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Sample records for armigera hubner lepidoptera

  1. Determination of lethal concentration (LC50 for different insecticides against third instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner (LEPIDOPTERA:NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamed

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of LorsbanTM, Alpha-cypermethrinTM and KarateTM was assessed by larval dip bioassay against third instar larvae of American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub. collected from a cotton field at Faisalabad and reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. Third instar larvae were used to assess the toxicity of insecticides after 48 hrs of insecticide treatments. Results showed that toxicity of Karate was above all with LC50 of 71.31ppm followed by Alpha-cypermethrin with LC50 287.87 and Lorsban 464.85, respectively. These results showed the increased resistance of H. armigera against Lorsban in F1 generation under laboratory conditions.

  2. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The development of resistance in cosmopolitan insect Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) forced the researchers for alternative control measures. In the present study, insecticidal efficacy of formulations of Azadirachta indica, a Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), and new anthranilic diamide insecticide (chlorantraniliprole) formulations was determined against 2nd, through 5th larval instars of H. armigera collected from diverse geographical locations in the Punjab province, Pakist...

  3. Trichogramma chilotraeae PARASITOID TELUR Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner PADA POPULASI INANG RENDAH

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    - Sujak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera Hubner is an insect pest of corn and cotton crops. Eggs are laid by  H. armigera imago on corn silk and cotton crops often have high mortality, mainly caused by egg parasitoid. H. armigera egg on various agroecosystem reported can  be parasited by at least 12 species of  Trichogrammatidae. The purpose of this study was to determine the diversity of  Trichogrammatidae family as  parasitoid eggs of  H. armigera on  low population. H. armigera egg sample taken from Asembagus, Lamongan and Blora at 1 m2 field  both monoculture and intercropping. Observation of parasitoids and predators  done at the Laboratory of Biological Control Balittas Malang. Parasitoid that appears preserved in the Hoyer medium for identification purposes. low population of  H. armigera Egg in Asembagus is  4 eggs/m2 in both monoculture maize and intercropping with 86-100 days after transplanting (DAT cotton and  4.5 egg/m2 on cotton monoculture and intercropping with 75  DAT soybean, while 2 eggs/m2 in the Lamongan and Blora corn agroecosystem. The dominant egg parasitoid in Asembagus is T. chilotraea, as well as in Lamongan and Blora.

  4. Hybridization between Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): development and morphological characterization of F1 hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.C.; Dong, J.F.; Tang, Q.B.; Yan, Q.B.; Celbic, I.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Wang, C.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Reciprocal hybridizations between Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) were studied. The cross between females of H. armigera and males of H. assulta yielded only fertile males and sterile individuals lacking an aedeagus, valva or ostium bursae. A total of 492 larvae of the

  5. Push-pull Strategy with Trap Crops, Neem and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus for Insecticide Resistance Management in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner in Cotton

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    P. Duraimurugan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner is a major threat to cotton production in India. The virus infection was found to increase the susceptibility of H. armigera to the insecticides. But, use of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV on a larger scale and on cotton due to leaf alkalinity poses certain practical problems. Hence, studies were carried out to assess the effects of push-pull strategy with trap crops, neem and NPV in cotton for the management of insecticide resistant H. armigera. Field experiments were conducted on cotton (MCU5 with trap crops (okra and pigeonpea and neem was used to diversify the pests to trap crops whereby the control of these pests was assessed with the application of NPV. The preference of H. armigera was towards okra and pigeonpea as a trap crop compared to cotton. Application of NSKE on cotton diversified the H. armigera towards untreated okra and pigeonpea. Push-pull strategy with the conjunctive use of trap crops, restricted application of NSKE on cotton leaving trap crops and restricted application of NPV on trap crops was highly effective in reducing the incidence of H. armigera and damage to fruiting bodies, boll, locule and inter locule basis over cotton sole crop (untreated check. The percent recovery of NPV infected larvae varied from 37.5-47.5, 32.8-39.2 and 14.2-20.2% on okra, pigeon pea and cotton respectively. The synthetic pyrethroids resistance in field survived H. armigera at the end of the season was reduced from 87.5-93.1% to 76.4-84.3%.

  6. Influence of Two Kinds of Insecticides on Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and its Natural Enemies%2种药剂对棉花棉铃虫及其天敌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曦

    2013-01-01

    研究2种药剂对棉花棉铃虫及其天敌的影响,结果表明:14%氯虫-高氯氟和1.1%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐对棉铃虫均有很好的防治效果,同时对天敌瓢虫和草蛉无较大影响。%Influence of two kinds of insecticides on Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and its natural enemies was studied.The results showed that 14% chlorantraniliprole-high chlorine fluorine and 1.1% emamectin benzoate had good control effect on Helicoverpa armigera Hubner.At the same time,they had no significant impact on natural enemy ladybug and lacewing.

  7. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM Cymbopogon nardus AS OVIPOSITION DETERRENT AND OVICIDAL ACTIVITIES AGAINST Helicoverpa armigera Hubner ON CHILI PEPPER

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    Wiwin Setiawati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner is one of the key pests of chili pepper in Indonesia. Yield loss due to this insect pest may reach up to 60%. Chemical treatment for con-trolling this insect pest is ineffective and eventually leads to environmental pollution. More environmentally safe insecticides are developed based on natural plant ingredients as their active compound such as essential oils. This study aimed to assess the potential of citronella oil for managing H. armigera on chili pepper. The experiments were conducted at the Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute from April 2009 to March 2010 and in Cirebon, West Java from November 2009 to March 2010. A field experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and replicated five times. Citronella oil was extracted by steam distillation from Cymbo-pogon  nardus. The oil was then chemically characterized by using GC-MS and its efficacy (ovicidal and feeding deterrent against H. armigera was tested both in laboratory and field conditions. The GC-MS result showed that major chemical compounds of the citronella oil used were citronella (35.97%, nerol (17.28%, citronellol (10.03%, geranyle acetate (4.44%, elemol (4.38%, limonene (3.98%, and citronnellyle acetate (3.51%. The laboratory experiment revealed that the highest concentration (4,000 ppm of citronella oil reduced egg laying by 53-66%. Ovicidal activity was concentration dependent, and egg hatchability decreased by 15-95% compared to control. The field experiment showed that treatment of citronella oil at 2.0 mL L-1 significantly reduced fruit damage by H. armigera similar to the plots treated with spinosad at the recommended dose (60 g ai ha-1. Application of citronella oil significantly reduced fruit damage by 72% and increased quality of the chili pepper. Because oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are key factors in controlling the pest, therefore this study revealed that

  8. Feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities of PONNEEM, a newly developed phytopesticidal formulation against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soosaimanickam Maria Packiam; Kathirvelu Baskar; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feeding deterrent, growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects of PONNEEM on Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera).Methods:growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects on H. armigera.Results:Invariably all the newly formulated phytopesticidal oil formulations showed the feeding Five oil formulations were prepared at different ratios to assess the feeding deterrent, deterrent and growth inhibitory activities against H. armigera. The maximum feeding deterrent activity of 88.44% was observed at 15 µL/L concentration of PONNEEM followed by formulation A (74.54%). PONNEEM was found to be effective in growth inhibitory activities and egg hatchability at 10 µL/L concentration. It exhibited statistically significant feeding deterrent activity and growth inhibitory activity compared with all the other treatments.Conclusions:PONNEEM was found to be effective phytopesticidal formulation to control the larval stage of H. armigera. This is the first report for the feeding deterrent activity of PONNEEM against H.armigera. This newly formulated phytopesticide was patented in India.

  9. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Waqas Wakil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance in cosmopolitan insect Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae forced the researchers for alternative control measures. In the present study, insecticidal efficacy of formulations of Azadirachta indica, a Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV, and new anthranilic diamide insecticide (chlorantraniliprole formulations was determined against 2nd, through 5th larval instars of H. armigera collected from diverse geographical locations in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Azadirachta indica was applied at 5 μL L-1; NPV at 2.1 x 10(5 polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB mL4 and chlorantraniliprole at 0.01 μL L-1, either alone or in combinations with each other. The bioassays were conducted at 27 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. The mortality varied greatly among treatments, larval instars, and locations. The combinations of NPV with A. indica and chlorantraniliprole caused higher mortality, pupation and produced an additive effect compared to their application singly in all the tested populations. The population from Rawalpindi was always susceptible while the Gujranwala was the resistant. The results herein suggest that the effectiveness of NPV and A. indica can be improved by the presence of chlorantraniliprole against the larvae of H. armigera.Se determinó la eficacia insecticida de formulaciones de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus (VPN y el nuevo insecticida diamida antranílico (clorantraniliprol en contra de segundo, tercero, cuarto y quinto estadios larvales de Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae recogidos de diversas ubicaciones geográficas de la provincia de Punjab, Pakistán. Azadirachta indica se aplicó en dosis de 5 μL L-1; VPN en dosis 2.1 x 10(5 POB mL-1 y clorantraniliprol fue 0,01 μL L-1 ya sea solos o en combinaciones. Los bioensayos se realizaron a 27 ± 1 °C y 65 ± 5% de humedad relativa. La mortalidad fue notablemente variada entre los tratamientos, estadios larvales y

  10. Ovicidal activity of botanical oil formulations against Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susaimanickam Maria Packiam; Kathirvelu Baskar; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal activity of different botanical oil formulations againstHelicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. Methods: Different botanical oils were formulated with different ratio to evaluate the ovicidal activity against H. armigera and S. litura at 5, 10, 15 and 20μl/L concentrations. Results: All the oil formulations showed the ovicidal activity against H. armigera and S. litura. The maximum ovicidal actvity of 76.74 and 69.36% was noticed at 20μl/L concentration in formulation 3 PONNEEM. Formulation 4 Pongam oil showed lower ovicidal activity of 31.34 and 24.76% against H. armigera and S. litura respectively. Among the formulations, PONNEEM exhibited statistically superior ovicidal activity against both insect pests. Conclusions: the present study clearly showed PONNEEM as a pontenial biopesticide to control the egg stage of economically important pests of H. armigera and S. litura. This is the first report for the ovicidal activity of PONNEEM against these two insect pests.

  11. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil). In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape. PMID:27907051

  12. Evaluation of acetone vapors toxicity on Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmirza, Ali Asghr; Nasab, Fershteh Sadeghi; Zadeh, Abas Hossein

    2007-08-01

    The efficacy of acetone vapors against carefully aged eggs of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) at 17+/-1 and 27+/-1 degrees C at different dosage levels of acetone over various exposure times was determined. Acetone was found to be toxic to Indian meal moth eggs. Considerable variation in the susceptibility of different age groups of eggs was apparent in the fiducial limits of the LD50 values. An inverse relationship between LD50 values and exposure times was observed in age groups of tested eggs. At 27+/-1 degrees C and 24 h exposure period, eggs aged 1-2 day-old were more tolerant to acetone than other age groups, followed by 0-1 day-old, 2-3 day-old and 3-4 day-old eggs. A similar pattern of susceptibility of eggs was observed at 72 h exposure. In all bioassays, eggs exposed to higher dosages of acetone developed at smaller rate. This was significant for the eggs, which were exposed to the highest dosage for 24 h. Increasing the temperature from 17+/-1 to 27+/-1 degrees C greatly increased the efficacy of acetone. At 27+/-1 degrees C eggs of P. interpunctella were killed by less than one-third of the dosage required for control at 17+/-1 degrees C. Acetone achieved 50% mortality with a dosage of 82.76 mg L(-1) in 1-2 day-old eggs at 27+/-1 degrees C. At this temperature hatching was retarded and greatly diminished when eggs aged 1-2 day-old were exposed to 80 mg L(-1) of acetone for the 24 h exposure period. There was no evidence of a hatch delay longer than the time spent under vapors for eggs exposed at 17+/-1 or 27+/-1 degrees C, indicating that some development must have occurred under fumigation.

  13. Commercial production of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties and the resistance management for bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently three kinds of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton germplasm lines, Shanxi 94-24, Zhongxin 94 and R19, in China. They showed high resistance to the neonate larvae of bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties or hybrids have been bred using the three kinds of germplasm lines as parents. Our researches reveal that there exist different expressions in resistant level at different developmental stages in the three categories of germplasm lines. When neonate larvae are fed with leaves of cotton plant at the seeding stage with less than 10 leaves on the main stem, the mortality of the neonate larvae is 100%, but the resistance level will decline at later season. When Bt gene has been transferred to the cotton genome, it can be steadily transferred to the progeny, the level of resistance to bollworm keeps fundamentally uniform. Such insects as tobacco budworm (Heliothis virencens) in laboratory directive selection are very apt to produce resistance to the Bt insecticidal crystal protein. From the present crop system of cotton region in the Yangtze and Yellow River Valleys, and the expression characteristic of transgenic Bt resistant cotton, we suggest that the resistance to toxin protein in bollworm is not apt to be produced if the transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties are released and grown in the regions except in the Xinjiang cotton region. The managing strategies to delay or retard the resistance are discussed.

  14. Dual Cry2Ab and Vip3A resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); testing linkage between loci and monitoring of allele frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T K; Downes, S J; Gascoyne, J; James, W; Parker, T; Armstrong, J; Mahon, R J

    2014-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to delaying the evolution of insect resistance to toxins produced by transgenic crops. The major pests of cotton in Australia are the Lepidoptera Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner, 1805) and Helicoverpa punctigera (Wallengren), and the toxins deployed in current and imminent transgenic cotton varieties are Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Vip3A from Bacillus thuringiensis. In this study, lines that carry alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab and Vip3A were isolated using F2 tests. Extensive work on the Cry2Ab resistant lines, and preliminary work on the Vip3A resistant lines, suggested a single common resistance to each toxin in both species thereby justifying the use of more efficient F1 tests as the primary means for monitoring changes over time. A potential further efficiency could be gained by developing a single resistant line that carries both types of Bt resistance. Herein we report on work with both H. armigera and H. punctigera that tests whether dual Cry2Ab-Vip3A resistant lines can be developed and, if so, whether they can be used to effectively monitor resistance frequencies. Furthermore, the creation of dual resistant lines allowed linkage between the Cry2Ab and Vip3A resistances to be investigated for H. punctigera. We show that dual resistant lines can be used to increase the efficiency of the F1 screen for recessive alleles, and that in H. punctigera there is no linkage between Cry2Ab and Vip3A resistance.

  15. Identification, isolation and characterization of the antifeedant constituent of Clausena anisata against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olufemi O.R.Pitan; O.O.Ayelaagbe; Hong-Lei Wang; Chen-Zhu Wang

    2009-01-01

    Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of Clausena anisata [(Willd.) Hook F. Ex Benth] leaves and roots were evaluated against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) for antifeedant activities. Antifeedant activity was confirmed, and was found to be higher in root extracts than those of the leaf. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of the root showed strongest antifeedant activities (DC50S [concentration (C) causing 50% deterrence compared with the control] 0.014% and 0.016% respectively), and root extracts were fractionated using silica gel column chromatography. One fraction of the chloroform and one of the petroleum ether root extracts was active; and on the basis of mass spectroscopy and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data, the active compounds in the two fractious were confirmed to be identical, and identified as osthol [2H-I-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)]. The highest concentratiun of osthol was found in the chloroform root extract. Antifeedant activities of the root extracts, as measured by DC50 values, were highly correlated with their osthol contents. Approximately 99% of the variation in bioactivity of the root extracts could be accounted for by variation in osthol content; osthol therefore, appeared to be an antifeedant component of C. Anisata to H. Armigera. This may provide a new approach to managing this pest.

  16. Comparison of Leg Regeneration Potency Between Holometabolous Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Hemimetabolous Locusta migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingpo; Li, Zhen; Li, Hui; Li, Yanrong; Yang, Yuhui; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2016-12-01

    After injury many insects could regenerate lost limb. In this study, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen, 1835) were chosen to compare the regeneration potency of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects. We employed the classical approach of surgical excision to verify the regeneration ability and to investigate the factors that affect the extent of regeneration. The results found that H. armigera could regenerate intact legs when the larval legs were excised at the first and second instar and that legs of adult H. armigera had a close relationship with their larval counterparts. However, the adult legs became malformed or disappeared when excised at other older instars. For the L. migratoria, we found the legs have weak partial regeneration ability when amputation was conducted at the joint of two segments. The regeneration potency might be stronger the more proximal the operation. Regeneration process had a negative impact on the larval development. This is the first report of complete leg regeneration capacity having a strong correlation with the instar but not with the position where amputation occurred for H. armigera, while for the L. migratoria, partial regenerative ability had a close relationship with the position where amputation occurred but not with instars.

  17. Resistance allele frequency to bt cotton in field populations of helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengyi; Xu, Zhiping; Chang, Juhua; Chen, Jin; Meng, Fengxia; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Shen, Jinliang

    2008-06-01

    Resistance evolution in target insects to Bacillus thurningiensis (Bt) cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is a main threat to Bt cotton technology. An increasing trend of population density of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been observed since 2001 in Qiuxian County (Hebei, China), where Bt cotton has been planted dominantly since 1998. This region was selected in 2006 and 2007 for estimating frequency of gene alleles conferring resistance to Bt cotton by screening the F1 progeny from single-pair cross between field-collected male and laboratory female of the Bt-resistant strain of H. armigera (F1 screen). F1 offspring from each single-pair line were screened for resistance alleles based on larval growth, development, and survival on Bt cotton leaves for 5 d. Two-year results indicated that approximately equal to 20% of field-collected males carried resistance alleles. The conservative estimate of the resistance allele frequency was 0.094 (95% CI, 0.044-0.145) for 2006 and 0.107 (95% CI, 0.055-0.159) for 2007. This is the first report of resistance allele frequency increase to such a high level in the field in China. Long-term adoption of Bt sprays, dominant planting of single-toxin-producing Bt cotton, and lack of conventional cotton refuge system might accelerate the resistance evolution in the region.

  18. Bioefficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella extracts against tobacco cutworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backiyaraj Muthusamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Indian medicinal plant, Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella at different concentrations against Lepidopteran agricultural field pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied using leaf disc nochoice method and oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities were also assessed by adapting the standard protocols. Results: The antifeedant activity of C. bonducella showed significant antifeedant activity in methanol extract. Oviposition deterrency is higher in methanol extract than the other solvent extracts. Similarly, maximum egg mortality was observed in methanol leaf extract of C. bonducella Lethal concentration, LC50 value of benzene, diethylether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. bonducella were 470.02, 469.00, 465.47, 460.52 and 443.87 mg/L respectively. The Chi-square values are significant at P< 0.05 level. Among five solvent extracts, the methanol extract was responsible for strong lethal activity observed against selected pest species. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. bonducella could be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal agent against the field pest Helicoverpa armigera.

  19. An analysis of structure fitting and bioactivity between sex pheromone of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (H(u)bner) and its fluorinated analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAN Wei; ZHANG Zhongning; YANG Xinling; FANG Yuling; XIAO Chun

    2005-01-01

    A study on the structure-activty relationship between (Z)-hexadec-9-enal (Z-9-16:Ald) and its analog was conducted by comparing the structures of the sex pheromone of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) with its fluorinated analog using computer molecular fitting. It is demonstrated that the structure of analog substituting for hydrogen atom on the terminal carbon atom is similar to Z-9-16:Ald. The EAG result showed that there is no significant difference in activities between Z-9-16:Ald and its fluorinated analog synthesized.

  20. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Chung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Jang, Miyeon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24-48 h old), the larval (4-5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge.

  1. Parasitism of Helicoverpa armigera pupae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira; Juliana Simonato; Daniele Fabiana Glaeser; Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is a pest that was recently detected in Brazil, which causes significant losses in various crops in different regions of the country. Biological control has been reported to offer a promising alternative in the management of this pest. Thus, this study evaluated the ability of the parasitoids Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae to parasitize pupae of H. armigera in the laboratory. H. armigera pupae were individually exposed to 15 female Trichospilus diatraeae ...

  2. Effects of climate change on overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Climate change significantly affects insects' behaviors. Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most serious insect pests in the world. Much is known about the survival of the overwintering population and spring emergence of H. armigera. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on overwintering and spring emergence of H. armigera. This study investigated the effects of changes of air and soil temperatures and precipitation on overwintering pupae of H. armigera by analyzing historical data from Magaiti County in northwest China using statistical methods. The results showed that during the period of 1989-2006, the climate warming advanced the first-appearance date of overwintering pupae eclosion (FD) and end date of overwintering pupae eclosion (ED) by 1.276 and 0.193 days per year, respectively; the duration between the FD and ED (DFEPE) was prolonged by 1.09 days per year, which resulted in more eclosion of overwintering pupae. For a 1 °C increase in the maximum air temperature ( T max) in winter, the FD became earlier by 3.234 days. Precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED and produced little relative influence on DFEPE. A 1-mm increase of precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED by 0.850 and 0.494 days, respectively. Mean air temperature ( T mean) in March, with a 41.3 % relative influence, precipitation in winter, with a 49.0 % relative influence, and T mean in March, with a 37.5 % relative influence, were the major affecting factors on FD, ED, and DFEPE, respectively. T max in February with a 53.0 % relative influence was the major affecting factor on the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP). Increased soil temperatures in October and November and autumn and air temperatures in winter could decrease the MOP, though the relative influences were lower than T max in February. Increased precipitation in winter increased the MOP, but the relative influence was only 4.2 % because of little precipitation

  3. Timeline and geographical distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Heliothinae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Sosa-Gómez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study presents registers of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner occurrence to assess its spatial and temporal distribution in Brazil. We used data from collections, especially from the Southern Region, systematic collections in Rio Grande do Sul, occasional collections of caterpillars and adults in different regions of Brazil, as well as literature registers. We conclude that the introduction of H. armigera in Brazil probably occurred before October 2008. We also register that in August 2012 H. armigera was already present from the extreme southern part (Rio Grande do Sul to the extreme northern part (Amapá of Brazil.

  4. Daya Parasitasi Lalat (Sturmiopsis inferens Town) (Diptera:Tachinidae) Turunan Dari Beberapa Hasil Perkawinan Pada Ulat Penggerek Batang Tebu Raksasa (Phragmatoecia castaneae Hubner) (Lepidoptera:Cossidae) Di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Ummi Khairiyah

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui daya parasitasi (S. inferens Town) turunan yang berasal dari dari beberapa hasil perkawinan pada ulat penggerek batang tebu raksasa (Ph.castaneae Hubner). Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Riset dan Pengembangan Tanaman Tebu, Sei Semayang pada bulan Oktober sampai Desember 2007. Penelitian disusun dalam suatu Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL), dengan perlakuan R1 = imago jantan dan imago betina dari hasil perkawinan pada perlakuan P1 dikawinkan (...

  5. Mitochondrial DNA COI characterization of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Paraguay and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnemann, J A; James, W J; Walsh, T K; Guedes, J V C; Smagghe, G; Castiglioni, E; Tay, W T

    2016-04-07

    Since its detection in Brazil in 2013, the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has been reported in Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Here we present evidence extending the South American range of H. armigera to Uruguay, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I region. Molecular characterization of this gene region from individuals from Paraguay also supports previous morphological identification of H. armigera in Paraguay. Shared mtDNA haplotypes in H. armigera from Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay were identified. Additional surveying of populations in this region will be imperative to better monitor and understand factors that are underpinning its presence and successful adaptation in these South American regions. We discuss our findings with respect to the development of resistance pest management strategies of this invasive insect pest in a predominantly monoculture soybean crop landscape in the Southern Cone region.

  6. Timeline and geographical distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Heliothinae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R.; Alexandre Specht; Paula-Moraes, Silvana V.; Adilson Lopes-Lima; Silvia A.C. Yano; Adriana Micheli; Morais,Elisangela G.F.; Paulo Gallo; Pereira,Paulo R.V.S.; José R. Salvadori; Marcos Botton; Maurício M. Zenker; Azevedo-Filho,Wilson S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study presents registers of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) occurrence to assess its spatial and temporal distribution in Brazil. We used data from collections, especially from the Southern Region, systematic collections in Rio Grande do Sul, occasional collections of caterpillars and adults in different regions of Brazil, as well as literature registers. We conclude that the introduction of H. armigera in Brazil probably occurred before October 2008. We also register that in Augu...

  7. Parasitism of Helicoverpa armigera pupae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae by Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera is a pest that was recently detected in Brazil, which causes significant losses in various crops in different regions of the country. Biological control has been reported to offer a promising alternative in the management of this pest. Thus, this study evaluated the ability of the parasitoids Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae to parasitize pupae of H. armigera in the laboratory. H. armigera pupae were individually exposed to 15 female Trichospilus diatraeae or 15 female Tetrastichus howardi for 24 h. The pupae remained under observation until the emergence of parasitoids. Parasitism by both parasitoids was observed in 100% of the pupae. Further, 100% of Tetrastichus howardi and 90% of Trichospilus diatraeae emerged. The life cycle of Tetrastichus howardi parasitizing pupae of H. armigera was 15 ± 0.0 days, while that of Trichospilus diatraeae was 15.90 ± 0.10 days. The numbers of offspring from Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae were 669.3 ± 33.47 and 816.11 ± 89.22 per pupae, with a sex ratio of 0.91 ± 0.01 and 0.94 ± 0.01, respectively. Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae were shown to successfully parasitize H. armigera pupae in laboratory conditions, suggesting that this host could be used for rearing both parasitoids. However, further detailed studies of the host-parasitoid relationship are needed to assess the feasibility of including these parasitoids in integrated management programs of H. armigera.

  8. A brave new world for an old world pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Wee Tek; Soria, Miguel F; Walsh, Thomas; Thomazoni, Danielle; Silvie, Pierre; Behere, Gajanan T; Anderson, Craig; Downes, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta) within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas.

  9. A brave new world for an old world pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Tek Tay

    Full Text Available The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI and cytochrome b (Cyt b partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas.

  10. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in conferring resistance to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was studied in laboratory and field experiments. In each experiment, performance of Bt+CpTI cotton was c...

  11. Mitochondrial genome of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and comparison with other Lepidopterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiao; Hong, Gui-Yun; Wang, Ai-Min; Cao, Ya-Zhong; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2010-10-01

    We present the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. The 15,347-bp mitogenome of H. armigera was arranged in the same order described for all other sequenced lepidopterans, which differs from the most common type found in insects, due to the movement of trnM to a position 5'-upstream of trnI. The gene overlap in the H. armigera mitogenome is totally 23 bp in six locations. The H. armigera mitogenome has a total of 175 bp of intergenic spacer sequences spread over 14 regions ranging in size from 1 to 45 bp. The nucleotide composition of the whole mitogenome of H. armigera is highly A+T biased, accounting for 80.97%, with a slightly positive AT skewness and negative GC skewness, indicating the occurrence of more A than T, C more than G. The protein-encoding genes have typical mitochondrial start codons, except for cox1, which contains the unusual CGA. The cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes have incomplete stop codons (T). The lrRNA and srRNA genes are 1395 and 794-bp long, respectively. All tRNAs have a typical cloverleaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for trnS1(AGN), the dihydrouridine arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The H. armigera A+T-rich region contains a conserved structure combining the motif ATAGA and a 19-bp poly-T stretch, but absence of the 9-bp poly-A element upstream of trnM.

  12. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry2Ab in a strain of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, R J; Olsen, K M; Garsia, K A; Young, S R

    2007-06-01

    Transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., expressing the crylAc and cry2Ab genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner variety kurstaki in a pyramid (Bollgard II) was widely planted for the first time in Australia during the 2004-2005 growing season. Before the first commercial Bollgard II crops, limited amounts of cotton expressing only the crylAc gene (Ingard) was grown for seven seasons. No field failures due to resistance to CrylAc toxin were observed during that period and a monitoring program indicated that the frequency of genes conferring high level resistance to the CrylAc toxin were rare in the major pest of cotton, Helicoverpa armigera (Htibner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Before the deployment of Bollgard II, an allele conferring resistance to Cry2Ab toxin was detected in field-collected H. armigera. We established a colony (designated SP15) consisting of homozygous resistant individuals and examined their characteristics through comparison with individuals from a Bt-susceptible laboratory colony (GR). Through specific crosses and bioassays, we established that the resistance present in SP15 was due to a single autosomal gene. The resistance was recessive. Homozygotes were highly resistant to Cry2Ab toxin, so much so, that we were unable to induce significant mortality at the maximum concentration of toxin available. Homozygotes also were unaffected when fed leaves of a cotton variety expressing the cry2Ab gene. Although cross-resistant to Cry2Aa toxin, SP15 was susceptible to CrylAc and to the Bt product DiPel.

  13. X-ray radiation and development inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Jung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Kim, Jeongmin; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-10-01

    Effect of X-ray radiation on the development inhibition was evaluated for all stages of the life cycle of Helicoverpa armigera to determine a radiation dose for potential quarantine treatment against the insect. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation, and adult emergence from irradiated eggs were 413, 210, and 154 Gy, respectively. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence from irradiated larvae were 221 and 167 Gy, respectively. Pupa was the most tolerant to X-ray radiation. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence from irradiated pupae was as high as 2310 Gy, whereas that for inhibition of F1 egg hatching was only 66 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of hatching of F1 eggs which were laid by irradiated adults was estimated to 194 Gy. X-ray irradiation against H. armigera is recommended as an alternative method to methyl bromide fumigation for phytosanitary treatments during quarantine. X-ray radiation dose of 200 Gy is proposed as a potential quarantine treatment dose for H. armigera eggs and larvae.

  14. Return migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during autumn in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H-Q; Wu, K-M; Ni, Y-X; Cheng, D-F; Guo, Y-Y

    2005-08-01

    The autumn migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was observed with radar and two types of light-trap at Langfang, Hebei province, China in 2001 and 2002. The sudden increase in the proportion of H. armigera moths in the searchlight trap indicated migration into the area and catches increased 10-fold during the second half of the night due to the landing of migrants before dawn. The moths' migratory flights took place at up to 2000 m above the ground, and moths flew differentially at times, and heights, when favourable (i.e. northerly) winds occurred. This facilitated the maximum displacement of moths towards the south during these 'return' migrations. The moths flew over the radar site at consistently high densities through the night, and the resulting flight durations of c. 10 h, at displacement speeds of 30-33 km h-1, would allow moths emerging in the far northeast of China (i.e. Liaoning and Jilin provinces and the Inner Mongolia autonomous region) to migrate into northern China (Hebei, Shandong and Henan provinces). The association of the seasonal migratory movements of H. armigera with crops in northern China is briefly discussed.

  15. Effects of soil temperature and snow cover on the mortality of overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA and trade data support multiple origins of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Wee Tek; Walsh, Thomas K.; Downes, Sharon; Anderson, Craig; Jermiin, Lars S.; Wong, Thomas K. F.; Piper, Melissa C.; Chang, Ester Silva; Macedo, Isabella Barony; Czepak, Cecilia; Behere, Gajanan T.; Silvie, Pierre; Soria, Miguel F.; Frayssinet, Marie; Gordon, Karl H. J.

    2017-01-01

    The Old World bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is now established in Brazil but efforts to identify incursion origin(s) and pathway(s) have met with limited success due to the patchiness of available data. Using international agricultural/horticultural commodity trade data and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene markers, we inferred the origins and incursion pathways into Brazil. We detected 20 mtDNA haplotypes from six Brazilian states, eight of which were new to our 97 global COI-Cyt b haplotype database. Direct sequence matches indicated five Brazilian haplotypes had Asian, African, and European origins. We identified 45 parsimoniously informative sites and multiple substitutions per site within the concatenated (945 bp) nucleotide dataset, implying that probabilistic phylogenetic analysis methods are needed. High diversity and signatures of uniquely shared haplotypes with diverse localities combined with the trade data suggested multiple incursions and introduction origins in Brazil. Increasing agricultural/horticultural trade activities between the Old and New Worlds represents a significant biosecurity risk factor. Identifying pest origins will enable resistance profiling that reflects countries of origin to be included when developing a resistance management strategy, while identifying incursion pathways will improve biosecurity protocols and risk analysis at biosecurity hotspots including national ports. PMID:28350004

  17. Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to the Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in Australian populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, R J; Olsen, K M; Downes, S; Addison, S

    2007-12-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important lepidopteran pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in Australia and the Old World. From 2002, F2 screens were used to examine the frequency of resistance alleles in Australian populations of H. armigera to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAc and Cry2Ab, the two insecticidal proteins present in the transgenic cotton Bollgard II. At that time, Ingard (expressing Cry1Ac) cotton had been grown in Australia for seven seasons, and Bollgard II was about to be commercially released. The principal objective of our study was to determine whether sustained exposure caused an elevated frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac in a species with a track record of evolving resistance to conventional insecticides. No major alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac were found. The frequency of resistance alleles for Cry1Ac was <0.0003, with a 95% credibility interval between 0 and 0.0009. In contrast, alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab were found at a frequency of 0.0033 (0.0017, 0.0055). The first isolation of this allele was found before the widespread deployment of Bollgard II. For both toxins the experiment-wise detection probability was 94.4%. Our results suggest that alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac are rare and that a relatively high baseline frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab existed before the introduction of Bt cotton containing this toxin.

  18. Functional response of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Effect of prey and predator stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Hassanpour; Jafar Mohaghegh; Shahzad Iranipour; Gadir Nouri-Ganbalani; Annie Enkegaard

    2011-01-01

    Understanding predator-prey interactions has a pivotal role in biological control programs. This study evaluated the functional response of three larval instars of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), preying upon eggs and first instar larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hilbner. The first and second instar larvae of C. carnea exhibited typeⅡ functional responses against both prey stages. However, the third instar larvae of C. carnea showed a typeⅡ functional response to the first instar larvae of H. armigera, but a typeⅢ functional response to the eggs. For the first instar larvae of C. carnea, the attack rate on H. armigera eggs was significantly higher than that on the larvae, whereas the attack rate of the second instar C. carnea on H. armigera larvae was significantly higher than that on the eggs. For the third instar larvae of C. carnea, the attack rate on the larvae was 1.015± 0.278/h, and the attack coefficient on the eggs was 0.036± 0.005. The handling times of the third instar larvae on larvae and eggs were 0.087± 0.009 and 0.071± 0.001 h, respectively. The highest predation rate was found for the third instar larvae of C. carnea on H. armigera eggs. Results of this study revealed that the larvae of C. carnea, especially the third instar, had a good predation potential in controlling H. armigera eggs and larvae. However, for a comprehensive estimation of the bio-control abilities of C. carnea toward//, armigera, further field-based studies are needed.

  19. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jinjie; Luo, Junyu; Van Der Werf, Wopke; Ma, Yan; Xia, Jingyuan

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic cotton (Cossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects, the CrylAc gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in conferring resistance to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was studied in laboratory and field experiments. In each experiment, performance of Bt+CpTI cotton was compared with Bt cotton and to a conventional nontransgenic variety. Larval survival was lower on both types of transgenic variety, compared with the conventional cotton. Survival of first-, second-, and third-stage larvae was lower on Bt+CpTI cotton than on Bt cotton. Plant structures differed in level of resistance, and these differences were similar on Bt and Bt + CpTI cotton. Likewise, seasonal trends in level of resistance in different plant structures were similar in Bt and Bt+CpTI cotton. Both types of transgenic cotton interfered with development of sixth-stage larvae to adults, and no offspring was produced by H. armigera that fed on Bt or Bt+CpTI cotton from the sixth stage onward. First-, second-, and third-stage larvae spent significantly less time feeding on transgenic cotton than on conventional cotton, and the reduction in feeding time was significantly greater on Bt+CpTI cotton than on Bt cotton. Food conversion efficiency was lower on transgenic varieties than on conventional cotton, but there was no significant difference between Bt and Bt+CpTI cotton. In 3-yr field experimentation, bollworm densities were greatly suppressed on transgenic as compared with conventional cotton, but no significant differences between Bt and Bt+CpTI cotton were found. Overall, the results from laboratory work indicate that introduction of the CpTI gene in Bt cotton raises some components of resistance in cotton against H. armigera, but enhanced control of H. armigera under field

  20. Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Identification of Bre Genes Involved in Glycosphingolipids Synthesis in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Xiao, Yutao; Hussain Dhiloo, Khalid; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra; Wu, Kongming

    2016-05-17

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) play important roles in the cellular biology of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms, such as cell differentiation, tumor metastasis, and cell coordination. GSLs also serve as receptors for different bacterial toxins. For example, in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, GSLs function as receptors of the insecticidal Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and mutations in bre genes involved in GSLs synthesis resulted in resistance to Cry5 toxin in this organism. However, the information of GSLs function in insects is still limited. In this study, three genes for glycosyltransferases, bre2, bre3, and bre4, from Helicoverpa armigera were identified and cloned. The previously reported bre5 gene from H. armigera was also analyzed. Protein sequence alignments revealed that proteins codified by H. armigera Bre shared high identity with homologous proteins from other organisms. Expression profile analysis revealed that the expressions of bre genes varied in the different tissues and also in the different developmental stages of H. armigera. Finally, the heterologous expression of bre genes in Trichoplusia ni Hi5 cell line showed that the corresponding translated proteins were localized in the cytoplasm of Hi5 cells. These results provide the bases for further functional studies of bre genes and analyzing potential roles of GSLs in mode of action of Cry1A toxin in H. armigera.

  1. Rapid identification of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid identification of invasive species is crucial for deploying management strategies to prevent establishment. Recent Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) invasions and subsequent establishment in some countries of South America has increased the risk of this species invading North America. Differentiat...

  2. Mitochondrial P-glycoprotein ATPase contributes to insecticide resistance in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, S Md; Aurade, Ravindra M; Sharma, H C; Sreeramulu, K

    2014-09-01

    Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most damaging polyphagous pests worldwide, which has developed high levels of resistance to commonly applied insecticides. Mitochondrial P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was detected in the insecticide-resistant strain of H. armigera using C219 antibodies, and its possible role was demonstrated in the efflux of xenobiotic compounds using spectrofluorometer. The TMR accumulated in mitochondria in the absence of ATP, and effluxed out in presence of ATP; the process of efflux was inhibited in the presence of ortho-vandate, an inhibitor of Pgp, in insecticide-resistant larvae of H. armigera. The mitochondria isolated from insecticide-resistant larvae were resistant to insecticide-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and cytochrome c release. Membrane potential decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of higher concentration of insecticides (>50 µM) in mitochondria of insecticide-resistant larvae. In conclusion, mitochondrial Pgp ATPase detected in the insecticide-resistant larvae influenced the efflux of xenobiotic compounds. Pgp might be involved in protecting the mitochondrial DNA and the components of the electron transport chain from damage due to insecticides, and contributing to the resistance to the deleterious effects of insecticides on the growth of insecticide-resistant H. armigera larvae.

  3. Transmission of wild-type and recombinant HaSNPV among larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgievska, L.; Vries, R.S.M.; Gao, P.; Sun, X.; Cory, J.S.; Vlak, J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    Horizontal transmission of insect viruses is a key factor in their cycling in agro-ecosystems. Here we study the transmission of the baculovirus HaSNPV among larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in cotton. Transmission of three HaSNPV genotypes was studied from larvae infected with a single virus

  4. Cloning and Tissue-Specific Expression of a Chitin Deacetylase Gene from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Its Response to Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guoying; Li, Xiumin; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Xiaoting

    2015-01-01

    Chitin deacetylases (CDAs) convert chitin into chitosan, the N-deacetylated form of chitin, which influences the mechanical and permeability properties of structures such as the cuticle and peritrophic matrices. In this article, a new CDA encoding gene, Hacda2, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with an open reading frame of 1,611 bp. The deduced protein composed of 536 amino acid residues with a signal peptide, a chitin-binding domain, a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain, and a polysaccharide deacetylase-like catalytic domain. The highest expression level of Hacda2 was detected in fat body among tissues tested in the fifth-instar larvae using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Feeding of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) diet changed the expression level of Hacda1, Hacda2, Hacda5a, and Hacda5b significantly and differentially in the third-instar larvae. Hacda5a and Hacda5b expression were initially down-regulated and then up-regulated, whereas, the expression level of Hacda1 and Hacda2 was suppressed constantly postfeeding on Bt diet. These results suggested that HaCDAs may be involved in the response of H. armigera larvae to Bt and may be helpful to elucidate the roles of HaCDAs in the action of Bt cry toxin. The potential of HaCDAs to be used as synergists of Bt insecticidal protein needs to be further tested. PMID:26163665

  5. PELEPASAN DAN PEMANGSAAN KUMBANG JELAJAH PAEDERUSFUSCIPES (COLEOPTERA:STAPHYLINIDAE TERHADAP TELUR DAN LARVA HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Winasa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Paederus fuscipes is an important predators in soybean fields, including toward Helicoverpa armigera. Predation evaluation using a cage are very common, giving significant suppressed the exposed pest population. However, predation evaluation in open space is rarely conducted. This study was to investigate the dispersal capability of P. fuscipes, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the beetle release in the predation on H. Armigera eggs and larvae. Observations were made in a soybean field in Mekarwangi Village, Cianjur, during soybean planting season in 2005 and 2006. In the dispersal study, all beetles were collected from the field and tagged on the elitra. As many as 1187 tagged beetle were released. The dispersal was observed in the area within a radius of 40 m from the release point. In the predation study, eggs and larvae of H.armigera from laboratory rearing were used as the prey. Soybean plots with exposed prey were treated by releasing the beetle with different densities, i. e., 100-400 beetles, and a control. The released beetles were from laboratory rearing and beetles were collected from the field. The study indicated that the tagged beetles that were released to the soybean field actively move but their dispersal were relatively slow. Until 5 days after release, most beetles were remain in the area surrounding release point, within a radius of 5 m. Release of predators to the soybean field, suppressed H. armigera egg and larva populations for both vegetative and generative stages, but were not significantly different between treatment and control plots, except for the egg population on vegetative stage. It indicates that population of the natural predator in soybean field were very complex and potential to be used for controling pest populations. Thus, it is important to manage soybean field that can support the role of predators in the field.

  6. Growth inhibitory activity of fatty acid methyl esters in the whole seed oil of madagascar periwinkle (Apocyanaceae) against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyan, R S; Malarvannan, S; Eganathan, P; Rajalakshmi, S; Parida, Ajay

    2009-06-01

    Crude hexane and water extracts of Catharanthus roseus Linn. (Syn: Vinca rosea) (Apocyanaceae) stem, leaf, and seed exhibited pesticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera Noctuidae). The extracts differed significantly in their efficacy, with the crude hexane extract of whole seed being the most effective in curtailing pupal survivorship to 18% followed by the hexane extracts of leaf (21%) and stem (24%). Average pupal weight (68.2 mg) and length (1.5 cm) in the whole seed treatment were drastically reduced, compared with the controls (415.2 mg and 2.72 cm), subsequently reducing adult emergence to 15.7%. SiO2 column purification yielded eight fractions of which fraction 1 exhibited 90% larval mortality, with severe reduction of the larvae weight (12.7 mg) and length (1.5 cm). Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of fraction 1 suggested the presence of 16 compounds, among which oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and margaric acids were detected as major constituents. Presence of the alkane hydrocarbons triacontane, tetracosane, and heptacosane also was noted.

  7. Molecular and insecticidal characterization of Vip3A protein producing Bacillus thuringiensis strains toxic against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Radha; Malik, Abdul; Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath

    2016-02-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) represent the second generation of insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during the vegetative growth stage of growth. Bt-based biopesticides are recognized as viable alternatives to chemical insecticides; the latter cause environmental pollution and lead to the emergence of pest resistance. To perform a systematic study of vip genes encoding toxic proteins, a total of 30 soil samples were collected from diverse locations of Kashmir valley, India, and characterized by molecular and analytical methods. Eighty-six colonies showing Bacillus-like morphology were selected. Scanning electron microscopy observations confirmed the presence of different crystal shapes, and PCR analysis of insecticidal genes revealed a predominance of the lepidopteran-specific vip3 (43.18%) gene followed by coleopteran-specific vip1 (22.72%) and vip2 (15.90%) genes in the isolates tested. Multi-alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that vip3 sequences were highly conserved, whereas vip1 and vip2 showed adequate differences in amino acid sequences compared with already reported sequences. Screening for toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera larvae was performed using partially purified soluble fractions containing Vip3A protein. The mortality levels observed ranged between 70% and 96.6% in the isolates. The LC50 values of 2 of the native isolates, JK37 and JK88, against H. armigera were found to be on par with that of Bt subsp. kurstaki HD1, suggesting that these isolates could be developed as effective biopesticides against H. armigera.

  8. Réponse des stades larvaires de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae à l'application de champignons entomopathogènes Metarhizium anisopliae et Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamò, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the nymphs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Two experiments on dose/mortality response between the instars of Helicoverpa armigera and two strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met 31 and Beauveria bassiana (Bb 11 were carried out in laboratory conditions. In the first experiment, M. anisopliae Met 31 was tested on the third instar of H. armigera, while in the second experiment, both Met 31 and Bb 11 were tested on the fourth instar. In all the experiments, the following different doses of conidia per insect were used: 104, 105, 106, 107. The following parameters were measured: mortality and sporulation rates, the number of pupae formed and the number of adults that emerged. Abbott's formula was used to correct the treatment mortality rates. LD50 was determined using Cox-regression. For the third instar in experiment one, no significant difference was observed between high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect. For instar L4, only the dose of 107 conidia per insect showed high mortality rates (74%. For the strain Bb 11, in spite of the variation observed between the mortality rates induced by high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect, no significant difference was recorded at the 5% level. No mycosis was observed from cadavers resulting from lower doses when tested on L4. The control recorded the highest numbers of pupae and adults. These two parameters were related to the level of dosage: the higher the dose, the lower the numbers of pupae and adults that emerged. For all the strains of fungi used, whatever the larval stage of H. armigera, the dose/mortality response was significant.

  9. Broad-scale suppression of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), associated with Bt cotton crops in Northern New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G H; Tann, C R

    2017-04-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major pest of many agricultural crops in several countries, including Australia. Transgenic cotton, expressing a single Bt toxin, was first used in the 1990s to control H. armigera and other lepidopteran pests. Landscape scale or greater pest suppression has been reported in some countries using this technology. However, a long-term, broad-scale pheromone trapping program for H. armigera in a mixed cropping region in eastern Australia caught more moths during the deployment of single Bt toxin cotton (Ingard®) (1996-2004) than in previous years. This response can be attributed, at least in part, to (1) a precautionary cap (30% of total cotton grown, by area) being applied to Ingard® to restrict the development of Bt resistance in the pest, and (2) during the Ingard® era, cotton production greatly increased (as did that of another host plant, sorghum) and H. armigera (in particular the 3rd and older generations) responded in concert with this increase in host plant availability. However, with the replacement of Ingard® with Bollgard II® cotton (containing two different Bt toxins) in 2005, and recovery of the cotton industry from prevailing drought, H. armigera failed to track increased host-plant supply and moth numbers decreased. Greater toxicity of the two gene product, introduction of no cap on Bt cotton proportion, and an increase in natural enemy abundance are suggested as the most likely mechanisms responsible for the suppression observed.

  10. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31...... species are recorded from Madeira for the first time, and exact data and locality are given for these in the notes. 32 species, which had previously been recorded from Madeira, are removed from the list of Lepidoptera found in the Madeira Islands being misidentifications, doubtful and unconfirmed records......, undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...

  11. Variation in susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Helicoverpa punctigera (Wallengren) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia to two Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa J; Akhurst, Raymond J

    2007-02-01

    Intra-specific variation in susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Helicoverpa punctigera (Wallengren) in Australia to the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) was determined to establish a baseline for monitoring changes that might occur with the use of Bt cotton. Strains of H. armigera and H. punctigera were established from populations collected primarily from commercial farms throughout the Australian cotton belts. Strains were evaluated for susceptibility using two bioassay methods (surface treatment and diet incorporation) by measuring the dose response for mortality (LC50) and growth inhibition (IC50). The variation in LC50 among H. armigera (n=17 strains) and H. punctigera (n=12 strains) in response to Cry1Ac was 4.6- and 3.2-fold, respectively. The variation in LC50 among H. armigera (n=19 strains) and H. punctigera (n=12 strains) to Cry2Ab was 6.6- and 3.5-fold, respectively. The range of Cry1Ac induced growth inhibition from the 3rd to 4th instar in H. armigera (n=15 strains) was 3.6-fold and in H. punctigera (n=13 strains) was 2.6-fold, while the range of Cry2Ab induced growth inhibition from neonate to 3rd instar in H. armigera (n=13 strains) was 4.3-fold and in H. punctigera (n=12 strains) was 6.1-fold. Variation in susceptibility was also evaluated for two age classes (neonates and 3rd instars) in laboratory strains of H. armigera and H. punctigera. Neonates of H. punctigera had the same or higher sensitivity to Bt than 3rd instars. Neonates of H. armigera were more sensitive to Cry2Ab than 3rd instars, while being less sensitive to Cry1Ac than 3rd instars. Differences in the two methods of bioassay used affected relative sensitivity of species to Bt toxins, highlighting the need to standardize bioassay protocols.

  12. Antifeedant, larvicidal and growth inhibitory effects of ononitol monohydrate isolated from Cassia tora L. against Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Kathirvelu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2012-07-01

    Ononitol monohydrate isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Cassia tora L. using column chromatography was evaluated for its antifeedant, larvicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura at different concentrations of 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm. Leaf disc no-choice method was used for the bioassay. The compound showed significant antifeedant, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against H. armigera and S. litura. The compound also prolonged the larval-pupal duration of the insect at all the tested concentrations. The activities were concentration dependent for both the insects. Ononitol could be used as an agent to prepare botanical new pesticidal formulations.

  13. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

    , undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...

  14. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries...

  15. Combining Tpi and CO1 genetic markers to discriminate invasive Helicoverpa armigera from local Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) populations in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent establishment of the Old World pest Helicoverpa armigera into South America has had significant economic consequences and places the rest of the hemisphere at risk, emphasizing the need for improved methods of monitoring. A major complication is that a sibling species endemic to the New W...

