘蛋白( cadherin-like protein,CLP)是苏云金芽孢杆菌Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)毒素的重要受体之一,与Bt毒素的杀虫作用机制以及昆虫对Bt毒素的抗性等密切相关.本研究应用RT-PCR和RACE技术,克隆了迁飞性重要害虫粘虫Mythimna separata类钙粘蛋白基因全长cDNA序列(命名为Msclp,GenBank登录号为JF951432),

  16. 雾灵山自然保护区鳞翅目昆虫调查研究%Investigation of Order Lepidoptera Insects in Wulingshan Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛浩; 梁文琴

    2012-01-01

    The species and composition of lepidoptera insects in Wulingshan National Nature Reserve were investigated and their catalogue was coded. The results showed that there were 25 families, 237 genus and 346 species of lepidoptera insects in Wulingshan,the noctuidae, notodontidae, geometridae and sphingidae in moths was the most, and the nympalidae in butterflies was the most.%调查了雾灵山自然保护区鳞翅目昆虫的种类组成并编制了昆虫名录.结果显示,该区共有鳞翅目昆虫25科237属346种,其中蛾类中夜蛾科、舟蛾科、尺蛾科和天蛾科较多,蝶类中蛱蝶科最多.

  17. Candidate olfaction genes identified within the Helicoverpa armigera Antennal Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Antennal olfaction is extremely important for insect survival, mediating key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. Multiple antennal proteins are involved in olfactory signal transduction pathways. Of these, odorant receptors (ORs and ionotropic receptors (IRs confer specificity on olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, we identified the olfactory gene repertoire of the economically important agricultural pest moth, Helicoverpa armigera, by assembling the adult male and female antennal transcriptomes. Within the male and female antennal transcriptomes we identified a total of 47 OR candidate genes containing 6 pheromone receptor candidates. Additionally, 12 IR genes as well as 26 odorant-binding proteins and 12 chemosensory proteins were annotated. Our results allow a systematic functional analysis across much of conventional ORs repertoire and newly reported IRs mediating the key olfaction-mediated behaviors of H. armigera.

  18. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter;

    2008-01-01

      The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies of the...... Lepidopterera fauna of Anholt are dealt with. The present study is in first hand based on material collected by the late Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen and the authors, partly in the 1970's and partly in more recent years. The material do not permit a general comparison between the status of the Lepidoptera fauna on...

  19. Understanding heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) pests: what is a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John Paul; Zalucki, Myron P

    2014-06-01

    Heliothine moths (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) include some of the world's most devastating pest species. Whereas the majority of nonpest heliothinae specialize on a single plant family, genus, or species, pest species are highly polyphagous, with populations often escalating in size as they move from one crop species to another. Here, we examine the current literature on heliothine host-selection behavior with the aim of providing a knowledge base for research scientists and pest managers. We review the host relations of pest heliothines, with a particular focus on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the most economically damaging of all heliothine species. We then consider the important question of what constitutes a host plant in these moths, and some of the problems that arise when trying to determine host plant status from empirical studies on host use. The top six host plant families in the two main Australian pest species (H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren) are the same and the top three (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae) are ranked the same (in terms of the number of host species on which eggs or larvae have been identified), suggesting that these species may use similar cues to identify their hosts. In contrast, for the two key pest heliothines in the Americas, the Fabaceae contains approximately 1/3 of hosts for both. For Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the remaining hosts are more evenly distributed, with Solanaceae next, followed by Poaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, and Rosaceae. For Heliothis virescens (F.), the next highest five families are Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Again there is considerable overlap in host use at generic and even species level. H. armigera is the most widely distributed and recorded from 68 plant families worldwide, but only 14 families are recorded as a containing a host in all geographic areas. A few crop hosts are used throughout the range as expected, but in some cases there

  20. 斜纹夜蛾蜕皮响应基因E75D的克隆、原核表达分析及microRNA作用位点预测%Molecular characterization, prokaryotic expression analysis and miRNA binding site prediction of an ecdysone inducible gene E75D from Spodoptera litura ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高璐; 左洪亮; 姜春来; 刘海远; 钟国华

    2012-01-01

    E75D is one of the important early transcription factors in the molting process of insects. The cDNA of E75D was cloned from Spodoptera litura by RT-PCR and RACE technology for the first time in this experiment and named SU-E75D ( GenBank accession no. JQ266225 ) . SU-E15D consists of a 1 836 bp open reading frame encoding 611 amino acids, with a 341 bp 5' untranslated regions ( UTR) and a 358 bp 3'UTR. £75, especially its 3'UTR, is highly conserved among the Lepidoptera insects; however, it shows significant difference in 5'UTR among four isoforms because of the difference of their promoter. The deduced amino acid sequence of £75D in S. litura share 98.4% , 79.3% and 76.5% identity with the homologues in Spodoptera littoralis, Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori, respectively. The miRNAs mifi-14, miR-33 and miR-87, which are the most possible regulator of E75, were predicted by PITA and RNAhybird programs based on the highly conserved 3'UTR of £75. The recombinant vector pET28a-SZi-E75D was constructed and transformed into Escheridua coli BL21 ( DE3 ) and Transetta ( DE3 ) , respectively, to study the effects of rare codons on E75D expression. SDS-PAGE analysis of prokaryotic protein showed that the Transetta ( DE3 ) which transformed pET28a-Sft-£75Z) recombinant vector expressed much more prokaryotic recombinant E75D protein (consisting of 67. 19 kD SH-E75D, and 7.6 kD T7· Tag and His · Tag) than BL21 (DE3). The result of SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that Transetta( DE3) is better for the prokaryotic expression of E75D because it supplies tRNAs corresponding to six rare codons in E. coli. The expression levels of SU-E75 in developmental stages from the last instar larva to adult were detected by qRT-PCR. The results of qRT-PCR revealed that Sli-E75 was expressed at a low level in 6th instar larva, and its expression increased rapidly from prepupa and reached the peak in the middle pupal stage. Then, the expression level of Sli-E75 decreased quickly in the

  1. Host selection of Helicoverpa armigera and H.assulta and its inheritance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenzhu; DONG Junfeng; TANG Deliang; ZHANG Jihong; LI Wei; QIN Junde

    2004-01-01

    The difference in host selection between the polyphagous Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and the oligophagous H. assulta Quenée was examined, with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) (hosts of H. armigera), tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) (host of both H. armigera and H. assulta), and bush redpepper (Capsicum frutescens) (host of H. assulta) as testing plants. A multiple-choice test was used with caged plant cuttings for adult oviposition and with leaf discs for larval feeding. A no-choice test was run for evaluating larval growth rate. The results indicated that the relationship between larval performance and adult preference of H. assulta was more conspicuous than that of H. armigera. Reciprocal hybridization between H. armigera and H. assulta followed by backcrossing of the hybrids (F1) with H. armigera was also carried out for genetic study on host selection of these two insect species. A two-choice test with cotton and bush redpepper leaf discs showed that H. armigera larvae preferred to feed on cotton, and H. assulta larvae to bush redpepper; feeding preferences of the two F1 lines were intermediate between those of their parents, but close to that of their female parent; preference indexes of backcross lines also showed that both maternal factor and chromosomal inheritance were involved in feeding selection of two Helicoverpa species.

  2. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.;

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... public database at http://insectacentral.org/RNAi will continue to gather information on RNAi experiments. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Lepidoptera. Chapter 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna, in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries, Madeira and Azores 21.6%, North America 16.5%, Australasia 7.2% and the neotropics just 5.2%. The route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confined to man-made habitats, with 52.5% occuring in parks and gardens. We highlight four species in particular, Diaphania perspectalis, Cacyreus marshalli, Cameraria ohridella and Paysandisia archon, as the most important current economic threats.

  4. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae) against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elumalai Arumugam; Backiyaraj Muthusamy; Kasinathan Dhamodaran; Mathivanan Thangarasu; Krishnappa Kaliyamoorthy; Elumalai Kuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (S. litura). Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990), with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths) S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925); the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  5. The potential distribution of invading Helicoverpa armigera in North America: is it just a matter of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera has recently invaded South and Central America, and appears to be spreading rapidly. We update a previously developed potential distribution model to highlight the global invasion threat, with emphasis on the risks to the United States. The continued range expansion of H. armigera in Central America is likely to change the invasion threat it poses to North America qualitatively, making natural dispersal from either the Caribbean islands or Mexico feasible. To characterise the threat posed by H. armigera, we collated the value of the major host crops in the United States growing within its modelled potential range, including that area where it could expand its range during favourable seasons. We found that the annual value of crops that would be exposed to H. armigera totalled approximately US$78 billion p.a., with US$843 million p.a. worth growing in climates that are optimal for the pest. Elsewhere, H. armigera has developed broad-spectrum pesticide resistance; meaning that if it invades the United States, protecting these crops from significant production impacts could be challenging. It may be cost-effective to undertake pre-emptive biosecurity activities such as slowing the spread of H. armigera throughout the Americas, improving the system for detecting H. armigera, and methods for rapid identification, especially distinguishing between H. armigera, H. zea and potential H. armigera x H. zea hybrids. Developing biological control programs, especially using inundative techniques with entomopathogens and parasitoids could slow the spread of H. armigera, and reduce selective pressure for pesticide resistance. The rapid spread of H. armigera through South America into Central America suggests that its spread into North America is a matter of time. The likely natural dispersal routes preclude aggressive incursion responses, emphasizing the value of preparatory communication with agricultural producers in areas suitable for

  6. Trichogramma chilotraeae PARASITOID TELUR Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner PADA POPULASI INANG RENDAH

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    - Sujak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera Hubner is an insect pest of corn and cotton crops. Eggs are laid by  H. armigera imago on corn silk and cotton crops often have high mortality, mainly caused by egg parasitoid. H. armigera egg on various agroecosystem reported can  be parasited by at least 12 species of  Trichogrammatidae. The purpose of this study was to determine the diversity of  Trichogrammatidae family as  parasitoid eggs of  H. armigera on  low population. H. armigera egg sample taken from Asembagus, Lamongan and Blora at 1 m2 field  both monoculture and intercropping. Observation of parasitoids and predators  done at the Laboratory of Biological Control Balittas Malang. Parasitoid that appears preserved in the Hoyer medium for identification purposes. low population of  H. armigera Egg in Asembagus is  4 eggs/m2 in both monoculture maize and intercropping with 86-100 days after transplanting (DAT cotton and  4.5 egg/m2 on cotton monoculture and intercropping with 75  DAT soybean, while 2 eggs/m2 in the Lamongan and Blora corn agroecosystem. The dominant egg parasitoid in Asembagus is T. chilotraea, as well as in Lamongan and Blora.

  7. Distinction entre Spodoptera latifascia (Walker) et Spodoptera Cosmioides (Walker), bona species [Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    OpenAIRE

    Silvain, Jean-François; Lalanne-Cassou, B.

    1997-01-01

    #Spodoptera cosmioides$, described by Walker in 1858 from Para, Brazil, has hitherto been regarded as a junior synonym of #S. latifascia$, described by Walker in 1856 from Jamaica. We observed several molecular, morphological, physiological and behavioural differences between #latifascia$ moths collected in North America and West Indies, and moths coming from South America. The latter correspond to the type of #cosmioides$, which must be considered a distinct species. (Résumé d'auteur)

  8. Determination of the resistance types to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in soybean genotypes

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    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the resistance types in soybean genotypes to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker in laboratory. Soybean genotypes assessed were as follows: ‘IAC 100’ (resistance standard, ‘BR16’ (susceptible standard, ‘Dowling’, PI 227687, PI 274454, ‘IGRA RA 626 RR’, PI 227682, ‘BRSGO 8360’, ‘IGRA RA 516 RR’ and ‘P 98Y11 RR’. Free-choice and no-choice feeding non-preference tests were done using two newly-hatched larvae per genotype or one third-instar larva per genotype in both tests. Larvae attractiveness was evaluated in different times, and at the end of the experiments the leaf area consumed was quantified. In the antibiosis test, newly-hatched larvae were individualized into Petri dishes, where leaflets of the genotypes were offered over the larval stage, and the following biological parameters were assessed: period and viability of larvae, pupae and overall (larvae + pupae, weight of larvae and pupae, sex ratio and adults longevity. Overall, in the feeding preference tests, significant differences were not found in leaf consumption among the genotypes. In the antibiosis assay, genotypes PI 227687, PI 227682 and ‘IAC 100’ caused 100% larval mortality and the lowest weight of larvae, ranging between 37.65 and 85.56 mg. All soybean genotypes evaluated do not exhibit feeding non-preference type resistance to S. cosmioides, and PI 227687, PI 227682 and ‘IAC 100’ highlighted for possessing antibiosis.

  9. Determination of the resistance types to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in soybean genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior; Daline Benites Bottega; Bruno Henrique Sardinha de Souza; Nara Elisa Lobato Rodrigues; Victor Michelin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the resistance types in soybean genotypes to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) in laboratory. Soybean genotypes assessed were as follows: ‘IAC 100’ (resistance standard), ‘BR16’ (susceptible standard), ‘Dowling’, PI 227687, PI 274454, ‘IGRA RA 626 RR’, PI 227682, ‘BRSGO 8360’, ‘IGRA RA 516 RR’ and ‘P 98Y11 RR’. Free-choice and no-choice feeding non-preference tests were done using two newly-hatched larvae per genotype or one third-instar larva per genotype in...

  10. Allometric growth of larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacone, J.; Alvariño, L.

    2007-01-01

    Allometric growth of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782) was studied, during one generation, under temperature and humid conditions that fluctuated between 22±3ºC y 73±6%, respectively. Every one of the six larval instars (LI) was lengthened total lengthen (TL) (mm) and diameter of cephalic capsule (CC) (mm). CC and TL presented a coefficient of variation means (CV %) of 15.59±8.87% and 16.57±3.98%, respectively. Larvae growth rate mean was 1.58±0.27 (1.25 to 1.95). Percentage o...

  11. Immature stages of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): developmental parameters and host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montezano, Débora Goulart; Specht, Alexandre; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel Ricardo; Roque-Specht, Vânia Ferreira; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to detail the temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) with larvae feed on artificial diet, under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 14-h photophase) and gather information about their larval host plants. The viability of the egg, larval, pupal, and prepupal stages was 97.82, 93.62, 96.42, and 97.03%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, pupal, and pre-pupal stages was 4.00, 16.18, 1.58, and 9.17 d, respectively. During the larval stage, 43.44% of females passed through seven instars, observing that the female's development was significant slower than males. The female larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth rate of 1.52 and 1.44, respectively. Female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting faster development than males. The rearing method proved to be adequate, providing more detailed observations of the biological cycle, especially at the larval stage, and resulting in an overall survival of almost 85%. Two hundred two plant species belonging to 58 families are listed as natural hosts for S. eridania, mainly including Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Malvaceae. PMID:25525103

  12. Biology and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in different soybean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the development, survival and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania in four soybean cultivars. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in a climatic chamber at 25 °C ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 12 h photophase. The cultivars used were: FMT Tabarana, BRS/MT Pintado, FMT Tucunaré and Monsoy 8757, all conventional cultivars with medium cycles. All cultivars tested allowed the development of S. eridania. However, Monsoy 8757 was the cultivar ...

  13. Allometric growth of larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Iannacone, J.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Allometric growth of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782 was studied, during one generation, under temperature and humid conditions that fluctuated between 22±3ºC y 73±6%, respectively. Every one of the six larval instars (LI was lengthened total lengthen (TL (mm and diameter of cephalic capsule (CC (mm. CC and TL presented a coefficient of variation means (CV % of 15.59±8.87% and 16.57±3.98%, respectively. Larvae growth rate mean was 1.58±0.27 (1.25 to 1.95. Percentage of CC showed a light negative allometric with relation to TL, and between LI and %CC of S. eridania.

  14. Antibiosis in Soybean Genotypes and the Resistance Levels to Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, B H S; Silva, A G; Janini, J C; Boica Júnior, A L

    2014-12-01

    The southern armyworm (SAW) Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) is one of the most common armyworm species defoliating soybeans. Preliminary screening trials have indicated that some soybean genotypes exhibit resistance to SAW. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the development of SAW larvae fed on ten soybean genotypes in order to identify genotypes with antibiosis-type resistance. Neonate SAW larvae were daily fed with young leaves collected from plants at the vegetative growth stages V4-V5. Larval development and survival were recorded. Genotypes PI 227687 and PI 227682 delayed larval, pupal, and larva-adult development and yielded larvae with the lowest weight and survival and pupae with the lowest weight. Genotypes IAC 100 and DM 339 also negatively affected larval and pupal development and larval survival but at a lower level. Based on our results, the soybean lines PI 227687 and PI 227682 could be used as sources of genes for soybean breeding programs aiming to develop high yield, SAW-resistant cultivars. Moreover, further trials must be carried out under field conditions to validate if the commercial cultivars IAC 100 and DM 339, which expressed moderate levels of antibiosis-type resistance in the laboratory, are effective in suppressing SAW larvae populations. PMID:27194067

  15. Biology and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in different soybean cultivars

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    Bruna Magda Favetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the development, survival and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania in four soybean cultivars. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in a climatic chamber at 25 °C ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 12 h photophase. The cultivars used were: FMT Tabarana, BRS/MT Pintado, FMT Tucunaré and Monsoy 8757, all conventional cultivars with medium cycles. All cultivars tested allowed the development of S. eridania. However, Monsoy 8757 was the cultivar that most affected the prolonged in the duration larval, pupal and total cycle, showed lower pupal weight as well as reduction in the intrinsic rate increase. These results contribute to the management of this species in regions of outbreaks in soybean areas.

  16. Effects of Wolbachia on mitochondrial DNA variation in populations of Athetis lepigone (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that infect arthropods and incompatibility among strains can affect gene flow within host insect populations, that can result in significant host mitochondrial DNA (MtD) variation. The effects of Wolbachia infection on mtDNA variation was studied in Athetis lepi...

  17. Survey for hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) larvae was conducted to determine their occurrence and parasitism rates in Western Chiapas, Mexico. FAW larvae were collected from whorl-stage cornfields in Chiapas in the region called ...

  18. Parasitism capacity of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae eggs

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    Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bueno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the parasitism capacity of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae eggs at 15, 20, 25, 28, 31, and 35°C, aiming to use this natural enemy in biological control programs in crops where S. frugiperda was considered pest. The parasitism during the first 24 h was 60.90, 81.65, 121.05, 117.55 and 108.55 parasited eggs per female from egg masses of approximately 150 eggs, at 15, 20, 25, 28 and 31°C, respectively. Females of T. remus reached parasitism higher than 80% at 15, 20, 25, 28 and 31ºC at 5, 27, 8, 2, and 2 days, respectively. At 35ºC, there was no parasitism. The highest parasitism rates occurred at 20, 25, 28 and 31°C. T. remus female longevity varied from 15.7 to 7.7 days from 15 to 31°C. The highest tested temperature (35°C was inappropriate for T. remus development. At that temperature, female longevity was greatly reduced (1.7±0.02 and egg viability was null. All T. remus survival curves were of type I, which showed an increase in mortality rate with time.Este trabalho estudou a capacidade de parasitismo de Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 28, 31 e 35ºC objetivando usar esse inimigo natural em programas de controle biológico em culturas onde S. frugiperda é considerada praga. O parasitismo ocorrido nas primeiras 24 h foi de 60,90; 81,65; 121,05; 117,55 e 108,55 ovos parasitados por fêmea em massas ovos com aproximadamente 150 ovos, nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 28 e 31ºC. Fêmeas de T. remus causaram mais de 80% do parasitismo dos ovos nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 28 e 31ºC aos 5, 27, 8, 2 e 2 dias, respectivamente. Na temperatura de 35ºC não houve parasitismo. As maiores taxas de parasitismo ocorreram nas temperaturas de 20, 25, 28 e 31ºC. A longevidade média de fêmeas de T. remus nas temperaturas compreendidas entre 15 e 31ºC variou de 15,5 a 7,7 dias. A temperatura máxima testada (35ºC foi inadequada ao desenvolvimento de T. remus, sendo que nessa temperatura as fêmeas apresentaram longevidade bastante reduzida (1,7±0,02 dia e não houve emergência de adultos. Todas as curvas de sobrevivência para T. remus foram do tipo I o que mostram que para todas as temperaturas há um aumento da taxa de mortalidade com o tempo.

  19. Host association of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Juárez; M.G. Murua; M.G. García; M. Ontivero; M.T. Vera; J.C. Vilardi; A.T. Groot; A.P. Castagnaro; G. Gastaminza; E. Willink

    2012-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is composed of two genetically distinct strains, the so-called corn strain and the rice strain. Whether the two strains differ in their host use is unclear, because laboratory experiments have not been able to show consistent host performance or preference differen

  20. Host association of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, M Laura; Murúa, M Gabriela; García, M Gabriela; Ontivero, Marta; Vera, M Teresa; Vilardi, Juan C; Groot, Astrid T; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo

    2012-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is composed of two genetically distinct strains, the so-called corn strain and the rice strain. Whether the two strains differ in their host use is unclear, because laboratory experiments have not been able to show consistent host performance or preference differences between them, and field studies showed high rates of hybridization, as well as some degree asymmetric host use. To determine the distribution of the two strains and their association with host plants, we collected fall armyworm larvae from different crops (corn, rice, alfalfa, and sorghum) and grasses in 15 different localities over 4 yr in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. The strain identity was analyzed using two polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. We identified the corn and rice haplotypes and three types of populations were characterized based on the frequencies of the individuals that belonged to any of these haplotypes: in 44% of populations the corn haplotype predominated, in 44% of populations the rice haplotype was the most frequent, and 11% of populations showed both haplotypes at similar proportions. In total, eight populations (47%) showed the expected pattern, two populations (12%) were polymorphic within the same field, and seven populations (41%) showed the inverse pattern. Taken together, there was no consistent pattern of host association between the two sympatric genotypes and their respective host plants. This investigation supports the need for additional studies to determine which other forces keep the genotypes separate, and what is the degree of genetic differentiation between these populations.

  1. Host plants of leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: noctuidae in Pakistan

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    Munir Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura is a notorious leaf feeding insect pest of more than one hundred plants around the Asia-Pacific region. Host plant survey for two years from three different locations in cotton belt revealed 27 plant species as host plants of S. litura belonging to 25 genera of 14 families including cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds, fruits and ornamental plants. Major host plants on which it thrived for maximum period were Gossypium hirsutum L., Ricinus communis L., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Colocasia esculenta L., Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Sesbania sesban L.. Eggs were also collected from tree plants but larvae did not complete their development. Reliance of S. litura on major plant species of cultivated crops necessitates their regular monitoring especially during March to April for their population abundance and early warning for their management on commercial crops like cotton.

  2. Cross-resistance to alpha-cypermethrin after xanthotoxin ingestion in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Zangerl, A R; Schuler, M A; Berenbaum, M R

    2000-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) are membrane-bound hemoproteins that play important roles in conferring protection against both naturally occurring phytochemicals and synthetic organic insecticides. Despite the potential for common modes of detoxification, cross-resistance between phytochemicals and synthetic organic insecticides has rarely been documented. In this study, we examined the responses of a susceptible strain of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), a polyphagous noctuid, to exposure by an allelochemical infrequently encountered in its host plants and by an insecticide widely used for control purposes. Within a single generation, survivors of xanthotoxin exposure displayed higher levels of tolerance to alpha-cypermethrin than did unexposed control larvae. The F1 offspring of xanthotoxin-exposed survivors also displayed higher alpha-cypermethrin tolerance than did offspring of unexposed control larvae, suggesting that increased alpha-cypermethrin tolerance after xanthotoxin exposure represents, at least in part, heritable resistance. Administration of piperonyl butoxide, a P450 synergist, demonstrated that resistance to both xanthotoxin and alpha-cypermethrin is P450-mediated. Alpha-cypermethrin-exposed survivors, however, failed to show superior growth on xanthotoxin diets. Assays with control larvae, larvae induced by both xanthotoxin and alpha-cypermethrin, and survivors of LD50 doses of both compounds indicated that H. zea midgut P450s are capable of metabolizing both xanthotoxin and alpha-cypermethrin. Metabolism of each compound is significantly inhibited by the presence of the other compound, suggesting that at least one form of P450 in H. zea midguts degrades both compounds and may constitute the biochemical basis for possible cross-resistance. Compared with control larvae, xanthotoxin- and alpha-cypermethrin-induced larvae displayed 2- to 4-fold higher P450-mediated metabolism of both compounds. However, xanthotoxin- and alpha-cypermethrin-exposed survivors exhibited much higher (2.5- to 11-fold) metabolism of both compounds than did the induced larvae. The metabolism results, like the bioassay results, are consistent with the interpretation that increased alpha-cypermethrin tolerance after xanthotoxin exposure is attributable mainly to heritable resistance.

  3. A new species of Anarta Ochsenheimer, 1816 from Mongolian and Russian Altai (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volynkin, Anton V; Ivanova, Maria S

    2014-01-01

    Anarta Ochsenheimer, 1816 is a hadenine genus restricted to Palaearctic and Nearctic Regions. The genus includes about 80 described species and subdivided into seven subgenera (Hacker 1998; Fibiger et al. 2011): Trichoclea Grote, 1883 (= Hadula Staudinger, 1889), Cardiestra Boursin, 1963, Ptochicestra Hacker, 1998, Aglossestra Hampson, 1905, Calocestra Beck, 1991, Pulchrohadula Hacker, 1998 and Anarta Ochsenheimer, 1816 (= Discestra Hampson, 1905). The group has been revised by Hacker (1998). Anarta, Trichoclea, Hadula and Discestra were been synonymized by Fibiger & Hacker (2005). PMID:24872077

  4. Phylogeny, systematics and biogeography of the genus panolis (lepidoptera: noctuidae based on morphological and molecular evidence.

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    Houshuai Wang

    Full Text Available The genus Panolis is a small group of noctuid moths with six recognized species distributed from Europe to East Asia, and best known for containing the widespread Palearctic pest species P. flammea, the pine beauty moth. However, a reliable classification and robust phylogenetic framework for this group of potentially economic importance are currently lacking. Here, we use morphological and molecular data (mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA, nuclear gene elongation factor-1 alpha to reconstruct the phylogeny of this genus, with a comprehensive systematic revision of all recognized species and a new one, P. ningshan sp. nov. The analysis results of maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferring methods for the combined morphological and molecular data sets are highly congruent, resulting in a robust phylogeny and identification of two clear species groups, i.e., the P. flammea species group and the P. exquisita species group. We also estimate the divergence times of Panolis moths using two conventional mutation rates for the arthropod mitochondrial COI gene with a comparison of two molecular clock models, as well as reconstruct their ancestral areas. Our results suggest that 1 Panolis is a young clade, originating from the Oriental region in China in the Late Miocene (6-10Mya, with an ancestral species in the P. flammea group extending northward to the Palearctic region some 3-6 Mya; 2 there is a clear possibility for a representative of the Palearctic clade to become established as an invasive species in the Nearctic taiga.

  5. A new subspecies of Xestia ashworthii (Doublebay, 1855) from Russian Altai (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volynkin, Anton V; Dvořák, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Xestia Hübner, [1818] is a large noctuine genus with an almost worldwide distribution. In the Palaearctic region the genus represented by about 190 described species (Kononenko 2003; Gyulai & Ronkay 2006; Fibiger et al. 2010; Gyulai et al. 2011; Kononenko et al. 2012; Gyulai et al. 2013a; 2013b). The genus subdivided into four described subgenera (Lafontaine et al. 1998, in Lafontaine 1998; Kononenko et al. 2012): Xestia, Megasema Hübner, [1821], Pachnobia Guenée, 1852 (= Schoyenia Aurivillius, 1883; Anomogyna Staudinger, 1871) and Raddea Alphéraky, 1892 (= Estimata I. Kozhanchikov, 1928; Erebophasma Boursin, 1963). Schoyenia and Anomogyna have been synonymised with Pachnobia by Lafontaine et al. (1998, in Lafontaine 1998). On the status of Raddea and synonymy of Estimata and Erebophasma see Lafontaine (1998). The genus is most diverse in the mountains of South Siberia, West China and the Himalayas. The Holarctic taxa of Pachnobia were revised by Mikkola et al. (1983, as Schoyenia), Lafontaine et al. (1987, as Pachnobia), and Lafontaine et al. (1998, in Lafontaine 1998); European taxa of the genus have been reviewed by Fibiger (1992; 1997), and the Nearctic fauna has been revised by Lafontaine (1998). The Asiatic fauna of the genus needs revision. PMID:27395117

  6. Taxonomy and biogeography of the Nearctic Raphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Raphiinae

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    Christian Schmidt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences. Lack of diagnostic morphological differences, combined with relatively low mtDNA barcode divergences and clinal phenotypic variation in key geographic regions indicate that the six previously recognized species of North American Raphia are best interpreted as parapatric subspecies. Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote. Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

  7. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

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    Qi Xu

    Full Text Available The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest.

  8. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), tubulin (TUB), and β-actin (ACTB) were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1) were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands). 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults). 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (-8, -6, -4, -2, 0, and 27°C). To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83) was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens.

  9. Effects of green manure cover crops on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Tang, Li-Cheng; Chi, Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest of numerous agro-economic crops, including green manure cover crops. In Taiwan, sesbania (Sesbanin roxburghii Merr.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and rapeseed (Brassicae campestris L. variety chinensis) are the most popular green manure crops; sesbania and sunn hemp are commonly planted in warm seasons, whereas rapeseed is grown in the winter. In this study, life-table data for S. litura reared on these three green manures were collected to evaluate their roles as refuges of this pest. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of S. litura were the highest when reared on sesbania (1428.1 offspring, 0.2327 d(-1), 1.2621 d(-1)), followed by sunn hemp (778.4 offspring, 0.2070 d(-1), 1.2300 d(-1)) and rapeseed (737.6 offspring, 0.2040 d(-1), 1.2263 d(-1)). The high growth rates on these green manure crops show that they can serve as potential breeding sites for S. litura. Population projection demonstrated the rapid growth of S. litura on sesbania, sunn hemp, and rapeseed as well. Because most growers have traditionally ignored pest management in green manure fields, the mass emergence of S. litura in these fields may cause unexpected infestations in nearby vegetable, corn, and peanut crops. This study shows that the use of green manures as sources of nutrients should be critically reassessed and an area-wide pest management program should be instituted by taking the population of S. litura in green manure fields into consideration.

  10. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda. PMID:21941921

  11. Effects of green manure cover crops on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Tang, Li-Cheng; Chi, Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest of numerous agro-economic crops, including green manure cover crops. In Taiwan, sesbania (Sesbanin roxburghii Merr.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and rapeseed (Brassicae campestris L. variety chinensis) are the most popular green manure crops; sesbania and sunn hemp are commonly planted in warm seasons, whereas rapeseed is grown in the winter. In this study, life-table data for S. litura reared on these three green manures were collected to evaluate their roles as refuges of this pest. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of S. litura were the highest when reared on sesbania (1428.1 offspring, 0.2327 d(-1), 1.2621 d(-1)), followed by sunn hemp (778.4 offspring, 0.2070 d(-1), 1.2300 d(-1)) and rapeseed (737.6 offspring, 0.2040 d(-1), 1.2263 d(-1)). The high growth rates on these green manure crops show that they can serve as potential breeding sites for S. litura. Population projection demonstrated the rapid growth of S. litura on sesbania, sunn hemp, and rapeseed as well. Because most growers have traditionally ignored pest management in green manure fields, the mass emergence of S. litura in these fields may cause unexpected infestations in nearby vegetable, corn, and peanut crops. This study shows that the use of green manures as sources of nutrients should be critically reassessed and an area-wide pest management program should be instituted by taking the population of S. litura in green manure fields into consideration. PMID:25026645

  12. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John

    2013-06-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  13. Molecular variability and genetic structure of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important soybean defoliator in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Janine; Maebe, Kevin; Guedes, Jerson Vanderlei Carús; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, 1857), an important defoliating pest species of soybean crops in Brazil. Population genetic variability and the genetic structure of C. includens populations were evaluated by using ISSR markers with samples from the major soybean producing regions in Brazil in the growing seasons 2011/2012. Seven different primers were applied for population characterization of the molecular variability and genetic structure of 8 soybean looper populations from 8 states of Brazil. The seven ISSR loci generated 247 bands in 246 individuals of C. includens sampled. The expected heterozygosity (HE) in the populations varied between 0.093 and 0.106, while the overall HE was 0.099, indicating low genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that 98% of the variability was expressed among individuals within populations (FST = 0.021, p = 0.001). The low level of polymorphism over all populations, the high levels of gene flow, and the low genetic structure are indicatives of the exchange of genetic information between the different sampled regions. Population structuring suggests the presence of two major groups which do not correlate with their geographic sampling location in Brazil. These results may indicate recent recolonization of C. includens in Brazil or migration patterns following source-sink dynamics. Furthermore, the presence of two groups within C. includens suggests that a study on development of resistance or any other genetic-based trait needs to be evaluated on both groups, and pest management in soybean fields should be aware that differences may come to the control strategies they use.

  14. Molecular variability and genetic structure of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, an important soybean defoliator in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Palma

    Full Text Available This study provides the first genetic characterization of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, 1857, an important defoliating pest species of soybean crops in Brazil. Population genetic variability and the genetic structure of C. includens populations were evaluated by using ISSR markers with samples from the major soybean producing regions in Brazil in the growing seasons 2011/2012. Seven different primers were applied for population characterization of the molecular variability and genetic structure of 8 soybean looper populations from 8 states of Brazil. The seven ISSR loci generated 247 bands in 246 individuals of C. includens sampled. The expected heterozygosity (HE in the populations varied between 0.093 and 0.106, while the overall HE was 0.099, indicating low genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that 98% of the variability was expressed among individuals within populations (FST = 0.021, p = 0.001. The low level of polymorphism over all populations, the high levels of gene flow, and the low genetic structure are indicatives of the exchange of genetic information between the different sampled regions. Population structuring suggests the presence of two major groups which do not correlate with their geographic sampling location in Brazil. These results may indicate recent recolonization of C. includens in Brazil or migration patterns following source-sink dynamics. Furthermore, the presence of two groups within C. includens suggests that a study on development of resistance or any other genetic-based trait needs to be evaluated on both groups, and pest management in soybean fields should be aware that differences may come to the control strategies they use.

  15. Molecular variability of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations associated to maize and cotton crops in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Samuel; Barata, Reinaldo Montrazi; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Silva-Filho, Marcio de Castro; Omoto, Celso

    2006-04-01

    The molecular variability among 10 populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), collected from maize, Zea mays L., or cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. crops located at distinctive geographical regions in Brazil, was assessed through random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In total, 208 RAPD markers were evaluated, and 98% of them were polymorphic. The mean genetic similarity was 0.6621 and 0.2499 by the Simple Matching and Jaccard matrices, respectively. In general, the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average dendrograms separated the populations into clusters related to the geographical origin of the samples. No branch of the dendrograms underpinning a molecular association of S. frugiperda has been identified to either of the two host plants. The molecular variance analysis showed that 18 and 82% of the genetic variation was distributed among and within the groups of populations, respectively. The principal coordinate analysis reinforced the pattern of population clustering found with the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average method. These results suggest the occurrence of considerable gene flow between S. frugiperda populations from maize and cotton fields located in the same region in Brazil. Therefore, for an effective management of this pest, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the gene flow of S. frugiperda populations associated to different host plants along the distribution range of this pest over time in a specific cropping system.

  16. Baseline susceptibility to Cry1Ac insecticidal protein in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, K C; Merlin, B L; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Omoto, C

    2013-08-01

    The tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), is one of the target pests of genetically modified cotton expressing Cry1Ac insecticidal protein (Bt cotton) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. This study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of field-collected populations of H. virescens to Cry1Ac to establish a baseline for use in an insect resistance management program for Bt cotton in Brazil. Insects were sampled from the main Brazilian cotton-growing regions (Bahia, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás) during the cropping seasons of 2007/08 and 2008/09. Cry1Ac susceptibility was estimated by using diet incorporation bioassays. H. virescens was highly susceptible to Cry1Ac protein. The estimated LC50 values varied from 0.18 to 0.66 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet among the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.7-fold variation). Similarly, the EC50 values based on growth inhibition ranged from 0.0053 to 0.0161 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet for the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.0-fold variation). A joint analysis of the mortality data across all tested populations was used to develop and validate the diagnostic concentrations of 3.1 and 5.6 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet, the upper bound of the confidence interval and twice the LC99 were selected, for resistance monitoring programs of H. virescens to Cry1Ac protein in Brazil.

  17. The lesser cotton leafworm, Anomis impasta (Guenée (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta L. dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomis impasta (Guenée is a species that shows remarkable morphological and behavioral similarities with the cotton leafworm Alabama argillacea (Hübner. During two growing cotton seasons, A. impasta was observed feeding on leaves and flower bracts of cotton and monitored. Furthermore, a study was conducted under laboratory conditions to generate biological information about this species with larvae feeding cotton squares and leaves. Larvae fed on cotton squares exhibited delayed development (18.5 ± 0.18 days and lower pupal weight (140.8 ± 2.26 mg compared to larvae fed on cotton leaves (14.0 ± 0.07 days and 169.3 ± 2.06 mg. Thus, one generation cycle of A. impasta was obtained by feeding the larvae with cotton leaves. The mean (minimum-maximum values for the duration of eggs, larvae and pupae were: 3.0 (3-4, 14.8 (14-18, and 9.7 (7-14 days, respectively. The viability of the eggs, larvae, and pupae were 43.7, 98.3, and 94.7%, respectively. Females lived on average 25.2 days (ranging from 15 to 37 days and produced 869 eggs (from 4 to 1,866 eggs. The successful development and reproduction of A. impasta on cotton, especially, on the cotton leaves, suggest the potential of this species to reach a pest status in cotton. The similarities with A. argillacea, as discussed in this study, can be one of the reasons for low reference to A. impasta in the field. Therefore, the information provided here will allow researchers and growers to distinguish these two cotton defoliators.

