Sample records for armed forces institute

  1. 77 FR 68155 - The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute TRIGA Reactor: Facility Operating License No. R-84 (United States)


    ... COMMISSION The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute TRIGA Reactor: Facility Operating License No. R... Operating License No. R-84 (Application), which currently authorizes the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research... the renewal of Facility Operating License No. R-84, which currently authorizes the licensee to...

  2. The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences: five decades of collaborative medical research. (United States)

    Brown, Arthur; Nitayaphan, Sorachai


    The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) is a 50-year-old joint institute of the US and Royal Thai Army Medical Departments located in Bangkok, Thailand. Investigators from the Institute have carried out research in Thailand and the region, in collaboration with many partners, focused on a large number of tropical infectious diseases. In celebration of the 50th anniversary, this paper summarizes highlights of this research, focusing on malaria, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, diarrhea and HIV. In addition, research done in support of the medical problems of refugees and of the health of Thai peace-keeping forces are summarized. The research carried out by AFRIMS and added to the scientific literature has contributed significantly to advancement in multiple areas of tropical infectious disease.

  3. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) reports, July, August and September 1986. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Contents include: post-radiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates; heart-function studies in dogs after acute gamma irradiation of the precordium; the effect of anesthetic, sedative or narcotic drugs on intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary kinetics; effect of gamma radiation on sodium channels in different conformations in neuroblastoma cells; effects of ethanol exposure on brain sodium channels; ionizing radiation alters the properties of sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes; thymic hormones in thymus recovery from radiation injury; acute toxicity of petroleum- and shale-derived distillate fuel; light microscopic, hematologic, and serum chemistry studies; radioprotective properties of detoxified lipid A from Salmonella Minnesota R595; brain areas involved in production of morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57B1/6J mouse; preliminary evaluation of US Army radiac detector DT-236/PD and radiac computer-indicator CP-696/UD; and calorimetric dose measurements and calorimetric system developed for the armed forces radiobiology research institute.

  4. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, January, February, March 1987. (United States)


    precisely controlled intervals. As shown in the classic experiments of Hodgkin and Huxley ," electrical impulses or action potentials develop in neurons that...Pharmacel 19:425-431, 1981. 6. Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF: A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in...prostaglandins and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) Jordan E. Warnick 2 and Terry C. Pellmar l ’Physiology Department. Armed Forces

  5. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas


    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  6. A history of radiologic pathology correlation at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and its evolution into the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology. (United States)

    Murphey, Mark D; Madewell, John E; Olmsted, William W; Ros, Pablo R; Neiman, Harvey L


    The evolution of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) has played an important role in the history of pathology education and in radiologic pathology correlation in the United States. From its humble beginnings as a museum, showcasing dried and varnished morbid specimens--human relics of the Civil War, the institute became a leader in pathology. Later, it became a center of instruction for radiology residents seeking to understand the pathologic findings that underlay the radiologic appearance of disease. Images were gathered by the AFIP and the American Registry of Pathology (ARP) and have been used in research and education in radiology and other fields (ophthalmology, otalaryngology, dermatology, obstetrics and gynecology, and surgery). Despite the contributions of the AFIP, the ARP, and the Radiologic Pathology Correlation Course, high-ranking members of the military and the federal government frowned on a military-owned educational system that also served civilians. Although support from the radiology community dissuaded military officers and federal officials from taking action against the participation of civilians, the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) provisions mandated the disestablishment of the AFIP, forcing the redistribution of some of its resources to other military-only organizations and disbanding other AFIP functions. To ensure that the correlation course, known to radiology residents as the "rad-path" course, was not a casualty of the BRAC, the American College of Radiology (ACR) and leaders of the AFIP and ARP agreed that the ACR should continue this vital educational endeavor. In January 2011, the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology of the ACR debuted and successfully instructed 268 radiology residents, including 40 international residents. The faculty and staff, who had been part of the course at the AFIP, continue to help enrich and improve the course established by their predecessors.

  7. Romanian Armed Forces Transformation (United States)


    strategic importance is defined by the configuration of the Carpathian Mountains to the north-east, by the lower course and estuary of the Danube river...Companies, 1 Engineer Company, 1 Mountain Company, 1 Military Police Company, 1 Mine-clearing Detachment); Air Forces (4 MIG-21 LANCER, 1 C- 130B...Land Forces - 3 Infantry Companies, 1 Engineer Company, 1 Mountain Company, 1 Paratroops Company, 1 Military Police Company, 1 Demining Detachment

  8. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...