  16. Combining Tpi and CO1 Genetic Markers to Discriminate Invasive Helicoverpa armigera From Local Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Gilligan, Todd M; Brambila, Julieta

    2016-10-01

    The recent establishment of the Old World pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) into South America has had significant economic consequences and places the rest of the hemisphere at risk, emphasizing the need for improved methods of monitoring. A major complication is that a sibling species endemic to the New World, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is morphologically very similar, with the two species capable of producing fertile hybrids in the laboratory. The consequences of such hybridization in the field are uncertain, but could result in significant and unpredictable changes in the timing, range, and pesticide susceptibilities of Helicoverpa infestations. The objective here is to provide new genetic resources applicable to Helicoverpa populations in northern Florida and neighboring states (a region at risk for H. armigera) that can distinguish the two species and possible hybrids. The genetic variability in segments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) and the Z-linked triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi) genes were determined for H. zea from the southeastern United States. These were compared to DNA sequences from H. armigera specimens from Morocco, Australia, and Europe. Phylogenetic network analysis showed a clear demarcation between the two species for all gene segments. These results extend earlier studies establishing CO1 as marker for discriminating the Helicoverpa species complex and introduce a new sex-linked genomic marker. The CO1 and Tpi markers in combination provide a more accurate and sensitive method than existing techniques for identifying hybridization between H. zea and H. armigera and could potentially be used to extrapolate the likely source of invasive H. armigera populations.

  17. Presence of snow coverage and its thickness affected the mortality of overwintering pupae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera causes serious damage to most crops around the world. However, the impacts of snow thickness on the H. armigera overwintering pupae are little known. A field experiment was employed in 2012-2015 at Urumqi, China. At soil depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm, overwintering pupae were embedded with four treatments: no snow cover (NSC), snow cover (SC), increasing snow thickness to 1.5 times the thickness of SC (ISSC-1), and to two times the thickness of SC (ISSC-2). Results suggested that snow cover and increasing snow thickness both significantly increased soil temperatures, which helped to decrease the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) of H. armigera. However, the MOP did not always decrease with increases in snow thickness. The MOPs in NSC and ISSC-1 were the highest and the lowest, respectively, though ISSC-2 had much thicker snow thickness than ISSC-1. A maximum snow thickness of 60 cm might lead to the lowest MOP. The longer the snow cover duration (SCD) at a soil depth of 10 cm in March and April was, the higher the MOP was. A thicker snow cover layer led to a higher soil moisture content (SMC) and a lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR). The highest and the lowest MOP were at a depth of 15 and 10 cm, respectively. The SMC at the depths of 10 and 15 cm had significant effects on MOP. A lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) led to a higher MOP. The DSTR in March of approximately 4.5 °C might cause the lowest MOP. The largest influence factor for the MOPs at depths of 5 and 10 cm and the combined data were the SCDs during the whole experimental period, and for the MOPs at a depth of 15 cm was the soil temperature in November.

  18. Toxicidade e capacidade de ligação de proteínas Cry1 a receptores intestinais de Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Sebastião

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade e a capacidade de ligação das proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac e Cry1Ca, de Bacillus thuringiensis, a receptores intestinais de Helicoverpa armigera. Realizou-se análise de ligação das proteínas ativadas às vesículas de membrana da microvilosidade apical (VMMA do intestino médio deH. armigera, além de ensaios de competição heteróloga para avaliar sua capacidade de ligação. Cry1Ac destacou-se como a proteína mais tóxica, seguida por Cry1Ab e Cry1Aa. A proteína Cry1Ca não foi tóxica às lagartas e, portanto, não foi possível determinar os seus parâmetros de toxicidade CL50 e CL90. As proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab e Cry1Ac são capazes de se ligar a um mesmo receptor nas membranas intestinais, o que aumenta o risco do desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada. Portanto, a utilização conjunta dessas proteínas deve ser evitada.

  19. The influence of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from nonhost madras thorn, Pithecellobium dulce, seeds on H. armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Singh, Dushyant; Jamal, Farrukh

    2015-05-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of the Manila tamarind, Pithecellobium dulce (PDTI), was studied for its effects on growth parameters and developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera. PDTI exhibited inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin (∼86%; ∼1.33 ug/ml IC50). The inhibitory activity of PDTI was unaltered over a wide range of temperature, pH, and in the presence of dithiothreitol. Larval midgut proteases were unable to digest PDTI for up to 12 h of incubation. Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots analysis revealed a competitive inhibition mechanism and a Ki of ∼3.9 × 10(-8) M. Lethal dose (0.50% w/w) and dosage for weight reduction by 50% (0.25% w/w) were determined. PDTI showed a dose-dependent effect on mean larval weight and a series of nutritional disturbances. In artificial diet at 0.25% w/w PDTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food, of digested food, relative growth rate, and growth index declined, whereas approximate digestibility, relative consumption rate, metabolic cost, consumption index, and total developmental period were increased in larvae. This is the first report of antifeedant and antimetabolic activities of PDTI on midgut proteases of H. armigera.

  20. Trans-generational desensitization and within-generational resensitization of a sucrose-best neuron in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Tang, Qingbo; Zhang, Xuening; Zhao, Xincheng; Yan, Fengming; van Loon, Joop J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary exposure of insects to a feeding deterrent substance for hours to days can induce habituation and concomitant desensitization of the response of peripheral gustatory neurons to such a substance. In the present study, larvae of the herbivore Helicoverpa armigera were fed on diets containing either a high, medium or low concentration of sucrose, a major feeding stimulant. The responsiveness of the sucrose-best neuron in the lateral sensilla styloconica on the galea was quantified. Results showed the response of the sucrose-best neuron exposed to high-sucrose diets decreased gradually over successive generations, resulting in complete desensitization in the 5th and subsequent generations. However, the sensitivity was completely restored in the ninth generation after neonate larvae were exposed to low-sucrose diet. These findings demonstrate phenotypic plasticity and exclude inadvertent artificial selection for low sensitivity to sucrose. No significant changes were found in the sensitivity of caterpillars which experienced low- or medium-sucrose diets over the same generations. Such desensitization versus re-sensitization did not generalise to the phagosimulant myo-inositol-sensitive neuron or the feeding deterrent-sensitive neuron. Our results demonstrate that under conditions of high sucrose availability trans-generational desensitization of a neuron sensitive to this feeding stimulant becomes more pronounced whereas re-sensitization occurs within one generation. PMID:27966640

  1. No evidence for change in oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) after widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalucki, M P; Cunningham, J P; Downes, S; Ward, P; Lange, C; Meissle, M; Schellhorn, N A; Zalucki, J M

    2012-08-01

    Cotton growing landscapes in Australia have been dominated by dual-toxin transgenic Bt varieties since 2004. The cotton crop has thus effectively become a sink for the main target pest, Helicoverpa armigera. Theory predicts that there should be strong selection on female moths to avoid laying on such plants. We assessed oviposition, collected from two cotton-growing regions, by female moths when given a choice of tobacco, cotton and cabbage. Earlier work in the 1980s and 1990s on populations from the same geographic locations indicated these hosts were on average ranked as high, mid and low preference plants, respectively, and that host rankings had a heritable component. In the present study, we found no change in the relative ranking of hosts by females, with most eggs being laid on tobacco, then cotton and least on cabbage. As in earlier work, some females laid most eggs on cotton and aspects of oviposition behaviour had a heritable component. Certainly, cotton is not avoided as a host, and the implications of these finding for managing resistance to Bt cotton are discussed.

  2. 棉铃虫幼虫取食Vip3Aa蛋白后的中肠组织病理变化%Pathological changes in midgut tissues of larvae of the cotton bollworm,Helicoverpa armigera ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ), after feeding Vip3Aa protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦; 梁革梅; 张丽丽; 魏纪珍

    2012-01-01

    The pathological changes in midgut tissues of larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (H(u)bner) , fed on artificial diet containing Vip3Aa protein were observed using transmission electron microscope, and the changes induced by Cry1Ac were also investigated in order to ascertain the action mechanism of Vip3Aa. The results showed that the goblet cells changed gradually after H. armigera larvae fed on artificial diet containing Vip3Aa protein, and the major symptoms included: microvilli swelled and dropped off, the boundaries of karyotheca in cell nucleus blurred and the chromatins unevenly distributed, the numbers of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum reduced, the inner cristae of mitochondria blurred, and the endoplasmic reticulum mixed disorderly. The pathological changes of goblet cells in the midgut of H. armigera larvae induced by Vip3Aa were slower than that by CrylAc. The obvious pathological changes were detected at 12 h after feeding Vip3Aa, and the pathological changes became more and more evident with extension of feeding time. The obvious pathological changes of H. armigera induced by CrylAc, however, appeared at 2 h after CrylAc treatment. This study may enrich the theoretical basis for better using Vip3Aa as new toxin strategy in IPM of the cotton bollworm.%为了进一步明确Vip3Aa的作用机制,利用透射电镜观察了棉铃虫4龄幼虫取食含Vip3Aa蛋白饲料后中肠杯状细胞的病理变化,并比较了其病变与取食含Cry1Ac饲料后棉铃虫组织病变的差异.取食含Vip3Aa饲料后,棉铃虫幼虫的中肠杯状细胞逐渐发生病变,主要表现为:微绒毛肿胀、脱落;细胞核核膜界限不清晰,染色质分布不均匀;线粒体变形、数量减少,内脊不清晰;内质网杂乱不规则、数量减少.与取食Cry1 Ac的棉铃虫相比,取食Vip3Aa的棉铃虫中肠杯状细胞发生病变较为缓慢,在取食12 h后才发现明显病变,随着取食时间的增加病变

  3. Ultramorphology of sensilla on the proboscis in three noctuid moths ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)%三种夜蛾成虫口器感器的超微形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 魏劲松; 党露; 王建波; 花保祯

    2012-01-01

    为确定不同种类夜蛾口器及其感器在超微结构上的差异,采用扫描电子显微镜对棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera( Hübner)、烟夜蛾H.assulta( Guenée)和银纹夜蛾Argyrogramma agnata (Staudinger)3种鳞翅目(Lepidoptera)夜蛾科(Noctuidae)重要农业害虫雌、雄成虫口器感器的超微形态进行了观察和比较.结果表明:3种夜蛾雌、雄成虫口器感器类型均无明显差异.棉铃虫和烟夜蛾口器感器在类型和形状上十分类似,均具有毛形、锥形和栓锥形感器;喙管末端的栓锥感器粗、密,棱纹明显.银纹夜蛾 口器感器与两种铃夜蛾区别明显,除上述3类感器外,还具有腔锥形感器;其喙管末端的栓锥感器细、疏,棱纹不明显.结果显示口器感器可用于夜蛾的分类及亲缘关系研究.%The ultramorphology of sensilla on the proboscis in three pest noctuid moths of agricultural significance, the cotton boUworm Helicoverpa armigera ( H(u)bner) , the Oriental tobacco budworm moth H. assulta ( Guenee) , and the silver looper moth Argyrogramma agnata ( Staudinger) , were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and compared to reveal the ultramorphological differences of the proboscis sensilla among these noctuid moths. The results showed that sexual dimorphism is not found in types of the proboscis sensilla in these species. The proboscises in H. armigera and H. assulta are similar in sensillum types and morphology, sharing similar sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica, and sensilla styloconica. Sensilla styloconica bear prominent ridges and are densely borne on the distal part of the proboscis. The proboscis in A. agnata, however, bears sensilla coeloconica in addition to the three types of sensilla mentioned above; sensilla styloconica are slender, lack prominent ridges, and are sparsely distributed on the distal part of the proboscis. The results suggest that the proboscis sensilla can be used in the classification and phylogenetic

  4. cDNA library construction and EST analysis of larval salivary glands of Helicoverpa armigera ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)%棉铃虫幼虫唾液腺cDNA文库的构建及EST分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帅; 崔金杰; 王春义; 雒珺瑜; 吕丽敏

    2012-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera ( Hiibner) saliva play important roles in insect-host plant interactions. In this study we constructed a cDNA library of salivary glands of H. armigera larvae where saliva is secreted. We randomly sequenced 1 501 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) , and clustering resulted in a total of 821 unigenes. Blast2 GO program was used to do BLASTx, functional annotation and metabolism analysis. Finally, we classified mRNAs in salivary glands of H. armigera larvae. By annotation of these ESTs, genes encoding 17 enzymes for digestion of fat, 5 enzymes for digestion of carbohydrates, and 20 serine proteases (of which 16 are newly reported) were identified, suggesting that the function of salivary glands is secreting saliva for predigestion. The cuticle protein, odorant-binding protein and chemosensory protein genes were identified in salivary glands of H. armigera larvae for the first time. The results will lay a foundation for studying predigestion system in H. armigera.%棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner)幼虫唾液中的各种酶类及各种生化组分在棉铃虫与植物相瓦作用及协同进化中起到重要作用;唾液腺是棉铃虫唾液成分的合成器官.本研究通过构建棉铃虫幼虫唾液腺全长cDNA文库,测序得到1502条EST序列,聚类分析后获得821个unigenes,为筛选棉铃虫与寄主互作信号因子提供基因信息资源.使用Blast2 GO软件对821个unigenes进行了比对和功能注释,初步获得棉铃虫幼虫唾液腺中Mrna的构成特征.结果显示,在棉铃虫唾液腺ESTs文库中,鉴定得到脂类相关消化酶基因17个,糖类相关消化酶基因5个,半胱氨酸蛋白酶基因1个,丝氨酸蛋白酶基因20个(其中16个为新发现),提示唾液腺的主要功能是分泌消化酶进行预消化;还发现在棉铃虫幼虫唾液腺中存在表皮蛋白、气味结合蛋白和化学感受蛋白基因.结果为研究棉铃虫预消化系统打下基础.

  5. Identificação morfológica e molecular de Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e ampliação de seu registro de ocorrência no Brasil

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    Alexandre Specht

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever métodos para a caracterização morfológica e molecular de Helicoverpa armigera e ampliar o registro de ocorrência da praga no Brasil. As mariposas foram obtidas de lagartas coletadas nas culturas de algodão, milho e soja, com uso de armadilhas luminosas. As coletas foram realizadas na Bahia, no Distrito Federal, no Mato Grosso e no Paraná. A identificação foi baseada na genitália masculina e nas análises das sequências dos genes mitocondriais do citocromo B e da região cox1-tRNALeu-cox2. A genitália masculina foi comparada com as descrições morfológicas na literatura, e as sequências de genes, com as depositadas no GenBank. Ambas as análises confirmaram a presença de H. armigera nos locais de coleta. Ampliou-se o registro de ocorrência da praga para a região Sul do país.

  6. 棉铃虫幼虫中栓锥感器对肌醇和糖类的电生理反应%Responses of medial sensillum of Helicoverpa armigera (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae to inositol and sugars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪凝; 汤清波; 蒋金炜; 马英; 胡锡敏; 闫凤鸣

    2011-01-01

    The gustatory electrophysiological responses of medial sensillum of the polyphagous caterpillar, Helicoverpa armigera, to 7 kinds of sugars, inositol and their mixtures were measured by top recording technology. The responding cells in medial sensillum corresponding different stimulus and the interactions of different compounds in mixtures during the process of electrophysiological responses were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) the electrophysiological responses of medial sensillum to D-inositol, D-fructose, xylose, D-arabinose, D-glucose, maltose, D-trehalose and L-rhamnose were obvious, but the responding patterns between sugars and innositol were different trom a concentration-dependent responses in inositol and non-concentration-dependent responseses in sugars; (2) the differences of responding patterns between the pure sugar compounds and the mixture of fructose, arabinose and trehalose were not significant, indicating the same cell responding the 3 kinds of sugars; (3) Responses of the mixtures of fructose and inositol indicated that inositol-sensitive cell responded to fructose. The firing rate of mixture of fructose and inositol were higher than that of the two pure compounds, suggesting the synergistic interaction of responses of the two stimulus. All the results suggested that the inisitol-sensitive cell in medial sensillum of the polyphagous species of H. armigera may be one of “broad-spectrum” taste cells.%利用电生理学技术,以多食性的棉铃虫为研究对象,测定幼虫下颚中栓锥感器对7种糖和肌醇及其混合物的味觉电生理反应,分析不同物质诱导中栓锥感器内对应的味觉感受细胞及不同物质之间诱导昆虫电生理反应的交互作用.结果表明:(1)棉铃虫幼虫下颚中栓锥感器对肌醇、果糖、木糖、阿拉伯糖,葡萄糖、麦芽糖、海藻糖和鼠李糖的单一物质都有明显的电生理反应,但是对肌醇和糖类的反应模式不同,肌醇诱导的反

  7. Targeting chitinase gene of Helicoverpa armigera by host-induced RNA interference confers insect resistance in tobacco and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Reddy, K R K; Rajam, M V

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a devastating agricultural insect pest with broad spectrum of host range, causing million dollars crop loss annually. Limitations in the present conventional and transgenic approaches have made it crucial to develop sustainable and environmental friendly methods for crop improvement. In the present study, host-induced RNA interference (HI-RNAi) approach was used to develop H. armigera resistant tobacco and tomato plants. Chitinase (HaCHI) gene, critically required for insect molting and metamorphosis was selected as a potential target. Hair-pin RNAi construct was prepared from the conserved off-target free partial HaCHI gene sequence and was used to generate several HaCHI-RNAi tobacco and tomato plants. Northern hybridization confirmed the production of HaCHI gene-specific siRNAs in HaCHI-RNAi tobacco and tomato lines. Continuous feeding on leaves of RNAi lines drastically reduced the target gene transcripts and consequently, affected the overall growth and survival of H. armigera. Various developmental deformities were also manifested in H. armigera larvae after feeding on the leaves of RNAi lines. These results demonstrated the role of chitinase in insect development and potential of HI-RNAi for effective management of H. armigera.

  8. Lepidoptera (Insecta associated with soybean in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Carraro Formentini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present research updates the systematic position and nomenclature of Lepidoptera associated with soybean crops in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. Scientific literature lists 69 species of Lepidoptera feeding on soybean plants. These species are representatives of the Superfamilies Noctuoidea (31, Pyraloidea (13, Hesperioidea (12, Tortricoidea (5, Geometroidea (5, and Bombycoidea (3. Diversity of Lepidoptera associated to crop, injury in different parts of the plant, and changes in species composition are discussed considering the changes in plant disease management, introduction of plants expressing Bt proteins, and the recent introduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner as a new crop pest.

  9. Introgression of Helicoverpa armigera Resistance from Cajanus acutifolius-a Wild Relative from Secondary Gene Pool of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Jadhav

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to introgress Helicoverpa armigera resistance from wild relative Cajanus acutifolius into pigeonpea, (Cajanus cajan L., an important grain legume in South Asia, East Africa and the West Indies. Pigeonpea grain yields on farmer’s fields are quite low, largely because of damage by insect pests, of which legume pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is the important pest worldwide. Pod borer has developed high levels of resistance to chemical insecticides. Currently, there are no cultivars of pigeonpea with high levels of resistance to H. armigera. Therefore, there is a need to identify and introgress resistance genes from the wild relatives of this crop. Wild relative of pigeonpea, Cajanus acutifolius (ICPW 15613 and the interspecific derivatives C. acutifolius x C. cajan have shown resistance to H. armigera. The results showed that all the test lines and C. acutifolius had high levels of flavonoids such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin in the flowers and buds, which may have resulted in less damage due to H. armigera larvae. Most of the test lines had more than 15.00 g of seed weight (100 seed weight and beige seed color. These lines can be used for pigeonpea improvement for resistance to H. armigera.

  10. Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination.

  11. Vip3Aa tolerance response of Helicoverpa armigera populations from a Cry1Ac cotton planting region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingjie; Gao, Yulin; Wu, Kongming; Gould, Fred; Gao, Jianhua; Shen, Zhicheng; Lei, Chaoliang

    2010-12-01

    Transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac toxin, holds great promise in controlling target insect pests. Evolution of resistance by target pests is the primary threat to the continued efficacy of Bt cotton. To thwart pest resistance evolution, a transgenic cotton culitvar that produces two different Bt toxins, cry1Ac and vip3A genes, was proposed as a successor of cry1Ac cotton. This article reports on levels of Vip3Aa tolerance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations from the Cry1Ac cotton planting region in China based on bioassays of the F1 generation of isofemale lines. In total, 80 isofemale families of H. armigera from Xiajin county of Shandong Province (an intensive Bt cotton planting area) and 93 families from Anci county of Hebei Province (a multiple-crop system including corn [Zea mays L.] , soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and Bt cotton) were screened with a discriminating concentration of both Cry1Ac- and Vip3A-containing diets in 2009. From data on the relative average development rates and percentage of larval weight inhibition of F1 full-sib families tested simultaneously on Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa, results indicate that responses to Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa were not genetically correlated in field population ofH. armigera. This indicates that the threat of cross-resistance between Cry1Ac and Vip3A is low in field populations of H. armigera. Thus, the introduction of Vip3Aa/Cry1Ac-producing lines could delay resistance evolution in H. armigera in Bt cotton planting area of China.

  12. Modified artificial diet for rearing of tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa armigera, using the Taguchi method and Derringer's desirability function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assemi, H; Rezapanah, M; Vafaei-Shoushtari, R; Mehrvar, A

    2012-01-01

    With the aim to improve the mass rearing feasibility of tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), design of experimental methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array was applied. To do so, the effect of 16 ingredients of an artificial diet including bean, wheat germ powder, Nipagin, ascorbic acid, formaldehyde, oil, agar, distilled water, ascorbate, yeast, chloramphenicol, benomyl, penicillin, temperature, humidity, and container size on some biological characteristics of H. armigera was evaluated. The selected 16 factors were considered at two levels (32 experiments) in the experimental design. Among the selected factors, penicillin, container size, formaldehyde, chloramphenicol, wheat germ powder, and agar showed significant effect on the mass rearing performance. Derringer's desirability function was used for simultaneous optimization of mass rearing of tobacco budworm, H. armigera, on a modified artificial diet. Derived optimum operating conditions obtained by Derringer's desirability function and Taguchi methodology decreased larval period from 19 to 15.5 days (18.42 % improvement), decreased the pupal period from 12.29 to 11 days (10.49 % improvement), increased the longevity of adults from 14.51 to 21 days (44.72 % improvement), increased the number of eggs/female from 211.21 to 260, and increased egg hatchability from 54.2% to 72% (32.84 % improvement). The proposed method facilitated a systematic mathematical approach with a few well-defined experimental sets.

  13. RNAi silencing of the HaHMG-CoA reductase gene inhibits oviposition in the Helicoverpa armigera cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Niu, Changying

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has considerable promise for developing novel pest control techniques, especially because of the threat of the development of resistance against current strategies. For this purpose, the key is to select pest control genes with the greatest potential for developing effective pest control treatments. The present study demonstrated that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; HMGR) gene is a potential target for insect control using RNAi. HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway in insects. A complete cDNA encoding full length HMGR (encoding an 837-aa protein) was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The HaHMGR (H. armigera HMGR) knockdown using systemic RNAi in vivo inhibited the fecundity of the females, effectively inhibited ovipostion, and significantly reduced vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA levels. Moreover, the oviposition rate of the female moths was reduced by 98% by silencing HaHMGR compared to the control groups. One-pair experiments showed that both the proportions of valid mating and fecundity were zero. Furthermore, the HaHMGR-silenced females failed to lay eggs (approximate 99% decrease in oviposition) in the semi-field cage performance. The present study demonstrated the potential implications for developing novel pest management strategies using HaHMGR RNAi in the control of H. armigera and other insect pests.

  14. Bioefficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella extracts against tobacco cutworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Backiyaraj Muthusamy; Elumalai Arumugam; Kasinathan Dhamodaran; Mathivanan Thangarasu; Krishnappa Kaliyamoorthy; Elumalai Kuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Indian medicinal plant, Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella) at different concentrations against Lepidopteran agricultural field pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied using leaf disc no-choice method and oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities were also assessed by adapting the standard protocols. Results: The antifeedant activity of C. bonducella showed significant antifeedant activity in methanol extract. Oviposition deterrency is higher in methanol extract than the other solvent extracts. Similarly, maximum egg mortality was observed in methanol leaf extract of C. bonducella Lethal concentration, LC50 value of benzene, diethylether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. bonducella were 470.02, 469.00, 465.47, 460.52 and 443.87 mg/L respectively. The Chi-square values are significant at P< 0.05 level. Among five solventextracts, the methanol extract was responsible for strong lethal activity observed against selected pest species. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. bonducella could be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal agent against the field pest Helicoverpa armigera.

  15. Alterations in the Helicoverpa armigera midgut digestive physiology after ingestion of pigeon pea inducible leucine aminopeptidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam R Lomate

    Full Text Available Jasmonate inducible plant leucine aminopeptidase (LAP is proposed to serve as direct defense in the insect midgut. However, exact functions of inducible plant LAPs in the insect midgut remain to be estimated. In the present investigation, we report the direct defensive role of pigeon pea inducible LAP in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and responses of midgut soluble aminopeptidases and serine proteinases upon LAP ingestion. Larval growth and survival was significantly reduced on the diets supplemented with pigeon pea LAP. Aminopeptidase activities in larvae remain unaltered in presence or absence of inducible LAP in the diet. On the contrary, serine proteinase activities were significantly decreased in the larvae reared on pigeon pea LAP containing diet as compared to larvae fed on diet without LAP. Our data suggest that pigeon pea inducible LAP is responsible for the degradation of midgut serine proteinases upon ingestion. Reduction in the aminopeptidase activity with LpNA in the H. armigera larvae was compensated with an induction of aminopeptidase activity with ApNA. Our findings could be helpful to further dissect the roles of plant inducible LAPs in the direct plant defense against herbivory.

  16. Review of the Nearctic species of Enargia Hubner, [1821] (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini

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    Christian Schmidt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy and nomenclature of the Nearctic species of Enargia Hubner shows a long history of misunderstood species concepts and misapplied names, and the group is revised here. Enargia infumata (Grote, 1874 is a senior synonym of what has been referred to as E. mephisto Franclemont, 1939 for the past 70 years. Late summer moths from boreal areas of Canada and northeastern United previously identified as E. infumata have no available name and are here described as E. fausta sp. n. A lectotype for Orthosia infumata Grote is designated. Adults and genitalia of the three North American species (E. infumata, E. fausta, and E. decolor are illustrated, and a diagnostic key is provided.

  17. Methoprene and synergized pyrethrins as an aerosol treatment to control Plodia interpunctella (Hubner), the Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol insecticides (also known as ULV or fogging treatments) delivered through an ultra-low volume application system, are available commercially to control insect pests such as Plodia interpunctella Hübner, the Indianmeal moth. However, little is known about the susceptibility of eggs of P. inter...

  18. Effects of antiserums of cadherin, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase on the toxicities of Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)%棉铃虫中肠钙粘蛋白、氨肽酶N及碱性磷酸酯酶的抗血清对Cry1Ac和Cry2Aa毒力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰洁; 袁向东; 赵曼; 刘臣; 陈琳; 梁革梅

    2016-01-01

    [Aim] Cry1A and Cry2A toxins play insecticidal roles by specifically binding with receptor proteins on insect midgut,and are widely used in Bt transgenic crops now.This study aims to further understand the action mechanisms of Cry2A and the roles of the functional receptor proteins of Cry1 A in the toxicity of Cry2A.[Methods] We firstly extracted brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of midgut,prepared antibody and antiserums of cadherin (CAD),aminopeptidase N (APN),and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in Helicoverpa armigera.Then,after detecting the antiserums of these three receptor proteins in BBMV by Western blot,we compared the effects of antiserums of these three receptor proteins on the toxicities of Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in the susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant H.armigera (BtR) by the antibody blocking technology.[Results] For the susceptible H.armigera,the antiserums of these three receptor proteins not only significantly reduced the toxicity of Cry1 Ac,but also remarkably reduced the toxicity of Cry2Aa.Among them,anti-APN antiserum had the biggest impact on the toxicity of Cry1Ac,causing the mortality of H.armigera larvae to be reduced by 84.44%,and anti-ALP antiserum had the greatest effect on the toxicity of Cry2Aa,causing the larval mortality to be reduced by 71.04% compared with the control (without treatment by antiserum).The toxicity of Cry1Ac to Cry1Ac-resistant H.armigera (BtR) was obviously reduced and the toxicity of Cry2Aa also became less to these resistant larvae.The influences of the antiserums of these three receptors on the toxicity of Cry1Ac to the Cry1Acresistant strain of H.armigera (BtR) were smaller than those to the susceptible strain.Especially,the inhibition percentage of anti-CAD and-APN antiserums to the toxicity of Cry1 Ac decreased significantly.The effects of anti-CAD and-ALP antiserums on the toxicity of Cry2Aa to the Cry1Ac-resistant strain (BtR) and the susceptible strain were not significantly different,but the anti-APN antiserum

  19. 转基因抗虫棉田棉铃虫庇护所的建立和评价%Establishment and Evaluation of Refuge for Helicoverpa Armigera Hübner of Bt Cotton Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莉莉; 王登元; 吕昭智; 马睿

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对转基因棉田棉铃虫庇护所的植物进行选择.[方法]通过采取随机区组排列方式在转基因抗虫棉田种植庇护所植物,种植植物为:鹰嘴豆、木豆、玉米、胡麻、高粱、棉花等6种植物,并进行定期、定点、定株调查,比较分析不同植物种类棉铃虫卵和幼虫的数量差异.[结果]鹰嘴豆作为庇护所植物最好,其次是木豆、玉米、胡麻、高粱效果较差.鹰嘴豆的引诱效果与其他5种植物有极显著差异.几种诱集植物能够蓄养大量的草岭、瓢虫、蜘蛛等天敌昆虫.[结论]鹰嘴豆、木豆、玉米作为转基因棉田棉铃虫庇护所植物较好.%[Objective]This study was conducted to select the plants of refuge on Bt cotton fields’ Helicoverpa armigera (H(u)bner) .[Method]Planting refuge in the Bt cotton fields by the way of a random block arrangement, plants are: chickpea’( Cicer arietinum Linn. ) , pigeonpea ( Cajannus cajan L. Mill,) , com ( Zea mays L.), benne( Linseed), grain sorghum( Sorghum vulgare Pers.), cotton( Gossypium spp.) 6 species of plants, whose fixed date,fixed point and fixed plants were surveyed, compare and analyse the quantity difference of Helicoverpa armigera eggs and larvae in different plant were comparatively analyzed . [ Resultr]The results showed tlat chickpea were best as refuge plant; pigeonpea and com followed . benne, grain sorghum leas than other plant.The analysis of variance showed that chickpea had a significant difference with other five plants . These host plants can provide a lot of natural enemies : lacewing, ladybird beetle, spider, etc. [ Conclusion] Chickpea, Pigeonpea, Com can be some better host plant for refuge of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on Bt Cotton Fields.

  20. Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner pheromone reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckel David G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner, is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males from each strain exhibit phenotypic differences in peripheral physiology. Both strains possess co-localized pheromone-sensitive olfactory sensory neurons characterized by a larger amplitude action potential (spike responding to the major pheromone component, and a smaller spike amplitude cell responding to the minor component, i.e. the opposite isomer. These differences in amplitude correspond to differences in dendritic diameter between the two neurons. Previous studies showed that behavioral response to the pheromone blend was sex-linked, but spike amplitude response to pheromone components matched autosomal, not sex-linked inheritance. Results As part of a larger study to finely map the loci responsible for pheromone communication in this species, we have reanalyzed peripheral physiology among parental, and first and second generation hybrids between the two pheromone strains using tungsten electrode electrophysiology. Our results reveal that differences in spike amplitude ratio between male pheromone-sensitive sensory neurons in O. nubilalis races are controlled, at least partially, by sex-linked genes that exhibit E-strain dominance. Conclusions We propose that peripheral olfactory response in O. nubilalis may be affected both by autosomal and sex-linked genes exhibiting a cross-locus dominance effect, and suggest that the genetic basis for pheromone reception and response in the species is more closely linked than previously thought.

  1. Effects of thermoperiod on larval development and pupal diapause in different geographic populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Hiibner) ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)%温周期对不同地理种群棉铃虫幼虫发育及蛹滞育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元生; 陈超; 涂小云; 匡先钜; 薛芳森

    2011-01-01

    To understand the thermoperiodic response of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) , the effects of thermoperiod on larval development and pupal diapause in 4 different geographic populations (Guangzhou population, 23.08°N, 113. 14°E; Yongxiu population, 29. 04°N, 115.82°E; Tai'an population, 36. 15°N, 116. 59°E; and Kazuo population, 41.34°N, 120. 27°E) were systematically investigated under the photoperiod of L12: D12. The results showed that at the same photophase temperature there were no significant differences in the larval duration (P > 0. 05 ) between 20T ( thermophase, 20℃) : 5C (cryophase, 5℃) ( 12 h photophase temperature : 12h scotophase temperature) (the rest in the same analogy) and 20T:9C, 22T:5C and 22T:9C, 25T:5C and 25T:9C, and 28T:5C and 28T:9C, respectively, in 4 different populations. However, at the same or near average temperature, the larval duration at 20T:9C (an average temperature of 14. 5℃ ) was significantly higher than that at 22T: 5C (an average temperature of 13. 5℃ ) ( P 0.05 ) at the same photophase temperature between 20T:5C and 20T:9C, 22T:5C and 22T:9C, 25T:5C and 25T:9C, and 28T:5G and 28T:9C, respectively, suggesting that the diapause induction is influenced strongly by the photophase temperature. At the same thermoperiod, the larval duration and diapause rate were significantly different among different geographic populations. The larval duration and diapause rate were positively correlated with latitude of habitat, suggesting that sensitivity to temperature is gradually enhanced with a decrease in latitude of habitat.%为了探明不同地理种群棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera (Hiibner)对温周期的反应,本研究系统调查了棉铃虫广东广州种群(23.08°N,113.14°E)、江西水修种群(29.04°N,115.82°E)、山东泰安种群(36.15°N,116.59°E)和辽宁喀佐种群(41.34°N,120.27°E)在滞育诱导的光周期(L12∶D12)条件下,温周期(光期高温20~ 28℃,暗期低温5和9

  2. Mis-splicing of the ABCC2 gene linked with Bt toxin resistance in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Chenxi; Heckel, David G; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2014-08-26

    Toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used widely for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Previous work showed that mutations in a gene encoding the transporter protein ABCC2 are linked with resistance to Bt toxins Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac or both in four species of Lepidoptera. Here we compared the ABCC2 gene of Helicoverpa armigera (HaABCC2) between susceptible strains and a laboratory-selected strain with >1,000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac relative its susceptible parent strain. We discovered a 73-base pair (bp) insertion in the cDNA of the resistant strain that generates a premature stop codon expected to yield a truncated ABCC2 protein. Sequencing of genomic DNA revealed that this insertion is an intron that is not spliced out because of a 6-bp deletion at its splicing site. Analysis of progeny from crosses revealed tight genetic linkage between HaABCC2 and resistance to Cry1Ac. These results provide the first evidence that mis-splicing of a gene encoding an ABCC2 protein confers resistance to a Bt toxin.

  3. Effect of the endoparasitoid Campoletis chlorideae on phenoloxidase activity in Helicoverpa armigera hemolymph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Endoparasitoid wasps can develop inside permissive host due to their ability to overcome or to evade the host's cellular and humoral immune response. Oviposition of Campoletis chlorideae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera) was accompanied by inhibition of phenoloxidase (PO) activity and melanization reaction in host hemolymph in vitro. PO activity in host plasma was decreased about 83% 48 h post parasitization. A similar result was found when the host insect was injected with 0.5 wasp equivalent calyx fluid. This indicated that the calyx fluid was concerned with suppression of PO activity after parasitization. Furthermore, the prophenoloxidase (proPO) in host haemocytes could be activated by bovine trypsin in unparasitized insects, while it could not be activated in parasitized or calyx fluid-injected host. The resuits suggested that inhibition of PO activity by parasitization was related to the calyx fluid of Campoletis chlorideae,and the components of calyx fluid (eg. polydnaviruses) perhaps suppressed the expression of proPO in hemolymph or accelerate the degradation of proPO.

  4. Electrophysiological responses of differently diet-experienced Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae to sugars and inositol%不同取食经历的棉铃虫幼虫对糖和肌醇的味觉电生理反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹欢; 汤清波; 马英; 詹欢; 赵新成; 闫凤鸣

    2013-01-01

    利用单感受器记录技术测定了不同取食经历的棉铃虫幼虫对糖和肌醇的电生理反应,以分析昆虫味觉细胞的可塑性.研究结果表明,(1)连续多代取食含量约39 mmol.L-1蔗糖的标准人工饲料的棉铃虫幼虫下颚中栓锥感器和侧栓锥感器对阿拉伯糖、海藻糖、麦芽糖、葡萄糖和蔗糖均产生明显的脉冲反应,但中栓锥感器对海藻糖和葡萄糖的反应频率显著高于侧栓锥感器,表明中栓锥感器内存在海藻糖和葡萄糖敏感细胞.(2)直接从田间采集的野生棉铃虫幼虫中栓锥感器对阿拉伯糖、麦芽糖、葡萄糖、蔗糖和肌醇脉冲反应的反应频率显著高于室内种群的反应频率,但2种群对海藻糖的反应频率没有显著差异,表明幼虫对海藻糖的反应机制不同于对蔗糖、肌醇和其他糖的反应机制.(3)连续多代取食标准人工饲料的棉铃虫幼虫中栓椎感器对阿拉伯糖、麦芽糖、葡萄糖、蔗糖和肌醇的电生理反应被抑制,但是当下一代幼虫取食不含蔗糖的人工饲料后,幼虫对这4种糖的反应频率恢复到野生种群的水平,而对肌醇的反应强度继续被抑制,表明幼虫对肌醇的反应机制不同于对阿拉伯糖、麦芽糖、葡萄糖和蔗糖的反应机制.这些结果表明幼虫前期取食经历能够显著影响后代对不同糖及肌醇的电生理反应,但是不同糖之间、糖与肌醇之间的反应机制存在差异.%The diet-induced plasticities of gustatory cells of larvae were investigated using single sensillum recording technology (SSR) by recording the gustatory electrophysiological responses to 5 sugars and inositol in Helicoverpa armigera with differently dietary experiences.The results showed as follows:(1) frequencies of electrophysiological responses to sucrose,D-(+)-glucose,maltose,(D-(+)-trehalose dehydrate,D-arabinose and inositol in both styloconic sensilla of larvae with sucrose-feed experiences for

  5. Genomics and genetic engineering of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedroviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.

    2001-01-01

    The single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SNPV) of the bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has been extensively used to control this insect around the world, especially in China. However, in order to compete with chemical insecticides - mainly for speed of action -novel approaches are sought to improv

  6. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter

    2008-01-01

      The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies...... of the Lepidopterera fauna of Anholt are dealt with. The present study is in first hand based on material collected by the late Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen and the authors, partly in the 1970's and partly in more recent years. The material do not permit a general comparison between the status of the Lepidoptera fauna...

  7. Immune responses of Helicoverpa armigera to different kinds of pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiao-Fan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects react against pathogens through innate immunity. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera is an important defoliator and an extremely destructive pest insect of many crops. The elucidation of the mechanism of the immune response of H. armigera to various pathogens can provide a theoretical basis for new approaches to biologically control this pest. Results Four kinds of pathogens Bacillus thuringiensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, and Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus harbored green fluorescence protein and polyhedron (AcMNPV-GFP were used to challenge the insect. The cellular and humoral immune responses to the pathogens were analyzed in the challenged H. armigera. The results show that in the five kinds of haemocytes, only granulocytes phagocytized the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. All haemocytes can be infected by AcMNPV. Fourteen immune-related genes including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs such as peptidoglycan recognition proteins (HaPGRP and HaPGRP C and Gram-Negative Bacteria-Binding Protein (HaGNBP, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs such as cecropin-1, 2 and 3 (HaCec-1, 2 and 3, lysozyme (HaLys, attacin (HaAtt, gallerimycin-like (HaGall, gloverin-like (HaGlo, moricin-like (HaMor, cobatoxin-like (HaCob, galiomicin-like (HaGali, and immune inducible protein (HaIip appeared in different expression profiles to different pathogen infections. The transcripts of 13 immune related genes (except HaPGRPC are obviously up-regulated by Gram-positive bacteria. HaCec-1 and 3, HaMor, HaAtt, HaLys, HaIip, HaPGRP and HaGNBP are greatly up-regulated after fungal infection. HaGNBP, HaCec-2, HaGall, HaGlo, HaMor, HaCob, HaGali obviously increased in Gram-negative bacterial infection. Only five genes, HaGNBP, HaCec-1, HaGali, HaGlo, and HaLys, are weakly up-regulated after viral infection. The AMP transcripts had higher expression levels than the

  8. Study on the Ultrastructures of Antennal Sensilla in Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-rong; GUO Yu-yuan; WU Kong-ming

    2002-01-01

    The morphology and structures of antennal sensilla of Helicoverpa armigera are observed under scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Antennae of Helicoverpa armigera are made up of scapus,pedicel and flagellum that the latter consists of 70 - 82 segments. The inner side surface of antenna is cataphracted and most of the antennal sensilla lie on its outer, upper and lower surfaces. Both the antennae of male and female contain five kinds of antennal sensilla, namely, sensillum trichodeum, sensillum basiconicum, sensillum chaeticum, ear-shaped sensillum and sensillum coeloconicum, and the kinds, number and distribution of antennal sensilla of both sexes are similar. There are a large number of serrate cuticular processes on antennal surface, especially on the middle and basic parts of antenna. Sensillum trichodeum and sensillum basiconicum, the main chemical odor receptors on antennae of Helicoverpa armigera, consist of cuticularwall, sheath cells, lymph and dendrites. There are significant differences between the internal structures of the two kinds of sensilla. In sensillum trichodeum, the cuticular-wall is thicker, less lipophilic pore channels and has one or a few dendrites, while in sensillum basiconicum, the cuticular-wall is thinner, abundant lipophilic pore channels and has much more dendrites.

  9. Bollworm responses to release of genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedroviruses in cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Chen, X.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, H.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Peng, H.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) has been developed as a commercial biopesticide to control the cotton bollworm, H. armigera, in China. The major limitation to a broader application of this virus has been the relative long time to incapacitate the target insect.

  10. Effects of a new microbial α-amylase inhibitor protein on Helicoverpa armigera larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanrong; Wang, Xiaojing; Cui, Jinjie; Ma, Yan; Li, Qiannan

    2013-03-06

    A new microbial α-amylase inhibitor gene was cloned and characterized. The encoded, recombinant, α-amylase inhibitor protein was induced and expressed by isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) in Escherichia coli M15 cells. The effects of the α-amylase inhibitor protein on Helicoverpa armigera larvae were studied. Compared to the control, the weight of H. armigera larvae fed the diet with recombinant α-amylase inhibitor protein added at a concentration of 20 μg/g was reduced by 49.8%. The total soluble protein of H. armigera larvae fed the diet with the α-amylase inhibitor protein added was also reduced by 36.8% compared to the control. The recombinant α-amylase inhibitor protein showed inhibition activity against α-amylase of H. armigera. These results suggested that this α-amylase inhibitor protein may be a promising bioinsecticide candidate for controlling H. armigera.

  11. Diet-delivered RNAi in Helicoverpa armigera--Progresses and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Zhi Xian; Robinson, Karl E; Jain, Ritesh G; Chandra, G Sharath; Asokan, R; Asgari, Sassan; Mitter, Neena

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (the cotton bollworm) is a significant agricultural pest endemic to Afro-Eurasia and Oceania. Gene suppression via RNA interference (RNAi) presents a potential avenue for management of the pest, which is highly resistant to traditional insecticide sprays. This article reviews current understanding on the fate of ingested double-stranded RNA in H. armigera. Existing in vivo studies on diet-delivered RNAi and their effects are summarized and followed by a discussion on the factors and hurdles affecting the efficacy of diet-delivered RNAi in H. armigera.

  12. Effects of nuclear polyhedrosis virus on cannibalism in Helicoverpa armigera%核型多角体病毒感染对棉铃虫幼虫同类相残行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静雯; 褚艳娜; 王琼; 刘小侠; 张青文

    2012-01-01

    The effects of nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection on cannibalism in Helicoverpa armigera ( H(u)bner) was evaluated under laborratory conditions. The number of infected larvae preyed on by healthy larvae increased with the progress of the disease. There was no significant difference in the percentage of dead infected larvae, frozen infected larvae and frozen healthy larvae that were preyed on by healthy larvae. This suggests that infected larvae and dead infected larvae are more likely to be cannibalized simply because they become less vigorous and less capable of defending themselves than healthy larvae. There was no significant difference in the frequency of cannibalism of frozen infected larvae by healthy larvae and infected larvae. This suggests that the tendency towards cannibalism is not altered by infection. Cannibalism is potentially costly. The pupation and eclosion rate of healthy larvae that ate infected larvae was lower than that of those that had not cannibalized infected larvae.%在室内研究核型多角体病毒(HaSNPV)感染对棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner)幼虫同类相残行为的影响.结果显示:感病棉铃虫随感病程度的加重,越容易被健康棉铃虫残食,而自然死亡的感病棉铃虫、冻死的感病棉铃虫和冻死的健康棉铃虫三者被健康棉铃虫残食的百分率无显著差异.表明感病棉铃虫和病虫尸体更易于被健康棉铃虫残食,是由于棉铃虫体力减弱而失去反击能力,不是由于病毒本身的影响.以健康棉铃虫、感病棉铃虫为残食者,冻死的病虫为被残食者,相残率无显著差异,表明病毒并未改变棉铃虫残食同类的天性.残食病虫的健康棉铃虫的化蛹率和羽化率均低于正常的健康棉铃虫,残食者为相残行为付出了很高的代价.

  13. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...

  14. Data of in vitro synthesized dsRNAs on growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera

    OpenAIRE

    Yojana R. Chikate; Vishal V. Dawkar; Barbole, Ranjit S.; Tilak, Priyadarshini V.; Gupta, Vidya S.; Ashok P. Giri

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article is related to the research article “RNAi of selected candidate genes interrupts growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera” (Chikate et al., 2016) [1]. RNA interference (RNAi) is emerging as a potent insect pest control strategy over current methods and their resistance by pest. In this study we tested 15 different in vitro synthesized dsRNAs for gene silencing in Helicoverpa armigera. These dsRNAs were specific against H. armigera enzymes/proteins such ...

  15. The potential distribution of invading Helicoverpa armigera in North America: is it just a matter of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera has recently invaded South and Central America, and appears to be spreading rapidly. We update a previously developed potential distribution model to highlight the global invasion threat, with emphasis on the risks to the United States. The continued range expansion of H. armigera in Central America is likely to change the invasion threat it poses to North America qualitatively, making natural dispersal from either the Caribbean islands or Mexico feasible. To characterise the threat posed by H. armigera, we collated the value of the major host crops in the United States growing within its modelled potential range, including that area where it could expand its range during favourable seasons. We found that the annual value of crops that would be exposed to H. armigera totalled approximately US$78 billion p.a., with US$843 million p.a. worth growing in climates that are optimal for the pest. Elsewhere, H. armigera has developed broad-spectrum pesticide resistance; meaning that if it invades the United States, protecting these crops from significant production impacts could be challenging. It may be cost-effective to undertake pre-emptive biosecurity activities such as slowing the spread of H. armigera throughout the Americas, improving the system for detecting H. armigera, and methods for rapid identification, especially distinguishing between H. armigera, H. zea and potential H. armigera x H. zea hybrids. Developing biological control programs, especially using inundative techniques with entomopathogens and parasitoids could slow the spread of H. armigera, and reduce selective pressure for pesticide resistance. The rapid spread of H. armigera through South America into Central America suggests that its spread into North America is a matter of time. The likely natural dispersal routes preclude aggressive incursion responses, emphasizing the value of preparatory communication with agricultural producers in areas suitable for

  16. Efficacy of Venom from Tentacle of Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris (Nemopilema nomurai against the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huahua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris against the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was determined. Venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris could inhibit the growth of Helicoverpa armigera and the weight inhibiting rate of sample NFr-2 was 60.53%. Of the six samples, only NFr-2 had high insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera and the corrected mortality recorded at 7 d was 74.23%.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on phases of evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) on artificial diet; Efeitos da radiacao gama nas fases do ciclo evolutivo da Plodia interpunctella (Huebner, 1813) (Lepidoptera - Pyralidae) em dieta artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborlin, Maria Julia

    1988-10-01

    The effects of increased gamma radiation ({sup 60} Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner,1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) have bean studied under laboratory conditions in the Laboratory of Radioentomology of the Nuclear Energy for Agriculture Center (CENA) in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. For all treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma bean-650 has been used and the activity was of approximately 2.93 x 10{sup 14} Bq (7,925 Ci), with a dose rate of 2.80 KGy per hour and the insects were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 27 {+-} 2{sup 0} C and a relative humidity of 70 {+-} 10%. The LD{sub 50} and LD{sub 100} of gamma radiation for eggs of in artificial diet were respectively 51 Gy and 125 Gy. The sterilizing doses in adults which were irradiated at immature phases (larvae and pupae) were 160 Gy and 250 Gy respectively. The sterilizing doses for adults females and males were respectively 250 Gy and 300 Gy. The LD{sub 100} for adult males was 4,750 Gy, 4,500 Gy for females and 4,750 Gy for insects at random. (author). 70 refs., 10 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Carbon dioxide receptor genes in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in insect ecology, eliciting a range of behaviours across different species. Interestingly, the numbers of CO2 gustatory receptors (GRs) vary among insect species. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, two GRs (DmelGR21a and DmelGR63a) have been shown to detect CO2. In the butterfly, moth, beetle and mosquito species studied so far, three CO2 GR genes have been identified, while in tsetse flies, four CO2 GR genes have been identified. In other species including honeybees, pea aphids, ants, locusts and wasps, no CO2 GR genes have been identified from the genome. These genomic differences may suggest different mechanisms for CO2 detection exist in different insects but, with the exception of Drosophila and mosquitoes, limited attention has been paid to the CO2 GRs in insects. Here, we cloned three putative CO2 GR genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and performed phylogenetic and expression analysis. All three H. armigera CO2 GRs (HarmGR1, HarmGR2 and HarmGR3) are specifically expressed in labial palps, the CO2-sensing tissue of this moth. HarmGR3 is significantly activated by NaHCO3 when expressed in insect Sf9 cells but HarmGR1 and HarmGR2 are not. This is the first report characterizing the function of lepidopteran CO2 receptors, which contributes to our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect CO2 gustatory receptors.