  18. Survival and larval development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on alternatives host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two bioassays were conducted to evaluate the suitability of host plants of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith), in the Brazilian agro-ecosystem. Larval development and survival were analyzed by infesting leaves of maize, grain sorghum, Johnson grass, soybean, Brachiaria and tobacco with FAW newly hatched larvae in a no choice test. No significant differences of survival were observed among insects reared on different hosts, except for tobacco, where no survivors were recorded. Larvae fed on soybean and artificial diet grew larger than those fed on the other hosts. The heaviest pupa was observed from larva fed on artificial diet and the lighter from larva fed on Brachiaria grass. No significant differences were reported on larval development time on natural hosts, but it was longer for larvae reared on artificial diet. Three classes of larval development time were observed on maize, four on sorghum, Brachiaria and soybean, and five on artificial diet. Nearly 85% of FAW larvae completed development within 12 d on maize; 77% on grain sorghum, 80% on Johnson grass, 68% on Brachiaria and 83% on soybean within 14 d and 69% on artificial diet within 17 d. The host suitability to FAW decreases from maize to sorghum, soybean and Brachiaria. (author)

  19. Review of the Acontia areli group with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Acontiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Ferris

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The six species of the Acontia areli group are examined. In addition to the existing species A. areletta, A. areli, and A. areloides, three new species are described from southwestern North America: A. toddi sp. n., A. geminocula sp.n., and A. albifusa sp.n.. A key to species, descriptions, illustrations of adults and genitalia, and distribution maps are included.

  20. Establishment and characterization of three embryonic cell lines of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rui; Zheng, Gui-Ling; Wan, Fang-Hao; Li, Chang-You

    2016-08-01

    Three cell lines (QAU-Se-E-1, -2 and -3, or Se-1, -2 and -3 for short) were established from eggs of beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) that have been passaged stably for more than 60 times in TNM-FH medium supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum. The cell lines consisted of round and spindle-shaped cells. The round cells accounted for 96.82, 84.34 and 83.16 % of the cells in the three cell lines, respectively, with cell diameters of 16.21 ± 0.72, 15.63 ± 0.58 and 13.06 ± 0.44 μm. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and analysis of the CO I gene showed that the three cell lines were all derived from S. exigua. Growth curves at passage 30 were determined and the results showed that the cell population doubling times were 59.03, 49.08 and 49.91 h, respectively. The three cell lines can be infected by S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). Se-3 was extremely susceptible to the virus with an infection rate of 97.52 % 4 days after the inoculation and produced 2.02 × 10(6) OBs per mL of culture. Flow cytometry analysis showed that some of Se-1 and Se-2 cells had apoptosis after infection, whereas Se-3 cells did not. Bioassays showed that the virulence of the SeMNPV proliferated from Se-3 was similar to that from the insect with LC50 of 5.55 × 10(5) and 2.64 × 10(5) OBs/mL. Therefore, the cell lines can be used to study the SeMNPV-host interactions and mechanisms underlying the interactions. PMID:25999173

  1. Some Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Spodoptera (Laphygma) Exigua Hb. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the effect of gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source on the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of Spodoptera exigua Hb., a lepidopteron which is harmful to crops in many climates. The insect was reared on an artificial diet based on powdered cabbage and wheat-germ. The irradiation of one- and four-day-old eggs with 3,6 and 9 krad showed that none of the one-day-old eggs hatched, while the four-day-old ones gave 52, 18 and 0% of adults respectively-. The larvae hatched from irradiated eggs showed retarded development, and the butterflies which developed were listless and of low fertility. Mature larvae irradiated at 3 and 5 krad give 100 and 22. 5% of adults respectively; irradiation at 7 krad or more completely stops the production of adults. Irradiation of young pupae either kills them or leads to the hatching of malformed adults. Irradiation at 50 krad of pupae at the end of their development has no effect on hatching. The adults from nymphs irradiated at 50 krad show a fertility reduced to 0.5%, while the adults which have just hatched show total sterility after irradiation at the same dose. Higher doses reduce the frequency of mating, while females irradiated at 30 krad and mated with normal males lay infertile eggs. (author)

  2. CUTWORM PERIDROMA SAUCIA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) SUPPORTS GROWTH AND TRANSPORT OF PBR322-BEARING BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variegated cutworms were exposed to bean plants in microcosms sprayed with pBR322-carrying strains of Enterobacter cloecae. lebsiella planticola. and Erwinia herbicola. he three bacterial species exhibited differential survival on leaves in soil, and in guts and fecal pellets (fr...

  3. RNA interference reveals allatotropin functioning in larvae and adults of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T.E. Hassanien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The allatotropin of S. frugiperda (Spofr-AT and its cDNA sequence were characterized 10 years ago, but no functional analyses of the peptide are available. Here we used the RNA interference technique to study the effects of Spofr-AT gene suppression on juvenile hormone (JH and ecdysteroid titers in the hemolymph of larvae, virgin and mated females, and of males. Spofr-AT gene silencing in last instar larvae resulted in an increase in the amount of JH III and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the hemolymph of the animals, corresponding to an acceleration of the prepupal commitment and transformation to the pupa. Mated females showed much higher JH titers in their hemolymph than virgins and laid almost twice the number of eggs. Spofr-AT gene silencing in freshly ecdysed females led to a further increase in egg production and oviposition, but had only a minor effect on the hemoylmph JH titer. Mated females contain considerable amounts of JH I and JH II in their hemoylmph, which are thought to be received from males during copulation. To confirm this hypothesis, we measured the amount of JH homologs in the male accessory reproductive glands (MARG before mating and in the bursa copulatrix (BC of the female after mating. MARG contained high amounts of JH I and JH II, which are transferred to the BC during copulation. One day after mating, JH disappeared from the BC and was then found in the hemolymph of the females. In conclusion, Spofr-AT acts as a true allatotropin in larvae and adults of both sexes of the armyworm.

  4. Phylogeny, systematics and biogeography of the genus panolis (lepidoptera: noctuidae) based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houshuai; Fan, Xiaoling; Owada, Mamoru; Wang, Min; Nylin, Sören

    2014-01-01

    The genus Panolis is a small group of noctuid moths with six recognized species distributed from Europe to East Asia, and best known for containing the widespread Palearctic pest species P. flammea, the pine beauty moth. However, a reliable classification and robust phylogenetic framework for this group of potentially economic importance are currently lacking. Here, we use morphological and molecular data (mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA, nuclear gene elongation factor-1 alpha) to reconstruct the phylogeny of this genus, with a comprehensive systematic revision of all recognized species and a new one, P. ningshan sp. nov. The analysis results of maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferring methods for the combined morphological and molecular data sets are highly congruent, resulting in a robust phylogeny and identification of two clear species groups, i.e., the P. flammea species group and the P. exquisita species group. We also estimate the divergence times of Panolis moths using two conventional mutation rates for the arthropod mitochondrial COI gene with a comparison of two molecular clock models, as well as reconstruct their ancestral areas. Our results suggest that 1) Panolis is a young clade, originating from the Oriental region in China in the Late Miocene (6-10Mya), with an ancestral species in the P. flammea group extending northward to the Palearctic region some 3-6 Mya; 2) there is a clear possibility for a representative of the Palearctic clade to become established as an invasive species in the Nearctic taiga. PMID:24603596

  5. Revisiting macronutrient regulation in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): New insights via nutritional geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Carrie A; Sword, Gregory A; Behmer, Spencer T

    2015-10-01

    Insect herbivores that ingest protein and carbohydrates in physiologically-optimal proportions and concentrations show superior performance and fitness. The first-ever study of protein-carbohydrate regulation in an insect herbivore was performed using the polyphagous agricultural pest Helicoverpa zea. In that study, experimental final instar caterpillars were presented two diets - one containing protein but no carbohydrates, the other containing carbohydrates but no protein - and allowed to self-select their protein-carbohydrate intake. The results showed that H. zea selected a diet with a protein-to-carbohydrate (p:c) ratio of 4:1. At about this same time, the geometric framework (GF) for the study of nutrition was introduced. The GF is now established as the most rigorous means to study nutrient regulation (in any animal). It has been used to study protein-carbohydrate regulation in several lepidopteran species, which exhibit a range of self-selected p:c ratios between 0.8 and 1.5. Given the economic importance of H. zea, and it is extremely protein-biased p:c ratio of 4:1 relative to those reported for other lepidopterans, we decided to revisit its protein-carbohydrate regulation. Our results, using the experimental approach of the GF, show that H. zea larvae self-select a p:c ratio of 1.6:1. This p:c ratio strongly matches that of its close relative, Heliothis virescens, and is more consistent with self-selected p:c ratios reported for other lepidopterans. Having accurate protein and carbohydrate regulation information for an insect herbivore pest such as H. zea is valuable for two reasons. First, it can be used to better understand feeding patterns in the field, which might lead to enhanced management. Second, it will allow researchers to develop rearing diets that more accurately reflect larval nutritional needs, which has important implications for resistance bioassays and other measures of physiological stress. PMID:26141409

  6. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F1 sterility technique. (author)

  7. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    Full Text Available The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA, elongation factor 1 (EF1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13, ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20, tubulin (TUB, and β-actin (ACTB were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1 were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands. 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults. 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (-8, -6, -4, -2, 0, and 27°C. To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83 was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens.

  8. Exploring Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Sun; Ming-Xing Lu; Xiao-Tian Tang; Yu-Zhou Du

    2015-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study...

  9. Is hexamerin receptor a GPI-anchored protein in Achaea janata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhusudhan Budatha; Thuirei Jacob Ningshen; Aparna Dutta-Gupta

    2011-08-01

    The process of uptake of hexamerins during metamorphosis from insect haemolymph by fat body cells is reminiscent of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Previously, we had identified a hexamerin-binding protein (HBP) and reported for the first time that uptake of hexamerins is dependent on the phosphorylation of HBP partly by a tyrosine kinase, which is, in turn, activated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). However, the exact nature of HBP and the mechanism of interaction are still unknown. Here we report the possibility of HBP being a GPI-anchored protein in the fat body of Achaea janata and its role in the tyrosine-kinase-mediated phosphorylation signalling. Digestion of fat body membrane preparation with bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), and the subsequent recognition by antibodies specific for the cross-reacting determinant (CRD), revealed that HBP is glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and, further, that the hexamerin binding to HBP was inhibited after digestion. Hexamerin overlay assay (HOA) of co-immunoprecipitated in vitro phosphorylated HBP showed exclusive binding to ∼120 kDa protein. Lectin-binding analysis of hexamerins revealed the presence of -acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and -acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), whereas HBP showed the presence of GalNac alone. Mild chemical deglycosylation studies and binding interaction in the presence of sugars revealed that glycan moieties are possibly not involved in the interaction between HBP and hexamerins. Taken together, these results suggest that HBP may be a GPI-anchored protein, and interaction and activation of HBP is through lipid-linked non-receptor src tyrosine kinases. However, additional studies are needed to prove that HBP is a GPI-anchored protein.

  10. BIOLOGIA DE Spodoptera frugiperda (J. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EM FOLHAS DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta, CRANTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislane da Silva Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda is a species polyphagous that attacks several cultures economically important in various countries. It is known in the larval phases as fall armyworm and it is to main curse of the culture of the corn in Brazil.It was found recently fed her in plantings of cassava in São Luís and Itapecuru Mirim (MA. As the knowledge of the biology of the insect is of fundamental importance for the development of handling strategies, inside of the integrated handling of curses, the work aimed at to study the biology and the behavior of S. frugiperda in cassava leaves, maids in laboratory conditions. 60 coming caterpillars of the creation were used in articial diet. After the appearance the larvas were individualized in disposable plastic glasses with capacity for 100 ml and fed with cassava leaves, that they were changed every other day, or according to need. The experiment was led in climate chamber, regulated for temperature of 25°C, relative humidity of 60 + 10% and fotofase of 14 hours. The appraised biological parameters demonstrated the medium duration of the total cycle of 39,93 days, distributed in 6 or 7 you urge, where the species presented larval viability, pupal and of superior adult to 75% and, percentile of of 4% and 22,97% in pupas and adults, respectively. The fecundity was of 70,84% and the adults' of 77,08% viability. Being ended that the culture of the cassava assists to the demands nutricionais of S. frugiperda.

  11. PLusiinae (Excl. Abrostolini) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Ethiopia. A faunistical survey with biogeographical comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Ronkay, Laszlo; Behounek, Gottfried; Müller, Günter C

    2015-01-01

    The extensive survey in different regions of Ethiopia between 1987-1990 and 2005-2011 resulted in the recognition of 39 species of Plusiinae. The majority of the species belong to two large genera, Ctenoplusia (15 species) and Thysanoplusia (16 species). A new synonymy is established, Plusiotricha gorilla (Holland, 1894) is proved to represent the female sex of Plusiotricha livida Holland, 1894 (syn. nov.). The present paper does not include the records of the species of the tribe Abrostolini. Eighteen species are recorded for the first time from Ethiopia. Twenty species of the identified taxa are known only from tropical and subtropical Africa, while the areas of ten species extend from Africa to the Arabian Peninsula or even further to the north. Eight species are widespread not only in Africa but also in the Palearctic and Oriental regions. One species-Autographa gamma, a well-known Palearctic pest of different vegetables-is found in the Afrotropical region only in Ethiopia, at medium and high mountain elevations but not in the tropical lowlands. PMID:26623895

  12. Review of the genus Hypobarathra Hampson, 1905 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Hadeninae) with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaitis, Aidas; Benedek, Balázs; Behounek, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    The present study was initiated upon finding an unknown Hypobarathra species during a collecting expedition to the higher regions of western Sichuan Province in China in 2015. The genus previously contained only two Palaearctic species with remarkably different external appearance and distribution pattern. Interestingly, all three species of Hypobarathra are adapted to completely different eco zones and habitats, which are discussed under each species. According to Hacker et al. (2002), the closest relatives of the genus are Melanchra Hübner, [1820] 1816 and Odontestra Hampson, 1905. This statement should be corrected, since Hypobarathra is forming a common clade with Melanchra, Ceramica Guenée, 1852 and Ebertidia Boursin, 1968, while Odontestra representing another lineage within the tribus Hadeninae. PMID:27394793

  13. A new Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816 species from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Hadenini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaitis, Aidas; Benedek, Balázs; Behounek, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    The genus Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816 includes 26 species in the Palaearctic region, with the familiar European species being properly classified (Hacker et al., 2002), while most species from the more diverse Himalayan-region still require a comprehensive revision. Most recently, a new Polia species from China was described by Saldaitis et al. (2013). The sino-tibetian species Polia costirufa (Draudt, 1950) is one of the most interesting members of the complex as it is separable from its relatives at least on the subgeneric level. Certain elements of its forewing pattern resemble those of the genus Heliophobus Boisduval, but P. costirufa is much larger with more elongate forewings. While the P. costirufa male genital capsule shows typical Polia conservative features, the broad, sack-like vesica and the huge terminal cornutus are unique in the male and the large, elliptical and strongly sclerotised appendix bursae are unique female characters. The collective of the mentioned external and genital characters are suggesting the justifiable separation of P. costirufa from any other relatives, certainly on subgeneric level, but this would be better to integrate into a study incorporate the complete overview of the Polia-complex in the Himalayan region. P. costirufa male and female genitalia are described here for the first time but further study integrating this species into a complete overview of the Polia complex in the Himalayan region is recommended. PMID:27394516

  14. Demographics and genetic variability of the new world bollworm (Helicoverpa zea) and the old world bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Natália A; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Corrêa, Alberto S; Zucchi, Maria I; Omoto, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the primary agricultural pests in the Old World, whereas H. zea is predominant in the New World. However, H. armigera was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Therefore, the geographical distribution, range of hosts, invasion source, and dispersal routes for H. armigera are poorly understood or unknown in Brazil. In this study, we used a phylogeographic analysis of natural H. armigera and H. zea populations to (1) assess the occurrence of both species on different hosts; (2) infer the demographic parameters and genetic structure; (3) determine the potential invasion and dispersal routes for H. armigera within the Brazilian territory; and (4) infer the geographical origin of H. armigera. We analyzed partial sequence data from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. We determined that H. armigera individuals were most prevalent on dicotyledonous hosts and that H. zea were most prevalent on maize crops, based on the samples collected between May 2012 and April 2013. The populations of both species showed signs of demographic expansion, and no genetic structure. The high genetic diversity and wide distribution of H. armigera in mid-2012 are consistent with an invasion period prior to the first reports of this species in the literature and/or multiple invasion events within the Brazilian territory. It was not possible to infer the invasion and dispersal routes of H. armigera with this dataset. However, joint analyses using sequences from the Old World indicated the presence of Chinese, Indian, and European lineages within the Brazilian populations of H. armigera. These results suggest that sustainable management plans for the control of H. armigera will be challenging considering the high genetic diversity, polyphagous feeding habits, and great potential mobility of this pest on numerous hosts, which favor the adaptation of this insect to diverse environments and control strategies.

  15. Demographics and genetic variability of the new world bollworm (Helicoverpa zea and the old world bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália A Leite

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera is one of the primary agricultural pests in the Old World, whereas H. zea is predominant in the New World. However, H. armigera was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Therefore, the geographical distribution, range of hosts, invasion source, and dispersal routes for H. armigera are poorly understood or unknown in Brazil. In this study, we used a phylogeographic analysis of natural H. armigera and H. zea populations to (1 assess the occurrence of both species on different hosts; (2 infer the demographic parameters and genetic structure; (3 determine the potential invasion and dispersal routes for H. armigera within the Brazilian territory; and (4 infer the geographical origin of H. armigera. We analyzed partial sequence data from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene. We determined that H. armigera individuals were most prevalent on dicotyledonous hosts and that H. zea were most prevalent on maize crops, based on the samples collected between May 2012 and April 2013. The populations of both species showed signs of demographic expansion, and no genetic structure. The high genetic diversity and wide distribution of H. armigera in mid-2012 are consistent with an invasion period prior to the first reports of this species in the literature and/or multiple invasion events within the Brazilian territory. It was not possible to infer the invasion and dispersal routes of H. armigera with this dataset. However, joint analyses using sequences from the Old World indicated the presence of Chinese, Indian, and European lineages within the Brazilian populations of H. armigera. These results suggest that sustainable management plans for the control of H. armigera will be challenging considering the high genetic diversity, polyphagous feeding habits, and great potential mobility of this pest on numerous hosts, which favor the adaptation of this insect to diverse environments and control strategies.

  16. Carbon dioxide receptor genes in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in insect ecology, eliciting a range of behaviours across different species. Interestingly, the numbers of CO2 gustatory receptors (GRs) vary among insect species. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, two GRs (DmelGR21a and DmelGR63a) have been shown to detect CO2. In the butterfly, moth, beetle and mosquito species studied so far, three CO2 GR genes have been identified, while in tsetse flies, four CO2 GR genes have been identified. In other species including honeybees, pea aphids, ants, locusts and wasps, no CO2 GR genes have been identified from the genome. These genomic differences may suggest different mechanisms for CO2 detection exist in different insects but, with the exception of Drosophila and mosquitoes, limited attention has been paid to the CO2 GRs in insects. Here, we cloned three putative CO2 GR genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and performed phylogenetic and expression analysis. All three H. armigera CO2 GRs (HarmGR1, HarmGR2 and HarmGR3) are specifically expressed in labial palps, the CO2-sensing tissue of this moth. HarmGR3 is significantly activated by NaHCO3 when expressed in insect Sf9 cells but HarmGR1 and HarmGR2 are not. This is the first report characterizing the function of lepidopteran CO2 receptors, which contributes to our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect CO2 gustatory receptors.

  17. Expression of Cry1Aa in cassava improves its insect resistance against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoguang; Xu, Jia; Ling, Erjun; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Lepidopteran insects affect cassava production globally, especially in intercropping system. The expression of Cry toxins in transgenic crops has contributed to an efficient control of insect pests, leading to a significant reduction in chemical insecticide usage. Helicoverpa armigera is a Lepidopteran pest that feeds on a wide range of plants like cotton and cassava. In the present study, transgenic cassava plants over-expressing Cry1Aa, which we named as Bt cassava, were developed and used to evaluate its efficacy against H. armigera as a model. Insect feeding assays were carried out to test the effects of Bt cassava leaves on the development and survival of H. armigera. Significant reduction (P cassava leaves in comparison with those fed with wild-type cassava leaves. The higher expression of Cry1Aa in transgenic cassava caused the lethal effect in larvae, in contrast to the normal growth and development of adults and pupation observed when fed with wild-type leaves. Morphological observation on the larval midguts showed that the consumption of Bt cassava affected the gut integrity of H. armigera. The columnar cells of the midgut epithelium were dramatically damaged and showed loose or disordered structure. Their cytoplasms become highly vacuolated and contained disorganized microvilli. Our study demonstrated that the transgenic cassava expressing the Cry1Aa is effective in controlling H. armigera. Our Bt transgenic cassava plant would provide a long-term beneficial effect on all crops in intercropping system, which in-turn, will be profitable to the farmers.

  18. Effects of ultraviolet-B exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana on herbivory by two crucifer-feeding insects (Lepidoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larvae of Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Trichoplusia ni (Huebner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were fed foliage from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants that had received a high dose of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) or from control plants. Treatments were compared using the Student independent t-test. P. rapae larvae consumed less of the foliage exposed to UV-B than control foliage. This difference as significant in older but not younger larvae, and the older P. rapae larvae fed foliage exposed to UV-B weighed significantly less. For T. ni, however, consumption and larval weights were approximately equal for UV-exposed and control foliage. No significant differences in growth rates per unit consumption on UV-exposed versus control foliage were found for either species. Chemical analysis showed that flavonoid levels increased in response to UV-B. Results suggested that UV-inducible flavonoids may act as feeding deterrents to P. rapae but not to T. ni. 56 refs., 6 figs

  19. Nitrate reductase and nitrite as additional components of defense system in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) against Helicoverpa armigera herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rimaljeet; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Taggar, Gaurav Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Amylase inhibitors serve as attractive candidates of defense mechanisms against insect attack. Therefore, the impediment of Helicoverpa armigera digestion can be the effective way of controlling this pest population. Nitrite was found to be a potent mixed non-competitive competitive inhibitor of partially purified α-amylase of H. armigera gut. This observation impelled us to determine the response of nitrite and nitrate reductase (NR) towards H. armigera infestation in nine pigeonpea genotypes (four moderately resistant, three intermediate and two moderately susceptible). The significant upregulation of NR in moderately resistant genotypes after pod borer infestation suggested NR as one of the factors that determine their resistance status against insect attack. The pod borer attack caused greater reduction of nitrate and significant accumulation of nitrite in moderately resistant genotypes. The activity of nitrite reductase (NiR) was also enhanced more in moderately resistant genotypes than moderately susceptible genotypes on account of H. armigera herbivory. Expression of resistance to H. armigera was further revealed when significant negative association between NR, NiR, nitrite and percent pod damage was observed. This is the first report that suggests nitrite to be a potent inhibitor of H. armigera α-amylase and also the involvement of nitrite and NR in providing resistance against H. armigera herbivory. PMID:25307464

  20. SEASONAL INCIDENCE OF TOBACCO CAPSULE BORER, HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA (HUBNER) HARDWICK ON BIDI TOBACCO (SEED CROP) IN MIDDLE GUJARAT

    OpenAIRE

    C. G. SOLANKI, C. B. DHOBI*, M. V. PATEL D. M. MEHTA

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted to study the seasonal incidence of tobacco capsule borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) Hardwick on tobacco (seed crop) during rabi  2011-12. Peak incidence of H. armigera eggs was recorded during December second fortnight and incidence of larvae was peak during January first fortnight. During cropping period H. armigera egg load ranged from 0.14 to 1.80 eggs per plant whereas, larvae ranged from 0.18 to 0.52 larvae per plant. Temperature, vapor ...

  1. Multivariate coupling mechanism of NOCTUIDAE moth wings' surface superhydrophobicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoJun; CONG Qian; ZHANG JianJun; WAN YanLing

    2009-01-01

    The surface shape, structure, biomaterial and wettability of moth wings (10 NOCTUIDAE species) from the northeast region of China were qualitatively and quantitatively studied by means of a stereoscopic microscope, a scanning electronic microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) and the interface contact angle measurement. The observation shows that there are scales arranged like over-lapping tiles on the surface of the moth wings. The shapes of the scales are different between species. They overlap horizontally and there is particular space vertically in the direction of the wing veins. The surface of the scale is structured by micron-class grooves and nanometer-class vertical gibbosities. The biomaterial components of the moth wing scale are mostly made up of protein, lipids and chitin. The observation also shows that the contact angle for wings with scales is in the range from 144.8° to 152.9°, while that for those without scales is from 90.0° to 115.9°. It indicates that the surfaces of the wings with scales are more hydrophobic. According as Cassie model, the equation of wettability on the NOCTUIDAE moth wing surface is established and the hydrophobic mechanism is analyzed. It is con-cluded that the hydrophobicity of the moth wings is induced by the multivariate coupling of the shape, structures and biomaterial of the scales.

  2. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  3. Natural control of Helicoverpa armigera in smallholder crops in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van de H.

    1993-01-01

    The African bollworm, Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) armigera , is one of the worst agricultural pests in Africa, attacking a variety of food and cash crops. For development of sustainable pest management, it is essential to study the ecology and natural mortality factors of the pest, and recently, the ne

  4. Histopathological Effects of the Protein Toxin from Xenorhabdus nematophila on the Midgut of Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NANGONG Zi-yan; WANG Qin-ying; SONG Ping; YANG Jun; MAO Wen-jie

    2006-01-01

    Xenorhabdus nematophila HB310, which is highly virulent for many insects, is symbiotic with Steinernema carpocapsae HB310. Toxin Ⅱ was obtained using methods such as salting out and native-PAGE from the cells of X. Nematophila HB310. The histopathology of toxin Ⅱ on H. Armigera larvae was studied by dissecting an olefin slice of the midgut. The symptoms showed that the histopathology of the H. Armigera midgut was similar to that of other novel midgut-active toxins such as the δ-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, as well as Tca from Photorhabdus luminescens W14. The midgut tissues of H. Armigera fourth-instar larvae began to transform after the oral intake of the toxin Ⅱ over 6 h. First, the anterior region of the peritrophic membrane (PM) began to degrade followed by the elongation of the columnar cells.The epithelium decomposed gradually, and the midgut tissues were either loose or disordered. The PM disappeared after 12 h but reappeared after 72 h following transient or sublethal exposure to the toxin Ⅱ. Toxin Ⅱ also directly destroyed in vitro PMs of H. Armigera.

  5. Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pushpa; Joseph, Mary; Tungikar, Vijay; Joshi, Swati

    2004-01-01

    Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species, Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant. PMID:15274488

  6. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  7. Foraging strategies in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) on Lepidoptera in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Longru; FENG Jiang; SUN Keping; LIU Ying; WU Lei; LI Zhenxin; ZHANG Xichen

    2005-01-01

    The diet of the bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was studied at the Zhi'an Village of Ji'an City in China, from June to August 2004. The bats were trained in a laboratory (volume: 9×4×4 m3). Foraging strategies of the bat were ob- served at night and prey remains were collected and identi- fied. The results showed that the diet consisted mainly of Lepidoptera in summer, including 11 families, more than 30 species of moths, such as Noctuidae (36.6% by number), Sphingidae (24.1%), Geometridae (13.4%) and Limacodidae (9.5%). The length of culled wings ranged from 10―40 mm (97.7%). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the bat R. ferrumequinum foraged their prey selectively, but not op- portunistically. From field studies, two ways were observed in which the bats retrieved their prey including aerial hawk- ing during peak active period of the insects and flycatching during the insects' non-peak activity period. The bats never gleaned prey from the ground, though they appeared to be well able to detect fluttering moths on the ground.

  8. Protected species of butterflies (Lepidoptera in the National Nature Park “Velyky Lug”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Goloborodko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Velyky Lug is a unique natural complex which has a large biogeographical, ecological, environmental, historical and recreational value. The National Nature Park “Velyky Lug” was only created as recently as 2006.The park is located in Zaporizhzhya region, 15–18 km south of the city Zaporizhzhya, within the limits of floodplain area of the Dnepr river, which broadens to a width of over 20 kmbetween Bilen’ke and Vasilivka (north-eastern part of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. This enormous expansion of the floodplain (about 80,000 ha which is situated between the Dnepr river and its tributary the Kins’ka was in historical times was called the Kin’ski Floodplain or Great Meadow. In modern times this territory is almost completely flooded by the waters of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. Remnants of natural habitats have been preserved along the river banks – in the form of little valleys and ravines which extend all the shore and also islands which appeared in 1956 when the reservoir was flooded. The overall area of the park “Velyky Lug” is 16,756 ha. Within the territory of the park “Velyky Lug” we have recorded 27 species of Lepidoptera which have various levels of conservation status. The taxonomical structure of the complex varies and included representatives of all basic families of moth and day butterflies which have species that are protected by law. In a taxonomical relation this complex is formed by the representatives of 11 families (Zygaenidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae, Lycaenidae. Zoogeographical analysis of the species that are protected in the territory of the park can be classified into 5 basic groups (Palearctic – 26%, Pontokazach – 26%, Mediterranean– 22%, Eurosiberian – 15%, European – 11%. Analysis of the biotopic advantages of the protected Lepidoptera species present in the territory of the park showed representatives from all

  9. Resurgence of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera in northern Greece associated with insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidis, George K; Kapantaidaki, Despina; Bentila, Maria; Morou, Evangelia; Savopoulou-Soultani, M; Vontas, John

    2013-08-01

    Helicoverpa armigera has been controlled effectively with chemical insecticides in the major cotton crop production areas of northern Greece for many years. However, a resurgence of the pest was observed in 2010, which significantly affected crop production. During a 4-year survey (2007-2010), we examined the insecticide resistance status of H. armigera populations from two major and representative cotton production areas in northern Greece against seven insecticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin, gamma-cyhalothrin and endosulfan). Full dose-response bioassays on third instar larvae were performed by topical application. Lethal doses at 50% were estimated by probit analysis and resistance factors (RF) were calculated, compared to a susceptible laboratory reference strain. Resistance levels were relatively moderate until 2009, with resistance ratios below 10-fold for organophosphates and carbamates and up to 16-fold for the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin. However, resistance rose to 46- and 81-fold for chlorpyrifos and alpha-cypermethrin, respectively in 2010, when the resurgence of the pest was observed. None of the known pyrethroid resistance mutations were found in the pyrethroid-resistant insects. The possible association between resistance and H. armigera resurgence in Greece is discussed.

  10. Insecticidal potential of defense metabolites from Ocimum kilimandscharicum against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    Full Text Available Genus Ocimum contains a reservoir of diverse secondary metabolites, which are known for their defense and medicinal value. However, the defense-related metabolites from this genus have not been studied in depth. To gain deeper insight into inducible defense metabolites, we examined the overall biochemical and metabolic changes in Ocimum kilimandscharicum that occurred in response to the feeding of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Metabolic analysis revealed that the primary and secondary metabolism of local and systemic tissues in O. kilimandscharicum was severely affected following larval infestation. Moreover, levels of specific secondary metabolites like camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene (known to be involved in defense significantly increased in leaves upon insect attack. Choice assays conducted by exposing H. armigera larvae on O. kilimandscharicum and tomato leaves, demonstrated that O. kilimandscharicum significantly deters larval feeding. Further, when larvae were fed on O. kilimandscharicum leaves, average body weight decreased and mortality of the larvae increased. Larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with O. kilimandscharicum leaf extract, camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene showed growth retardation, increased mortality rates and pupal deformities. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera - namely, amylase, protease and lipase- showed variable patterns after feeding on O. kilimandscharicum, which implies striving of the larvae to attain required nutrition for growth, development and metamorphosis. Evidently, selected metabolites from O. kilimandscharicum possess significant insecticidal activity.

  11. [Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in cotton bollworm, Helicoverna armigera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, G Sharath; Asokan, R; Manamohan, M; Kumar, N K K; Sita, T

    2014-01-01

    Reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), a sensitive technique is being extensively employed in quantification of gene expression. However this requires normalization with suitable reference gene (RG) which is crucial in minimizing inter sample variations. Information regarding suitable RG is scarce in general and more so in insects, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, an economically important pest. In management of this pest RNA interference (RNAi), is perceived as a potential tool, which is achieved by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery. These studies demand accurate quantification of gene silencing. In this study we assessed the suitability of five RGs viz. β-actin (ACTB), 18S rRNA (18S), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-tubulin (TUB) and elongation fator-1-alfa (EF1-α) for gene expression studies in dsRNA treatment and across different developmental stages of H. armigera and ranked using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. Data analysis revealed that best ranked RGs were varied in dsRNA treatment and in developmental stages. Under dsRNA treatment, 18S and GAPDH were more stable whereas, TUB and GAPDH were more stable across developmental stages. We also demonstrate that inappropriate selection of RG led to erroneous estimation of the target gene, chymotrypsin, expression. These results facilitate accurate quantification of gene expression in H. armigera.

  12. Bacterial Expression and Kinetic Analysis of Carboxylesterase 001D from Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylesterasesare an important class of detoxification enzymes involved in insecticide resistance in insects. A subgroup of Helicoverpa armigera esterases, known as Clade 001, was implicated in organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticide resistance due to their overabundance in resistant strains. In this work, a novel carboxylesterasegene 001D of H. armigera from China was cloned, which has an open reading frame of 1665 nucleotides encoding 554 amino acid residues. We used a series of fusion proteins to successfully express carboxylesterase 001D in Escherichia coli. Three different fusion proteins were generated and tested. The enzyme kinetic assay towards 1-naphthyl acetate showed all three purified fusion proteins are active with a Kcat between 0.35 and 2.29 s−1, and a Km between 7.61 and 19.72 μM. The HPLC assay showed all three purified fusion proteins had low but measurable hydrolase activity towards β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate insecticides (specific activities ranging from 0.13 to 0.67 μM·min−1·(μM−1·protein. The enzyme was stable up to 40 °C and at pH 6.0–11.0. The results imply that carboxylesterase 001D is involved in detoxification, and this moderate insecticide hydrolysis may suggest that overexpression of the gene to enhance insecticide sequestration is necessary to allow carboxylesterases to confer resistance to these insecticides in H. armigera.

  13. Insecticidal potential of defense metabolites from Ocimum kilimandscharicum against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Sarate, Priya; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-01-01

    Genus Ocimum contains a reservoir of diverse secondary metabolites, which are known for their defense and medicinal value. However, the defense-related metabolites from this genus have not been studied in depth. To gain deeper insight into inducible defense metabolites, we examined the overall biochemical and metabolic changes in Ocimum kilimandscharicum that occurred in response to the feeding of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Metabolic analysis revealed that the primary and secondary metabolism of local and systemic tissues in O. kilimandscharicum was severely affected following larval infestation. Moreover, levels of specific secondary metabolites like camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene (known to be involved in defense) significantly increased in leaves upon insect attack. Choice assays conducted by exposing H. armigera larvae on O. kilimandscharicum and tomato leaves, demonstrated that O. kilimandscharicum significantly deters larval feeding. Further, when larvae were fed on O. kilimandscharicum leaves, average body weight decreased and mortality of the larvae increased. Larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with O. kilimandscharicum leaf extract, camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene showed growth retardation, increased mortality rates and pupal deformities. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera - namely, amylase, protease and lipase- showed variable patterns after feeding on O. kilimandscharicum, which implies striving of the larvae to attain required nutrition for growth, development and metamorphosis. Evidently, selected metabolites from O. kilimandscharicum possess significant insecticidal activity. PMID:25098951

  14. Bacterial Expression and Kinetic Analysis of Carboxylesterase 001D from Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Liu, Jianwei; Lu, Mei; Ma, Zhiqing; Cai, Chongling; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Carboxylesterasesare an important class of detoxification enzymes involved in insecticide resistance in insects. A subgroup of Helicoverpa armigera esterases, known as Clade 001, was implicated in organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticide resistance due to their overabundance in resistant strains. In this work, a novel carboxylesterasegene 001D of H. armigera from China was cloned, which has an open reading frame of 1665 nucleotides encoding 554 amino acid residues. We used a series of fusion proteins to successfully express carboxylesterase 001D in Escherichia coli. Three different fusion proteins were generated and tested. The enzyme kinetic assay towards 1-naphthyl acetate showed all three purified fusion proteins are active with a Kcat between 0.35 and 2.29 s(-1), and a Km between 7.61 and 19.72 μM. The HPLC assay showed all three purified fusion proteins had low but measurable hydrolase activity towards β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate insecticides (specific activities ranging from 0.13 to 0.67 μM·min(-1)·(μM(-1)·protein)). The enzyme was stable up to 40 °C and at pH 6.0-11.0. The results imply that carboxylesterase 001D is involved in detoxification, and this moderate insecticide hydrolysis may suggest that overexpression of the gene to enhance insecticide sequestration is necessary to allow carboxylesterases to confer resistance to these insecticides in H. armigera. PMID:27049381

  15. Momordica charantia trypsin inhibitor Ⅱ inhibits growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manasi Alok Telang; Prashant Pyati; Mohini Sainani; Vidya Shrikant Gupta; Ashok Prabhakar Giri

    2009-01-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) seeds contain several squash-type serine proteinase inhibitors (PIs),which inhibit the digestive proteinases of the polyphagous insect pest Helicoverpa armigera.In the present work isolation of a DNA sequence encoding the mature peptide of a trypsin inhibitor McTI-Ⅱ,its cloning and expression as a recombinant protein using Pichia pastoris have been reported.Recombinant McTI-Ⅱinhibited bovine trypsin at 1:1 molar ratio,as expected,but did not inhibit chymotrypsin or elastase.McTI-Ⅱalso strongly inhibited trypsin-like proteinases (81% inhibition) as well as the total proteolytic activity of digestive proteinases (70% inhibition) from the midgut of H.armigera larvae.The insect larvae fed with McTI-Ⅱ-incorporated artificial diet suffered over 70% reduction in the average larval weight after 12 days of feeding.Moreover,ingestion of McTI-Ⅱresulted in 23% mortality in the larval population.The strong antimetabolic activity of McTI-Ⅱtoward H.armigera indicates its probable use in developing insect tolerance in susceptible plants.