  9. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans


    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as a gay

  10. Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Larsen, Esben Salling;

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... with more diverse militaries, such as the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, include recognition of diversity as a societal imperative to sustain the legitimacy of the armed forces, the necessity of systematically collecting and reporting personnel data to guide policy, the necessity of patience...

  11. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

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    Peter PINDJÁK


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  12. Professional armed forces new trend in Europe : transformation of the Czech armed forces



    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2001 the Czech Republic decided to abandon conscription in favor of professional armed forces. Western European countries are following the same trend, since the new security environment requires quickly deployable, highly skilled and well-equipped forces. The current round of reforms started with Belgium and Netherlands, and have seen followed by France, Spain, Italy and Portugal. These countries are beneficiary from experience in ...

  13. 武警初级指挥院校学员人文素质的培养%Cultivation of Humanistic Quality of Students in Preliminary Command Institutions of Armed Police Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 曲卉


    Preliminary command institutions of armed policy force are the important base for cultivating high-quality talents. However, due to a variety of reasons, they are weak in the cultivation of humanistic quality of students. To adapt to the development of the modem teaching, the institutions have to adopt effective measures in course system, classroom teaching, student responsibility, and campus environment so as to enhance humanis-tic quality of students as early as possible.%武警初级指挥院校作为培养武警部队高素质人才的重要基地,由于主客观方面的原因,学员人文素质的培养一直相对较弱.要适应现代教学的发展,武警初级指挥院校必须在课程体系、课堂教学、教员职责、校园环境等多个方面采取有效措施,尽快提高学员的人文素质.

  14. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces (Report 3). The US Army]. (United States)

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V I; Ivchenko, I V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V


    The US Army. The present article is the third part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first and the second parts have been published in the previous issuses of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Army. It is shown that in the US Army the medical and biological research is conducted and coordinated by the special US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. The following units are successively presented: US Army Institute of Surgical Research, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine. The particular research programs conducting in the above mentioned institutions are presented.

  15. Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine (United States)


    polyacrylamide gel electro- phoresis), decorin and the decorin- homing peptide fusions migrated as sharp bands at 45 kDa with a smear above it (Figure IV-14...iodine from both starch -foamed and air- foamed sponges. They determined that starch -foamed PVA sponges are best suited for in vivo studies. In...the I-Plex device, including PVA-iodine com- plex preparation. The researchers used two kinds of PVA sponges for complex formation: starch -foamed

  16. 77 FR 30875 - Armed Forces Day, 2012 (United States)


    ... possible, we also pay our deepest respect to their families, our missing, our wounded, and our fallen... Forces are also parents, spouses, partners, sons, and daughters. Their families are just as vital...

  17. Problems of feeding the armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Ray Sarkar


    Full Text Available The main problems encountered in the proper supply of foodstuffs for the maintenance of defence forces relate to procurement, preservation and storage of food stuffs and their supply and transport on one hand, evaluation of nutritional requirement to the forces engaged in different kinds of work and designing of rations to serve specific purposes on the other. Apart from-these problems which are quite broad in nature, there are others of specific character

  18. Procurement, Storage and Distribution of Foodstuff in the Armed Forces

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    Y. D. Sahasrabuddhe


    Full Text Available The problem of procuring, storing and distributing foodstuffs to the Armed Forces in India is a stupendous task because of the wide variations interrains and climatic conditions and the varied food habits of the people. It is all the more exacting as the processed food industry is still in its infancy. Because of the stringent quality control requirements of the Armed Forces, the food processing industry in India is not willing to undertake supplies to the Defence services. The problems and how they are handled are briefly reviewed.

  19. Exoskeleton arm with force feedback for robot bilateral teleoperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel 6 degrees of freedom (DOFs) wearable exoskeleton arm, ZJUESA, based on man-machine system is presented. It can be used in robot bilateral teleoperation as master arm with force-feedback. With introducing the revolute-prismatic-spherical(RPS) parallel mechanism and planetary gear mechanism, it is designed based on the anatomy of human upper-limb. With the sensors on this external mechanical structure, the human operator motion is detected and converted to the slave robot control command. Additionally the pneumatic system on it generates a force feedback by using hybrid fuzzy control. As a result, the human operator may have a feeling of doing the work directly.