  19. Demographics and genetic variability of the new world bollworm (Helicoverpa zea) and the old world bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Natália A; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Corrêa, Alberto S; Zucchi, Maria I; Omoto, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the primary agricultural pests in the Old World, whereas H. zea is predominant in the New World. However, H. armigera was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Therefore, the geographical distribution, range of hosts, invasion source, and dispersal routes for H. armigera are poorly understood or unknown in Brazil. In this study, we used a phylogeographic analysis of natural H. armigera and H. zea populations to (1) assess the occurrence of both species on different hosts; (2) infer the demographic parameters and genetic structure; (3) determine the potential invasion and dispersal routes for H. armigera within the Brazilian territory; and (4) infer the geographical origin of H. armigera. We analyzed partial sequence data from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. We determined that H. armigera individuals were most prevalent on dicotyledonous hosts and that H. zea were most prevalent on maize crops, based on the samples collected between May 2012 and April 2013. The populations of both species showed signs of demographic expansion, and no genetic structure. The high genetic diversity and wide distribution of H. armigera in mid-2012 are consistent with an invasion period prior to the first reports of this species in the literature and/or multiple invasion events within the Brazilian territory. It was not possible to infer the invasion and dispersal routes of H. armigera with this dataset. However, joint analyses using sequences from the Old World indicated the presence of Chinese, Indian, and European lineages within the Brazilian populations of H. armigera. These results suggest that sustainable management plans for the control of H. armigera will be challenging considering the high genetic diversity, polyphagous feeding habits, and great potential mobility of this pest on numerous hosts, which favor the adaptation of this insect to diverse environments and control strategies.

  20. Demographics and genetic variability of the new world bollworm (Helicoverpa zea and the old world bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália A Leite

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera is one of the primary agricultural pests in the Old World, whereas H. zea is predominant in the New World. However, H. armigera was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Therefore, the geographical distribution, range of hosts, invasion source, and dispersal routes for H. armigera are poorly understood or unknown in Brazil. In this study, we used a phylogeographic analysis of natural H. armigera and H. zea populations to (1 assess the occurrence of both species on different hosts; (2 infer the demographic parameters and genetic structure; (3 determine the potential invasion and dispersal routes for H. armigera within the Brazilian territory; and (4 infer the geographical origin of H. armigera. We analyzed partial sequence data from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene. We determined that H. armigera individuals were most prevalent on dicotyledonous hosts and that H. zea were most prevalent on maize crops, based on the samples collected between May 2012 and April 2013. The populations of both species showed signs of demographic expansion, and no genetic structure. The high genetic diversity and wide distribution of H. armigera in mid-2012 are consistent with an invasion period prior to the first reports of this species in the literature and/or multiple invasion events within the Brazilian territory. It was not possible to infer the invasion and dispersal routes of H. armigera with this dataset. However, joint analyses using sequences from the Old World indicated the presence of Chinese, Indian, and European lineages within the Brazilian populations of H. armigera. These results suggest that sustainable management plans for the control of H. armigera will be challenging considering the high genetic diversity, polyphagous feeding habits, and great potential mobility of this pest on numerous hosts, which favor the adaptation of this insect to diverse environments and control strategies.

  1. 黄帚橐吾乙醇提取物对棉铃虫的生物活性%Bioactivity of ethanol extracts of Ligularia virgaurea against Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦霞; 李晶; 李娜; 杜文静; 丁品; 柳军玺; 张建军; 武建荣

    2015-01-01

    棉铃虫食性杂,寄主广,为害严重又对现有农药易产生抗药性,为有效防控其对作物的为害,本文通过室内毒力测定研究了甘南草原有毒植物黄帚橐吾(Ligularia virgaurea )乙醇提取物对棉铃虫幼虫的农药生物活性,结果表明:黄帚橐吾乙醇提取物对棉铃虫2~3龄幼虫有很强的拒食活性,拒食中浓度(AFC50)为2.59 mg/mL。当提取物浓度为10.00 mg/mL 时,拒食率可达95%以上;触杀和胃毒活性也较强,致死中浓度(LC50)在3.00 mg/mL 左右,浓度为10.00 mg/mL 时,校正死亡率均可达80%以上,而且3种作用的活性强度随浓度增大而增强。杀卵和熏蒸活性相对较弱,但浓度大于10.00 mg/mL 时也有比较明显的杀灭活性。本研究结果证明黄帚橐吾乙醇提取物可以有效防控棉铃虫幼虫的危害,为黄帚橐吾类农药的开发和棉铃虫的有效防治提供了依据和有效途径。%Helicoverpa armigera Hübner is a major Lepidoptera pest on various crops in China,and it can develop easily pesticide resistance.Ligularia virgaurea (Maxim.)Mattf.is a kind of poisonous plant growing in the grass-land of Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture.In order to prevent and control H .armigera effectively,the bio-activity of the ethanol extracts of L .virgaurea against H .armigera was investigated in laboratory.The results showed that the extracts of L .virgaurea had strong antifeedant activity against the 2nd-3rd instars of H .armig-era with the AFC50 value of 2.59 mg/mL.Once the concentration of the extracts increased to 10.00 mg/mL,the antifeedant rate could reach to more than 95%.The extracts also demonstrated good contact toxicity and stomach toxicity activity,with LC50 value of all above 3.00 mg/mL.The corrected mortality was above 80% when the concentration of the extracts was 10.00 mg/mL.The higher the concentration,the stronger the activity.The ex-tracts had only weak

  2. Analysis of evolution in the lower Lepidoptera (Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Lower Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanism in Lepidoptera is discussed. As a result of the comparison of evolution between the Microptergidae and the typical Lepidoptera, two different kinds of evolution are recognized. ・・・

  3. Expression of Cry1Aa in cassava improves its insect resistance against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoguang; Xu, Jia; Ling, Erjun; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Lepidopteran insects affect cassava production globally, especially in intercropping system. The expression of Cry toxins in transgenic crops has contributed to an efficient control of insect pests, leading to a significant reduction in chemical insecticide usage. Helicoverpa armigera is a Lepidopteran pest that feeds on a wide range of plants like cotton and cassava. In the present study, transgenic cassava plants over-expressing Cry1Aa, which we named as Bt cassava, were developed and used to evaluate its efficacy against H. armigera as a model. Insect feeding assays were carried out to test the effects of Bt cassava leaves on the development and survival of H. armigera. Significant reduction (P cassava leaves in comparison with those fed with wild-type cassava leaves. The higher expression of Cry1Aa in transgenic cassava caused the lethal effect in larvae, in contrast to the normal growth and development of adults and pupation observed when fed with wild-type leaves. Morphological observation on the larval midguts showed that the consumption of Bt cassava affected the gut integrity of H. armigera. The columnar cells of the midgut epithelium were dramatically damaged and showed loose or disordered structure. Their cytoplasms become highly vacuolated and contained disorganized microvilli. Our study demonstrated that the transgenic cassava expressing the Cry1Aa is effective in controlling H. armigera. Our Bt transgenic cassava plant would provide a long-term beneficial effect on all crops in intercropping system, which in-turn, will be profitable to the farmers.

  4. Attractiveness of tobacco volatiles induced by Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta to Campoletis chlorideae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zengguang; YAN Yunhua; WANG Chenzhu

    2005-01-01

    The attraction of Helicoverpa armigera- and Helicoverpa assulta-induced and mechanical damage-induced tobacco volatiles to Campoletis chlorideae was investigated, and the induced volatiles were analyzed. In windtunnel, C. Chlorideae was strongly attracted by herbivoreinduced tobacco volatiles. Mechanically damaged tobacco leaves, whether treated with caterpillar regurgitant or water, were more attractive to the parasitoid than undamaged tobacco leaves. GC-MS analysis revealed that only 4 compounds were released from undamaged tobacco leaves, whereas 13 compounds were commonly emitted from herbivore-infested and mechanically damaged tobacco leaves. Compound β-pinene was specifically induced by the infestation of H. Armigera, and (Z)-3-hexenal was only induced by the infestation of H. Armigera and H. Assulta, whereas hexyl acetate was only induced by mechanical damage. Tobacco leaves infested by H. Armigera and H. Assulta released larger amounts of volatiles than undamaged tobacco leaves did. Tobacco leaves treated with artificial damage plus caterpil- lars regurgitant or water emitted the same levels of volatiles, which were higher than that emitted by undamaged tobacco leaves. The emission amounts of single compounds were also different between differently treated plants. The differences were large between herbivore-induced and mechanical damage-induced compounds, and small between H. Armigera- and H. Assulta-induced compounds, and among compounds emitted from mechanically damaged plants treated with water or caterpillar regurgitant.

  5. Bioactivity of Pseudocalymma alliaceum (Lam.) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) against Spodoptera litura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidotera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar; Tamilarasu Chinnamani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, larvicidal and insect growth inhibitory activities of crude extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum tested against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods: Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera.Results:Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant, insecticidal activity against S. litura and H. armigera. Maximum percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were found on treatment with ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by extract treated larvae. Ethyl acetate extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum, showed higher percentage of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities.Conclusions:This is the first report on S. litura and H. armigera. Further, the active compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts will be useful for controlling economically important insect pests.

  6. 金银花尺蠖及棉铃虫的一种病原真菌鉴定%Identification of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Heterolocha jinyinhuaphaga and Helicoverpa armigera Damaging Lonicera japonica Thunb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马维思; 徐常青; 张金良; 董杰; 乔海莉; 郭昆; 徐荣; 陈君; 张大勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:明确金银花上的棉铃虫、金银花尺蠖2种害虫的病原真菌的分类地位,为寻找对药材鳞翅目害虫有高毒力的病原真菌提供材料。方法:通过分生孢子分离、培养,从受真菌侵染死亡的金银花鳞翅目害虫体表分离获得昆虫病原真菌,依据真菌的形态特征和 ITS 序列特征对其进行鉴定。结果:从12份受真菌感染死亡的幼虫体表分离到12株形态特征一致的真菌,依据形态特征和 ITS 序列特征将其鉴定为莱氏野村菌 Nomurea rileyi。结论:莱氏野村菌为金银花尺蠖及棉铃虫两种金银花鳞翅目害虫的一种病原真菌,因其能够在某些鳞翅目害虫间形成流行病,对防治药材害虫具有应用潜力。%Objective: To identify the entomopathogenic fungi which killing Heterolocha jinyinhuaphaga and Helicoverpa armigera damaging Lonicera japonica Thunb.Methods:Eleven samples of Heterolocha jinyinhuaphaga and one sample of Helicoverpa armigera lepidoptera larvae infected by entomopathogenic fungi were collected from Lonicera japonica Thunb,twelve entomopathogenic fungi strains were isolated by culturing spores washing from dead larvae,these fungi were identified with morphological characteristic and rDNA ITS sequence.Results:All strains of fungi were identified as Nomurea rileyi.Conclusion:Nomurea rileyi is one kind of entomopathogenic fungus that could kill some kind of lepidoptera larvae on the medicinal plant of Lonicera japonica Thunb,it will be useful research materials for study to control insects of Lonicera japonica Thunb and other medicinal plants.

  7. New resistance mechanism in Helicoverpa armigera threatens transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Robin V; Dang, Ho T; Kemp, Fred C; Nicholson, Ian C; Moores, Graham D

    2005-05-01

    In Australia, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, has a long history of resistance to conventional insecticides. Transgenic cotton (expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac) has been grown for H. armigera control since 1996. It is demonstrated here that a population of Australian H. armigera has developed resistance to Cry1Ac toxin (275-fold). Some 70% of resistant H. armigera larvae were able to survive on Cry1Ac transgenic cotton (Ingard) The resistance phenotype is inherited as an autosomal semidominant trait. Resistance was associated with elevated esterase levels, which cosegregated with resistance. In vitro studies employing surface plasmon resonance technology and other biochemical techniques demonstrated that resistant strain esterase could bind to Cry1Ac protoxin and activated toxin. In vivo studies showed that Cry1Ac-resistant larvae fed Cy1Ac transgenic cotton or Cry1Ac-treated artificial diet had lower esterase activity than non-Cry1Ac-fed larvae. A resistance mechanism in which esterase sequesters Cry1Ac is proposed.

  8. Functional analysis of two inhibitor of apoptosis (iap) orthologs from Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Ch.Y.; Lange, de J.; Chen, X.W.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Westenberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Baculoviruses induce apoptotic responses in cultured insect cells, which can severely limit viral replication. To overcome this host response baculoviruses carry anti-apoptotic genes, including members of the p35 and inhibitor of apoptosis (iap) gene families. The baculovirus Helicoverpa armigera nu

  9. Bollworm responses to release of genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedroviruses in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiulian; Chen, Xinwen; Zhang, Zhongxin; Wang, Hualin; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Peng, Huiyin; Vlak, Just M; Hu, Zhihong

    2002-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) has been developed as a commercial biopesticide to control the cotton bollworm, H. armigera, in China. The major limitation to a broader application of this virus has been the relative long time to incapacitate the target insect. Two HaSNPV recombinants with improved insecticidal properties were released in bollworm-infested cotton. One recombinant (HaCXW1) lacked the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) gene and in another recombinant (HaCXW2), an insect-selective scorpion toxin (AaIT) gene replaced the egt gene. In a cotton field situation H. armigera larvae treated with either HaCXW1 or HaCXW2 were killed faster than larvae in HaSNPV-wt treated plots. Second instar H. armigera larvae, which were collected from HaCXW1 and HaCXW2 treated plots and further reared on artificial diet, showed reduced ST(50) values of 15.3 and 26.3%, respectively, as compared to larvae collected from HaSNPV-wt treated plots. The reduction in consumed leaf area of field collected larvae infected with HaCXW1 and HaCXW2 was approximated 50 and 63%, respectively, as compared to HaSNPV-wt infected larvae at 108 h after treatment. These results suggest that in a cotton field situation the recombinants will be more effective control agents of the cotton bollworm than wild-type HaSNPV.

  10. Histopathological Effects of the Protein Toxin from Xenorhabdus nematophila on the Midgut of Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NANGONG Zi-yan; WANG Qin-ying; SONG Ping; YANG Jun; MAO Wen-jie

    2006-01-01

    Xenorhabdus nematophila HB310, which is highly virulent for many insects, is symbiotic with Steinernema carpocapsae HB310. Toxin Ⅱ was obtained using methods such as salting out and native-PAGE from the cells of X. Nematophila HB310. The histopathology of toxin Ⅱ on H. Armigera larvae was studied by dissecting an olefin slice of the midgut. The symptoms showed that the histopathology of the H. Armigera midgut was similar to that of other novel midgut-active toxins such as the δ-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, as well as Tca from Photorhabdus luminescens W14. The midgut tissues of H. Armigera fourth-instar larvae began to transform after the oral intake of the toxin Ⅱ over 6 h. First, the anterior region of the peritrophic membrane (PM) began to degrade followed by the elongation of the columnar cells.The epithelium decomposed gradually, and the midgut tissues were either loose or disordered. The PM disappeared after 12 h but reappeared after 72 h following transient or sublethal exposure to the toxin Ⅱ. Toxin Ⅱ also directly destroyed in vitro PMs of H. Armigera.

  11. Horizontal and vertical transmission of wild-type and recombinant Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X.C.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.H.; Werf, van der W.

    2005-01-01

    Transmission plays a central role in the ecology of baculoviruses and the population dynamics of their hosts. Here, we report on the horizontal and vertical transmission dynamics of wild-type Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV-WT) and a genetically modified variant

  12. Natural control of Helicoverpa armigera in smallholder crops in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van de H.

    1993-01-01

    The African bollworm, Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) armigera , is one of the worst agricultural pests in Africa, attacking a variety of food and cash crops. For development of sustainable pest management, it is essential to study the ecology and natural mortality factors of the pest, and recently, the ne

  13. The movement and distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae on pea plants is affected by egg placement and flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L E; Cribb, B W; Hanan, J; Zalucki, M P

    2010-10-01

    The distribution and movement of 1st instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on whole garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were determined in glasshouse trials. This economically-important herbivore attacks a wide variety of agricultural, horticultural and indigenous plants. To investigate the mechanisms underlying larval intra-plant movement, we used early-flowering and wild-type plant genotypes and placed eggs at different vertical heights within the plants, one egg per plant. Leaf water and nitrogen content and cuticle hardness were measured at the different plant heights. Of 92 individual larvae, 41% did not move from the node of eclosion, 49% moved upwards and 10% moved downwards with the distance moved being between zero and ten plant nodes. Larvae from eggs placed on the lower third of the plant left the natal leaf more often and moved further than larvae from eggs placed in the middle or upper thirds. The low nutritive value of leaves was the most likely explanation for more movement away from lower plant regions. Although larvae on flowering plants did not move further up or down than larvae on non-flowering plants, they more often departed the leaflet (within a leaf) where they eclosed. The final distribution of larvae was affected by plant genotype, with larvae on flowering plants found less often on leaflets and more often on stipules, tendrils and reproductive structures. Understanding intra-plant movement by herbivorous insects under natural conditions is important because such movement determines the value of economic loss to host crops. Knowing the behaviour underlying the spatial distribution of herbivores on plants will assist us to interpret field data and should lead to better informed pest management decisions.

  14. Specific binding of activated Vip3Aa10 to Helicoverpa armigera brush border membrane vesicles results in pore formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Guo; Yang, Ai-Zhen; Shen, Xiao-Hong; Hua, Bao-Guang; Shi, Guang-Lu

    2011-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the most harmful pests in China. Although it had been successfully controlled by Cry1A toxins, some H. armigera populations are building up resistance to Cry1A toxins in the laboratory. Vip3A, secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis, is another potential toxin against H. armigera. Previous reports showed that activated Vip3A performs its function by inserting into the midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of susceptible insects. To further investigate the binding of Vip3A to BBMV of H. armigera, the full-length Vip3Aa10 toxin expressed in Escherichia coli was digested by trypsin or midgut juice extract, respectively. Among the fragments of digested Vip3Aa10, only a 62kDa fragment (Vip3Aa10-T) exhibited binding to BBMV of H. armigera and has insecticidal activity. Moreover, this interaction was specific and was not affected by the presence of Cry1Ab toxin. Binding of Vip3Aa10-T to BBMV resulted in the formation of an ion channel. Unlike Cry1A toxins, Vip3Aa10-T was just slightly associated with lipid rafts of BBMV. These data suggest that although activated Vip3Aa10 specifically interacts with BBMV of H. armigera and forms an ion channel, the mode of action of it may be different from that of Cry1A toxins.

  15. Color, iridescence, and thermoregulation in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Stephen G; Hayes, Jacqueline; Large, Maryanne C J; Poladian, Leon

    2008-10-10

    This paper examines evidence for the hypothesized connection between solar thermal properties of butterfly and moth (Lepidoptera) wings, iridescence/structural color, and thermoregulation. Specimens of 64 species of Lepidoptera were measured spectrophotometrically, their solar absorptances calculated, and their habitat temperatures determined. No correlation was found between habitat temperature and the solar absorptance of the wings. It was found, however, that the iridescent specimens exhibited, on average, substantially higher solar absorptance than noniridescent ones.

  16. Bacterial Expression and Kinetic Analysis of Carboxylesterase 001D from Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylesterasesare an important class of detoxification enzymes involved in insecticide resistance in insects. A subgroup of Helicoverpa armigera esterases, known as Clade 001, was implicated in organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticide resistance due to their overabundance in resistant strains. In this work, a novel carboxylesterasegene 001D of H. armigera from China was cloned, which has an open reading frame of 1665 nucleotides encoding 554 amino acid residues. We used a series of fusion proteins to successfully express carboxylesterase 001D in Escherichia coli. Three different fusion proteins were generated and tested. The enzyme kinetic assay towards 1-naphthyl acetate showed all three purified fusion proteins are active with a Kcat between 0.35 and 2.29 s−1, and a Km between 7.61 and 19.72 μM. The HPLC assay showed all three purified fusion proteins had low but measurable hydrolase activity towards β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate insecticides (specific activities ranging from 0.13 to 0.67 μM·min−1·(μM−1·protein. The enzyme was stable up to 40 °C and at pH 6.0–11.0. The results imply that carboxylesterase 001D is involved in detoxification, and this moderate insecticide hydrolysis may suggest that overexpression of the gene to enhance insecticide sequestration is necessary to allow carboxylesterases to confer resistance to these insecticides in H. armigera.

  17. Data of in vitro synthesized dsRNAs on growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikate, Yojana R.; Dawkar, Vishal V.; Barbole, Ranjit S.; Tilak, Priyadarshini V.; Gupta, Vidya S.; Giri, Ashok P.

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article is related to the research article “RNAi of selected candidate genes interrupts growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera” (Chikate et al., 2016) [1]. RNA interference (RNAi) is emerging as a potent insect pest control strategy over current methods and their resistance by pest. In this study we tested 15 different in vitro synthesized dsRNAs for gene silencing in Helicoverpa armigera. These dsRNAs were specific against H. armigera enzymes/proteins such as proteases like trypsins (HaTry2, 3, 4 and 6), chymotrypsin (HaChy4) and cysteine proteases such as cathepsin (HaCATHL); glutathione S-transferases (HaGST1a, 6 and 8); esterases (HaAce4, HaJHE); catalase (HaCAT); super-oxide-dismutase (HaCu/ZnSOD); fatty acid binding protein (HaFabp) and chitin deacetylase (HaCda5b). These dsRNAs were fed to second instar larvae at an optimized dose (60 µg/day) for 3 days separately. Effects of dsRNA feeding were observed in terms of larval mass gain, percentage mortality and phenotypic abnormalities in later developmental stages of H. armigera. These findings might provide potential new candidates for designing sequence-specific dsRNA as pesticide in crop protection. PMID:27222861

  18. Insecticidal potential of defense metabolites from Ocimum kilimandscharicum against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    Full Text Available Genus Ocimum contains a reservoir of diverse secondary metabolites, which are known for their defense and medicinal value. However, the defense-related metabolites from this genus have not been studied in depth. To gain deeper insight into inducible defense metabolites, we examined the overall biochemical and metabolic changes in Ocimum kilimandscharicum that occurred in response to the feeding of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Metabolic analysis revealed that the primary and secondary metabolism of local and systemic tissues in O. kilimandscharicum was severely affected following larval infestation. Moreover, levels of specific secondary metabolites like camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene (known to be involved in defense significantly increased in leaves upon insect attack. Choice assays conducted by exposing H. armigera larvae on O. kilimandscharicum and tomato leaves, demonstrated that O. kilimandscharicum significantly deters larval feeding. Further, when larvae were fed on O. kilimandscharicum leaves, average body weight decreased and mortality of the larvae increased. Larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with O. kilimandscharicum leaf extract, camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene showed growth retardation, increased mortality rates and pupal deformities. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera - namely, amylase, protease and lipase- showed variable patterns after feeding on O. kilimandscharicum, which implies striving of the larvae to attain required nutrition for growth, development and metamorphosis. Evidently, selected metabolites from O. kilimandscharicum possess significant insecticidal activity.

  19. [Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in cotton bollworm, Helicoverna armigera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, G Sharath; Asokan, R; Manamohan, M; Kumar, N K K; Sita, T

    2014-01-01

    Reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), a sensitive technique is being extensively employed in quantification of gene expression. However this requires normalization with suitable reference gene (RG) which is crucial in minimizing inter sample variations. Information regarding suitable RG is scarce in general and more so in insects, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, an economically important pest. In management of this pest RNA interference (RNAi), is perceived as a potential tool, which is achieved by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery. These studies demand accurate quantification of gene silencing. In this study we assessed the suitability of five RGs viz. β-actin (ACTB), 18S rRNA (18S), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-tubulin (TUB) and elongation fator-1-alfa (EF1-α) for gene expression studies in dsRNA treatment and across different developmental stages of H. armigera and ranked using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. Data analysis revealed that best ranked RGs were varied in dsRNA treatment and in developmental stages. Under dsRNA treatment, 18S and GAPDH were more stable whereas, TUB and GAPDH were more stable across developmental stages. We also demonstrate that inappropriate selection of RG led to erroneous estimation of the target gene, chymotrypsin, expression. These results facilitate accurate quantification of gene expression in H. armigera.

  20. Momordica charantia trypsin inhibitor Ⅱ inhibits growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manasi Alok Telang; Prashant Pyati; Mohini Sainani; Vidya Shrikant Gupta; Ashok Prabhakar Giri

    2009-01-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) seeds contain several squash-type serine proteinase inhibitors (PIs),which inhibit the digestive proteinases of the polyphagous insect pest Helicoverpa armigera.In the present work isolation of a DNA sequence encoding the mature peptide of a trypsin inhibitor McTI-Ⅱ,its cloning and expression as a recombinant protein using Pichia pastoris have been reported.Recombinant McTI-Ⅱinhibited bovine trypsin at 1:1 molar ratio,as expected,but did not inhibit chymotrypsin or elastase.McTI-Ⅱalso strongly inhibited trypsin-like proteinases (81% inhibition) as well as the total proteolytic activity of digestive proteinases (70% inhibition) from the midgut of H.armigera larvae.The insect larvae fed with McTI-Ⅱ-incorporated artificial diet suffered over 70% reduction in the average larval weight after 12 days of feeding.Moreover,ingestion of McTI-Ⅱresulted in 23% mortality in the larval population.The strong antimetabolic activity of McTI-Ⅱtoward H.armigera indicates its probable use in developing insect tolerance in susceptible plants.

  1. Differential antibiosis against Helicoverpa armigera exerted by distinct inhibitory repeat domains of Capsicum annuum proteinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rakesh S; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-05-01

    Plant defensive serine proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are known to have negative impact on digestive physiology of herbivore insects and thus have a crucial role in plant protection. Here, we have assessed the efficacy and specificity of three previously characterized inhibitory repeat domain (IRD) variants from Capsicum annuum PIs viz., IRD-7, -9 and -12 against gut proteinases from Helicoverpa armigera. Comparative study of in silico binding energy revealed that IRD-9 possesses higher affinity towards H. armigera serine proteinases as compared to IRD-7 and -12. H. armigera fed on artificial diet containing 5 TIU/g of recombinant IRD proteins exhibited differential effects on larval growth, survival rate and other nutritional parameters. Major digestive gut trypsin and chymotrypsin genes were down regulated in the IRD fed larvae, while few of them were up-regulated, this indicate alterations in insect digestive physiology. The results corroborated with proteinase activity assays and zymography. These findings suggest that the sequence variations among PIs reflect in their efficacy against proteinases in vitro and in vivo, which also could be used for developing tailor-made multi-domain inhibitor gene(s).

  2. Resurgence of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera in northern Greece associated with insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidis, George K; Kapantaidaki, Despina; Bentila, Maria; Morou, Evangelia; Savopoulou-Soultani, M; Vontas, John

    2013-08-01

    Helicoverpa armigera has been controlled effectively with chemical insecticides in the major cotton crop production areas of northern Greece for many years. However, a resurgence of the pest was observed in 2010, which significantly affected crop production. During a 4-year survey (2007-2010), we examined the insecticide resistance status of H. armigera populations from two major and representative cotton production areas in northern Greece against seven insecticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin, gamma-cyhalothrin and endosulfan). Full dose-response bioassays on third instar larvae were performed by topical application. Lethal doses at 50% were estimated by probit analysis and resistance factors (RF) were calculated, compared to a susceptible laboratory reference strain. Resistance levels were relatively moderate until 2009, with resistance ratios below 10-fold for organophosphates and carbamates and up to 16-fold for the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin. However, resistance rose to 46- and 81-fold for chlorpyrifos and alpha-cypermethrin, respectively in 2010, when the resurgence of the pest was observed. None of the known pyrethroid resistance mutations were found in the pyrethroid-resistant insects. The possible association between resistance and H. armigera resurgence in Greece is discussed.

  3. Diversity in gut microflora of Helicoverpa armigera populations from different regions in relation to biological activity of Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin Cry1Ac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasiva, Inakarla; Shouche, Yogesh; Kulkarni, Girish Jayant; Krishnayya, Pulipaka Venkata; Akbar, Shaik Mohammed; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2014-12-01

    Transgenic crops expressing toxin proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been deployed on a large scale for management of Helicoverpa armigera. Resistance to Bt toxins has been documented in several papers, and therefore, we examined the role of midgut microflora of H. armigera in its susceptibility to Bt toxins. The susceptibility of H. armigera to Bt toxin Cry1Ac was assessed using Log-dose-Probit analysis, and the microbial communities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The H. armigera populations from nine locations harbored diverse microbial communities, and had some unique bacteria, suggesting a wide geographical variation in microbial community in the midgut of the pod borer larvae. Phylotypes belonging to 32 genera were identified in the H. armigera midgut in field populations from nine locations. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae (Order Bacillales) were present in all the populations, and these may be the common members of the H. armigera larval midgut microflora. Presence and/or absence of certain species were linked to H. armigera susceptibility to Bt toxins, but there were no clear trends across locations. Variation in susceptibility of F1 neonates of H. armigera from different locations to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac was found to be 3.4-fold. These findings support the idea that insect migut microflora may influence the biological activity of Bt toxins.

  4. In vivo and in vitro effect of Acacia nilotica seed proteinase inhibitors on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramesh Babu; B Subrahmanyam; Srinivasan; I M Santha

    2012-06-01

    Acacia nilotica proteinase inhibitor (AnPI) was isolated by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and resulted in a purification of 10.68-fold with a 19.5% yield. Electrophoretic analysis of purified AnPI protein resolved into a single band with molecular weight of approximately 18.6+1.00 kDa. AnPI had high stability at different pH values (2.0 to 10.0) except at pH 5.0 and are thermolabile beyond 80°C for 10 min. AnPI exhibited effective against total proteolytic activity and trypsin-like activity, but did not show any inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin activity of midgut of Helicoverpa armigera. The inhibition kinetics studies against H. armigera gut trypsin are of non-competitive type. AnPI had low affinity for H. armigera gut trypsin when compared to SBTI. The partially purified and purified PI proteins-incorporated test diets showed significant reduction in mean larval and pupal weight of H. armigera. The results provide important clues in designing strategies by using the proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from the A. nilotica that can be expressed in genetically engineered plants to confer resistance to H. armigera.

  5. The expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification are regulated in Helicoverpa armigera to cope up with chlorpyrifos insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; More, Tushar H; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is a key pest in many vital crops, which is mainly controlled by chemical strategies. To manage this pest is becoming challenging due to its ability and evolution of resistance against insecticides. Further, its subsequent spread on nonhost plant is remarkable in recent times. Hence, decoding resistance mechanism against phytochemicals and synthetic insecticides is a major challenge. The present work describes that the digestion, defense and immunity related enzymes are associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in H. armigera. Proteomic analysis of H. armigera gut tissue upon feeding on chlorpyrifos containing diet (CH) and artificial diet (AD) using nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified upregulated 23-proteins in CH fed larvae. Database searches combined with gene ontology analysis revealed that the identified gut proteins engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification. Biochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of candidate proteins indicated that insects were struggling to get nutrients and energy in presence of CH, while at the same time endeavoring to metabolize chlorpyrifos. Moreover, we proposed a potential processing pathway of chlorpyrifos in H. armigera gut by examining the metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. H. armigera exhibit a range of intriguing behavioral, morphological adaptations and resistance to insecticides by regulating expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification mechanisms to cope up with chlorpyrifos. In these contexts, as gut is a rich repository of biological information; profound analysis of gut tissues can give clues of detoxification and resistance mechanism in insects.

  6. UJI KETAHANAN BEBERAPA GALUR KAPAS (Gossypium hirsutum HASIL RADIASI TERHADAP SERANGGA HAMA PENGGEREK BUAH Helicoverpa armigera(Hǖbner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sunarto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Uji  ketahanan beberapa galur kapas (Gossypium hirsutum terhadap  penggerek buah Helicoverpa armigera (Hǖbner dilaksanakan di laboratorium Entomologi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat Malang pada bulan Januari sampai dengan Mei 2011. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi ketahanan beberapa galur kapas hasil radiasi terhadap penggerek buah H. armigera.  Perlakuan disusun menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK yang terdiri atas empat galur hasil radiasi yaitu galur IA, 2A, 4A, dan 2C, dua varietas hasil radiasi yaitu Karisma, NIAB, dan dua varietas hasil pemuliaan konvensional yaitu Kanesia 10 dan Kanesia 15.  Setiap perlakuan diulang 3 kali.  Pengujian dilakukan dengan cara uji pakan (feeding assay daun, kuncup daun, dan buah muda sesuai dengan perkembangan larva H. armigera.  Larva instar I, instar II-III, dan instar IV-V berturut-turut diberikan daun muda, kuncup bunga, dan buah muda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa galur kapas nomor 1A, 2A, 4A, dan 4C merupakan galur yang toleran terhadap H. armigera.  Kata kunci : Gossypium hirsutum, Helicoverpa armigera,   ketahanan  varietas.

  7. Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in Australian populations of Helicoverpa punctigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from 2002 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, S; Parker, T L; Mahon, R J

    2009-04-01

    Helicoverpa punctigera and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are important pests of field and horticultural crops in Australia. The former is endemic to the continent, whereas the latter is also distributed in Africa and Asia. Although H. armigera rapidly developed resistance to virtually every group of insecticide used against it, there is only one report of resistance to an insecticide in H. punctigera. In 1996 the Australian cotton industry adopted Ingard, which expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene cry1Ac. In 2004/2005, Bollgard II (which expresses Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab) replaced Ingard and has subsequently been grown on 80% of the area planted to cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. From 2002/2003 to 2006/2007, F2 screens were used to detect resistance to Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab. We detected no alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac; the frequency was < 0.0005 (n = 2,180 alleles), with a 95% credibility interval between 0 and 0.0014. However, during the same period, we detected alleles that confer resistance to Cry2Ab at a frequency of 0.0018 (n = 2,192 alleles), with a 95% credibility interval between 0.0005 and 0.0040. For both toxins, the experiment-wise detection probability was 94%, i.e., if there actually was a resistance allele in any tested lines, we would have detected it 94% of the time. The first isolation of Cry2Ab resistance in H. punctigera was before the widespread deployment of Bollgard II. This finding supports our published notion for H. armigera that alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab may be present at detectable frequencies in populations before selection by transgenic crops.

  8. Biological activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (Solanaceae) against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner and armyworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidotera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar; Selvaraj Premalatha; Kuppusamy Elumalai

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (S. pseudocapsicum) seed extracts against Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods:Hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate seed extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera. Results:Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant and insecticidal activities against S. litura and H. armigera. Percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were maximum in treatment of ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by seeds on extract treated larvae. Conclusions: Ethyl acetate extracts of S. pseudocapsicum, showed higher efficiency of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities. Hence, it can be used to controll agricultural insect pests, S. litura and H. armigera.

  9. Utilisation of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment of medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae); Utilizacao da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 como tratamento quarentenario de plantas medicinais, aromaticas e condimentares desidratadas infestadas por Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) e Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2007-07-01

    The research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation of the Cobalto-60 as quarantine treatment of the medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella determining the disinfestation doses to attend the criterion in the not emergency of adults of the species in study and analysing through the Chromatography of Thin Layer the effect of the gamma radiation of the cobalto-60 on the active principle of extract dehydrated of Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris. The work was developed in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas in the Instituto Biologico in Sao Paulo in the period of August of 2005 the June of 2007. The radiation source used gamma was an experimental irradiator of Cobalto-60, model Gamacell 220, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, located in Sao Paulo. In the period of 30 days after the irradiation of the samples evaluated the number of adults emerged of Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, using the data of mortality for the analysis of Probit. Obtained 100% of not emergency of adults in the Lasioderma serricorne with the dose of 2,00 kGy and 100% of not emergency of adults in the Plodia interpunctella with the dose of 2,25 kGy. The Chromatographic Analysis of Thin Layer was to evaluate did not show chemical differences in the extracts analysed. (author)

  10. Tradeoff between reproduction and resistance evolution to Bt-toxin in Helicoverpa armigera: regulated by vitellogenin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W N; Xiao, H J; Liang, G M; Guo, Y Y; Wu, K M

    2014-08-01

    Evolution of resistance to insecticides usually has fitness tradeoffs associated with adaptation to the stress. The basic regulation mechanism of tradeoff between reproduction and resistance evolution to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Ha), based on the vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression was analyzed here. The full-length cDNA of the Vg gene HaVg (JX504706) was cloned and identified. HaVg has 5704 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame (ORF) of 5265 bp, which encoded 1756 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 197.28 kDa and a proposed isoelectric point of 8.74. Sequence alignment analysis indicated that the amino acid sequence of HaVg contained all of the conserved domains detected in the Vgs of the other insects and had a high similarity with the Vgs of the Lepidoptera insects, especially Noctuidae. The resistance level to Cry1Ac Bt toxin and relative HaVg mRNA expression levels among the following four groups: Cry1Ac-susceptible strain (96S), Cry1Ac-resistant strain fed on artificial diet with Bt toxin for 135 generations (BtR stands for the Cry1Ac Bt resistance), progeny of the Cry1Ac-resistant strain with a non-Bt-toxin artificial diet for 38 generations (CK1) and the direct descendants of the 135th-generation resistant larvae which were fed on an artificial diet without the Cry1Ac protein (CK2) were analyzed. Compared with the 96S strain, the resistance ratios of the BtR strain, the CK1 strain and the CK2 strain were 2917.15-, 2.15- and 2037.67-fold, respectively. The maximum relative HaVg mRNA expression levels of the BtR strain were approximately 50% less than that of the 96S strain, and the coming of maximum expression was delayed for approximately 4 days. The overall trend of the HaVg mRNA expression levels in the CK1 strain was similar to that in the 96S strain, and the overall trend of the HaVg mRNA expression levels in the CK2 strain was similar to that in the BtR strain. Our results

  11. Insecticidal activity of venomous saliva from Rhynocoris fuscipes (Reduviidae against Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera by microinjection and oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sahayaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhynocoris fuscipes is a potential predator of many economically important pests in India. In the present study, its venomous saliva (VS was collected by milking and diluted with HPLC grade water to different concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm. Microinjection of Rhynocoris fuscipes VS was more toxic than its oral administration in Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm and Spodoptera litura (tobacco cutworm. Thus, R. fuscipes VS was found to be toxic to third instar S. litura and H. armigera with respective LD50s of 846.35 and 861.60 ppm/larva at 96 hours after microinjection. The current results showed that VS of Rhynocoris fuscipes caused mortality of H. armigera and S. litura. Active peptides from VS may be isolated, identified and assessed for their impact in order to ascertain how they alter the physiology of these pests, information that could be applicable in pest management programs.

  12. Interaction of plant cell signaling molecules, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, with the mitochondria of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, S M D; Sharma, H C; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

    2012-02-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera is a polyphagous pest in Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean Europe. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the cell signaling molecules produced in response to insect attack in plants. The effect of these signaling molecules was investigated on the oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress of H. armigera. SA significantly inhibited the state III and state IV respiration, respiratory control index (RCI), respiratory complexes I and II, induced mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in vitro. Under in vivo conditions, SA induced state IV respiration as well as oxidative stress in time- and dose-dependent manner, and also inhibited the larval growth. In contrast, JA did not affect the mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. SA affected the growth and development of H. armigera, in addition to its function as signaling molecules involved in both local defense reactions at feeding sites and the induction of systemic acquired resistance in plants.

  13. Female moths of cotton bollworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) captured by waterbasin traps baited with synthetic female sex pheromone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-WEI SU; HONG-TUO WANG; FENG GE

    2006-01-01

    Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most important pest insects in cotton fields in China. Female moths were captured by waterbasin traps with a synthetic female sex pheromone blend in cotton fields over three Each pheromone dispenser was impregnated with 2.0 mg of pheromone blend and 0.2 mg of antioxidant dissolved with 0.1 mL of hexane, and there was a control dispenser with a similar amount of antioxidant and solvent only. Waterbasin traps were deployed in three female catch was 1.5, and more females were captured by centrally located pheromone traps.average weekly female catches of control traps was significantly lower than that in pheromone-baited traps. (iii) There were significant linear relationships between the average of the interval of traps, average weekly female catches per trap increased but average weekly female catches per hectare decreased. (v) Among the female moths captured by pheromone traps, 88.3% were mated female moths which each containing 1.46 spermatophores, while in control traps 86.9% of the mated female moths had 0.90 spermatophores. There was a significant difference between the average numbers of spermatophores of mated females in pheromone traps and in controls.

  14. RNAi of selected candidate genes interrupts growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikate, Yojana R; Dawkar, Vishal V; Barbole, Ranjit S; Tilak, Priyadarshini V; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major crop pests and is less amenable to current pest control approaches. RNA interference (RNAi) is emerging as a potent arsenal for the insect pest control over current methods. Here, we examined the effect on growth and development in H. armigera by targeting various enzymes/proteins such as proteases like trypsins (HaTry2, 3, 4 and 6), chymotrypsin (HaChy4) and cysteine protease like cathepsin (HaCATHL); glutathione S-transferases (HaGST1a, 6 and 8); esterases (HaAce4, HaJHE); catalase (HaCAT); super-oxide-dismutase (HaCu/ZnSOD); fatty acid binding protein (HaFabp) and chitin deacetylase (HaCda5b) through dsRNA approach. Significant downregulation of cognate mRNA expression and reduced activity of trypsin and GST-like enzyme were evident upon feeding candidate dsRNAs to the larvae. Among these, the highest mortality was observed in HaAce4 dsRNA fed larvae followed by HaJHE; HaCAT; HaCuZnSOD; HaFabp and HaTry3 whereas remaining ones showed relatively lower mortality. Furthermore, the dsRNA fed larvae showed significant reduction in the larval mass and abnormalities at the different stages of H. armigera development compared to their control diets. For example, malformed larvae, pupae and moth at a dose of 60μg/day were evident in high number of individual insects fed on dsRNA containing diets. Moreover, the growth and development of insects and moths were retarded in dsRNA fed larvae. These findings might provide potential new candidates for designing effective dsRNA as pesticide in crop protection.

  15. Influences of insecticides on toxicity and cuticular penetration of abamectin in Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANGWANG; JIA-ANCHENG; ZHONG-MINLIU; SHENG-GANWU; XUE-PINGZHAO; CHANG-XINGWU

    2005-01-01

    Synergistic actions for mixtures of abamectin with other insecticides in some insect pests were evaluated, and the possible synergistic mechanism was studied by the comparison in toxicity and cuticular penetration of abamectin between with and without other insecticides or synergists in Helicoverpa armigera larvae. The results of bioassay showed that horticultural mineral oil (HMO), hexaflumuron, chlorpyrifos, and some other insecticides were synergistic to abamectin with 152.0-420.0 of co-toxicity coefficient(CTC) in some agricultural insect pests. In topical application tests, HMO or piperonyl butoxide (PBO) increased the toxicity of abamectin in larvae of H. armigera, but the mortality was not affected by s,s,s-tributylphorotrithioate (DEF) and triphenylphosphate (TPP). The synergistic action of HMO was obviously higher than PBO, and when treated simultaneously with abamectin, HMO gave a more significant synergism than if treated 2 hours ahead. The highest synergistic effect (SE) was found in the mixture of ‘abamectin+HMO (1:206)'. The mortality did not increase or the toxicity drop, when a synergist or HMO was added into the mixture of ‘abamectin+HMO' or ‘abamectin+synergist', respectively. Results from the isotope tracing experiments showed that HMO significantly enhanced the penetration of 3H-abamectin through the cuticle of H.armigera larvae, which resulted in the synergism of the mixture. The cuticular penetration of 3H-abamectin was not accumulatively affected by chlorpyrifos, nor by hexaflumuron,though there was an inhibition within 30 seconds or 1 hour after treated by these two chemicals respectively. Results suggested that the synergism of abamectin mixed with hexaflumuron or chlorpyrifos might be related to inhibition of metabolic enzymes or target sites in the larvae.

  16. Densovirus is a mutualistic symbiont of a global crop pest (Helicoverpa armigera and protects against a baculovirus and Bt biopesticide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutualistic associations between symbiotic bacteria and their hosts are common within insect systems. However, viruses are often considered as pathogens even though some have been reported to be beneficial to their hosts. Herein, we report a novel densovirus, Helicoverpa armigera densovirus-1 (HaDNV-1 that appears to be beneficial to its host. HaDNV-1 was found to be widespread in wild populations of H. armigera adults (>67% prevalence between 2008 and 2012. In wild larval populations, there was a clear negative interaction between HaDNV-1 and H. armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaNPV, a baculovirus that is widely used as a biopesticide. Laboratory bioassays revealed that larvae hosting HaDNV-1 had significantly enhanced resistance to HaNPV (and lower viral loads, and that resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin was also higher at low doses. Laboratory assays indicated that the virus was mainly distributed in the fat body, and could be both horizontally- and vertically-transmitted, though the former occurred only at large challenge doses. Densovirus-positive individuals developed more quickly and had higher fecundity than uninfected insects. We found no evidence for a negative effect of HaDNV-1 infection on H. armigera fitness-related traits, strongly suggesting a mutualistic interaction between the cotton bollworm and its densovirus.

  17. Modelling biological control with wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera-cotton system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Hu, Z.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive model was developed to simulate virus epizootics in a stage structured insect population and analyse scenarios for the biological control of cotton bollworm (CBW), Helicoverpa armigera, in cotton, using wild-type or genetically modified baculoviruses. In simulations on dosage and tim

  18. Behaviour of wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera - cotton system: a simulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:   Helicoverpa armigera , baculovirus, genetic modification, cotton,transmissionGenetic engineering of Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus as an improved pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Sun, X; Hu, Z; Li, M; O'Reilly, D R; Zuidema, D; Vlak, J M

    2000-08-01

    The Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) has been registered and is commercially produced in China as a biopesticide to control the bollworm in cotton. However, the virus has a relatively slow speed of action. To improve its efficacy, recombinant HearNPVs were generated by deleting the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) gene (HaCXW1 and HaLM2) or by inserting the insect-specific toxin gene AaIT in the egt locus (HaCXW2) of HearNPV using conventional recombination strategies in insect cell culture. The various recombinants remained genetically stable when cultured in HzAM1 insect cells. Bioassay data showed a significant reduction in the time required for all HearNPV recombinants to kill second instar H. armigera larvae. The LT(50) of the egt deletion recombinants HaCXW1 and HaLM2 was about 27% faster than that of wild-type HearNPV. The largest reduction in LT(50) was achieved by inserting the gene for the insect-specific neurotoxin, AaIT, in the egt locus, giving a reduction in LT(50) of 32% compared to wild-type HearNPV. The ability to genetically improve the properties of HearNPV as a biopesticide provides a further opportunity to develop this virus into a commercially viable product to control the bollworm in China.

  19. Functional specificity of sex pheromone receptors in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Male moths can accurately perceive the sex pheromone emitted from conspecific females by their highly accurate and specific olfactory sensory system. Pheromone receptors are of special importance in moth pheromone reception because of their central role in chemosensory signal transduction processes that occur in olfactory receptor neurons in the male antennae. There are a number of pheromone receptor genes have been cloned, however, only a few have been functionally characterized. Here we cloned six full-length pheromone receptor genes from Helicoverpa armigera male antennae. Real-time PCR showing all genes exhibited male-biased expression in adult antennae. Functional analyses of the six pheromone receptor genes were then conducted in the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes. HarmOR13 was found to be a specific receptor for the major sex pheromone component Z11-16:Ald. HarmOR6 was equally tuned to both of Z9-16: Ald and Z9-14: Ald. HarmOR16 was sensitively tuned to Z11-16: OH. HarmOR11, HarmOR14 and HarmOR15 failed to respond to the tested candidate pheromone compounds. Our experiments elucidated the functions of some pheromone receptor genes of H. armigera. These advances may provide remarkable evidence for intraspecific mating choice and speciation extension in moths at molecular level.

  1. Cannibalism Affects Core Metabolic Processes in Helicoverpa armigera Larvae—A 2D NMR Metabolomics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredd Vergara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannibalism is known in many insect species, yet its impact on insect metabolism has not been investigated in detail. This study assessed the effects of cannibalism on the metabolism of fourth-instar larvae of the non-predatory insect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidotera: Noctuidea. Two groups of larvae were analyzed: one group fed with fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera (cannibal, the other group fed with an artificial plant diet. Water-soluble small organic compounds present in the larvae were analyzed using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and principal component analysis (PCA. Cannibalism negatively affected larval growth. PCA of NMR spectra showed that the metabolic profiles of cannibal and herbivore larvae were statistically different with monomeric sugars, fatty acid- and amino acid-related metabolites as the most variable compounds. Quantitation of 1H-13C HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence signals revealed that the concentrations of glucose, glucono-1,5-lactone, glycerol phosphate, glutamine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, ornithine, proline, threonine and valine were higher in the herbivore larvae.

  2. Cannibalism Affects Core Metabolic Processes in Helicoverpa armigera Larvae—A 2D NMR Metabolomics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Fredd; Shino, Amiu; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cannibalism is known in many insect species, yet its impact on insect metabolism has not been investigated in detail. This study assessed the effects of cannibalism on the metabolism of fourth-instar larvae of the non-predatory insect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidotera: Noctuidea). Two groups of larvae were analyzed: one group fed with fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera (cannibal), the other group fed with an artificial plant diet. Water-soluble small organic compounds present in the larvae were analyzed using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and principal component analysis (PCA). Cannibalism negatively affected larval growth. PCA of NMR spectra showed that the metabolic profiles of cannibal and herbivore larvae were statistically different with monomeric sugars, fatty acid- and amino acid-related metabolites as the most variable compounds. Quantitation of 1H-13C HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence) signals revealed that the concentrations of glucose, glucono-1,5-lactone, glycerol phosphate, glutamine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, ornithine, proline, threonine and valine were higher in the herbivore larvae. PMID:27598144

  3. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...