  16. In vivo and in vitro effect of Acacia nilotica seed proteinase inhibitors on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramesh Babu; B Subrahmanyam; Srinivasan; I M Santha

    2012-06-01

    Acacia nilotica proteinase inhibitor (AnPI) was isolated by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and resulted in a purification of 10.68-fold with a 19.5% yield. Electrophoretic analysis of purified AnPI protein resolved into a single band with molecular weight of approximately 18.6+1.00 kDa. AnPI had high stability at different pH values (2.0 to 10.0) except at pH 5.0 and are thermolabile beyond 80°C for 10 min. AnPI exhibited effective against total proteolytic activity and trypsin-like activity, but did not show any inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin activity of midgut of Helicoverpa armigera. The inhibition kinetics studies against H. armigera gut trypsin are of non-competitive type. AnPI had low affinity for H. armigera gut trypsin when compared to SBTI. The partially purified and purified PI proteins-incorporated test diets showed significant reduction in mean larval and pupal weight of H. armigera. The results provide important clues in designing strategies by using the proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from the A. nilotica that can be expressed in genetically engineered plants to confer resistance to H. armigera.

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DE DANOS Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae NO ALGODOEIRO CULTIVAR IAC-17 EVALUATION OF Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE DAMAGES IN THE COTTON PLANT IAC-17 CULTIVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria da Rocha Santos Veloso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com a finalidade de avaliar os danos causados por Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 na produção do algodoeiro, foi conduzido o presente trabalho. Foram utilizados quatro níveis de infestação artificial aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação das plantas. As avaliações foram feitas através da produção de algodão em caroço, por parcela. As diferenças na produção em plantas infestadas aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação, comparadas com a testemunha, foram estatisticamente significativas para as infestações com 1, 2 e 4 lagartas por planta. Aos 75 dias, devido ao fato de existirem poucos órgãos frutíferos, a redução na produção deu-se devido ao ataque das lagartas aos ponteiros e aos caules, com corte parcial ou total. Na infestação aos 95 dias a produção diminuiu linearmente em relação aos diferentes níveis de infestação; nesta época as lagartas mostraram preferência pelas estruturas frutíferas do algodoeiro.

    This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluate the damages provoked by Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 in cotton-plant yield. To evaluate the decrease in the cotton yield four levels of artificial infestation were used at 75 and 95 days from plant germination. The damage was evaluated on cotton seeds per plot. The differences in the yield of infested plants at 75 and 95 days from germination, when compared to the check, were statistically significant for the infestations of 1, 2 and 4 larvae per plant. At 75 days when the plants presented a low number of fruit organs, the yield decrease was due to the attack of larvae cutting partially or totally the shoots and stems. As to the infestation at 95 days the yield decreased linearly in relation to the different levels of infestation; at this time the larvae showed a preference for the fruit structures of the cotton plants.

  18. Ultramorphology of digestive tract of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at final larval development/
    Ultramorfologia do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) no final do desenvolvimento larval

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Antônio Toledo; Elisa Aparecida Gregório; Flávio Moscardi; Ângela Maria Ferreira Falleiros; Sheila Michele Levy

    2008-01-01

    The digestive tract of insects is an important natural, physical, and chemical defense barrier against pathogen invasion. Certain lepidopteran caterpillars are serious pests of agricultural crops and their biology has received much attention, but little is known about the larval noctuid gut. The morphological analysis of the digestive tract in Anticarsia gemmatalis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a good model for studies about its defense mechanism. The material was fixed (2,5% gl...

  19. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

    OpenAIRE

    Alvimar Bavaresco; Mauro Silveira Garcia; Anderson Dionei Grützmacher; Josemar Foresti; Rudiney Ringenberg

    2003-01-01

    Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca). Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adult...

  20. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in strawberry and grape

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli; Aline Bertin; Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom; Marcos Botton

    2012-01-01

    A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas), em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas') e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'). A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16...

  1. ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DE Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE SOJA (Glycine max MERRIL BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE ON SOYBEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Baldin Pinheiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em condições controladas de temperatura (25+2ºC, umidade relativa (40+10% e fotofase de 13h, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito das cultivares Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 e IAC 17, no desenvolvimento de Anticarsia gemmatalis. Foram observadas a duração do período larval, o tamanho e o peso de lagartas e peso de pupas. Na cultivar Emgopa 316, as larvas apresentaram uma diminuição no período larval e um aumento nos pesos larval e pupal, enquanto IAC 100 mostrou alguma evidência de antibiose, aumentando o período larval e diminuindo o peso de lagartas e de pupas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; antibiose; insecta.

    A laboratory work was conducted at Universidade Federal de Goiás, under controlled conditions of temperature (25+2º, relative humidity (40+10% and photophase (13h. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the soybean cultivars Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 and IAC 17 on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hüebner, 1818. Duration of the development phases, length of larvae and weight of pupae were observed. Emgopa 316 showed a decreasing duration of larval stage and an increase in larvae and pupae weight; IAC 100 showed some evidence of antibiosis, increasing the larval stage and decreasing larvae and pupae weight.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; resistance; antibiosis.

  2. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet containing extract of M. charantia reduced larval viability and weight of pupa. The aqueous extract of L. sidoides did not affect larval and pupal phases, but reduced the posture and the viability of eggs and increased longevity of adults of S. frugiperda. The viability of pupa was not affected by the extracts.

  3. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Review of the host plants of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Casmuz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repartidos en 42 familias. Entre los hospederos más citados, el 35,5% perteneció a la familia Poaceae, el 11,3% a la familia Fabaceae, a la familia Solanaceae y Asteraceae un 4,3 % cada una, siguiéndoles las Rosaceae y Chenopodiaceae con un 3,7% cada una y, finalmente, las Brassicaceae y Cyperaceae con un 3,2%. Del total de plantas encontradas (186 el 64% se hallaron presentes en Norteamérica y Centroamérica, un 53% en Sudamérica y un 32% en Argentina. Las especies más citadas fueron (en orden decreciente para Norteamérica: maíz, sorgo, maní, grama bermuda, caña de azúcar y arroz; para Sudamérica: maíz, arroz, sorgo, poroto, algodón y maní; y por último, en Argentina fueron: maíz, soja, algodón, alfalfa, tomate, lino, papa y sorgo. También se aporta información sobre su ciclo de vida, hábitos y comportamiento sobre los principales hospederos, migración y biotipos.In order to update records of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith host plants, a bibliographic review was made. Host plant search was organized into groups per zones and countries. Records from the U.S., Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean Islands were grouped together as belonging to Northern America. As South American records, all reports were included except for those from Argentina. 186 host plants were found and they belong to 42 different families. The most cited hosts are part of the following families: Poaceae (35.5%, Fabaceae (11.3%, Solanaceae and Asteraceae (4.3%, Rosaceae and Chenopodiaceae (3.7% and Brassicaceae and Cyperaceae (3.2%. Of the total of hosts plants found (186, 64% were cited in North and Central America, 53% in South America and 32% in Argentina. The species most frequently cited in Northern America were: corn, sorghum, peanuts, Bermuda grass, sugarcane and rice. In South America, these were: corn, rice, sorghum, beans, cotton and peanuts. Finally in Argentina, the most frequently reported species were: corn, soybean, cotton, alfalfa, tomatoes, flax, potatoes and sorghum. Information about fall armyworm life cycle, behaviour on main host plants, migration habits and biotypes is alsoprovided.

  4. Histopathology of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae treated with Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki Histopatologia de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae tratadas com Virus de Poliedrose Nuclear e Bacillus thuringiensis sorovar kurstaki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Knaak

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Anticarsia gemmatalis is responsible for the use of chemical insecticides in the soybean culture, causing a significant increase in the costs of farming and a great unbalance in the ecosystem. The use of microbial agents, like Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (Btk and Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgNPV, they are an alternative to chemical control of the pest insects. In the interaction analysis of the entomopathogenic bacteria and virus it is considered important the in vitro action mode of these microbiology control agents. Therefore, the present study aims the histopathological analysis of the A. gemmatalis larvae digestive system after the interaction in vivo of the entomopathogenic Btk and AgNPV, represented the Dipel and Baculovirus anticarsia formulations, respectively. The evaluations were realized in larvae of 2nd instar, in which the mortality was evaluated daily, and a histopathology was done with collected larvae in time of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours after the treatments application. The results of the in vivo assays reveal that the treatment using the association of AgNPV-Btk (98.68% of mortality was more efficient than using AgNPV isolatedly (81.28% of mortality, but the Btk when used isolatedly had a mortality of 100%. The treatments showed significant (PA Anticarsia gemmatalis é responsável pelo uso de inseticidas químicos na cultura da soja, ocasionando um significativo aumento nos custos das lavouras e um grande desequilíbrio no ecossistema. O uso de agentes microbianos, como Bacillus thuringiensis sorovar kurstaki (Btk e Vírus de Poliedrose Nuclear de Anticarsia gemmatalis (VPNAg, é uma alternativa para o controle químico de insetos-praga. Na análise da interação de bactérias e vírus entomopatogênicos, considera-se importante o modo de ação in vitro desses agentes de controle microbiano. Assim, o presente trabalho objetiva a análise histopatológica do sistema digestivo das lagartas de A. gemmatalis, após a interação dos entomopatógenos Btk e VPNAg, representados nas formulações Dipel e Baculovirus anticarsia, respectivamente. As avaliações foram realizadas com lagartas de 2º ínstar, onde a mortalidade foi avaliada diariamente, e a histopatologia foi realizada com lagartas coletadas nos períodos de 1, 3, 6, 12 e 24 horas após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Os resultados dos ensaios in vivo, revelam que o tratamento referente à associação VPNAg/Btk (98.68% de mortalidade foi mais eficiente que VPNAg (81.28% de mortalidade isoladamente, porém o Btk isoladamente causou 100% de mortalidade. Os tratamentos mostraram diferenças significativas (P <0,05 entre AgNPV e Btk,AgNPV e AgNPV/Btk. As análises de patogenicidade do VPNAg e Btk em lagartas de A. gemmatalis sugerem que os produtos Dipel e Baculovirus anticarsia foram mais eficientes, quando utilizados simultaneamente, pois a ação do VPNAg foi intensificada quando utilizada em associação com Btk, provocando alterações no intestino médio das lagartas a partir de 6 horas após os tratamentos. Quando os entomopatógenos foram utilizados isoladamente, as alterações das células intestinais foram observadas apenas 12 horas após a aplicação dos tratamentos.

  5. Efeito de frações tânicas sobre parâmetros biológicos e nutricionais de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Effect of tanical fractions on biological and nutritional parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Auxiliadora Tirelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de quantificar taninos condensados presentes nas cascas do caule de Ochroma pyramidalis (Bombacaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae e Peltophorum dubium (Fabaceae e verificar o efeito de frações tânicas dessas espécies sobre parâmetros biológicos e nutricionais de S. frugiperda. A partir das cascas das espécies vegetais se prepararam extratos, dos quais alíquotas foram tomadas para a quantificação dos taninos. Em seguida, os extratos foram submetidos a fracionamento para a obtenção das frações tânicas, que foram incorporadas à dieta artificial e oferecidas para lagartas de S. frugiperda. Todas as espécies vegetais estudadas apresentaram taninos condensados, sendo que S. terebinthifolius apresentou menor quantidade desses compostos. A fração tânica de P. dubium causou redução no peso das lagartas e pupas, diminuição na sobrevivência de S. frugiperda durante as fases larval e pupal, e acarretou menor consumo alimentar, além de prolongar a duração das fases imaturas desse inseto. O tratamento com S. terebinthifolius causou redução na percentagem de sobrevivência, durante a fase de pupa. Pupas provenientes de lagartas que receberam tratamento com a fração de E. contortisiliquum tiveram aumento no seu período de desenvolvimento. Lagartas alimentadas com a fração proveniente de P. dubium apresentaram a menor taxa de crescimento relativo (RGR, menor eficiência de conversão do alimento digerido (ECD e maior custo metabólico (CM. A digestibilidade aproximada (AD foi maior para os tratamentos com as frações tânicas de P. dubium e S. terebinthifolius.The objective of this study was to quantify condensed tannins present in the stem bark of Ochroma pyramidalis (Bombacaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae and Peltophorum dubium (Fabaceae and to verify the effect of tannic fractions of these species on biological and nutritional parameters of S. frugiperda. Extracts were prepared from the barks of the plant species and aliquots were taken from them to quantify the tannins. The extracts were then submitted to fractionation to obtain the tannic fractions, which ones were incorporated into an artificial diet and offered to the larvae of S. frugiperda. All the studied species showed condensed tannins, and S. terebinthifolius showed the lowest amount of these compounds. The tannin fraction of P. dubium caused a reduction in the weight of larvae and pupae, decreased the survival of S. frugiperda during the larval and pupal stages and led to a reduction of intake, beyond to extend the duration of immature stages of this insect. The treatment with S. terebinthifolius caused a reduction in the survival percentage during the pupal stage. Pupae from larvae that received the treatment with the fraction of E. contortisiliquum had an increase in its development period stage. Larvae fed with the fraction from P. dubium showed the lowest relative growth rate (RGR, lower efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI and a higher metabolic cost (CM. The approximate digestibility (AD was higher for the treatments with tannic fractions of P. dubium and S. terebinthifolius.

  6. Efeito de frações tânicas sobre parâmetros biológicos e nutricionais de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Effect of tanical fractions on biological and nutritional parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Auxiliadora Tirelli; Dejane Santos Alves; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; Rafaella Ribeiro Sâmia; Sarah Silva Brum; Mário César Guerreiro

    2010-01-01

    Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de quantificar taninos condensados presentes nas cascas do caule de Ochroma pyramidalis (Bombacaceae), Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae), Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae) e Peltophorum dubium (Fabaceae) e verificar o efeito de frações tânicas dessas espécies sobre parâmetros biológicos e nutricionais de S. frugiperda. A partir das cascas das espécies vegetais se prepararam extratos, dos quais alíquotas foram tomadas para a quantificação...

  7. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar Bavaresco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adulto para mamona e cebola (39,7 dias e 21,7% e 40,5 dias e 21,8%, respectivamente, do que para soja (46,0 dias e 3,9%. O peso pupal foi de 444,6 mg em cebola, 420,0 em feijão, 396,6 em mamona e 298,7 em soja. Constatou-se um predomínio de seis ínstares larvais em folhas de cebola e mamona, ocorrendo também sete para alguns indivíduos, enquanto que em soja predominou a ocorrência de sete, também verificando oito ínstares, indicando uma menor adequação nutricional deste hospedeiro. As fêmeas apresentaram duração da fase pupal significativamente menor do que os machos em todos hospedeiros, fazendo com que a emergência do adulto ocorresse antes dos machos. Em cebola, a longevidade de adultos foi significativamente superior aos demais hospedeiros. A fecundidade foi maior em cebola e mamona (3224 e 3206 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, enquanto que para soja observou-se 1353 ovos/fêmea. Em folhas de feijão, o desenvolvimento do inseto foi prejudicado por caracteres morfológicos - pilosidade, que promoveram elevada mortalidade na fase larval.The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. was studied on four natural hosts (onion leaves, castor oil plant, soy cv. Embrapa 48 and bean cv. Carioca. The duration and viability of immature phases and total cycle, instar number, pupals weight, sexual ratio, percentage of deformed adults and adults not released of pupal beg, adults' longevity, fecundity and eggs viability were evaluated. It was observed in castor oil plant and onion shorter duration and larger viability of total cycle (39.7 days and 21.7%; 40.5 days and 21.8%, respectively, in contrast of soy (46.0 days and 3.9%. The pupal weight was 444.6 mg on onion, 420.0mg on bean, 396.6mg on castor oil plant and 298.7 mg on soy. Onion and castor oil plant leaves had a predominance of six larval instars, also happening seven for some of them, while in soy the occurrence of seven prevailed, also happening eight instars, indicating less nutritional adaptation of this host. The females had pupal phase significantly smaller than the males in all the hosts, making adults emergency happen before the males. In onion, the longevity of the adults was significantly superior comparing with the other hosts. The fecundity was better on onion and castor oil plant (3224 and 3206 eggs/female, respectively, therefore on soy was observed 1353 eggs/female. In bean leaves, the development of the insect was harmed by morphologic characters, which promoted high mortality in the larval phase.

  8. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in strawberry and grape

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    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.The biology of Spodoptera eridania was studied in the laboratory (22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, 14 hours of photoperiod in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' and grape (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. The duration and viability of the entire cycle were respectively 52.2±1.32 days and 37.6% for strawberry and 42.2±0.45 days and 25.5% for grapes. The sex ratio in strawberry was 0.58 and 0.48 on grape. The average longevity of males and females in strawberry was 16.3±1.16 and 15.8±1.85 days, respectively, and 5.6±0.88 and 7.3±0.83 days in grape. The mean fecundity was 1,747.5±187.32 eggs per female in strawberry and 1,764.9±289.04 on grape. The life table of fertility showed that the net reproduction rate and finite rate of increase were 394.89 and 1.10, respectively, for strawberry and 213.98 and 1.12 for grapevine. Strawberry cv. 'Aromas' and grape cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' are suitable hosts providing similar population growth rates of S. eridania.

  9. Adequação de uma dieta artificial para os biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Adaptation of an artificial diet for the biotypes "corn" and "rice" of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Gustavo Rossato Busato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda é considerada uma das principais pragas da cultura do milho (lagarta-do-cartucho e do arroz irrigado (lagarta-da-folha, ocasionando altos índices de desfolhamento. O objetivo do estudo foi obter uma dieta artificial adequada para criar os biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, em laboratório. Os insetos foram coletados em áreas cultivadas com milho e arroz irrigado no ecossistema de várzea e a identificação foi realizada pela análise do DNA genômico. O desenvolvimento dos dois biótipos foi acompanhado sobre a dieta de Greene e a mesma dieta modificada a 25 ± 1ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. O estudo foi realizado com 150 lagartas por dieta, individualizadas em tubos de vidro e contendo dieta artificial. Por ocasião da emergência, 20 casais foram individualizados e alimentados com solução aquosa de mel a 10%. A dieta Greene possibilitou melhor desenvolvimento dos dois biótipos, proporcionando maior velocidade de desenvolvimento, maior massa de lagartas no máximo desenvolvimento, massa de pupas e fecundidade total, além de valores mais elevados da taxa líquida de reprodução, taxa intrínseca de crescimento e taxa finita de aumento.Spodoptera frugiperda is considered one of the main pest in corn and irrigated rice (fall armyworm crops, causing high leaf losses. The objective of this study was to obtain an appropriate artificial diet to rear the biotypes "corn" and "rice" of S. frugiperda in laboratory. The insects were collected in areas cultivated with corn and irrigated rice in the meadow ecosystem and the identification was accomplished by the analysis of the DNA genomic. The development of the two biotypes was accompanied on Greene's diet and the same diet modified to 25 ± 1ºC, UR of 70 10% and fotofase of 14 hours. The study was accomplished with 150 larvae by diet individualized in glass tubes containing artificial diet. At emergency 20 couples were individualized and fed with aqueous solution of honey to 10%. The Greene diet made possible better development of the two biotypes, providing larger development speed, larger weight of larvae in the maximum development, weight of pupas and total fecundity, besides higher values of the net reproductive rates, intrinsic and finite rates of increase.

  10. Survival and larval development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on alternatives host; Sobrevivencia e desenvolvimento larval de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em hospedeiros alternativos

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    Sa, Verissimo G.M. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia; Fonseca, Bernardo V.C. [Universidade FUMEC, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Boregas, Katia G.B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia; Waquil, Jose M. [EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: aaquil@cnpms.embrapa.br

    2009-01-15

    Two bioassays were conducted to evaluate the suitability of host plants of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith), in the Brazilian agro-ecosystem. Larval development and survival were analyzed by infesting leaves of maize, grain sorghum, Johnson grass, soybean, Brachiaria and tobacco with FAW newly hatched larvae in a no choice test. No significant differences of survival were observed among insects reared on different hosts, except for tobacco, where no survivors were recorded. Larvae fed on soybean and artificial diet grew larger than those fed on the other hosts. The heaviest pupa was observed from larva fed on artificial diet and the lighter from larva fed on Brachiaria grass. No significant differences were reported on larval development time on natural hosts, but it was longer for larvae reared on artificial diet. Three classes of larval development time were observed on maize, four on sorghum, Brachiaria and soybean, and five on artificial diet. Nearly 85% of FAW larvae completed development within 12 d on maize; 77% on grain sorghum, 80% on Johnson grass, 68% on Brachiaria and 83% on soybean within 14 d and 69% on artificial diet within 17 d. The host suitability to FAW decreases from maize to sorghum, soybean and Brachiaria. (author)

  11. BIOLOGÍA DE Copitarsia decolora (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE: CUCULLIINAE, EN FLORES CULTIVADAS DEL HÍBRIDO COMERCIAL DE Alstroemeria spp. BIOLOGY OF Copitarsia decolora (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE: CUCULLIINAE, ON CULTIVATED FLOWERS OF THE COMMERCIAL HYBRID OF Alstroemeria spp

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    Olga Lucía Moreno Fajardo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Copitarsia decolora Guenée es considerada una plaga en cultivos de flores de exportación. Su manejo integrado requiere información básica y local sobre su biología. En el presente trabajo se adelantan estudios de seguimiento de su ciclo de vida en plantas de astromelia bajo dos tipos de condiciones de temperatura (ºC y humedad relativa (HR: 23,72 ºC y 82,93 % HR controladas en un fitotrón y 17,72 ºC y 65,26 % HR en invernadero. Asi mismo se describen los diferentes estados de desarrollo de la plaga y algunos de sus aspectos etológicos. Los periodos de duración en días respectivamente para fitotrón e invernadero son: huevo 4 y 6, larva 17,23 ± 0,48 y 35,10 ± 5,37, pupa 15,4 ± 0,49 y 21 ± 1,85, adulto hembra 12,67 ± 5,6 y 18,44 (rango 13, machos 12,56 ± 4,54 y 15 (rango 11. En total el ciclo de vida tiene una duración de 49.23 y 80,54 días para hembras y 49,19 y 77,1 días para machos. Bajo las condiciones del estudio la especie presenta cinco ínstares larvales. El factor de crecimiento de las cápsulas cefálicas es de 0,6 en cada uno de los ínstares. En este estudio también se registran las dimensiones de longitud y amplitud de las larvas en cada uno de sus ínstares.Copitarsia decolora is a pest in cut flowers for exportation. Its management requires basic and local information about its biology. In the present study we followed its life cycle on plants of Astromelia under two different temperature (ºC and relative humidity (RH environments: conditions of 23,72 ºC and 82,93 % RH were controlled in a phitotron and those of 17,72 ºC and 65,26 % RH in a greenhouse. Likewise, we described the different stages of development of the pest and also some behavioral aspects. Respectively, for the phitotron and greenhouse, the time periods (days were: eggs 4 and 6, larva 17,23 ± 0,48 and 35,10 ± 5,37, pupa 15,4 ± 0.49 and 21 ± 1,85, female adults 12,67 ± 5,6 and 18,44 (range 13, males 12,56 ± 4,54 and 15 (range 11. The whole life cycle encompassed 49,23 and 80,54 days for females and 49,19 and 77,1 days for males. Under the conditions of this study th species presented five larval instars. Each larval instar had a factor of,0,6 of cephalic capsule growth. The study also registered length and width dimensions of larvae within each instar.

  12. BIOLOGÍA DE Peridroma saucia (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE: NOCTUINAE EN FLORES CULTIVADAS DEL HÍBRIDO COMERCIAL DE Alstroemeria spp. BIOLOGY OF Peridroma saucia (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE: NOCTUINAE ON FLOWERS OF THE COMMERCIAL HYBRID OF Alstroemeria spp.

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    Olga Lucía Moreno Fajardo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Peridroma saucia ocasiona graves daños a los cultivos de flores de exportación en Colombia. Su manejo integrado requiere información básica y local sobre su biología. En este trabajo se lleva a cabo el seguimiento de su ciclo de vida en plantas de astromelia bajo dos tipos de condiciones de temperatura (ºC y humedad relativa (HR, controladas en fitotrón ( 23,72 ºC y 82,93 % HR y en invernadero ( 17,72 ºC y 65,26 % HR. Asimismo se describen los diferentes estados de desarrollo de la especie y algunos de sus aspectos etológicos. Los periodos de duración en días respectivamente para fitotrón e invernadero son: huevo 5 y 8 días, larva, 25,1 +/- 1,34 y 41,26 +/- 1,88, pupa 15 +/- 1,66 y 29,7 +/- 2,01, adulto 18,6 días (rango 20 para la hembra y 14,69 (rango 14 para el macho (ambos en invernadero; el ciclo total en invernadero abarca una duración de 97,56 días para las hembras, y para los machos 93,65. La especie presenta seis ínstares larvales bajo las dos condiciones ambientales consideradas. El factor de crecimiento de las cápsulas cefálicas es de 0,6 en cada uno de los ínstares. En este estudio también se registran las dimensiones de longitud y amplitud de las larvas en cada uno de sus ínstares.Peridroma saucia is an harmful pest of flowers cut for exportation from Colombia . Its integrated management requires basic local information about its biology. In the present work its life cycle on Alstroemeria spp was followed under two different temperature (°C and relative humidity (RH environments: the conditions 23,.72 ºC and 82,93 % HR were maintained in a phitotron and those of 17,72 ºC and 65,26 % RH were maintained in a greenhouse. Likewise, we describe the different developmental stages of the pest as well as some behavioral aspects. The duration of the periods in days for the phitotron and greenhouse were respectively: eggs 5 and 8 days, larva 25,.1 +/- 1,34 and 41,26 +/- 1,88 days, pupa 15 +/- 1.66 and 29,7 +/- 2,.01 days, adults 18,6 days (range of 20 for females and 14,69 days (range of 14 for males (both in the greenhouse; the total cycle in the greenhouse required 97,56 days for females, and 93,65 days for males. The species presented six larval instars under both of the environmental conditions. A 0,6 growthcephalic factor was found for each one of the larval instars. This study also registered length and width dimensions of the larvae within each instars.

  13. Temperature effects on the mating frequency of Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); Influencia da temperatura na frequencia de copula de Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner e Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

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    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. de Entomologia Florestal; Parra, Jose R.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. Biologia de Insetos; Consoli, Fernando L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. de Ecologia Nutricional e Molecular de Interacoes entre Artropodes e Microrganismos]. E-mails: patmilano@gmail.com; eberti@esalq.usp.br; jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; fconsoli@esalq.usp.br

    2008-09-15

    This paper deals with the influence of temperature on the mating frequency of two lepidopterans, Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), which use different strategies of allocation, and with the utilization of nutrients for their reproductive activities. The insects were reared on artificial diets at 25 deg C, and the adults were exposed to five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg C) to observe the influence of each temperature on their mating frequency, fecundity, fertility and longevity. The temperature affected the mating frequency of both species, being more evident at 15 deg C and 35 deg C, mainly for A. gemmatalis, which presented a drastic reduction on mating activities. The highest number of matings were observed from 20 deg C to 30 deg C, with S. frugiperda presenting mating activity (0-8) much higher than that of A. gemmatalis (0-2), but no correlation was observed among the number of matings and all other biological parameters evaluated (fecundity, fertility and longevity). However, S. frugiperda showed a positive correlation between fecundity and mating activity of females (r = 0.589; P = 0.003) at 25 deg C. The highest fecundities were observed at temperatures from 20 deg C to 30 deg C for S. frugiperda and at 25 deg C for A. gemmatalis. For both species, the longevity of males and females decreased as temperature increased. (author)

  14. BIOLOGÍA DE Peridroma saucia (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE: NOCTUINAE) EN FLORES CULTIVADAS DEL HÍBRIDO COMERCIAL DE Alstroemeria spp. BIOLOGY OF Peridroma saucia (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE: NOCTUINAE) ON FLOWERS OF THE COMMERCIAL HYBRID OF Alstroemeria spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Lucía Moreno Fajardo; Francisco Javier Serna Cardona

    2006-01-01

    Peridroma saucia ocasiona graves daños a los cultivos de flores de exportación en Colombia. Su manejo integrado requiere información básica y local sobre su biología. En este trabajo se lleva a cabo el seguimiento de su ciclo de vida en plantas de astromelia bajo dos tipos de condiciones de temperatura (ºC) y humedad relativa (HR), controladas en fitotrón ( 23,72 ºC y 82,93 % HR) y en invernadero ( 17,72 ºC y 65,26 % HR). Asimismo se describen los diferentes estados de desarrollo de la especi...

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE ISOESPINTANOL AISLADO DE Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EVALUATION OF ISOESPINTANOL ISOLATED FROM Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE ON Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

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    Benjamín Alberto Rojano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto biocida del isoespintanol extraído de Oxandra cf. xylopioides sobre el gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda. El isoespintanol fue usado a concentraciones de 100 300 900 y 2700 ppm y aplicado por inmersión de hojas de maíz evaluando sobre larvas del segundo instar. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad a las 24, 48 y 72 horas y se calculó la DL50 y DL90; el análisis de mortalidad demostró que el isoespintanol tiene un efecto tóxico, siendo la dosis de 2700 ppm la que presenta mayor mortalidad. Se determinó una DL50 de 147,07 ppm y una DL90 de 1394 ppm a las 48 horas postratamiento. Estos resultados permitirán avanzar en el estudio y aplicación de insecticidas biológicos para el manejo integrado de plagas.The biocide effect of isoespintanol extracted from Oxandra cf xylopioides was evaluated on the corn earworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Isoespintanol at concentrations of 100 300 900 and 2700 ppm was applied by foliar immersion of maize leaves and it was evaluated on larvae of the second instar. Percentage of mortality at 24, 48 and 72 hours was determined and calculated its DL50 and DL90; the mortality analysis demonstrated that compound has toxic effects, being the dose 2700 ppm the one that presented great mortality. A dose DL50 of 147.07 ppm and a DL90 of 1394 ppm to the 48 hours postreatment was determined. These results will allow to advance in the study and application of biological insecticides directed to the integrated handling of plagues.

  16. Tipos de resistência a Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae envolvidos em genótipos de algodoeiro: II. Antibiose Evaluation of cotton genotypes resistance to Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: II. Antibiosis

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    ALVEMAR FERREIRA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a ocorrência do tipo de resistência antibiose em genótipos de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. em relação a Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818, em experimentos de laboratório (27 ± 2oC, 70 ± 10% de U.R. e fotofase de 14 horas. Folhas dos genótipos T 1122-13-1, STO 285 N, JPM 157, T 953-13-4-2, CNPA 9211-21 e CNPA 9211-31 foram fornecidas às larvas, diariamente, verificando-se a duração de cada fase do inseto, avaliando-se a massa de larvas aos 3 e aos 8 dias de idade, a massa de pupas e as porcentagens de mortalidade larval, pré-pupal e pupal. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições, cada uma com dez larvas/genótipo. Em comparação com STO 285 N, todos os genótipos provocaram períodos mais longos de larva a adulto em A. argillacea; entretanto, os menores valores de massa de larvas com 3 dias e de massa média de pupas, e os maiores valores de duração do período larval e de mortalidade de larva a adulto foram verificados em CNPA 9211-31 e CNPA 9211-21, evidenciando que antibiose é um dos tipos de resistência presentes em ambos os genótipos.Cotton genotypes resistance to Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 due to antibiosis has been evaluated in laboratory trials (at 27 ± 2oC, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 14 hours photoperiod. Six different genetic materials (T 1122-13-1, STO 285 N, JPM 157, T 953-13-4-2, CNPA 9211-21, and CNPA 9211-31 have been tested in a completely randomized experimental design, with ten replications, each one with ten larvae/genotype. Larvae have been supplied with leaves daily. The following variables have been scored: time length of several insect stages (from larvae to adult, average mass of larvae and pupae as well as average larval, pre-pupal and pupal mortality rates. All genotypes have revealed longer overall average time length of stage duration from larvae to adult, as compared to STO 285 N; however, CNPA 9211-31 and CNPA 9211-21 have shown the smallest average mass of pupae along with high frequencies of pre-pupae and larvae to adult mortalities. The results strongly suggest that antibiosis is one of the resistance mechanisms to A. argillacea in that two cotton genotypes.

  17. Copitarsia uncilata Burgos & Leiva sp. nov. de Cuculliinae para Colombia y México (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Copitarsia uncilata Burgos & Leiva sp. nov. of Cuculliinae from Colombia and Mexico (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

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    Rodrigo Burgos-Pino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustran los adultos y genitalia de macho y hembra de Copitarsia uncilata Burgos & Leiva sp. nov., que se distribuye en Colombia y México. La nueva especie se caracteriza por poseer un uncus ancho apicalmente espatulado con una diminuta proyección dorsal bulbosa, digitus de corte apical ampliamente cóncavo y una ampulla con ápice recurvado que sobresale de la valva, externamente es similar a Copitarsia decolora (Guenée.We describe and illustrate the adult and genitalia of male and female Copitarsia uncilata Burgos & Leiva sp. nov. which is distributed in Colombia and Mexico. The new species is characterized by having a broad spatulated uncus with an apical medium projection, digitus white a wide concave apical emargination and ampulla with recurved apex protruding from the valve. It is externally similar to Copitarsia decolora (Guenée.

  18. The feeding preferences of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on cotton plant varieties=Preferência alimentar de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em variedades de plantas algodoeiras

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    Ostenildo Ribeiro Campos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the attractiveness and the non-preference for feeding of newly hatched fall armyworm larvae on the cotton plant parts and different varieties used in the study. The trials were performed at 27 ± 1ºC, a 70% ± 10% relative humidity and a 14h photoperiod. Leaves, bracts, squares and carpel walls of the BRS Itamarati-90 variety and leaves of Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120, BRS-Araçá, IAC-24 and BRS Itamarati-90 varieties were used in attractiveness, multiple-choice and confinement (no-choice non-preference feeding trials. Twenty larvae were released per petri dish test (arena system with 10 repetitions. Attractiveness trials were evaluated by counting feeding caterpillars over 60 min. and by measuring non-preference at 24h. Leaves were the most attractive item and were preferred for feeding. In the multiple-choice arena trials, Coodetec-410 was the most attractive variety, and BRS Acala-90, Fibermax-966 and DeltaPenta were the least attractive to fall armyworm larvae. In the non-preference trial, BRS-Araça was the variety favored for feeding. BRS-Cedro, BRS Itamarati-90, DeltaPenta, Coodetec-408 and BRS-Aroeira were the least-favored varieties. In the 60 min. attractiveness trials, 46 min. proved to be the most suitable time for evaluating the attractiveness of cotton plants to newly hatched fall armyworm larvae.Avaliou-se atratividade e não-preferência alimentar de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda por partes de plantas e plantas de variedades de algodoeiro. Testes foram realizados a 27 ± 1ºC, UR de 70% ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. Folhas, brácteas, botões florais e cascas de maçãs da variedade BRS Itamarati-90 e folhas de Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120, BRS-Araçá, IAC-24 e BRS Itamarati-90 foram utilizadas nos testes de atratividade e não-preferência para alimentação, com e sem chance de escolha. Utilizaram-se 20 lagartas de S. frugiperda por placa de Petri (sistema de arena por teste, com 10 repetições. Contaram-se lagartas para avaliar atratividade por 60 min e não-preferência para alimentação por 24 h. Folha foi mais atrativa e preferida para alimentação por lagartas de S. frugiperda. Em livre escolha, Coodetec-410 foi mais atrativa e BRS Acala-90, Fibermax-966 e DeltaPenta, as de menor atratividade à S. frugiperda; BRS-Araçá, mais preferida para alimentação e BRS-Cedro, BRS Itamarati 90, DeltaPenta, Coodetec-408 e BRS-Aroeira, menos preferidas. Considera-se 46 min., tempo mais adequado para avaliar atratividade de algodoeiro a lagartas de S. frugiperda.

  19. Insecticidal activity of venomous saliva from Rhynocoris fuscipes (Reduviidae against Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera by microinjection and oral administration

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    K Sahayaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhynocoris fuscipes is a potential predator of many economically important pests in India. In the present study, its venomous saliva (VS was collected by milking and diluted with HPLC grade water to different concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm. Microinjection of Rhynocoris fuscipes VS was more toxic than its oral administration in Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm and Spodoptera litura (tobacco cutworm. Thus, R. fuscipes VS was found to be toxic to third instar S. litura and H. armigera with respective LD50s of 846.35 and 861.60 ppm/larva at 96 hours after microinjection. The current results showed that VS of Rhynocoris fuscipes caused mortality of H. armigera and S. litura. Active peptides from VS may be isolated, identified and assessed for their impact in order to ascertain how they alter the physiology of these pests, information that could be applicable in pest management programs.

  20. Cloning, Expression and Purification of Subunit H of Vacuolar H+-ATPase from Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Lina Lu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vacuolar (H+-ATPase (V-ATPase of insect, which is composed of membrane-bound V0 complex and peripheral V1 complex, participates in lots of important physiological process. Subunit H, as a subunit of V1 complex, plays a vital role in bridging the communication between V1 and V0 complexes and interaction with other proteins. Yeast subunit H has been successfully crystallized through expression in E. coli, but little is known about the structure of insect subunit H. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified the subunit H from midgut of Mythimna separata Walker. Through RACE (rapidly amplification of cDNA ends technique, we got 1807 bp full length of subunit H, and to keep the nature structure of subunit H, we constructed Baculovirus expression vector with His-tag in the C-terminal and expressed the recombinant protein in insect sf9 cells, thereafter, purified the recombinant protein by Ni-NTA columns. Results of SDS-PAGE, western blotting and mass spectrometry showed that the recombinant protein was successfully expressed. The method of expressing and purifying M. separata subunit H will provide a foundation for obtaining the crystal of subunit H and further study of the design of novel insecticides based on its structure and function.