  20. 78 FR 30731 - Armed Forces Day, 2013 (United States)


    ... unbroken chain of patriots willing to give of themselves so their fellow citizens might live free. Whenever... Defense on behalf of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, and the Secretary of Homeland Security... Defense responsible for encouraging the participation and cooperation of civil authorities and...

  1. Inspection of the Armed Forces Retirement Home (United States)


    Forces Retirement Home, Washington, D.C., should replace or repair the leaking water pipelines per the Chief of Campus Operations stated plan of action...campus. Two water pipelines were found to have major defects and were leaking hundreds of gallons of city water daily. Although the AFRH (W...three leaking water pipelines around the AFRH (W) campus. 1) Eagle Gate near Upshur Street 2) Pershing Drive near Arnold Drive 3) “The Ponds” area near

  2. A model of psychological resilience for the Netherlands Armed Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Venrooij, W.; Berg, C. van den


    In the current study, a model of psychological resilience was developed for the Netherlands Armed Forces and a number of important relations were tested using a longitudinal design. The model of resilience was based on a systematic literature review of resilience in high-risk professions and intervi

  3. Suicide in the French armed forces. (United States)

    Desjeux, Guillaume; Labarère, José; Galoisy-Guibal, Laurent; Ecochard, René


    Several states, of whom France, have been alarmed about suicide in the military. An observational longitudinal cohort study was conducted to check whether the suicide risk in the French army was higher than in the general population and to find out the more prone to self-harm destruction personnel categories. From 1997 to 2000 inclusive, 230 suicides occurred among 315,934 person.years; i.e., the overall annual crude suicide rate was 18.2 per 100,000 active-duty personnel. With the National data for 1999 as reference, army men had a lower suicide risk than men in the overall population of similar age categories (standardised mortality ratio = 67). A Poisson regression model showed that the incidence rate in the Gendarmerie was twice as high as in the Land Forces (incidence rate ratio = 2.15), that the incidence relative risk increased threefold over 4 years, and that the incidence rate ratio amongst under 25 and from 40 to 44-year-old personnel was almost twice as high as in the 25-29-year-old category. The main suicide methods were use of a firearm (51%) and hanging (28%). Despite a global lower risk than in the general population, certain army categories, i.e., Gendarmerie personnel and young men, deserve specific surveillance and preventive measures.

  4. Korea: Nutrition and Feeding of Korean Armed Forces (United States)


    03-1959 1 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Korea : Nutrition and Feeding of Korean Armed Force 5b. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Support and Korean officers and officials concerned with nutrition and feeding, Mr. Kim Chung Yul, Minister for National Defense , made a formal...2. Annex 1, prepared by the Acting UNC Economic Coordinator, sets forth the effect of the above shift on Korean Economy and the ROK defense effort

  5. [The Italian armed forces health service during the Great War]. (United States)

    De Caro, Walter; Marucci, Anna Rita; Sansoni, Julita


    The Great War had a huge impact on Italian society. The organisation of the armed forces health service faced extreme difficulties due to the extensive loss of life of an almost exclusively terrestrial war. In this context, the role of the medical staff and nursing staff was essential, as the example of the volunteer Red Cross nurses testifies. However, this conflict revealed the need to improve the training of the nursing staff, as was the case in Anglo-Saxon countries.

  6. The evolution of PAs in the Canadian Armed Forces. (United States)

    Mertens, Jonathan; Descoteaux, Marc


    This study documents the growing role of the physician assistant (PA) in the Canadian Armed Forces. PAs have served as the backbone of the Royal Canadian Medical Services' frontline medical operations since 1984, on land, aboard ships and submarines, and domestically in garrison. Candidates begin as medical technicians and receive advanced training to become PAs at midcareer. The current rank of PAs as warrant officers is evolving and a commissioned status is under consideration.

  7. [Development of combat medical robots in the US Armed Forces]. (United States)

    Golota, A S; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Kuvakin, V I; Soldatov, E A


    The current article is dedicated to the problem of scientific research organization in the field of combat medical robots development in the US Armed Forces. The role of the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center is singled out. The project A Robotic System for Wounded Patient Extraction and Evacuation from Hostile Environments is described in more detail. It is noted the high cost of such technical systems development and operation.