  4. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and prota

  5. Elevated CO2 reduces the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants to Helicoverpa armigera by suppressing the JA signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Guo

    Full Text Available Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO(2 levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO(2 would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage after the damage has occurred of tomato plants to the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that elevated CO(2 reduced resistance by decreasing the jasmonic acid (JA level and activities of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitors, and polyphenol oxidase in wild-type (WT plants infested with H. armigera. Consequently, the activities of total protease, trypsin-like enzymes, and weak and active alkaline trypsin-like enzymes increased in the midgut of H. armigera when fed on WT plants grown under elevated CO(2. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of the WT to H. armigera (in terms of photosynthetic rate, activity of sucrose phosphate synthases, flower number, and plant biomass and height was also reduced by elevated CO(2. Under ambient CO(2, the expression of resistance and tolerance to H. armigera was much greater in wild type than in spr2 (a JA-deficient genotype plants, but elevated CO(2 reduced these differences of the resistance and tolerance between WT and spr2 plants. The results suggest that the JA signaling pathway contributes to both plant resistance and tolerance to herbivorous insects and that by suppressing the JA signaling pathway, elevated CO(2 will simultaneously reduce the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants.

  6. Identification of a thioredoxin peroxidase gene involved in resistance to nucleopolyhedrovirus infection in Helicoverpa armigera with RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songdou; Shen, Zhongjian; Li, Zhen; Wu, Fengming; Zhang, Boyu; Liu, Yanjun; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-11-01

    Thioredoxin peroxidases (Tpxs) play a crucial role in protection against oxidative damage in several insect species. However, studies on the characteristics and functions of Tpxs in Helicoverpa armigera are lacking. In this study, a novel 2-Cys Tpx gene from H. armigera (HaTpx) was identified. Sequence analysis revealed that HaTpx is highly conserved and shares two catalysis regions (VCP) with other insect species. HaTpx mRNA was found to be expressed in an age-dependent manner and was ubiquitous in all tissues examined. Hormone treatment showed that the expression of HaTpx is clearly induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone but repressed by Juvenile hormone. Additionally, extreme temperature, ultraviolet light, mechanical injury, Escherichia coli, Metarhizium anisopliae, nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) infection, and H2O2 treatment markedly induced HaTpx gene expression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in hemocytes and MDA concentrations in the hemolymph after NPV infection were evaluated, and the results indicated that NPV infection causes excessive ROS generation. After knockdown of HaTpx by RNA interference, the expression of three antioxidant genes (Cu/ZnSOD, Trx, and TrxR) was increased, whereas two antioxidant genes (CAT and GPX) showed decreased expression. Moreover, the susceptibility of H. armigera to NPV infection increased after HaTpx knockdown. These results indicated that HaTpx contributes to the susceptibility of H. armigera to NPV, and the results also provide a theoretical basis for a novel strategy for developing new chemicals and microbial pesticides that target HaTpx gene for controlling H. armigera.

  7. High Susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Low Resistance Allele Frequency Reduce the Risk of Resistance of Helicoverpa armigera to Bt Soybean in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalhau, Fabiana B.; Amado, Douglas; Carvalho, Renato A.; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The Old World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was recently introduced into Brazil, where it has caused extensive damage to cotton and soybean crops. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, which expresses the Bt protein Cry1Ac, was recently deployed in Brazil, providing high levels of control against H. armigera. To assess the risk of resistance to the Cry1Ac protein expressed by MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil, we conducted studies to evaluate the baseline susceptibility of H. armigera to Cry1Ac, in planta efficacy including the assessment of the high-dose criterion, and the initial resistance allele frequency based on an F2 screen. The mean Cry1Ac lethal concentration (LC50) ranged from 0.11 to 1.82 μg·mL−1 of diet among all H. armigera field populations collected from crop seasons 2013/14 to 2014/15, which indicated about 16.5-fold variation. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean exhibited a high level of efficacy against H. armigera and most likely met the high dose criterion against this target species in leaf tissue dilution bioassays up to 50 times. A total of 212 F2 family lines of H. armigera were established from field collections sampled from seven locations across Brazil and were screened for the presence of MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean resistance alleles. None of the 212 families survived on MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean leaf tissue (estimated allele frequency = 0.0011). The responses of H. armigera to Cry1Ac protein, high susceptibility to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, and low frequency of resistance alleles across the main soybean-producing regions support the assumptions of a high-dose/refuge strategy. However, maintenance of reasonable compliance with the refuge recommendation will be essential to delay the evolution of resistance in H. armigera to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil. PMID:27532632

  8. The Inheritance of the Pheromone Sensory System in Two Helicoverpa Species: Dominance of H. armigera and Possible Introgression from H. assulta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Dong, Jun-Feng; Wu, Han; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization of sympatric closely related species may sometimes lead to introgression and speciation. The sister species Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta both use (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal as sex pheromone components but in reversed ratios. Female H. armigera and male H. assulta could hybridize and produce fertile male hybrids, which can then backcross with females of the two parent species to get backcross lines in the laboratory. In this study, we compared the olfactory responses to pheromone compounds in the periphery and in the antennal lobes (ALs) of males of the two species, as well as of their hybrids and backcrosses. Single-sensillum recordings were carried out to explore characteristics of male-specific sensilla on the antennae, and in vivo calcium imaging combined with digital 3D-reconstruction was used to describe what happens in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the AL. The results show that the population ratio of the two male-specific types of olfactory sensory neurons responding to two sex pheromone components are controlled by a major gene, and that the allele of H. armigera is dominant. Consistently, the study of the representative areas activated by sex pheromone components in the ALs further support the dominance of H. armigera. However, the topological structure of the MGC in the hybrid was similar but not identical to that in H. armigera. All subtypes of male-specific sensilla identified in the two species were found in the male hybrids and backcrosses. Moreover, two new subtypes with broader response spectra (the expanded A subtype and the expanded C subtype) emerged in the hybrids. Based on the inheritance pattern of the pheromone sensory system, we predict that when hybridization of female H. armigera and male H. assulta occurs in the field, male hybrids would readily backcross with female H. armigera, and introgression might occur from H. assulta into H. armigera through repeated backcrossing. PMID:28119570

  9. A Nonhost Peptidase Inhibitor of ~14 kDa from Butea monosperma (Lam. Taub. Seeds Affects Negatively the Growth and Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhash K. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major devastating pests of crop plants. In this context a serine peptidase inhibitor purified from the seeds of Butea monosperma was evaluated for its effect on developmental physiology of H. armigera larvae. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor on 12% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exhibited a single protein band of ~14 kDa with or without reduction. In vitro studies towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera and bovine trypsin indicated measurable inhibitory activity. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor dose for 50% mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 0.5% w/w and 0.10% w/w, respectively. The IC50 of B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor against total H. armigera gut proteinases activity was 2.0 µg/mL. The larval feeding assays suggested B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor to be toxic as reflected by its retarded growth and development, consequently affecting fertility and fecundity of pest and prolonging the larval-pupal duration of the insect life cycle of H. armigera. Supplementing B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor in artificial diet at 0.1% w/w, both the efficiencies of conversion of ingested as well as digested food were downregulated, whereas approximate digestibility and metabolic cost were enhanced. The efficacy of Butea monosperma peptidase inhibitor against progressive growth and development of H. armigera suggest its usefulness in insect pest management of food crops.

  10. Bio-potency of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica seeds on the developmental physiology of H. armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-11-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin were ~2.10 µg/ml and 1.68 µg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21 kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H. armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H. armigera larvae. These results suggest that TTI has toxic and adverse effect on the developmental physiology of H. armigera and could be useful in controlling the pest H. armigera.

  11. 柳蚕异柠檬酸脱氢酶基因cDNA的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Gene From Actias selene Hubner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祥; 曹甲; 刘朝良; 朱保建; 魏国清; 王在贵; 姚立虎; 钱岑; 汤良文; 周炎

    2009-01-01

    异柠檬酸脱氢酶(isocitrate dehydrogenase,IDH)是生物体内一种重要的氧化还原酶.根据已报道的烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸磷酸异柠檬酸脱氢酶(NADP-IDH)基因的保守性序列设计引物,以柳蚕(Actias selene Hubner)蛹脂肪体cDNA为模板,经PCR扩增获得了柳蚕IDH基因的部分序列.该序列长1 269 bp,编码412个氨基酸,与家蚕IDH基因的cDNA序列同源性达82.5%.柳蚕IDH与果蝇、赤拟谷盗、斑马鱼、人、大鼠、库蚊、人体虱、恶性疟原虫IDH的氨基酸序列同源性在70%左右,具有较高的保守性.半定量PCR检测结果表明,柳蚕IDH基因在蛹期不同组织中均有表达,且表达量没有显著差异.

  12. Gene cloning and expression of cadherin in midgut of Helicoverpa armigera and its Cry1A binding region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guirong; WU Kongming; LIANG Gemei; GUO Yuyuan

    2005-01-01

    Cadherins belong to one of the families of animal glycoproteins responsible for calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Recent literatures showed that the cadherin-like in midgut of several insects served as the receptor of Bt toxin Cry1A and the variation of cadherin-like is related to insect's resistance to Cry1A. The full-length cDNA encoding cadherin-like of Helicoverpa armigera is cloned by degenerate PCR and RACE techniques and the gene was designated as BtR-harm, which is 5581 bp in full-length, encoding 1730 amino acid residues (BtR-harm was deposited in GenBank and the accession number is AF519180). Its predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point were 195.39 kDa and 4.23, respectively. The inferred amino acid sequence includes a signal sequence, 11 cadherin repeats, a membrane-proximal region, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic region. Sequence analysis indicated that the deduced protein sequence was most similar to the cadherin-like from Heliothis virescens with 84.2% identity and highly similar to three other lepidopteran cadherin from Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta and Pectinophora gossypiella, with the sequence identities of 60.3.6%, 57.5% and 51.0%, respectively. The cDNA encoding cadherin gene was expressed successfully in E. coli and the recombinant proteins can bind with Cry1Ac. Truncation analysis and binding experiment of BtR-harm revealed that the Cry1A binding region was a contiguous 244-amino acid sequence, which located between amino acid 1217 and 1461. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that BtR-harm was highly expressed in midgut of H. armigera, very low expressed in foregut and hindgut and was not expressed in other tissues. After H. armigera producing resistance to Cry1Ac, the expression quantity of BtR-harm significantly decreased in midgut of H. armigera. It is the first confirmation that BtR-harm can function as receptor of Cry1Ac in H. armigera and the binding region was located on a contiguous 244 amino acid sequence

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins affect lifespan and reproductive performance of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Yan; Wan, Pin-Jun; Mu, Li-Li; Li, Guo-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Being delivered as sprays or expressed in plant, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline proteins (Cry toxins) display insecticidal activities against numerous Lepidopteran, Dipteran, and Coleopteran larvae. Comparative study of toxicities of Bt Cry toxins between larvae and adults may afford important new insights into the interactions of the toxins with receptor proteins in host insect, and represent intriguing targets for the control of insect pests. However, the effectiveness of Bt Cry toxins in insect adults has paid less attention. In the present article, the effectiveness of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca on lifespans and reproductive performance of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) adults were evaluated by in vivo experiments. Considering transgenic plants express modified, truncated versions of cry genes yielding active toxin fragment, we used activated Bt toxins at the concentration of 500, 100, and 20 microg/ml in a 10% sucrose aquous solution. At the highest concentration, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca shortened 48.1 and 48.9% of H. armigera female lifespan, and 43.5 and 38.5% of S. exigua female lifespan, and they reduced 37.8 and 40.3%, and 50.5 and 47.4% of H. armigera and S. exigua male lifespans respectively. Bt toxins negatively affected copulation. Exposure to 500 microg/ml of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca greatly reduced 50.0 and 46.8%, and 58.7 and 57.3% spermatophore acceptance by H. armigera and S. exigua females, respectively. Similarly, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca exposure decreased 40.0 and 50.3%, and 61.3 and 60.0% of spermatophore transfer by H. armigera and S. exigua males, respectively. Moreover, exposure females rather than males to 500 microg/ml of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca significantly dropped 57.5 and 57.5% of the number of eggs laid by H. armigera, and 35.4 and 45.8% of the number of egg masses deposited by S. exigua. In contrast, both Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca did not negatively influence the egg hatchability. At the middle and the lowest concentrations, however

  14. DNA synthesis in the imaginal wing discs of the American bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Josephrajkumar; B Subrahmanyam

    2002-03-01

    The effect of two insect growth regulators of plant origin viz. plumbagin and azadirachtin and the ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone, makisterone A and a phytoecdysteroid on DNA synthesis in imaginal wing discs of day 4 final instar Helicoverpa armigera larvae was studied. DNA synthesis increased with increase in time of incubation up to 8 h and decreased later without the addition of moulting hormone. Addition of 20-hydroxyecdysone supported long term acquisition of competence for DNA synthesis in the wing discs. Both DNA synthesis and protein content were drastically reduced in plumbagin and azadirachtin-treated insects. Under in vitro conditions, plumbagin had a more pronounced inhibitory effect than azadirachtin. All the ecdysteroids tested, viz. makisterone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone and the ecdysteroidal fraction from the silver fern Cheilanthes farinosa enhanced DNA synthesis.

  15. Way toward "dietary pesticides": molecular investigation of insecticidal action of caffeic acid against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R S; Wagh, T P; Sharma, N; Mulani, F A; Sonavane, U; Thulasiram, H V; Joshi, R; Gupta, V S; Giri, A P

    2014-11-12

    Bioprospecting of natural molecules is essential to overcome serious environmental issues and pesticide resistance in insects. Here we are reporting insights into insecticidal activity of a plant natural phenol. In silico and in vitro screening of multiple molecules supported by in vivo validations suggested that caffeic acid (CA) is a potent inhibitor of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteases. Protease activity and gene expression were altered in CA-fed larvae. The structure-activity relationship of CA highlighted that all the functional groups are crucial for inhibition of protease activity. Biophysical studies and molecular dynamic simulations revealed that sequential binding of multiple CA molecules induces conformational changes in the protease(s) and thus lead to a significant decline in their activity. CA treatment significantly inhibits the insect's detoxification enzymes, thus intensifying the insecticidal effect. Our findings suggest that CA can be implicated as a potent insecticidal molecule and explored for the development of effective dietary pesticides.

  16. Efifciency of Different Methods for dsRNA Delivery in Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; HAN Zhao-jun

    2014-01-01

    RNAi trigged by dsRNA not only facilitates the development of molecular biology, but also initiates a new way for pest control by silence of fatal genes. However, one of the key limitations in pest control is lack of the convenient and efifcient method for dsRNA delivery. In this study, different dsRNA delivery methods at their own optimum conditions were evaluated comparatively for their efifciency with Helicoverpa armigera as test animal. It was found that the popular one-time injection of larvae with dsRNA could reduce the pupation rate by 43.0%and enhance larva mortality by 11.7%. One-time ingestion of dsRNA did not result in any signiifcant effect on phenotype. Continuous ingestion of in vitro synthesized dsRNA by refreshing the bait diet every day caused 40.4% decrease in successful pupation and 10.0% increase in larval mortality, which was similar as one-time injection. The most efifcient method was found to be the continuous ingestion of the bacteria containing dsRNA expressed, which reduced the rate of pupation by 68.7%and enhanced the larval mortality by 34.1%. Further analysis found that dsRNA was degraded faster in midgut juice than in hemolymph. However, the cell of bacteria could protect dsRNA and delay the degradation in the midgut juice of H. armigera. These results throw light on the application of dsRNA in pest management with proper ways.

  17. 78 FR 25623 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... risk Type Organism Taxonomy potential Arthropods Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper). Lepidoptera: Noctuidae......... High Helicoverpa armigera Lepidoptera: Noctuidae......... High (H bner). Liriomyza huidobrensis Diptera... littoralis Lepidoptera: Noctuidae......... High (Boisduval). Lampides boeticus Linnaeus........

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Gut Bacterial Proteases Involved in Inducing Pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regode, Visweshwar; Kuruba, Sreeramulu; Mohammad, Akbar S.; Sharma, Hari C.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxin proteins are deployed in transgenic plants for pest management. The present studies were aimed at characterization of gut bacterial proteases involved in activation of inactive Cry1Ac protoxin (pro-Cry1Ac) to active toxin in Helicoverpa armigera. Bacterial strains were isolated from H. armigera midgut and screened for their proteolytic activation toward pro-Cry1Ac. Among 12 gut bacterial isolates seven isolates showed proteolytic activity, and proteases from three isolates (IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3) were found to be involved in the proteolytic conversion of pro-Cry1Ac into active toxin. The proteases from IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3 isolates were purified to 11.90-, 15.50-, and 17.20-fold, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for gut bacterial protease activity was 8.0 and 40°C. Maximum inhibition of total proteolytic activity was exerted by phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride followed by EDTA. Fluorescence zymography revealed that proteases from IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3 were chymotrypsin-like and showing protease band at ~15, 65, and 15 kDa, respectively. Active Cry1Ac formed from processing pro-Cry1Ac by gut bacterial proteases exhibited toxicity toward H. armigera. The gut bacterial isolates IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3 showed homology with B. thuringiensis (CP003763.1), Vibrio fischeri (CP000020.2), and Escherichia coli (CP011342.1), respectively. Proteases produced by midgut bacteria are involved in proteolytic processing of B. thuringiensis protoxin and play a major role in inducing pathogenicity of B. thuringiensis toxins in H. armigera. PMID:27766093

  19. Isolation and characterization of gut bacterial proteases involved in inducing pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visweshwar Regode

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin proteins are deployed in transgenic plants for pest management. The present studies were aimed at characterization of gut bacterial proteases involved in activation of inactive Cry1Ac protoxin (pro-Cry1Ac to active toxin in Helicoverpa armigera. Bacterial strains were isolated from H. armigera midgut and screened for their proteolytic activation towards pro-Cry1Ac. Among twelve gut bacterial isolates seven isolates showed proteolytic activity, and proteases from three isolates (IVS1, IVS2 and IVS3 were found to be involved in the proteolytic conversion of pro-Cry1Ac into active toxin. The proteases from IVS1, IVS2 and IVS3 isolates were purified to 11.90-, 15.50- and 17.20-fold, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for gut bacterial protease activity was 8.0 and 40 oC. Maximum inhibition of total proteolytic activity was exerted by PMSF followed by EDTA. Fluorescence zymography revealed that proteases from IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3 were chymotrypsin-like and showing protease band at ~15, 65 and 15 kDa, respectively. Active Cry1Ac formed from processing pro-Cry1Ac by gut bacterial proteases exhibited toxicity towards H. armigera. The gut bacterial isolates IVS1, IVS2 and IVS3 showed homology with Bacillus thuringiensis (CP003763.1, Vibrio fischeri (CP000020.2 and Escherichia coli (CP011342.1, respectively. Proteases produced by midgut bacteria are involved in proteolytic processing of Bt protoxin and play a major role in inducing pathogenicity of Bt toxins in H. armigera.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar Tolworthi Strain Na205-3, an Isolate Toxic for Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Murillo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    We report here the complete annotated 6,510,053-bp draft genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tolworthi strain Na205-3, which is toxic for Helicoverpa armigera. This strain potentially contains nine insecticidal toxin genes homologous to cry1Aa12, cry1Ab1, cry1Ab8, cry1Ba1, cry1Af1, cry1Ia10, vip1Bb1, vip2Ba2, and vip3Aa6. PMID:24625875

  1. Cantharidin Impedes Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase in the Midgut of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Lin Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations have implicated glutathione S-transferases (GSTs as one of the major reasons for insecticide resistance. Therefore, effectiveness of new candidate compounds depends on their ability to inhibit GSTs to prevent metabolic detoxification by insects. Cantharidin, a terpenoid compound of insect origin, has been developed as a bio-pesticide in China, and proves highly toxic to a wide range of insects, especially lepidopteran. In the present study, we test cantharidin as a model compound for its toxicity, effects on the mRNA transcription of a model Helicoverpa armigera glutathione S-transferase gene (HaGST and also for its putative inhibitory effect on the catalytic activity of GSTs, both in vivo and in vitro in Helicoverpa armigera, employing molecular and biochemical methods. Bioassay results showed that cantharidin was highly toxic to H. armigera. Real-time qPCR showed down-regulation of the HaGST at the mRNA transcript ranging from 2.5 to 12.5 folds while biochemical assays showed in vivo inhibition of GSTs in midgut and in vitro inhibition of rHaGST. Binding of cantharidin to HaGST was rationalized by homology and molecular docking simulations using a model GST (1PN9 as a template structure. Molecular docking simulations also confirmed accurate docking of the cantharidin molecule to the active site of HaGST impeding its catalytic activity.

  2. Helicoverpa armigera baseline susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins and resistance management for Bt cotton in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, G T; Kalia, V; Kumari, A; Singh, B P; Mittal, A; Nair, R; Mohan, M

    2007-07-01

    Transgenic cotton that produces insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), often referred to as Bt cotton, is widely grown in many countries. Bt cotton with a single cry1A gene and stacked also with cry2A gene has provided satisfactory protection against the damage by the lepidopteran bollworms, especially the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which is considered as a key pest. The baseline susceptibility of the larvae of H. armigera to Cry1Ac and other toxins carried out in many countries has provided a basis for monitoring resistance. There is no evidence of development of field-level resistance in H. armigera leading to the failure of Bt cotton crop anywhere in the world, despite the fact that Bt cotton was grown on the largest ever area of 12.1 million hectares in 2006 and its cumulative cultivation over the last 11 years has surpassed the annual cotton area in the world. Nevertheless, the Bt resistance management has become a necessity to sustain Bt cotton and other transgenic crops in view of potential of the target insects to evolve Cry toxin resistance.

  3. Phenoloxidase in larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): molecular cloning of the proenzyme cDNA and enzyme activity in larvae paralyzed and parasitized by Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzer, Kris L; Zhu, Kun Yan; Baker, James E

    2005-06-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a major component of the insect immune system. The enzyme is involved in encapsulation and melanization processes as well as wound healing and cuticle sclerotization. PO is present as an inactive proenzyme, prophenoloxidase (PPO), which is activated via a protease cascade. In this study, we have cloned a full-length PPO1 cDNA and a partial PPO2 cDNA from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and documented changes in PO activity in larvae paralyzed and parasitized by the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The cDNA for PPO1 is 2,748 bp and encodes a protein of 681 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 78,328 and pI of 6.41 containing a conserved proteolytic cleavage site found in other PPOs. P. interpunctella PPO1 ranges from 71-78% identical to other known lepidopteran PPO-1 sequences. Percent identity decreases as comparisons are made to PPO-1 of more divergent species in the orders Diptera (Aa-48; As-49; and Sb-60%) and Coleoptera (Tm-58; Hd-50%). Paralyzation of host larvae of P. interpunctella by the idiobiont H. hebetor results in an increase in phenoloxidase activity in host hemolymph, a process that may protect the host from microbial infection during self-provisioning by this wasp. Subsequent parasitization by H. hebetor larvae causes a decrease in hemolymph PO activity, which suggests that the larval parasitoid may be secreting an immunosuppressant into the host larva during feeding.

  4. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.J.; Luo, J.Y.; Werf, van der W.; Ma, Y.; Xia, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in confe

  5. Saniba nom. nov. para Sabina Evans (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mielke Olaf H. H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Saniba nom. nov. for Sabina Evans, 1955 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae. Sabina Evans, 1955 is preoccupied by Williams (1851 (Annelida, Polychaeta; a new replacement name is proposed: Saniba Mielke & Casagrande.

  6. Comparative study on the responses of maxillary sensilla styloconica of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and Oriental tobacco budworm H. assulta larvae to phytochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤德良; 王琛柱; 罗林儿; 钦俊德

    2000-01-01

    Using the electro-physiological technique, the sensory mechanisms of maxillary sensilla styloconica to stimulants and deterrents were explored on two closely related species, the generalist Helicoverpa armigera and the specialist H. assulta. The results showed that: (i) in both species, cells sensitive to sucrose and azadirachtin were mainly in the lateral sensillum styloconicum, and those to inositol were in the medial sensillum styloconicum; (ii) sensitivity of medial sensillum styloconicum in H. assulta to inositol was higher than that in H. armigera; (iii) among 6 tested deterrents, only azadirachtin evoked high impulse discharge from the lateral sensillum styloconicum in both insects; (iv) the deterrents could disturb stimulants evoking impulse discharge from maxillary sensilla styloconica of both species in different degrees: To sucrose evoking impulses on lateral sensillum styloconicum, for H. armigera capsaicin had a strong inhibition and gossypol had a weak inhibition, while for H. assulta tann

  7. BIO-EFFICACY OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST FRUIT BORER (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Katroju,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment carried out during kharif, 2012 at Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG @11 g a.i. ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 22 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @ 500 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @1000 g a.i. ha-1, spinosad 45 SC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis @ 25 g a.i. ha-1against tomato fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera. Among all the insecticides, profenophos (1000 g a.i. ha-1 was found to be the most effective one with a maximum reduction in fruit borer population (65.20%, minimum per cent of fruit damage (28.80% and maximum yield (26.43 kg/20 m2 followed by bifenthrin @ 100 g a.i.ha-1 with reduced larval population of 64.51% and damaged fruits 32.60%.

  8. Genetic variation underlies temperature tolerance of embryos in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, R A; Evans, J P

    2013-10-01

    Ocean warming can alter natural selection on marine systems, and in many cases, the long-term persistence of affected populations will depend on genetic adaptation. In this study, we assess the potential for adaptation in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma armigera, an Australian endemic, that is experiencing unprecedented increases in ocean temperatures. We used a factorial breeding design to assess the level of heritable variation in larval hatching success at two temperatures. Fertilized eggs from each full-sibling family were tested at 22 °C (current spawning temperature) and 25 °C (upper limit of predicted warming this century). Hatching success was significantly lower at higher temperatures, confirming that ocean warming is likely to exert selection on this life-history stage. Our analyses revealed significant additive genetic variance and genotype-by-environment interactions underlying hatching success. Consistent with prior work, we detected significant nonadditive (sire-by-dam) variance in hatching success, but additionally found that these interactions were modified by temperature. Although these findings suggest the potential for genetic adaptation, any evolutionary responses are likely to be influenced (and possibly constrained) by complex genotype-by-environment and sire-by-dam interactions and will additionally depend on patterns of genetic covariation with other fitness traits.

  9. The ORF 113 of Heliocoverpa armigera Single Nucleopolyhedrovirus Encodes a Functional Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang LI; Chang-yong LIANG; Jian-hua SONG; Xin-wen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a key regulator of developmental processes. A FGF homolog (vFGF) is found in all lepidopteran baculoviruses. Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV) vFGFs are chemotactic factors. Here we analyzed the vfgf of Helicoverpa armigera NPV (HearNPV), a group Ⅱ NPV. The HearNPV vfgftranscripts were detected from 18 to 96 h post-infection (hpi) of Hz-AMI cells with HearNPV and encoded a 36 kDa protein, which was secreted into the culture medium. HearNPV vFGF had strong affinity to heparin, a property important for FGF signaling via an FGF receptor. Unlike its AcMNPV homolog, HearNPV vFGF specially chemoattracted Hz-AM 1, but not other insect cells such as Sf9 and Se-UCR and not the mammalian cells 293 and HepG2. HearNPV vFGF is also associated with the envelope of BV but is absent in occlusion-derived virus, which coordinated to the chemotatic activity analysis.

  10. Functional Characteristics of a Novel Chemosensory Protein in the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-tao; WANG Wei-xuan; ZHANG Zi-ding; ZHANG Yong-jun; GUO Yu-yuan

    2013-01-01

    A chemosensory protein named HarmCSP5 in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was obtained from antennal cDNA libraries and expressed in Escherichia coli. The real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results indicated that HarmCSP5 gene was mainly expressed in male and female antennae but also expressed in female legs and wings. Competitive binding assays were performed to test the binding affinity of recombinant HarmCSP5 to 60 odor molecules including some cotton volatiles. The resules showed that HarmCSP5 showed strong binding abilities to 4-ehtylbenzaldehyde and 3,4-dimethlbenz aldehyde, whereas methyl phenylacetate, 2-decanone, 1-pentanol, carvenol, isoborneol, nerolidol, 2-nonanone and ethyl heptanoate have relatively weak binding affinity. Moreover, the predicted 3D model of HarmCSP5 consists of sixα-helices located among residues 33-38 (α1), 40-48 (α2), 62-72 (α3), 80-96 (α4), 98-108 (α5), and 116-119 (α6), two pairs of disulfide bridges Cys49-Cys55, Cys75-Cys78. The two amino acid residues, Ile94 and Trp101, may play crucial roles in HarmCSP5 binding with ligands and need further study for confirmation.

  11. A Novel Neurotoxin Gene ar1b Recombination Enhances the Efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedrovirus as a Pesticide by Inhibiting the Host Larvae Ability to Feed and Grow

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Yu; Jiao Meng; Jian Xu; Tong-Xian Liu; Dun Wang

    2015-01-01

    A recombinant Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV), Ar1b-HearNPV, was constructed and identified as an improved bio-control agent of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. The HearNPV polyhedrin promoter was used to express the insect-specific neurotoxin gene, ar1b, which was originally isolated from the Australian funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus). RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis showed that both the ar1b transcript and protein were produced successfully in Ar1b-HearNPV-infected H...

  12. A molecular view of autophagy in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Davide; Casati, Barbara; Franzetti, Eleonora; Tettamanti, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Metamorphosis represents a critical phase in the development of holometabolous insects, during which the larval body is completely reorganized: in fact, most of the larval organs undergo remodeling or completely degenerate before the final structure of the adult insect is rebuilt. In the past, increasing evidence emerged concerning the intervention of autophagy and apoptosis in the cell death processes that occur in larval organs of Lepidoptera during metamorphosis, but a molecular characterization of these pathways was undertaken only in recent years. In addition to developmentally programmed autophagy, there is growing interest in starvation-induced autophagy. Therefore we are now entering a new era of research on autophagy that foreshadows clarification of the role and regulatory mechanisms underlying this self-digesting process in Lepidoptera. Given that some of the most important lepidopteran species of high economic importance, such as the silkworm, Bombyx mori, belong to this insect order, we expect that this information on autophagy will be fully exploited not only in basic research but also for practical applications.

  13. A New Report of Odontosia sieversii (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae from Korea

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    Sei-Woong Choi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, 104 species of Notodontidae have been recorded. The genus Odontosia Hubner is characterized by the elongate and serrate margin of its forewing and the prominent harpe of valva and many spinular cornuti on the vesica of the male genitalia and the robust ductus bursae and large, ovate and sclerotized corpus bursae of the female genitalia. Only one species of Odontosia, O. patricia Stichel, 1918, has been reported from Korea. In this paper, Odontosia sieversii (Menetries, 1856 is newly added to the Korean fauna based on three male specimens collected at Mt. Bangtaesan, Gangwon-do, Korea. Diagnosis for the species and photographs of adult and genitalia of the genus Odontosia are provided

  14. Bioefficacy and mode-of-action of some limonoids of salannin group from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and their role in a multicomponent system against lepidopteran larvae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Opender Koul; Gurmeet Singh; Rajwinder Singh; Jasbir Singh; W M Daniewski; Stanislaw Berlozecki

    2004-12-01

    Biological activities of the salannin type of limonoids isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss were assessed using the gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and the tobacco armyworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Inhibition of larval growth was concomitant with reduced feeding by neonate and third instar larvae. All three compounds exhibited strong antifeedant activity in a choice leaf disc bioassay with 2.0, 2.3 and 2.8 g/cm2 of 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol and salannin, respectively deterring feeding by 50% in S. litura larvae. In nutritional assays, all three compounds reduced growth and consumption when fed to larvae without any effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), suggesting antifeedant activity alone. No toxicity was observed nor was there any significant affect on nutritional indices following topical application, further suggesting specific action as feeding deterrents. When relative growth rates were plotted against relative consumption rates, growth efficiency of the H. armigera fed diet containing 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol or salannin did not differ from that of starved control larvae (used as calibration curve), further confirming the specific antifeedant action of salannin type of limonoids. Where the three compounds were co-administered, no enhancement in activity was observed. Non-azadirachtin limonoids having structural similarities and explicitly similar modes of action, like feeding deterrence in the present case, have no potentiating effect in any combination.

  15. Functional validation of cadherin as a receptor of Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa armigera utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Haonan; Wang, Huidong; Zhao, Shan; Zuo, Yayun; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Yidong

    2016-09-01

    Cadherins have been identified as receptors of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins in several lepidopteran insects including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Disruption of the cadherin gene HaCad has been genetically linked to resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in H. armigera. By using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9), HaCad from the Cry1Ac-susceptible SCD strain of H. armigera was successfully knocked out. A single positive CRISPR event with a frame shift deletion of 4 nucleotides was identified and made homozygous to create a knockout line named SCD-Cad. Western blotting confirmed that HaCad was no longer expressed in the SCD-Cad line while an intact HaCad of 210 kDa was present in the parental SCD strain. Insecticide bioassays were used to show that SCD-Cad exhibited 549-fold resistance to Cry1Ac compared with SCD, but no significant change in susceptibility to Cry2Ab. Our results not only provide strong reverse genetics evidence for HaCad as a functional receptor of Cry1Ac, but also demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 technique can act as a powerful and efficient genome editing tool to study gene function in a global agricultural pest, H. armigera.

  16. Comparative study on the responses of maxillary sensilla styloconica of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and Oriental tobacco budworm H. assulta larvae to phytochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using the electro-physiological technique, the sensory mechanisms of maxillary sensilla styloconica to stimulants and deterrents were explored on two closely related species, the generalist Helicoverpa armigera and the specialist H. assulta. The results showed that: (i) in both species, cells sensitive to sucrose and azadirachtin were mainly in the lateral sensillum styloconicum, and those to inositol were in the medial sensillum styloconicum; (ii) sensitivity of medial sensillum styloconicum in H. assulta to inositol was higher than that in H. armigera; (iii) among 6 tested deterrents, only azadirachtin evoked high impulse discharge from the lateral sensillum styloconicum in both insects; (iv) the deterrents could disturb stimulants evoking impulse discharge from maxillary sensilla styloconica of both species in different degrees: To sucrose evoking impulses on lateral sensillum styloconicum, for H. armigera capsaicin had a strong inhibition and gossypol had a weak inhibition, while for H. assulta tannic acid, gossypol, and tomatine all had strong inhibition except nicotine and capsaicin; to inositol evoking impulses on medial sensilum styloconicum, for H. armigera inhibition of tomatine was strong but that of gossypol was weak; and for H. assulta inhibition of gossypol was strong but that of nicotine was weak.

  17. Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus occlusion-derived virus-associated protein, HA100, affects oral infectivity in vivo but not virus replication in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, S.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, X.; Westenberg, M.; Vlak, J.M.; Wang, H.; Hu, Z.; Deng, F.

    2011-01-01

    ORF100 (ha100) of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) has been reported as one of the unique genes of group II alphabaculoviruses encoding a protein located in the occlusion-derived virus (ODV) envelope and nucleocapsid. The protein consists of 510 aa with a predicted mass of 58.1 kD

  18. Fitness costs to Helicoverpa armigera after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato: Study on F1 generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, Azadeh; Safavi, Seyed Ali

    2016-07-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin is a valuable biocontrol agent attacking larval stages of many lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Sub-lethal effects of M. anisopliae sensu lato (s.l.) (isolate M14) were investigated on life table parameters of offspring from treated larvae of H. armigera. Duration of different life stages was significantly affected by fungal treatments. Fecundity was decreased in females derived from H. armigera larvae treated with M. anisopliae s.l. Sub-lethal concentrations of the entomopathogen reduced the net reproduction rate (R0) of F1 insects for all treatments compared with the control. Similar reductions were observed for the intrinsic and the finite rates of increase (rm and λ, respectively). The mean generation time (T) and the doubling time (DT) were statistically higher in offspring of individuals exposed to some fungal concentrations than control insects. Our results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the F1 population of H. armigera derived from larvae that were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of M. anisopliae s.l.

  19. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbo; Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  20. Integrated proteomic and metabolomic analysis of larval brain associated with diapause induction and preparation in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Yu-Xuan; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2012-02-03

    Diapause is a developmental arrest that allows an organism to survive unfavorable environmental conditions and is induced by environmental signals at a certain sensitive developmental stage. In Helicoverpa armigera, the larval brain receives the environmental signals for diapause induction and then regulates diapause entry at the pupal stage. Here, combined proteomic and metabolomic differential display analysis was performed on the H. armigera larval brain. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, it was found that 22 proteins were increased and 27 proteins were decreased in the diapause-destined larval brain, 37 of which were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that the expression levels of the differentially expressed proteins were consistent with the 2-DE results. Furthermore, a total of 49 metabolites were identified in the larval brain by GC-MS analysis, including 4 metabolites at high concentrations and 14 metabolites at low concentrations. The results gave us a clue to understand the governing molecular events of the prediapause phase. Those differences that exist in the induction phase of diapause-destined individuals are probably relevant to a special memory mechanism for photoperiodic information storage, and those differences that exist in the preparation phase are likely to regulate accumulation of specific energy reserves in diapause-destined individuals.

  1. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Chen

    Full Text Available Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50 of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  2. Genetic engineering of cotton with a novel cry2AX1 gene to impart insect resistance against Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamurthy Dhivya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic calli of cotton (Coker310 were cocultivated with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the codon-optimised, chimeric cry2AX1 gene consisting of sequences from cry2Aa and cry2Ac genes isolated from Indian strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. Forty-eight putative transgenic plants were regenerated, and PCR analysis of these plants revealed the presence of the cry2AX1 gene in 40 plants. Southern blot hybridisation analysis of selected transgenic plants confirmed stable T-DNA integration in the genome of transformed plants. The level of Cry2AX1 protein expression in PCR positive plants ranged from 4.9 to 187.5 ng g-1 of fresh tissue. A transgenic cotton event, TP31, expressing the cry2AX1 gene showed insecticidal activity of 56.66 per cent mortality against Helicoverpa armigera in detached leaf disc bioassay. These results indicate that the chimeric cry2AX1 gene expressed in transgenic cotton has insecticidal activity against H. armigera.

  3. Molecular identification of three novel glutaredoxin genes that play important roles in antioxidant defense in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Dou; Shen, Zhong-Jian; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2016-08-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs), also known as thioltransferases, play key roles in maintaining intracellular redox balance and protecting cells from oxidative damage in plants and mammals. We tested whether Grxs play important roles in antioxidant defense in insects using the moth, Helicoverpa armigera. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of three novel Grx genes, named HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. Sequence analysis indicated that HaGrx shared a high amino acid identity (58%-78%) and a CPYC motif of conserved redox activity with homologues from other selected insect species. In contrast, HaGrx3 and HaGrx5 both shared a CGF(S/G) motif, a conserved catalytic domain, with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 exhibited temporally- and spatially-dependent patterns of expression. The mRNA expression of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 was induced by various temperature stresses and H2O2 treatments. We further investigated the knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 in H. armigera larvae and found that most of the selected antioxidant genes were up regulated. However, Tpx was down regulated, and further interpretation of the complementary functions of these antioxidant genes is still required. We also determined the effect of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 knockdown on antioxidant enzymatic activity and metabolite content. The enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD, and the metabolite contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate, protein carbonyl, and total GSH increased after RNAi mediated knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. These results supported our hypothesis that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 play important roles in antioxidant defense of Helicoverpa armigera and provided a theoretical basis for further in-depth study of physiological function in the insect glutaredoxin family genes.

  4. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed.

  5. Lepidoptera (Insecta) associated with soybean in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay.

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Carraro Formentini; Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez; Silvana Vieira de Paula-Moraes; Neiva Monteiro Barros; Alexandre Specht

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present research updates the systematic position and nomenclature of Lepidoptera associated with soybean crops in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. Scientific literature lists 69 species of Lepidoptera feeding on soybean plants. These species are representatives of the Superfamilies Noctuoidea (31), Pyraloidea (13), Hesperioidea (12), Tortricoidea (5), Geometroidea (5), and Bombycoidea (3). Diversity of Lepidoptera associated to crop, injury in different parts of the plant, ...

  6. Isotopes and trace elements as natal origin markers of Helicoverpa armigera--an experimental model for biosecurity pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Peter W; Armstrong, Karen; Van Hale, Robert; Millet, Marc-Alban; Frew, Russell; Clough, Timothy J; Baker, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    Protecting a nation's primary production sector and natural estate is heavily dependent on the ability to determine the risk presented by incursions of exotic insect species. Identifying the geographic origin of such biosecurity breaches can be crucial in determining this risk and directing the appropriate operational responses and eradication campaigns, as well as ascertaining incursion pathways. Reading natural abundance biogeochemical markers using mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for tracing ecological pathways as well as provenance determination of commercial products and items of forensic interest. However, application of these methods to trace insects has been underutilised to date and our understanding in this field is still in a phase of basic development. In addition, biogeochemical markers have never been considered in the atypical situation of a biosecurity incursion, where sample sizes are often small, and of unknown geographic origin and plant host. These constraints effectively confound the interpretation of the one or two isotope geo-location markers systems that are currently used, which are therefore unlikely to achieve the level of provenance resolution required in biosecurity interceptions. Here, a novel approach is taken to evaluate the potential for provenance resolution of insect samples through multiple biogeochemical markers. The international pest, Helicoverpa armigera, has been used as a model species to assess the validity of using naturally occurring δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope ratios and trace element concentration signatures from single moth specimens for regional assignment to natal origin. None of the biogeochemical markers selected were individually able to separate moths from the different experimental regions (150-3000 km apart). Conversely, using multivariate analysis, the region of origin was correctly identified for approximately 75% of individual H. armigera samples. The geographic resolution

  7. Isotopes and trace elements as natal origin markers of Helicoverpa armigera--an experimental model for biosecurity pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Holder

    Full Text Available Protecting a nation's primary production sector and natural estate is heavily dependent on the ability to determine the risk presented by incursions of exotic insect species. Identifying the geographic origin of such biosecurity breaches can be crucial in determining this risk and directing the appropriate operational responses and eradication campaigns, as well as ascertaining incursion pathways. Reading natural abundance biogeochemical markers using mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for tracing ecological pathways as well as provenance determination of commercial products and items of forensic interest. However, application of these methods to trace insects has been underutilised to date and our understanding in this field is still in a phase of basic development. In addition, biogeochemical markers have never been considered in the atypical situation of a biosecurity incursion, where sample sizes are often small, and of unknown geographic origin and plant host. These constraints effectively confound the interpretation of the one or two isotope geo-location markers systems that are currently used, which are therefore unlikely to achieve the level of provenance resolution required in biosecurity interceptions. Here, a novel approach is taken to evaluate the potential for provenance resolution of insect samples through multiple biogeochemical markers. The international pest, Helicoverpa armigera, has been used as a model species to assess the validity of using naturally occurring δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope ratios and trace element concentration signatures from single moth specimens for regional assignment to natal origin. None of the biogeochemical markers selected were individually able to separate moths from the different experimental regions (150-3000 km apart. Conversely, using multivariate analysis, the region of origin was correctly identified for approximately 75% of individual H. armigera samples. The

  8. Next-generation sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of Helicoverpa armigera Larvae immune-primed with Photorhabdus luminescens TT01.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengyang Zhao

    Full Text Available Although invertebrates are incapable of adaptive immunity, immunal reactions which are functionally similar to the adaptive immunity of vertebrates have been described in many studies of invertebrates including insects. The phenomenon was termed immune priming. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of immune priming, we employed Illumina/Solexa platform to investigate the transcriptional changes of the hemocytes and fat body of Helicoverpa armigera larvae immune-primed with the pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens TT01. A total of 43.6 and 65.1 million clean reads with 4.4 and 6.5 gigabase sequence data were obtained from the TT01 (the immune-primed and PBS (non-primed cDNA libraries and assembled into 35,707 all-unigenes (non-redundant transcripts, which has a length varied from 201 to 16,947 bp and a N50 length of 1,997 bp. For 35,707 all-unigenes, 20,438 were functionally annotated and 2,494 were differentially expressed after immune priming. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs are mainly related to immunity, detoxification, development and metabolism of the host insect. Analysis on the annotated immune related DEGs supported a hypothesis that we proposed previously: the immune priming phenomenon observed in H. armigera larvae was achieved by regulation of key innate immune elements. The transcriptome profiling data sets (especially the sequences of 1,022 unannotated DEGs and the clues (such as those on immune-related signal and regulatory pathways obtained from this study will facilitate immune-related novel gene discovery and provide valuable information for further exploring the molecular mechanism of immune priming of invertebrates. All these will increase our understanding of invertebrate immunity which may provide new approaches to control insect pests or prevent epidemic of infectious diseases in economic invertebrates in the future.

  9. Testes and chromosomes in interspecific hybrids between Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Qingbo; YAN Yunhua; ZHAO Xincheng; WANG Chenzhu

    2005-01-01

    The interspecific hybridization between Helicoverpa armigera females and Helicoverpa assulta males yielded F1 hybrids (RS), fertile males and sterile individuals with abnormal genitals. The reverse hybridization between H. assulta females and H. armigera males yielded F1 hybrids (SR)――fertile males and fertile females. The morphology of testes and the karyotype of chromosomes of larvae in the hybrids were investigated. Among the 2d old fifth-instar SR larvae, individuals without testes were fertile females and those with testes were fertile males. The length and breadth of testes between SR and parental species were not significantly different (p>0.05). Among the 2d old fifth-instar RS larvae, the testes were observed in all the individuals, but it could be classified into two types. The length and the breadth of testes in Type 1 larvae were not significantly different from those of their parental species (p>0.05), while those in Type 2 were significantly less than those of their parental species (p<0.01). Mitotic metaphase I of brain cells showed the diploid chromosomes number of both reciprocal hybrids was 2n=62, as many as their parents. The haploid number of 31 was confirmed by counts from spermatocytes at meiotic metaphase from SR male larvae and Type 1 larvae of RS. Meiosis was not observed in spermatocytes of Type 2 larvae of RS. Considering the characteristics of adult hybrids of RS, it was concluded that Type 1 individuals in RS were fertile and those of Type 2 were sterile. The sterility of Type 2 individuals in RS is attributed to the abnormity in development of testes and the failing meiosis of spermatocytes. As a result, the normal spermatozoon could not been produced.

  10. Isotopes and Trace Elements as Natal Origin Markers of Helicoverpa armigera – An Experimental Model for Biosecurity Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Peter W.; Armstrong, Karen; Van Hale, Robert; Millet, Marc-Alban; Frew, Russell; Clough, Timothy J.; Baker, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Protecting a nation's primary production sector and natural estate is heavily dependent on the ability to determine the risk presented by incursions of exotic insect species. Identifying the geographic origin of such biosecurity breaches can be crucial in determining this risk and directing the appropriate operational responses and eradication campaigns, as well as ascertaining incursion pathways. Reading natural abundance biogeochemical markers using mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for tracing ecological pathways as well as provenance determination of commercial products and items of forensic interest. However, application of these methods to trace insects has been underutilised to date and our understanding in this field is still in a phase of basic development. In addition, biogeochemical markers have never been considered in the atypical situation of a biosecurity incursion, where sample sizes are often small, and of unknown geographic origin and plant host. These constraints effectively confound the interpretation of the one or two isotope geo-location markers systems that are currently used, which are therefore unlikely to achieve the level of provenance resolution required in biosecurity interceptions. Here, a novel approach is taken to evaluate the potential for provenance resolution of insect samples through multiple biogeochemical markers. The international pest, Helicoverpa armigera, has been used as a model species to assess the validity of using naturally occurring δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope ratios and trace element concentration signatures from single moth specimens for regional assignment to natal origin. None of the biogeochemical markers selected were individually able to separate moths from the different experimental regions (150–3000 km apart). Conversely, using multivariate analysis, the region of origin was correctly identified for approximately 75% of individual H. armigera samples. The geographic resolution

  11. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: An overview of successful and unsuccessful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terenius, O.; Papanicolaou, A.; Garbutt, J.S.; Eleftherianos, I.; Huvenne, H.; Kanginakudru, S.; Albrechtsen, M.; An, Chunju; Aymeric, J.L.; Barthel, A.; Bebas, P.; Bitra, K.; Bravo, A.; Chevalier, F.; Collinge, D.P.; Crava, C.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Duvic, B.; Erlandson, M.; Faye, I.; Felfoldi, G.; Fujiwara, H.; Futahashi, R.; Gandhe, A.S.; Gatehouse, H.S.; Gatehouse, L.N.; Giebultowicz, J.M.; Gomez, I.; Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P.; Groot, A.T.; Hauser, F.; Heckel, D.G.; Hegedus, D.D.; Hrycaj, S.; Huang, L.; Hull, J.J.; Iatrou, K.; Iga, M.; Kanost, M.R.; Kotwica, J.; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Meyering-Vos, M.; Millichap, P.J.; Monteiro, A.; Mrinal, N.; Niimi, T.; Nowara, D.; Ohnishi, A.; Oostra, V.; Ozaki, K.; Papakonstantinou, M.; Popadic, A.; Rajam, M.V.; Saenko, S.; Simpson, R.M.; Soberon, M.; Strand, M.R.; Tomita, S.; Toprak, U.; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, S.; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, J.; Ffrench-Constant, R.H.; Herrero, S.; Gordon, K.; Swevers, L.; Smagghe, G.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex

  12. A new species of Isopsestis (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae) from Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hailing; Owada, Mamoru; Wang, Min

    2015-08-19

    A new species of genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae), Isopsestis poculiformis sp. nov., is described from the locality 2660m elevation in Northeast Yunnan, China, and compared with its closest ally. Male adult and genitalia of the new species are illustrated and a distribution map of the genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 is provided.

  13. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  14. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY ...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  15. The Tortricidae described by J. C. Fabricius (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baixeras, Joaquin; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The identity and nomenclature of the 88 species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) described by J. C. Fabricius are reviewed. Type material deposited in the Natural History Museum Denmark is illustrated. Lectotypes for Tinea compositella (Fabricius, 1775), Pyralis rivellana (Fabricius, 1775) and P...

  16. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed.