  1. Cloning, Expression and Purification of Subunit H of Vacuolar H+-ATPase from Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Lu; Zhijun Qi; Wenjun Wu

    2014-01-01

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) of insect, which is composed of membrane-bound V0 complex and peripheral V1 complex, participates in lots of important physiological process. Subunit H, as a subunit of V1 complex, plays a vital role in bridging the communication between V1 and V0 complexes and interaction with other proteins. Yeast subunit H has been successfully crystallized through expression in E. coli, but little is known about the structure of insect subunit H. In this study, we clone...

  2. A new pest species of Copitarsia Hampson from the Neotropical Region feeding on Asparagus and cut flowers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The egg, first- and last- instar larva, and adult of Copitarsia corruda, n. sp. from Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru are described and illustrated. Larval host-plant genera include Asparagus (Liliaceae) (Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador), Iris (Iridaceae) (Ecuador), Ammi (Apiaceae) (Ecuador), Lysimachi...

  3. Reproductive potential of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory: effect of multiple couples and the size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, A; Montezano, D G; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Paula-Moraes, S V; Roque-Specht, V F; Barros, N M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of keeping three couples in the same cage, and the size of adults emerged from small, medium-sized and large pupae (278.67 mg; 333.20 mg and 381.58 mg, respectively), on the reproductive potential of S. eridania (Stoll, 1782) adults, under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 70% RH and 14 hour photophase). We evaluated the survival, number of copulations, fecundity and fertility of the adult females. The survival of females from these different pupal sizes did not differ statistically, but the survival of males from large pupae was statistically shorter than from small pupae. Fecundity differed significantly and correlated positively with size. The number of effective copulations (espematophores) and fertility did not vary significantly with pupal size. Our results emphasize the importance of indicating the number of copulations and the size of the insects when reproductive parameters are compared. PMID:26959952

  4. Influence ofAmaranthus hybridus L. allelochemics on oviposition behavior ofSpodoptera exigua andS. eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E R; Heath, R R

    1985-05-01

    Common pigweed,Amaranthus hybridus L., is a favorite host of the beet army worm (BAW),Spodoptera exigua L. Chemicals extracted from homogenized pigweed with distilled water, ethanol, or dichloromethane and sprayed back on pigweed deterred oviposition by the BAW. Similarly, water extracts of frass from conspecific larvae or southern armyworm (SAW) larvae,S. eridania (Cramer), fed pigweed leaves and sprayed back on pigweed plants also deterred BAW oviposition, thus confirming that deterrence was due to plant allelochemics rather than specific compounds associated with the metabolic or excretory products of the larvae. Confirmation of the presence of oviposition-deterring chemicals in pigweed was used to explain a previously observed seasonal displacement of BAW by SAW on pigweed in the field. PMID:24310126

  5. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em morangueiro e videira

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli; Aline Bertin; Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom; Marcos Botton

    2012-01-01

    A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas), em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas') e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'). A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16...

  6. O órgão odorífero do macho de Athysania hesione Dry: (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

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    Rudolf Barth

    1957-12-01

    Full Text Available O órgão odorífero de Athysania hesione (e outras espécies próximas está situado na face externa da segunda tíbia e compõe-se de uma região estreita tomada de células glandulares, situada no bordo posterior da tíbia cuja superfície externa forma um sulco longitudinal. Na parte proximal do núcleo insere-se um grande pincel distribuidor, cujas cerdas estão deitadas no sulco, onde entram em contato com as escamas odoríferas. Em virtude do enchimento de um saco traqueal, situado no interior da tíbia a pressão da hemolinfa aumenta, causando uma deformação da área de inserção do pincel que, por sua vez, sai do sulco, abrindo-se a fim de possibilitar a evaporação da secração. Depois da função, o pincel volta à posição de repouso graças à elasticidade da cutícula da área de inserção. O órgão é protegido por meio de séries de escamas protetoras de grandes superfícies. A célula glandular, excepcionalmente volumosa, localiza-se entre o sincício da hipoderme e a membrana basal (fig. 5. As células tricogêneas das cerdas do pincel distribuidor e das escamas protetoras possuíram, em épocas filogenéticas, função glandular; encontra-se, ainda hoje, no interior das primeiras, um aparelho excretor (fig. 9, sendo porém o seu núcleo e protoplasma completamente inativos, dando aos mesmo um aspecto de degenração.

  7. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  8. Bioefficacy of Calendula officinalis Linn. (Asteraceae) extracts in the control of Spodoptera litura Fabricus (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) under laboratory conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Doddamane Manjulakumari; Medhini N; Divakara Y.G.; Prabha D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Calendula officinalis L on the nutritional physiological parameters of Spodoptera litura Fab larvae were studied by treating with leaf and flower extracts in various solvents. Protease and amylase enzyme activities along with their respective substrates were assayed in hemolymph and midgut of treated and untreated larvae. Irrespective of tissues, all the extracts showed significant reduction in the biochemical profile compared to controls. The most significant change was observe...

  9. EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON CUTICULAR PROTEINS OF SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) VIS-A-VIS THE MODES OF APPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooboon, T; Pluempanupat, W; Koul, Opender; Bullangpoti, V

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachtin is a known botanical insecticide with multiple modes of action. Whether these effects have any relation with the modes of application, specifically during ecdysis process, has been the objective of the present study and accordingly the impairment, if any, among cuticular proteins of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) was determined. Azadirachtin was applied topically, via injection or oral administration. Azadirachtin administered via injection and topical applications severely impaired the ecdysis by 86.67 and 80.0%, respectively. However, this impairment via oral administration was significantly lower (73.33%). Using SDS-PAGE, the cuticular proteins were determined for treated insects under all the three modes of application. In all cases 6 protein bands (MW 9-34 kDa) were identified using markers as standard. In all treatments 3 induced proteins (MW. ~16, 20 and 23 kDa) and 1 reduced protein (~19 kDa) were observed. In case of the topical treatment a different induced protein of ~18 kDa was identified. The change in cuticular proteins, their possible role in ecdysis impairment vis-a-vis the mode of application of azadirachtin is being correlated. This will help in understanding the mode-of-action at cuticular level and also will allow developing a suitable application strategy under field conditions in insect pest management. PMID:27145582

  10. Assessment of electron beam-induced abnormal development and DNA damage in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seon-Woo; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2014-03-01

    The armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) is a polyphagous and important agricultural pest worldwide. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages, reproduction, and DNA damage of S. litura. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (3rd instar), pupae (3 days old after pupation), and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with electron beam irradiation of six levels between 30 and 250 Gy. When eggs were irradiated with 100 Gy, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When the larvae were irradiated, the larval period was significantly delayed, depending on the doses applied. At 150 Gy, the fecundity of adults that developed from irradiated pupae was entirely inhibited. However, electron beam irradiation did not induce the instantaneous death of S. litura adults. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated moths demonstrated that females were more radiosensitive than males. We also conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over the following 5 days period. Severe DNA fragmentation in S. litura cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. However, at more than 100 Gy, DNA damage was not fully recovered.

  11. Offspring from Sequential Matings between Bacillus thuringiensis-Resistant and Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptible Heliothis virescens Moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The moth, Heliothis virescens is an economically-important pest of the American Continent. The females of this species copulate multiples times during their lifetimes. The presence of sperm from multiple males inside a female could allow for a diversity of paternal genotypes in the offspring unless ...

  12. Genetic Variation for Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to evaluate resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner toxins, female bollworm moths, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), were collected from four light trap locations in two eastern North Carolina counties from August-October during 2001 and 2002. Moths were allowed to oviposit, and upon hatch, ...

  13. Genetic and phenotypic comparisons of viral genotypes from two nucleopolyhedroviruses interacting with a common host species, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Jun; Okuno, Shohei; Nakai, Madoka; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2016-09-01

    Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) are known to be highly variable, both genetically and phenotypically, at several scales such as different geographic locations or a single host. A previous study using several geographic isolates indicated that two types of NPV, Spodoptera littoralis NPV (SpliNPV) and S. litura NPV (SpltNPV) types, were isolated from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), a polyphagous insect that causes serious damage to many forage crops and vegetables. That study also indicated that the SpliNPV type was widely distributed in Japan. Here, we investigated the genotypic and phenotypic variation of cloned NPVs that infect S. litura; such variation is an important resource for biological control agents, and may represent the genetic diversity of an NPV species. Eighteen genotypically distinct NPVs were cloned from four field-collected NPV isolates using an in vivo cloning technique. They were divided into two virus types according to the similarity of banding patterns of DNA fragments generated by restriction endonucleases, and Southern hybridization analysis. Partial polyhedrin gene sequences revealed that the two types corresponded to SpliNPV and SpltNPV. Bioassays seem to suggest that the SpliNPV virus type was, overall, more infectious and killed S. litura larvae faster, but yielded fewer viral occlusion bodies, than the SpltNPV type. These data provide a basis for explaining the distribution pattern of SpliNPV and SpltNPV types in S. litura populations in Japan. PMID:27449677

  14. Preparation of monoclonal antibody against celangulin V and immunolocalization of receptor in the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhijun; Xue, Xiaoping; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jiwen; Yang, Runya

    2006-10-01

    The botanical insecticide celangulin V (CA-V) is an insect digestive poison acting on midgut tissue of the target insect larvae. With the aim of localizing the receptor enacted by CA-V, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the compound were developed. A hapten was synthesized by introducing a succinoyl into the CA-V structure and conjugated with three carrier proteins. From mice immunized with one conjugate, three MAbs were obtained with a potential capacity of detecting protein-bound residue forms of CA-V in the biological tissues. The oriental armyworm larvae ingested CA-V were examined by the technique of immuno-electron-microscopy (IEM) using the anti-CA-V MAb as the primary antibody and goat anti-mouse/IgG labeled with colloidal gold as the secondary antibody. Electron micrographs of the armyworm midgut tissues showed that the CA-V was associated with the midgut epithelia of the insects. These results demonstrated the existence of a receptor enacted by CA-V on the midgut cells of the oriental armyworm larvae. PMID:17002428

  15. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto CASMUZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repartidos en 42 familias. Entre los hospederos más citados, el 35,5% perteneció a la familia Poaceae, el 11,3% a la familia Fabaceae, a la familia Solanaceae y Asteraceae un 4,3 % cada una, siguiéndoles las Rosaceae y Chenopodiaceae con un 3,7% cada una y, finalmente, las Brassicaceae y Cyperaceae con un 3,2%. Del total de plantas encontradas (186 el 64% se hallaron presentes en Norteamérica y Centroamérica, un 53% en Sudamérica y un 32% en Argentina. Las especies más citadas fueron (en orden decreciente para Norteamérica: maíz, sorgo, maní, grama bermuda, caña de azúcar y arroz; para Sudamérica: maíz, arroz, sorgo, poroto, algodón y maní; y por último, en Argentina fueron: maíz, soja, algodón, alfalfa, tomate, lino, papa y sorgo. También se aporta información sobre su ciclo de vida, hábitos y comportamiento sobre los principales hospederos, migración y biotipos.

  16. [Oviposition, development, and reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on different hosts of economic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Eduardo M; Torres, Jorge B; Bueno, Adeney F

    2010-01-01

    The host selection for oviposition by Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) among corn, millet, cotton and soybean, and its relationship with the biological characteristics were investigated. Free and non-choice tests for oviposition using plots containing five plants each, from each host in plastic greenhouse, resulted in similar oviposition preference among the host plants. In addition, selected biological characteristics of S. frugiperda were determined in the laboratory with larvae feeding on host leaves, and the combination of leaf and cotton boll. Neonate larvae exhibited low success of colonization on cotton boll compared to the leaves of all other hosts. Spodoptera frugiperda fed only on cotton bolls exhibited longer larval and pupal development, and longer adult life span; however with similar egg production. Larvae fed cotton leaves during six days and then transferred to cotton bolls, however, exhibited development and reproduction similar to those reared on corn or only on cotton leaves. Therefore, the variations on immature stages of S. frugiperda were not related with host selection for oviposition which was similar among the studied hosts. Based on our data, the millet as a winter, rotational, and cover crop is a potential host for S. frugiperda, while leaves and cotton bolls were diets of intermediate suitability as compared to corn and soybean leaves.

  17. Inferring the annual migration patterns of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the U.S. from mitochondrial haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the Western Hemisphere. In the U.S., infestations in corn acreages extend from the Mexican to the Canadian border. Because fall armyworm does not survive prolonged ground freezing the infe...

  18. Effect of Some Environmental Factors on the Toxicity of Azadirachtin to the Egyptian Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    El-Sayed H. Shaurub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the bio-degradation of azadirachtin was well studied under storage or environmental conditions, its toxicity was not characterized so far under the impact of environmental conditions. Therefore, the present study aims to elucidate the toxicity of azadirachtin, at the level of LC50, to the fourth larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval under the stress of temperature, ultraviolet radiation (365 nm (UV-A and of artificial sunlight. The increase in post-treatment temperatures insignificantly affected azadirachtin toxicity. Likewise, insignificant change was also attained for the increase in the exposure periods of both UV and sunlight, except for exposure to sunlight without UV filter starting from 10 h, where the toxicity of azadirachtin was significantly declined. It can be concluded that azadirachtin toxicity will last efficiently against S. littoralis larvae under the stress of the environmental factors prevailing during the season of cotton cultivation in Egypt.

  19. On-Plant Larval Movement and Feeding Behavior of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Reproductive Corn Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, L E R; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Paula-Moraes, S V

    2016-02-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (fall armyworm) is considered one of the most destructive pests of corn throughout the Americas. Although this pest has been extensively studied, little is known about its larval movement and feeding behavior on reproductive compared to vegetative corn stages. Thus, we conducted studies with two corn stages (R1 and R3) and four corn plant zones (tassel, above ear, ear zone, and below ear) in the field at Concord, NE (USA), and in the field and greenhouse at Botucatu, SP (Brazil), to investigate on-plant larval movement. The effects of different corn tissues (opened tassel, closed tassel, silk, kernel, and leaf), two feeding sequence scenarios (closed tassel-leaf-silk-kernel and leaf-silk-kernel), and artificial diet (positive control) on larval survival and development were also evaluated in the laboratory. Ear zone has a strong effect on feeding choice and survival of fall armyworm larvae regardless of reproductive corn stage. Feeding site choice is made by first-instar. Corn leaves of reproductive plants were not suitable for early instar development, but silk and kernel tissues had a positive effect on survival and development of fall armyworm larvae on reproductive stage corn.

  20. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.

  1. Lyophilization of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae yields high-quality DNA for use in AFLP genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural research in the 21st century has become a collaborative effort. Research on crop pests like Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), commonly known as the fall armyworm (FAW), can involve international collaboration because it is a pest not only in the southern United States, but also in La...

  2. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts.

  3. Risk assessment for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance on dual-gene versus single-gene corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kristine T; Caprio, Michael A; Allen, K Clint; Musser, Fred R

    2013-02-01

    Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) decisions regarding resistance management in Bt-cropping systems have prompted concern in some experts that dual-gene Bt-corn (CrylA.105 and Cry2Ab2 toxins) may result in more rapid selection for resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) than single-gene Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-corn (CrylAb toxin). The concern is that Bt-toxin longevity could be significantly reduced with recent adoption of a natural refuge for dual-gene Bt-cotton (CrylAc and Cry2Ab2 toxins) and concurrent reduction in dual-gene corn refuge from 50 to 20%. A population genetics framework that simulates complex landscapes was applied to risk assessment. Expert opinions on effectiveness of several transgenic corn and cotton varieties were captured and used to assign probabilities to different scenarios in the assessment. At least 350 replicate simulations with randomly drawn parameters were completed for each of four risk assessments. Resistance evolved within 30 yr in 22.5% of simulations with single-gene corn and cotton with no volunteer corn. When volunteer corn was added to this assessment, risk of resistance evolving within 30 yr declined to 13.8%. When dual-gene Bt-cotton planted with a natural refuge and single-gene corn planted with a 50% structured refuge was simulated, simultaneous resistance to both toxins never occurred within 30 yr, but in 38.5% of simulations, resistance evolved to toxin present in single-gene Bt-corn (CrylAb). When both corn and cotton were simulated as dual-gene products, cotton with a natural refuge and corn with a 20% refuge, 3% of simulations evolved resistance to both toxins simultaneously within 30 yr, while 10.4% of simulations evolved resistance to CrylAb/c toxin.

  4. CONTROLE DA LAGARTA DA SOJA (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 - LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE. IV. CONTROLE BIOLÓGICO NATURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tadeu Braga da Silva

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as intensidades populacionais de lagartas de Anticarsia gemmatalis na cultura da soja, e coletadas lagartas semanalmente de janeiro a março, de 1982/83 a 89/90, com o objetivo de se conhecer a ocorrência estacionai do inseto e a eficiência dos agentes de controle natural, na região de Cruz Alta, RS. A maior abundância do inseto ocorreu entre 30 de janeiro a 1° de março, nos estádios entre floração plena (R2 e início de enchimento de grãos (R5 da cultura A mortalidade total de A. gemmatalis provocadas por parasitóides e entomopatógenos, variou de 10% (83/84 a 89% (86/87. Na média das várias safras, registrou-se 56% de mortalidade total, com 29% devido ao fungo Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson, 15% ao parasitóide Microcharops bimaculata (Asmead, 6% ao fungo Entomophthora sphaerosperma (Fresius, 4% ao vírus de poliedrose nuclear Baculovirus anticarsia e 1% a cada um dos parasitóides Patelloa similis (Townsed e Euplectrus chapadae (Asmead. Em quatro das oito safras, verificou-se produção de grãos não significativamente diferentes para as áreas de controle biológico natural e com controle químico, mostrando a grande importância dos agentes biológicos naturais para o controle de lagartas de A. gemmatalis um fator que deve ser considerado cuidadosamente em programas de manejo integrado de pragas da soja, visando racionalizar ou reduzir o uso de agrotóxico na cultura.

  5. Chemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Jatropha curcas L and effects on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Sandra Santos; Silva, Thanany Brasil da; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Bernardo, Antonio Rogerio; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Fernandes, Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pessoa, Angela Maria dos Santos; Silva-Mann, Renata, E-mail: djbf@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agronomica

    2012-07-01

    The biological activity of seven extracts from leaves of different Jatropha curcas L (Euphorbiaceae) accessions was evaluated on Spodoptera frugiperda. Methanol extracts were incorporated into an artificial diet and offered to the larval stage of S. frugiperda. The parameters evaluated were length of larval and pupal stages, mortality of larval and total cycle stage, and weight of pupae. The extracts of the EMB accessions showed the best result for larval mortality at 60.00 and 56.67%, compared with the control, respectively. Hexane partition of the methanol extract of the leaves of PM-14 accessions allowed the identification of phytosterols, phytol and n-alkanols. (author)

  6. Laboratory evaluations of Lepidopteran-active soybean seed treatments on survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two anthranilic diamide insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole, were evaluated as soybean, Glycine max L., seed treatments for control of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Bioassays were conducted using 2nd instar larvae and plants from both field and greenhouse gr...

  7. Temperature effects on the mating frequency of Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the influence of temperature on the mating frequency of two lepidopterans, Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), which use different strategies of allocation, and with the utilization of nutrients for their reproductive activities. The insects were reared on artificial diets at 25 deg C, and the adults were exposed to five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg C) to observe the influence of each temperature on their mating frequency, fecundity, fertility and longevity. The temperature affected the mating frequency of both species, being more evident at 15 deg C and 35 deg C, mainly for A. gemmatalis, which presented a drastic reduction on mating activities. The highest number of matings were observed from 20 deg C to 30 deg C, with S. frugiperda presenting mating activity (0-8) much higher than that of A. gemmatalis (0-2), but no correlation was observed among the number of matings and all other biological parameters evaluated (fecundity, fertility and longevity). However, S. frugiperda showed a positive correlation between fecundity and mating activity of females (r = 0.589; P = 0.003) at 25 deg C. The highest fecundities were observed at temperatures from 20 deg C to 30 deg C for S. frugiperda and at 25 deg C for A. gemmatalis. For both species, the longevity of males and females decreased as temperature increased. (author)

  8. Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On The Mating Activity And Mating Competitiveness Of The Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), after gamma sterilization. The objective was to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. Full grown pupae of the black cutworm from laboratory culture were irradiated at 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy. Results indicated that non-significant differences between untreated and treated groups in moth were observed in copula occurred and time of copulation while significant difference was recorded between the treated males and untreated once in spermatophore formation and percentage of females with sperm in their spermatheca at the last two doses. Low percentages of untreated female moths were mated when they were paired with previously mated males than when paired with virgin males. The sequence in which females were mated to an irradiated male did not affect the transfer of spermatophores. The percentage of eggs hatched was higher from the first mated females as compared to the second and third mated females. There were non-significant effects of 0 or 125 Gy exposures on female mating or time in copula. However, significant low percentages of mating of treated and untreated females were occurred with sequentially provided male moths on days 2, 3, to 5 following the first observed female mating. According to the mating competitiveness measured from direct

  9. Multi-state trials of Bt sweet corn varieties for control of the corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, A M; Olmstead, D L; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Dively, G; Welty, C; Sparks, A N

    2013-10-01

    Field tests in 2010-2011 were performed in New York, Minnesota, Maryland, Ohio, and Georgia to compare Bt sweet corn lines expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab with their non-Bt isolines, with and without the use of foliar insecticides. The primary insect pest in all locations during the trial years was Heliocoverpa zea (Boddie), which is becoming the most serious insect pest of sweet corn in the United States. At harvest, the ears were measured for marketability according to fresh market and processing standards. For fresh market and processing, least squares regression showed significant effects of protein expression, state, and insecticide frequency. There was a significant effect of year for fresh market but not for processing. The model also showed significant effects of H. zea per ear by protein expression. Sweet corn containing two genes (Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2) and a single gene (Cry1Ab) provided high marketability, and both Bt varieties significantly outperformed the traditional non-Bt isolines in nearly all cases regardless of insecticide application frequency. For pest suppression of H. zea, plants expressing Bt proteins consistently performed better than non-Bt isoline plants, even those sprayed at conventional insecticide frequencies. Where comparisons in the same state were made between Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants for fresh market, the product expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 provided better protection and resulted in less variability in control. Overall, these results indicate Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants are suitable for fresh market and processing corn production across a diversity of growing regions and years. Our results demonstrate that Bt sweet corn has the potential to significantly reduce the use of conventional insecticides against lepidopteran pests and, in turn, reduce occupational and environmental risks that arise from intensive insecticide use. PMID:24224259

  10. Insect feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities of scopoletin isolated from Artemisia annua against Spilarctia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar Tripathi; Rajendra Singh Bhakuni; Shikha Upadhyay; Rashmi Gaur

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia annua (Asteraceae) is well known for its antimalarial activities due to presence of the compound artemisinin. We isolated a methoxy coumarin from the stem part of A. annua and confirmed its identity as scopoletin through mass spectral data.The structure was established from 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR.The compound scopoletin was evaluated for its feeding deterrence and growth inhibitory potential against a noxious lepidopteran insect, Spilartctia obliqua Walker. Scopoletin gave FD50 (feeding deterrence of 50%) value of 96.7 μg/g diet when mixed into artificial diet. S. obliqua larvae (12-day-old) exposed to the highest concentration (250 μg/g diet)of scopoletin showed 77.1% feeding-deterrence. In a growth inhibitory assay, scopoletin provided 116.9% growth inhibition at the highest dose of 250 μg/g diet with a GI50 (growth inhibition of 50%) value of 20.9μg/g diet. Statistical analysis showed a concentrationdependent dose response relationship toward both feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities. Artemisinin is found mainly in the leaves of A. annua and not in the stems,which are typically discarded as waste. Therefore identification of scopoletin in stems of A. annua may be important as a source of this material for pest control.

  11. Some Changes in Gut Bacterial Flora of Field-Grown Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) When Brought into the Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Lighthart, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Removal of Peridroma saucia from the field to the laboratory caused little change in the quantity of facultative and aerobic bacteria in the gut but produced significant qualitative and quantitative changes in distinguishable groups of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the gut.

  12. The cutworm Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) supports growth and transport of pBR322-bearing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J L; Porteous, L A; Wood, N D

    1989-09-01

    Variegated cutworms were exposed to bean plants in microcosms sprayed with pBR322-carrying strains of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella planticola, and Erwinia herbicola. The three bacterial species exhibited differential survival on leaves, in soil, and in guts and fecal pellets (frass) of the insects. High numbers of Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322) were detected in all samples, while the other species were unable to establish residence in the insect. To assess the impact of this colonization on site-to-site transport of microorganisms, larvae were fed plants that had been sprayed with the bacteria and then were transferred to uninoculated plants. Cutworms were efficient carriers of Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322), as indicated by its rapid appearance on uninoculated leaves and continued persistence in the insects for 3 days after transfer. Few Erwinia herbicola(pBR322) and K. planticola(pBR322) were obtained from larvae after transfer, although up to 10(3) CFU/g were detected in soil and on plants. Differences in bacterial survival and growth were confirmed by incubating frass overnight and observing the change in population numbers. The proportion of total samples showing at least a 25-fold increase during incubation was 68% for Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322), 39% for K. planticola(pBR322), and 0% for Erwinia herbicola(pBR322). Our results emphasize the role that cutworms and possibly other insects have in persistence and growth of microorganisms in the environment. PMID:2802606

  13. The cutworm Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) supports growth and transport of pBR322-bearing bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, J L; Porteous, L A; Wood, N D

    1989-01-01

    Variegated cutworms were exposed to bean plants in microcosms sprayed with pBR322-carrying strains of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella planticola, and Erwinia herbicola. The three bacterial species exhibited differential survival on leaves, in soil, and in guts and fecal pellets (frass) of the insects. High numbers of Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322) were detected in all samples, while the other species were unable to establish residence in the insect. To assess the impact of this colonization on...

  14. Some Changes in Gut Bacterial Flora of Field-Grown Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) When Brought into the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighthart, B

    1988-07-01

    Removal of Peridroma saucia from the field to the laboratory caused little change in the quantity of facultative and aerobic bacteria in the gut but produced significant qualitative and quantitative changes in distinguishable groups of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the gut. PMID:16347703

  15. Diterpene resin acids: Major active principles in tall oil against Variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y; Isman, M B; Feng, Y; Wong, A

    1993-06-01

    Tall oil, a by-product of the kraft process for pulping softwood, has been shown to have insecticidal properties. In the present study, the active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hübner, were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids were major resin acid components of crude tall oil and depitched tall oil. When crude tall oil samples of differing resin acid composition were incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 2.0% fresh weight, they suppressed larval growth by 45-60% compared to controls. This suppression was significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with the equivalent contents of abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and total resin acids. These results were also evident from a diet choice test, showing that the second-instar larvae obviously selected diets with low levels of resin acids when different diets were randomly arranged in a Petri dish. Bioassays with pure resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids) demonstrated that all individual chemicals have similar bioactivity against this insect. Comparison of the bioactivities of depitched tall oil and an equivalent mixture of pure resin acids in thePeridroma chronic growth bioassay indicated that pure resin acids and depitched tall oil share a common mode of action to this insect. This study confirms that resin acids are major active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm, but other chemicals likely also contribute to the bioactivity of tall oil. PMID:24249127

  16. Fitness cost of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Selection pressure to obtain resistant genotypes can result in fitness cost. In this study, we report the effects of the selection pressure of a commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis on biological aspects of a Dipel-resistant strain of velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner. Comparisons of Dipel-resistant and susceptible individuals revealed significant differences in pupal weight and larval development time. Both strains (Dipel-resistant and susceptible were susceptible to Cry1Ac toxin expressed in foliar cotton tissues. Resistant and susceptible strains showed low survival rates of 22.5% and 51.2%, respectively, when fed with Greene diet containing Bt-cotton. Larvae bioassayed after three laboratory generations presented lower survival and less instar numbers than individuals maintained in the laboratory for more than 144 generations. Pupal weight was 9.4% lower and larval development time was 1.9 days longer in the resistant population than in the susceptible strain. Other parameters, such as duration of pupal stage, adult longevity, number of eggs per female, oviposition period, and egg fertility, remained unaffected.

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants

    OpenAIRE

    John W Gordy; Leonard, B. Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Stout, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are t...

  18. Inferring the annual migration patterns of fall armyworm(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the United States from mitochondrial haplotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Regions of southern Florida, USA and southern Texas, USA (extending into Mexico)provide the source populations for virtually all fall armyworm infestations affecting the continental USA. Understanding how these overwintering populations annually disperse is important to efforts to predict and con...

  19. Morphological changes induced by thermal treatment and gamma irradiation on the males' hind legs of Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae; Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai S. EL-Degwi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of males' hind legs of Spodoptera littoralis subjected to thermal treatment (33 °C and 37 °C or/and irradiated with substerilizing doses of gamma radiation (75, 100 and 150 Gy were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM in the parental generation. Five types of sensilla have been distinguished; three types of trichoid sensilla (T1,T2 and T3, sensilla basiconica and sensilla auricillica, which are considered as olfactory chemoreceptors. Moreover, sensilla chaetica are contact chemoreceptors, whereas sensilla styloconica are thermo–hygro/gustatory mechanoreceptors. The impact of thermal treatment or/and gamma irradiation reflect a clear morphological change in S. littoralis legs'sensilla, claws, spurs and scales. Otherwise, the degree of deformity was thermal and dose dependent, as it increased with an increase of the degree of temperature and dose of irradiation applied. Substerilizing doses 75 and 100 Gy, either alone or combined with thermal treatment 33 °C, have low undesirable effects on the hind legs with successful mobility or courtship behavior. Consequently, synergistic effect of gamma radiation and thermal stress induced successful application in the integrated pest management program for controlling S. littoralis.

  20. Do Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) gravid females discriminate between Bt or multivitamin corn varieties? Role of olfactory and visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Diego; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, is a key pest of corn and a main target of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in Northeast Spain. Trends for future biotechnology crops indicate that Bt, non-Bt, and stacked corn varieties with metabolic pathways for vitamin-increased traits could coexist in same region. Knowledge of the oviposition response of gravid females of S. nonagrioides to these different varieties could be extremely important for managing strategies aimed for delaying resistance development. In dual-choice assays, we examined the host preference of gravid females of S. nonagrioides for four corn varieties: a new transgenic corn with increased vitamin levels, its near isogenic counterpart (M37W), a Bt corn plant, and its near isogenic counterpart. Olfactory cues were the predominant ones when gravid females looked for a suitable host to lay eggs, and no synergistic effects were observed when both visual and olfactory cues were present. When the plant was visible, the females preferred the odors emitted by the nontransgenic to its multivitamin transgenic counterpart and when they only could detect the volatiles they also preferred the nontransgenic M37W variety to the Bt corn variety. If gravid females are less attracted to corn with an increased level of vitamins, this could impact insect resistance management and the value of refuge plants, if such traits are stacked with an insect resistance trait. PMID:25843586

  1. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts. PMID:26318006

  2. The Influence of Cadmium on the Food Consumption and Utilization of the Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahenda A. Abu ElEla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instars of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval, 1833 were reared on castor bean leaves Ricinus communis (Linnaeus, 1753 treated with cadmium 100 mg CdCl2/kg, using the dipping method, to evaluate the effect of cadmium (Cd on nutritional indices. It was observed that the consumption index was significantly decreased at all the studied instars except for the third instar. The absorptive capacity, in terms of approximate digestibility, was significantly decreased at the sixth instar. The food utilization efficiencies, in terms of the conversion of ingested and digested food (ECD to biomass, were significantly decreased at both fourth and fifth instars. Moreover, the ECD was significantly decreased at the sixth instar. The growth rate decreased at the different studied instars except for the sixth instar.

  3. Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae exhibits no preference between Bt and non-Bt maize fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C Dutra

    Full Text Available A recent shift in managing insect resistance to genetically engineered (GE maize consists of mixing non-GE seed with GE seed known as "refuge in a bag", which increases the likelihood of predators encountering both prey fed Bt and prey fed non-Bt maize. We therefore conducted laboratory choice-test feeding studies to determine if a predator, Harmonia axyridis, shows any preference between prey fed Bt and non-Bt maize leaves. The prey species was Spodoptera frugiperda, which were fed Bt maize (MON-810, expressing the single Cry1Ab protein, or non-Bt maize. The predators were third instar larvae and female adults of H. axyridis. Individual predators were offered Bt and non-Bt fed prey larvae that had fed for 24, 48 or 72 h. Ten and 15 larvae of each prey type were offered to third instar and adult predators, respectively. Observations of arenas were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 6, 15 and 24 h after the start of the experiment to determine the number and type of prey eaten by each individual predator. Prey larvae that fed on non-Bt leaves were significantly larger than larvae fed Bt leaves. Both predator stages had eaten nearly all the prey by the end of the experiment. However, in all combinations of predator stage and prey age, the number of each prey type consumed did not differ significantly. ELISA measurements confirmed the presence of Cry1Ab in leaf tissue (23-33 µg/g dry weight and S. frugiperda (2.1-2.2 µg/g, while mean concentrations in H. axyridis were very low (0.01-0.2 µg/g. These results confirm the predatory status of H. axyridis on S. frugiperda and that both H. axyridis adults and larvae show no preference between prey types. The lack of preference between Bt-fed and non-Bt-fed prey should act in favor of insect resistance management strategies using mixtures of GE and non-GE maize seed.

  4. Bioefficacy of Calendula officinalis Linn. (Asteraceae extracts in the control of Spodoptera litura Fabricus (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera under laboratory conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddamane Manjulakumari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Calendula officinalis L on the nutritional physiological parameters of Spodoptera litura Fab larvae were studied by treating with leaf and flower extracts in various solvents. Protease and amylase enzyme activities along with their respective substrates were assayed in hemolymph and midgut of treated and untreated larvae. Irrespective of tissues, all the extracts showed significant reduction in the biochemical profile compared to controls. The most significant change was observed in chloroform and petroleum ether leaf and flower extracts treated larvae compared to other extracts suggesting their components affect nutritional physiology of S.litura. Hence, Calendula extracts can not only be used to treat human ailments but also as an effective botanical pesticide.

  5. Biology and life table studies of the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),influenced by different larval diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Yun Wang; Yong Zhang; Hong-Yan Wang; Xiao-Ming Xia; Tong-Xian Liu

    2008-01-01

    Development, survivorship, pupal weight, oviposition, and life table parameters laboratory on an artificial diet, pepper (Capsicumfrutescens L.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.). We found that the average developmental time of immature stages was longest on tobacco (36.2 d), intermediate on pepper (34.4 d), and shortest on artificial diet (33.5 d).Immature survival from egg to pupa varied from 31% on tobacco, 43% on pepper, and 74% on artificial diet. Pupal weight ranged from 197.4 mg/pupa on tobacco, 233.1 mg/pupa on pepper and 253.4 mg/pupa on artificial diet. The average numbers of eggs laid by adults reared as larvae on the artificial diet, pepper, or tobacco were 614, 421 and 334 eggs/female,respectively. Numbers of remaining eggs in ovaries of the adult females reared as larvae on the artificial diet, pepper, or tobacco were 16, 26, and 42 eggs/female, respectively. The longevity of adult females developed from larvae reared on the three diets was not significantly different, whereas the longevity of male adults from the larvae reared on artificial diet was longer (16.8 d) than that for males reared on tobacco (13.8 d) and pepper (13.3 d). The intrinsic, finite, gross, and net rates of increase were highest for females reared as larvae on artificial diet, lowest for females emerging from larvae reared on tobacco, and intermediate for females emerging from larvae reared on pepper. Generation times and doubling time of H. assulta were shortest for larvae fed artificial diet, intermediate from larvae reared on pepper, and longest from larvae reared on tobacco. We concluded that the artificial diet was the most suitable larval diet ofH. assulta followed by pepper, and tobacco.

  6. Phylogeography and population genetics of the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sezonlin, Michel; Dupas, Stéphane; Le Ru, Bruno; Le Gall, Philippe; Moyal, Pascal; Calatayud, Paul-André; Giffard, I; Faure, N; Silvain, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The population genetics and phylogeography of African phytophagous insects have received little attention. Some, such as the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca, display significant geographic differences in ecological preferences that may be congruent with patterns of molecular variation. To test this, we collected 307 individuals of this species from maize and cultivated sorghum at 52 localities in West, Central and East Africa during the growing season. For all collected individuals, we seque...

  7. RNA-Seq Study of Microbially Induced Hemocyte Transcripts from Larval Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent S. Shelby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of the tobacco budworm are major polyphagous pests throughout the Americas. Development of effective microbial biopesticides for this and related noctuid pests has been stymied by the natural resistance mediated innate immune response. Hemocytes play an early and central role in activating and coordinating immune responses to entomopathogens. To approach this problem we completed RNA-seq expression profiling of hemocytes collected from larvae following an in vivo challenge with bacterial and fungal cell wall components to elicit an immune response. A de novo exome assembly was constructed by combination of sequence tags from all treatments. Sequence tags from each treatment were aligned separately with the assembly to measure expression. The resulting table of differential expression had > 22,000 assemblies each with a distinct combination of annotation and expression. Within these assemblies > 1,400 were upregulated and > 1,500 downregulated by immune activation with bacteria or fungi. Orthologs to innate immune components of other insects were identified including pattern recognition, signal transduction pathways, antimicrobial peptides and enzymes, melanization and coagulation. Additionally orthologs of components regulating hemocytic functions such as autophagy, apoptosis, phagocytosis and nodulation were identified. Associated cellular oxidative defenses and detoxification responses were identified providing a comprehensive snapshot of the early response to elicitation.