  8. Facing the Future: Slovenian Armed Forces Officer Corps and Professionalism (United States)


    Uros Svete in an article, “Educating Military Professionals: Between Traditional Starts and (Post) Modern Challenges.” In it, the authors examine the...officer candidates-a discussion], Slovenian Armed Forces Bulletin 1999 year 10, no. 1 (May 2008), 132-134. 57Anton Zabkar and Uros Svete, “Solanje...Anton and Svete Uros , where they clearly identify the crucial deficiencies in the officer educational system as compared to other modern military

  9. American Armed Forces in Mexico? Not Any Time Soon (United States)


    Relations. 1. no. 1 (2011) Díez, Jordi. “Legislative Oversight of the Armed Forces in Mexico.” Mexican Studies/ Estudios Mexicanos 24 (Winter 08...Ley Orgánica Del Ejército Y Fuerza Aérea Mexicanos ” (Organic Law of the Mexican Army and Air Force) and “Ley Orgánica De La Armada De México...8. Congress of the United Mexican States, "Ley Organica Del Ejercito Y Fuerza Aerea Mexicanos ." June 1, 2011. http

  10. Collateral gains from the military? A cross-national analysis of the armed forces crime relationship. (United States)

    Sun, Ivan Y; Sung, Hung-En; Chu, Doris C


    Research has repeatedly showed that males aged between 16 and 24 years old account for a disproportionately large volume of crime. Armed forces are major employers of young males in their crime-prone ages and thus could play an essential role in crime prevention. The military is a highly structured and regimented total institution in which rigid behavioral norms and very close monitoring are imposed both on soldiers and on officers. Using data from 65 countries for the period of 1995 to 1999, this study assesses the crime-reduction function of the military by testing the influence of the relative size of the armed forces and the existence of conscription on national rates of homicide. The findings show that the size of the military and the existence of conscription are significantly related to homicide rates. Implications for future research are discussed.

  11. Rapid adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations of arm trajectory. (United States)

    Lackner, J R; Dizio, P


    1. Forward reaching movements made during body rotation generate tangential Coriolis forces that are proportional to the cross product of the angular velocity of rotation and the linear velocity of the arm. Coriolis forces are inertial forces that do not involve mechanical contact. Virtually no constant centrifugal forces will be present in the background when motion of the arm generates transient Coriolis forces if the radius of body rotation is small. 2. We measured the trajectories of arm movements made in darkness to a visual target that was extinguished as movement began. The reaching movements were made prerotation, during rotation at 10 rpm in a fully enclosed rotating room, and postrotation. During testing the subject was seated at the center of the room and pointed radially. Neither visual nor tactile feedback about movement accuracy was present. 3. In experiment 1, subjects reached at a fast or slow rate and their hands made contact with a horizontal surface at the end of the reach. Their initial perrotary movements were highly significantly deviated relative to prerotation in both trajectories and end-points in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces that had been generated during the reaches. Despite the absence of visual and tactile feedback about reaching accuracy, all subjects rapidly regained straight movement trajectories and accurate endpoints. Postrotation, transient errors of opposite sign were present for both trajectories and endpoints. 4. In a second experiment the conditions were identical except that subjects pointed just above the location of the extinguished target so that no surface contact was involved. All subjects showed significant initial perrotation deviations of trajectories and endpoints in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces. With repeated reaches the trajectories, as viewed from above, again became straight, but there was only partial restoration of endpoint accuracy, so that subjects reached in a straight

  12. Defense, Armed Forces and Spanish Public Opinión

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    Inmaculada C. Marrero Rocha


    Full Text Available Despite all the efforts made for adapting and modernizing our Armed Forces and thenew kind of missions they face, the Spaniards do not show much interest neither inquestions related to security and defense nor in supporting an increase in the defensebudget. This paper examines the reasons for the reported low level of culture of defenseexisting among the Spanish citizenry and the possibilities to act on this sort of causes inorder to offset its effects. Likewise, this report analyzes the measures adopted by theSpanish authorities in order to promote the culture of defense and highlights which aretheir main deficiencies and weaknesses