  17. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  18. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  19. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7 Hesperiidae

  20. Towards a mitogenomic phylogeny of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Lees, David C; Simonsen, Thomas J

    2014-10-01

    The backbone phylogeny of Lepidoptera remains unresolved, despite strenuous recent morphological and molecular efforts. Molecular studies have focused on nuclear protein coding genes, sometimes adding a single mitochondrial gene. Recent advances in sequencing technology have, however, made acquisition of entire mitochondrial genomes both practical and economically viable. Prior phylogenetic studies utilised just eight of 43 currently recognised lepidopteran superfamilies. Here, we add 23 full and six partial mitochondrial genomes (comprising 22 superfamilies of which 16 are newly represented) to those publically available for a total of 24 superfamilies and ask whether such a sample can resolve deeper lepidopteran phylogeny. Using recoded datasets we obtain topologies that are highly congruent with prior nuclear and/or morphological studies. Our study shows support for an expanded Obtectomera including Gelechioidea, Thyridoidea, plume moths (Alucitoidea and Pterophoroidea; possibly along with Epermenioidea), Papilionoidea, Pyraloidea, Mimallonoidea and Macroheterocera. Regarding other controversially positioned higher taxa, Doidae is supported within the new concept of Drepanoidea and Mimallonidae sister to (or part of) Macroheterocera, while among Nymphalidae butterflies, Danainae and not Libytheinae are sister to the remainder of the family. At the deepest level, we suggest that a tRNA rearrangement occurred at a node between Adeloidea and Ditrysia+Palaephatidae+Tischeriidae.

  1. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: hemostasis implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Maggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal.

  2. Laboratory testing and molecular analysis of the resistance of wild and cultivated soybeans to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyi; Wang; Haifeng; Chen; Aihua; Sha; Rong; Zhou; Zhihui; Shang; Xiaojuan; Zhang; Chanjuan; Zhang; Limiao; Chen; Qingnan; Hao; Zhonglu; Yang; Dezhen; Qiu; Shuilian; Chen; Xinan; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Identifying a superior soybean variety with high defoliator resistance is important to avoid yield loss. Cotton bollworm(Helicoverpa armigera Hübner) is one of the major defoliators of soybean(Glycine max [L.] Merr.) worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the effect of H. armigera larvae on ED059, a wild soybean(Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.), and three cultivated soybean varieties: Tianlong 2, PI 535807, and PI 533604, in choice and no-choice assays. The percentage of ED059 leaflets consumed by H. armigera was lower than that of the three cultivated soybeans. Larvae that fed on ED059 exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rate.Waldbauer nutritional indices suggested that ED059 reduced the growth, consumption, and frass production of H. armigera larvae. Larvae that fed on ED059 showed lower efficiency of conversion of ingested and of digested food than those that fed on Tianlong 2 and PI 533604.However, they showed statistically similar consumption index and approximate digestibility compared with those fed on the three cultivated soybeans. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that 24 h after insect attack, ED059 had higher transcript levels of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor 3, Cysteine proteinase inhibitor 2, and Nerolidol synthase 1 but a lower transcript level of Pathogenesis-related protein 1 than Tianlong 2. The gene expression results were consistent with the presence of higher levels of jasmonic acid(JA) and transcript levels of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase 3 in ED059 than in Tianlong 2. Our findings indicate that ED059 is a superior soybean line with strong insect resistance that may be mediated via the JA pathway.

  3. Purification and Partial Characterization of Trypsin-Specific Proteinase Inhibitors from Pigeonpea Wild Relative Cajanus platycarpus L.(Fabaceae active against Gut Proteases of Lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marri Swathi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractProteinase inhibitors (PIs are natural defense proteins of plants found to be active against gut proteases of various insects. A pigeonpea wild relative Cajanus platycarpus was identified as a source of resistance against Helicoverpa armigera, a most devastating pest of several crops including pigeonpea. In the light of earlier studies, trypsin-specific PIs (CpPI 63 were purified from mature dry seeds of C. platycarpus (ICPW-63 and characterized their biochemical properties in contributing to H. armigera resistance. CpPI 63 possessed significant H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteinase inhibitor (HGPI activity than trypsin inhibitor (TI activity. Analysis of CpPI 63 using two-dimensional (2-D electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that it contained several isoinhibitors and small oligomers with masses ranging between 6-58 kDa. The gelatin activity staining studies suggest that these isoinhibitors and oligomers possessed strong inhibitory activity against H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteases (HGPs. The N-terminal sequence of the isoinhibitors (pI 6.6 and pI 5.6 of CpPI 63 exhibited 80% homology with several Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs as well as miraculin-like proteins (MLPs. Further, modification of lysine residue(s lead to 80% loss in both TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63. In contrast, the TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63 were stable over a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. The reported results provide a biochemical basis for pod borer resistance in C. platycarpus.

  4. Laboratory testing and molecular analysis of the resistance of wild and cultivated soybeans to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying a superior soybean variety with high defoliator resistance is important to avoid yield loss. Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner is one of the major defoliators of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the effect of H. armigera larvae on ED059, a wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc., and three cultivated soybean varieties: Tianlong 2, PI 535807, and PI 533604, in choice and no-choice assays. The percentage of ED059 leaflets consumed by H. armigera was lower than that of the three cultivated soybeans. Larvae that fed on ED059 exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rate. Waldbauer nutritional indices suggested that ED059 reduced the growth, consumption, and frass production of H. armigera larvae. Larvae that fed on ED059 showed lower efficiency of conversion of ingested and of digested food than those that fed on Tianlong 2 and PI 533604. However, they showed statistically similar consumption index and approximate digestibility compared with those fed on the three cultivated soybeans. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that 24 h after insect attack, ED059 had higher transcript levels of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor 3, Cysteine proteinase inhibitor 2, and Nerolidol synthase 1 but a lower transcript level of Pathogenesis-related protein 1 than Tianlong 2. The gene expression results were consistent with the presence of higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA and transcript levels of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase 3 in ED059 than in Tianlong 2. Our findings indicate that ED059 is a superior soybean line with strong insect resistance that may be mediated via the JA pathway.

  5. Characterization of the resistance to Vip3Aa in Helicoverpa armigera from Australia and the role of midgut processing and receptor binding

    OpenAIRE

    Maissa Chakroun; Núria Banyuls; Tom Walsh; Sharon Downes; Bill James; Juan Ferré

    2016-01-01

    Crops expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) are among the most successful technologies developed for the control of pests but the evolution of resistance to them remains a challenge. Insect resistant cotton and maize expressing the Bt Vip3Aa protein were recently commercialized, though not yet in Australia. We found that, although relatively high, the frequency of alleles for resistance to Vip3Aa in field populations of H. armigera in Australia did not increase over the past...

  6. Characterization and functional analysis ofβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase involved in Cry1Ac resistance from Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-li; LIANG Ge-mei; GAO Xi-wu; CAO Guang-chun; GUO Yu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate chains are the principal antigens by which Bacil us thuringiensis (Bt) identify receptor proteins. The interaction between the antigen and Bt causes a pore in the membrane of midgut epithelial cel s of insects. Receptor proteins, such as aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase, are glycoproteins. Cadherin is another cel surface receptor protein which has potential glycosylation sites. Glycosyltransferase is very important for the synthesis and modiifcation of receptor proteins. It can indirectly inlfuence the function of Bt. The 1 950 bp ful-length cDNA encodingβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase was cloned from the the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera by degenerative PCR combined with RACE techniques (GAL-Harm, GenBank accession no.:GQ904195.1) with two potential N-glycosylation sites (157NNTI160 and 272NKTL275). Protein sequence alignments revealed that H. armigeraβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase shared high identity withβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase in other insect species. The expression level of theβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene in Cry1Ac-resistant H. armigera larvae was 9.2-fold higher than that in susceptible strain. The function ofβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase was investigated using RNAi technique. The result showed Cry1Ac enhanced the toxicity against the siRNA-treated larvae compared with non-siRNA-treated ones, which indicatedβ-1,3-galactosyltransferase played an important role for the insecticidal toxicity of Cry1Ac in H. armigera.

  7. Toxicity and binding analyses of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Vip3A in Cry1Ac-resistant and-susceptible strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; CHEN Li-zhen; LU Qiong; ZHANG Yan; LIANG Ge-mei

    2015-01-01

    The Bacil us thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein, Vip3A, represents a new family of Bt toxin and is currently ap-plied to commercial transgenic cotton. To determine whether the Cry1Ac-resistant Helicoverpa armigera is cross-resistant to Vip3Aa protein, insecticidal activities, proteolytic activations and binding properties of Vip3Aa toxin were investigated using Cry1Ac-susceptible (96S) and Cry1Ac-resistant H. armigera strain (Cry1Ac-R). The toxicity of Vip3Aa in Cry1Ac-R slightly reduced compared with 96S, the resistance ratio was only 1.7-fold. The digestion rate of ful-length Vip3Aa by gut juice extracts from 96S was little faster than that from Cry1Ac-R. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed there was no signiifcant difference between the binding afifnity of Vip3Aa and BBMVs between 96S and Cry1Ac-R strains, and there was no signiifcant competitive binding between Vip3Aa and Cry1Ac in susceptible or resistant strains. So there had little cross-resistance between Vip3Aa and Cry1Ac,Vip3A+Cry proteins maybe the suitable pyramid strategy to control H. armigera in China in the future.

  8. A bifunctional α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor from pigeonpea seeds: Purification, biochemical characterization and its bio-efficacy against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadge, Prafull P; Wagh, Sandip K; Shaikh, Faiyaz K; Tak, Rajesh D; Padul, Manohar V; Kachole, Manvendra S

    2015-11-01

    This paper evaluates α-amylase inhibitor (α-AI) mediated defense of pigeonpea against Helicoverpa armigera. A bifunctional α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor was purified from the seeds of pigeonpea by native liquid phase isoelectric focusing (N-LP-IEF), affinity chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. Its in-vivo and in-vitro interaction with midgut amylases of H. armigera was studied along with growth inhibitory activity. One and two dimensional (2D) zymographic analyses revealed that the purified inhibitor is dimeric glycoprotein (60.2kDa and 56kDa) exist in a multi-isomeric form with five pI variants (pI 5.5 to 6.3). It was found to be heat labile with complete inactivation up to 80°C and stable over a wide range of pH (4-11). The slow binding and competitive type of α-amylase inhibition was observed with 0.08μM of dissociation constant (Ki) for the enzyme-inhibitor complex (EI). The internal protein sequence of two subunits obtained by mass spectrometry matched with cereal-type α-AI, a conserved domain from AAI_LTSS superfamily and sialyltransferase-like protein respectively. In-vivo studies indicated up-regulation of total midgut α-amylase activity with negative effect on growth rate of H. armigera suggesting its suitability for pest control.

  9. Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

  10. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general.

  11. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  12. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  13. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  14. Distribution patterns of riodinid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Iserhard,Cristiano Agra; Romanowski, Helena Piccoli; Callaghan,Curtis J.; Moser, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to synthesize the knowledge of Riodinidae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), southern Brazil, evaluating the role of climatic, topographic, and vegetational variables on the observed patterns of occurrence and distribution of these butterflies in the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. The records of riodinid butterflies in RS were collected from published studies and the examination of museum collections in Brazil. Re...

  15. Identification of an E-box DNA binding protein, activated protein 4, and its function in regulating the expression of the gene encoding diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C-H; Hong, B; Xu, W-H

    2010-04-01

    Activated protein 4 (AP-4), an E-box DNA-binding protein, was cloned from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Har). The expression of Har-AP-4 mRNA and the protein that it encodes are significantly higher in nondiapause pupae than in diapause pupae. In vitro-translated Har-AP-4 can bind specifically to the E-box motif on the promoter of the diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN). Har-AP-4, fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP), is localized to the nucleus, and overexpression of Har-AP-4 can significantly activate the promoter of the DH-PBAN gene that is involved in nondiapause pupal development in H. armigera. These results suggest that Har-AP-4, which binds to the promoter of DH-PBAN, may play a role in regulating pupal development in H. armigera.

  16. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera.

  17. Effects of dietary quercetin on performance and cytochrome P450 expression of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Yuan, Y; Li, M; Qiu, X

    2015-12-01

    Quercetin is ubiquitous in terrestrial plants. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera as a highly polyphagous insect has caused severe crop losses. Until now, interactions between this pest and quercetin are poorly understood at the biochemical and molecular levels. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of quercetin on performance of cotton bollworm and on cytochrome P450 (P450) expression. Deleterious effects of quercetin on the performance of the cotton bollworm, including growth, survival, pupation and adult emergence were observed after oral administration of 3 and 10 mg g(-1) quercetin to larvae since the third instar, whereas no significant toxic effect was found at 0.1 mg g(-1) quercetin treatment. Piperonyl butoxide treatment enhanced the toxicity of quercetin. In vitro metabolism studies showed that quercetin was rapidly transformed by gut enzymes of fifth instar larvae of the cotton bollworm. qRT-PCR results revealed that the effect of quercetin on P450 expression was tissue- and dose-specific. Quercetin regulated P450 expression in a mild manner, and it could serve as P450 inducer (CYP337B1, CYP6B6) or repressor (CYP337B1, CYP6B7, CYP6B27, CYP9A14, CYP6AE11, and CYP4M7). These findings are important for advancing our understanding of the biochemical and molecular response of insects to plant toxins and have implications for a smart pest control.

  18. Dynamic transcriptome analysis and volatile profiling of Gossypium hirsutum in response to the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-Zheng; Chen, Jie-Yin; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Xiao, Yu-Tao; Wu, Juan; Wu, Jun-Xiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    In response to insect herbivory, plants emit elevated levels of volatile organic compounds for direct and indirect resistance. However, little is known about the molecular and genomic basis of defense response that insect herbivory trigger in cotton plants and how defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Here we monitored the transcriptome changes and volatile characteristics of cotton plants in response to cotton bollworm (CBW; Helicoverpa armigera) larvae infestation. Analysis of samples revealed that 1,969 transcripts were differentially expressed (log2|Ratio| ≥ 2; q ≤ 0.05) after CBW infestation. Cluster analysis identified several distinct temporal patterns of transcriptome changes. Among CBW-induced genes, those associated with indirect defense and jasmonic acid pathway were clearly over-represented, indicating that these genes play important roles in CBW-induced defenses. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that CBW infestation could induce cotton plants to release volatile compounds comprised lipoxygenase-derived green leaf volatiles and a number of terpenoid volatiles. Responding to CBW larvae infestation, cotton plants undergo drastic reprogramming of the transcriptome and the volatile profile. The present results increase our knowledge about insect herbivory-induced metabolic and biochemical processes in plants, which may help improve future studies on genes governing processes.

  19. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoya Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crystal (Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem.

  20. Identification of gene expression changes associated with the initiation of diapause in the brain of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diapause, a state of arrested development accompanied by a marked decrease of metabolic rate, helps insects to overcome unfavorable seasons. Helicoverpa armigera (Har undergoes pupal diapause, but the molecular mechanism of diapause initiation is unclear. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH, we investigated differentially expressed genes in diapause- and nondiapause-destined pupal brains at diapause initiation. Results We constructed two SSH libraries (forward, F and reverse, R to isolate genes that are up-regulated or down-regulated at diapause initiation. We obtained 194 unique sequences in the F library and 115 unique sequences in the R library. Further, genes expression at the mRNA and protein level in diapause- and nondiapause-destined pupal brains were confirmed by RT-PCR, Northern blot or Western blot analysis. Finally, we classified the genes and predicted their possible roles at diapause initiation. Conclusion Differentially expressed genes at pupal diapause initiation are possibly involved in the regulation of metabolism, energy, stress resistance, signaling pathways, cell cycle, transcription and translation.

  1. Functional analysis of the ABCs of eye color in Helicoverpa armigera with CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sher Afzal; Reichelt, Michael; Heckel, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Many insect pigments are localized in subcellular pigment granules, and transport of pigment precursors from the cytoplasm is accomplished by ABC proteins. Drosophila melanogaster has three half-transporter genes (white, scarlet, and brown, all affecting eye pigments) and Bombyx mori has a fourth (ok). The White, Brown, Scarlet and Ok proteins each have one transmembrane and one cytoplasmic domain and they heterodimerize to form functional transporters with different substrate specificities. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to create somatic and germ-line knockout mutations of these four genes in the noctuid moth Helicoverpa armigera. Somatic knockouts of white block pigmentation of the egg, first instar larva and adult eye, but germ-line knockouts of white are recessive lethal in the embryo. Knockouts of scarlet are viable and produce pigmentless first instar larvae and yellow adult eyes lacking xanthommatin. Knockouts of brown show no phenotypic effects on viability or pigmentation. Knockouts of ok are viable and produce translucent larval cuticle and black eyes. CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations are a useful tool for analyzing how essential and non-essential genes interact to produce the diversity of insect pigmentation patterns found in nature. PMID:28053351

  2. Evaluation of the role of CYP6B cytochrome P450s in pyrethroid resistant Australian Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubor, Vladimir D; Heckel, David G

    2007-02-01

    The AN02 strain of Helicoverpa armigera from eastern Australia exhibits 50-fold, PBO-suppressible resistance to the pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate. The semidominant resistance gene RFen1 was previously mapped to AFLP Linkage Group 13. In evaluating the cytochrome P450 genes CYP6B7, CYP6B6, and CYP6B2 as candidates for RFen1, we found that they occur in a tandem array in the genome, next to the gene encoding the para-type sodium channel; the target of pyrethroid insecticides. We mapped these genes to AFLP Linkage Group 14, thus rejecting mutations within the P450 cluster or para as candidates for RFen1. RFen1 genotypes produced slightly different mRNA levels of the three P450s, but the differences were too small to convincingly account for resistance. We conclude that even if one or more of these P450s metabolize fenvalerate, they are unlikely to be responsible for the resistance in AN02.

  3. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuoya; Li, Yunhe; Xiao, Yutao; Ali, Abid; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Chen, Wenbo; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Crystal (Cry) proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem.

  4. Putative Phosphorylation Sites On WCA Domain of HA2 Is Essential For Helicoverpa armigera Single Nucleopolyhedrovirus Replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-pin Lv; Qian Wang; Chun-chen Wu; Rong Juan Pei; Yuan Zhou; Yun Wang; Xin-wen Chen

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most common post-translational modification processes that play an essential role in regulating protein functionality.The Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPv) orf2-encoded nucleocapsid protein HA2 participates in orchestration of virus-induced actin polymerization through its WCA domain,in which phosphorylation status are supposed to be critical in respect to actin polymerization.In the present study,two putative phosphorylation sites (232Thr and 250Ser) and a highly conserved Serine (245Ser) on the WCA domain of HA2 were mutated,and their phenotypes were characterized by reintroducing the mutated HA2 into the HearNPV genome.Viral infectivity assays demonstrated that only the recombinant HearNPV bearing HA2 mutation at 245Ser can produce infectious virions,both 232Tbr and 250Ser mutations were lethal to the virus.However,actin polymerization assay demonstrated that all the three viruses bearing HA2 mutations were still capable of initiating actin polymerization in the host nucleus,which indicated the putative phosphorylation sites on HA2 may contribute to HearNPV replication through another unidentified pathway.

  5. EAG and behavioral responses of Helicoverpa armigera males to volatiles from poplar leaves and their combinations with sex pheromone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建宇; 黄永平; 魏洪义; 杜家纬

    2004-01-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) evaluation of selected compounds from wilted leaves ofblack poplar,Populus nigra,showed that phenyl acetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, (E)-2-hexenal elicited strong responses from male antennae of Helicoverpa armigera. When mixed with sex pheromone (Ph), some volatiles, e.g. phenyl acetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol,phenylethanol, methylsalicylate, linalool, benzaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenylacetate, (Z)-6-nonenol, cineole, (E)-2-hexenal, and geraniol elicited stronger responses from male antennae than Ph alone. Wind tunnel bioassay demonstrated that various volatiles could either enhance or inhibit the effect of synthetic sex pheromone. (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol and linalool in combination with Ph could not induce any male to land on source at all, whereas phenyl acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, (Z)-6-nonenol and salicylaldehyde combined with Ph enhanced male response rates by 58.63%,50.33%, 51.85% and 127.78%, respectively, compared to Ph alone. These results suggested that some volatiles should modify sex pheromone caused behavior and that some of them could possibly be used as a tool for disrupting mating or for enhancing the effect of synthetic sex pheromone in the field.

  6. EAG and behavioral responses of Helicoverpa armigera males to volatiles from poplar leaves and their combinations with sex pheromone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建宇; 黄永平; 魏洪义

    2004-01-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) evaluation of selected compounds from wilted leaves of black poplar, Populus nigra, showed that phenyl acetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, (E)-2-hexenal elicited strong responses from male antennae of Helicoverpa armigera. When mixed with sex pheromone (Ph), some volatiles, e.g. phenyl acetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylethanol, methylsalicylate, linalool, benzaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenylacetate, (Z)-6-nonenol, cineole, (E)-2-hexenal, and geraniol elicited stronger responses from male antennae than Ph alone. Wind tunnel bioassay demonstrated that various volatiles could either enhance or inhibit the effect of synthetic sex pheromone. (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol and linalool in combination with Ph could not induce any male to land on source at all, whereas phenyl acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, (Z)-6-nonenol and salicylaldehyde combined with Ph enhanced male response rates by 58.63%, 50.33%, 51.85% and 127.78%, respectively, compared to Ph alone. These results suggested that some volatiles shouldmodify sex pheromone caused behavior and that some of them could possibly be used as a tool for disrupting mating or for enhancing the effect of synthetic sex pheromone in the field.

  7. 一株对鳞翅目蔬菜害虫具有广谱高毒力的新Bt菌株%A Novel Bacillus thuringiensis Strain with Broad Spectrum and High Toxicity Against Lepidoptera Vegetable Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛东华; 苏俊平; 宋萍; 南宫自艳; 王勤英

    2012-01-01

    从河北省土壤分离出苏云金芽胞杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis,Bt)MB-15菌株,利用室内生物活性测定的方法,与Bt标准菌株HD-1的杀虫毒力进行比较,结果发现该菌株胞晶混合液对棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera)、甜菜夜蛾(Spodoptera exigua)、小菜蛾(Plutella xylostella)、斜纹夜蛾(Spodoptera litura)和菜青虫(Pieris rapae)等5种鳞翅目蔬菜害虫的毒力均高于标准菌株Bt HD-1胞晶混合液.对发酵液各组分活性的分析发现,该菌株的上清液对胞晶混合物的杀虫活性有明显的增效作用.光学显微镜下观察该菌株伴胞晶体为菱形,SDS-PAGE分析显示其伴胞晶体主要由130.0 kDa和65.0 kDa两种晶体蛋白组成.利用PCR-RFLP对其杀虫基因型进行鉴定,结果表明该菌株含有crylAc、cry2Aa、crylI和vip3Aa基因.推断该菌株是一株对鳞翅目蔬菜害虫的防治具有潜在的商业开发价值的Bt野生株.%Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strain MB-15,isolated from the soil in Hebei Province,was high toxic against Lepidoptera vegetable pests. Compared with Bt HD-1 ,the toxicities of Bt MB-15 against Helicoverpa armigera,Spodoptera exigua,Plutella xylostella,Spodaptera litura and Pieris rapae all were higher than that of Bt HD-1 by bioassay in lab. The supernatant of Bt MB-15 fermentation could remarkably enhance the insecticidal activity of Bt MB-15 crystal protein. The bipyramidal crystals were observed by microscopic observation in Bt MB-15 strain. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Bt MB-15 produced crystal proteins of 130. 0 kDa and 65. 0 kDa. Bt MB-15 contained cry1Ac,cry2Aa,cryll and vip3Aa gene by PCR-RFLP analysis. The results showed that Bt MB-15 could have the potential and commercial development value against Lepidoptera vegetable pests.

  8. A Novel Neurotoxin Gene ar1b Recombination Enhances the Efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedrovirus as a Pesticide by Inhibiting the Host Larvae Ability to Feed and Grow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Yu

    Full Text Available A recombinant Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV, Ar1b-HearNPV, was constructed and identified as an improved bio-control agent of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. The HearNPV polyhedrin promoter was used to express the insect-specific neurotoxin gene, ar1b, which was originally isolated from the Australian funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus. RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis showed that both the ar1b transcript and protein were produced successfully in Ar1b-HearNPV-infected HzAM1 cells. In order to investigate the influence of foreign gene insertion in HearNPV, including the ar1b gene, chloramphenicol resistance gene, lacZ, kanamycin resistance gene, and the gentamicin resistance gene, two virus strains (HZ8-HearNPV and wt-HearNPV were used as controls in the cell transfection analysis. As expected, foreign gene insertion had no impact on budded virus production and viral DNA replication. Both optical microscopy and electron microscopy observations indicated that the formation of the occlusion bodies of recombinant virus was similar to wild type virus. The Ar1b-HearNPV-infected H. armigera larvae exhibited paralysis and weight loss before dying. This recombinant virus also showed a 32.87% decrease in LT50 assays compared with the wild type virus. Besides, Ar1b-HearNPV also inhibited host larval growth and diet consumption. This inhibition was still significant in the older instar larvae treated with the recombinant virus. All of these positive properties of this novel recombinant HearNPV provide a further opportunity to develop this virus strain into a commercial product to control the cotton bollworm.

  9. Cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding the FXPRL family of peptides and a functional analysis of their effect on breaking pupal diapause in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yi; Sun, Jiu-Song; Zhang, Liu-Bin; Shen, Jin-Liang; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2004-01-01

    Diapause hormone (DH) and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) are encoded by a single mRNA in the suboesophegeal ganglion (SG) and are responsible for induction of embryonic diapause in Bombyx mori and sex pheromone biosynthesis in lepidopteran insects. PBAN cDNA analyses revealed that the DH-like peptide is present in several species that have a pupal diapause. However, the function of the DH-like peptide remains unknown. In the present study, we cloned the cDNA encoding DH-PBAN in Helicoverpa armigera utilizing the rapid amplification of the cDNA ends method. The nucleotide se quence analysis revealed that the longest open reading frame of this cDNA encodes a 194-amino acid precursor protein that con tains a 33-aa PBAN, a 24-aa DH-like peptide, and three other neuropeptides, all of which have a common C-terminal pentapeptide motif FXPR/KL ( X=G, T, S). A homology search showed that H. armigera DH-like and PBAN are highly homologous to those from other insects. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a single message RNA corresponding to the size of Har-DH-PBAN cDNA from pupal SG with significantly higher expression in the SG of nondiapause pupae than diapausing pupae. Western blot analysis showed DH-like peptide expression from SG of both males and females. When DH-like peptide was injected into nondiapause larvae and pupae, it did not induce diapause, but rather efficiently broke pupal diapause in H. armigera. The ED(50) of DH to terminate pupal diapause is 20 pmol/pupae. The other four FXPRLamide neuropeptides from the DH-PBAN polyprotein precursor have cross activity for diapause termination. These observations therefore suggest a potential role for these FXPRL family peptides in promoting continuous development in several noctuid species. The high expression of this gene in pharate adults and adults indicates that the FXPRL family peptides may have multiple physiological functions.

  10. A cDNA encoding diazepam-binding inhibitor/acyl-CoA-binding protein in Helicoverpa armigera: molecular characterization and expression analysis associated with pupal diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2005-06-01

    The diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) or the acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a 9-10 kDa highly conserved multifunctional protein that plays important roles in GABA(A) receptor activity regulation, lipid absorption and steroidogenesis in various organisms. To study the functions of DBI/ACBP in insect development or diapause, we cloned the cDNA from Helicoverpa armigera (Har) utilizing rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). By homology search, Har-DBI/ACBP is conserved with the DBI/ACBPs known from other insects. Northern blot analysis showed that DBI/ACBP gene expressed in nonneural and neural tissues. RT-PCR combined Southern blot analysis revealed that DBI/ACBP mRNA in the brain of nondiapause individual was much higher than that in the brain of diapausing insects. At early and middle stages of 6th instar larvae, the level of DBI/ACBP mRNA was higher in the midgut of diapause type than that in nondiapause type and low at late 6th instar larval stage and early pupal stage in both types. In the prothoracic gland (PG), DBI/ACBP expression appeared at a high level at middle and late stages of 6th larval instar in both nondiapause and diapause types, and declined after pupation. In vitro experiments revealed that DBI/ACBP mRNA in PG could be stimulated by synthetic H. armigera diapause hormone (Har-DH), suggesting that Har-DH may stimulate the PG to produce ecdysteroids by the DBI/ACBP signal pathway. By in vitro assay, we also found that FGIN-1-27, which has similar functions to DBI/ACBP in ecdysteroidogenesis, could induce PG ecdysteroidogenesis effectively, suggesting that DBI/ACBP regulates biosynthesis of ecdysteroids in PG. Thus, DBI/ACBP indeed plays a key role in metabolism and development in H. armigera.

  11. Response of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls, under elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The growth, development and consumption of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2 (double-ambient vs. ambient) in open-top chambers were examined. Significant decreases in protein, total amino acid, water and nitrogen content and increases in free fatty acid were observed in cotton bolls. Changes in quality of cotton bolls affected the growth, development and food utilization of H. armigera. Significantly longer larval development duration in three successive generations and lower pupal weight of the second and third generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower fecundity was also found in successive three generations of H. armigera fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The consumption per larva occurred significant increase in successive three generations and frass per larva were also significantly increased during the second and third generations under elevated CO2. Significantly lower relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and significant higher relative consumption rate in successive three generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower potential female fecundity, larval numbers and population consumption were found in the second and third generations of cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The integrative effect of higher larval mortality rate and lower adult fecundity resulted in significant decreases in potential population consumption in the latter two generations. The results show that elevated CO2 adversely affects cotton bolls quality, which indicates the potential population dynamics and potential population consumption of cotton bollworm will alleviate the harm to the plants in the future rising CO2 atmosphere.

  12. A Novel Neurotoxin Gene ar1b Recombination Enhances the Efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedrovirus as a Pesticide by Inhibiting the Host Larvae Ability to Feed and Grow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Meng, Jiao; Xu, Jian; Liu, Tong-Xian; Wang, Dun

    2015-01-01

    A recombinant Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV), Ar1b-HearNPV, was constructed and identified as an improved bio-control agent of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. The HearNPV polyhedrin promoter was used to express the insect-specific neurotoxin gene, ar1b, which was originally isolated from the Australian funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus). RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis showed that both the ar1b transcript and protein were produced successfully in Ar1b-HearNPV-infected HzAM1 cells. In order to investigate the influence of foreign gene insertion in HearNPV, including the ar1b gene, chloramphenicol resistance gene, lacZ, kanamycin resistance gene, and the gentamicin resistance gene, two virus strains (HZ8-HearNPV and wt-HearNPV) were used as controls in the cell transfection analysis. As expected, foreign gene insertion had no impact on budded virus production and viral DNA replication. Both optical microscopy and electron microscopy observations indicated that the formation of the occlusion bodies of recombinant virus was similar to wild type virus. The Ar1b-HearNPV-infected H. armigera larvae exhibited paralysis and weight loss before dying. This recombinant virus also showed a 32.87% decrease in LT50 assays compared with the wild type virus. Besides, Ar1b-HearNPV also inhibited host larval growth and diet consumption. This inhibition was still significant in the older instar larvae treated with the recombinant virus. All of these positive properties of this novel recombinant HearNPV provide a further opportunity to develop this virus strain into a commercial product to control the cotton bollworm.

  13. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola, Milla; Wheat, Christopher W.; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera , including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera . We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in m...

  14. Mutagenesis and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the fusion peptide of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus F protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ying; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Manli; Yin, Feifei; Deng, Fei; Liu, Maili; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin

    2008-08-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into cells is normally mediated by fusion between viral and cellular membranes, in which the fusion peptide plays a crucial role. The fusion peptides of group II nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) F proteins are quite conserved, with a hydrophobic region located at the N terminal of the F(1) fragment. For this report, we used mutagenesis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study the structure and function of the fusion peptide of the Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid NPV (HearNPV) F protein (HaF). Five mutations in the fusion peptide of HaF, N(1)G, N(1)L, I(2)N, G(3)L, and D(11)L, were generated separately, and the mutated f genes were transformed into the f-null HearNPV bacmid. The mutations N(1)L, I(2)N, and D(11)L were found to completely abolish the ability of the recombinant bacmids to produce infectious budded virus, while the mutations N(1)G and G(3)L did not. The low-pH-induced envelope fusion assay demonstrated that the N(1)G substitution increased the fusogenicity of HaF, while the G(3)L substitution reduced its fusogenicity. NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of a synthetic fusion peptide of HaF in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles at pH 5.0. The fusion peptide appeared to be an amphiphilic structure composed of a flexible coil in the N terminus from N(1) to N(5), a 3(10)-helix from F(6) to G(8), a turn at S(9), and a regular alpha-helix from V(10) to D(19). The data provide the first NMR structure of a baculovirus fusion peptide and allow us to further understand the relationship of structure and function of the fusion peptide.

  15. Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates Helicoverpa armigera pupal development by up-regulating c-Myc and AP-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2014-10-01

    Seasonally changing environmental conditions perceived by insect brains can be converted into hormonal signals that prompt insects to make a decision to develop or enter developmental arrest (diapause). Diapause is a complex physiological response, and many signaling pathways may participate in its regulation. However, little is known about these regulatory pathways. In this study, we cloned four genes related to the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway from Helicoverpa armigera, a pupal diapause species. Western blotting shows that expression of Har-Wnt1, Har-β-catenin, and Har-c-Myc are higher in non-diapause pupal brains than in diapause-destined brains. Har-Wnt1 can promote the accumulation of Har-β-catenin in the nucleus, and Har-β-catenin in turn increases the expression of Har-c-Myc. The blockage of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by the inhibitor XAV939 significantly down-regulates Har-β-catenin and Har-c-Myc expression and delays pupal development, suggesting that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway functions in insect development. Furthermore, Har-c-Myc binds to the promoter of Har-AP-4 and regulates its expression. It has been reported that Har-AP-4 activates diapause hormone (DH) expression and that DH up-regulates the growth hormone ecdysteroid for pupal development. Thus, pupal development is regulated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling through the pathway Wnt-β-catenin-c-Myc-AP-4-DH-ecdysteroid. In contrast, the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is likely to induce insects to enter diapause.

  16. Molecular characterization and expression of prothoracicotropic hormone during development and pupal diapause in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Qi-Rui; Kang, Le; Xu, Wei-Hua; Denlinger, David L

    2005-06-01

    Using a strategy of rapid amplification of cDNA ends, the cDNA encoding prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was cloned from the brain of Helicoverpa armigera (Hearm). The Hearm-PTTH cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a 226-amino acid preprohormone, which shows high identity with the closely related noctuid moths, Helicoverpa zea (98%) and Heliothis virescens (94%), and low identity with five species of Bombycoidea: Bombyx mori (57%), Manduca sexta (55%), Hyalophora cecropia (52%), Samia cynthia ricini (49%) and Antheraea peryni (48%). Hearm-PTTH cDNA shares important structural characterization known from other PTTHs, such as seven cysteine residues, proteolytic cleavage site, glycosylation site, and hydrophobic regions within the mature peptides. Northern blot analysis indicated a 0.9kb transcript present only in the brain. Using the more sensitive technique of RT-PCR, PTTH mRNA was also detected in the subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion, abdominal ganglion, midgut and fat body. During the pupal stage, PTTH mRNA in the brain remained at a constant high level in nondiapausing individuals, was low in diapausing pupae, but increased again at diapause termination. The PTTH protein was detected only in the brain by Western blot analysis. Immunocytochemical results revealed that Hearm-PTTH is localized in two pairs of dorsolateral neurosecretory cells within the brain. Recombinant Hearm-PTTH was successfully expressed in E. coli, and purified recombinant-PTTH was effective in breaking pupal diapause. The results are consistent with a role for PTTH in the regulation of diapause in this species.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  18. A new species of the genus Arcoptilia Arenberger (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) from Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V

    2015-08-21

    The new species Arcoptilia naumanni sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) is described and illustrated from males found in Angola. Platyptilia rufamaculata Gielis, 2011, syn. nov. is established as a junior synonym of Arcoptilia pongola Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich, 2010.

  19. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2012 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2013-01-01

    traps in Born holm. We more over trans fer Caloptilia azaleella (Brants, 1913) (Gra cil lariidae) from the ob ser va tion list to the main list of Dan ish Lepidoptera. The to tal num ber of Dan ish Gracillariidae is now 88, Gelechiidae 178 and of Tortricidae 389. This re sults in a to tal of 1587 spe...... cies of Microlepidoptera found in Den mark. The to tal amount of Macro - lepidoptera re corded from Den mark is now 969, bring ing the num ber of Dan ish Lepidoptera to a to tal of 2556 species. With the new Dan ish check list the so-called ob ser va tion list has been ex tended to in clude both spe...... cies of un cer tain faunistic sta tus in Den - mark and spe cies of un cer tain tax o nomic sta tus. There are 13 spe cies of Lepidoptera on the for mer and 11 spe cies on the latter....

  20. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  1. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  2. De valkruidmineervlinder Digitivalva arnicella in Nederland: herontdekking en behoud (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Koster, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of Digitivalva arnicella in the Netherlands: rediscovery and conservation (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae) Digitivalva arnicella (Heyden, 1863), previously only known from two localities before 1902, has been rediscovered in eight localities in the northern part of the Netherl

  3. Macrocentrus sylvestrellae spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae), a parasitoid of Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    A new species of the genus Macrocentrus Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae) described and illustrated: M. sylvestrellae spec. nov. from France and Italy. It is a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid of the pine stem borer Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg, 1840) (Lepidoptera; Pyr

  4. Alternative techniques to study characters of the genitalia in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2010-01-01

    The present note aims to describe two alternative methods for observing genitalia in Lepidoptera. The first one provides means to examine both male and female genitalia without spoiling the scales of the abdomen, preserving it attached to the thorax and aesthetically similar to an unexamined specimen. The second one provides ways of observing certain characters on the male genitalia in a non-destructive way, and does not depend on time-consuming removing and dissection of the abdomen. It is expected that the presented techniques will help on morphological studies and on identifying similar species which consistently differ in genitalic armatures.

  5. Materiały do znajomości Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniak, Edward; Walczak, Urszula; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland.......A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland....

  6. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in dry and wet seasons

    OpenAIRE

    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Suwarno (2010) Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS), from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, ...

  7. The diapause hormone-pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide gene of Helicoverpa armigera encodes multiple peptides that break, rather than induce, diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yi; Sun, Jiu-Song; Zhang, Qi-Rui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Rong-Jing; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2004-06-01

    FXPRLamide peptides encoded by the DH-PBAN (diapause hormone-pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide) gene induce embryonic diapause in Bombyx mori, but terminate pupal diapause in Helicoverpa armigera (Har). Here, we explore the mechanisms of terminating pupal diapause by the FXPRLamide peptides. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we observed that expression of Har-DH-PBAN mRNA in the SG of nondiapause-type pupae was significantly higher than in diapause-type pupae. Immunocytochemical results indicated that the level of FXPRLamide peptides and axonal release are related to the diapause decision. Ecdysteroidogenesis in prothoracic glands (PGs) was stimulated by synthetic Har-DH in vivo and in vitro, and labeled Har-DH bound to the membrane of the PG, thus suggesting that DH breaks diapause by activating the PG to synthesize ecdysone. Furthermore, the response of DH in terminating diapause was temperature dependent. Decerebration experiments showed that the brain can control pupal development through the regulation of DH, and DH can terminate diapause and promote development without the brain. This result suggests a possible mechanism of response for the signals of DH and other FXPRLamide peptides in H. armigera.

  8. Evaluation of fractions and 5,7-dihydroxy-4',6-dimethoxy-flavone fromClerodendrum phlomidis Linn. F. against Helicoverpa armigera Hub.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Twelve fractions from chloroform extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis and 5,7-dihydroxy- 4',6-dimethoxy-flavone (pectolinaringenin were evaluated against Helicoverpa armigera. Maximum antifeedant (89.41%, larvicidal (83.77% and ovicidal (69.25% activities were observed in fraction 5. The least LC50 value for antifeedant (178.09 ppm and larvicidal (198.23 ppm were observed in fraction 5. No adult emergence was recorded in fractions 4-6 at 1000 ppm. The oviposition deterrent activity was 100% in fraction 5 at all the concentrations. Pectolinaringenin recorded maximum antifeedant (74.68% and larvicidal (81.11% activities at 100 ppm; it completely prevented the adult emergence of H. armigera at 100 ppm. Maximum ovicidal activity at 100 ppm concentration was 67.95%. The oviposition deterrent activity was 100% in 100 and 50 ppm concentrations. C. phlomidis could be effectively used to develop a new formulation to control the economically important pests.

  9. Effects of UV-A exposures on longevity and reproduction in Helicoverpa armigera, and on the development of its F1 generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Yu Zhang; Jian-Yu Meng; Xiao-Ping Wang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2011-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera adults display a conspicuous positive phototacdc behavior to light stimuli,and are especially sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light.The effects of UV-A (longwave) exposures on adult longevity and reproduction in H.armigera were investigated,as well as the development of the F1 generation.Paired adults were exposed to UV-A for various time periods (0,1,5 and 9 h/day),until the end of adult life.The results showed that adult longevity decreased with increasing exposure time for both sexes,and a significant decrease was observed after exposure for 5 and 9 h/day.Fecundity increased when adults were exposed for 1 and 5 h/day,and a significant difference was observed in the 5 h/day group.Oviposition rates of females in all treatments were significantly higher than in the control.Exposure to UV-A for longer periods (5 and 9 h/day) caused a decline in cumulative survival of F1 immature stages,but no significant differences were found in egg hatch,pupation and eclosion.The developmental periods of F1 larvae were significantly prolonged after exposure to UV-A for 5 and 9 h/day.UV-A radiation had no significant effects on F1 pupal period.

  10. Expression of Aminopeptidase N1(APN1),the Main Receptor Protein for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A Toxin from Helicoverpa armigera Larval Midgut in Trichoplusia ni cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Hong-lei; LIANG Ge-mei; WANG Gui-rong; YU Hong-kun; GUO Yu-yuan; WU Kong-ming

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to successfully express the Bt(Bacillus thuringiensis)toxin receptor protein located on the internal membrane of larval midgut of cotton bollworm(Helicoverpa armigera Hiibner)within eukaryotic expression system,which is one of the key links for clarifying the relationship between receptor and Bt resistance.The fragments of aminopeptidase N1(APN1)gene without signal peptide in the susceptible and the resistant H. armigera were cloned separately using PCR method,and were separately cloned into pUC 19 vector.After sequencing the gene,the fragments encoding for APN1 without signal peptide were cloned into the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system with transfer vector pFastBacHTB under the polyhedron gene promoter.The recombinant transposing plasmid pFastBacHTB/APN1 was screened and then transformed into Escherichia coli DH10Bac.It was cultured in LB medium,which contained Te, Kan,Ge,X-gal,and IPTG.The resulting recombinant bacmid was transfected into cells of the insect Trichoplusia ni and recombinant baculoviruse was obtained.The lysate of cells infected with recombinant baculoviruse was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and blot analysis.The results showed that the recombinant baculoviruse was fully capable of expressing APN1.The APN1 gene successfully expressed in T. ni cell established the base for continuing the research on its function and relationship of resistance with Bt.

  11. Purification of Aminopeptidase N Protein and Differences in cDNAs Encoding APN1 Between Susceptible and Resistant Helicoverpa armigera Strains to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ge-mei; WANG Gui-rong; XU Guang; WU Kong-ming; GUO Yu-yuan

    2004-01-01

    The brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) in midgut of Helicoverpa armigera were successfully separated, and most of the Aminopeptidase N (APN) activities in BBMV were preserved. The 3-[(3-chlor-amidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-l-propane-sulphonate (CHAPS)can enhance the dissolution of BBMV, and phosphatidylinositol-specific phosopholipase C (PI-PLC) can cleave the APN from midgut membrane. The APN was primarily purified using a Mono-Q column. The results of immunoblotting showed that the 120 and 170 kDa proteins in the BBMV could bind CrylAc, and 120kDa APN was a glycosylphosphalidylinositol(GPI)anchored protein. Two Bt-resistant strains (Bt-P, Bt-M) were obtained after being selected for more than five years in laboratory using Bt insecticides and Bt transgenic cotton incorporated into diet separately. The resistance of Bt-P and Bt-M were 1 083.3and 48.7 times that of susceptible strain. The genes encoding APN1 in midgut of susceptible and resistant H.armigera were cloned by PCR and RACE techniques. The inferred amino acid sequences of APN1 possessed the common character of APN family in insects. In comparison with APN1 in susceptible strain, three nucleotide mutations were observed in the APN1 of Bt-M strain and resulted in two amino acid replace in the putative protein sequences, and eight nucleotide mutations were observed in Bt-P strain and resulted in five amino acid replace.

  12. Characterization of the resistance to Vip3Aa in Helicoverpa armigera from Australia and the role of midgut processing and receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa; Banyuls, Núria; Walsh, Tom; Downes, Sharon; James, Bill; Ferré, Juan

    2016-04-20

    Crops expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) are among the most successful technologies developed for the control of pests but the evolution of resistance to them remains a challenge. Insect resistant cotton and maize expressing the Bt Vip3Aa protein were recently commercialized, though not yet in Australia. We found that, although relatively high, the frequency of alleles for resistance to Vip3Aa in field populations of H. armigera in Australia did not increase over the past four seasons until 2014/15. Three new isofemale lines were determined to be allelic with previously isolated lines, suggesting that they belong to one common gene and this mechanism is relatively frequent. Vip3Aa-resistance does not confer cross-resistance to Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab. Vip3Aa was labeled with (125)I and used to show specific binding to H. armigera brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Binding was of high affinity (Kd = 25 and 19 nM for susceptible and resistant insects, respectively) and the concentration of binding sites was high (Rt = 140 pmol/mg for both). Despite the narrow-spectrum resistance, binding of (125)I-labeled Vip3Aa to BBMV of resistant and susceptible insects was not significantly different. Proteolytic conversion of Vip3Aa protoxin into the activated toxin rendered the same products, though it was significantly slower in resistant insects.

  13. New insight to structure-function relationship of GalNAc mediated primary interaction between insecticidal Cry1Ac toxin and HaALP receptor of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anindita; Sarkar, Anindya; Priya, Prerna; Ghosh Dastidar, Shubhra; Das, Sampa

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades Cry1Ac toxin has been widely used in controlling the insect attack due to its high specificity towards target insects. The pore-forming toxin undergoes a complex mechanism in the insect midgut involving sequential interaction with specific glycosylated receptors in which terminal GalNAc molecule plays a vital role. Recent studies on Cry toxins interactions with specific receptors revealed the importance of several amino acid residues in domain III of Cry1Ac, namely Q509, N510, R511, Y513 and W545, serve as potential binding sites that surround the putative GalNAc binding pocket and mediate the toxin-receptor interaction. In the present study, alanine substitution mutations were generated in the Cry1Ac domain III region and functional significance of those key residues was monitored by insect bioassay on Helicoverpa armigera larvae. In addition, ligand blot analysis and SPR binding assay was performed to monitor the binding characteristics of Cry1Ac wild type and mutant toxins towards HaALP receptor isolated from Helicoverpa armigera. Mutagenesis data revealed that, alanine substitutions in R511, Y513 and W545 substantially impacted the relative affinity towards HaALP receptor and toxicity toward target insect. Furthermore, in silico study of GalNAc-mediated interaction also confirmed the important roles of these residues. This structural analysis will provide a detail insight for evaluating and engineering new generation Cry toxins to address the problem of change in insect behavioral patterns.

  14. Effects of different brush border membrane vesicle isolation protocols on proteomic analysis of Cry1 Ac binding proteins from the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Zhen Chen; Ge-Mei Liang; Brian G.Rector; Jie Zhang; Kong-Ming Wu; Yu-Yuan Guo

    2008-01-01

    Brush border membrane vesicles(BBMV)isolated from insect midguts have been widely used to study CrylA binding proteins.Sample preparation is important in two-dimensional electrophoresis(2-DE),so to determine a suitable BBMV preparation method in Helicoverpa armigera for 2-DE,we compared three published BBMV preparation methods mostly used in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE).All mctllods yielded similar types and numbers of binding proteins,but in different quantifies.The Abdul.Rauf and Ellar protocol was the best of the three,but had limitations.Sufficient protein qu antity iS important for research involving limited numbers of insects,such as studies of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in the field.Consequently,we integrated the three BBMV isolation methods into a single protocol that yielded high quantities of BBMV proteins from H.armigera larval midguts.which proved suitable for 2-DE analysis.

  15. Transgenic plants over-expressing insect-specific microRNA acquire insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera: an alternative to Bt-toxin technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Aditi; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2015-10-01

    The success of Bt transgenics in controlling predation of crops has been tempered by sporadic emergence of resistance in targeted insect larvae. Such emerging threats have prompted the search for novel insecticidal molecules that are specific and could be expressed through plants. We have resorted to small RNA-based technology for an investigative search and focused our attention to an insect-specific miRNA that interferes with the insect molting process resulting in the death of the larvae. In this study, we report the designing of a vector that produces artificial microRNA (amiR), namely amiR-24, which targets the chitinase gene of Helicoverpa armigera. This vector was used as transgene in tobacco. Northern blot and real-time analysis revealed the high level expression of amiR-24 in transgenic tobacco plants. Larvae feeding on the transgenic plants ceased to molt further and eventually died. Our results demonstrate that transgenic tobacco plants can express amiR-24 insectice specific to H. armigera.

  16. Deleterious activity of natural products on postures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner S; Cruz, Ivan; Fonseca, Felipe G; Gouveia, Natalia L; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2010-01-01

    The control of Lepidoptera pests should be carried out before hatching of their caterpillars to avoid damage to the crops. The aim of this work was to assess the activity of neem (trade name: Natuneem, producer: Base Fértil, Chapadão do Sul, Brazil) and pyroligneous extracts (trade name: Biopirol 7M, producer: Biocarbo, Itabirito, Brazil) at 10 mL/L (1%) and 20 mL/L (2%) contents on egg masses of different ages of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at Embrapa Corn and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The tests took place in an unbiased casualized design with 12 treatments and four replications. The insecticides were diluted in water, and 0.04 mL of the solution was applied to recently laid and one- and two-day-old eggs of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Caterpillars hatching from recently laid egg masses of S. frugiperda was lower with 2% pyroligneous extract [(0.02 +/- 0.00)%]. Recently laid eggs and one- or two-day-old eggs of D. saccharalis presented lower caterpillar hatching with 1% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%, (0.00 +/- 0.00)%, and (1.00 +/- 0.01)%] and 2% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%], compared to 1% pyroligneous extract [(27.30 +/- 3.22)%, (28.40 +/- 3.32)%, and (37.80 +/- 4.14)%] and 2% pyroligneous extract [(42.20 +/- 4.49)%, (48.70 +/- 4.97)%, and (56.60 +/- 5.52)%], respectively. Neem and pyroligneous extracts had impact on hatching of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis caterpillars.