  8. Influences of insecticides on toxicity and cuticular penetration of abamectin in Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANGWANG; JIA-ANCHENG; ZHONG-MINLIU; SHENG-GANWU; XUE-PINGZHAO; CHANG-XINGWU

    2005-01-01

    Synergistic actions for mixtures of abamectin with other insecticides in some insect pests were evaluated, and the possible synergistic mechanism was studied by the comparison in toxicity and cuticular penetration of abamectin between with and without other insecticides or synergists in Helicoverpa armigera larvae. The results of bioassay showed that horticultural mineral oil (HMO), hexaflumuron, chlorpyrifos, and some other insecticides were synergistic to abamectin with 152.0-420.0 of co-toxicity coefficient(CTC) in some agricultural insect pests. In topical application tests, HMO or piperonyl butoxide (PBO) increased the toxicity of abamectin in larvae of H. armigera, but the mortality was not affected by s,s,s-tributylphorotrithioate (DEF) and triphenylphosphate (TPP). The synergistic action of HMO was obviously higher than PBO, and when treated simultaneously with abamectin, HMO gave a more significant synergism than if treated 2 hours ahead. The highest synergistic effect (SE) was found in the mixture of ‘abamectin+HMO (1:206)'. The mortality did not increase or the toxicity drop, when a synergist or HMO was added into the mixture of ‘abamectin+HMO' or ‘abamectin+synergist', respectively. Results from the isotope tracing experiments showed that HMO significantly enhanced the penetration of 3H-abamectin through the cuticle of H.armigera larvae, which resulted in the synergism of the mixture. The cuticular penetration of 3H-abamectin was not accumulatively affected by chlorpyrifos, nor by hexaflumuron,though there was an inhibition within 30 seconds or 1 hour after treated by these two chemicals respectively. Results suggested that the synergism of abamectin mixed with hexaflumuron or chlorpyrifos might be related to inhibition of metabolic enzymes or target sites in the larvae.

  9. Genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. strain HA, isolated from the gut of the polyphagous insect pest Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Jaya; Dua, Ankita; Saxena, Anjali; Sangwan, Naseer; Mukherjee, Udita; Pandey, Neeti; Rajagopal, Raman; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Lal, Rup

    2012-09-01

    In this study, Acinetobacter sp. strain HA was isolated from the midgut of a fifth-instar larva of Helicoverpa armigera. Here, we report the draft genome sequence (3,125,085 bp) of this strain that consists of 102 contigs, 2,911 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 41%. PMID:22933775

  10. Modelling biological control with wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera-cotton system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Hu, Z.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive model was developed to simulate virus epizootics in a stage structured insect population and analyse scenarios for the biological control of cotton bollworm (CBW), Helicoverpa armigera, in cotton, using wild-type or genetically modified baculoviruses. In simulations on dosage and tim

  11. Behaviour of wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera - cotton system: a simulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:   Helicoverpa armigera , baculovirus, genetic modification, cotton,transmissionMutation of an aminopeptidase N gene is associated with Helicoverpa armigera resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoping; Cheng, Hongmei; Gao, Yulin; Wang, Guirong; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming

    2009-07-01

    A Cry1Ac-resistant strain (Bt-R) of Helicoverpa armigera, with 2971-fold resistance, was derived by selection with Cry1Ac toxin for 75 generations. We used cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify those genes differentially expressed in the Cry1Ac-resistant and -susceptible strains, which revealed 212 differentially expressed transcripts among 2000 screened cDNAs. Among these transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), 37 showed some homology to known sequences, including Aminopeptidase N (APN), which is expressed in the midgut epithelium and has been implicated as a Cry1A subfamily receptor in several moths, including H. armigera. We confirmed the TDF by RT-PCR and identified a deletion mutation of apn1 in the Bt-R strain. We expressed the TDF in bacteria. The partial HaAPN1-96S wild-type protein, bound to Cry1Ac on ligand blots, whereas HaAPN1-BtR did not. This suggested that HaAPN1 is a receptor for Bt Cry1Ac and that its deletion mutation is associated with Cry1Ac resistance in H. armigera. The absence of one binding site is responsible for its resistance to Cry1Ac. We developed an allele-specific PCR to monitor whether the apn1 gene in an H. armigera field population produced a similar mutation. No deleted mutants were found in 2250 individuals collected from the field in 2006-2007. PMID:19376227

  12. Experience-based behavioral and chemosensory changes in the generalist insect herbivore Helicoverpa armigera exposed to two deterrent plant chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, D.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Wang, C.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of larvae of the polyphagous moth species Helicoverpa armigera to two plant-derived allelochemicals were studied, both in larvae that had been reared on a diet devoid of these compounds and in larvae previously exposed to these compounds. In dual-choice

  13. Expression Analysis and Binding Assays in the Chemosensory Protein Gene Family Indicate Multiple Roles in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Zhu, Jing; Cui, Jin-Jie; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2015-05-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals to receptors on sensory neurons. We identified and cloned 24 CSP genes to better understand the physiological function of CSPs in Helicoverpa armigera. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays indicate that CSP genes are ubiquitously expressed in adult H. armigera tissues. Broad expression patterns in adult tissues suggest that CSPs are involved in a diverse range of cellular processes, including chemosensation as well as other functions not related to chemosensation. The H. armigera CSPs that were highly transcribed in sensory organs or pheromone glands (HarmCSPs 6, 9, 18, 19), were recombinantly expressed in bacteria to explore their function. Fluorescent competitive binding assays were used to measure the binding affinities of these CSPs against 85 plant volatiles and 4 pheromone components. HarmCSP6 displays high binding affinity for pheromone components, whereas the other three proteins do not show affinities for any of the compounds tested. HarmCSP6 is expressed in numerous cells located in or close to long sensilla trichodea on the antennae of both males and females. These results suggest that HarmCSP6 may be involved in transporting female sex pheromones in H. armigera. PMID:25893790

  14. Cannibalism Affects Core Metabolic Processes in Helicoverpa armigera Larvae-A 2D NMR Metabolomics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Fredd; Shino, Amiu; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cannibalism is known in many insect species, yet its impact on insect metabolism has not been investigated in detail. This study assessed the effects of cannibalism on the metabolism of fourth-instar larvae of the non-predatory insect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidotera: Noctuidea). Two groups of larvae were analyzed: one group fed with fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera (cannibal), the other group fed with an artificial plant diet. Water-soluble small organic compounds present in the larvae were analyzed using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and principal component analysis (PCA). Cannibalism negatively affected larval growth. PCA of NMR spectra showed that the metabolic profiles of cannibal and herbivore larvae were statistically different with monomeric sugars, fatty acid- and amino acid-related metabolites as the most variable compounds. Quantitation of ¹H-(13)C HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence) signals revealed that the concentrations of glucose, glucono-1,5-lactone, glycerol phosphate, glutamine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, ornithine, proline, threonine and valine were higher in the herbivore larvae. PMID:27598144

  15. Functional specificity of sex pheromone receptors in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Male moths can accurately perceive the sex pheromone emitted from conspecific females by their highly accurate and specific olfactory sensory system. Pheromone receptors are of special importance in moth pheromone reception because of their central role in chemosensory signal transduction processes that occur in olfactory receptor neurons in the male antennae. There are a number of pheromone receptor genes have been cloned, however, only a few have been functionally characterized. Here we cloned six full-length pheromone receptor genes from Helicoverpa armigera male antennae. Real-time PCR showing all genes exhibited male-biased expression in adult antennae. Functional analyses of the six pheromone receptor genes were then conducted in the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes. HarmOR13 was found to be a specific receptor for the major sex pheromone component Z11-16:Ald. HarmOR6 was equally tuned to both of Z9-16: Ald and Z9-14: Ald. HarmOR16 was sensitively tuned to Z11-16: OH. HarmOR11, HarmOR14 and HarmOR15 failed to respond to the tested candidate pheromone compounds. Our experiments elucidated the functions of some pheromone receptor genes of H. armigera. These advances may provide remarkable evidence for intraspecific mating choice and speciation extension in moths at molecular level.

  16. Elevated CO2 reduces the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants to Helicoverpa armigera by suppressing the JA signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Guo

    Full Text Available Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO(2 levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO(2 would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage after the damage has occurred of tomato plants to the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that elevated CO(2 reduced resistance by decreasing the jasmonic acid (JA level and activities of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitors, and polyphenol oxidase in wild-type (WT plants infested with H. armigera. Consequently, the activities of total protease, trypsin-like enzymes, and weak and active alkaline trypsin-like enzymes increased in the midgut of H. armigera when fed on WT plants grown under elevated CO(2. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of the WT to H. armigera (in terms of photosynthetic rate, activity of sucrose phosphate synthases, flower number, and plant biomass and height was also reduced by elevated CO(2. Under ambient CO(2, the expression of resistance and tolerance to H. armigera was much greater in wild type than in spr2 (a JA-deficient genotype plants, but elevated CO(2 reduced these differences of the resistance and tolerance between WT and spr2 plants. The results suggest that the JA signaling pathway contributes to both plant resistance and tolerance to herbivorous insects and that by suppressing the JA signaling pathway, elevated CO(2 will simultaneously reduce the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants.

  17. The expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification are regulated in Helicoverpa armigera to cope up with chlorpyrifos insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; More, Tushar H; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is a key pest in many vital crops, which is mainly controlled by chemical strategies. To manage this pest is becoming challenging due to its ability and evolution of resistance against insecticides. Further, its subsequent spread on nonhost plant is remarkable in recent times. Hence, decoding resistance mechanism against phytochemicals and synthetic insecticides is a major challenge. The present work describes that the digestion, defense and immunity related enzymes are associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in H. armigera. Proteomic analysis of H. armigera gut tissue upon feeding on chlorpyrifos containing diet (CH) and artificial diet (AD) using nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified upregulated 23-proteins in CH fed larvae. Database searches combined with gene ontology analysis revealed that the identified gut proteins engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification. Biochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of candidate proteins indicated that insects were struggling to get nutrients and energy in presence of CH, while at the same time endeavoring to metabolize chlorpyrifos. Moreover, we proposed a potential processing pathway of chlorpyrifos in H. armigera gut by examining the metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. H. armigera exhibit a range of intriguing behavioral, morphological adaptations and resistance to insecticides by regulating expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification mechanisms to cope up with chlorpyrifos. In these contexts, as gut is a rich repository of biological information; profound analysis of gut tissues can give clues of detoxification and resistance mechanism in insects. PMID:25284010

  18. Response dynamics of three defense related enzymes in cotton leaves to the interactive stress of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) herbivory and omethoate application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Pin-jie; FAN Yin-jun; WANG Zhi-chao; SHI Xue-yan

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the response dynamics of the activities of defense related enzymes in cotton leaves towards the inter-active stress of Helicoverpa armigera herbivory and omethoate application, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), lipoxygenase (LOX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were examined from 6 to 126 h after cotton leaves were treated 12 h of H. armigera herbivory, and then sprayed with 800 mg L–1 omethoate. The results showed that the changes in the activities of PAL, LOX and PPO that occured under the interactive stress of H. armigera herbivory and omethoate application relfected the interactive effects of the two stresses on cotton defense. The similarity between the response dynamics of PAL, LOX, and PPO activities in cotton leaves under the interactive stress and that under H. armigera herbivory treatment alone showed that the induction of H. armigera herbivory on the activities of PAL, LOX and PPO in cotton leaves played a leading role in the interactive effects, and the effect of omethoate application played only a minor role. A joint factor analysis was performed according to a method which has been used to analyze the joint toxicity of pesticides;this analysis sought to clarify if there was a synergistic, antagonistic, or additive effect on PAL, LOX, and PPO activity in cotton leaves resulting from the interactive H. armigera herbivory and omethoate treatment. In the interactive effect on the response of PAL activity in cotton leaves, antagonistic effects of the omethoate application towards H. armigera herbivory were observed at 6 and 12 h. Synergistic effects were then observed at 18 and 30 h. Antagonistic effects were observed from 54 to 78 h and syn-ergistic effects were ifnal y observed at 126 h. The correlation between H. armigera herbivory and omethoate application in the interactive effect on cotton defense responses of LOX activity also lfuctuated from synergism to antagonism during the time course. In the interactive

  19. Push-pull Strategy with Trap Crops, Neem and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus for Insecticide Resistance Management in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    P. Duraimurugan; A. Regupathy

    2005-01-01

    Insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is a major threat to cotton production in India. The virus infection was found to increase the susceptibility of H. armigera to the insecticides. But, use of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV) on a larger scale and on cotton due to leaf alkalinity poses certain practical problems. Hence, studies were carried out to assess the effects of push-pull strategy with trap crops, neem and NPV in cotton for the management of insecticide resistant H...

  1. High Susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Low Resistance Allele Frequency Reduce the Risk of Resistance of Helicoverpa armigera to Bt Soybean in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalhau, Fabiana B.; Amado, Douglas; Carvalho, Renato A.; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The Old World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was recently introduced into Brazil, where it has caused extensive damage to cotton and soybean crops. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, which expresses the Bt protein Cry1Ac, was recently deployed in Brazil, providing high levels of control against H. armigera. To assess the risk of resistance to the Cry1Ac protein expressed by MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil, we conducted studies to evaluate the baseline susceptibility of H. armigera to Cry1Ac, in planta efficacy including the assessment of the high-dose criterion, and the initial resistance allele frequency based on an F2 screen. The mean Cry1Ac lethal concentration (LC50) ranged from 0.11 to 1.82 μg·mL−1 of diet among all H. armigera field populations collected from crop seasons 2013/14 to 2014/15, which indicated about 16.5-fold variation. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean exhibited a high level of efficacy against H. armigera and most likely met the high dose criterion against this target species in leaf tissue dilution bioassays up to 50 times. A total of 212 F2 family lines of H. armigera were established from field collections sampled from seven locations across Brazil and were screened for the presence of MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean resistance alleles. None of the 212 families survived on MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean leaf tissue (estimated allele frequency = 0.0011). The responses of H. armigera to Cry1Ac protein, high susceptibility to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, and low frequency of resistance alleles across the main soybean-producing regions support the assumptions of a high-dose/refuge strategy. However, maintenance of reasonable compliance with the refuge recommendation will be essential to delay the evolution of resistance in H. armigera to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil. PMID:27532632

  2. Bio-potency of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica seeds on the developmental physiology of H. armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-11-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin were ~2.10 µg/ml and 1.68 µg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21 kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H. armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H. armigera larvae. These results suggest that TTI has toxic and adverse effect on the developmental physiology of H. armigera and could be useful in controlling the pest H. armigera.

  3. A Nonhost Peptidase Inhibitor of ~14 kDa from Butea monosperma (Lam. Taub. Seeds Affects Negatively the Growth and Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhash K. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major devastating pests of crop plants. In this context a serine peptidase inhibitor purified from the seeds of Butea monosperma was evaluated for its effect on developmental physiology of H. armigera larvae. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor on 12% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exhibited a single protein band of ~14 kDa with or without reduction. In vitro studies towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera and bovine trypsin indicated measurable inhibitory activity. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor dose for 50% mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 0.5% w/w and 0.10% w/w, respectively. The IC50 of B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor against total H. armigera gut proteinases activity was 2.0 µg/mL. The larval feeding assays suggested B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor to be toxic as reflected by its retarded growth and development, consequently affecting fertility and fecundity of pest and prolonging the larval-pupal duration of the insect life cycle of H. armigera. Supplementing B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor in artificial diet at 0.1% w/w, both the efficiencies of conversion of ingested as well as digested food were downregulated, whereas approximate digestibility and metabolic cost were enhanced. The efficacy of Butea monosperma peptidase inhibitor against progressive growth and development of H. armigera suggest its usefulness in insect pest management of food crops.

  4. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and prota

  5. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J;

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...

  6. Gene cloning and expression of cadherin in midgut of Helicoverpa armigera and its Cry1A binding region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Guirong; WU; Kongming; LIANG; Gemei; GUO; Yuyuan

    2005-01-01

    Cadherins belong to one of the families of animal glycoproteins responsible for calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Recent literatures showed that the cadherin-like in midgut of several insects served as the receptor of Bt toxin Cry1A and the variation of cadherin-like is related to insect's resistance to Cry1A. The full-length cDNA encoding cadherin-like of Helicoverpa armigera is cloned by degenerate PCR and RACE techniques and the gene was designated as BtR-harm, which is 5581 bp in full-length, encoding 1730 amino acid residues (BtR-harm was deposited in GenBank and the accession number is AF519180). Its predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point were 195.39 kDa and 4.23, respectively. The inferred amino acid sequence includes a signal sequence, 11 cadherin repeats, a membrane-proximal region, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic region. Sequence analysis indicated that the deduced protein sequence was most similar to the cadherin-like from Heliothis virescens with 84.2% identity and highly similar to three other lepidopteran cadherin from Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta and Pectinophora gossypiella, with the sequence identities of 60.3.6%, 57.5% and 51.0%, respectively. The cDNA encoding cadherin gene was expressed successfully in E. coli and the recombinant proteins can bind with Cry1Ac. Truncation analysis and binding experiment of BtR-harm revealed that the Cry1A binding region was a contiguous 244-amino acid sequence, which located between amino acid 1217 and 1461. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that BtR-harm was highly expressed in midgut of H. armigera, very low expressed in foregut and hindgut and was not expressed in other tissues. After H. armigera producing resistance to Cry1Ac, the expression quantity of BtR-harm significantly decreased in midgut of H. armigera. It is the first confirmation that BtR-harm can function as receptor of Cry1Ac in H. armigera and the binding region was located on a contiguous 244 amino acid sequence

  7. Gene cloning and expression of cadherin in midgut of Helicoverpa armigera and its Cry1A binding region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guirong; Wu, Kongming; Liang, Gemei; Guo, Yuyuan

    2005-08-01

    Cadherins belong to one of the families of animal glycoproteins responsible for calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Recent literatures showed that the cadherin-like in midgut of several insects served as the receptor of Bt toxin Cry1A and the variation of cadherin-like is related to insect's resistance to Cry1A. The full-length cDNA encoding cadherin-like of Helicoverpa armigera is cloned by degenerate PCR and RACE techniques and the gene was designated as BtR-harm, which is 5581 bp in full-length, encoding 1730 amino acid residues (BtR-harm was deposited in GenBank and the accession number is AF519180). Its predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point were 195.39 kDa and 4.23, respectively. The inferred amino acid sequence includes a signal sequence, 11 cadherin repeats, a membrane-proximal region, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic region. Sequence analysis indicated that the deduced protein sequence was most similar to the cadherin-like from Heliothis virescens with 84.2% identity and highly similar to three other lepidopteran cadherin from Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta and Pectinophora gossypiella, with the sequence identities of 60.3.6%, 57.5% and 51.0%, respectively. The cDNA encoding cadherin gene was expressed successfully in E. coli and the recombinant proteins can bind with Cry1Ac. Truncation analysis and binding experiment of BtR-harm revealed that the Cry1A binding region was a contiguous 244-amino acid sequence, which located between amino acid 1217 and 1461. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that BtR-harm was highly expressed in midgut of H. armigera, very low expressed in foregut and hindgut and was not expressed in other tissues. After H. armigera producing resistance to Cry1Ac, the expression quantity of BtR-harm significantly decreased in midgut of H. armigera. It is the first confirmation that BtR-harm can function as receptor of Cry1Ac in H. armigera and the binding region was located on a contiguous 244 amino acid sequence

  8. DNA synthesis in the imaginal wing discs of the American bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Josephrajkumar; B Subrahmanyam

    2002-03-01

    The effect of two insect growth regulators of plant origin viz. plumbagin and azadirachtin and the ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone, makisterone A and a phytoecdysteroid on DNA synthesis in imaginal wing discs of day 4 final instar Helicoverpa armigera larvae was studied. DNA synthesis increased with increase in time of incubation up to 8 h and decreased later without the addition of moulting hormone. Addition of 20-hydroxyecdysone supported long term acquisition of competence for DNA synthesis in the wing discs. Both DNA synthesis and protein content were drastically reduced in plumbagin and azadirachtin-treated insects. Under in vitro conditions, plumbagin had a more pronounced inhibitory effect than azadirachtin. All the ecdysteroids tested, viz. makisterone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone and the ecdysteroidal fraction from the silver fern Cheilanthes farinosa enhanced DNA synthesis.

  9. Effect of 60Co-γ irradiation on mating ability of males of Helicoverpa armigera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of γ-rays irradiation on the mating ability and flight capability of male cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera were studied in laboratory and field cages. The results showed that when the irradiation dose increased from 0Gy to 400Gy, the flight capability decreased: flight distance decreased from 69.65km to 38.30km; average flight distance decreased from 44.19km to 13.55km. The longevity of the irradiated males was significantly shorter than that of the wilds but there was no significant difference according to different doses. Egg hatchability was affected significantly by irradiation but there was no significant difference in eggs laid per female, fecundation eggs as increasing treated doses. When the ratio of sterilized males (treated dose 200 Gy) to fertile males was as 5:1 in field cages, the F1 hatchability was significantly decreased and the purpose of controlling cotton bollworm population could be effectively achieved. (authors)

  10. Efifciency of Different Methods for dsRNA Delivery in Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; HAN Zhao-jun

    2014-01-01

    RNAi trigged by dsRNA not only facilitates the development of molecular biology, but also initiates a new way for pest control by silence of fatal genes. However, one of the key limitations in pest control is lack of the convenient and efifcient method for dsRNA delivery. In this study, different dsRNA delivery methods at their own optimum conditions were evaluated comparatively for their efifciency with Helicoverpa armigera as test animal. It was found that the popular one-time injection of larvae with dsRNA could reduce the pupation rate by 43.0%and enhance larva mortality by 11.7%. One-time ingestion of dsRNA did not result in any signiifcant effect on phenotype. Continuous ingestion of in vitro synthesized dsRNA by refreshing the bait diet every day caused 40.4% decrease in successful pupation and 10.0% increase in larval mortality, which was similar as one-time injection. The most efifcient method was found to be the continuous ingestion of the bacteria containing dsRNA expressed, which reduced the rate of pupation by 68.7%and enhanced the larval mortality by 34.1%. Further analysis found that dsRNA was degraded faster in midgut juice than in hemolymph. However, the cell of bacteria could protect dsRNA and delay the degradation in the midgut juice of H. armigera. These results throw light on the application of dsRNA in pest management with proper ways.

  11. Living on the edge: interactions between Lepidoptera and parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Hesketh, H.; Roy, H. E.; McCracken, M.; Pywell, R.F.; Hails, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation are key drivers associated with the recent decline of some Lepidoptera species. Insect pathogens also play a, currently undetermined, role. We report on a study assessing the prevalence of Lepidoptera pathogens (and parasitoids) across the UK and their interactions with habitat and climate change.

  12. Push-pull Strategy with Trap Crops, Neem and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus for Insecticide Resistance Management in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duraimurugan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner is a major threat to cotton production in India. The virus infection was found to increase the susceptibility of H. armigera to the insecticides. But, use of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV on a larger scale and on cotton due to leaf alkalinity poses certain practical problems. Hence, studies were carried out to assess the effects of push-pull strategy with trap crops, neem and NPV in cotton for the management of insecticide resistant H. armigera. Field experiments were conducted on cotton (MCU5 with trap crops (okra and pigeonpea and neem was used to diversify the pests to trap crops whereby the control of these pests was assessed with the application of NPV. The preference of H. armigera was towards okra and pigeonpea as a trap crop compared to cotton. Application of NSKE on cotton diversified the H. armigera towards untreated okra and pigeonpea. Push-pull strategy with the conjunctive use of trap crops, restricted application of NSKE on cotton leaving trap crops and restricted application of NPV on trap crops was highly effective in reducing the incidence of H. armigera and damage to fruiting bodies, boll, locule and inter locule basis over cotton sole crop (untreated check. The percent recovery of NPV infected larvae varied from 37.5-47.5, 32.8-39.2 and 14.2-20.2% on okra, pigeon pea and cotton respectively. The synthetic pyrethroids resistance in field survived H. armigera at the end of the season was reduced from 87.5-93.1% to 76.4-84.3%.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Gut Bacterial Proteases Involved in Inducing Pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regode, Visweshwar; Kuruba, Sreeramulu; Mohammad, Akbar S.; Sharma, Hari C.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxin proteins are deployed in transgenic plants for pest management. The present studies were aimed at characterization of gut bacterial proteases involved in activation of inactive Cry1Ac protoxin (pro-Cry1Ac) to active toxin in Helicoverpa armigera. Bacterial strains were isolated from H. armigera midgut and screened for their proteolytic activation toward pro-Cry1Ac. Among 12 gut bacterial isolates seven isolates showed proteolytic activity, and proteases from three isolates (IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3) were found to be involved in the proteolytic conversion of pro-Cry1Ac into active toxin. The proteases from IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3 isolates were purified to 11.90-, 15.50-, and 17.20-fold, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for gut bacterial protease activity was 8.0 and 40°C. Maximum inhibition of total proteolytic activity was exerted by phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride followed by EDTA. Fluorescence zymography revealed that proteases from IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3 were chymotrypsin-like and showing protease band at ~15, 65, and 15 kDa, respectively. Active Cry1Ac formed from processing pro-Cry1Ac by gut bacterial proteases exhibited toxicity toward H. armigera. The gut bacterial isolates IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3 showed homology with B. thuringiensis (CP003763.1), Vibrio fischeri (CP000020.2), and Escherichia coli (CP011342.1), respectively. Proteases produced by midgut bacteria are involved in proteolytic processing of B. thuringiensis protoxin and play a major role in inducing pathogenicity of B. thuringiensis toxins in H. armigera. PMID:27766093

  14. A Toxin-Binding Alkaline Phosphatase Fragment Synergizes Bt Toxin Cry1Ac against Susceptible and Resistant Helicoverpa armigera

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbo Chen; Chenxi Liu; Yutao Xiao; Dandan Zhang; Yongdong Zhang; Xianchun Li; Bruce E Tabashnik; Kongming Wu

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase p...

  15. New source of genetic polymorphisms in Lepidoptera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Wink, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The variability level of the ISSR (inter-simple sequences repeat) primer (GACA)4 was examined in the three Lepidoptera families Pyralidae, Sphingidae and Pieridae. Our study shows that the tetra-repeat (GACA)n is evidently present in sufficient numbers in these butterflies to provide informative DNA fingerprints. The variability is mostly rather high, but within a comparable range to other ISSR studies. Although less polymorphisms may be encountered in some butterfly families, this study indicates that high variability of this marker may be a common characteristic of Lepidoptera genomes. An appeal for a minimal level of standardization of ISSR-PCR data analysis is formulated to enable an exact comparison between the groups of organisms studied with this fingerprint technique. PMID:16163839

  16. Natural parasitism of Chrysodeixis chalcites and Autographa gamma (Lep., Noctuidae) eggs on tomato fields

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia GARCIA; Oliveira, Luísa; Tavares, João

    1998-01-01

    A survey for Chrysodeixis chalcites Esper and Autographa gamma L.(Lep.: Noctuidae) eggs was carried oul on tomato fields during the summer season of 1993 and 1994, in order to study egg parasitism. Only two species were found to parasite C. chalcites and A. gamma eggs: Telenomus sp. (Hym.: Scelionidae) and Trichogramma cordubensis (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae). The natural egg parasitism rates were higher in the first year (62.30% for A. gamma and 48.39% for C. chalcites) than in the second (25.1...

  17. PROTECTION OF SWEET CORN FROM OSTRINIA NUBILALIS HBN. AND HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA HBN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, S; Indić, D; Grahovac, M; Franeta, F

    2015-01-01

    O. nubilalis and H. armigera regularly occur and cause significant damages in corn crops in Serbia, particularly under global warming conditions. Several measures are applied against these pests (crop rotation, tolerant and resistant hybrids, monitoring, forecast, chemical measures). Larvae damage stem, panicle and ear, which favour development of saprophytes and secondary infections by mycotoxin producing, pathogenic fungi. The aim of the paper was to test the efficacy of the insecticides azadirachtin and indoxacarb in sweet corn protection against the mentioned pests. The trials were conducted in 2014 at two localities (Becej B. and PoIjanice P.) on sweet corn, hybrid Enterprise according to standard OEPP methods (PP1/13; 1/152; 1/135). Products on the basis of azadirachtin (10 g a.i./I of product) at a rate of 0.4 and 0.5% and indoxacarb (150 g a.i./I of product) at a rate of 0.25 I/ha, were applied. Treatments were conducted on the 5th of August with tractor sprayers (high clearance). The plot size was 5000 m². Three assessments were made. The first one prior to treatment, on 25 randomly selected plants per replicate, and the number of O. nubilalis and H. armigera egg masses and larvae on silk was registered. In the second assessment (18th of August), on 20 randomly selected plants per replicate, the number of damaged plants and the number of vital larvae was registered. In the third assessment, immediately before harvest (28th of August, i.e. 12th of September) on 20 randomly selected plants per replicate, the number of plants broken below ear (fallen on the ground), damaged ears and vital larvae, was determined. Results are presented as means, efficacy (E%) according to Abbott and significance of differences by LSD test (5%). At B locality egg masses of O. nubilalis were registered on ear silk on 13-19% of plants and larvae on 3-7%, and larvae of H. armigera on 2-4%. At P locality egg masses of O. nubilalis were present on 34-40.8% of plants. After 13 days

  18. Comparative study on the responses of maxillary sensilla styloconica of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and Oriental tobacco budworm H. assulta larvae to phytochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤德良; 王琛柱; 罗林儿; 钦俊德

    2000-01-01

    Using the electro-physiological technique, the sensory mechanisms of maxillary sensilla styloconica to stimulants and deterrents were explored on two closely related species, the generalist Helicoverpa armigera and the specialist H. assulta. The results showed that: (i) in both species, cells sensitive to sucrose and azadirachtin were mainly in the lateral sensillum styloconicum, and those to inositol were in the medial sensillum styloconicum; (ii) sensitivity of medial sensillum styloconicum in H. assulta to inositol was higher than that in H. armigera; (iii) among 6 tested deterrents, only azadirachtin evoked high impulse discharge from the lateral sensillum styloconicum in both insects; (iv) the deterrents could disturb stimulants evoking impulse discharge from maxillary sensilla styloconica of both species in different degrees: To sucrose evoking impulses on lateral sensillum styloconicum, for H. armigera capsaicin had a strong inhibition and gossypol had a weak inhibition, while for H. assulta tann

  19. Novel genotypes of the Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearSNPV), method for the production thereof, and use of same as a biological control agent

    OpenAIRE

    Arrizubieta, Maite; Oihane, Simón; Caballero, Primitivo; Williams, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    Se describen dos nuevos genotipos del nucleopoliedrovirus simple de Helicoverpa armigera, HearSNPV, HearSNPV-SP1B y HearSNPV-LB6, cada uno procedente de mezclas de genotipos obtenidas de localizaciones y cultivos diferentes. Cada uno de ellos tiene una actividad insecticida específica frente a larvas de H. armigera comparable a la de los insecticidas comerciales habituales. Además, la mezcla de los dos genotipos, particularmente en proporción 1:1 con viriones co-ocluidos de genotipos mezclado...

  20. Nuevos genotipos del nucleopoliedrovirus simple de Helicoverpa armigera (HearSNPV), procedimiento para su producción y uso como agente de control biológico

    OpenAIRE

    Arrizubieta, Maite; Oihane, Simón; Caballero, Primitivo; Williams, Trevor G.

    2014-01-01

    Se describen dos nuevos genotipos del nucleopoliedrovirus simple de Helicoverpa armigera, HearSNPV, HearSNPV-SP1B y HearSNPV-LB6, cada uno procedente de mezclas de genotipos obtenidas de localizaciones y cultivos diferentes. Cada uno de ellos tiene una actividad insecticida específica frente a larvas de H. armigera comparable a la de los insecticidas comerciales habituales. Además, la mezcla de los dos genotipos, particularmente en proporción 1:1 con viriones co-ocluidos de genotipos mezclado...

  1. The ORF 113 of Heliocoverpa armigera Single Nucleopolyhedrovirus Encodes a Functional Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang LI; Chang-yong LIANG; Jian-hua SONG; Xin-wen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a key regulator of developmental processes. A FGF homolog (vFGF) is found in all lepidopteran baculoviruses. Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV) vFGFs are chemotactic factors. Here we analyzed the vfgf of Helicoverpa armigera NPV (HearNPV), a group Ⅱ NPV. The HearNPV vfgftranscripts were detected from 18 to 96 h post-infection (hpi) of Hz-AMI cells with HearNPV and encoded a 36 kDa protein, which was secreted into the culture medium. HearNPV vFGF had strong affinity to heparin, a property important for FGF signaling via an FGF receptor. Unlike its AcMNPV homolog, HearNPV vFGF specially chemoattracted Hz-AM 1, but not other insect cells such as Sf9 and Se-UCR and not the mammalian cells 293 and HepG2. HearNPV vFGF is also associated with the envelope of BV but is absent in occlusion-derived virus, which coordinated to the chemotatic activity analysis.

  2. Functional Characteristics of a Novel Chemosensory Protein in the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-tao; WANG Wei-xuan; ZHANG Zi-ding; ZHANG Yong-jun; GUO Yu-yuan

    2013-01-01

    A chemosensory protein named HarmCSP5 in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was obtained from antennal cDNA libraries and expressed in Escherichia coli. The real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results indicated that HarmCSP5 gene was mainly expressed in male and female antennae but also expressed in female legs and wings. Competitive binding assays were performed to test the binding affinity of recombinant HarmCSP5 to 60 odor molecules including some cotton volatiles. The resules showed that HarmCSP5 showed strong binding abilities to 4-ehtylbenzaldehyde and 3,4-dimethlbenz aldehyde, whereas methyl phenylacetate, 2-decanone, 1-pentanol, carvenol, isoborneol, nerolidol, 2-nonanone and ethyl heptanoate have relatively weak binding affinity. Moreover, the predicted 3D model of HarmCSP5 consists of sixα-helices located among residues 33-38 (α1), 40-48 (α2), 62-72 (α3), 80-96 (α4), 98-108 (α5), and 116-119 (α6), two pairs of disulfide bridges Cys49-Cys55, Cys75-Cys78. The two amino acid residues, Ile94 and Trp101, may play crucial roles in HarmCSP5 binding with ligands and need further study for confirmation.

  3. BIO-EFFICACY OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST FRUIT BORER (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Katroju,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment carried out during kharif, 2012 at Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG @11 g a.i. ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 22 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @ 500 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @1000 g a.i. ha-1, spinosad 45 SC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis @ 25 g a.i. ha-1against tomato fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera. Among all the insecticides, profenophos (1000 g a.i. ha-1 was found to be the most effective one with a maximum reduction in fruit borer population (65.20%, minimum per cent of fruit damage (28.80% and maximum yield (26.43 kg/20 m2 followed by bifenthrin @ 100 g a.i.ha-1 with reduced larval population of 64.51% and damaged fruits 32.60%.

  4. Genetic variation underlies temperature tolerance of embryos in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, R A; Evans, J P

    2013-10-01

    Ocean warming can alter natural selection on marine systems, and in many cases, the long-term persistence of affected populations will depend on genetic adaptation. In this study, we assess the potential for adaptation in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma armigera, an Australian endemic, that is experiencing unprecedented increases in ocean temperatures. We used a factorial breeding design to assess the level of heritable variation in larval hatching success at two temperatures. Fertilized eggs from each full-sibling family were tested at 22 °C (current spawning temperature) and 25 °C (upper limit of predicted warming this century). Hatching success was significantly lower at higher temperatures, confirming that ocean warming is likely to exert selection on this life-history stage. Our analyses revealed significant additive genetic variance and genotype-by-environment interactions underlying hatching success. Consistent with prior work, we detected significant nonadditive (sire-by-dam) variance in hatching success, but additionally found that these interactions were modified by temperature. Although these findings suggest the potential for genetic adaptation, any evolutionary responses are likely to be influenced (and possibly constrained) by complex genotype-by-environment and sire-by-dam interactions and will additionally depend on patterns of genetic covariation with other fitness traits.

  5. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  6. Molecular Analysis of the Muscle Protein Projectin in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Ayme-Southgate, A. J.; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as w...

  7. Gustatory receptors in Lepidoptera: chemosensation and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A R; Roy, A A; Joshi, R S

    2016-10-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli. Here, we discuss various aspects of the lepidopteran GRs with an emphasis on their roles in different processes such as chemosensation, host selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the large diversity of GR genes may have been generated through gene duplication and positive selection events, which also show lineage- and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, lepidopteran GR proteins are diverse and demonstrate broad ligand selectivity for several molecules including sugars, deterrents, salts and CO2 . Binding of ligands to GRs generates multiple downstream changes at the cellular level, which are followed by changes in behaviour. GRs play a critical role in chemosensation and influence the insect's behaviour. Overall, insect GRs are potential targets in the design of effective insect control strategies. PMID:27228010

  8. Comparative study on the responses of maxillary sensilla styloconica of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and Oriental tobacco budworm H. assulta larvae to phytochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using the electro-physiological technique, the sensory mechanisms of maxillary sensilla styloconica to stimulants and deterrents were explored on two closely related species, the generalist Helicoverpa armigera and the specialist H. assulta. The results showed that: (i) in both species, cells sensitive to sucrose and azadirachtin were mainly in the lateral sensillum styloconicum, and those to inositol were in the medial sensillum styloconicum; (ii) sensitivity of medial sensillum styloconicum in H. assulta to inositol was higher than that in H. armigera; (iii) among 6 tested deterrents, only azadirachtin evoked high impulse discharge from the lateral sensillum styloconicum in both insects; (iv) the deterrents could disturb stimulants evoking impulse discharge from maxillary sensilla styloconica of both species in different degrees: To sucrose evoking impulses on lateral sensillum styloconicum, for H. armigera capsaicin had a strong inhibition and gossypol had a weak inhibition, while for H. assulta tannic acid, gossypol, and tomatine all had strong inhibition except nicotine and capsaicin; to inositol evoking impulses on medial sensilum styloconicum, for H. armigera inhibition of tomatine was strong but that of gossypol was weak; and for H. assulta inhibition of gossypol was strong but that of nicotine was weak.

  9. Tarsal taste neuron activity and proboscis extension reflex in response to sugars and amino acids in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.F.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Wang, C.Z.

    2010-01-01

    In adult female Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the fifth tarsomere of the prothoracic legs bears 14 gustatory trichoid chemosensilla. These chemosensilla were characterized through electrophysiological experiments by stimulating with sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, myo-inositol and 20 common am

  10. Functional validation of cadherin as a receptor of Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa armigera utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Haonan; Wang, Huidong; Zhao, Shan; Zuo, Yayun; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Yidong

    2016-09-01

    Cadherins have been identified as receptors of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins in several lepidopteran insects including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Disruption of the cadherin gene HaCad has been genetically linked to resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in H. armigera. By using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9), HaCad from the Cry1Ac-susceptible SCD strain of H. armigera was successfully knocked out. A single positive CRISPR event with a frame shift deletion of 4 nucleotides was identified and made homozygous to create a knockout line named SCD-Cad. Western blotting confirmed that HaCad was no longer expressed in the SCD-Cad line while an intact HaCad of 210 kDa was present in the parental SCD strain. Insecticide bioassays were used to show that SCD-Cad exhibited 549-fold resistance to Cry1Ac compared with SCD, but no significant change in susceptibility to Cry2Ab. Our results not only provide strong reverse genetics evidence for HaCad as a functional receptor of Cry1Ac, but also demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 technique can act as a powerful and efficient genome editing tool to study gene function in a global agricultural pest, H. armigera.

  11. COMPARATIVE BIOLOGICAL DATA OF Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (LEPDOTERA: NOCTUIDAE IN COTTON AND MAIZE DADOS BIOLÓGICOS COMPARATIVOS DE Spodoptera frugiperda (L. E. Smith, 1797 (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE EM ALGODOEIRO E MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto P. Parra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This research deals with the compared biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smnith, 1797 on a natural diet consisting of leaves of the cotton plant (cultivar ";IAC-17"; and leaves of a hybrid corn plant (";HMD-7974";. The experiment was carried out under the following conditions: temperature, 25 +/- 2°C, moisture, 60 +/- 10% R.H. light, a 14-hour photoperiod. The following biological parameters were observed: egg stage: incubation period and viability; larval stage duration, number of instars, weight and viability; pupal stage: duration, weight and viability; adult stage: preoviposition period, fecundity and longevity. Generally speaking within these parameters, the results differed statistically, showing that the insects prefer the leaves of the corn plant.

    Estudou-se a biologia comparada de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 em dietas naturais (folhas de algodoeiro do cultivar "IAC-17" e folhas de milho provenientes do híbrido "HMD-7974". O ensaio foi conduzido à temperatura de 25 +/- 2°C, U.R. de 60 +/- 10% e fotoperíodo de 14 horas. Foram determinados em cada substrato: número e duração dos instares larvais, duração, peso e viabilidade larval, duração, peso e viabilidade pupal , período de pré-oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade dos adultos e período de incubação e viabilidade dos ovos. De modo geral, os resultados observados para esses parâmetros, diferiram estatisticamente, indicando a preferência das lagartas pelas folhas de milho.

  12. Genetic engineering of cotton with a novel cry2AX1 gene to impart insect resistance against Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamurthy Dhivya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic calli of cotton (Coker310 were cocultivated with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the codon-optimised, chimeric cry2AX1 gene consisting of sequences from cry2Aa and cry2Ac genes isolated from Indian strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. Forty-eight putative transgenic plants were regenerated, and PCR analysis of these plants revealed the presence of the cry2AX1 gene in 40 plants. Southern blot hybridisation analysis of selected transgenic plants confirmed stable T-DNA integration in the genome of transformed plants. The level of Cry2AX1 protein expression in PCR positive plants ranged from 4.9 to 187.5 ng g-1 of fresh tissue. A transgenic cotton event, TP31, expressing the cry2AX1 gene showed insecticidal activity of 56.66 per cent mortality against Helicoverpa armigera in detached leaf disc bioassay. These results indicate that the chimeric cry2AX1 gene expressed in transgenic cotton has insecticidal activity against H. armigera.

  13. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Chen

    Full Text Available Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50 of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  14. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbo; Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects. PMID:25885820

  15. 棉铃虫齿唇姬蜂的生物学特性%BIONOMIC OF CAMPOLETIS CHLORIDEAE (HYM: ICHNEUMONIDAE)AS A PARASITOID OF THE COTTON BOLLWORM HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA ( LEP: NOCTUIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游兰韶; 雷润华; 蒋杰贤; 柏连阳; 肖治术

    2002-01-01

    研究了湖南长沙地区棉铃虫齿唇姬蜂的生物学特性及田间消长规律.棉铃虫齿唇姬蜂在湖南长沙地区年发生约10代,以7个世代发生在棉田.田间出现3个寄生高峰,分别在5月上旬-6月下旬、8月中旬-9月上甸及9月中旬-10月中旬,寄生率平均在25,l-63,1%.从卵发育到成虫的平均历期变化范围为32.C下13天至11.6.C下75.5天.棉铃虫齿唇姬蜂能寄主棉铃虫、斜纹夜蛾和甜菜夜蛾,但偏爱寄主棉铃虫.该蜂能寄生棉铃虫l-3龄幼虫,很少寄生4-6龄幼虫,喜寄生2-3龄幼虫,每雌可寄生斜纹夜蛾2龄幼虫5-23头.本文建立了发育速率及成蜂寿命与温度关系的回归模型,探讨了越冬问题.比较了长江流域和黄河流域棉铃虫齿唇姬蜂生物学特性的差异.%The bionomics of Campoletis chlorideae and the regularity of its seasonal fluctuations were studied inChangsha district, Hunan province. Field investigation indicated that there were ten generations of C. chlorideae ayear, of which seven occurred in cotton fields. Three peaks of cotton bollworm parasitization by C. chlorideae were ob-served, early May to late June, mid August to early September, mid September to mid October respectively. One peakoccurred in tomato and tobacco fields, the other two in cotton fields. The parasitization rate ranged from 25.1% -63.1%. The total development time from egg to adult ranged from 13.0 days at 32.C to 75.5 days at 11.6.C. Eachwasp could parasitize the 5 - 23 second instar larvae of tobacco caterpillar. C. chlorideae could parasitize the cottonbollworm, beet armyworm and tobacco caterpillar, but preferred the cotton bollworm larvae. C. chlorideae could para-sitized 1st - 3rd instar larvae of the tobacco caterpillar, but seldom parasitzed 4th - 6th instar larvae. Moreover, C.chlorideae preferred second instar larvae. Theoretical models for developmental speed, adult longevity and the influenceof temperature were proposed. The overwintering of C. chlorideae Uchida was also discussed. Moreover, methods forutilization of C. chlorideae Uchida in crop protection were presented and the bionomics of Campoletis chlorideae in boththe Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley were compared.

  16. Duração do desenvolvimento de Mythimna unipuncta, Xestla c-nigrum, Agrotis ipsilon, Heliothis armigera, Peridroma saucia, Spodoptera littoralis (Lep.: Noctuidae) e Pieris brassicae azorensis (Lep.: Piralidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Rui; Oliveira, Luísa; Tavares, João

    1998-01-01

    III Simpósio Fauna e Flora das Ilhas Atlânticas / Symposium Fauna and Flora of the Atlantic Islands, Universidade dos Açores, Ponta Delgada (Açores), 21 - 25 September, 1998. A influência dos factores abióticos sobre o desenvolvimento de espécies de Lepidópteros, nomeadamente no estado larvar, foi e será objecto de numerosos estudos, contribuindo assim para o conhecimento dos seus limites teóricos, duração/velocidade de desenvolvimento e percentagem de mortalidade no estado larvar. A...

  17. Borboletas (Lepidoptera) ameaçadas de extinção em Minas Gerais, Brasil Butterflies (Lepidoptera) considered as threatened in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Casagrande, Mirna M.; Olaf H.H. Mielke; Keith S Brown Jr

    1998-01-01

    The twenty species of butterflies (diurnal Lepidoptera) considered as threatened in the Minas Gerais (by statute) are described and discussed in relation to distribution, appearance and known records.

  18. Molecular identification of three novel glutaredoxin genes that play important roles in antioxidant defense in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Dou; Shen, Zhong-Jian; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2016-08-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs), also known as thioltransferases, play key roles in maintaining intracellular redox balance and protecting cells from oxidative damage in plants and mammals. We tested whether Grxs play important roles in antioxidant defense in insects using the moth, Helicoverpa armigera. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of three novel Grx genes, named HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. Sequence analysis indicated that HaGrx shared a high amino acid identity (58%-78%) and a CPYC motif of conserved redox activity with homologues from other selected insect species. In contrast, HaGrx3 and HaGrx5 both shared a CGF(S/G) motif, a conserved catalytic domain, with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 exhibited temporally- and spatially-dependent patterns of expression. The mRNA expression of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 was induced by various temperature stresses and H2O2 treatments. We further investigated the knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 in H. armigera larvae and found that most of the selected antioxidant genes were up regulated. However, Tpx was down regulated, and further interpretation of the complementary functions of these antioxidant genes is still required. We also determined the effect of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 knockdown on antioxidant enzymatic activity and metabolite content. The enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD, and the metabolite contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate, protein carbonyl, and total GSH increased after RNAi mediated knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. These results supported our hypothesis that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 play important roles in antioxidant defense of Helicoverpa armigera and provided a theoretical basis for further in-depth study of physiological function in the insect glutaredoxin family genes.

  19. The moths (Lepidoptera: Heterocera of northern Maharashtra: a preliminary checklist

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    S.A. Gurule

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary checklist of moth species collected in north Maharashtra is presented based on studies carried out in various localities from June 2009 to June 2010. From a total of 728 individuals, 245 morphospecies, placed in 177 genera and 20 families, were recognized. Almost a third of these species were collected as singletons and can be considered as rare. The moth fauna is very rich in arboreal feeding forms, indicating that the area is a fairly undisturbed forest patch. Of the 20 families encountered, Erebidae, Noctuidae, Crambidae, Geometridae and Sphingidae are the most diverse.

  20. A checklist of the Lepidoptera from Corvo Island (Azores)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Virgílio; Tavares, João

    1995-01-01

    No presente estudo é apresentada uma lista das borboletas e traças recolhidas ou observadas em Julho e Outubro de 1993 na ilha do Corvo, Arquipélago dos Açores. A partir desta e da informação bibliográfica disponível foi elaborada a lista preliminar dos Lepidópteros do Corvo. São referidas pela primeira vez as famílias Tineidae, Gracillariídae, Hyponomeutidae, Choreutidae, Tortricidae, Pyralidae, Sphingidae e Noctuidae. Além disso, das vinte e oito espécies e subespécies assinaladas, ...

  1. Bioactivity of a water extract of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Gonzalo Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of water-extract of Peumus boldus Molina and its effect on the development cycle and feeding habits of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie were evaluated under laboratory conditions in concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% (w/w. Spodoptera frugiperda was the most susceptible with 75% mortality at 7 d at 8% P. boldus concentration, while H. zea had only 30% mortality. LC50 was 2.31 mL kg-1 for S. frugiperda and 16.05 mL kg¹ for H. zea. When the extract concentration increased in the diet, larval size and weight, percentage of pupation and number of adults decreased, and the time required to reach those states was greater. Neonate larvae fed primarily on the diet with the lower extract concentration and the control was preferred by more than 50% of larvae. Inhibition of feeding, growth, weight gain of 3rd instar larvae as well as new biomass production decreased with concentration of the extract.

  2. Isolation of the Binding Protein of Periplocoside E from BBMVs in Midgut of the Oriental Amyworm Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) through Affinity Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingxing; He, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yan, Xiufang; Zhang, Jiwen; Hu, Zhaonong; Wu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Periplocosides, which are insecticidal compounds isolated from the root bark of Periploca sepium Bunge, can affect the digestive system of insects. However, the mechanism though which periplocosides induces a series of symptoms remains unknown. In this study, affinity chromatography was conducted by coupling periplocoside E-semi-succinic acid ester with epoxy amino hexyl (EAH) sepharose 4B. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to analyze the fraction eluted by periplocoside E. Eight binding proteins (luciferin 4-monooxygenase, aminopeptidase N, aminopeptidase N3, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide health (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 3-phosphatase myotubularin, actin, uncharacterized family 31 glucosidase KIAA1161, and 2OG-Fe(2) oxygenase superfamily protein) were obtained and identified through liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) analysis of the midgut epithelium cells of Mythimna separata larvae. Aminopeptidase N and N3 are potential putative targets of periplocosides. This study establishes the foundation for further research on the mechanism of action and target localization of periplocosides in agricultural pests. PMID:27153092

  3. Development and reproduction of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on the genetically modified soybean (Bt) MON 87701×MON 89788.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotto, O C; Silva, G V; de Freitas Bueno, A; Pomari, A F; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Carvalho, R A; Barbosa, G C

    2014-12-01

    Genetically modified crops with insect resistance genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt-plants) are increasingly being cultivated worldwide. Therefore, it is critical to improve our knowledge of their direct or indirect impact not only on target pests but also on non-target arthropods. Hence, this study evaluates comparative leaf consumption and performance of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), a species that is tolerant of the Cry1Ac protein, fed with Bt soybean, MON 87701×MON 89788 or its near [corrected] non-Bt isoline. Using this species as a model, we assessed [corrected] the comparative performance of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon on eggs of S. eridania produced from individuals that fed on these two soybean genotypes [corrected] as larvae. Results showed that Bt soybean did not affect pest foliage consumption, but did reduce larvel duration by two days despite larvae in both treatments having six instars. Nevertheless, survival of S. eridania larvae, pupal weight, sex ratio, fecundity and longevity of female moths, and egg viability did not differ between Bt and non-Bt soybeans. Adult longevity of S. eridania males was increased when caterpillars were fed with Bt soybean versus the near isoline. No adverse effects of this technology were observed for the egg parasitoid T. remus. [corrected]. PMID:25248849

  4. Development and validation of real-time PCR tests for the identification of four Spodoptera species: Spodoptera eridania, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis, and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Van der Straten, M J

    2014-08-01

    The genus Spodoptera comprises 31 species, 4 of which are listed as quarantine pests for the European Union: Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval), and Spodoptera litura (F.). In international trade, the earlier life stages (eggs and larvae) are being intercepted at point of inspection most frequently, challenging the possibilities of morphological identification. To realize a rapid and reliable identification for all stages, we developed and validated four simplex real-time polymerase chain reaction identification tests based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using dual-labeled hydrolysis probes. Method validation on dilutions of extracted DNA of the target organisms showed that low levels of template (up to 0.2-100 pg) can reliably be identified. No cross-reactivity was observed with 14 nontarget Spodoptera and 5 non-Spodoptera species in the specific Spodoptera tests. The tests showed to be repeatable, reproducible (both 100%), and robust. The new Spodoptera tests have proven to be suitable tools for routine identification of all life stages of S. eridania, S. frugiperda, S. littoralis, and S. litura. PMID:25195458

  5. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. PMID:27324586

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Busseola segeta Bowden (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae: A Case Study of Host Use Diversification in Guineo-Congolian Rainforest Relic Area, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Silvain

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Habitat modification and fragmentation are considered as some of the factors that drive organism distribution and host use diversification. Indigenous African stem borer pests are thought to have diversified their host ranges to include maize [Zea mays L.] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] in response to their increased availability through extensive cultivation. However, management efforts have been geared towards reducing pest populations in the cultivated fields with few attempts to understand possible evolution of "new" pest species. Recovery and growing persistence of Busseola segeta Bowden on maize (Zea mays L. in Kakamega called for studies on the role of wild host plants on the invasion of crops by wild borer species. A two-year survey was carried out in a small agricultural landscape along the edge of Kakamega forest (Kenya to assess host range and population genetic structure of B. segeta. The larvae of B. segeta were found on nine different plant species with the majority occurring on maize and sorghum. Of forty cytochrome b haplotypes identified, twenty-three occurred in both wild and cultivated habitats. The moths appear to fly long distances across the habitats with genetic analyses revealing weak differentiation between hosts in different habitats (FST = 0.016; p = 0.015. However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between growing seasons in the wild habitat (FST = 0.060; p < 0.001 with emergence or disappearance of haplotypes between habitats. Busseola segeta is an example of a phytophagous insect that utilizes plants with a human induced distribution range, maize, but does not show evidence of host race formation or reduction of gene flow among populations using different hosts. However, B. segeta is capable of becoming an important pest in the area and the current low densities may be attributed to the general low infestation levels and presence of a wide range of alternative hosts in the area.

  7. Identificação de fontes de resistência de milho à Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Maria P. da Silva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar fontes de resistência à Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797, foram avaliadas as cultivares de milho CMS-22, CMS-35, AG-106, Dina-70, AG-510 e CMS-36 em campo, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Utilizaram-se as variáveis: danos foliares, obtidos através da escala visual de notas, sobrevivência, peso e comprimento das lagartas, 10 dias após a infestação artificial das plantas com lagartas de 1º ínstar. As cultivares diferiram significativamente (P=0,05 apenas com relação aos danos, destacando-se AG-510 como a mais resistente, com dano médio de 5,41 em comparação com CMS-35 e AG-106, as mais suscetíveis, com danos médios de 8,38 e 7,85 respectivamente. Foram determinadas correlações lineares significativas (p=0,01 entre os danos e peso de lagartas, danos e comprimento de lagartas e peso e comprimento de lagartas, indicando a possibilidade de utilização dessas variáveis nos estudos de resistência de milho a S. frugiperda.The objective of this work was to identify sources of resistance to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith in six corn cultivars (CMS-22, CMS-35, AG-106, Dina-70, AG-510 and CMS-36 which were tested under field conditions using a complete randomized block design with four replications. The following parameters were observed: a foliar damage, obtained through a visual note scale; b larvae survival, weigth and length, measured 10 days after artificial plant infestation. There were significant statistical differences (P=0.05 among cultivars only in relation to foliar damage, being AG 510 the most resistant cultivar with an average damage of 5.41. The most susceptible cultivars were CMS 35 and AG 106 which had an average damage of 8.38 and 7.85 respectively. Significant linear correlations (P=0.01 were found between foliar damage and larvae weigth; foliar damage and larvae length; and larvae weigth and larvae length, indicating the possibility of utilization of these parameters to evaluate resistance of corn cultivars to S. frugiperda.

  8. Disposição espacial e injúrias da lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmo Pontes de Melo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos padrões de dispersão populacional de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, a mais importante praga do milho, no Brasil, é fundamental para o estabelecimento de técnicas eficientes de monitoramento e manejo. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a distribuição espacial da praga na cultura. A distribuição espacial foi avaliada em cinco campos experimentais, de um hectare cada, divididos em 100 unidades experimentais, onde se avaliaram de cinco a dez plantas por parcela. Foi testado o ajuste das frequências observadas às esperadas, de acordo com as distribuições de Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Spodoptera frugiperda ocorreu em elevados índices populacionais na área amostral, com correlação significativa entre a nota de injúria 3 e o número de lagartas médias, o que também ocorreu para o número de plantas infestadas com pelo menos uma lagarta média. Não houve correlação significativa entre a nota de injúria 3 e lagartas pequenas. O modelo que melhor se aproximou dos dados de distribuição da oviposição foi a Binomial Positiva, enquanto a disposição espacial de lagartas, atacando a espiga, foi descrita como aleatória. O modelo de distribuição Binomial Positiva foi o que melhor representou a distribuição espacial da população de plantas infestadas; a distribuição das lagartas de tamanho médio teve padrão de distribuição agregada.

  9. Do different casein concentrations increase the adverse effect of rutin on the biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Mariana C; Boiça, Arlindo L; de Oliveira, Maria C N; da Graça, José P; da Silva, Débora M; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B

    2010-01-01

    The flavonoid rutin is recognized as playing an important role in the protection of plants against lepidopterans. Bioassays with this compound are generally carried out using artificial diets. Proteins of high energy value, such as casein, are important ingredients of insect artificial diets as a source of essential amino acids. However, such proteins can generally increase the allelochemical activity. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of rutin on larvae of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner by incorporating this allelochemical into diets with different concentrations of casein. Three casein concentrations (0, 7 g, or 14 g) combined with none, 0.65%, or 1.30% of rutin were added to the rearing diet and offered to the larvae from hatching to pupation. Rutin negatively affected larval development, the amount of food consumed, and pupal weight of A. gemmatalis. These negative effects were clearly seen in insects fed on diets with 7 g of casein to which any concentration of rutin was added. The effects of rutin when added to the diets without casein were stronger than in diets containing a suitable amount of casein (14 g). The greater negative effects of rutin in diets containing suboptimal concentrations of casein indicate that casein can increase the effects of rutin only when the diets are nutritionally unsuitable for insect development.

  10. The effect of snowdrop lectin (GNA) delivered via artificial diet and transgenic plants on Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, H A.; Fitches, E C.; Down, R E.; Marris, G C.; Edwards, J P.; Gatehouse, J A.; Gatehouse, A M.R.

    1999-11-01

    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) has previously been shown to confer significant levels of protection against the lepidopteran pest Lacanobia oleracea when expressed in transgenic potato. The effect of GNA on the parasitism of L. oleracea by the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis was investigated. Maize-based, and potato leaf-based diets containing GNA, and excised transgenic potato leaves expressing GNA, were fed to L. oleracea larvae from the beginning of either the third or fourth larval instar. Lacanobia oleracea larvae were individually exposed to single mated adult female E. pennicornis parasitoids from the fifth instar onwards.The success of the wasp was not reduced by the presence of GNA in any of the diets, or by the length of feeding of the host prior to parasitism. However, the mean number of wasps that developed on L. oleracea reared from the third instar on the GNA-containing maize diet was significantly higher than on the controls (20.6 and 9.3 adults/host respectively). In all other cases differences were not significant. Eulophus pennicornis progeny that developed on L. oleracea reared on GNA-containing diets showed little or no alteration in size, longevity, egg load and fecundity when compared with wasps that had developed on hosts fed the respective control diets.The results suggest that expression of GNA in transgenic crops to confer resistance to lepidopteran pests will not adversely affect the ability of the ectoparasitoid E. pennicornis to utilise the pest species as a host.

  11. Transgenic GNA expressing potato plants augment the beneficial biocontrol of Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) by the parasitoid Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, H A; Fitches, E C; Marris, G C; Bell, J; Edwards, J P; Gatehouse, J A; Gatehouse, A M

    2001-01-01

    The effect of expressing the gene encoding snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) in transgenic potato plants, on parasitism of the phytophagous insect pest Lacanobia oleracea by the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis, was investigated in glasshouse trials. Expression of GNA (approx. 1.0% total soluble protein) by transgenic plants significantly reduced the level of pest damage, thus confirming previous studies. Furthermore, the presence of the parasitoid significantly reduced the levels of damage incurred either by the transgenic or control plants when compared to those plants grown in the absence of the parasitoid. For the GNA expressing plants the presence of the parasitoid resulted in further reductions (ca. 21%) in the level of damage caused by the pest species. The ability of the wasp to parasitise and subsequently develop on the pest larvae was not altered by the presence of GNA in the diet of the host. E. pennicornis progeny that developed on L. oleracea reared on GNA expressing plants showed no significant alteration in fecundity when compared with wasps that had developed on hosts fed on control potato plants, although mean size and longevity of female parasitoids was significantly reduced. The number of F2 progeny produced by parasitoids derived from hosts fed on GNA expressing plants was not significantly different to those produced by parasitoids from hosts fed control plants. Results from the present study demonstrate that the use of transgenic plants expressing insecticidal proteins can be compatible with the deployment of beneficial insects and that the two factors may interact in a positive manner.

  12. Three metabolites from an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, inhibit larval development of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by inhibiting a digestive enzyme, phospholipase A2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaehyun Kim; Yonggyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, has been known to induce significant immunosuppression of target insects by inhibiting immune-associated phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which subsequently shuts down biosynthesis of eicosanoids that are critical in immune mediation in insects. Some metabolites originated from the bacterial culture broth have been identified and include benzylideneacetone, proline-tyrosine and acetylated phenylalanine-glycine-valine, which are known to inhibit enzyme activity of PLA2 extracted from hemocyte and fat body. This study tested their effects on digestive PLA2 of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Young larvae fed different concentrations of the three metabolites resulted in significant adverse effects on larval development even at doses below 100 μg/mL. In particular, they induced significant reduction in digestive efficiency of ingested food. All three metabolites significantly inhibited catalytic activity of digestive PLA2 extracted from midgut lumen of the fifth instar larvae at a low micromolar range. These results suggest that the inhibitory activities of the three bacterial metabolites on digestive PLA2 of S. exigua midgut may explain some of their oral toxic effects.

  13. Association of bioassays and molecular characterization to select new Bacillus thuringiensis isolates effective against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is one of the main corn pests and Bacillus thuringiensis is important in its control because of its entomopathogenic property. The objective of this study was the molecular characterization of B. thuringiensis isolates for cry1 locus presence and the assessment of the efficiency of these isolates in controlling S. frugiperda caterpillars. Gral-cry1 was used in the PCR analyses to confirm the presence of the cry1 locus in 15 isolates. A 3 x 108 spore/ml suspension bathed the diet used to feed 30 caterpillars per isolate, with three replications. The cry1 locus type genes of the different isolates were identified for five gene subclasses; linear regression analyses were carried out to ascertain possible associations between the presence of an individual cry1 locus gene and high levels of toxicity. All the DNAs amplified with Gral-cry1 presented an amplification product with the expected size. Regarding the levels of insecticide efficiency against the cob worm, 41 isolates presented 100% mortality and 16 presented an index between 70% and 90%. The cry1Ab gene was present in 80 isolates, cryb in 69 isolates, cry1Ac in all the isolates and cryv and cry1E in 93 and 27 isolates, respectively. The values regarding the individual effect of each gene on caterpillar mortality were significant at 1% probability for the cry1Ac and cry1E genes. (author)

  14. Interactions among insect-resistant soybean genotypes extracts with populations of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae susceptible and resistant to its nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorla C. Piubelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV is being used in Brazil as a biological insecticide. Host plant resistance of soybean to insects is been searched for and some authors have mentioned the interference of plant chemistry in virus efficiency. Interactions among soybean extracts of genotypes used as a source of resistance (PI 274454 and PI 227687 with different AgMNPV concentrations in populations of A. geatalis susceptible (S and resistant (R to the virus were studied at laboratory condition. Higher mortality was observed when larvae fed on diets with extracts of the soybean genotypes compared with those fed on a plain diet (control. The mean lethal concentration (LC50 was reduced about 10 ties in the S-population fed on diets containing PI 274454 extracts and different concentrations of AgMNPV, compared to control diet. Additive effect was predominantly observed when larvae fed on diets with extracts of soybean genotypes (PI 274454 and PI 227687 and AgMNPV for both larval populations. The pupal weight was negatively influenced by the extracts incorporated to the diets compared to control, for both larval populations, notably for R-population. The results suggest that, in general, leaf extracts of soybean resistant genotype did not cause any harmful effect on virus efficiency.O nucleopoliedrovirus de Anticarsia gemmatalis (AgMNPV tem sido utilizado como um inseticida biológico no Brasil. A resistência de plantas de soja a insetos tem sido pesquisada e alguns autores têm mencionado a interferência de substâncias químicas de plantas sobre a eficiência de vírus. As interações entre extratos de genótipos de soja utilizados como fontes de resistência (PI 274454 e PI 227687 com diferentes concentrações do AgMNPV em populações de A. gemmatalis suscetível (S e resistente (R ao vírus foram estudadas em condições de laboratório. Mortalidades elevadas foram observadas quando as larvas foram alimentadas com dietas contendo extratos dos genótipos de soja, em relação às larvas alimentadas com dieta artificial sem a presença de extratos (testemunha. A concentração letal média (CL50 foi reduzida em aproximadamente 10 vezes, na população s alimentada com dieta contendo extratos da PI 274454 e diferentes concentrações do AgMNPV, comparada à dieta testemunha. Um efeito aditivo foi predominantemente observado quando as larvas se alimentaram em dietas com extratos dos genótipos de soja (PI 274454 e PI 227687 e o AgMNPV, para ambas as populações (S e R. O peso de pupa foi negativamente influenciado pela dieta contendo os extratos em relação à dieta testemunha, para ambas as populações, com destaque para a população R. Os resultados indicam que, no geral, os extratos de folhas de genótipos de soja resistentes não causam efeitos negativos na eficiência do vírus.

  15. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. PMID:26500338

  16. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD DE Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) A INSECTICIDAS ASOCIADA A CÉSPED EN QUINTANA ROO, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Imelda León-García; Esteban Rodríguez-Leyva; Laura D. Ortega-Arenas; Juan F. Solís-Aguilar

    2012-01-01

    El gusano cogollero Spodoptera frugiperda es una de las principales plagas que ataca al maíz (Zea mays L.) y céspedes (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Person) en el sur de EE.UU., México, Centro y Sudamérica. Este gusano causa daños al follaje y ocasionalmente pérdida de secciones de la carpeta, y su control se realiza mediante insecticidas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la susceptibilidad de S. frugiperda a insecticidas de uso común en campos de go...

  17. Inhibition of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Growth by Transgenic Corn Expressing Bt Toxins and Development of Resistance to Cry1Ab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2015-08-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ab is only moderately toxic to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and has been planted commercially since 1996. Growth and development of H. zea was monitored to determine potential changes in susceptibility to this toxin over time. Small plots of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, Cry1F × Cry1Ab, Cry1Ab × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2 × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2, and Vip3Aa20 × Cry1Ab × mCry3A were planted in both 2012 and 2013 inNorth and South Carolina with paired non-Bt hybrids from the same genetic background. H. zea larvae were sampled on three time periods from ears and the following factors were measured: kernel area injured (cm(2)) by H. zea larvae, larval number per ear, larval weight, larval length, and larval head width. Pupae were sampled on a single time period and the following factors recorded: number per ear, weight, time to eclosion, and the number that eclosed. There was no reduction in larval weight, number of insect entering the pupal stadium, pupal weight, time to eclosion, and number of pupae able to successfully eclose to adulthood in the hybrid expressing Cry1Ab compared with a non-Bt paired hybrid. As Cry1Ab affected these in 1996, H. zea may be developing resistance to Cry1Ab in corn, although these results are not comprehensive, given the limited sampling period, size, and geography. We also found that the negative impacts on larval growth and development were greater in corn hybrids with pyramided traits compared with single traits.

  18. Disposição espacial e injúrias da lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em milho

    OpenAIRE

    Elmo Pontes de Melo; Paulo Eduardo Degrande; Izidro dos Santos de Lima Junior; Renato Suekane; Cássio Kodama; Marcos Gino Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    O conhecimento dos padrões de dispersão populacional de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), a mais importante praga do milho, no Brasil, é fundamental para o estabelecimento de técnicas eficientes de monitoramento e manejo. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a distribuição espacial da praga na cultura. A distribuição espacial foi avaliada em cinco campos experimentais, de um hectare cada, divididos em 100 unidades experimentais, onde se avaliaram de cinco a dez plantas por parcela. Foi testado...

  19. Behavioral and metabolic effects of sublethal doses of two insecticides, chlorpyrifos and methomyl, in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewer, Youssef; Pottier, Marie-Anne; Lalouette, Lisa; Maria, Annick; Dacher, Matthieu; Belzunces, Luc P; Kairo, Guillaume; Renault, David; Maibeche, Martine; Siaussat, David

    2016-02-01

    Insecticides have long been used as the main method in limiting agricultural pests, but their widespread use has resulted in environmental pollution, development of resistances, and biodiversity reduction. The effects of insecticides at low residual doses on both the targeted crop pest species and beneficial insects have become a major concern. In particular, these low doses can induce unexpected positive (hormetic) effects on pest insects, such as surges in population growth exceeding what would have been observed without pesticide application. Methomyl and chlorpyrifos are two insecticides commonly used to control the population levels of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a major pest moth. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sublethal doses of these two pesticides, known to present a residual activity and persistence in the environment, on the moth physiology. Using a metabolomic approach, we showed that sublethal doses of methomyl and chlorpyrifos have a systemic effect on the treated insects. We also demonstrated a behavioral disruption of S. littoralis larvae exposed to sublethal doses of methomyl, whereas no effects were observed for the same doses of chlorpyrifos. Interestingly, we highlighted that sublethal doses of both pesticides did not induce a change in acetylcholinesterase activity in head of exposed larvae.

  20. Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyphenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate, N.; Diaz, O. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Facultad de Agronomia; Martinez, A.M.; Figueroa, J.I.; Pineda, S., E-mail: spineda_us@yahoo.co [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Tarimbaro, Michoacan (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales; Schneider, M.I. [National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CEPAVE/CCT/CONICET), La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores. Centro Cientifico Tecnologico; Smagghe, G. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium). Faculty of Bioscience Engineering. Lab of Agrozoology; Vinuela, E.; Budia, F. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos. Proteccion de Cultivos

    2011-01-15

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyphenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyphenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 25} for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8% and 26% in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12% for the LC{sub 10} and 60% for the LC{sub 25} was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm. (author)

  1. Spatial analysis of the distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and losses in maize crop productivity using geo statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is one of the chief pests of maize in the Americas. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling methods, determining actual and potential crop losses, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. In Sao Paulo state, Brazil, a maize field was sampled at weekly intervals, from germination through harvest, for caterpillar densities, using quadrates. In each of 200 quadrates, 10 plants were sampled per week. Harvest weights were obtained in the field for each quadrate, and ear diameters and lengths were also sampled (15 ears per quadrate) and used to estimate potential productivity of the quadrate. Geostatistical analyses of caterpillar densities showed greatest ranges for small caterpillars when semivariograms were adjusted for a spherical model that showed greatest fit. As the caterpillars developed in the field, their spatial distribution became increasingly random, as shown by a model adjusted to a straight line, indicating a lack of spatial dependence among samples. Harvest weight and ear length followed the spherical model, indicating the existence of spatial variability of the production parameters in the maize field. Geostatistics shows promise for the application of precise methods in the integrated control of pests. (author)

  2. Application technology for the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Luiz C.; Raetano, Carlos G. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Producao Vegetal - Defesa Fitossanitaria]. E-mails: lcgarcia@fca.unesp.br; raetano@fca.unesp.br; Leite, Luis G. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Controle Biologico]. E-mail: lgleite@biologico.sp.gov.br

    2008-05-15

    The effects of different application technologies were evaluated on the concentration, viability, and efficiency of infective juveniles of the nematodes Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David and Steinernema sp. (IBCB-n6) to control Spodoptera frugiperda Smith on corn plants. Two hundred and eighty infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. were required to kill 100% third-instar fall army worms in petri dishes, as compared to 400 infective juveniles of the H. indica nematode to obtain 75% fall army worm control. It is possible to spray entomopathogenic nematodes without significant loss in their concentration and viability, with equipment that produces electrical charges to the spraying mix, and with those using hydraulic and rotary nozzle tips. The concentrations of infective juveniles of H. indica and Steinernema sp. nematodes were reduced by 28% and 53%, respectively, when hydraulic spraying nozzles that require 100-mesh filtrating elements were used. Tensoactive agents of the organo silicone and ethoxylate groups did not affect the viability of infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. juveniles. Spraying corn plants (V6 growth stage) with up to 288 million infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. per hectare, diluted in the spraying mix up to 800 L ha{sup -1}, with 0.01% ethoxylate tensoactive agent, or at the same volume followed by artificial rain (6 mm water depth) was not sufficient to control S. frugiperda in a controlled environment. (author)

  3. Morphology of Gamma Irradiated Atennal Sensilla in the Male Moth of the Cotton Leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) Lepidoptera:Noctuidae using Scanning Electron Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) revealed the presence of 7 types of sensilla on the antennae of Spodoptera littoralis male moth: trichocide, basiconica,styloconica, coeloconica, chaetica, auricillica, and squamiformia. The distribution, structure and measurements of these sensilla were described. Irradiation of full-grown male pupae of Spodoptera littoralis with the three sub sterilizing doses of gamma irradiation (100, 150, and 200 Gy) showed different malformations in the antennal sensilla of the parental (P1) and first F1) generation. The magnitude of these malformations was a dose-dependent as they increase with the increase of the dose of irradiation. Moreover such malformations were more severe in the F1 than P1. The correlation between the obtained malformed antennal sensilla in the irradiated male moths and the ability of such males to percept the female sex pheromone was discussed

  4. Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyphenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyphenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyphenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC10 and LC25 for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8% and 26% in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12% for the LC10 and 60% for the LC25 was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm. (author)

  5. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na+ and K+ gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na+/K+-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na+/K+-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na+/K+-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase were different. Na+/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. PMID:27324586

  6. Behavioral and metabolic effects of sublethal doses of two insecticides, chlorpyrifos and methomyl, in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dewer, Youssef; Pottier, Marie-Anne; Lalouette, Lisa; Maria, Annick; Dacher, Matthieu; Belzunces, Luc; Kairo, Guillaume; Renault, David; Maibeche, Martine

    2016-01-01

    International audience Insecticides have long been used as the main method in limiting agricultural pests, but their widespread use has resulted in environmental pollution, development of resistances, and biodiversity reduction. The effects of insecticides at low residual doses on both the targeted crop pest species and beneficial insects have become a major concern. In particular, these low doses can induce unexpected positive (hormetic) effects on pest insects, such as surges in populati...