  17. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  18. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  19. Biology and ecology of Pleuroptya silicalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Urbanus esmeraldus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): defence tactics and interactions with ants on shrubs of Urera baccifera (Urticaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Ramos de Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: 1. O presente trabalho investiga aspectos comportamentais e de história natural de duas espécies de lepidópteros que se alimentam de Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), uma planta visitada por 22 espécies de formigas. Ambas as espécies, Pleuroptya silicalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) e Urbanus esmeraldus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), constróem abrigos foliares e apresentam diferentes mecanismos de defesa contra predação. Por exemplo, quando perturbadas, larvas de P. silicalis sacodem o corpo vi...

  20. LEPIDOPTERA (INSECTA OF PROPOSED SPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL AREA ‘BELOKURIKHA NATURE PARK’ (NORTHERN ALTAI. FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Vasilenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 149 Lepidoptera species from 16 families were reported for the territory of the proposed protected area "Belokurikha Natural Park". This list is the primary data on the fauna of Lepidoptera in the region. Most of the species belongs to Euro-Siberian and Transpalaearctic groups.

  1. The Binding Characterization of Cry Insecticidal Proteins to the Brush Border Membrane Vesicles of Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura and Agrotis ipsilon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiong; CAO Guang-chun; ZHANG Li-li; LIANG Ge-mei; GAO Xi-wu; ZHANG Yong-jun; GUO Yu-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are effective biological insecticides against certain insect species. However, there are potential risks of the evolved resistance of insects to Cry toxin owing to decreased binding of toxins to target sites in the brush border membranes of the larva midgut. The Cry toxins with different binding sites in the larval midgut have been considered to be a good combination to deploy in delaying resistance evolution. Bioassay results demonstrated that the toxicity of different Cry toxins ranked differently for each species. The toxicity ranking was Cry1Ac>Cry1Ab>Cry2Ab for Helicoverpa armigera, Cry1B>Cry1C>Cry2Ab for Spodoptera exigua, and Cry2Ab>Cry1B>Cry1C for S. litura. Only Cry2Ab was toxic to Agrotis ipsilon. Binding experiments were performed with 125I-Cry1Ab, 125I-Cry1Ac, 125I-Cry1B, 125I-Cry1C, 125I-Cry2Ab and the brush border membranes vesicles (BBMV) from H. armigera, S. exigua, S. litura and A. ipsilon. The binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac was shown to be saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of H. armigera BBMV (Kd=(45.00±2.01) nmol L-1 and (12.80±0.18) nmol L-1, respectively;Bmax=(54.95±1.79) ng and (55.44±0.91) ng, separately). The binding of Cry1B was shown to be saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of S. exigua BBMV (Kd=(23.26±1.66) nmol L-1;Bmax=(65.37±1.87) ng). The binding of 125I-Cry toxins was shown to be non-saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of S. litura and A. ipsilon BBMV. In contrast, Cry1B and Cry1C showed some combination with the BBMV of S. litura, and a certain amount of Cry2Ab could bind to the BBMV of A. ipsilon. These observations suggest that a future strategy could be devised for the focused combination of specific cry genes in transgenic crops to control target pests, widen the spectrum of insecticide effectiveness and postpone insect resistance evolution.

  2. Isovitexin-2'-O-beta-[6-O-E-p-coumaroylglucopyranoside] from UV-B irradiated leaves of rice, Oryza sativa L. inhibits fertility of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caasi-Lit, Merdelyn T; Tanner, Gregory J; Nayudu, Murali; Whitecross, Malcolm I

    2007-01-01

    UV-B irradiated rice leaves (Oryza sativa L.) contained four closely related flavonoids, with either an isoorientin or isovitexin aglycone. These flavonoids have previously been purified and characterized, and were added to artificial diets of the African bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner) at 0.1x concentration found in irradiated rice leaves. Consumption of different diets had relatively small effects on laval, pupal and adult duration, weight and survival, indicating the insects lived near normal life cycles on all diets. However, one of the compounds, flavonoid IIa, isovitexin-2''-O-beta-[6-O-E-p-coumaroylglucopyranoside], dramatically reduced the number of fertile eggs laid to 7% of control insects (Pisoorientin-2''-O-beta-[6-O-E-p-coumaroylglucopyranoside] or isoorientin-2''-O-beta-[6-O-E-p-feruloylglucopyranoside], were not significantly different to control diets.

  3. Vip3A is responsible for the potency of Bacillus thuringiensis 9816C culture supernatant against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Xiao, Liang; Yan, Bing; Bin, Guan; Chen, Yuehua; Ren, Gaixin

    2006-04-01

    Culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis 9816C had high toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua. However, it lost insecticidal activities after being bathed in boiling water for 5 min. Acrystalliferous mutants of Bt9816C (Bt9816C-NP1 and Bt9816C-NP2) cured of its endogenous plasmids no longer possessed vip3A gene and toxicity. The 89 kD protein which existed in Bt9816C supernatant disappeared in the two mutants' supernatant; nevertheless, the two mutants still exhibited hemolytic and phospholipase C activity as Bt9816C did. The vip3A gene of Bt9816C, vip3Aa18, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Bioassay demonstrated that the recombinant E. coli had high toxicity against S. exigua. Taken together, it suggested that Vip3A protein was responsible for the toxicity of Bt9816C culture supernatants.

  4. Morfologia comparada do abdome das espécies sulbrasileiras de Morphinae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Compared abdomen morphology of South brazilian Morphinae species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Gavassi Bilotta

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the morphology of abdomen and genitalia of adults, males and females, of the following south Brazilian Morphinae species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae is presented: Morpho helenor violacetis Fruhstorfer. 1912. Iphimedeia hercules (Daiman, 1823. Iphixibia anaxibia (Esper, 1801. Cytheritis portis thamyris (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867, Cytheritis aega (Huebner, 1822, Pessonia catenaria (Perry, 1811, Grasseia menelaus nestira (Huebner, 1821.

  5. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  6. Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1×10−10 M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% w/w showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50 of larvae was 1.5% w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50 was 1.0% w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants.

  7. New insight to structure-function relationship of GalNAc mediated primary interaction between insecticidal Cry1Ac toxin and HaALP receptor of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita Sengupta

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades Cry1Ac toxin has been widely used in controlling the insect attack due to its high specificity towards target insects. The pore-forming toxin undergoes a complex mechanism in the insect midgut involving sequential interaction with specific glycosylated receptors in which terminal GalNAc molecule plays a vital role. Recent studies on Cry toxins interactions with specific receptors revealed the importance of several amino acid residues in domain III of Cry1Ac, namely Q509, N510, R511, Y513 and W545, serve as potential binding sites that surround the putative GalNAc binding pocket and mediate the toxin-receptor interaction. In the present study, alanine substitution mutations were generated in the Cry1Ac domain III region and functional significance of those key residues was monitored by insect bioassay on Helicoverpa armigera larvae. In addition, ligand blot analysis and SPR binding assay was performed to monitor the binding characteristics of Cry1Ac wild type and mutant toxins towards HaALP receptor isolated from Helicoverpa armigera. Mutagenesis data revealed that, alanine substitutions in R511, Y513 and W545 substantially impacted the relative affinity towards HaALP receptor and toxicity toward target insect. Furthermore, in silico study of GalNAc-mediated interaction also confirmed the important roles of these residues. This structural analysis will provide a detail insight for evaluating and engineering new generation Cry toxins to address the problem of change in insect behavioral patterns.

  8. Effects of Soil Salinity on the Expression of Bt Toxin (Cry1Ac) and the Control Efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in Field-Grown Transgenic Bt Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Shuai; Peng, Jun; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Chun-Yi; Li, Chun-Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Guo; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2017-01-01

    An increasing area of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is being planted in saline-alkaline soil in China. The Bt protein level in transgenic cotton plants and its control efficiency can be affected by abiotic stress, including high temperature, water deficiency and other factors. However, how soil salinity affects the expression of Bt protein, thus influencing the control efficiency of Bt cotton against the cotton bollworm (CBW) Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in the field, is poorly understood. Our objective in the present study was to investigate the effects of soil salinity on the expression of Bt toxin (Cry1Ac) and the control efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in field-grown transgenic Bt cotton using three natural saline levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil-salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil-salinity] and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil-salinity]). We found that the Bt protein content in the transgenic Bt cotton leaves and the insecticidal activity of Bt cotton against CBW decreased with the increasing soil salinity in laboratory experiments during the growing season. The Bt protein content of Bt cotton leaves in the laboratory were negatively correlated with the salinity level. The CBW populations were highest on the Bt cotton grown in medium-salinity soil instead of the high-salinity soil in field conditions. A possible mechanism may be that the relatively high-salinity soil changed the plant nutritional quality or other plant defensive traits. The results from this study may help to identify more appropriate practices to control CBW in Bt cotton fields with different soil salinity levels. PMID:28099508

  9. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  10. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José Manuel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Vukusic, Pete

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianing; Xu, Chang; Li, Jialian; Lei, Ying; Fan, Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Chongren; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is 15,221 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (LrRNA and SrRNA) and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. The nucleotide composition is significantly biased toward A + T (80.9%). All PCGs are initiated by classical ATN codon, with the exception of COI, which begins with TTA codon. Nine PCGs harbor the complete stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND4 and ND5 stop with incomplete codons, single T or TA. All tRNAs can be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The A + T content of AT-rich region is 95.2%, same to the highest one in the known species in Pieridae.

  12. New Records of Seven Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eupithecia Curtis is the largest taxon in Lepidoptera (more than 1,500 species worldwide and the adults of the genus are characterized by small in size, cryptically colored grayish and brownish forewing, and indistinct basal, ante- and postmedial transverse lines mostly with a definite discal spot on the forewing. Forty-four species have been reported so far in Korea. Herein, we present the first report on seven species of Eupithecia: Eupithecia rufescens Butler (1878, Eupithecia costiconvexa Inoue (1979, Eupithecia daemionata Dietze (1904, Eupithecia persuastrix Mironov (1990, Eupithecia actaeata Walderdorff (1869, Eupithecia suboxydata Staudinger (1897 and Eupithecia costimacularia Leech (1897. Diagnosis, descriptions and figures of the available species are provided.

  13. A historical review of the classification of Erebinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homziak, Nicholas T; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2016-11-10

    Erebidae is one of the most diverse families within the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), with nearly 25,000 described species. The nominal subfamily Erebinae is among the most species rich and taxonomically complex. It reaches its highest diversity in the tropics, where much of the fauna remains undescribed. Species in this subfamily feed on a broad range of host plants, with associated radiations on grasses and legumes, and some species are pests of agriculture and forestry. The Erebinae, as defined today, comprises a large portion of the former noctuid subfamily Catocalinae. However, many lineages have tenuous or uncertain systematic placement. Here, we review the complex historical classification of Erebinae, and discuss the possible placement of some of these lineages in light of traditional morphological groupings and recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. We present an updated list of named erebine tribes and their relationships, and identify morphological traits from literature used to group genera within these tribes.

  14. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda.

  15. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukusic Pete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  16. A New Family of Moths from the Middle Jurassic(Insecta:Lepidoptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Diying; André NEL; Jo(e)l MINET

    2010-01-01

    Three lepidopteran species,from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou beds(inner Mongolia,China),are described in a new family,Mesokristeuseniidae,and new genus,Mesokristensenia,which could represent the sister group of the Micropterigidae.Mesokristensenia differs from all extant Lepidoptera,but one genus(Agathiphaga,Agathiphagidae),in retaining four median veins in the forewing,a plesiomorphy also present in many Trichoptera.Evidence for placing Mesokristensenia in the Lepidoptera includes four traits,notably a previously unrecorded autapomorphy of this insect order:beyond stem M1+2,vein M1 is bent and connected to cross-vein r-m(in both wing pairs).Among 24 characters taken into account to assess the systematic position of Mesokristensenia,12 are considered informative for a cladistic analysis involving this fossil taxon and the four suborders recognized in present-day Lepidoptera(Zeugloptera,Aglossata,Heterobathmiina,and Glossata).

  17. Dalechampii oak (Quercus dalechampii Ten., an important host plant for folivorous lepidoptera larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulfan, M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a structured analysis of lepidoptera larvae taxocenoses living in leaf bearing crowns of Dalechampii oak (Quercus dalechampii Ten. in nine study plots in the Malé Karpaty Mountains (Central Europe. The differences between lepidoptera taxocenoses in individual oak stands were analyzed. A total of 96 species and 2,140 individuals were found. Species abundance peaked in May, while number of species and species diversity reached the highest values from April to May and from April to June, respectively. Abundance showed two notable peaks in flush feeders and in late summer feeders. Lepidoptera taxocenosis in the study plot Horný háj (isolated forest, high density of ants differed significantly from all other taxocenoses according to Sörensen’s index of species similarity, species diversity, analysis of similarity on the basis of permutation and pairwise tests (ANOSIM, seasonal variability of species composition, and NMDS ordination.

  18. Large-Scale Evolutionary Patterns of Host Plant Associations in the Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menken, S.B.J.; Boomsma, J.J.; van Nieukerken, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    We characterized evolutionary patterns of host plant use across about 2500 species of British Lepidoptera, using character optimization and independent phylogenetic contrasts among 95 operational taxa, and evaluated the extent to which caterpillars are monophagous, use woody host plants, and feed...... concealed. We also analyzed the use of different Angiosperm superorders and related these associations to other key variables. The Nepticulidae, Pterophoridae, and Gracillariidae allowed explicit comparisons between the British fauna and the Lepidoptera worldwide, which indicated that our broad...... categorizations for Britain are accurate predictors for the global fauna. The first (lower glossatan) radiation of the Lepidoptera started with monophagous, internal feeding on woody Eurosids I. Polyphagy on nonwoody Eurosids I evolved together with the ability to feed externally, but did initially not produce...

  19. Foliage chemistry and the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae on broad-leaved trees in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    This study addresses the influence of foliage chemistry on the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae across species of trees. I used ordination and analysis of principal coordinates to describe the partitioning of the larvae of 24 species of Lepidoptera over 23 species of host trees taking into account 13 chemical properties of the foliage. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed two significant axes linking the two datasets. The first constrained axis (r(2)=0.83) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing amounts of hemicellulose, polyphenols, and potassium per cm(2) leaf area. The second constrained axis (r(2)=0.68) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing magnesium. Variation in nitrogen and phosphorus, which are major factors in larval nutrition, were not associated with turnover of Lepidoptera species between species of host tree. Of the total variance in the positions of tree species on the first four constrained CAP axes, 44% was correlated with positions determined by foliage chemistry, 32% on the first two constrained axes. Within the space described by the first two canonical axes, congeneric species of tree clustered together, with the exception that Acer negundo was removed from other species of Acer, which grouped in a tight cluster with species in the order Fagales, as well as with Tilia and Ulmus. Alnus and Prunus also grouped together. No species of tree with a negative score on constrained axis 2 exhibited high Lepidoptera species richness, but the average number of individuals per collection tended to be high. These tree species also contain triterpenes in their leaves and harbored disproportionately more tent- and web-making species of Lepidoptera. These analyses show that patterns of distribution across host tree species within an assemblage of Lepidoptera species can be understood, at least in part, in terms of the qualities of the resources upon which

  20. A molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) with an interpretative grouping of its taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko; Lee, Sangmi

    2013-01-01

    We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5, Isocitr......We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5...

  1. Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Insecta Diversity from Different Sites of Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Lepidoptera is the second largest order in the class Insecta. Some of the butterfly species were identified as indicators of disturbance in any area. The present study conducted in three sites of taluka Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat. In the present study a total of 484 individuals belonging to 58 species of 9 families were identified. Among which Pieridae was found to be the most dominant family. The area of study having rich diversity of butterflies, therefore it should be of great importance for conservation.

  2. Taksonomsko-faunistička studija leptira (Insecta : Lepidoptera) Fruške Gore

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović, Dejan V.

    2012-01-01

    U studiji je dat prikaz jedanaestogodišnjih istraţivanja insekata iz reda Lepidoptera na Fruškoj gori. Registrovane su 934 vrste leptira i moljaca. Za 382 vrste Lepidoptera ili 40,89% od ukupnog broja vrsta izvršena je taksonomska verifikacija analizom hitinskih armatura genitalnih aparata. U periodu od 2001. do 2011. godine sakupljani su leptiri i moljci uglavnom uz pomoć svetlosne klopke (ţivine sijalice TEŢ WTF od 250 W, “Philips Ml“ od 100, 160, 250 i 400 W i petromaks lampe o...

  3. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  4. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were paras

  5. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its naturel enemies, and the presences of nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Cropping practice can affect pests and natural enemies. A three-year study of the strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana (Lienig and Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its parasitoid Copidosoma aretas Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and its entomopathogenic fungi was conducted in seven pairs...

  6. Records of mining Lepidoptera in Belgium with nine species new to the country (Nepticulidae, Opostegidae, Tischeriidae, Lyonetiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Records of 56 species of mining Lepidoptera are given, mostly for Wallonia. Stigmella thuringiaca (Namur: Nismes, on Potentilla tabernaemontani), Ectoedemia arcuatella (Luxembourg, Namur, on Fragaria vesca) and Leucoptera lustratella (Luxembourg, Namur, on Hypericum perforatum) are reported new for

  7. A new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae from northern Chile Uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae do norte do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Male and female adults of a new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae are described and illustrated. Immature stages are associated with Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. The species was collected in two localities of northern Chile: near sea level in the Azapa valley, in the coastal desert of Arica Province and at 3000 m elevation in Socoroma, Parinacota Province.Os adultos macho e fêmea de uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae são descritos e ilustrados. Os estágios imaturos estão associados com Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. A espécie foi coletada em duas localidades do norte do Chile: vale de Azapa, perto do nível do mar, no deserto litoral da Província de Arica, e aos 3000 m de altitude em Socoroma, na Província de Parinacota.

  8. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  9. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  10. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terenius, O.; Papanicolaou, A.; Garbutt, J.S.; Eleftherianos, I.; Huvenne, H.; Kanginakudru, S.; Albrechtsen, M.; An, C.; Aymeric, J.L.; Barthel, A.; Bebas, P.; Bitra, K.; Bravo, A.; Chevalier, F.; Collinge, D.P.; Crava, C.M.; de Maagd, R.A.; Duvic, B.; Erlandson, M.; Faye, I.; Felföldi, G.; Fujiwara, H.; Futahashi, R.; Gandhe, A.S.; Gatehouse, H.S.; Gatehouse, L.N.; Giebultowicz, J.M.; Gómez, I.; Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P.; Groot, A.T.; Hauser, F.; Heckel, D.G.; Hegedus, D.D.; Hrycaj, S.; Huang, L.; Hull, J.J.; Iatrou, G.; Iga, M.; Kanost, M.R.; Kotwica, J.; Li, C.; Li, J.H.; Liu, J.S.; Lundmark, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Meyering-Vos, M.; Millichap, P.J.; Monteiro, A.; Mrinal, N.; Niimi, T; Nowara, D.; Ohnishi, A.; Oostra, V.; Ozaki, K.; Papakonstantinou, M.; Popadic, A.; Rajam, M.V.; Saenko, S.; Simpson, R.M.; Soberón, M.; Strand, M.R.; Tomita, S.; Toprak, U.; Wang, P.; Wee, C.W.; Whyard, S.; Zhang, W.; Nagaraju, J.; Ffrench-Constant, R.H.; Herrero, S.; Gordon, K.; Smagghe, G.

    2012-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex

  11. Review of Lepidoptera with trophic relationships to Picea abies (L. in the conditions of Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modlinger Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships of Lepidoptera (Insecta occurring in the territory of Czechia to the Norway spruce (Picea abies L. was evaluated on the basis of the excerption and critical evaluation of literature. Each species was classified into the following categories – spruce as the host plant, regular development on spruce, narrow trophic relationship, indirect relationship and episodical occurrence. The particular taxa were also characterized according to their distribution and the form of larval life was specified. The development on spruce was documented in 96 species of Lepidoptera, which represented less than 3% of taxa belonging to this group and being reported from Czechia. Of that, spruce was a common host plant for 67 species, 23 species were polyphagous and might develop on spruce, and 6 species belonged to soil species damaging spruce roots, mainly in forest nurseries. Among the species of Lepidoptera, which regularly develop on spruce in the Czech conditions, 55 species were classified. As narrow specialists with special trophic relationship to spruce, 33 taxa could be considered. There were 15 spruce species with forestry importance, which were able to outbreak their populations regularly or irregularly. Among spruce species it was possible to classify 16 taxa as rare. The provided information on Lepidoptera with trophic relationship to spruce is applicable also for other Central European areas. Besides the species with importance for forest pest management, also rare taxa, which can become endangered by climate change or by forest management, were indicated.

  12. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  13. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Renata O; Via, Allegra; Brandão, Marcelo M; Tramontano, Anna; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-03-01

    Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic L-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  14. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2009 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2010-01-01

    ; Coleophoridae 118; Tortricidae 383 and of Pyralidae 196; this results in a total of 1560 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 962, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total of 2522 species....

  15. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  16. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2010 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    ; Tortricidae 384; Epermeniidae 7; Pterophoridae 46 and Pyralidae 197; this results in a total of 1574 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 965, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total...

  17. Host plant associated genetic divergence of two Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) stemborers on novel crop plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatraea lineolata and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are moths with stemboring larvae that feed and develop on economically important grasses. This study investigated whether these moths have diverged from a native host plant, corn, onto introduced crop plants including sorghum, suga...

  18. Post-glacial dispersal strategies of Orthoptera and Lepidoptera in Europe and in the Carpathian basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varga, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Post-glacial dispersal strategies of Orthoptera and Lepidoptera in Europe and in the Carpathian basin Ecologically transitional regions are characterised by high species diversity due to the overlap of species with different geographical origins caused by dispersal processes along gradients, e.g. th

  19. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  20. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, J.; Huang, F.; Onstad, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of populatio

  1. A new species of the genus Acria Stephens, 1834 (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashank, P R; Saravanan, L; Kalidas, P; Phanikumar, T; Ramamurthy, V V; Chandra Bose, N S

    2015-05-14

    A new species, Acria meyricki sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) occurring on oil palm, is described from India. The status and nomenclature of the genus is reviewed and an annotated checklist of species is given. A key to the seven species known so far from the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  2. Timing and patterns in the taxonomic diversification of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Wahlberg

    Full Text Available The macroevolutionary history of the megadiverse insect order Lepidoptera remains little-known, yet coevolutionary dynamics with their angiospermous host plants are thought to have influenced their diversification significantly. We estimate the divergence times of all higher-level lineages of Lepidoptera, including most extant families. We find that the diversification of major lineages in Lepidoptera are approximately equal in age to the crown group of angiosperms and that there appear to have been three significant increases in diversification rates among Lepidoptera over evolutionary time: 1 at the origin of the crown group of Ditrysia about 150 million years ago (mya, 2 at the origin of the stem group of Apoditrysia about 120 mya and finally 3 a spectacular increase at the origin of the stem group of the quadrifid noctuoids about 70 mya. In addition, there appears to be a significant increase in diversification rate in multiple lineages around 90 mya, which is concordant with the radiation of angiosperms. Almost all extant families appear to have begun diversifying soon after the Cretaceous/Paleogene event 65.51 mya.

  3. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  4. Extrafloral nectar feeding by Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vila

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Adults of the dry area specialist Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini are here recorded feeding on extrafloral nectar of the large cactus Neoraimondia arequipensis var. gigantea (Werdermann & Backeberg Ritter. The significance of these observations is discussed in relation to lycaenid survival in a xeric environment, pollination and mate location.

  5. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  6. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  7. THYMELICUS LINEOLA IN SARDEGNA, SPECIE INDIGENA MISCONOSCIUTA O RECENTE INTRODUZIONE ANTROPICA? (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Doneddu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Si riporta la presenza di Thymelicus lineola (Ochsenheimer, 1808 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Sardegna e si discute della sua possibile appartenenza alla fauna autoctona o in alternativa delle modalità con le quali abbia raggiunto l’isola.

  8. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  9. Chemical ecology and management of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, C; Anfora, G; Tasin, M; De Cristofaro, A; Witzgall, P; Lucchi, A

    2011-08-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) feeds on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), reducing yield and increasing susceptibility to fungal infections. L. botrana is among the most economically important insects in Europe and has recently been found in vineyards in Chile, Argentina, and California. Here, we review L. botrana biology and behavior in relation to its larval host (the grapevine) and its natural enemies. We also discuss current and future control strategies in light of our knowledge of chemical ecology, with an emphasis on the use of the sex pheromone-based strategies as an environmentally safe management approach. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is the most promising technique available on grapes and is currently implemented on approximately 140,000 ha in Europe. Experience from several growing areas confirms the importance of collaboration between research, extension, growers, and pheromone-supply companies for the successful implementation of the mating disruption technique. In the vineyards where mating disruption has been successfully applied as an areawide strategy, the reduction in insecticide use has improved the quality of life for growers, consumers, as well as the public living near wine-growing areas and has thereby reduced the conflict between agricultural and urban communities.

  10. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  11. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI ‘barcode’ region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular ‘barcode’. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics. PMID:24453557

  12. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Triphysa phryne (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gan, Shanshan; Zuo, Ni; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Ying; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Triphysa phryne (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) was determined in this study. The mitogenome is 15,143 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 putative protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene content and order are identical to those of other lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI gene which uses CGA as its start codon. Nine PCGs terminate in the common stop TAA, whereas the COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 genes end with single T. All tRNA genes showed typical secondary cloverleaf structures except for the tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which has a simple loop with the absence of its DHU stem. The 316 bp AT-rich region contains several features common to the other lepidopterans, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 19-bp poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (TA)8(AT) and (TA)4 elements preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  14. Enzymatic properties of phenoloxidase from Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera) larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO-BIN XUE; WAN-CHUN LUO; QING-XI CHEN; QIN WANG; LI-NA KE

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of partially purified phenoloxidase (PO, EC. 1.14.18.1) from the 5th instar larvae of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera) were determined, using L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as substrate. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme for the oxidation of L-DOPA were determined to be at pH 7.0 and at 42℃,respectively. The enzyme was stable between pH 6.5 and 7.4 and at temperatures lower than 37℃. At pH 6.8 and 37℃, the Michaelis constant (Km) and maximal velocity (Vm) of the enzyme for the oxidation of L-DOPA were determined to be 0.80 mmol/L and 1.84 μmol/ L/min, respectively. Tetra-hexylresorcinol and 4-dodecylresorcinol effectively inhibited activity of phenoloxidase and this inhibition was reversible and competitive, with the IC50 of 1.50 and 1.12μmol/L, respectively. The inhibition constants were estimated to be 0.50 and 0.47μmol/L, respectively.

  15. Micropyle number is associated with elevated female promiscuity in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iossa, Graziella; Gage, Matthew J G; Eady, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    In the majority of insects, sperm fertilize the egg via a narrow canal through the outer chorion called the micropyle. Despite having this one primary function, there is considerable unexplained variation in the location, arrangement and number of micropyles within and between species. Here, we examined the relationship between micropyle number and female mating pattern through a comparative analysis across Lepidoptera. Three functional hypotheses could explain profound micropylar variation: (i) increasing micropyle number reduces the risk of infertility through sperm limitation in species that mate infrequently; (ii) decreasing micropyle number reduces the risk of pathological polyspermy in species that mate more frequently; and (iii) increasing micropyle number allows females to exert greater control over fertilization within the context of post-copulatory sexual selection, which will be more intense in promiscuous species. Micropyle number was positively related to the degree of female promiscuity as measured by spermatophore count, regardless of phylogenetic signal, supporting the hypothesis that micropyle number is shaped by post-copulatory sexual selection. We discuss this finding in the context of cryptic female choice, sperm limitation and physiological polyspermy.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Callerebia suroia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qinghui; Zhang, Wei; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Callerebia suroia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) was determined and analyzed in this paper. The circular genome is 15,208 bp long, including 37 typical mitochondrial genes and one non-coding AT-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) started with ATN, except for COI gene with CGA(R), which is often found in other butterflies; nine PCGs harbor the typical stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 end with a single T. All tRNA genes display typical secondary clover-leaf structures, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is replaced by a simple loop. The lrRNA and srRNA genes are 1,347 bp and 753 bp in length, with their AT contents of 84.4% and 85.4%, respectively. The 417 bp AT-rich region contains non repetitive sequences, but harbor several features common to the lepidopterans, including the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  17. Geographic differences and sexual dimorphism in Greta cubana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Marrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Greta cubana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae presents populations in central and Eastern mountainous regions of Cuba, which are stables habitats that have been isolated for a long period of time. This study evaluates the geographic variation and the sexual dimorphism of this species using geometric morphometric tools,with 91 individuals of four populations: Topes de Collantes (n=5, Pico Turquino (n=26, Loma del Gato (n=27 and Gran Piedra (n=33. For each specimen was calculated its centroid size, wing´s total area and white spots´s relative areas. These variables were compared between sex and populations using Mann-Whitney´s U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. Discriminant and relative warps analyses were applied to weight matrices to separate between sex and populations. There were not significant differences between males and females wing size, but we found differences in spots size. The analyses applied to weight matrices separated males and females successfully. When analysing geographic variation of forewing area, only significant differences among females from Topes de Collantes and Pico Turquino populations were found. Centroid size and white spots didn’t have significant difference between populations. Both males and females show differences in shape wings between populations. We found clear evidences of sexual dimorphism, nevertheless not geographic differences exist. We are still supporting G. cubana as a monotypic species.

  18. First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile. The trees Haplorhus peruviana Engl. and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae are mentioned as the first host plant records for the little known native moth Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. This is also the first record of Anacardiaceae as host plant for a Neotropical species of Iridopsis Warren, 1894.

  19. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  20. Mitochondrial genome of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and comparison with other Lepidoptera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li-Shang; Li, Sheng; Yu, Hui-Min; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and compared it with previously sequenced mitogenomes of lepidopteran species. The mitogenome was a circular molecule, 15 349 base pairs (bp) long, containing 37 genes. The order and orientation of genes in the A. convolvuli mitogenome were similar to those in sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopterans. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which seemed to be initiated by the codon CGA, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon T, while the remainder terminated with TAA. Additionally, the codon distributions of the 13 PCGs revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Phe, and Tyr were the most frequently used codon families. All transfer RNAs were folded into the expected cloverleaf structure except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which lacked a stable dihydrouridine arm. The length of the adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region was 331 bp. This region included the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element next to the motif ATTTA. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) showed that A. convolvuli belongs to the family Sphingidae.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ah Rha; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-04-01

    The mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus, belongs to a lepidopteran family Hesperiidae. The 15,530-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the species has the typical gene content of animals (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one major non-coding A+T-rich region). As typical in lepidopteran mitogenome E. montanus mitogenome also contained a high A/T content in the whole genome (81.7%) and the CGA (arginine) as the start codon for the COI gene. Unlike other lepidopteran species, including two sequenced skippers, the E. montanus mitogenome has a unique arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn), instead of the tRNA(Asn)-tRNA(Ser) found unanimously in other lepidopteran species, providing a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera. Such rearrangement probably was likely caused by duplication of gene block tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn) and subsequent random loss of tRNA(Asn) in the first copy and tRNA(Ser) in the second copy, resulting in the arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn).

  2. 早熟素对棉铃虫滞育的终止作用%TERMINATION OF PUPAL DIAPAUSE IN THE BOLLWORM HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA BY PRECOCENE Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方海; 龚和

    2001-01-01

    用外源激素和某些化合物处理棉铃虫的滞育蛹,结果发现早熟素与蜕皮素-样可终止棉铃虫蛹的滞育,使其进入到发育阶段.而保幼激素类似物ZR-515,环腺氨酸(cAMP)和色氨类化合物(5-HT)则完全不具有终止棉铃虫滞育的作用.结合早熟素还可终止蚜虫寄生蜂Aphidius matricariae Haliday和Praon volucre Haliday的预蛹滞育的报道,建议早熟素应具有终止多种类昆虫滞育的功能.%Precocene Ⅱ terminated pupal diapause in the bollworm Helicoverpa armigera as 20-hydroxyecdysterone did, whereas juvenile hormone analog ZR-515, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) did not. The results indicate that precocene Ⅱ affects diapausing pupae in the similar way as what was found in the prepupae of the aphid parasitoids, Aphidius matricariae Haliday and Praon volucre Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). It is suggested that precocene Ⅱ may affect different kinds of termination of diapause in insects.

  3. A novel bio-engineering approach to generate an eminent surface-functionalized template for selective detection of female sex pheromone of Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Parikshit; Bhagat, Deepa; Pratap, Rudra; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2016-11-01

    Plant pests exert serious effects on food production due to which the global crop yields are reduced by ~20–40 percent per year. Hence to meet the world’s food needs, loses of food due to crop pests must be reduced. Herein the silicon dioxide based MEMS devices are covalently functionalized for robust and efficient optical sensing of the female sex pheromones of the pests like Helicoverpa armigera for the first time in literature. The functionalized devices are also capable of selectively measuring the concentration of this pheromone at femtogram level which is much below the concentration of pheromone at the time of pest infestation in an agricultural field. Experiments are also performed in a confined region in the presence of male and female pests and tomato plants which directly mimics the real environmental conditions. Again the reversible use and absolutely trouble free transportation of these pheromone nanosensors heightens their potentials for commercial use. Overall, a novel and unique approach for the selective and reversible sensing of female sex pheromones of certain hazardous pests is reported herein which may be efficiently and economically carried forward from the research laboratory to the agricultural field.

  4. Cross-resistance of Cry1Ac-resistant Heliocoverpa armigera Hübner%抗Bt棉铃虫种群的交互抗性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢美光; 芮昌辉; 赵建周; 孟香清

    2000-01-01

    分别用对Cry1Ac抗性达11.6倍的Bt棉叶和Bt粉剂(Btk)汰选棉铃虫(Heliocoverpa armigera)种群(对Btk的抗性指数为5.2倍),测定了其对不同Bt制剂、Bt毒素、化学农药的交互抗性.结果表明:停止汰选后,Bt棉叶汰选种群对Cry1Ac的抗性指数为5.9倍,对Cry1Ac+1C的交互抗性为3.7倍,对Btk的敏感性降低,对Bta、Cry2A无交互抗性;Btk汰选种群对Btk的抗性指数为4.1倍,对Bta、 Cry1Ac、Cry1Ac+1C的交互抗性为2.3、3.1、2.3倍,对Cry2A无交互抗性;两汰选种群对化学农药灭多威、辛硫磷、氯氰菊酯的敏感性均有所增加.

  5. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  6. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  7. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it.

  8. Response of last instar Helicoverpa armigera larvae to Bt toxin ingestion: changes in the development and in the CYP6AE14, CYP6B2 and CYP9A12 gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Muñoz

    Full Text Available Bt crops are able to produce Cry proteins, which were originally present in Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria. Although Bt maize is very efficient against corn borers, Spanish crops are also attacked by the earworm H. armigera, which is less susceptible to Bt maize. Many mechanisms could be involved in this low susceptibility to the toxin, including the insect's metabolic resistance to toxins due to cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. This paper examines the response of last instar H. armigera larvae to feeding on a diet with Bt and non-Bt maize leaves in larval development and in the gene expression of three P450 cytochromes: CYP6AE14, CYP6B2 and CYP9A12. Larvae fed on sublethal amounts of the Bt toxin showed reduced food ingestion and reduced growth and weight, preventing most of them from achieving the critical weight and pupating; additionally, after feeding for one day on the Bt diet the larvae showed a slight increase in juvenile hormone II in the hemolymp. Larvae fed on the non-Bt diet showed the highest CYP6AE14, CYP6B2 and CYP9A12 expression one day after feeding on the non-Bt diet, and just two days later the expression decreased abruptly, a finding probably related to the developmental programme of the last instar. Moreover, although the response of P450 genes to plant allelochemicals and xenobiotics has been related in general to overexpression in the resistant insect, or induction of the genes when feeding takes place, the expression of the three genes studied was suppressed in the larvae feeding on the Bt toxin. The unexpected inhibitory effect of the Cry1Ab toxin in the P450 genes of H. armigera larvae should be thoroughly studied to determine whether this response is somehow related to the low susceptibility of the species to the Bt toxin.

  9. Thracides phidon (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Novo registro em plantios comerciais de Heliconia spp. na região Amazônica do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera desfolhadores podem danificar cultivos de flores tropicais, mas existem poucos relatos desses insetos em plantas de Heliconia spp. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi registrar uma nova ocorrência de Thracides phidon (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae como desfolhadora de Heliconia spp. em plantios comerciais na região Amazônica do Brasil.

  10. Thracides phidon (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae): Novo registro em plantios comerciais de Heliconia spp. na região Amazônica do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Ribeiro; Isabela Carvalho; Gabriely Souza; Hany Fouad; Walkymário Lemos

    2012-01-01

    Lepidoptera desfolhadores podem danificar cultivos de flores tropicais, mas existem poucos relatos desses insetos em plantas de Heliconia spp. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi registrar uma nova ocorrência de Thracides phidon (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae) como desfolhadora de Heliconia spp. em plantios comerciais na região Amazônica do Brasil.

  11. Biologia de Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em milho Biology of Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva Fagundes Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae é uma nova praga da espiga de milho no Brasil, sendo seu estudo importante em áreas de produção de sementes porque os grãos atacados pelas lagartas não germinam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sua biologia em condições de laboratório (25±2°C, UR de 65±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 35,2 dias. O período de incubação foi de 4,1 dias. A duração média da fase larval foi de 21,1 dias, sendo observados cinco ínstares larvais. A fase pupal durou 8,4 dias e o peso de pupa de machos e fêmeas foi de 12,4 e 11,3mg, respectivamente. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 118 ovos, apresentando um período de pré-oviposição de 10,7 dias e de oviposição de 14,0 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 37,02 e 44,16 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,48. As lagartas danificam os estilo-estigmas e os grãos em estado leitoso por meio de pequenos orifícios de entrada, prejudicando o endosperma e principalmente a região do embrião, inutilizando-os para sementes. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho fornecem subsídios para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto, especialmente em áreas de produção de sementes.The caterpillar Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a new pest of corn ear in Brazil, and its study is important in seed fields. The aim of this was to study the biology of this pest under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 65±10% of RH and 14-hours of photophase. The biological cycle (egg-adult was of 35.2 days. The incubation period was of 4.1 days. The average larval development time was of 21.1 days, and 5 instars were observed. The pupal period was of 8.4 days and the pupae weight was of 12.4 and 11.3 mg for males and females, respectively. The females laid an average of 118 eggs with a pre-oviposition period of 10.7 days and an oviposition time of 14.0 days. The

  12. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production.

  13. Development of a novel‐type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Summary The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants—npf1 and npf2 (with a 120‐bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to for...

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  15. An independent occurrence of the chimeric P450 enzyme CYP337B3 of Helicoverpa armigera confers cypermethrin resistance in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Akhtar; Joußen, Nicole; Lorenz, Sybille; Ellinger, Renate; Schneider, Bernd; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Heckel, David G

    2014-10-01

    The increasing resistance level of insect pest species is a major concern to agriculture worldwide. The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important pest species due to being highly polyphagous, geographically widespread, and resistant towards many chemical classes of insecticides. We previously described the mechanism of fenvalerate resistance in Australian populations conferred by the chimeric cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP337B3, which arose by unequal crossing-over between CYP337B1 and CYP337B2. Here, we show that this mechanism is also present in the cypermethrin-resistant FSD strain from Pakistan. The Pakistani and the Australian CYP337B3 alleles differ by 18 synonymous and three nonsynonymous SNPs and additionally in the length and sequence of the intron. Nevertheless, the activity of both CYP337B3 proteins is comparable. We demonstrate that CYP337B3 is capable of metabolizing cypermethrin (trans- and especially cis-isomers) to the main metabolite 4'-hydroxycypermethrin, which exhibits no intrinsic toxicity towards susceptible larvae. In a bioassay, CYP337B3 confers a 7-fold resistance towards cypermethrin in FSD larvae compared to susceptible larvae from the Australian TWB strain lacking CYP337B3. Linkage analysis shows that presence of CYP337B3 accounts for most of the cypermethrin resistance in the FSD strain; up-regulation of other P450s in FSD plays no detectable role in resistance. The presence or absence of CYP337B3 can be easily detected by a simple PCR screen, providing a powerful tool to rapidly distinguish resistant from susceptible individuals in the field and to determine the geographical distribution of this resistance gene. Our results suggest that CYP337B3 evolved twice independently by unequal crossing-over between CYP337B2 and two different CYP337B1 alleles.

  16. Determinant Factors in the Production of a Co-Occluded Binary Mixture of Helicoverpa armigera Alphabaculovirus (HearNPV) Genotypes with Desirable Insecticidal Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizubieta, Maite; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2016-01-01

    A co-occluded binary mixture of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus genotypes HearSP1B and HearLB6 at a 1:1 ratio (HearSP1B+HearLB6) was selected for the development of a virus-based biological insecticide, which requires an efficient large-scale production system. In vivo production systems require optimization studies in each host-virus pathosystem. In the present study, the effects of larval instar, rearing density, timing of inoculation, inoculum concentration and temperature on the production of HearSP1B+HearLB6 in its homologous host were evaluated. The high prevalence of cannibalism in infected larvae (40–87%) indicated that insects require individual rearing to avoid major losses in OB production. The OB production of recently molted fifth instars (7.0 x 109 OBs/larva), combined with a high prevalence of mortality (85.7%), resulted in the highest overall OB yield (6.0 x 1011 OBs/100 inoculated larvae), compared to those of third or fourth instars. However, as inoculum concentration did not influence final OB yield, the lowest concentration, LC80 (5.5 x 106 OBs/ml), was selected. Incubation temperature did not significantly influence OB yield, although larvae maintained at 30°C died 13 and 34 hours earlier than those incubated at 26°C and 23°C, respectively. We conclude that the efficient production of HearSP1B+HearLB6 OBs involves inoculation of recently molted fifth instars with a LC80 concentration of OBs followed by individual rearing at 30°C. PMID:27732657

  17. The taxonomic placement and provenance of Hypopyra inconspicua Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Thyrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor O. Becker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic placement and provenance of Hypopyra inconspicua Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Thyrididae. Tanyodes inconspicua (Herrich-Schäffer comb. nov. is transferred from Spirama Guenée (Noctuidae, Catocalinae to Striglininae (Thyrididae, as a senior synonym of Ortogramma rufitibia R. Felder & Rogenhofer syn. nov. and Tanyodes ochracea Möschler syn. nov., and from the African to the Neotropical fauna.

  18. Uji Efektifitas Ekstrak Daun Mengkudu Terhadap Hama Kubis Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Sardes

    2009-01-01

    Uji Efektifitas Ekstrak Daun Mengkudu Terhadap Hama Kubis Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) di Laboratorium dibimbing oleh Ir. Marheni MP., dan Ir. Erwin Maa’aruf, MS. Selaku ketua dan anggota. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas instektisida botanis Mengkudu terhadap hama kubis P.xylostella di Laboratorium. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium PHP BPTPH Medan Johor, Sumatera Utara yang dimulai pada bulan April 2007 sampai Juli 2007. Penelitian meng...

  19. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2011 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This article reports and comments on interesting Danish Microlepidoptera collected in 2011 and include remarkable findings from previous years. The classification and nomenclature follow the new Danish checklist (Karsholt & Stadel Nielsen, in press). Ten species are reported as new to the Danish ...... the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total of 2551 species. There are moreover 10 species on the so-called observation list, containing species of uncertain status, which was erected in 2009....

  20. Sexual differences in weight loss upon eclosion are related to life history strategy in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Freerk; Javoiš, Juhan; Esperk, Toomas; Teder, Tiit; Davis, Robert B; Tammaru, Toomas

    2011-06-01

    Given that immature and adult insects have different life styles, different target body compositions can be expected. For adults, such targets will also differ depending on life history strategy, and thus vary among the sexes, and in females depend on the degree of capital versus income breeding and ovigeny. Since these targets may in part be approximated by loss of substances upon eclosion, comparing sexual differences in such losses upon eclosion among species that differ in life history would provide insights into insect functional ecology. We studied weight loss in eclosing insects using original data on pupal and adult live weights of 38 species of Lepidoptera (mainly Geometridae) and further literature data on 15 species of Lepidoptera and six representatives of other insect orders, and applied the phylogenetic independent contrasts approach. In addition, data on live and dry weights of pupae of four species of Lepidoptera are presented. We documented that Lepidoptera typically lose a large proportion (20-80%) of their pupal weight upon adult eclosion. Sexual differences in weight loss varied between absent and strongly male biased. Most of the weight loss was water loss, and sexual differences in adult water content correlate strongly with differences in weight loss. Using feeding habits (feeds or does not feed as an adult) and female biased sexual size dimorphism as measures of degree of capital breeding, we found that the difference among the sexes in weight loss tends to be more pronounced in capital breeding species. Additionally, females of more pro-ovigenic species (large proportion of eggs mature upon emergence) tend to have higher water contents. Our results suggests that metamorphosis is generally facilitated by a high water content, while adults excrete water upon eclosion to benefit flight unless water has been allocated to eggs, or is treated as a capital resource for adult survival or future allocation to eggs.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fang; Wang, Lin; Wu, Song; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Guo-Ming; Niu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Ming-Gang

    2010-03-29

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was determined. The genome is a circular molecule 15 481 bp long. It presents a typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes, but differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of tRNA(Met). The nucleotide composition of the genome is also highly A + T biased, accounting for 80.38%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.010), indicating the occurrence of more As than Ts, as found in the Noctuoidea species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which is tentatively designated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans. Four of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Ser)(AGN) and ND1 also contains the ATACTAA motif, which is conserved across the Lepidoptera order. The H. cunea A+T-rich region of 357 bp is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)(8) element preceded by the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A present immediately upstream tRNA(Met). The phylogenetic analyses support the view that the H. cunea is closerly related to the Lymantria dispar than Ochrogaster lunifer, and support the hypothesis that Noctuoidea (H. cunea, L. dispar, and O. lunifer) and Geometroidea (Phthonandria atrilineata) are monophyletic. However, in the phylogenetic trees based on mitogenome sequences among the lepidopteran superfamilies, Papillonoidea (Artogeia melete, Acraea issoria, and Coreana raphaelis) joined basally within the monophyly of Lepidoptera, which is different to the traditional classification.

  2. The 'taygetis Ypthima Species Group' (lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae): Taxonomy, Variation And Description Of A New Species.

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Siewert; Thamara Zacca; Fernando Dias; André Freitas; Olaf Mielke; Mirna Casagrande

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Taygetis Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) from southeastern Brazil is described: Taygetis drogoni sp. n. In addition, T. servius Weymer, 1910 and T. fulginia d’Almeida, 1922 are resurrected from synonymy and a taxonomic discussion on the species T. ypthima Hübner, [1821] and T. rectifascia Weymer, 1907 is provided. A dichotomous key for the species is also provided.

  3. An updated and annotated checklist of the Hedylidae and Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) of Trinidad, West Indies

    OpenAIRE

    COCK, Matthew J. W.

    2014-01-01

    A revised checklist for the butterfl y families Hedylidae and Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) of Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago) is presented, bringing nomenclature in line with modern usage, and indicating synonyms from earlier lists and papers. The following are new records for Trinidad: Thessia athesis (Hewitson), Bungalotis clusia Evans, Sarmientoia eriopis (Hewitson), Pellicia tyana toza Evans, Quadrus contubernalis contubernalis (Mabille) and Decinea decinea derisor (Mabille). The checklist in...

  4. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed.

  5. Imaturos de Sarsina violascens (Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Lymantriinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Moraes C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaturos de Sarsina violascens (Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Lymantriinae. Sarsina violascens é uma espécie polífaga que eventualmente se alimenta de P. cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae durante sua fase larval. Neste estudo são descritas a morfologia e o comportamento dos imaturos, com ilustrações, fotografias e imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura.

  6. Taxonomic review of the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae from Myanmar

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    Nan Zarchi Win

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides keys to the genera and species for the butterfly species belonging to the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae from Myanmar. Species accounts include taxonomic description, synonymic lists, distributional ranges, and adult illustrations of nine species: Junonia hierta (Fabricius, Junonia orithya (Linnaeus, Junonia almana (Linnaeus, Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus, Junonia atlites (Linnaeus, Junonia iphita (Cramer, Yoma sabina (Cramer, Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus, and Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus.

  7. Low host specificity and abundance of frugivorous lepidoptera in the lowland rain forests of Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ctvrtecka, Richard; Miller, Scott E.; Rosati, Margaret E.; Molem, Kenneth; Damas, Kipiro; Gewa, Bradley; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171) of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33) of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4) fed on single family, 6% (3) on single genus and 17% (8) were monophagous. The average kilogram of fruits was infested by 0.81 individual from generalist species (defined here as feeding on >1 plant genus) and 0.07 individual from specialist species (feeding on a single host or congeneric hosts). Lepidoptera preferred smaller fruits with both smaller mesocarp and seeds. Large-seeded fruits with thin mesocarp tended to host specialist species whereas those with thick, fleshy mesocarp were often infested with both specialist and generalist species. The very low incidence of seed damage suggests that pre-dispersal seed predation by Lepidoptera does not play a major role in regulating plant populations via density-dependent mortality processes outlined by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. PMID:28231249

  8. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that 10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  9. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth; Herrero, Salvador; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens.

  10. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenius, Olle; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Huvenne, Hanneke; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Albrechtsen, Merete; An, Chunju; Aymeric, Jean-Luc; Barthel, Andrea; Bebas, Piotr; Bitra, Kavita; Bravo, Alejandra; Chevalier, François; Collinge, Derek P; Crava, Cristina M; de Maagd, Ruud A; Duvic, Bernard; Erlandson, Martin; Faye, Ingrid; Felföldi, Gabriella; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Futahashi, Ryo; Gandhe, Archana S; Gatehouse, Heather S; Gatehouse, Laurence N; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Gómez, Isabel; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Groot, Astrid T; Hauser, Frank; Heckel, David G; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Hrycaj, Steven; Huang, Lihua; Hull, J Joe; Iatrou, Kostas; Iga, Masatoshi; Kanost, Michael R; Kotwica, Joanna; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, Magnus; Matsumoto, Shogo; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Millichap, Peter J; Monteiro, Antónia; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Niimi, Teruyuki; Nowara, Daniela; Ohnishi, Atsushi; Oostra, Vicencio; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Papakonstantinou, Maria; Popadic, Aleksandar; Rajam, Manchikatla V; Saenko, Suzanne; Simpson, Robert M; Soberón, Mario; Strand, Michael R; Tomita, Shuichiro; Toprak, Umut; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, Steven; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Herrero, Salvador; Gordon, Karl; Swevers, Luc; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-02-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they are possible to analyze. In this review, we have collected detailed data from more than 150 experiments including all to date published and many unpublished experiments. Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our public database at http://insectacentral.org/RNAi will continue to gather information on RNAi experiments.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Azochis gripusalis WALKER, 1859 (PYRAUSTIDAE - LEPIDOPTERA ASPECTOS MORFOLÓGICOS DA Azochis gripusalis Walker, 1859 (PYRAUSTIDAE - LEPIDOPTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    For the purpose of understanding the external morphology of the adult of the Azochis gripusalis Walker, 1859 (Pyraustidae - Lepidoptera, a study was made of the head in dorsal, ventral, front, back and lateral views, of the thorax in dorsal, ventral and lateral views, of the front and back wings, of the prothoracic, mesothoracic and metathoracic legs, and of the abdomen in lateral view. The Azochis gripusalis is known by its large, dark ocelli; the sucking pump is well developed. The maxillary palps (feelers are small; the labial ones along with the middle segment are larger than the other segments. The thorax is straw-yellow with groups of shiny, light gray scales. The prothorax is very restricted in size. The mesothorax is larger than the prothorax and the metathorax put together. The front wings are triangular, shiny straw-yellow, with groups of dark brown scales arranged obliquely, forming isolated dark spots, measuring from 13 to 16 mm in length and having 13 veins all of which, with the exception of 3A, touch the edge of the wing.  The veins R¹, R² and R5 emerge directly from the discoidal cavity. R³ and R4 at the vertex of the wing are slightly bent downward. R², R³ and R4 form a trident (crotch. The back wings are semi-elliptcal, shiny straw-yellow, with groups of dark, irregular scales, and have 10 veins, all of which touch the edge of the wing. R², R³, R4 and R5 are fused. The discoidal cavity is open. Cu¹ emerges from the back angle of the discoidal cavity. 1A and 2A are fused at the base. The anal veins touch the edge of the wing. The wings, when resting, remain partially open. The legs display tibial spurs arranged according to the formula 0-2-4, respectively. The abdomen, dorsally, is shiny straw-yel1ow, with groups of slightly darkened scales between the segments. Eight segments are clearly distinguished. The sixth segment is slightly bent upward; nine and

  12. A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica

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    Enrique A. Mundaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol. H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.

  13. Nomenclatural Changes in the Neotropical Eumaeini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae

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    Robert K. Robbins

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Nomenclatural actions are taken in the Neotropical Eumaeini in advance of publication of the Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera Checklist. Lectotypes are designated for eleven species group names: Lycaena astiocha Prittwitz, 1865; Thecla azia Hewitson, 1873; Thecla beroea Hewitson, 1868; Thecla cupa Druce, 1907; Thecla daraba Hewitson, 1867; Thecla duma Hewitson, 1878; Thecla erenea Hewitson, 1867; Thecla galliena Hewitson, 1867; Thecla guacanagari Wallengren, 1860; Thecla stagira Hewitson, 1867; and Thecla thoria Hewitson, 1867. Thecla duma Hewitson, 1878 and Thecla columbinia Strand, 1916 are transferred from Eumaeini to Deudorigini (Theclinae. Lycaena vanessoides Prittwitz, 1865 is transferred from Polyommatinae to Theclinae (Eumaeini. Six type localities are changed: Colombia to Africa for Thecla columbinia Strand, 1916; Amazon to Guayaquil for Thecla daraba Hewitson, 1867; Colombia to Southeast Asia for Thecla duma Hewitson, 1878; Bolivia to Westem North America for Ignata illepida K. Johnson, 1992; Argentina to the United States for Strymon nivnix K. Johnson, Eisele & MacPherson, 1990; and Dominican Republic to mainland Central and South America for Tmolus victoria K. Johnson & Matusik, 1989. Seven new synonyms are: Lycaena vanessoides Prittwitz, 1865 = Thecla hygela Hewitson, 1868 syn. nov.; Thecla saepium Boisduval, 1852 = Ignata illepida K. Johnson, 1992 syn. nov.; Thecla tyriam H.H. Druce, 1907 = Zigirina minutia K. Johnson & Adams, 1997 syn. nov.; Thecla halciones Butler & H. Druce, 1872 = Decussata colombiana K. Johnson, Austin, Le Crom & Sal azar, 1997 syn. nov.; Papilio celmus Cramer, 1775 = Tmolus victoria K. Johnson & Matusik, 1989 syn. nov.; Thecla daraba Hewitson, 1867 = Thecla tyleri Dyar, 1913 syn. nov.; and Thecla galliena Hewitson, 1877 = Thecla iopas Godman & Salvin, 1887 syn. nov. The generic name Decussata K. Johnson, Austin, Le Crom & Salazar, 1997 is a new junior synonym of Ostrinotes K. Johnson, Austin, Le Crom

  14. Pertussis toxin modulation of sodium channels in the central neurons of cyhalothrin-resistant and cyhalothrin-susceptible cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG ZHAO; DE-LING KONG; BING-JUN HE; YAN-QIANG LIU; XIAN-LIN FAN; AN-XI LIU

    2007-01-01

    Pertussis toxin (PTX) inhibits the activation of the α-subunit of the inhibitory heterotrimeric G-proteins (Gαi/o) and modulates voltage-gated sodium channels, which may be one of the primary targets of pyrethroids. To investigate the potential mechanisms of agricultural pests resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, we examined the modulations by PTX on sodium channels in the central neurons of the 3rd-4th instar larvae of cyhalothrin-resistant (Cy-R) and cyhalothrin-susceptible (Cy-S) Helicoverpa armigera by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique.The isolated neurons were cultured for 12-16 h in an improved L15 insect culture medium with or without PTX (400 ng/mL). The results showed that both the Cy-R and Cy-S sodium channels exhibited fast kinetics and tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitivity. The Cy-R sodium channels exhibited not only altered gating properties, including a 8.88-mV right shift in voltage-dependent activation (V0.5act) and a 6.54-mV right shift in voltage-dependent inactivation (V0.5inact), but also a reduced peak in sodium channel density (Idensity) (55.2% of that in Cy-S neurons). Cy-R sodium channels also showed low excitability, as evidenced by right shift of activation potential (Vacti) by 5-10 mV and peak potential (Vpeak) by 20 mV. PTX exerted significant effects on Cy-S sodium channels,reducing sodium channel density by 70.04%, right shifting V0.5act by 14.41 mV and V0.5inact by 9.38 mV. It did not cause any significant changes of the parameters mentioned above in the Cy-R sodium channels. The activation time (Tpeak) from latency to peak at peak voltage and the fast inactivation time constant (τinact) in both Cy-S and Cy-R neurons were not affected. The results suggest that cotton bollworm resistant to pyrethroid insecticides involves not only mutations and allosteric alterations of voltage-gated sodium channels, but also might implicate perturbation of PTX-sensitive Gαi/o-coupled signaling transduction pathways.

  15. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Bharucha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea and sorghum can be used as mixed crops to protect the crop from

  16. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharucha Bhavna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea

  17. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  18. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and phylogenetic analysis of advanced moths and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Li, Qian; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Here we determined the mitochondrial genome sequence of a notorious pest, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae). The mitochondrial genome contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. The gene arrangement is identical to that of other ditrysian lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, but different from the ancestral gene arrangement in the non-ditrysian Hepialidae of Lepidoptera. The start codon of the cox1 gene is CGA, which is dissimilar to its homologs in most other insects. In Lepidoptera, cox1 and cox2 have low nucleotide diversities, while the nad6, nad2, and nad3 genes are highly variable. Phylogenetic analyses uncovered the reciprocal monophyly of Ditrysia, Apoditrysia, Obtectomera, and Macrolepidoptera, and the placement of the Hesperiidae within Papilionoidea. Our analyses suggest that the complete mitochondrial genome sequences are a promising marker toward fully resolving the phylogenetic relationships within Lepidoptera.

  19. First report of an egg parasitoid reared from Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Schizaeales: Lygodiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was first released in Florida as a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Polypodiales: Lygodiaceae), Old World climbing fern, in 2008. The first egg parasitoid, a Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), was reared from N. co...

  20. Comparative embryogenesis of Mecoptera and Lepidoptera with special reference to the abdominal prolegs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Li-Xuan; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The eruciform larvae of holometabolous insects are primarily characterized by bearing a varying number of abdominal prolegs in addition to three pairs of thoracic legs. However, whether the prolegs are evolutionarily homologous among different insect orders is still a disputable issue. We examined the embryonic features and histological structure of the prolegs of the scorpionfly Panorpa byersi Hua and Huang (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) and the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to investigate whether the prolegs are homologous between these two holometabolous insect orders. In the scorpionfly, paired lateral process primordia arise on abdominal segments I-VIII (A1-A8) in line with the thoracic legs in early embryonic stages, but degenerate into triangular protuberances in later stages, and paired medial processes appear along the midventral line before dorsal closure and eventually develop into unjointed, cone-shaped prolegs. Histological observation showed that the lumina of the prolegs are not continuous with the hemocoel, differing distinctly from that of the basic appendicular plan of thoracic legs. These results suggest that the prolegs are likely secondary outgrowths in Mecoptera. In the armyworm, lateral process primordia appear on A1-A10 in alignment with the thoracic legs in the early embryonic stages, although only the rudiments on A3-A6 and A10 develop into segmented prolegs with the lumina continuous with the hemocoel and others degenerate eventually, suggesting that the prolegs are true segmental appendages serially homologous with the thoracic legs in Lepidoptera. Therefore, we conclude that the larval prolegs are likely not evolutionarily homologous between Mecoptera and Lepidoptera.

  1. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

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    Sven Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  2. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  3. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  4. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  5. Influence of holding temperature and irradiation on field performance of mass-reared Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an integral component to the area-wide integrated management of the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was successfully implemented in the Western Cape region of South Africa and subsequently expanded to citrus are...

  6. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  7. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  8. Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryrholm, N.

    2003-01-01

    Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)? In order to assess the influence of climatic changes on the distribution of insects, the ranges of nonmigratory European butterfly species have been studied. This study

  9. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, J.J.; Berg, van den J.; Potting, R.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite

  10. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Science.gov (United States)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  11. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  12. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop Evaluación del rol benéfico de Turdoides striatus como predator de Helicoverpa armigera en el cultivo de guandul (Cajanus cajan

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    Bhavna Bharucha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea and sorghum can be used as mixed crops to protect the crop from

  13. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  14. The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil

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    Aurélio R. Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil. The aquatic caterpillar Paracles klagesi (Rothschild, 1910 was collected from the headwaters of a stream in an ecotone between Cerrado and Babaçu forest in northeastern Brazil. The single caterpillar found was observed feeding on the macrophyte Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. (Eriocaulaceae and other aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae present in the area, but also accepted as food Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae and Cabomba sp. (Cabombaceae under laboratory conditions.

  15. Discovery of a third species of Lamproptera Gray, 1832 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Zhang, Xin; Cotton, Adam M; Ye, Hui

    2014-04-11

    A newly discovered, third species of the genus Lamproptera (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is described, 183 years after the second currently recognised species was first named. Lamproptera paracurius Hu, Zhang & Cotton sp. n., from N.E. Yunnan, China, is based on marked differences in external morphology and male genital structure. The species is confirmed as a member of the genus, and detailed comparisons are made with other taxa included in the genus. Keys to Lamproptera species based on external characters and male genitalia are included.

  16. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  17. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-06

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  18. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  19. Effects of sex, host-plant deprivation and presence of conspecific immatures on the cannibalistic behavior of wild Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae)

    OpenAIRE

    SANTANA, Alessandra F. K.; Zago,Rosana C.; ZUCOLOTO, Fernando S.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sex, host-plant deprivation and presence of conspecific immatures on the cannibalistic behavior of wild Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). The specialist cabbage caterpillar Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) feeds on plants of the Brassicaceae family, but may eventually ingest conspecific eggs and larvae during the larval stage. The present study examines feeding behavior of 4th and 5th instar cabbage caterpillars in relation to sex, host-plant depriv...

  20. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 1. Two new species of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuinae, Agrotini

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    Eric Metzler

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The white gypsum dune ecosystem in the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico is the largest gypsum dune field on earth, covering 712.25 km2. White Sands National Monument in Otero County, New Mexico, protects approximately 40%, 297.85 km2, of this dune field. In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, resulting in the discovery of two new species, Euxoa lafontainei Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. and Protogygia whitesandsensis Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. described herein. Adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for Euxoa lafontainei, and adults and male genitalia are illustrated for Protogygia whitesandsensis and its relatives.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), with a description of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Su Yeon; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-11-01

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella, and compared their genome organization and sequence composition to those of available gelechioid mitogenomes for an enhanced understanding of Gelechioidea genomic characteristics. We compared all available lepidopteran mitogenome arrangements, including that of M. albilinella, which is unique in Gelechioidea, to comprehend the extensiveness and mechanisms of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera. The genomes of M. albilinella and D. ustalella are 15,274 and 15,410 bp in size, respectively, with the typical sets of mitochondrial (mt) genes. The COI gene begins with CGA (arginine) in all sequenced gelechioids, including M. albilinella and D. ustalella, reinforcing the feature as a synapomorphic trait, at least in the Gelechioidea. Each 353- and 321-bp long A + T-rich region of M. albilinella and D. ustalella contains one (D. ustalella) or two (M. albilinella) tRNA-like structures. The M. albilinella mitogenome has a unique gene arrangement among the Gelechioidea: ARNESF (the underline signifies an inverted gene) at the ND3 and ND5 junction, as opposed to the ARNSEF that is found in ancestral insects. An extensive search of available lepidopteran mitogenomes, including that of M. albilinella, turned up six rearrangements that differ from those of ancestral insects. Most of the rearrangements can be explained by the tandem duplication-random loss model, but inversion, which requires recombination, is also found in two cases, including M. albilinella. Excluding the MIQ rearrangement at the A + T-rich region and ND2 junction, which is found in nearly all Ditrysia, most of the remaining rearrangements found in Lepidoptera appear to be independently derived in that they are automorphic at several taxonomic scales, although current mitogenomic data are limited, particularly for congeneric data.

  2. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

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    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  3. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

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    Juan F. Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm y Quiquijana (3100 msnm. Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los parasitoides adultos. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae fue la principal especie parasitoide con 19,8% de parasitismo de larvas provenientes de ambas localidades. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, incluyendo Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, representó el 27,8% y Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae el 5,6%. Braconidae presentó mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en Quiquijana que en Izcuchaca. Se discute el efecto de la diversidad de plantas asociadas, cultivadas y silvestres, sobre las poblaciones de insectos parasitoides.Quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa is an important economic activity at Cusco. The quinoa moth: Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the main insect pest recorded from Cusco in quinoa fields and it has a complex of natural enemies. This research reports parasitoid insects and percentage of parasitized larvae of quinoa moth from two localities of Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 masl and Quiquijana (3100 masl. Collected larvae were reared at room conditions up to emergence of adult parasitoids. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae was the main parasitoid with 19,8% of parasitized larvae from both localities. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, including Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, accounted for 27,8% and Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae the 5,6%. Braconidae showed a greater percentage of parasitism at Quiquijana than Izcuchaca. We discuss if diversity of associated plants, both cultivated and wild plants, influence parasitoid populations.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of an aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) belongs to the subfamily Nymphulinae, nearly all of which are aquatic in their entire larval and pupal stages. The 15,351-bp long complete mitogenome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in the majority of Lepidoptera. One of the unusual features of the E. interruptalis mitogenome is the presence of a tRNA(Phe)-like sequence beyond the A+T-rich region. The sequence is encoded in the minor strand of the genome overlapping with the reversely encoded regular tRNA(Glu) by 65 bp. The sequence divergence of the tRNA(Phe)-like sequence to that of regular E. interruptalis tRNA(Phe) and other within-familial species was as low as 59% ∼ 71%, but has a proper folding structure with well-matched stems and identical anticodon sequences to the regular copy.

  5. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  6. Eucalyptus cloeziana AS A NEW HOST TO Hylesia paulex (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

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    Alexandre Igor Azevedo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified Lepidoptera species was found defoliating Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae in a cerrado area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pupae of this insect, collected in the area, were brought to the laboratory and maintained in Petri dishes (9.0 cm x 1.5 cm under 25 ± 2oC, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and 12 hours photophase to obtain adults and eggs. This insect was identified as Hylesia paulex Dognin (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, and, in that way, the objective of the present study was to register for the first time its herbivory in E. cloeziana plants. Newly-emerged caterpillars were reared in 10 plastic pots (500ml, with 30 caterpillars per pot and fed, daily, with fresh leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae. The egg incubation period of H. paulex was 32.00 ± 1.19 days. The total duration of the seven instars of this insect was 67.83 ± 0.84 days. Hylesia paulex completed its life cycle with E. cloeziana plants, what proves its adaptability to this kind of exotic Myrtaceae in Brazil.

  7. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family.

  8. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

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    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  9. Barcoding lepidoptera: current situation and perspectives on the usefulness of a contentious technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Lyra, Mariana L; Freitas, André V L

    2009-01-01

    Faced by a growing need of identification and delimitation of new and established cryptic species that are being lost at an increasing rate, taxonomists can now more than ever take advantage of an enormous variety of new molecular and computational tools. At this moment they should be open to all new available technologies in the so called 'technology-driven revolution' in systematics. The use of the 'DNA barcode' has been discussed by those applying successfully this approach to identify and diagnose species and by those who believe that the flaws in the use of this molecular marker are as many as to negate the worth of its employment. For insects of the order Lepidoptera neither side seems totally correct or wrong, and although many groups of lepidopterans have been taxonomically resolved by using exclusively or additionally this marker for diagnoses, for others the 'barcode' helped little to resolve taxonomic issues. Here we briefly present some pros and cons of using DNA barcode as a tool in taxonomic studies, with special attention to studies with groups of Lepidoptera developed in the last few years.

  10. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae

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    Donald Davis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of E. minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae, new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable inwing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of E. grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated.

  11. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations.

  12. The complete mitogenome of Bombyx mori strain Dazao (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) and comparison with other lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Dai, Li-Shang; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bombyx mori strain Dazao (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was determined to be 15,653bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a A+T-rich region. It has the typical gene organization and order of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. The AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly positive and the nucleotide composition was also biased toward A+T nucleotides (81.31%). All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which was initiated by CGA. The cox1 and cox2 genes had incomplete stop codons consisting of just a T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The A+T-rich region of the mitogenome was 495bp in length and consisted of several features common to the lepidopteras. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the B. mori Dazao was close to Bombycidae.

  13. The application and performance of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for population genetic analyses of Lepidoptera

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    Brad S. Coates

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers are difficult to apply within lepidopteran studies due to the lack of locus-specific PCR amplification and the high proportion of null alleles, such that erroneous estimations of population genetic parameters often result. Herein single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are developed from Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae using next-generation expressed sequence tag (EST data. A total of 2742 SNPs were predicted within a reference assembly of 7414 EST contigs, and a subset of 763 were incorporated into 24 multiplex PCR reactions. To validate this pipeline, 5 European and North American sample sites were genotyped at 178 SNP loci, which indicated 84 (47.2% were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Locus-by-locus FST, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, and STRUCTURE analyses indicate significant genetic differentiation may exist between European and North American O. nubilalis. The observed genetic diversity was significantly lower among European sites, which may be the result from genetic drift, natural selection, a genetic bottleneck, or ascertainment bias due to North American origin of EST sequence data. SNPs are an abundant mutation data molecular genetic marker development in non-model species with shared ancestral SNPs showing application within closely related species. These markers offer advantages over microsatellite markers for genetic and genomic analyses of Lepidoptera, but the source of mutation data may affect the estimation of population parameters and likely need be considered in the interpretation of empirical data.

  14. Food searching behaviour of a Lepidoptera pest species is modulated by the foraging gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnet, Floriane; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Chouquet, Bastien; Joly, Nicolas; Harry, Myriam; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Kaiser, Laure

    2014-10-01

    The extent of damage to crop plants from pest insects depends on the foraging behaviour of the insect's feeding stage. Little is known, however, about the genetic and molecular bases of foraging behaviour in phytophagous pest insects. The foraging gene (for), a candidate gene encoding a PKG-I, has an evolutionarily conserved function in feeding strategies. Until now, for had never been studied in Lepidoptera, which includes major pest species. The cereal stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides is therefore a relevant species within this order with which to study conservation of and polymorphism in the for gene, and its role in foraging - a behavioural trait that is directly associated with plant injuries. Full sequencing of for cDNA in S. nonagrioides revealed a high degree of conservation with other insect taxa. Activation of PKG by a cGMP analogue increased larval foraging activity, measured by how frequently larvae moved between food patches in an actimeter. We found one non-synonymous allelic variation in a natural population that defined two allelic variants. These variants presented significantly different levels of foraging activity, and the behaviour was positively correlated to gene expression levels. Our results show that for gene function is conserved in this species of Lepidoptera, and describe an original case of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with foraging behaviour variation in a pest insect. By illustrating how variation in this single gene can predict phenotype, this work opens new perspectives into the evolutionary context of insect adaptation to plants, as well as pest management.

  15. Analysis on the Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Andraca theae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xing-Shi; Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The bombycid moth, Andraca theae (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) is an important pest of tea in southeastern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. theae was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The complete mitogenome of A. theae, encoding 37 genes, was 15,737 bp in length (Genbank no. KX365419), and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region (AT-rich region). The gene order of A. theae mitogenome was typical for Lepidoptera mitogenomes. Except for cox1, which started with CGA, all other 12 PCGs started with ATN. Eleven of the 13 PCGs ended with TAA, expect for cox1 and cox2, which ended with a single T. The maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian method were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationship among 22 representative bombycoid species with a matrix consisting of the 13 PCGs of the mitogenomes of the 22 species. The topological structures of the two phylogenetic trees we constructed were almost identical, with the results indicating that the bombycid species, including A. theae, clustered into a single clade with a bootstrap value of 58% and a posterior probability of 0.98. The phylogenetic relationship among the Bombycoidea species analyzed was Lasiocampidae + (Bombycidae + (Saturniidae + Sphingidae)) which was supported by a high bootstrap value of 100% and a posterior probability of 1.00.

  16. Biology, Ecology, and Evolving Management of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sweet Corn in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Daniel L; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-08-01

    The corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous pest found throughout the United States, where it attacks many field and vegetable crops. Although H. zea has long been a traditional pest of sweet corn, its importance to this crop has increased dramatically over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize information critical for current and future management of H. zea in sweet corn production in the United States. First, we discuss the pest status of H. zea and its life history, including migration, infestation and larval development, diapause, overwintering, and abiotic factors that affect its biology. Next we describe monitoring methods, crop protection decision-making processes, chemical control options, and the use of genetic technologies for control of H. zea Alternative H. zea management options including biological control, cultural controls, host plant resistance, and pheromone disruption are also reviewed. The role of climate change and its effects on H. zea and its ecology are discussed, as well as the recent invasion of its relative, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), which is a major pest of corn in other parts of the world. To conclude, we suggest future research opportunities for H. zea and H. armigera management in sweet corn.

  17. Seletividade de inseticidas a três Vespidae predadores de Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Selectivity of insecticides to three Vespidae predators of Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae

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    MARCELO FIALHO DE MOURA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os insetos que atacam o maracujazeiro, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae é considerada a praga-chave. Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas fentiom, cartape, malatiom e deltametrina a Dione juno juno, em relação às vespas predadoras Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris e Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Estimaram-se as curvas concentração-mortalidade e mediante o uso da concentração letal do inseticida em 90% dos indivíduos (CL90 calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial e índices de tolerância. A deltametrina foi seletiva à P. scutellaris e P. fastidiosuscula e medianamente seletiva à P. sylveirae e o cartape foi medianamente seletivo às três espécies de vespas predadoras. O malatiom foi seletivo a P. sylveirae e medianamente seletivo a P. fastidiosuscula. As vespas predadoras P. fastidiosuscula eP. scutellaris foram mais tolerantes a deltametrina e ao fentiom do que P. sylveirae, enquanto o P. fastidiosuscula e P. sylveirae toleraram mais o cartape do que P. scutellaris. O malatiom foi mais tolerado pela espécie P. sylveirae do que por P. fastidiosuscula e P. scutellaris.Among insects that attack passion fruit, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae is considered the most dangerous plague. The selectivity of the insecticides fenthion, cartap, malathion and deltamethrin to the predatory wasps Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris and Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae was studied based on these insecticide toxicities to their prey Dione juno juno. Concentration-mortality regression lines were obtained and the estimated lethal concentration of insecticide to 90% (LC90 of the individuals were used for the calculation of the differential selectivity index and tolerance index. Deltamethrin was selective in favor of P. scutellaris and P. fastidiosuscula and showed intermediate selectivity to P. sylveirae, while cartap showed intermediate selectivity to all

  18. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera

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    Holt Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Results Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L., Manduca sexta (L., Pieris rapae (L. and Heliothis virescens (F. treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel, and Lymantria dispar (L. treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII. Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII following antibiotic

  19. Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes. The shrub Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae is reported for the first time as a host plant for three Neotropical Polyommatini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae: Hemiargus ramon (Dognin, 1887, Leptotes trigemmatus (Butler, 1881 and Nabokovia faga (Dognin, 1895, based on two collections performed in the western slopes of the northern Chilean Andes in two consecutive summers. The relative abundance was always above 90% for N. faga while it was always less than 5% for H. ramon and L. trigemmatus. Furthermore, N. faga was not found on inflorescences of other native Fabaceae examined in the study site. This pattern suggests a close relationship between N. faga and D. pennellii var. chilensis, at least at a local scale.

  20. A new species of solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from caterpillars of toxic butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Scott R; Jones, Guinevere Z

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae.

  1. The “Taygetis ypthima species group” (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae: taxonomy, variation and description of a new species

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    Ricardo Siewert

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Taygetis Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae from southeastern Brazil is described: Taygetis drogoni sp. n. In addition, T. servius Weymer, 1910 and T. fulginia d’Almeida, 1922 are resurrected from synonymy and a taxonomic discussion on the species T. ypthima Hübner, [1821] and T. rectifascia Weymer, 1907 is provided. A dichotomous key for the species is also provided.

  2. Maximum Entropy Niche-Based Modeling (Maxent) of Potential Geographical Distributions of Lobesia Botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Simulation, Optimization, Monitoring and Control Technology; International audience; Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is one of the most destructive pests of grape in the Palearctic region. The potential geographical distribution of this pest is important to agriculture security. In this study, Maxent and ArcGIS were used to project the potential geographical distribution of L. botrana in China under the current climate. The result indicated th...

  3. Comparison of haplotype frequencies differentiate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Florida and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nagoshi, R. N.; Silvie, Pierre; Meagher, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Populations can be subdivided into two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains (corn-strain and rice-strain) that differ in their host plant preferences. These strains can be distinguished by using polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. Additional sequence analysis of this locus identified two sites that were highly p...

  4. Espécies de Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Rocco Alfredo Di Mare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Based on literature, collections and sampled butterflies, a list of twelve species of Adelpha Hübner occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State is presented, including host plants. Adelpha epizygis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha falcipennis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha goyama Schaus, 1902 and Adelpha isis (Drury, 1782 are new reports to Rio Grande do Sul. The species are illustrated and keyed.

  5. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, J. J.; Berg, van den, A.E.; Potting, R.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocat...

  6. Türkiye’de mısırda yeni bir zararlı, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sertkaya, Erdal; AKMEŞE, Vahdettin; ATAY, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was recorded for the first time in Turkey, in Dörtyol district of Hatay province in the East Mediterranean region. Later it was also reported from Doğankent in Adana province. The species is native to Asia and distributed to southern and eastern Africa being a serious pest of maize and sorghum, also considered to be a potential risk for maize production of Turkey.

  7. Effect of silicon on the morphology of the midgut and mandible of tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    MC dos Santos; AM Resende Junqueira; VG Mendes de Sá; JC Zanúncio; JE. Serrão

    2015-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an important insect pest causing serious losses to tomato plantations in Brazil. Some populations of T. absolute are reported to present insecticide resistance resulting in its control failure and the use of alternative control based on silicon, which is clean and sustainable, can reduce pesticide use, increasing fruit quality and protecting the environment. This study evaluated changes in the morphology of the midgut and the mandibles of ...

  8. Methodological comparison of DNA extraction from Holcocerrus hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) for AFLP analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Min; ZHU Yang-yu; TAO Jing; Luo You-qing

    2008-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a powerful DNA fingerprinting technique for studying genetic rela-tionships and genetic diversity in insects. However, the crucial prerequisite for AFLP analysis is to extract DNA of high quality. In this study, we evaluate four different protocols (SDS method, improved SDS method, CTAB method and a complex method with SDS and CTAB) for isolating DNA from the seabuckthorn carpenter moth (Holcocerrus hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)). The results indicate that the CTAB method does not produce DNA suitable for AFLP analysis. The SDS method and the complex method with SDS and CTAB are comparatively time-consuming and resulted in low yields of DNA and were therefore not used for AFLP assay. The improved SDS method is recommended for preparing DNA templates from H. hippophaecolus for AFLP analysis.

  9. Assessment of insecticide resistance of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Emilia-Romagna region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Cassanelli, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of vineyard, Vitis vinifera L. In Italy, failures in field chemical pest control have been recently reported. The susceptibility to insecticides indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and emamectin benzoate was then evaluated in a L. botrana population collected from a vineyard in Emilia-Romagna (northeastern Italy) where pest management programs achieved unsatisfactory results. The field trial showed that the indoxacarb efficacy toward L. botrana was very low in the two timings of application (7.9 and -1.5%) in comparison with untreated control, while the efficacy of methoxyfenozide (76.1%) and emamectin benzoate (88.8%) was high. The decreased efficacy of indoxacarb was also supported by the results of the laboratory bioassay on neonate L. botrana larvae, in which the resistance ratio was 72-fold in comparison with that of the susceptible strain.

  10. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae

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    D.S. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae, a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.

  11. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki on Malpighian tubule cells of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutchu, Ayşe; Suludere, Zekiye; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Yusuf

    2005-01-01

    In this study effects of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk) on Malpighian tubule cells of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) larvae was investigated by electron microscopy. 3 mg/l Btk was given with food. After Btk administration, the Malpighian tubule cells were investigated and compared with a control group. 3 and 6 hrs after Btk administration swelling in Malpighian tubule cells was observed. Swelling of mitochondria and separation of their cristae was seen after 12 hrs. After 24 hrs dissolution of the basal cytoplasm, swelling and vacuolization of all mitochondria, partial dissolution of the nucleoplasm, and swelling and separation ofmicrovilli was documented. A membrane-body in the nucleus was seen after 48 hrs. The nucleoplasm was completely dissolved after 72 hrs and after 96 hrs large vacuoles appeared in the cytoplasm and shortening of microvilli was observed.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined to be 15,374 bp (GenBank accession No. KF543065), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It has the typical gene organization and order of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. The AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly positive and the nucleotide composition was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (81.03%). All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which was initiated by CGA. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The A + T-rich region of the mitogenome was 326 bp in length.

  13. Four Newly Recorded Species of the Family Crambidae (Lepidoptera from Korea

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    Roh, Seung Jin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to report the newly recorded species of the family Crambidae, belonging to the order Lepidoptera. During the course of investigation on the family Crambidae in South Korea, the following four species are reported for the first time from Korea: Diplopseustis perieresalis (Walker, 1859, Dolicharthria bruguieralis (Duponchel, 1833, Herpetogramma ochrimaculale (South, 1901, and Omiodes diemenalis ($Guen{\\acute{e}}e$ 수식 이미지, 1854. Among them two genera, Diplopseustis Meyrick and Dolicharthria Stephens, are also newly reported from Korea. External and genital characteristics of adults were examined and illustrated. All of the newly recorded species were enumerated with their available information including the collecting localities, illustrations of adults, and genitalia.

  14. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

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    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  15. Activities of Apiaceae essential oils against armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Rose Marie O F; Rosa, José S; Oliveira, Luisa; Cunha, Ana; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

    2013-08-14

    Essential oils (EOs) from four Apiaceae species and 11 pure compounds were evaluated for their antifeedant, growth inhibitory, and insecticidal activities against Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fourth-instar larvae. EOs from Foeniculum vulgare subsp. vulgare var. vulgare, Anethum graveolens , Petroselinum crispum , and Cuminum cyminum were characterized by gas-chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. Anti-insect activity varied according to plant specie/composition, type, and exposure period. EOs from P. crispum and A. graveolens fruits, trans-anethole and cuminaldehyde, exerted acute effects on larvae feeding and growth (FDI and GI > 70%). A. graveolens , C. cyminum , and F. vulgare EOs and some of their constituents were effective by fumigation (≥ 80%). Satisfactory contact toxicities (>70%) were observed for five compounds and all EOs, except F. vulgare EOs, when tested by the filter paper impregnation method. For the most active EOs/compounds, dose-dependent toxicity was determined and inverse relationships of LC50 with time were established.

  16. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

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    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  17. Intraseasonal variation in a population of Fountainea ryphea (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Astrid Caldas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A different approach was used for the key-factor method in a population study of the tropical butterfly Fountainea ryphea (Cramer, [1776] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, marking 20 artificial cohorts to identify the mortality levels and associated instars responsible for the variation in numbers within the season of occurrence, when generations overlap broadly. Highest mortality was detected during first instar in 13 cohorts; during second instar in three cohorts; third and fourth instars suffered highest mortality twice. Results showed that first instar mortality due to rainfall and predation, and parasitism on fourth instar could be the main factors promoting differences in number between cohorts throughout the season, although no density-dependent processes could be identified.

  18. The first complete mitochondrial genome for the subfamily Limacodidae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Bian, Dan-Dan; Chai, Xin-Yue; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) provides important information for understanding molecular evolution and phylogeny. To determine the systematic status of the family Limacodidae within Lepidoptera, we infer a phylogenetic hypothesis based on the complete mitogenome of Monema flavescens (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The mitogenome of M. flavescens is 15,396 base pairs (bp), and includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). The AT skew of this mitogenome is slightly negative and the nucleotide composition is also biased towards A + T nucleotides (80.5%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which is initiated by CGA. All tRNAs display the typical clover-leaf structure characteristic of mitochondrial tRNAs, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The mitogenome CR is 401 bp and consists of several features common to Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 mitochondrial PCGs indicates that M. flavescens belongs to Zygaenoidea. We obtain a well-supported phylogenetic tree consisting of Yponomeutoidea + (Tortricoidea + Zygaenoidea + (Papilionoidea + (Pyraloidea + (Noctuoidea + (Geometroidea + Bombycoidea))))). PMID:27767191

  19. Lepidoptera (Insecta: Lepidoptera in the collection of Daniel Czekelius from Natural History Museum of Sibiu, collected from "Dumbrava Sibiului" forest, Romania

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    Cristina MOISE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, fauna and ecological analysis of the landscape in which the reserves and Forest "Dumbrava Sibiu" shows a great scientific interest and practical for biological research in Sibiu. The results can contribute substantially to assessing the state of the world of insects and their evolution in the ecosystem studied, but also to establish their quantitative and qualitative changes over time. In the present work was studied the Lepidoptera collection of Transylvania Dr. Daniel Czekelius, and the paper presents a systematic list of species collected Macrolepidoptere since 1888-1929 in Forest "Dumbrava Sibiu".This paper can be considered a tribute and memory of Dr.Daniel Czekelius entomologists, who through his collection has contributed substantially to the knowledge of this group of insects. The data obtained and to join the collections of personal data between 2000-2011 we intend to achieve a more comprehensive study, which will be subject to further research on the evolution Macrolepidoptera over more than 120 years of research in the area of Forest "Dumbrava Sibiu". For some species have been listed by the IUCN recommended levels of endangerment in 2000 and 2001 Rákosy L.: extinct, taxon vulnerable, near threatened.

  20. Leucine transport is affected by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins in brush border membrane vesicles from Ostrinia nubilalis Hb (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, M Giovanna; Caccia, Silvia; González-Cabrera, Joel; Ferré, Juan; Giordana, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The pore-forming activity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Fa and Cry1Ca toxins and their interaction with leucine transport mediated by the K(+)/leucine cotransporter were studied in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) isolated from the midgut of Ostrinia nubilalis and Sesamia nonagrioides. In both species, as in other Lepidoptera, leucine uptake by BBMVs can take place in the absence of cations, but it can also be driven by a K(+) gradient. Experiments with the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide proved that Cry1Ab, a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin active in vivo, enhanced the membrane permeability to potassium in O. nubilalis BBMVs. This result is in agreement with similar effects observed in S. nonagrioides BBMV incubated with various Cry1 toxins active in vivo. The effect of the above toxins was tested on the initial rate of 0.1 mM: leucine influx. Instead of an increase in leucine influx, a reduction was observed with the Cry1 toxins active in vivo. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa, but not the inactive toxin Cry1Da, inhibited in a dose-dependent manner leucine uptake both in the absence and in the presence of a K(+) gradient, a clear indication that their effect is independent of the channel formed by the toxins and that this effect is exerted directly on the amino acid transport system.

  1. Attack behavior of Podisus rostralis (Heteroptera: Pentatomidade adults on caterpillars of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    Walkymário Paulo Lemos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Attack behavior of the predator Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae adults on fourth instar Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae caterpillars was studied in laboratory conditions. Ten 24 hours old adults of this predator were observed during two hours with the following attack behavior: (1 Predator: prey finding; prey observation; touching prey with antenna; attack behavior; prey paralysis; predator retreat after attack; attack cessation; successive attacks; and (2 Prey: defense. The predator P. rostralis found its prey before attacking and it approached it with slow circular movements. The attack was usually made in the posterior part of the prey to reduce defense reaction. Larger size of prey in relation to the predator resulted difficult prey paralysis but it occurred in less than two hours.Estudou-se, em laboratório, o comportamento de ataque de adultos do predador Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae tendo como presa lagartas de quarto estádio de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae. Dez adultos do predador, com 24 horas de idade, foram observados durante duas horas acompanhando-se os seguintes comportamentos de ataque: (1 Predador: localização da presa; observação da presa; toque das presas com as antenas; comportamento de ataque; paralisação da presa; fuga do predador após ataque; finalização do ataque; ataques sucessivos; e (2 Presa: defesa. O predador P. rostralis localizou sua presa antes do ataque, aproximando-se dela através de lentos movimentos circulares. O ataque é, usualmente, realizado na parte posterior da presa para reduzir reação de defesa. O maior tamanho da presa em relação ao predador pode dificultar a paralisação, porém o predador consegue paralisá-la em menos de duas horas.

  2. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  3. A new institution devoted to insect science: The Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akito Y.Kawahara; Thomas C.Emmel; Jacqueline Miller; Andrew D.Warren

    2012-01-01

    The Florida Museum of Natural History's McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity,on the University of Florida campus in Gainesville,Florida,has become one of the world's largest institutions for research on butterflies and moths,and an important research facility for insect science.The facility was constructed by combining the staff and merging the Lepidoptera holdings from the Allyn Museum of Entomology,the Florida State Collection of Arthropods and other University of Florida collections,and now includes over ten million specimens from all over the world,rivaling some of the largest Lepidoptera research collections globally.The facility includes a team of domestic and international researchers studying many areas of lepidopterology,including behavior,biodiversity,biogeography,ecology,genomics,physiology,systematics and taxonomy.In this paper,we introduce the McGuire Center,its staff,and the many research activities for researchers across entomological disciplines.

  4. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  5. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  6. SEQUENCE OF THE 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE OF COTTON BOLLWORM (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA) AND MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS ANALYSIS%棉铃虫18S核糖体RNA基因的序列分析及其分子系统学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑛; 陈晓峰; 刘伟; 周红章; 赵珩

    1999-01-01

    克隆并分析了鳞翅目棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera (Hbner)18S核糖体RNA基因(18S rDNA)的全序列,将该序列与鞘翅目、膜翅目、同翅目、双翅目、捻翅目和弹尾目各一种昆虫的同源保守区进行了比较.序列分析结果显示:鳞翅目和双翅目昆虫在18S rDNA结构上彼此较为相似,捻翅目昆虫的18S rDNA分子结构表现出与其它目昆虫有较大的差异,但相对与弹尾目昆虫的18S rDNA较为接近.该结果支持了有关捻翅目属于一个独立的目级分类阶元的论点.

  7. 棉铃虫组织蛋白酶B组织分布与合成部位的研究%Distribution and Biosynthesis Sites of Cathepsin B in Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐夏莲; 赵小凡; 王金星

    2001-01-01

    The distribution and biosynthesis sites of cathepsin B in Helicoverpa armigera through the developing stages were studied by means of Immunoblot and Northern Blot.The results of Immunoblot showed that cathepsin B existed in ovary,female and male adult fat body.The mRNA in larval fat body,female pupal fat body,male adult fat body,female adult fat body and ovary were detected using Northern Blot.This indicated that cathepsin B mRNA could be transcribed in these tissues.However there was no cathepsin B mRNA in larval epidermis and larval mid-gut as also no distribution of this proteinase.Furthermore,we detected mRNA transcription in larval fat body,female pupal fat body using Northern Blot,but there were no cathepsin B distributed in these two issues accordingly in Immunoblot.This indicated that the mRNA in these two tissues could not be translated into cathepsin B,and there might be some kind of regulation in translation level.

  8. Prevalence of cry2-type genes in Bacillus thuringiensis isolates recovered from diverse habitats in India and isolation of a novel cry2Af2 gene toxic to Helicoverpa armigera (cotton boll worm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katara, Jawahar Lal; Kaur, Sarvjeet; Kumari, Gouthami Krishna; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Insecticidal cry and vip genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been used for control of lepidopteran insects in transgenic crops. However, novel genes are required for gene pyramiding to delay evolution of resistance to the currently deployed genes. Two PCR-based techniques were employed for screening of cry2-type genes in 129 Bt isolates from diverse habitats in India and 27 known Bt strains. cry2Ab-type genes were more prevalent than cry2Aa- and cry2Ac-type genes. Correlation between source of isolates and abundance of cry2-type genes was not observed. Full-length cry2A-type genes were amplified by PCR from 9 Bt isolates and 4 Bt strains. The genes from Bt isolates SK-758 from Sorghum grain dust and SK-793 from Chilli seeds warehouse, Andhra Pradesh, were cloned and sequenced. The gene from SK-758 (NCBI GenBank accession No. GQ866915) was novel, while that from SK-793 (NCBI GenBank accession No. GQ866914) was identical to the cry2Ab1 gene. The Bacillus thuringiensis Nomenclature Committee ( http://www.lifesci.sussex.ac.uk/home/Neil_Crickmore/Bt/toxins2.html ) named these genes cry2Af2 and cry2Ab16, respectively. The cry2Af2 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and found to be toxic towards Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2Af2 gene will be useful for pyramiding in transgenic crops.

  9. Vip3Aa及Cry1Ac对棉铃虫幼虫多种酶活力的影响%Effects of Vip3Aa and Cry1Ac on enzyme activity in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦; 梁革梅; 高珍

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify the activity of Vip3Aa and provide a theoretical basis for its application in the " New toxin strategy", the effects of Vip3Aa and CrylAc on protease, detoxification enzymes were and aminopeptidase N ( APN ) activity in larvae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (H(ll)bner) were compared and the impacts of Cryl Ac + Vip3Aa on these enzymes were investigated. The lethality of Vip3Aa was lower than that of CrylAc, but Vip3Aa had an obvious inhibitory effect on larval development. Total protease and trypsin-like enzyme activity quickly increased in H. armigera fed an artificial diet containing either CrylAc or Vip3Aa or CrylAc + Vip3Aa. However, compared to the control, there was no significant difference in the activity of these two enzymes after 12 h of feeding on the Cryl Ac diet. While the period during which the activity of these two enzymes increased was clearly prolonged in larvae fed on diets containing Vip3Aa, that of the chymotrypsin-like enzyme was also higher than in the control. This indicates that the degradation rate of CrylAc was faster than that of Vip3Aa, and that the enzyme systems involved in degradation could be different. Meanwhile, the diet containing Cryl Ac and Vip3Aa together extended the degradation time. The activities of glutathione-5-transferase and a-naphthalene acetate esterase increased in H. armigera fed on a diet containing either Cryl Ac or Vip3Aa or CrylAc + Vip3Aa. This indicates that these enzymes may be involved in the detoxification of Vip3Aa and CrylAc. However, Vip3Aa and CrylAc had little effect on aminopeptidase N activities, suggesting that the toxieity of the latter has no relationship to APN enzyme activity.%为了明确Vip3Aa的作用机制,为其作为新毒素策略重要蛋白的应用提供理论依据,本文比较了Vip3Aa、Cry1Ac对棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner)主要蛋白酶、解毒酶、APN活性的影响,并研究了Vip3Aa和Cry1Ac共同使用对几种酶活力的作

  10. 棉铃虫酯酶突变体的构建、表达及酶促动力学特性%Construction, expression and activities of mutant carboxylesterases from Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 吴美玲; 马志卿; 冯俊涛; 张兴

    2014-01-01

    The cotton bollworm , Helicoverpa armigera ( Hübner),is a major pest of many agricultural crops around the world , and many of the classes of chemical insecticides are widely used for its control such as organophosphates ( OPs) , synthetic pyrethroids ( SPs) , and so on . Currently H .armigera has developed serious resistance to OPs and SPs all over the world . Carboxylesterases ( CarEs) are a multi-gene family of enzymes that hydrolyze a diverse range of carboxylesters and are frequently implicated in the resistance of insects . Gene mutations of CarEs are a major mechanism of insects for the development of resistance to OPs in the OP-resistant Diptera pests like Musca domestica and Lucilia cuprina . It involves the substitution of a single amino acid within the active site of the esterase which convert it to an OP hydrolyase . However , no resembled mutation in nature was reported in the Lepidopterapestslikecottonbollworm,H.armigeratodate.Hence,followingourpreviousstudiestheaimofthe current work was to elucidate the effects of specific point mutations of the carboxylesterases from H . armigera on the kinetic properties of the enzymes . Two CarEs , 001F and 001G from H . armigera , were induced to mutate at positions 127 ( A → D) or 238 (F → L) using a site-directed mutagenesis technique . They were then expressed with the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) . The kinetic assays with α-naphthyl acetate ( α-NA) and para-nitrophenyl acetate ( p-NA) were carried out for all mutants using a spectrophotometer . The results showed that the A127D mutations had dramatically reduced the hydrolytic activities of the CarEs toward the two substrates . The mutants all showed lower affinities to the substrates as the Km values were at least 1.6-fold higher than those of the wild type enzymes , and the kcat values (6.5 52.1 s- 1 ) were decreased obviously , which were between 4- and 20-fold lower than those of the wild type enzymes . What’s more , the rate

  11. Biologia de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae na cultura da soja Biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Magrini

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em campos de soja. Os experimentos foram conduzidos durante os períodos agrícolas de 1992 a 1997. Em cada ano foram realizadas duas avaliações, com 20 repetições para cada fase do ciclo de A. gemmatalis. Os insetos levados ao campo foram criados por duas gerações, em laboratório, sobre folhas de soja da variedade hospedeira à temperatura de 27 ± 1 oC, fotofase de 14 horas e 60 ± 10 % UR até a fase de pupa. Foram determinados o número, viabilidade e período de incubação de ovos e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade dos adultos, ritmo de postura e razão sexual. A viabilidade média para a fase de ovo variou de 43,0 % (1996 a 76,3 % (1997, sendo a duração média de 3,60 dias. O período larval dos indivíduos que originaram fêmeas variou de 8,95 (1993 a 16,75 dias (1997 e a viabilidade média foi de 17,2 %. O períCodo de pupas fêmeas e de machos foi praticamente o mesmo nos anos estudados (9,80 e 10,61 dias, respectivamente. A longevidade dos adultos fêmeas variou entre 9,10 (1997 a 12,90 dias (1996. A média de ovos colocados foi de 73,5, dos quais 42,3 % viáveis. A razão sexual média foi de 0,50. O período de postura, ocorreu até o 7o (1997 ou 13o dias (1996 com o acme no 2o dia. O ciclo médio de vida da fêmea (ovo - adulto foi de 26,51 dias.The biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae was studied in soybean fields. The experiments were conducted during the seasons of 1992 through 1997. Two evaluations were performed each year with 20 replications for each phase of A. gemmatalis. The insects taken to the field were reared in laboratory for two generations on leaves of the host soybean variety, at 27 ± 1 oC, 14 - hour photophase, and 60 ± 10 % RH, up to the pupal phase. The number, viability and period of incubation of the eggs as well as the viability of the larval and pupal stages, longevity of adults, egg

  12. 不同光源和暗适应时间对棉铃虫蛾趋光行为的影响%Effects of different light source and dark-adapted time on phototactic behavior of cotton bollworms (Helicoverpa armigera )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖湘峰; 罗峰; 朱芬; 黄求应; 雷朝亮

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the phototactic behaviors of different emergence period Helicoverpa armigera were studied in a phototactic box. The results showed that under the five test wavelength lights, different emergence period female and male moths had no significant difference in their phototactic behaviors. The phototactic rate differed significantly when the dark-adapted time was between 15 and 30 min, but had no significant difference among 30, 45 and 60 min. No significant difference was also found in phototactic rate between dark-adapted time 0 and 15 min under test wavelength lights except green one (500~565 nm).