  7. Spatial analysis of the distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and losses in maize crop productivity using geo statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Paulo R.S.; Miranda, Vicente S.; Ribeiro, Susane M. [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia (UFRA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: paulo.farias@ufra.edu.br; Barbosa, Jose C. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas; Busoli, Antonio C. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade; Overal, William L. [Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (MPEG), Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Zoologia

    2008-05-15

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is one of the chief pests of maize in the Americas. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling methods, determining actual and potential crop losses, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. In Sao Paulo state, Brazil, a maize field was sampled at weekly intervals, from germination through harvest, for caterpillar densities, using quadrates. In each of 200 quadrates, 10 plants were sampled per week. Harvest weights were obtained in the field for each quadrate, and ear diameters and lengths were also sampled (15 ears per quadrate) and used to estimate potential productivity of the quadrate. Geostatistical analyses of caterpillar densities showed greatest ranges for small caterpillars when semivariograms were adjusted for a spherical model that showed greatest fit. As the caterpillars developed in the field, their spatial distribution became increasingly random, as shown by a model adjusted to a straight line, indicating a lack of spatial dependence among samples. Harvest weight and ear length followed the spherical model, indicating the existence of spatial variability of the production parameters in the maize field. Geostatistics shows promise for the application of precise methods in the integrated control of pests. (author)

  8. Gamma radiation effects of cobalt-60 on adults of Heliothis virescens (Fabr., 1781) (lepidoptera, Noctuidae) and on its F-1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adults of both sexes of Heliothis virescens Fabr. were irradiated at the age between 1 and 12 hours after emergence with the doses of 0 (control), 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation, at a dose rate of 1812 Gy per hour (30.2 Gy/min.). After irradiation the whole experiment was conducted into a rearing room where the temperature was maintained at 25 ± 2 degC between 23 and 27 degC, the relative humidity between 65 and 75 per cent, and a light and dark cycle of 10 h. : 14h. Irradiated males were crossed with non-irradiated females, and irradiated females were crossed with non irradiated males, resulting into larvae whose life cycle showed delayed development and less viability in comparison with the non-treated insects, both in the parent and in the F-1 generations. Of course these differences were not highly significant. The induced viability of the parent generation was 99.4 and 100.0 per cent, if normal males were crossed with irradiated females at the doses of 125 and 150 Gy respectively. In the F-1 generation, the sterility reached 90.3 per cent if normal males were crossed with females irradiated with the dose of 100 Gy. But if normal females would be crossed with males irradiated with the dose of 125 Gy, the sterility was 95.8 per cent. At the same crossing scheme the insects reached 100.0 per cent sterility if the dose was 150 Gy. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on Bt and non-BtCotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA R. RODRIGUES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818 and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781 on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpalTM (non-Bt and DP90BTMBt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive, showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution.

  10. Especificidade do parasitóide Apanteles militaris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) em relação ao hospedeiro Mythimna unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Luísa; Melo, Rui; Tavares, João

    1999-01-01

    IV Encontro Nacional de Protecção Integrada, 3–4 Outubro, 1997, Angra do Heroísmo, Açores. Apanteles militaris (Walsh) é o mais importante parasitóide larvar de Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth) em todas as ilhas dos Açores. Pretendendo-se saber do modo de actuação deste parasitóide larvícola, procedeu-se ao estudo semanal da sua abundância e à do seu hospedeiro natural. Numa tentativa de compreender onde se encontra este parasitóide durante o Invermo, realizámos ensaios de parasitismo, e...

  11. Biología de peridroma saucia (lepidoptera: noctuidae: noctuinae) en flores cultivadas del híbrido comercial de alstroemeria spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Fajardo, Olga Lucía; Serna Cardona, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    Peridroma saucia ocasiona graves daños a los cultivos de flores de exportación en Colombia. Su manejo integrado requiere información básica y local sobre su biología. En este trabajo se lleva a cabo el seguimiento de su ciclo de vida en plantas de astromelia bajo dos tipos de condiciones de temperatura (ºC) y humedad relativa (HR), controladas en fitotrón (23,72 ºC y 82,93 % HR) y en invernadero (17,72 ºC y 65,26 % HR). Asimismo se describen los diferentes estados de desarrollo de la especie ...

  12. Resistance to Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in transgenic soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar IAS5 expressing a modified Cry1Ac endotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Schenkel Homrich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryos of the commercial soybean (Glycine max cultivar IAS5 were co-transformed using particle bombardment with a synthetic form of the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin crystal protein gene cry1Ac, the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene gusA and the hygromycin resistance gene hpt. Hygromycin-resistant tissues were proliferated individually to give rise to nine sets of clones corresponding to independent transformation events. The co-bombardment resulted in a co-transformation efficiency of 44%. Many histodifferentiated embryos and 30 well-developed plants were obtained. Twenty of these plants flowered and fourteen set seeds. The integration and expression of the cry1Ac, gusA and hpt transgenes into the genomes of a sample of transformed embryos and all T0, T1, T2 and T3 plants were confirmed by Gus activity, PCR, Southern and western blot, and ELISA techniques. Two T0 plants out of the seven co-transformed plants produced seeds and were analyzed for patterns of integration and inheritance until the T3 generation. Bioassays indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, thus offering a potential for effective insect resistance in soybean.

  13. Detection of cry1 genes in Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from South of Brazil and activity against Aanticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowski Vera Lucia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt is characterized by its ability to produce proteic crystalline inclusions during sporulation. Cry1 protein has insecticidal activity and is highly specific to certain insects and not toxic to unrelated insects, plants or vertebrates. In this work, the patogenicity of twelve Bt isolates was tested against Anticarsia gemmatalis, one of the most important insect pests of soybeans. Spore-crystal complex was applied to the surface of artificial diets and the mortality of A. gemmatalis larvae was assessed seven days after each treatment. When compared to a control Bt isolate known by its high toxicity to A. gemmatalis larvae, four novel Bt isolates exhibited even higher toxic activities against the insect, resulting in more than 90% mortality. PCR was used to amplify DNA fragments related to known cry1 genes. Bt strains with high toxicity produced expected PCR products of around 280 bp, whereas non-toxic or low toxic strains did not produce any PCR product or showed amplified fragments of different sizes. Toxic Bt isolates also exhibited an expected protein profile when total protein extracts were evaluated by SDS-PAGE.

  14. Selection of Annonaceae Species for the Control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Metabolic Profiling of Duguetia lanceolata Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D S; Machado, A R T; Campos, V A C; Oliveira, D F; Carvalho, G A

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the activity of 19 dichloromethane-soluble fractions obtained from the methanolic extracts of 10 Annonaceae species against the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). The stem bark of Duguetia lanceolata A. St.-Hil. showed the highest insecticidal activity, with a median lethal time (LT50) of 61.4 h and a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 946.5 µg/ml of diet. The dichloromethane-soluble fractions from six D. lanceolata specimens were subjected to evaluation of their activities against S. frugiperda and metabolomic analysis using hydrogen (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although all of the samples affected S. frugiperda mortality, their insecticidal activities varied according to the sample used in the experiments. Using partial least squares regression of the results, the D. lanceolata specimens were grouped according to their metabolite profile and insecticidal activity. A detailed analysis via uni- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy showed that the peaks in the 1H NMR spectra associated with increased insecticidal activity could be attributed to 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, which suggests that this substance is involved in the insecticidal activity of the stem bark fraction of D. lanceolata.

  15. Efficacy of some plant oils alone and/or combined with different insecticides on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; Rokaia, A Z M

    2006-01-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of two essential oils ((Flax or "Linseed" and Sesame ), five volatile plant oils ( Camphor, Red basil, Rose, Menthol and Clove ), four pesticides (Methoxyfenozide; Permethrin; Profenofos and Spinosad) and their mixtures on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). This study was also devoted to minimize the usage of conventional insecticides, reduce the environmental pollution, and protect human-beings and domestic animals from hazards due to pesticides applications. In the meantime, the delayed effect of these tested plant oils on the developing immatures and moths of the cotton leaf-worm, Spodoptera littoralis was determined. Most of the evaluated plant oils were found to have an insecticidal effect on the 4th instar larvae of the cotton leaf-worm, S. littoralis. Both the essential Sesame oil and Clove volatile oil showed rather weak toxic effect corresponding to the same concentrations and periods of the bioassay tests. Comparing the toxicity of the tested plant oils, it was affirmed that both Rose and Red basil volatile oils were the highest efficient natural phytocompounds against the treated larvae and alternatively ranked either the 1st and/or the 2nd rank, throughout the different periods of the bioassay tests, followed by the other three tested oils which were more or less efficient phytocompounds. According to the toxicity index, all the tested oils were less toxic than the superior Red basil volatile oil after 48 h. post treatment followed by the gradual decrease in toxicity of Rose, Flax and Menthol, respectively. The development of the treated 4th larval instar was blocked due to treatment with the tested plant oils. With no exception, all the efficiently tested essential and/or volatile oils acted principally as Insect Growth Inhibitors (IGIs) rather than antifeedants causing disruption of the insect development, abnormal larvae, pupae and adults that were lead finally to death. The tested mixtures of Clove and Sesame oils increased the percentage of larval mortality in comparison to their use alone against the treated 4th larval instar.Contrarily, antagonism was revealed for the mixture of Sesame/Flax oils, the calculated value of LC50 greatly increased compared to the corresponding values of their individual evaluation after 48 h. from initiating the treatment. The delayed effect of tested plant oils was inspected on certain parameters of the fitness components of the subject insect and was mainly determined for the rates of hatched eggs and emerged moths. Remarkably, the Methoxyfenozide treated 4th larval instar became passive, or ceased feeding on the treated leaves and were unable to complete normally the moulting process, which partially took place in most'of the other treated individuals. The treated larvae with the tested lower concentrations, hardly succeeded in completing moulting process. The survived larvae failed to complete the next moulting at the end of the treatments. The toxic effect of Spinosad was more apparent against the treated larvae after 72 h from application. The calculated LC50 values indicated the gradual increase of its toxic effect in the subsequent prolonged intervals of the test. Spinosad showed its activity either by contact or ingestion and caused larval characteristic symptoms. Permethrin exhibited superior toxic efficacy overall the other tested chemicals, during the period from 72 up to 96 h post treatment. The gradual increase of the toxic effect of Permethrin indicated an efficient continuous persistence of nervous toxicity. According to the specific properties of Profenofos, results revealed that the toxicity by ingestion was more potential than by contact and explained the reason of developing toxicity with the increase of bioassay inspection period. The comparative toxic efficiency of the tested insecticides proved that Permethrin was the most effective one, giving LC50 values of 2.92 and 1.53 ppm after 72 and 96 h. bioassay, respectively, followed by Profenofos, Methoxyfenozide and Spin

  16. New restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the cytochrome oxidase I gene facilitate host strain identification of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rod N; Meagher, Robert L; Adamczyk, John J; Braman, S Kristine; Brandenburg, Rick L; Nuessly, Gregg

    2006-06-01

    Several restriction sites in the cytochrome oxidase I gene of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), were identified by sequence analysis as potentially being specific to one of the two host strains. Strain specificity was demonstrated for populations in Florida, Texas, Mississippi, Georgia, and North Carolina, with an AciI and SacI site specific to the rice (Oryjza spp.)-strain and a BsmI and HinfI site joining an already characterized MspI site as diagnostic of the corn (Zea mays L.)-strain. All four of these sites can be detected by digestion of a single 568-bp polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragment, but the use of two enzymes in separate digests was found to provide accurate and rapid determination of strain identity. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated by the analysis of almost 200 adult and larval specimens from the Mississippi delta region. The results indicated that the corn-strain is likely to be the primary strain infesting cotton (Gossypium spp.) and that an unexpected outbreak of fall armyworm on the ornamental tree Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. was due almost entirely to the rice-strain. PMID:16813297

  17. Inhibition of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Growth by Transgenic Corn Expressing Bt Toxins and Development of Resistance to Cry1Ab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2015-08-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ab is only moderately toxic to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and has been planted commercially since 1996. Growth and development of H. zea was monitored to determine potential changes in susceptibility to this toxin over time. Small plots of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, Cry1F × Cry1Ab, Cry1Ab × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2 × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2, and Vip3Aa20 × Cry1Ab × mCry3A were planted in both 2012 and 2013 inNorth and South Carolina with paired non-Bt hybrids from the same genetic background. H. zea larvae were sampled on three time periods from ears and the following factors were measured: kernel area injured (cm(2)) by H. zea larvae, larval number per ear, larval weight, larval length, and larval head width. Pupae were sampled on a single time period and the following factors recorded: number per ear, weight, time to eclosion, and the number that eclosed. There was no reduction in larval weight, number of insect entering the pupal stadium, pupal weight, time to eclosion, and number of pupae able to successfully eclose to adulthood in the hybrid expressing Cry1Ab compared with a non-Bt paired hybrid. As Cry1Ab affected these in 1996, H. zea may be developing resistance to Cry1Ab in corn, although these results are not comprehensive, given the limited sampling period, size, and geography. We also found that the negative impacts on larval growth and development were greater in corn hybrids with pyramided traits compared with single traits. PMID:26314074

  18. The Impact of Inter-Kernel Movement in the Evolution of Resistance to Dual-Toxin Bt-Corn Varieties in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, Michael A; Martinez, Jeannette C; Porter, Patrick A; Bynum, Ed

    2016-02-01

    Seeds or kernels on hybrid plants are primarily F(2) tissue and will segregate for heterozygous alleles present in the parental F(1) hybrids. In the case of plants expressing Bt-toxins, the F(2) tissue in the kernels will express toxins as they would segregate in any F(2) tissue. In the case of plants expressing two unlinked toxins, the kernels on a Bt plant fertilized by another Bt plant would express anywhere from 0 to 2 toxins. Larvae of corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] feed on a number of kernels during development and would therefore be exposed to local habitats (kernels) that varied in their toxin expression. Three models were developed for plants expressing two Bt-toxins, one where the traits are unlinked, a second where the traits were linked and a third model assuming that maternal traits were expressed in all kernels as well as paternally inherited traits. Results suggest that increasing larval movement rates off of expressing kernels tended to increase durability while increasing movement rates off of nonexpressing kernels always decreased durability. An ideal block refuge (no pollen flow between blocks and refuges) was more durable than a seed blend because the refuge expressed no toxins, while pollen contamination from plants expressing toxins in a seed blend reduced durability. A linked-trait model in an ideal refuge model predicted the longest durability. The results suggest that using a seed-blend strategy for a kernel feeding insect on a hybrid crop could dramatically reduce durability through the loss of refuge due to extensive cross-pollination. PMID:26527792

  19. Influence and Mechanism of Different Host Plants on the Growth, Development and, Fecundity of Reproductive System of Common Cutworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Shahout

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to explore the influence and mechanism of different host plants on the growth, development and fecundity of the reproductive system of the common cutworm S. litura to understand host suitability of plant infesting insect species to make progress in efficient strategies to control this economic pest. The influence of different host plants on larval, pupal developmental duration, adult life (longevity and fecundity of the Spodoptera litura were investigated in the laboratory. The results revealed that the larval development was significantly (p<0.05 decreased to (15.55 days when larvae fed on cabbage while it was significantly (p<0.05 prolonged to (19.55, (20.18 days when larvae fed on cowpea and alligator weed. Pupal duration was significantly (p<0.05 reduced to (7.54 days and increased to (9.13 days when larvae fed on cabbage and alligator weed respectively. When larvae fed on different host plants adult duration (longevity was not significantly different, only when S. litura larvae fed on sweet potato and cowpea the adult longevity was significantly (p<0.05 different and it was about (6.92, (5.64 days when larvae fed on sweet potato and cowpea respectively, Pupal weight was significantly (p<0.05 increased to (0.28 g when the larvae fed on cabbage while it was significantly (p<0.05 decreased to (0.16 g when larvae fed on cowpea. Our results found when both 1st and 3rd day age of adult female dissected ovarian length was significantly (p<0.05 increased when larvae fed on cabbage, cotton, sweet potato, while it was significantly (p<0.05 reduced when larvae fed on soybean and cowpea and alligator weed respectively. Ovarian weight was also significantly (p<0.05 influenced by the different host plants at both 1st and 3rd day age. As well as the male accessory gland length for both age was significantly (p<0.05 increased to (5.45, (5.62 cm when larvae fed on cabbage while it was significantly (p<0.05 reduced to (3.20, (3.73 when larvae fed on cowpea .the results also showed that the 3rd day age mating insects its accessory gland length was shorter. Similarly we found that the ovarian weight has the same trend for both age where the weight was significantly (p<0.05 influenced by different host plants however at the paired of 3rd day age insects the weight was lower. In addition spermary fresh weight for both age was also significantly increased to (3.23, (2.83 mg while it was reduced (2.17, (1.63 mg when larvae fed on cabbage and alligator weed respectively .Similarly the spermary weight was more reduced at the mated of 3rd day age adult .We conclude that cabbage and cotton and sweet potato were found to be more preferred for S. litura life than soybean and cowpea and alligator weed however; the implications for these findings need to be more discussed to control S. litura.

  20. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V.

  1. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tatiana R; Fernandes, Marcos G; Degrande, Paulo E; Mota, Thiago A

    2015-01-01

    Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818) and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781) on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpal™ (non-Bt) and DP90B™ Bt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution) and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive), showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution. PMID:26628025

  2. Orientation behavior, development and survival of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab and conventional cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Bt cotton (Bollgard II) or a mixture of Bt+non-Bt cotton leaves on larval orientation behavior, survival and development of Trichoplusia ni in the laboratory. Results indicate that in a no-choice test, more first and fifth instars remained on Bt...

  3. Isotopes and trace elements as natal origin markers of Helicoverpa armigera--an experimental model for biosecurity pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Holder

    Full Text Available Protecting a nation's primary production sector and natural estate is heavily dependent on the ability to determine the risk presented by incursions of exotic insect species. Identifying the geographic origin of such biosecurity breaches can be crucial in determining this risk and directing the appropriate operational responses and eradication campaigns, as well as ascertaining incursion pathways. Reading natural abundance biogeochemical markers using mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for tracing ecological pathways as well as provenance determination of commercial products and items of forensic interest. However, application of these methods to trace insects has been underutilised to date and our understanding in this field is still in a phase of basic development. In addition, biogeochemical markers have never been considered in the atypical situation of a biosecurity incursion, where sample sizes are often small, and of unknown geographic origin and plant host. These constraints effectively confound the interpretation of the one or two isotope geo-location markers systems that are currently used, which are therefore unlikely to achieve the level of provenance resolution required in biosecurity interceptions. Here, a novel approach is taken to evaluate the potential for provenance resolution of insect samples through multiple biogeochemical markers. The international pest, Helicoverpa armigera, has been used as a model species to assess the validity of using naturally occurring δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope ratios and trace element concentration signatures from single moth specimens for regional assignment to natal origin. None of the biogeochemical markers selected were individually able to separate moths from the different experimental regions (150-3000 km apart. Conversely, using multivariate analysis, the region of origin was correctly identified for approximately 75% of individual H. armigera samples. The

  4. Isotopes and Trace Elements as Natal Origin Markers of Helicoverpa armigera – An Experimental Model for Biosecurity Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Peter W.; Armstrong, Karen; Van Hale, Robert; Millet, Marc-Alban; Frew, Russell; Clough, Timothy J.; Baker, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Protecting a nation's primary production sector and natural estate is heavily dependent on the ability to determine the risk presented by incursions of exotic insect species. Identifying the geographic origin of such biosecurity breaches can be crucial in determining this risk and directing the appropriate operational responses and eradication campaigns, as well as ascertaining incursion pathways. Reading natural abundance biogeochemical markers using mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for tracing ecological pathways as well as provenance determination of commercial products and items of forensic interest. However, application of these methods to trace insects has been underutilised to date and our understanding in this field is still in a phase of basic development. In addition, biogeochemical markers have never been considered in the atypical situation of a biosecurity incursion, where sample sizes are often small, and of unknown geographic origin and plant host. These constraints effectively confound the interpretation of the one or two isotope geo-location markers systems that are currently used, which are therefore unlikely to achieve the level of provenance resolution required in biosecurity interceptions. Here, a novel approach is taken to evaluate the potential for provenance resolution of insect samples through multiple biogeochemical markers. The international pest, Helicoverpa armigera, has been used as a model species to assess the validity of using naturally occurring δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope ratios and trace element concentration signatures from single moth specimens for regional assignment to natal origin. None of the biogeochemical markers selected were individually able to separate moths from the different experimental regions (150–3000 km apart). Conversely, using multivariate analysis, the region of origin was correctly identified for approximately 75% of individual H. armigera samples. The geographic resolution

  5. Testes and chromosomes in interspecific hybrids between Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Qingbo; YAN Yunhua; ZHAO Xincheng; WANG Chenzhu

    2005-01-01

    The interspecific hybridization between Helicoverpa armigera females and Helicoverpa assulta males yielded F1 hybrids (RS), fertile males and sterile individuals with abnormal genitals. The reverse hybridization between H. assulta females and H. armigera males yielded F1 hybrids (SR)――fertile males and fertile females. The morphology of testes and the karyotype of chromosomes of larvae in the hybrids were investigated. Among the 2d old fifth-instar SR larvae, individuals without testes were fertile females and those with testes were fertile males. The length and breadth of testes between SR and parental species were not significantly different (p>0.05). Among the 2d old fifth-instar RS larvae, the testes were observed in all the individuals, but it could be classified into two types. The length and the breadth of testes in Type 1 larvae were not significantly different from those of their parental species (p>0.05), while those in Type 2 were significantly less than those of their parental species (p<0.01). Mitotic metaphase I of brain cells showed the diploid chromosomes number of both reciprocal hybrids was 2n=62, as many as their parents. The haploid number of 31 was confirmed by counts from spermatocytes at meiotic metaphase from SR male larvae and Type 1 larvae of RS. Meiosis was not observed in spermatocytes of Type 2 larvae of RS. Considering the characteristics of adult hybrids of RS, it was concluded that Type 1 individuals in RS were fertile and those of Type 2 were sterile. The sterility of Type 2 individuals in RS is attributed to the abnormity in development of testes and the failing meiosis of spermatocytes. As a result, the normal spermatozoon could not been produced.

  6. Next-generation sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of Helicoverpa armigera Larvae immune-primed with Photorhabdus luminescens TT01.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengyang Zhao

    Full Text Available Although invertebrates are incapable of adaptive immunity, immunal reactions which are functionally similar to the adaptive immunity of vertebrates have been described in many studies of invertebrates including insects. The phenomenon was termed immune priming. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of immune priming, we employed Illumina/Solexa platform to investigate the transcriptional changes of the hemocytes and fat body of Helicoverpa armigera larvae immune-primed with the pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens TT01. A total of 43.6 and 65.1 million clean reads with 4.4 and 6.5 gigabase sequence data were obtained from the TT01 (the immune-primed and PBS (non-primed cDNA libraries and assembled into 35,707 all-unigenes (non-redundant transcripts, which has a length varied from 201 to 16,947 bp and a N50 length of 1,997 bp. For 35,707 all-unigenes, 20,438 were functionally annotated and 2,494 were differentially expressed after immune priming. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs are mainly related to immunity, detoxification, development and metabolism of the host insect. Analysis on the annotated immune related DEGs supported a hypothesis that we proposed previously: the immune priming phenomenon observed in H. armigera larvae was achieved by regulation of key innate immune elements. The transcriptome profiling data sets (especially the sequences of 1,022 unannotated DEGs and the clues (such as those on immune-related signal and regulatory pathways obtained from this study will facilitate immune-related novel gene discovery and provide valuable information for further exploring the molecular mechanism of immune priming of invertebrates. All these will increase our understanding of invertebrate immunity which may provide new approaches to control insect pests or prevent epidemic of infectious diseases in economic invertebrates in the future.

  7. Purification and Partial Characterization of Trypsin-Specific Proteinase Inhibitors from Pigeonpea Wild Relative Cajanus platycarpus L. (Fabaceae) Active against Gut Proteases of Lepidopteran Pest Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, Marri; Mishra, Prashant K; Lokya, Vadthya; Swaroop, Vanka; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are natural defense proteins of plants found to be active against gut proteases of various insects. A pigeonpea wild relative Cajanus platycarpus was identified as a source of resistance against Helicoverpa armigera, a most devastating pest of several crops including pigeonpea. In the light of earlier studies, trypsin-specific PIs (CpPI 63) were purified from mature dry seeds of C. platycarpus (ICPW-63) and characterized their biochemical properties in contributing to H. armigera resistance. CpPI 63 possessed significant H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteinase inhibitor (HGPI) activity than trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity. Analysis of CpPI 63 using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed that it contained several isoinhibitors and small oligomers with masses ranging between 6 and 58 kDa. The gelatin activity staining studies suggest that these isoinhibitors and oligomers possessed strong inhibitory activity against H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteases (HGPs). The N-terminal sequence of the isoinhibitors (pI 6.6 and pI 5.6) of CpPI 63 exhibited 80% homology with several Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) as well as miraculin-like proteins (MLPs). Further, modification of lysine residue(s) lead to 80% loss in both TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63. In contrast, the TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63 were stable over a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. The reported results provide a biochemical basis for pod borer resistance in C. platycarpus. PMID:27656149

  8. Characterization of the resistance to Vip3Aa in Helicoverpa armigera from Australia and the role of midgut processing and receptor binding

    OpenAIRE

    Maissa Chakroun; Núria Banyuls; Tom Walsh; Sharon Downes; Bill James; Juan Ferré

    2016-01-01

    Crops expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) are among the most successful technologies developed for the control of pests but the evolution of resistance to them remains a challenge. Insect resistant cotton and maize expressing the Bt Vip3Aa protein were recently commercialized, though not yet in Australia. We found that, although relatively high, the frequency of alleles for resistance to Vip3Aa in field populations of H. armigera in Australia did not increase over the past...

  9. Characterization and functional analysis ofβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase involved in Cry1Ac resistance from Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-li; LIANG Ge-mei; GAO Xi-wu; CAO Guang-chun; GUO Yu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate chains are the principal antigens by which Bacil us thuringiensis (Bt) identify receptor proteins. The interaction between the antigen and Bt causes a pore in the membrane of midgut epithelial cel s of insects. Receptor proteins, such as aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase, are glycoproteins. Cadherin is another cel surface receptor protein which has potential glycosylation sites. Glycosyltransferase is very important for the synthesis and modiifcation of receptor proteins. It can indirectly inlfuence the function of Bt. The 1 950 bp ful-length cDNA encodingβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase was cloned from the the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera by degenerative PCR combined with RACE techniques (GAL-Harm, GenBank accession no.:GQ904195.1) with two potential N-glycosylation sites (157NNTI160 and 272NKTL275). Protein sequence alignments revealed that H. armigeraβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase shared high identity withβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase in other insect species. The expression level of theβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene in Cry1Ac-resistant H. armigera larvae was 9.2-fold higher than that in susceptible strain. The function ofβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase was investigated using RNAi technique. The result showed Cry1Ac enhanced the toxicity against the siRNA-treated larvae compared with non-siRNA-treated ones, which indicatedβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase played an important role for the insecticidal toxicity of Cry1Ac in H. armigera.

  10. Laboratory testing and molecular analysis of the resistance of wild and cultivated soybeans to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyi; Wang; Haifeng; Chen; Aihua; Sha; Rong; Zhou; Zhihui; Shang; Xiaojuan; Zhang; Chanjuan; Zhang; Limiao; Chen; Qingnan; Hao; Zhonglu; Yang; Dezhen; Qiu; Shuilian; Chen; Xinan; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Identifying a superior soybean variety with high defoliator resistance is important to avoid yield loss. Cotton bollworm(Helicoverpa armigera Hübner) is one of the major defoliators of soybean(Glycine max [L.] Merr.) worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the effect of H. armigera larvae on ED059, a wild soybean(Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.), and three cultivated soybean varieties: Tianlong 2, PI 535807, and PI 533604, in choice and no-choice assays. The percentage of ED059 leaflets consumed by H. armigera was lower than that of the three cultivated soybeans. Larvae that fed on ED059 exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rate.Waldbauer nutritional indices suggested that ED059 reduced the growth, consumption, and frass production of H. armigera larvae. Larvae that fed on ED059 showed lower efficiency of conversion of ingested and of digested food than those that fed on Tianlong 2 and PI 533604.However, they showed statistically similar consumption index and approximate digestibility compared with those fed on the three cultivated soybeans. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that 24 h after insect attack, ED059 had higher transcript levels of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor 3, Cysteine proteinase inhibitor 2, and Nerolidol synthase 1 but a lower transcript level of Pathogenesis-related protein 1 than Tianlong 2. The gene expression results were consistent with the presence of higher levels of jasmonic acid(JA) and transcript levels of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase 3 in ED059 than in Tianlong 2. Our findings indicate that ED059 is a superior soybean line with strong insect resistance that may be mediated via the JA pathway.

  11. A Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein with a high activity against members of the family Noctuidae.

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, B.; Buysse, L; Decock, C.; Jansens, S.; Piens, C; Saey, B; Seurinck, J; Van Audenhove, K; Van Rie, J.; A. van Vliet; Peferoen, M.

    1996-01-01

    The full characterization of a novel insecticidal crystal protein, named Cry9Ca1 according to the revised nomenclature for Cry proteins, from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tolworthi is reported. The crystal protein has 1,157 amino acids and a molecular mass of 129.8 kDa. It has the typical features of the Lepidoptera-active crystal proteins such as five conserved sequence blocks. Also, it is truncated upon trypsin digestion to a toxic fragment of 68.7 kDa by removal of 43 amino acids at the ...

  12. Toxicity and binding analyses of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Vip3A in Cry1Ac-resistant and-susceptible strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; CHEN Li-zhen; LU Qiong; ZHANG Yan; LIANG Ge-mei

    2015-01-01

    The Bacil us thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein, Vip3A, represents a new family of Bt toxin and is currently ap-plied to commercial transgenic cotton. To determine whether the Cry1Ac-resistant Helicoverpa armigera is cross-resistant to Vip3Aa protein, insecticidal activities, proteolytic activations and binding properties of Vip3Aa toxin were investigated using Cry1Ac-susceptible (96S) and Cry1Ac-resistant H. armigera strain (Cry1Ac-R). The toxicity of Vip3Aa in Cry1Ac-R slightly reduced compared with 96S, the resistance ratio was only 1.7-fold. The digestion rate of ful-length Vip3Aa by gut juice extracts from 96S was little faster than that from Cry1Ac-R. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed there was no signiifcant difference between the binding afifnity of Vip3Aa and BBMVs between 96S and Cry1Ac-R strains, and there was no signiifcant competitive binding between Vip3Aa and Cry1Ac in susceptible or resistant strains. So there had little cross-resistance between Vip3Aa and Cry1Ac,Vip3A+Cry proteins maybe the suitable pyramid strategy to control H. armigera in China in the future.

  13. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7 Hesperiidae

  14. Clepsis dumicolana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), new to the Belgian fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Prins; J.-Y. Baugnée

    2008-01-01

    On 17 August 2008 a specimen of Clepsis dumicolana (Zeller, 1847) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was caught at Liège, leg. J.-Y. Baugnée. It was resting on Hedera helix, in the vicinity of the Kennedy bridge. During the following days, about 40 specimens were seen in two localities of the slope to the c

  15. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  16. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY ...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  17. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  18. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed. PMID:24206568

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-10-10

    To better understand the diversity and phylogeny of Lepidoptera, the complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (=Hoshinoa longicellana) was determined. It is a typical circular duplex molecule with 15,759bp in length, containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region. All of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN), which lacks the DHU arm. The rrnL of C. Longicellana is the longest in sequenced lepidopterans. C. Longicellana has the same gene order as all lepidopteran species currently available in GenBank. There are 5 overlapping regions ranging from 1bp to 8bp and 14 intergenic spacers ranging from 1bp to 48bp. In addition, there are four similar tandem macro-satellite regions with the lengths of 101bp, 98bp, 92bp, and 92bp respectively in the A+T-rich regions of C. longicellana. We sampled 89 species representing 13 superfamilies, and reconstructed their relationship among Lepidoptera by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analysis. The topology of the two phylogenetic analysis trees is identical roughly, except for Cossoidea in different locations, the positions of Cossoidea, Copromorphoidea, Gelechioidea, Zygaenoidea were not determined based the limited sampling. (Geometroidea+(Noctuoidea+Bombycoidea)) form the Macrolepidoptera "core". Pyraloidea group with the "core" Macrolepidoptera. Papilionoidea are not Macrolepidoptera. The Hesperiidae (represent Hesperioidea) is nested in the Papilionoidea, and closely related to Pieridae and Papilionidae. The well-known relationship of (Nymphalidae+(Riodinidae+Lycaenidae)) is recovered in this paper. PMID:27390085

  20. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general.

  1. Induction of nicotine in tobacco by herbivory and its relation to glucose oxidase activity in the labial gland of three noctuid caterpillars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Na; WANG Chenzhu

    2004-01-01

    Tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. Is a host plant of Helicoverpa armigera (Hüibner), Helicoverpa assulta Guenée and Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).The difference in leaf nicotine response to the feeding by these three larvae and the mechanical simulation of their feeding was examined by HPLC. Results indicated that nicotine induction was suppressed by H. Armigera and H. Assulta larvae feeding or by simulated damage treated with their labial glands extracts. The production of nicotine was also suppressed by the glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger when it was treated on mechanically wounded leaf area. On the contrary, the nicotine production was stimulated by S.litura larva feeding or by simulated damage treated with its labial gland extract. Heat denature can not counteract the stimulation effect of the S. Litura labial gland extracts to tobacco nicotine production. The glucose oxidase activity was detected in labial gland extracts of both H. Arrnigera and H.assulta, but the activity in H. Armigera was significantly higher than that in H. Assulta. No glucose oxidase activity was detected in labial gland extracts of S. Litura. It is shown that the glucose oxidase activity in labial glands of caterpillars plays an important role in the nicotine response to herbivory. The glucose oxidase was mainly contained in the labial gland of H. Armigera larva, and had the highest activity at pH 7.0. D-Glucose was the optimal substrate of the glucose oxidase. Labial gland glucose oxidase activities varied daily during larval development with high activities found when larvae were actively feeding.

  2. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  3. The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) For several years I have been collecting data concerning changes in the ranges of European insects, especially Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. The vast majority of those species which have

  4. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  5. 天山北坡棉铃虫遗传多样性的RAPD分析%Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) on the Northern Slope of Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓菲菲; 王登元; 于江南

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] This paper aimed to analyze the genetic diversity of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) that came from Urumqi and Fukang on the level of DNA molecule. [Method] 11 RAPD primers were used for analyzing genetic diversity of 5 species of cotton bollworm. [Result]H. armigera had the highest levels of genetic diversity that lived on the 222th farming regiment; H. armigera had high levels of genetic diversity that fed on UYM. The lowest genetic diversity were described in H. armigera fed on CJNG. [ Conclusion ] Relatively high levels of migration and small genetic distance were characterized between H. armigera of corn, piemarker and cotton; compared with that from Fukang, high levels of migration were characterized between H. armigera from Changji and Urumqi.%[目的]对采自乌鲁木齐、三坪农场和阜康222团的棉铃虫从分子水平上进行遗传多样性分析.[方法]利用RAPD( Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA)技术.[结果]筛选出11条引物,并利用这些引物对棉铃虫的5个种群进行遗传分化的研究.222团番茄种群棉铃虫遗传多样性水平最高,乌鲁木齐玉米种群其次,昌吉南瓜种群最低.[结论]玉米、苘麻和棉花三种不同寄主间,棉铃虫基因交流更频繁;同阜康相比,昌吉和乌鲁木齐两个地理位置的棉铃虫更易进行基因交流.

  6. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  7. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuoya; Li, Yunhe; Xiao, Yutao; Ali, Abid; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Chen, Wenbo; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Crystal (Cry) proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem.

  8. EAG and behavioral responses of Helicoverpa armigera males to volatiles from poplar leaves and their combinations with sex pheromone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建宇; 黄永平; 魏洪义; 杜家纬

    2004-01-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) evaluation of selected compounds from wilted leaves ofblack poplar,Populus nigra,showed that phenyl acetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, (E)-2-hexenal elicited strong responses from male antennae of Helicoverpa armigera. When mixed with sex pheromone (Ph), some volatiles, e.g. phenyl acetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol,phenylethanol, methylsalicylate, linalool, benzaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenylacetate, (Z)-6-nonenol, cineole, (E)-2-hexenal, and geraniol elicited stronger responses from male antennae than Ph alone. Wind tunnel bioassay demonstrated that various volatiles could either enhance or inhibit the effect of synthetic sex pheromone. (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol and linalool in combination with Ph could not induce any male to land on source at all, whereas phenyl acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, (Z)-6-nonenol and salicylaldehyde combined with Ph enhanced male response rates by 58.63%,50.33%, 51.85% and 127.78%, respectively, compared to Ph alone. These results suggested that some volatiles should modify sex pheromone caused behavior and that some of them could possibly be used as a tool for disrupting mating or for enhancing the effect of synthetic sex pheromone in the field.