  13. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  14. Hemocyte quantitative changes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae infected by AgMNPV

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    Fábio Goulart de Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial effects of the infection by AgMNPV in the total and differential counts of the hemocytes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae were studied. The total number of the hemocytes did not decrease in infected larvae, as it occurred in non infected larvae. In infected larvae, the hemocyte types showed the following frequencies: plasmatocytes - 47.8%, esferulocytes - 25.9%, granulocytes - 15.8%, oenocytoids - 7.2%, prohemocytes - 2.8%, vermicytes - 0,5%. Only the percentage of the granulocytes was different among infected and non infected larvae, indicating that these cells responded quickly to the initial viral infection. These results showed the effective role of the hemocytes in the response of the A. gemmatalis to the infection by AgMNPV. The comprehension of the immunological mechanisms of this insect is an important tool to understand its biological control.Os efeitos iniciais da infecção por AgMNPV nas contagens total e diferencial dos hemócitos em Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foram estudados. O número total de hemócitos não diminuiu nas larvas infectadas, como ocorreu nas larvas não infectadas. Nas larvas infectadas, os tipos de hemócitos apresentaram as seguintes freqüências: plasmatócitos - 47,8%, esferulócitos - 25,9%, granulócitos - 15,8%, oenocitóides - 7,2%, prohemócitos - 2,8%, vermiformes - 0,5%. Apenas a porcentagem de granulócitos foi diferente entre larvas infectadas e não infectadas, indicando que estas células responderam rapidamente à infecção viral inicial. Estes resultados mostraram o papel efetivo que dos hemócitos na resposta de A. gemmatalis à infecção por AgMNPV. A compreensão dos mecanismos imunológicos deste inseto é uma ferramenta importante para compreender seu controle biológico.

  15. SEARCHING AND PARASITISM OF Diatraea saccharalis (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE BY Trichospilus diatraeae (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE

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    Elizangela Leite Vargas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian and Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae to search and parasitize Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae pupae in sugarcane stalks was evaluated. To analyze the ability for search and parasitism were used stalks of sugarcane (20 cm where it was introduced a pupa of D. saccharalis (T1; a pupa and a caterpillar (T2 or a pupa and fecal matter (T3. Each stalk was placed in a transparent plastic bottle with 21 females of T. diatraeae. These pupae were isolated, after 72 h, in glass tubes at 25 ± 2 ºC, 70 ± 10 % relative humidity, 14:10 light/dark. The experiment was developed in an entirely casualized design with three treatments and 12 repetitions. Percentage of D. saccharalis pupa parasitized by T. diatraeae was 50.00 %, 83.33 % and 16.66 % in the T1, T2 and T3, respectively (c2 = 3.896, p=0.04. The presence of D. saccharalis caterpillars favored searching and parasitism of this host.La capacidad de Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian y Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae para buscar y parasitar las pupas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae en los tallos de la caña de azúcar fue estudiada. Para analizar la habilidad de búsqueda y parasitismo fueron utilizados tallos de la caña de azúcar (20 cm donde se introdujo una pupa de D. saccharalis (T1; pupas y orugas (T2 o pupa y residuos fecales (T3. Cada tallo fue colocado en una botella plástica transparente con 21 hembras de T. diatraeae. Esas pupas fueron individualizadas, luego de 72 h, en tubos de vidrio a 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10 % UR y 14 h de foto período. El experimento se desarrolló en un diseño completamente al azar, con tres tratamientos y 12 repeticiones. Los porcentajes de pupas de D. saccharalis parasitados por T. diatraeae fueron del 50,00 %, 83,33 % y 16,66 % en el T1, T2 y T3, respectivamente (c2 = 3.896, p = 0,04. La presencia de D. saccharalis en los tallos de ca

  16. Expression and evolution of hexamerins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and other Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Hexamerins are large hemolymph-proteins that accumulate during the late larval stages of insects. Hexamerins have emerged from hemocyanin, but have lost the ability to bind oxygen. Hexamerins are mainly considered as storage proteins for non-feeding stages, but may also have other functions, e.g. in cuticle formation, transport and immune response. The genome of the hornworm Manduca sexta harbors six hexamerin genes. Two of them code for arylphorins (Msex2.01690, Msex2.15504) and two genes correspond to a methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.10735) and a moderately methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.01694), respectively. Two other genes do not correspond to any known hexamerin and distantly resemble the arylphorins (Msex2.01691, Msex2.01693). Five of the six hexamerin genes are clustered within ∼45 kb on scaffold 00023, which shows conserved synteny in various lepidopteran genomes. The methionine-rich hexamerin gene is located at a distinct site. M. sexta and other Lepidoptera have lost the riboflavin-binding hexamerin. With the exception of Msex2.01691, which displays low mRNA levels throughout the life cycle, all hexamerins are most highly expressed during pre-wandering phase of the 5th larval instar of M. sexta, supporting their role as storage proteins. Notably, Msex2.01691 is most highly expressed in the brain, suggesting a divergent function. Phylogenetic analyses showed that hexamerin evolution basically follows insect systematics. Lepidoptera display an unparalleled diversity of hexamerins, which exceeds that of other hexapod orders. In contrast to previous analyses, the lepidopteran hexamerins were found monophyletic. Five distinct types of hexamerins have been identified in this order, which differ in terms of amino acid composition and evolutionary history: i. the arylphorins, which are rich in aromatic amino acids (∼20% phenylalanine and tyrosine), ii. the distantly related arylphorin-like hexamerins, iii. the methionine-rich hexamerins, iv. the

  17. Mechanitis polymnia casabranca and Ithomia lichyi lichyi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae damaging tree of Solanum granuloso-leprosum (Solanaceae

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    Wagner de Souza Tavares

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Zona da Mata region is located in southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil with fauna and flora diversified, including herbivorous insects and Solanaceae plants. Ithomiinae caterpillars were observed damaging tree of Solanum granuloso-leprosum Dunal (Solanaceae, used for different purposes and abundant in secondary forest. The objective of this study was to identify defoliating caterpillars of S. granuloso-leprosum at the campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil and review host plants of Mechanitis polymnia L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae. Thirteen caterpillars found damaging a tree of S. granuloso-leprosum at the campus of UFV were collected and maintained in the Laboratório de Controle Biológico de Insetos (LCBI from UFV until adult emergence. These caterpillars were of two species, being ten of the first and three of the second species. Adult specimens of the latter species were identified as Ithomia lichyi lichyi D'Almeida, 1939 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil and of the group of ten caterpillars as Mechanitis polymnia casabranca Haensch, 1905 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the Museu de Zoologia of Universidade de São Paulo (USP in São Paulo State, Brazil. This is the first report of M. polymnia casabranca and I. lichyi lichyi together damaging plant of S. granuloso-leprosum in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil and 57 plants are recorded as host of M. polymnia.

  18. Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Eliane de Oliveira Borges

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Our work presents for the first time, the defensive behavior associated with the release of the product of the prosternal paired glands of the larva of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The prosternal glands were first described for larvae of H. erato phyllis. They are formed by two types of glandular structures: the impair gland and the paired glands. The prosternal glands are located within the conical integumentary sac, which in turn is situated on the individual's prosternum. The main goal of this study is to analyze the existence of any secretion from the prosternal paired glands, and check the action mode of this secretion. The methodology used for chemical analysis of the glands included the aeration and, analysis in gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the prosternal glands do not produce volatiles. Bioassays were conducted with simulated and natural attacks and revealed that the prosternal paired glands produce secretions of defense together with silk produced by labials glands as a defense strategy, described for the first time, against ants. The strategy consists in wrapping the ant with silk threads, the entire wrapped object moved to the end of the body, with the aid of the legs and prolegs, and possibly fixed in a nearby place. Evidence for the existence of a conical integumentary sac in larvae of other species and families of Lepidoptera allows us to propose the possibility of occurrence of prosternal paired glands with defensive function in these other groups as well.

  19. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  20. Three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Depressariidae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 from Costa Rica: R. annemayae Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov., R. eowilsoni Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. and R. philipmayi Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. We used a data set of DNA COI-barcodes accumulated for Lepidoptera collected at Area de Conse...

  1. 植物学知识在鳞翅目昆虫系统学研究中的应用%Application of Botany in Lepidoptera Insect Systematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世林; 郝淑莲; 张志伟

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between Lepidoptera insect and plant are various,especially in selection of food and habitat of Lepidoptera to plant,and pollination of Lepidoptera to plant.The application of botany in Lepidoptera systematics was discussed:specimen collection,classification,identification,biology,systematics and coevolution etc.%鳞翅目昆虫与植物间的相互作用是多方面的,其中最重要的是鳞翅目昆虫选择植物做为其食物和栖息场所、鳞翅目成虫为植物传授花粉.分析了植物在鳞翅目系统学研究中的作用.在鳞翅目标本的采集、分类、鉴定和系统发育研究以及协同进化研究工作中,植物学知识都起着不可替代的重要作用.

  2. Field host range of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a potential biocontrol agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...

  3. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  4. Comparative studies on the fecundity, egg survival, larval feeding, and development of Chilo partellus and Chilo orichalcociliellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on five grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofomata, V.C.; Overholt, W.A.; Huis, van A.; Egwuatu, R.I.

    2000-01-01

    Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Chilo orichalcociliellus Strand (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are gramineous stem borers that occur sympatrically in the southern coastal area of Kenya. Evidence over a 30-yr period indicates that the indigenous stem borer, C. orichalcociliellus, is being gradually displaced

  5. The leafmining Leurocephala schinusae (Lepidoptera Gracillariidae): Not suitable for the biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales Anacardiaceae)in continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurocephala schinusae Davis & Mc Kay (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was studied to assess its suitability as a biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), a serious environmental weed in the USA and elsewhere in the world. The host range was determined by ...

  6. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  7. Development and survival of nymphs of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed with caterpillars of Chlosyne lacinia saundersii (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

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    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The development and survival of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae nymphs fed on larvae of Chlosyne lacinia saundersii Doubleday & Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae was studied at 25 ± 1ºC, 68 ± 10% relative humidity and 12 h photo phase. P. nigrispinus developed until the adult stage when fed on C. lacinia saundersii caterpillars. However, the survival rate of P. nigrispinus during early instars allowed this predator to complement its diet with other preys and to maintain its populations in areas with the sunflower culture.

  8. The Ando-Patagonian Stigmella magnispinella group (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) with description of new species from Ecuador, Peru and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Remeikis, Andrius; Diškus, Arūnas; Gerulaitis, Virginijus

    2016-12-01

    On the basis of morphological studies of collection samples from the Andes (Ecuador, Peru and Argentina), we describe five new species of Stigmella Schrank (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): S. varispinella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Ecuador), S. olekarsholti Remeikis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. magnispinella Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (Peru), S. dolia Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. patagonica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (Argentina). All treated taxa belong to the newly designated S. magnispinella group. Images of adults and genitalia, pictorial keys, a distribution map, and photographs of the leaf-mines of S. olekarsholti are included.

  9. Thaumetopoein: an urticating protein from the hairs and integument of the pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff., Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, M; Pastureaud, M H; Novak, F; Ducombs, G; Vincendeau, P; Maleville, J; Texier, L

    1986-01-01

    Hairs of the Thaumetopoea pityocampa caterpillar (Lepidoptera) cause a cutaneous reaction in man and animals. The irritating fraction extracted from hairs contains soluble proteins which were separated by various electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic techniques. Some of these proteins are present also in cuticle and haemolymph. One protein of 28,000 mol. wt is hair specific and caused a reaction in pig skin identical to that produced by hair extract. It is therefore an urticating protein which we have named thaumetopoein. This protein is formed of two subunits of molecular weights 13,000 and 15,000. It is present in large quantities in the glands producing urticating hairs.

  10. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

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    Еkaterina Yegorenkova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae. The female of P. gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described.

  11. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Contribution to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera Fauna of the lower Sangro valley in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy

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    Norbert Zahm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of recording Lepidoptera in the lower Sangro valley during a period of 22 years. The investigations were devoted to Macroheterocera and were carried out in the two regional nature reserves Oasi di Serranella and Lecceta di Torino di Sangro. The listing also includes some Microlepidoptera as non-target species, as well as occasionally observed butterflies. The 401 recorded species are presented in a table indicating both the locality of the records and the observed flight times and periods of activity. Fifteen species are published for the Abruzzo region for the first time; 2 species are new for the Italian peninsula.

  13. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

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    Paul-André Calatayud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species. This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  14. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-07-08

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  15. Coexpression of the silent cry2Ab27 together with cry1 genes in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai SP41 leads to formation of amorphous crystal toxin and enhanced toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwatcharajit, Rasapirose; Tiantad, Itsares; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2014-02-01

    The unexpressed cry2Ab27 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai SP41 (SP41) consists of a single open reading frame (ORF) of 1902bp encoding for 634 amino acid residues. The cry2Ab27 gene appears to be silent due to the lack of promoter and terminator sequences. In this study we fused the cry2Ab27 ORF with the cry1Ab promoter (500bp) and the terminator (300bp) in vector pHT304-18Z in order to drive the expression of cry2Ab27 in both SP41 and an acrystaliferous, B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis 407 (407). A protein with a molecular mass of 65kDa, consistent with the Cry2Ab protein, was detected in both transformants using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Bipyramidal crystals were observed in SP41 and its transformant containing the pHT304-18Z vector (SPHT) in contrast, cells expressing cry2Ab27 (SPC2) exhibited crystal proteins with irregular shapes. No inclusion protein was detected in the 407 transformant expressing the cry2Ab27 gene. Cry2Ab27 was found in the purified crystal toxin from strain SPC2. The solubilized crystal toxin proteins from SPC2 were 6.9-fold more toxic toward the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera compared to toxin proteins from SPHT. However SPC2 crystal toxin displayed only slightly higher toxicity against the larvae of Spodoptera litura and S. exigua compared to SPHT produced toxin. Our data support the use of Cry2Ab in combination with the Cry1 toxin for enhanced control of heliothine insect pests.

  16. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibody of Helicoverpa armigera Single-nucleopolyhedrovirus orf80%棉铃虫核型多角体病毒orf80多克隆抗体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐利; 吕婷婷; 甘恩宇; 高秋荣; 王敦

    2012-01-01

    从HearNPV G4株基因组中克隆得到orf80基因的全序列,将该基因构建于pMAL-c4E载体并在TB1中融合表达,orf80融合表达蛋白分子质量为73.3 ku,与预测的蛋白一致,Western blot验证正确.纯化融合蛋白后制备抗原并注射新西兰大白兔从而得到orf80的多克隆抗体,经ELISA检测其效价达到2.56×105,表明该抗体具有较高的免疫原性,可用于orf80编码蛋白的检测及蛋白互作等相关研究.%The HearNPV ori80 was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera Single-nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) G4 genome by PCR and the prokaryotic expression vector pMAL-c4E-Ha80 was constructed. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into the Escherichi coli TB1 to express the MBP-Ha80 fushion protein. Purified MBP-Ha80 protein was injected into rabbits as antigen to prepare the polyclonal antibodies of orf80. The titer of anti-HearNPV orf80 polyclonal antibodies was 2. 56 X 105 detected by ELISA. The prepared antibodies can be used to determine orf80 coding protein in the research of protein detection and protein interaction.

  17. The transmission of sperm in the female reproduction tract of cotton bollworm,Helicoverpa armigera%棉铃虫精子在雌蛾生殖道内的转移动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绪生; 李国清; 陈长琨

    2001-01-01

    The transmission and distribution of sperm in the reproduction tract of mated female Helicoverpa armigera,were studied with Feulgen smear and microscope count methods.The results were summarized as follows:(1)Both eupyrene and apyrene sperms started their transmission from the spermatophore to spermatheca at 1.5 h after copulation,and finished this process in half hour.Thereafter,the number of sperms in spermatheca decreased gradually;(2)After transferred to spermatheca,the sperms stored in the utriculus in the form of sperm mass.No sperm was found in lagena;(3)Transportation of sperm to the spermatheca was achieved by means of rhythmic muscular contraction of the female reproduction tract.The active apyrene sperm was also believed to assist in the transmission of the eupyrene sperm.%通过显微镜观察、孚尔根涂片法和显微镜计数法研究了棉铃虫精子在雌蛾生殖道内的转移、分布及转移的动力。结果表明:(1)交配结束后1.5 h,雌蛾精包内的真核精子和无核精子开始向受精囊转移,2 h时近2/3的精子已转入受精囊,其后受精囊内精子的数量逐渐下降;(2)精子转移至受精囊后只分布于主囊,成团聚集,副囊中没有精子;(3)雌虫生殖道肌肉的节律性收缩推动精子转移,同时无核精子的运动也有助于真核精子的移动。

  18. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  19. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

    2011-10-01

    Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations.

  20. Effects of lufenuron on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg, larval, and adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-de-Cabezón, F J; Pérez-Moreno, I; Zalom, Frank G; Marco, V

    2006-04-01

    The effect of the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron was evaluated against different developmental stages of Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Lufenuron fed to adults at 10 ppm reduced their fecundity and fertility, but it did not affect adult longevity. High activity was observed against L. botrana eggs with greater effect on 1-d-old eggs than on the other age classes and on eggs treated by direct contact rather than those laid on a previously treated surface. Eggs laid by treated adults showed the same effects during development as eggs treated by contact or those laid on a treated surface. Larvae that emerged from treated eggs could not perforate grape berries. Administered into the diet, lufenuron had a larvicidal effect, resulting in similar LC50 values for different instars: 0.07 ppm for first instars, 0.08 ppm for third instars, and 0.11 ppm for fifth instars. None of the larvae treated with sublethal concentrations throughout their life emerged as adults at the highest concentration (0.08 ppm), and only 70% emerged at the lowest concentration (0.0025 ppm).

  1. Control of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by biodegradable ecodian sex pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, G; Baldessari, M; De Cristofaro, A; Germinara, G S; Ioriatti, C; Reggiori, F; Vitagliano, S; Angeli, G

    2008-04-01

    Mating disruption with a high density of sex pheromone dispensers is a new strategy recently developed for the control of the moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Ecodian LB dispensers, made of low-cost biodegradable material, were formulated with 10 mg of (E,Z) -7,9-dodecadienyl acetate and placed at a rate of 1,600 dispensers per ha. Seasonal dispenser performances were studied using different methods. The female attractiveness disruption and the efficacy of the method were evaluated in the field. The release rates of field-aged Ecodian LB dispensers, measured directly by solid phase microextraction, was comparable with that of the standard monitoring lure after 50-60 d of field exposure and significantly lower beyond 60 d; however, at the end of the season, it was approximately 46 times higher than that of a calling L. botrana female. Electroantennographic recordings showed that dispensers of different field age strongly stimulated male antennae. In a wind tunnel test, dispensers elicited close-range approaches and direct source contacts irrespective of their age. In fields treated with Ecodian dispensers the attractiveness of traps lured with calling females and monitoring baits was significantly reduced. Our data suggest that Ecodian dispensers are active sources of pheromone throughout the season. The efficacy of Ecodian strategy for L. botrana control was comparable with standard mating disruption and curative insecticides.

  2. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to diagnose Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, N B; Ledezma, L A; Farris, R E; Epstein, M E; Gilligan, T M

    2011-10-01

    A molecular assay for diagnosis of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North America is reported. The assay multiplexes two TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) probe systems that are designed to target DNA segments of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) and 18S rRNA gene. The RT-PCR probe designed for the 18S target recognizes a DNA sequence conserved in all of the moths included in the study and functions as a control in the assay. The second probe recognizes a segment of the ITS2 specifically found in E. postvittana and not found in the other moths included in the study, i.e., this segment is not conserved. Inclusion of the two markers in a single multiplex reaction did not affect assay performance. The assay was tested against 637 moths representing > 90 taxa in 15 tribes in all three subfamilies in the Tortricidae. The assay generated no false negatives based on analysis of 355 E. postvittana collected from California, Hawaii, England, New Zealand, and Australia. Analysis of a data set including 282 moths representing 41 genera generated no false positives. Only three inconclusive results were generated from the 637 samples. Spike experiments demonstrated that DNA contamination in the assay can affect samples differently. Contaminated samples analyzed with the ITS2 RT-PCR assay and DNA barcode methodology by using the cytochrome oxidase I gene can generate contradictory diagnoses.

  3. Patterns of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the invasive pest Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooman, Leah K; Rose, Caroline J; Carraher, Colm; Suckling, D Max; Paquette, Sébastien Rioux; Ledezma, Lisa A; Gilligan, Todd M; Epstein, Marc; Barr, Norman B; Newcomb, Richard D

    2011-06-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a horticultural pest of Australia and New Zealand that has more recently invaded Hawaii, Europe, and California. A 2,216-bp region of the mitochondrial genome containing the cytochrome oxidase I and II genes was sequenced from 752 individuals. Haplotype network analyses revealed a major split between a predominantly Western Australian clade and all other samples, suggestive of either a deep genetic divergence or a cryptic species. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity were highest in the country of origin, Australia, and in New Zealand populations, with evidence of haplotype sharing between New Zealand and Tasmania. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity were higher in California than within the British Isles or Hawaii. From the total of 96 haplotypes, seven were found in California, of which four were private. Within California, there have been at least two introductions; based on genetic diversity we were unable to assign a likely source for a single moth found and eradicated in Los Angeles in 2007; however, our data suggest it is unlikely that Hawaii and the British Isles are sources of the major E. postvittana population found throughout the rest of the state since 2006.

  4. Various chemical strategies to deceive ants in three Arhopala species (lepidoptera: Lycaenidae exploiting Macaranga myrmecophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Inui

    Full Text Available Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants. However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies.

  5. Bioactivity of Piper extracts on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferrari de Brito

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of ethanolic leaf extracts from four species of the genus Piper against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae under laboratory conditions. The evaluated species were: P. amalago var. medium, P. glabratum, P. mikanianum, and P. mollicomum. In the initial screening assay (extract concentration of 2,000 mg L-1, all tested extracts caused significant larval mortality, particularly the extract of P. amalago var. medium; however, no extracts reduced the weight of the surviving larvae. The extract from P. amalago var. medium at the concentration of 1,011 mg L-1 caused a significant lengthening of the larval and pupal stages. The ethanolic leaf extract of P. amalago var. medium is promising for the control of T. absoluta larvae in tomato, since it exhibits acute toxicity toward these caterpillars at the concentration of 2,000 mg L-1 and affects the insect's development by reducing its survival and lengthening the larval and pupal stages.

  6. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zaiqi; Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton.

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates entomopathogenic for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae and Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gobatto

    Full Text Available Samples of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt were collected from soil and insects. Eight isolates were selected from rural soil, 15 from urban soil and 11 from insects. These were evaluated for entomopathogenicity against larvae of Anticarsia gemmatalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The pathogenicity tests showed that a higher percentage of isolates were active against A. gemmatalis (60% compared to C. quinquefasciatus (31%. Probit analysis (LC50 indicated that against A. gemmatalis four of the isolates presented values similar to the reference strain against A. gemmatalis, while against C. quinquefasciatus one isolate showed an LC50 similar to the reference strain (IPS-82. SDS-PAGE characterisation of two isolates showed a 27 kDa protein fraction related to the Bt subspecies israelensis cytolytic toxin (cyt gene. One 130 kDa protein, possibly related to the Bt crystal inclusions (cry1 gene, was identified in the other two isolates, which were more toxic for lepidoptera; another isolate presented a protein of 100 kDa. Some new local Bt isolates had similar LC50 probit values to the reference strains.

  8. Susceptibility of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to two new reduced-risk insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F; Doerr, Michael D

    2010-02-01

    The response of field-collected populations of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and azinphosmethyl was assessed using a diet incorporation bioassay. Populations of obliquebanded leafroller were collected from nine orchards in Chelan, Douglas, Grant, and Okanogan counties of Washington. The neonates of the F1 or F2 generation were used in all assays. The parameters of probit regression lines were estimated and lethal concentration ratios were calculated for all populations compared with a susceptible laboratory population. Significant variation was detected in response to all four insecticides including chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram, which had never been used in the field, lethal concentration ratios were 3.9-39.7 for azinphosmethyl, 0.5-3.6 for spinosad, 1.2-5.3 for chlorantraniliprole, and 0.5-4.1 for spinetoram. Correlation analysis indicated possibility of cross-resistance between spinosad and spinetoram, which are both members of spinosyn class. The occurrence of low but significant levels of resistance against chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram in field-collected populations of C. rosaceana before their first field application indicates that the risk of resistance evolution against these two new reduced-risk insecticides exists. However, it is likely that these low levels of resistance can be managed if the insecticides are used judiciously in conjunction with sound resistance management programs. Implications of these results for developing and implementing resistance management strategies are discussed.

  9. Toxicity and residual efficacy of chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the residual toxicity of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Larvae were exposed to apple (Malus spp.) foliage collected at different intervals after an airblast sprayer application at the manufacturer-recommended field rate and half the field rate. A mortality of 100% was recorded at field rate applications of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate through 59, 38, and 10 d after treatment (DAT), respectively. Significantly less foliage was consumed by C. rosaceana larvae surviving in the emamectin, chlorantraniliprole, and spinetoram treatments compared with those exposed to untreated foliage. Third-instar C. rosaceana exposed to fresh residues on terminal foliage showed 100% mortality after 5-d exposure to spinetoram residues and after 10-d exposure to chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate. The effects of larval movement from foliage with fresh residues was examined by transferring neonate larvae from foliage treated with spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, or emamectin benzoate to untreated foliage after various exposure intervals. An exposure of 1, 3, and 6 d was required for spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to cause 100% mortality at the field rate, respectively. The higher the concentration of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate, the less exposure time was necessary to cause high levels of mortality in C. rosaceana neonates. Our results indicate that these novel insecticides are highly toxic to C. rosaceana larvae. Implications of these results for C. rosaceana management programs are discussed.

  10. Lethal and sublethal effects of an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, on obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-04-01

    The obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is one of the most destructive pests of tree fruit in Washington. The development of insecticide resistance in C. rosaceana has led us to explore new management tactics. The use of very low doses of insecticides that have strong sublethal effects represents an environmentally friendly option to improve existing integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen to determine its lethal and sublethal effects on growth and development of C. rosaceana. A leaf-disk bioassay was used to test seven concentrations of pyriproxyfen ranging from 0 to 30 ppm on fifth-instar C. rosaceana. Male and female larvae were assessed separately for mortality as well as other parameters of growth and development. The LC, values for males and females were 2.4 and 4.8 ppm, respectively. The response to pyriproxyfen was concentration-dependent: only 5-6% of the larvae treated with the highest concentration emerged as morphologically normal adults compared with 86% emergence in the controls. The pupation and adult emergence was significantly delayed at concentrations higher than 1 ppm. The weights of C. rosaceana pupae and adults were significantly increased, whereas fecundity and fertility were significantly reduced at a sublethal concentration of 0.3 ppm. We conclude that both lethal and sublethal effects might exhibit significant impacts on the population dynamics of C. rosaceana in tree fruit orchards treated with low concentrations of pyriproxyfen.

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  12. LIFE-CYCLE PARAMETERS OF Copitarsia uncilata (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE ON THREE NATURAL DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Castro Marquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the life cycle of Copitarsia uncilata Burgos & Leiva (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae under laboratory conditions without photophase and a second experiment with photophase of 12 hours on three natural diets. The life cycle of C. uncilata was significantly shorter for females (76.46 ± 1.01 days, p=0.033 reared on alstroemeria (Alstroemeria sp. diet without photophase, and for males (79.78 ± 0.36 days, p=0.046 reared on broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica, with photophase. The emergence of the adults was 100% and 80% from larvae fed on alstroemeria, 90.9% and 88.88% for individuals fed on broccoli, 86.2% and 50% for those fed on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, without and with photophase respectively. The sex ratio (male:female of individuals reared without photophase, evidenced a higher rate of females on alstroemeria (1:1.3, followed by cauliflower (1:0.6 and broccoli (1:0.5. In the experiment with photophase, the sex ratio was higher on alstroemeria (1:1.5, followed by cauliflower (1:0.9 and broccoli (1:0.6. As a conclusion, the most suitable diet for laboratory mass rearing in terms of life cycle parameters of C. uncilata is broccoli followed by alstroemeria and cauliflower.

  13. Brevibacterium pityocampae sp. nov., isolated from caterpillars of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Hatice; Ince, Ikbal Agah; Demir, Ismail; Demirbag, Zihni

    2010-02-01

    This work deals with the taxonomic study of a bacterium, strain Tp12(T), isolated from caterpillars of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775; Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae). The isolate was assigned to the genus Brevibacterium on the basis of a polyphasic taxonomic study, including morphological and biochemical characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid analysis and DNA G+C content. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to this isolate was approximately 96 %, with the type strains of Brevibacterium album and Brevibacterium samyangense. Cellular fatty acids of the isolate are of the branched type, with the major components being anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 69.8 mol%. Although the strain was related to B. album and B. samyangense according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it differed from any known species of Brevibacterium. Based on this evidence, the novel species Brevibacterium pityocampae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain Tp12(T) (=DSM 21720(T) =NCCB 100255(T)) as the type strain.

  14. Studies on the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) response to different codlemone release rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, S; Miñarro, M; Bosch, M D; Primo, J; Navarro-Llopis, V

    2013-12-01

    The response of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) to different emission values of its main pheromone component, 8E,10E-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), was investigated in three field trials conducted in plots without mating disruption treatments. Moth catches obtained in traps baited with pheromone dispensers were correlated with the corresponding codlemone release rates by multiple regression analysis. In a preliminary trial conducted in Lleida (NE Spain), a decreasing trend of captures was observed based on increasing pheromone levels. After this, the pheromone release profiles of the pheromone dispensers were studied, in parallel with the field trials, by residual codlemone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the trials carried out in Asturias (NW Spain), a correlation between trap catches and emission levels (within the range from 11 to 1,078 μg/d) was found and fitted a logarithmic model. Captures followed a decreasing linear trend in the range of emission rates from 11 to 134 μg/d. Given that release values comprised between 11 and 67 μg/d did not lead to significantly different catches in traps, this emission range could be considered to develop effective formulations for attraction purposes when mating disruption is not acting in the environment.

  15. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area.

  16. Systematics, phylogeny and biology of a new genus of Lithocolletinae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) associated with Cistaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prins, Jurate; Davis, Donald R; De Coninck, Eliane; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Triberti, Paolo

    2013-10-27

    The gracillariid genus Triberta gen. nov. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Lithocolletinae Stainton, 1854) is described to accommodate two species formerly assigned to the genus Phyllonorycter Hübner, 1822: Triberta helianthemella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1861) comb. nov. and T. cistifoliella (Groschke, 1944) comb. nov. Triberta cistifoliella bona sp. is restored from synonymy based on morphological characters. The new genus is biologically associated with the plant family Cistaceae of the order Malvales and is endemic to the Palaearctics. Our molecular analysis of eleven nuclear genes failed to unambiguously place Triberta in the lithocolletine phylogeny, but revealed that this genus is distinct from either clade Phyllonorycter + Cremastobombycia and Cameraria. The distinctiveness of Triberta is also supported by inferred traits in wing venation, micro morphology of the last instar larva, pupa, genital morphology of the adult and life history. A key to the species of Triberta is provided. The interspecific homogeneity in external morphology, coupled with minor differences in genital traits, an apparent narrow specialization on Cistaceae host plants, restricted geographical range and molecular evidence based on multi-nuclear genes jointly suggest that the generic diversification of Triberta is a relatively old phenomenon and driven strongly by host selection.

  17. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  18. Estimate of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae development with nonlinear models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Medeiros

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate which nonlinear model [Davidson (1942, 1944, Stinner et al. (1974, Sharpe & DeMichele (1977, and Lactin et al. (1995] best describes the relationship between developmental rates of the different instars and stages of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, and temperature. A. argillacea larvae were fed with cotton leaves (Gossypium hirsutum L., race latifolium Hutch., cultivar CNPA 7H at constant temperatures of 20, 23, 25, 28, 30, 33, and 35ºC; relative humidity of 60 ± 10%; and photoperiod of 14:10 L:D. Low R² values obtained with Davidson (0.0001 to 0.1179 and Stinner et al. (0.0099 to 0.8296 models indicated a poor fit of their data for A. argillacea. However, high R² values of Sharpe & DeMichele (0.9677 to 0.9997 and Lactin et al. (0.9684 to 0.9997 models indicated a better fit for estimating A. argillacea development.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sasakia funebris (Leech) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and comparison with other Apaturinae insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ju Ping; Cao, Tian Wen; Xuan, Shan Bin; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Min; Ma, En bo

    2013-09-10

    Sasakia funebris, a member of the lepidopteran family, Nymphalidae (superfamily Papilionoidea) is a rare species and is found only in some areas of South China. In this study, the 15,233 bp long complete mitochondrial genome of S. funebris was determined, and harbors the gene arrangement identical to all other sequenced lepidopteran insects. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A+T biased, accounting for 81.2%. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with typical ATN codons, except for COI which begins with the CGA codon. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf secondary structure, except for tRNASer(AGN), the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of which forms a simple loop. The S. funebris A+T-rich region of 370 bp contains several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by a 19 bp poly-T stretch, and two tandem repeats consisting of 18 bp repeat units and 14 bp repeat units. The phylogenetic analyses of Apaturinae based on mitogenome sequences showed: (S. funebris+Sasakia charonda)+(Apatura metis+Apatura ilia). This result is consistent with the morphological classification.

  20. Foraging strategies in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) on Lepidoptera in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Longru; FENG Jiang; SUN Keping; LIU Ying; WU Lei; LI Zhenxin; ZHANG Xichen

    2005-01-01

    The diet of the bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was studied at the Zhi'an Village of Ji'an City in China, from June to August 2004. The bats were trained in a laboratory (volume: 9×4×4 m3). Foraging strategies of the bat were ob- served at night and prey remains were collected and identi- fied. The results showed that the diet consisted mainly of Lepidoptera in summer, including 11 families, more than 30 species of moths, such as Noctuidae (36.6% by number), Sphingidae (24.1%), Geometridae (13.4%) and Limacodidae (9.5%). The length of culled wings ranged from 10―40 mm (97.7%). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the bat R. ferrumequinum foraged their prey selectively, but not op- portunistically. From field studies, two ways were observed in which the bats retrieved their prey including aerial hawk- ing during peak active period of the insects and flycatching during the insects' non-peak activity period. The bats never gleaned prey from the ground, though they appeared to be well able to detect fluttering moths on the ground.

  1. A new gene superfamily of pathogen-response (repat) genes in Lepidoptera: classification and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, G; Hernández-Martínez, P; Vogel, H; Ferré, J; Herrero, S

    2013-01-01

    Repat (REsponse to PAThogens) genes were first identified in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in response to Bacillus thuringiensis and baculovirus exposure. Since then, additional repat gene homologs have been identified in different studies. In this study the comprehensive larval transcriptome from S. exigua was analyzed for the presence of novel repat-homolog sequences. These analyses revealed the presence of at least 46 repat genes in S. exigua, establishing a new gene superfamily in this species. Phylogenetic analysis and studies of conserved motifs in these hypothetical proteins have allowed their classification in two main classes, αREPAT and βREPAT. Studies on the transcriptional response of repat genes have shown that αREPAT and βREPAT differ in their sequence but also in the pattern of regulation. The αREPAT were mainly regulated in response to the Cry1Ca toxin from B. thuringiensis but not to the increase in the midgut microbiota load. In contrast, βREPAT were neither responding to Cry1Ca toxin nor to midgut microbiota. Differential expression between midgut stem cells and the whole midgut tissue was studied for the different repat genes revealing changes in the gene expression distribution between midgut stem cells and midgut tissue in response to midgut microbiota. This high diversity found in their sequence and in their expression profile suggests that REPAT proteins may be involved in multiple processes that could be of relevance for the understanding of the insect gut physiology.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yunliang; Zuo, Ni; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae) is a circular molecule of 15,266 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other butterfly species. Ten PCGs terminate in the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, whereas the COI, COII and ND4 genes end with single T. Ten intergenic spacers (73 bp in total), and 12 overlapping regions (28 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 405 bp long and contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 12-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)14 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. Additionally, a 11-bp poly-T sequences and a microsatellite-like (AT)7 repeated elements are detected in this region.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Shao, Lili; Cheng, Chunhui; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionodae) is a circular molecule of 15,226 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs initiate with typical ATN codons, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon. Ten PCGs use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the COI, COII and ND5 genes end with single T. Twelve intergenic spacers (82 bp in total), and 11 overlapping regions (30 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 403 bp long and contains some conserved structures characteristic of the butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 13-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)12 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mulberry white caterpillar Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Jun, Jumin; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana, belongs to the lepidopteran family Bombycidae, in which the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori is included. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome of R. menciana in terms of general genomic features and characteristic features found in the A+T-rich region. The 15,364 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. Twelve of the 13 PCGs started with typical ATN codons, except for the COI, which began with CGA and twelve of 13 PCGs had complete stop codons, except for the COII, which ended with a single T. The 360 bp long A+T-rich region harbored the conserved sequence blocks typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A+T-rich region of R. menciana contained one tRNA(Met)-like structure, which had a proper anticodon and secondary structure.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the moon moth, Actias aliena (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the Actias aliena belonging to the lepidopteran family Saturniidae in terms of general genomic features and composition. The 15,243 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region. The A. aliena mitogenome harbored the gene order tRNA(Met), tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Gln) between the A+T-rich region and ND2, as shown in most lepidopteran species. The COI gene possessed the CGA initiator, which is found in nearly all lepidopterans lacking a canonical ATN initiator. Twenty-one tRNAs formed the cloverleaf secondary structures but tRNA(Ser)(AGN) formed a simple loop in the DHU arm. The 328 bp long A+T-rich region, which was located between the S rRNA and tRNA(Met) genes, contained several Lepidoptera-specific sequences, such as the ATAGA motif, a poly-T stretch, an AT repeat, and a poly-A stretch, along with an unusual tRNA(Phe)-like structure.

  7. Temperature-dependent development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on two brassicaceous host plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI GOLIZADEH; KARIM KAMALI; YAGHOUB FATHIPOUR; HABIB ABBASIPOUR

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of the Plutella xylostella(Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), was evaluated at eight constant temperatures (10, 15,20, 25, 28, 30, 32.5 and 35℃), with relative humidity of 65% and a photoperiod of 14:10(L: D) hours on two host plants, cauliflower, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and cabbage,Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The low temperature threshold was estimated to be 7.06℃and 7.84℃ and the thermal constant was 263.74 and 261.58 degree-days for P. xylostella on cauliflower and cabbage, respectively, using the linear model. Data were fitted to various nonlinear temperature-dependent models, and the low and high temperature thresholds, as well as the optimum temperature for development, has been estimated. Criteria of choice from the literature were used to evaluate models and to select the most suitable equation for P. xylostella development on each host plant. Conclusively, linear and Briere-2 models are recommended for the description of temperature-dependent development of P. xylostella on two host plants.

  8. Various chemical strategies to deceive ants in three Arhopala species (lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) exploiting Macaranga myrmecophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese oak silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqun Liu; Yuping Li; Minhui Pan; Fangyin Dai; Xuwei Zhu; Cheng Lu; Zhonghuai Xiang

    2008-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome from Chinese oak silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). The 15,566 bp circular genome contains a typical gene organization and order for lepidopteran mitogenomes.The mitogenome contains the lowest A+T content (80.16%)among the lnown lepidopteran mitogenome sequences.An unusual feature is the occurrence of more Ts than As,with a slightly negative AT skewness(-0.021),in the composition of the major genome strand.All protein-coding genes are initiated by ATN codons,except for cytochrome oxidase subunit I,which is proposed by the TTAG sequence as observed in other lepidopterans.All transfer RNAs(tRNAs)have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA,except for tRNASer(AGN),the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure.Two aligned sequence blocks with a length of more than 50 bp and 90% of the sequence identity were identified in the A+T-rich region of the Saturniidae and Bombycoidae species.

  10. Biological aspects of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a polyphagous armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, A; Iltchenco, J; Fronza, E; Roque-Specht, V F; Luz, P C; Montezzano, D G

    2014-02-01

    We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae) at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee). In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal) diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.

  11. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Ling; Cui, Wen-Xia; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2015-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined (GenBank accession No. KF163965). The length of this mitochondrial genome is 15,377 bp with an A + T content of 82.5%. There are 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes, that is, 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA gene and an A + T-rich region. The tRNA gene trnM was rearranged to the upstream of the trnI-trnQ-trnM cluster compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN start codon except for the gene cox1, which uses CGA as in other lepidopteran species. Ten protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, whereas three protein-coding gene use incomplete stop codon T. The A + T-region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 332 bp and A + T content of 94.88%.

  12. Temperature effects on development and fecundity of Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Liu, Yan; Su, Ming-Zhu; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the impacts of temperature on the development and reproductivity of the sweet potato leaf folder, Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in sweet potato leaves under laboratory conditions. We determined developmental time of B. macroscopa larval, pupal, and pre-adult stage at different temperatures. Male and female longevity, male and female lifespan, mortality of immature stages, oviposition period of B. macroscopa were also investigated under six constant temperatures (21°C, 24°C, 27°C, 30°C, 33°C, 36°C), based on age-stage, two-sex life tables. The results revealed that eggs in 36°C were unable to hatch. At temperatures between 21°C -33°C, the duration of the pre-adult period, as well as the adult lifespan both for males and females, were shortened by increasing temperatures. The lowest larval mortality rate (15.33%) occurred at 27°C. The age-stage-specific fecundity rates with the greatest number were, in order, 30°C, 27°C, 21°C, 24°C and 33°C. The results show that B. macroscopa population levels could reach highest at the temperature of 27℃. PMID:28253321

  13. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and medicinal plants on Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Zibaee, AR Bandani, JJ Sendi, R Talaei-Hassanloei, B Kouchaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae is an insect native to NorthAmerica that was recently introduced into Iran resulting in severe damage to trees and agriculturalproduction. An experiment was conducted to examine potential effects of medicinal plants, Artemisiaannua and Lavandula stoechas and the insect pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var.kurstaki on activities of digestive enzymes (α-amylase, α- and β-glucosidase, lipase and proteasesand lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in H. cunea by using two hosts, mulberry and sycamore. Resultsshowed that B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki and plant extracts when administered orally, affected thedigestive enzyme profiles of H. cunea. Combined effect of B. thuringiensis, A. annua and L. stoechasextracts on mulberry decreased the activities of digestive enzymes in a dose-related manner, exceptfor β-glucosidase and lipase. When larvae were treated by different concentrations of the mentionedinsecticides, LDH activity increased i.e. the higher activity was obtained by B. thurengiensis alone andB. thurengiensis and L. stoechas extracts together. The least activity was observed in the case of L.stoechas extracts alone on both hosts. Physiological analysis would be particularly informative whenusing combination of biopesticides to enhance the efficiency of a safe management process.

  14. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  15. Leaf consumption and duration of instars of the cassava defoliator Erinnyis ello (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate leaf consumption and the developmental time of the larvae of Erynnyis ello (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae reared on cassava, in order to obtain information for the integrated management of this pest. The larvae were reared on excised cassava leaves in Petri dishes and later in gerbox, and kept in chambers at 24 ± 2 ºC and 75 ± 10% RH. The total leaf area consumed by the larva to complete its development was 589.67 cm²; each of the five instars consumed, respectively: 1.89 cm²; 5.74 cm²; 17.48 cm²; 76.66 cm²; and 487.90 cm². The consumption by the first three instars was insignificant, and did not reach 5% altogether; the 4th represented 13%; the 5th presented a consumption significantly higher, about 82.7%. The total time for the larval development was 22.61 days, and the duration for each of the five larval instar was, respectively: 4.35; 3.19; 3.32; 4.52; and 4.94 days. The pre-pupal period lasted 2.29 days. Since the highest consumption is by the 5th instar larva, the control should be applied before this age to avoid heavier damages to the cassava crop.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Pathogen-Response Genes (repat) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vilmar; Serrano, Jose; Galián, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) is one of the most important crop pests in the Americas, causing significant damage to maize, rice and sorghum. The mechanisms that determine its defences against pathogens are particularly relevant for the development of management and control strategies. We used an in silico approach to identify and characterize pathogen response genes (repat) present in different tissue libraries of S. fugiperda. The analyses revealed complete cDNA for nine repat genes; of these, repat15 and repat39 were found in libraries from a specific tissue--the midgut of larvae fed with xenobiotic substances. High expression levels of some genes were found in different libraries: 39 hits in repat30 in challenged hemocytes, 16 hits in repat31 in fat body, 10 hits in repat32 in fat body and 10 in challenged hemocytes, and 10 hits in repat38 in midgut of non-treated larvae and midgut of larvae fed with natural and xenobiotic substances. The genes corresponded to two ontology categories, stress response and immune response, and their phylogenetic relationships, nucleotide similarity, number of amino acid residues and molecular weights agree with what has been described for repat genes. It is noteworthy that proteins encoded by the repat genes of S. frugiperda have important defence functions in other tissues beyond midgut and that their functional categories are likely diverse, as they are related to cell envelope structure, energy metabolism, transport and binding.

  17. Development of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on leaves and fruit of orange trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

    2006-08-01

    Development of Epipyas postvittna (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on leaves and fruit of 'Valencia', 'Washington navel', and 'Navelina' orange trees was studied under constant and fluctuating temperatures. E. postvittna was able to complete its life cycle feeding exclusively on leaves or fruit of orange trees. However, larval survival rate was very low (types of orange tissues, young orange leaves and fruit afforded larvae higher survival rates than mature orange leaves and fruit. Fruit (young or mature) produced heavier pupae than leaves (young or mature). Larvae developed more slowly on mature orange fruit than on other orange materials and more slowly on orange leaves than on leaves of most noncitrus hosts. Degree-day accumulations based on the fastest developmental rates obtained in this study suggested that E. postvittna is capable of completing 4.4-4.7 generations per year in orange orchards in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Implications of the results in the management of the insect in citrus are discussed.

  18. Ecological Factors Affecting the Flight Phenology of the Endangered Coenonympha nipisiquit (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Billie; Moreau, Gaétan

    2017-03-17

    Coenonympha nipisiquit McDunnough (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is an endemic butterfly species that has been recorded only in 10 salt marshes of eastern Canada. Despite obtaining the endangered status and benefiting from a conservation program, the populations of this species appear to be declining. However, a lack of information about the ecology of the species and current demographics undermines potential in-situ conservation efforts. To identify the environmental factors affecting the emergence phenology and flight period of this species, daily visual counts of adult C. nipisiquit were carried out on a daily basis from 2011 to 2015 during the flight period along transects in four marshes where the butterfly maintains a continuous presence. A series of environmental parameters was collected during the monitoring. Additive modeling indicated that the accumulation of degree-days above 7 °C from mid-May contributed to the synchronization of adult emergence and flight in C. nipisiquit and identified a number of abiotic factors having an impact on the activity and monitoring of this insect. Data also indicated that some demographic aspects of this butterfly differ between sites and confirmed that C. nipisiquit has been declining from 2011 to 2015. In conclusion, this study not only generated information critical to the adjustment of the conservation program for C. nipisiquit, but also indicated that the extirpation of this species from its natural range should remain a concern.

  19. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Castro, Boris A

    2010-08-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and rice, Oryza sativa L., in Texas, has not been controlled with chemical insecticides or biological agents, but some sugarcane varieties have shown degrees of resistance. Assessment of selected sugarcane leaf characteristics indicate that preference for oviposition sites is mostly determined by the presence of a leaf fold and secondarily by the availability of dry leaf tissue, both of which are antixenotic nonchemical stimuli. We suggest that breeding sugarcane lines bearing leaves that do not fold on drying could provide substantial antixenotic resistance against the Mexican rice borer. Previously identified antixenotic chemical stimuli, i.e., low quantities or absence of important nutrients in green leaf tissue, only become apparent when resistant and susceptible sugarcane varieties are compared. Varietal differences in oviposition preference, however, were not observed on excised dry leaf tissue, indicating that expression of resistance in terms of chemical stimuli requires detection of biochemicals in nearby living leaf tissue. Excised dry sugarcane leaves retain the two dominant nonchemical oviposition preference stimuli for Mexican rice borers, and the leaves effectively trapped eggs away from intact plants when dry leaves were used as "mulch" at the bottom of greenhouse cages. Under commercial sugarcane field conditions, bundled dry leaves also collected Mexican rice borer eggs. Possible applications of dry sugarcane leaf substrate for egg scouting and for trapping eggs are discussed.

  20. Mouthparts and associated sensilla of a South American moth, Synempora andesae (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel J. FAUCHEUX

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las piezas bucales de Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen fueron estudiadas con un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se demuestra, por segunda vez, la existencia de sensilios estilocónicos gustativos uniporosos en la proboscis de Neopseustidae. Es en esta familia, y no en un estadio posterior dentro de Incurvaroidea, que aparecen estos sensilios durante la evolución de Lepidoptera. Contrario a lo que se cree, el órgano sensitivo labial u órgano de Von Rath, se encuentra en la extremidad distal del palpo labial de S. andesae. Está conformado por una docena de sensilios celocónicos multiporosos estriados, cuya función es percibir el dióxido de carbono. Por lo tanto, su supuesta ausencia ya no puede considerarse una autapomorfía de Neopseustidae. S. andesae posee otras características originales: sensilios tricodeos aporosos tanto cortos como largos en el labro, numerosos sensilios campaniformes en el primer segmento del palpo labial; así como también aquellas previamente descritas: la configuración en doble tubo de la proboscis y los sensilios basicónicos compuestos y polimórficos sobre las antenas. Además, se describen otros sensilios cefálicos: sensilios tricodeos aporosos bifurcados en el clípeo, sensilios aporosos campaniformes por encima de las mandíbulas y sobre la chaetosemata.