  9. EAG and behavioral responses of Helicoverpa armigera males to volatiles from poplar leaves and their combinations with sex pheromone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建宇; 黄永平; 魏洪义

    2004-01-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) evaluation of selected compounds from wilted leaves of black poplar, Populus nigra, showed that phenyl acetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, (E)-2-hexenal elicited strong responses from male antennae of Helicoverpa armigera. When mixed with sex pheromone (Ph), some volatiles, e.g. phenyl acetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylethanol, methylsalicylate, linalool, benzaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenylacetate, (Z)-6-nonenol, cineole, (E)-2-hexenal, and geraniol elicited stronger responses from male antennae than Ph alone. Wind tunnel bioassay demonstrated that various volatiles could either enhance or inhibit the effect of synthetic sex pheromone. (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol and linalool in combination with Ph could not induce any male to land on source at all, whereas phenyl acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, (Z)-6-nonenol and salicylaldehyde combined with Ph enhanced male response rates by 58.63%, 50.33%, 51.85% and 127.78%, respectively, compared to Ph alone. These results suggested that some volatiles shouldmodify sex pheromone caused behavior and that some of them could possibly be used as a tool for disrupting mating or for enhancing the effect of synthetic sex pheromone in the field.

  10. Commercial production of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties and the resistance management for bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently three kinds of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton germplasm lines, Shanxi 94-24, Zhongxin 94 and R19, in China. They showed high resistance to the neonate larvae of bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties or hybrids have been bred using the three kinds of germplasm lines as parents. Our researches reveal that there exist different expressions in resistant level at different developmental stages in the three categories of germplasm lines. When neonate larvae are fed with leaves of cotton plant at the seeding stage with less than 10 leaves on the main stem, the mortality of the neonate larvae is 100%, but the resistance level will decline at later season. When Bt gene has been transferred to the cotton genome, it can be steadily transferred to the progeny, the level of resistance to bollworm keeps fundamentally uniform. Such insects as tobacco budworm (Heliothis virencens) in laboratory directive selection are very apt to produce resistance to the Bt insecticidal crystal protein. From the present crop system of cotton region in the Yangtze and Yellow River Valleys, and the expression characteristic of transgenic Bt resistant cotton, we suggest that the resistance to toxin protein in bollworm is not apt to be produced if the transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties are released and grown in the regions except in the Xinjiang cotton region. The managing strategies to delay or retard the resistance are discussed.

  11. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoya Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crystal (Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem.

  12. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuoya; Li, Yunhe; Xiao, Yutao; Ali, Abid; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Chen, Wenbo; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Crystal (Cry) proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem. PMID:27399776

  13. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuoya; Li, Yunhe; Xiao, Yutao; Ali, Abid; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Chen, Wenbo; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Crystal (Cry) proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem. PMID:27399776

  14. Reproductive biology of the palm borer, Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Delle-Vedove, Roxanne; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence; Hossaert-Mckey, Martine; FREROT, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Paysandisia archon (Burmeister, 1980) (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) is an accidentally introduced pest that damages palm trees in the northern Mediterranean area. To our knowledge, there are no experimental studies on its mating behaviour, and little is known about its biology and ecology. In the present study, we used outdoor experiments to investigate several characteristics of the reproductive behaviour of P. archon: sexual maturity, diel periodicity of mating, occurrence of polyandry and dela...

  15. Hawk moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Turkey and their zoogeographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuzu, E; Ayberk, H; Inac, S

    2007-10-01

    The family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) has 63 species in the western Palaearctic Region of the world. Thirty-four out of 63 species present in Turkey either permanently or temporarily. The subfamilies Smerinthinae, Sphinginae and Macroglossinae are consisted of 7, 4, and 23 species respectively Ten out of 34 species were captured in the field. Available knowledge of Sphingidae of Turkey was evaluated and summarized with this study as well. PMID:18405103

  16. The macroecology of Southeast-Asian hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the abundance and geographic distribution of the hawkmoth species (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Southeast-Asia and analyses the resulting patterns of biodiversity, biogeography and macroecology. Data on the distribution of species were retrieved from published and unpublished faunal lists and museum collections (in close cooperation with the Natural History Museum, London). Over 34,500 records of the global distribution of the 380 species that occur in Southeast-Asia (i...

  17. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species. PMID:26029877

  18. Atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. sobre lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Insecticidal Activity of Long-pepper essential oil (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Karin Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a obtenção e caracterização do óleo essencial de folhas de pimenta longa Piper hispidinervum, e avaliação de seu efeito no comportamento e/ou mortalidade da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se de um aparelho de Clevenger modificado, e posteriormente submetido, à análise por CG-EM e CG. Foram realizados testes de ingestão e contato tópico em lagartas de 1º e 3º ínstar. Os resultados constataram que o óleo essencial de pimenta-longa possui atividade inseticida sobre S. frugiperda, causando redução alimentar e mortalidade, sendo o safrol (82% seu constituinte majoritário. Verificou-se mortalidade no teste de ingestão em lagartas de 1º ínstar com CL50 = 16,2 mg/mL e para lagartas de 3º ínstar a CL50 = 9,4 mg/mL com redução alimentar CD50 = 0,72 mg/mL; e de toxicidade aguda no teste de contato tópico com DL50 = 277,91 μg/lagarta, após o intervalo de tempo de 96 horas, sendo também observados sintomas de neurotoxicidade, como o efeito knock-down.The objectives of this research were to evaluate the chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oil from the long-pepper leaves (Piper hispidinervum and its effect on the comportment and/or mortality of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda. The essential oil was obtained by steam stream distillation, using the modified Clevenger apparatus, the chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC. Tests of ingestion and topical application in fall armyworm of 1 st and 3 rd ínstar were made. The results showed that the long-pepper essential oil has insecticide activity on S. frugiperda, causing mortality and food reduction, and safrole (82% as its majority constituent. Mortality was found in the ingestion test in larvae of 1 st ínstar LC50 = 16.2 mg/mL for larvae of 3 rd ínstar LC50 = 9.4 mg/mL, with reduced food CD50 = 0.72 mg/mL; and acute toxicity test of the contact topic with LD50 = 277.91 μg/larvae, after an interval of 96 hours, neurotoxicity symptoms were also observed, as knock-down effect.

  19. Immunology defense system in insects: an approach in velvetbean catterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, AgMNPV-resistant/ Sistema imunológico de defesa em insetos: uma abordagem em lagartas da soja, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, resistentes ao AgMNPV

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    Ângela Maria Ferreira Falleiros

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The insects occupy almost all ecological niches and are constantly exposed to the attack of innumerable natural enemies, many of which are potentially pathogenic. To survive to these attacks, the insects had developed efficient defense systems, represented by outer cuticle, the digestory system and hemolymph cells, the hemocytes, that promote cellular defense. The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis, as soybean pest crop, demand 60% of the insecticide applications in the national soybean crops. With the more and more use of the nucleopolihedrovirus Baculovirus anticarsia aiming at its control, studies involving the foreing body recognition and its destruction by the defense systems together with the appearance of resistant strains caterpillar are supports for methodologies that become the control of this more efficient, until as prevention for the appearing of caterpillar naturally resistant in the field.Os insetos ocupam quase todos os nichos ecológicos e estão constantemente expostos ao ataque de inúmeros inimigos naturais, muitos dos quais são potencialmente patogênicos. Para sobreviver a esses ataques, os insetos desenvolveram eficiente sistema de defesa, representado pela espessa cutícula que os recobre, pelo sistema digestório e por células da hemolinfa, os hemócitos, que promovem a defesa celular. A lagarta da soja, Anticarsia gemmatalis, como praga desta cultura, demanda 60% das aplicações de inseticidas nas lavouras de soja nacionais. Com a utilização cada vez mais ampla do nucleopoliedrovirus Baculovirus anticarsia visando seu controle, estudos envolvendo o reconhecimento de corpos estranhos pelo sistema de defesa e sua destruição juntamente com o aparecimento de linhagens de lagartas resistentes, são suportes para metodologias que tornam o controle deste inseto-praga mais eficaz, até como prevenção para o surgimento de lagartas naturalmente resistentes no campo.

  20. Interação silício com inseticida regulador de crescimento no manejo da lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em milho Interaction of silicon with growth regulating insecticide in the management of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in corn plants

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    Danila Kelly Pereira Neri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do silício aplicado via solo e foliar, bem como sua interação com o inseticida regulador de crescimento (lufenuron no manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda em plantas de milho, foi realizado um ensaio em casa-de-vegetação e em laboratório, constando de nove tratamentos com cinco repetições. No laboratório do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, avaliou-se a preferência das lagartas por folhas destacadas de plantas de milho provenientes dos diferentes tratamentos, bem como o consumo e a mortalidade dessa praga. Em casa-de-vegetação, foram avaliadas a intensidade das injúrias provocadas pelas lagartas nas folhas, utilizando uma escala visual de danos proposta por Davis & Williams (1989, bem como o número e a biomassa das lagartas vivas. Pelos resultados pode-se concluir que os tratamentos não afetaram a preferência da lagarta-do-cartucho em teste de livre escolha. A interação silício e lufenuron no manejo de S. frugiperda é positiva em relação ao inseticida isolado, provavelmente devido a resistência mecânica conferida pelo silício as folhas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sprayed silicon via soil and leaf as well as its interaction with growth regulating insecticide (lufenuron in the management of Spodoptera frugiperda on corn plants. The trials were carried out in greenhouse and laboratory conditions and consisting of nine treatments with five replicates. In the laboratory, the preference of fall armyworms on detached leaves of corn plants from different treatments was evaluated, as well as the consumption and mortality of this pest. In the greenhouse, the damage caused by the insect on the leaves were evaluated by using a visual scale of injuries proposed by Davis & Williams (1989. In the greenhouse on the control treatment, both the number and weight of the larval were also determined. According to the results, silicon, the insecticide lufenuron and the interaction between silicon and lufenuron did not affect the preference of fall armyworm in a free choice test. The silicon x lufenuron interaction is positive in the management of S. frugiperda when compared to the insecticide only, probably due to a mechanical resistance by the silicon on the leaves surface.

  1. The larval midgut of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): light and electron microscopy studies of the epithelial cells Intestino médio de larvas de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): estudo das células epiteliais ao microscópio de luz e eletrônico

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, S. M.; A. M. F. Falleiros; E. A. Gregório; N. R. Arrebola; L. A. Toledo

    2004-01-01

    The morphology of the midgut epithelium cells of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) larvae is described by light and transmission electron microscopy. The midgut of A. gemmatalis is the largest portion of the digestive tract, with three distinct regions: proximal, media and distal. Its wall is formed by pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue having four cell types: columnar, goblet, regenerative, and endocrine cells. The columnar cells are numerous and long, with the apical portion showing m...

  2. Susceptibilidade de lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae a inseticidas com diferentes modos de ação Susceptibility of caterpillars of the biotypes corn and rice of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to insecticides with different action manners

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    Gustavo Rossato Busato

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a susceptibilidade de lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de Spodoptera frugiperda, a inseticidas com diferentes modos de ação. Os insetos foram coletados em milho e em arroz irrigado no agroecossistema de várzea, município de Pelotas, região que produz milho e arroz irrigado (lado a lado. Os experimentos foram realizados, em condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 1°C, umidade relativa (70 ± 10% e fotofase (14 horas, utilizando-se folhas do híbrido de milho Pionner 30F33 (40 dias após a emergência. As folhas pulverizadas em torre de Potter calibrada para aplicação de um volume de calda de 1,7 ± 0,305mg cm-2, foram colocadas em recipientes de plásticos com tampa, sendo individualizadas 25 lagartas de 3° ínstar de cada biótipo de S. frugiperda. Os inseticidas e concentrações avaliados foram: clorpirifós [Lorsban 480 BR, 0,960g i.a. L-1 (Organofosforado], lambda-cialotrina [Karate Zeon 50 CE, 0,003g i.a. L-1 (Piretróide sintético], lufenuron [Match CE, 0,006g i.a. L-1 (Aciluréia], methoxifenozide [Intrepid 240 SC, 0,158g i.a. L-1 (Diacilhidrazina] e spinosad [Tracer, 0,960g i.a. L-1 (Naturalyte]. A avaliação da mortalidade foi realizada 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas após o tratamento. O biótipo milho de S. frugiperda foi menos suscetível aos inseticidas lambda-cialotrina, lufenuron e methoxifenozide. Os inseticidas clorpirifós e spinosad foram eficientes no controle das lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de S. frugiperda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of caterpillars of the biotypes corn and rice of Spodoptera frugiperda, to insecticides with different action manners. The insects were collected in corn and in irrigated rice in the lowland, county of Pelotas, area that produces corn and irrigated rice (side by side. The experiments were conducted, in controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 1°C, relative humidity (70 ± 10% and photophase (14 hours, with leaves of the corn hybrid Pionner 30F33 (40 days after the emergency. The leaves were powdered in Potter tower gauged for application of a volume of 1.7 ± 0.305mg cm-2, they were put in containers of plastics with cover, and individualized 25 caterpillars of 3rd instar of each biotype of S. frugiperda. The insecticides and concentrations evaluated were: chlorpyrifos [Lorsban 480 BR, 0.960g a.i. L-1 (Chlorophosphate], lambda-cyhalothrin [Karate Zeon 50 CE, 0.003g a.i. L-1 (synthetic Piretroid], lufenuron [Match CE, 0.006g a.i. L-1 (Acilureis], methoxyfenozide [Intrepid 240 SC, 0.158g a.i. L-1 (Diacylhydrazine] and spinosad [Tracer, 0.960g a.i. L-1 (Naturalyte]. The evaluation of the mortality was accomplished 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after the treatment. The biotype corn of S. frugiperda was less susceptible to the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin, lufenuron and methoxyfenozide. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and spinosad were efficient in the control of the caterpillars of the biotypes corn and rice of S. frugiperda.

  3. Association of bioassays and molecular characterization to select new Bacillus thuringiensis isolates effective against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); Associacao de bioensaios e caracterizacao molecular para selecao de novos isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivos contra Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatoretto, Julio C.; Sena, Janete A.D.; Lemos, Manoel V.F. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Biologia Aplicada a Agropecuaria; Barreto, Marliton R. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. Universitario do Norte Matogrossense (IUNMAT)]. E-mail: mrbarreto@pop.com.br; Junior Boica, Arlindo L. (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade)

    2007-09-15

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is one of the main corn pests and Bacillus thuringiensis is important in its control because of its entomopathogenic property. The objective of this study was the molecular characterization of B. thuringiensis isolates for cry1 locus presence and the assessment of the efficiency of these isolates in controlling S. frugiperda caterpillars. Gral-cry1 was used in the PCR analyses to confirm the presence of the cry1 locus in 15 isolates. A 3 x 108 spore/ml suspension bathed the diet used to feed 30 caterpillars per isolate, with three replications. The cry1 locus type genes of the different isolates were identified for five gene subclasses; linear regression analyses were carried out to ascertain possible associations between the presence of an individual cry1 locus gene and high levels of toxicity. All the DNAs amplified with Gral-cry1 presented an amplification product with the expected size. Regarding the levels of insecticide efficiency against the cob worm, 41 isolates presented 100% mortality and 16 presented an index between 70% and 90%. The cry1Ab gene was present in 80 isolates, cryb in 69 isolates, cry1Ac in all the isolates and cryv and cry1E in 93 and 27 isolates, respectively. The values regarding the individual effect of each gene on caterpillar mortality were significant at 1% probability for the cry1Ac and cry1E genes. (author)

  4. Bioatividade de formulações de NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai em lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai formulations in larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de inseticidas botânicos e bioinseticidas constitui uma alternativa promissora para o manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797, na cultura do milho. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações comerciais de nim e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta sobre esta praga em laboratório. Lagartas de S. frugiperda com 10 dias de idade foram alimentadas com folhas de milho submersas na calda dos inseticidas Neemseto®, Natuneem® e Xentari® (B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai Bta nas concentrações 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10 mL ou g/L e testemunha (água. Os efeitos dos inseticidas dependeram da concentração utilizada, pois provocaram mortalidade crescente das lagartas, alongaram o período larval e reduziram o peso larval. Em alguns casos, também, reduziram o peso das pupas, a viabilidade pupal e a longevidade de adultos. Lagartas com 0-24 h de idade foram mais susceptíveis às concentrações de Neemseto® e Xentari® a 5 e 10 mL ou g/L, em relação às com 10 dias de idade. Com o aumento da concentração, os efeitos sobre o peso das pupas e viabilidade pupal foram, também, maiores em lagartas com 0-24 h de idade.The use of botanical and biological insecticides constitutes a promising alternative to control Spodoptera frugiperda on corn crop. Thus, the present work evaluated the effect of commercial formulations of neem (Natuneem® and Neemseto® and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta (Xentari® on this pest under laboratory conditions. Newly hatched and 10 days old fall armyworm larvae were fed with corn leaves treated with the insecticides at concentration of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mL or g/mL and control (water. An increased effect of the insecticides was found as function of increasing concentration, causing higher larval mortality, longer larval period and lower larval weight. In some cases, reduction of pupa weight, pupa viability and longevity of adults were also verified. Newly hatched larvae (ca. 0-24 h old were more susceptible to 5 and 10 mL or g/L of Neemseto® and Xentari® as compared with 10 days old larvae. With the increase of insecticide concentration, the effects on the pupa weight and pupa viability were also greater on larvae of 0-24h old.

  5. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae); Actividad insecticida sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) de los compuestos aislados de la parte aerea de Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. y las inflorescencias de Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Monica Constanza Avila; Suarez, Luis Enrique Cuca, E-mail: mcavilam@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Productos Naturales Vegetales, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Salamanca, Jairo Alonso Ceron [Laboratorio de Biopesticidas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-05-15

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC{sub 50} 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  6. The effect of sub-lethal doses of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae oil on the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Efeito de doses subletais do óleo de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae no mesêntero de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

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    Antonia Railda Roel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the major field pests for maize production. It is mainly controlled by means of synthetic, and more recently by resistant cultivar of maize expressing Bt toxins. The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is a plant that can potentially control insects with the advantage of being food and environmental safe. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of neem oil on the development and survival of S. frugiperda caterpillars by assessing histological alterations caused on their midgut. Newly hatched caterpillars were submitted to three neem oil concentrations: 0.006; 0.05; 0.4%, which were added to their artificial diet. Ten 3rd instar caterpillars, taken from each treatment, were submitted to histological analysis. The alimentary canals from the specimens were fixed in Baker for 12 hours, desiccated and diaphanized in alcohol/xylol (1:1 and xylol. After placing the samples in paraffin, they were sliced in 8 µm sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain. The neem oil added to the diet of S. frugiperda caused total mortality at dose of 0.4% whilst still in the first instars, prolonged the larval and pupal stages, and reduced the pupal weight. Histo-physiological alterations such as degeneration of the epithelial lining of the midgut and in the peritrophic matrix were found at all concentrations of neem oil.A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda, é a mais importante praga da cultura do milho. Esta é usualmente, controlada por inseticidas sintéticos e mais atualmente por meio de variedades resistentes de milho com a toxina Bt. O nim Azadirachta indica é planta com potencial no controle de insetos, que possui as vantagens de segurança alimentar e ambiental. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito do óleo do nim no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de lagartas de S. frugiperda em decorrência das alterações no mesêntero. As lagartas recém nascidas foram submetidas a três concentrações do óleo de nim: 0,006; 0,05; 0,4%, adicionadas à dieta artificial. Dez lagartas do 3º instar, retiradas de cada tratamento, foram submetidas à análise histológica. O canal alimentar dos indivíduos foi fixado em Baker por 12 horas, desidratado, diafanizado em álcool/xilol (1:1 e xilol. Após a inclusão em parafina, as amostras foram seccionadas em 8 µm e coradas pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina. Observou-se que o óleo de A. indica adicionado à dieta de S. frugiperda causa: mortalidade total na dosagem 0,4% nos primeiros instares, aumento na duração do período larval e pupal, redução no peso de pupas. Alterações histofisiológicas, como degeneração do epitélio do revestimento do mesêntero, da matriz peritrófica foram registradas em todas as concentrações do óleo de neem.

  7. Efeito residual do extrato acetato de etila de Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae para lagartas de diferentes idades de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Residual effect of ethyl acetate extract of Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae for Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae of diferents ages

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    Antonia Railda Roel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Inseticidas de origem vegetal mostram limitada persistência em condições ambientais já que são degradados pela temperatura, por raios ultravioletas e por outros fatores ambientais. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito residual do extrato acetato de etila de Trichilia pallida, plantas de milho cultivadas em casa de vegetação foram pulverizadas com o referido extrato na concentração de 2%, e as suas folhas utilizadas para alimentação de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda, em laboratório. As folhas foram oferecidas às lagartas aos 1, 3 e 7 dias após a pulverização, correspondendo cada época a um tratamento. Foram utilizados dois grupos de lagartas: recém-eclodidas e com 10 dias de idade. As folhas foram trocadas diariamente e, 10 dias após o início do experimento, foram avaliados a mortalidade, a largura da cápsula cefálica e o peso das lagartas. Verificou-se que, nas três épocas, o extrato reduziu a sobrevivência e prolongou o desenvolvimento larval. A intensidade destes efeitos foi maior quanto menor o intervalo entre a aplicação do extrato e o início do fornecimento das folhas aos insetos. Lagartas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com o extrato desde a eclosão foram mais afetadas que aquelas alimentadas a partir dos 10 dias.Botanical pesticides have limited persistence in field conditions because are degraded by temperature, ultraviolet light and other environmental factors. Corn plants cultivated in greenhouse were sprayed with ethyl acetate extract of Trichilia pallida at the concentration of 2%, and their leaves were offered to Spodoptera frugiperda larvae in order to evaluate the residual effect of the extract. The larval feeding began at 1, 3 and 7 days after the treatment with the extract. Two groups of larvae were evaluated: neonate and 10-day old ones. The leaves were daily replaced and after 10 days the mortality, the head capsules and the weight of larvae were evaluated. Independently of the residue age, all treatments affected larval survivorship and delayed larval development, but these effects were more pronounced for larvae fed one day treated leaves. The extract was more effective against neonate larvae than to 10 days old day larvae.

  8. Eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle da lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Efficience of extracts of plantas in control of fall armyworm in corn Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Marcelo Souza Silva Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 na cultura do milho. Os experimentos foram instalados, nos anos de 2002 e 2004, com a pulverização dos produtos vegetais em cinco tratamentos, e quatro repetições. No ano de 2002, os produtos testados foram: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (extrato aquoso 2%, e óleo a 1%; Melia azedarach L. (extrato aquoso 2%; Quassia amara L. (extrato aquoso 2%; óleo de nim, Azadirachta indica 1 e 2%. No ano de 2004, os produtos testados foram: A. indica (extrato aquoso 5%, e óleo a 2%, M. azedarach (extrato aquoso 5%, Trichilia pallida Sw. (extrato aquoso 5%. As avaliações, porcentagem de infestação da lagarta-do-cartucho por parcela, foram efetuadas aos três, sete e dez dias após a pulverização dos extratos. Conclui-se que extratos aquosos das plantas A. indica 2%, T.pallida 5%, Q. amara 2% e M. azedarach 2% e 5% e óleo de A. indica 1% e 2% com adição de tenso ativo não iônico, não possuem eficiência necessária como único método de controle da largarta-do-cartucho S. frugiperda em condições de campo. Os produtos começam a afetar o desenvolvimento da lagarta após alguns dias da ingestão das folhas pulverizadas, observado na avaliação efetuada aos sete dias após a aplicação dos extratos.The objective of this work was to study the efficiency of vegetable pesticides in the control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 in corn culture. The experiments were installed, in the years of 2002 and 2004, with the spraying of the vegetable products in five treatments, and four repetitions. In the year of 2002 the tested products were: Azadirachta indica A. Juss (aqueous extract 2%, and oil at 1%; Melia azedarach L. (aqueous extract 2%; Quassia amara L. (aqueous extract 2%; nim oil, Azadirachta indica 1 and 2%. In the year of 2004 the tested products were: A. indica (aqueous extract 5%, and oil at 2%, M. azedarach (aqueous extract 5%, Trichilia pallida Sw. (aqueous extract 5%. The evaluations like percentage of infestation of the fall armyworm per plot, were made three, seven and ten days after the extracts application respectively. It was possible to verify that aqueous extracts of the plants A. indica 2%, T. pallida 5%, Q. amara 2% and M. azedarach 2% and 5% and A. indica oil 1% and 2% with addition of non ionic active tense, don't possess necessary efficiency as the only control method of the fall armyworm S. frugiperda in field conditions. The products begin to affect the development of fall armyworms some days after the ingestion of the powdered leaves, observed in the seven days after the extracts application.

  9. Aerial, ground and chemigation spray deposition on corn for the control of spodoptera frugiperda (lepidoptera: noctuidae Deposição de calda por aplicação aérea, terrestre e via água de irrigação na cultura do milho para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Arantes Rodrigues da Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can be applied by aircraft, ground-sprayers or sprinkler irrigation. However, selecting the best option is complicated by the limited number of studies comparing these techniques. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the chlorpyrifos insecticide deposition applied by aircraft (30 L ha-1, tractor-mounted sprayer (200 L ha-1 and chemigation (70,000 L ha-1 for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith in two corn (Zea mays L. populations (70,000 and 100,000 plants ha-1. Active ingredient residue on the corn plant leaves was evaluated by gas chromatography, immediately and ten days after the treatments. Armyworm numbers in each plot and control were also evaluated. The experiment was set up in randomized blocks with four replications. Aerial and ground applications of chlorpyrifos led to greater active ingredient deposition in the leaves than chemigation. Neither plant population (70,000 and 100,000 plants ha-1 affected the insecticide deposition in the corn leaves. S. frugiperda control was similar for all three application methods. Chemigation, however, resulted in less deposition on the plants and consequently in a greater insecticide loss to the soil, which should be considered in environmental impact.A aplicação de produtos fitossanitários pode ser feita, utilizando-se avião agrícola, pulverizadores terrestres ou via água de irrigação. Contudo, a seleção da melhor técnica é difícil, dada à pequena quantidade de estudos comparativos entre elas. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a deposição do inseticida clorpirifós na cultura do milho, empregando aplicação aérea (30 L ha-1, tratorizada (200 L ha-1 e via água de irrigação (70.000 L ha-1, para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda em duas populações de plantas (70.000 e 100.000 plantas ha-1. O resíduo do ingrediente ativo nas folhas, imediatamente e dez dias após as aplicações, foi avaliado por cromatografia gasosa. O número de lagartas, em cada parcela experimental e na testemunha, também foi avaliado. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As aplicações aérea e tratorizada do inseticida clorpirifós proporcionaram maior deposição do ingrediente ativo nas folhas do que via água de irrigação. As duas populações de plantas empregadas (70.000 e 100.000 plantas ha-1 não influenciaram a deposição do inseticida nas folhas de milho. O controle de S. frugiperda foi similar para os três métodos de aplicação, contudo, na quimigação, ocorreu menor deposição na planta, o que deve ser considerado para evitar danos ambientais causados por escorrimento de calda para o solo.

  10. Uji Daya Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam.(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Pada Larva Chilo sacchariphagus Boj. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) dan Chilo auricilius Dudg. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Budianto, Sisko

    2014-01-01

    Sisko Budianto, “The Ability of Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on larvae of Chilo aurilius Dudg. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Chilo sacchariphagus Boj. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Laboratory”, supervised by Prof. Dr. Dra. Maryani Cyccu Tobing, MS. and Dr. Ir. Hasanuddin, MS. The objectives of the research were to study the ability of parasitoid C. flavipes on larvae of C. sacchariphagus and C. auricilius. The research was held at Laboratory of Sug...

  11. Yeast one-hybrid screening the potential regulator of CYP6B6 overexpression of Helicoverpa armigera under 2-tridecanone stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Liu, X N; Li, F; Zhuang, S Z; Huang, L N; Ma, J; Gao, X W

    2016-04-01

    In insect, the cytochrome P450 plays a pivotal role in detoxification to toxic allelochemicals. Helicoverpa armigera can tolerate and survive in 2-tridecanone treatment owing to the CYP6B6 responsive expression, which is controlled by some regulatory DNA sequences and transcription regulators. Therefore, the 2-tridecanone responsive region and transcription regulators of the CYP6B6 are responsible for detoxification of cotton bollworm. In this study, we used yeast one-hybrid to screen two potential transcription regulators of the CYP6B6 from H. armigera that respond to the plant secondary toxicant 2-tridecanone, which were named Prey1 and Prey2, respectively. According to the NCBI database blast, Prey1 is the homology with FK506 binding protein (FKBP) of Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori that belongs to the FKBP-C superfamily, while Prey2 may be a homology of an unknown protein of Papilio or the fcaL24 protein homology of B. mori. The electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the FKBP of prokaryotic expression could specifically bind to the active region of the CYP6B6 promoter. After the 6th instar larvae of H. armigera reared on 2-tridecanone artificial diet, we found there were similar patterns of CYP6B6 and FKBP expression of the cotton bollworm treated with 10 mg g-1 2-tridecanone for 48 h, which correlation coefficient was the highest (0.923). Thus, the FKBP is identified as a strong candidate for regulation of the CYP6B6 expression, when the cotton bollworm is treated with 2-tridecanone. This may lead us to a better understanding of transcriptional mechanism of CYP6B6 and provide very useful information for the pest control. PMID:26696496

  12. Response of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls, under elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The growth, development and consumption of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2 (double-ambient vs. ambient) in open-top chambers were examined. Significant decreases in protein, total amino acid, water and nitrogen content and increases in free fatty acid were observed in cotton bolls. Changes in quality of cotton bolls affected the growth, development and food utilization of H. armigera. Significantly longer larval development duration in three successive generations and lower pupal weight of the second and third generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower fecundity was also found in successive three generations of H. armigera fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The consumption per larva occurred significant increase in successive three generations and frass per larva were also significantly increased during the second and third generations under elevated CO2. Significantly lower relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and significant higher relative consumption rate in successive three generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower potential female fecundity, larval numbers and population consumption were found in the second and third generations of cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The integrative effect of higher larval mortality rate and lower adult fecundity resulted in significant decreases in potential population consumption in the latter two generations. The results show that elevated CO2 adversely affects cotton bolls quality, which indicates the potential population dynamics and potential population consumption of cotton bollworm will alleviate the harm to the plants in the future rising CO2 atmosphere.

  13. Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    OpenAIRE

    Farrukh Jamal; Dushyant Singh; Pandey, Prabhash K.

    2014-01-01

    An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme...

  14. Bioefficacy and mode-of-action of some limonoids of salannin group from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and their role in a multicomponent system against lepidopteran larvae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Opender Koul; Gurmeet Singh; Rajwinder Singh; Jasbir Singh; W M Daniewski; Stanislaw Berlozecki

    2004-12-01

    Biological activities of the salannin type of limonoids isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss were assessed using the gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and the tobacco armyworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Inhibition of larval growth was concomitant with reduced feeding by neonate and third instar larvae. All three compounds exhibited strong antifeedant activity in a choice leaf disc bioassay with 2.0, 2.3 and 2.8 g/cm2 of 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol and salannin, respectively deterring feeding by 50% in S. litura larvae. In nutritional assays, all three compounds reduced growth and consumption when fed to larvae without any effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), suggesting antifeedant activity alone. No toxicity was observed nor was there any significant affect on nutritional indices following topical application, further suggesting specific action as feeding deterrents. When relative growth rates were plotted against relative consumption rates, growth efficiency of the H. armigera fed diet containing 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol or salannin did not differ from that of starved control larvae (used as calibration curve), further confirming the specific antifeedant action of salannin type of limonoids. Where the three compounds were co-administered, no enhancement in activity was observed. Non-azadirachtin limonoids having structural similarities and explicitly similar modes of action, like feeding deterrence in the present case, have no potentiating effect in any combination.

  15. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola,Milla; Wheat, Christopher W; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular sy...

  16. Effects of UV-A exposures on longevity and reproduction in Helicoverpa armigera, and on the development of its F1 generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Yu Zhang; Jian-Yu Meng; Xiao-Ping Wang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2011-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera adults display a conspicuous positive phototacdc behavior to light stimuli,and are especially sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light.The effects of UV-A (longwave) exposures on adult longevity and reproduction in H.armigera were investigated,as well as the development of the F1 generation.Paired adults were exposed to UV-A for various time periods (0,1,5 and 9 h/day),until the end of adult life.The results showed that adult longevity decreased with increasing exposure time for both sexes,and a significant decrease was observed after exposure for 5 and 9 h/day.Fecundity increased when adults were exposed for 1 and 5 h/day,and a significant difference was observed in the 5 h/day group.Oviposition rates of females in all treatments were significantly higher than in the control.Exposure to UV-A for longer periods (5 and 9 h/day) caused a decline in cumulative survival of F1 immature stages,but no significant differences were found in egg hatch,pupation and eclosion.The developmental periods of F1 larvae were significantly prolonged after exposure to UV-A for 5 and 9 h/day.UV-A radiation had no significant effects on F1 pupal period.

  17. New insight to structure-function relationship of GalNAc mediated primary interaction between insecticidal Cry1Ac toxin and HaALP receptor of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anindita; Sarkar, Anindya; Priya, Prerna; Ghosh Dastidar, Shubhra; Das, Sampa

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades Cry1Ac toxin has been widely used in controlling the insect attack due to its high specificity towards target insects. The pore-forming toxin undergoes a complex mechanism in the insect midgut involving sequential interaction with specific glycosylated receptors in which terminal GalNAc molecule plays a vital role. Recent studies on Cry toxins interactions with specific receptors revealed the importance of several amino acid residues in domain III of Cry1Ac, namely Q509, N510, R511, Y513 and W545, serve as potential binding sites that surround the putative GalNAc binding pocket and mediate the toxin-receptor interaction. In the present study, alanine substitution mutations were generated in the Cry1Ac domain III region and functional significance of those key residues was monitored by insect bioassay on Helicoverpa armigera larvae. In addition, ligand blot analysis and SPR binding assay was performed to monitor the binding characteristics of Cry1Ac wild type and mutant toxins towards HaALP receptor isolated from Helicoverpa armigera. Mutagenesis data revealed that, alanine substitutions in R511, Y513 and W545 substantially impacted the relative affinity towards HaALP receptor and toxicity toward target insect. Furthermore, in silico study of GalNAc-mediated interaction also confirmed the important roles of these residues. This structural analysis will provide a detail insight for evaluating and engineering new generation Cry toxins to address the problem of change in insect behavioral patterns.

  18. Effects of different brush border membrane vesicle isolation protocols on proteomic analysis of Cry1 Ac binding proteins from the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Zhen Chen; Ge-Mei Liang; Brian G.Rector; Jie Zhang; Kong-Ming Wu; Yu-Yuan Guo

    2008-01-01

    Brush border membrane vesicles(BBMV)isolated from insect midguts have been widely used to study CrylA binding proteins.Sample preparation is important in two-dimensional electrophoresis(2-DE),so to determine a suitable BBMV preparation method in Helicoverpa armigera for 2-DE,we compared three published BBMV preparation methods mostly used in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE).All mctllods yielded similar types and numbers of binding proteins,but in different quantifies.The Abdul.Rauf and Ellar protocol was the best of the three,but had limitations.Sufficient protein qu antity iS important for research involving limited numbers of insects,such as studies of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in the field.Consequently,we integrated the three BBMV isolation methods into a single protocol that yielded high quantities of BBMV proteins from H.armigera larval midguts.which proved suitable for 2-DE analysis.

  19. Characterization of the resistance to Vip3Aa in Helicoverpa armigera from Australia and the role of midgut processing and receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa; Banyuls, Núria; Walsh, Tom; Downes, Sharon; James, Bill; Ferré, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Crops expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) are among the most successful technologies developed for the control of pests but the evolution of resistance to them remains a challenge. Insect resistant cotton and maize expressing the Bt Vip3Aa protein were recently commercialized, though not yet in Australia. We found that, although relatively high, the frequency of alleles for resistance to Vip3Aa in field populations of H. armigera in Australia did not increase over the past four seasons until 2014/15. Three new isofemale lines were determined to be allelic with previously isolated lines, suggesting that they belong to one common gene and this mechanism is relatively frequent. Vip3Aa-resistance does not confer cross-resistance to Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab. Vip3Aa was labeled with (125)I and used to show specific binding to H. armigera brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Binding was of high affinity (Kd = 25 and 19 nM for susceptible and resistant insects, respectively) and the concentration of binding sites was high (Rt = 140 pmol/mg for both). Despite the narrow-spectrum resistance, binding of (125)I-labeled Vip3Aa to BBMV of resistant and susceptible insects was not significantly different. Proteolytic conversion of Vip3Aa protoxin into the activated toxin rendered the same products, though it was significantly slower in resistant insects. PMID:27095284

  20. Purification of Aminopeptidase N Protein and Differences in cDNAs Encoding APN1 Between Susceptible and Resistant Helicoverpa armigera Strains to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ge-mei; WANG Gui-rong; XU Guang; WU Kong-ming; GUO Yu-yuan

    2004-01-01

    The brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) in midgut of Helicoverpa armigera were successfully separated, and most of the Aminopeptidase N (APN) activities in BBMV were preserved. The 3-[(3-chlor-amidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-l-propane-sulphonate (CHAPS)can enhance the dissolution of BBMV, and phosphatidylinositol-specific phosopholipase C (PI-PLC) can cleave the APN from midgut membrane. The APN was primarily purified using a Mono-Q column. The results of immunoblotting showed that the 120 and 170 kDa proteins in the BBMV could bind CrylAc, and 120kDa APN was a glycosylphosphalidylinositol(GPI)anchored protein. Two Bt-resistant strains (Bt-P, Bt-M) were obtained after being selected for more than five years in laboratory using Bt insecticides and Bt transgenic cotton incorporated into diet separately. The resistance of Bt-P and Bt-M were 1 083.3and 48.7 times that of susceptible strain. The genes encoding APN1 in midgut of susceptible and resistant H.armigera were cloned by PCR and RACE techniques. The inferred amino acid sequences of APN1 possessed the common character of APN family in insects. In comparison with APN1 in susceptible strain, three nucleotide mutations were observed in the APN1 of Bt-M strain and resulted in two amino acid replace in the putative protein sequences, and eight nucleotide mutations were observed in Bt-P strain and resulted in five amino acid replace.