  13. Human arm posture prediction in response to isometric endpoint forces. (United States)

    Davoudabadi Farahani, Saeed; Andersen, Michael Skipper; de Zee, Mark; Rasmussen, John


    The ability to predict the musculoskeletal response to external loads has multiple applications for the design of machines with a human interface and for the prediction of outcomes of musculoskeletal interventions. In this study, we applied an inverse-inverse dynamics technique to investigate its ability to predict arm posture in response to isometric hand forces. For each subject, we made a three-dimensional musculoskeletal model using the AnyBody Modelling System (AMS). Then, we had each subject-specific model hold a weight anteriorly to the right shoulder joint at a distance of half of the arm length. We selected the glenohumeral abduction angle (GHAA) as the only free parameter. Subsequently, we used inverse-inverse dynamics to find the optimal GHAA that minimised a performance criterion with physiological constraints. In this study, we investigated the performance of two different objective functions: summation of squared muscle activity (SSMA) and summation of squared normalised joint torques (SSNJT). To validate the simulation results, arm posture responses to different isometric downward hand forces were measured for six healthy male subjects. Five trials were performed for each loading condition. The results showed that, with an increase in hand load, there was a reduced GHAA in all subjects. Another interesting finding was that self-selected postures for lighter tasks varied more than postures for heavier tasks for all subjects. To understand this, we investigated the curvature of the objective function as a function of the load and observed an increased curvature with increased load. This may explain the reduced intra-subject variations observed for increasing loads.

  14. Training incidents in armored vehicles in the Singapore Armed Forces. (United States)

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Ng, Yih-Yng; Ying, Meng-Fai


    Training in armored vehicles presents occupational hazards. Since the inception of armored units in the Singapore Armed Forces in 1969, there has been no scientific study of the demographics of the trauma patterns. A review of existing literature also indicated a paucity of data on this subject. This article qualified and quantified the proportion of trauma during peacetime armored vehicle training during a 5-year period. Most of the 100 documented incidences of injuries occurred on the head and body limbs. Many injuries were caused by minor lacerations, abrasions, and crush injuries. Although fractures accounted for 24%, 65% of the total injury count could be classified as "minor." A diurnal pattern of injuries was noted in the study. The injury patterns could be used to analyze morbidity and mortality trends and facilitate subsequent evaluation of efficacy of affirmative action. New challenges facing further research in training injuries were also discussed.


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    Milan SOPÓCI


    Full Text Available The article deals with some aspects of security and defence sources for the armed forces of the Slovak Republic. It compares the possibilities of several NATO states in terms of their Gross National Product (GNP and their expenses for the armed forces. The article refers to the negative impingement of expenses reduction on the position of the SR and the Slovak armed forces developed with its NATO and EU partners. It also focuses on the possibilities to obtain funding sources for the development of armed forces from special NATO programmes.


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    Ahmet SEN

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because of the dangers in the nature of flight, pilots have to fly in perfect medical conditions. Besides the undesirable effects of the diseases, side effects of the medications used in the treatment might also risk flight safety. In this study, we investigated the drug use attitude of Turkish Armed Forces pilots. Material-Method: In order to investigate their drug use attitude, a questionnaire was given to 408 pilots at GATA Aerospace Medical Center. Drug use attitude, drugs used by pilots and side effects were questioned. Results: 41 % of pilots reported that they used drugs during active flying. But the drug use rate of Army pilots was 57 %, which was higher than the Air Force and Navy pilots. The most common used drugs were analgesics. Conclusion: It is obvious that pilots might use drugs without informing their flight surgeon. Flight surgeons should always educate the pilots about the importance and dangers of self-medication. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(9.000: 213-220

  17. [The organizational bases for the building of a modern medical support system for the Armed Forces]. (United States)

    Chizh, I M


    In the article the problems concerning characteristic features of the local wars and armed conflicts, organization bases of construction of The Army and Fleet medical support modern system are discussed. The organization of personnel medical security is considered depending on the duration, intensity and spatial scope of military conflict, peculiarities of group (forces) application and ways of military actions conduction. The distribution of federal troops sanitary losses during the war in Chechenskaya Republic is shown depending on the type, localization and degree of injuries gravity as well as volume of the wounded and invalids evacuation by air transport and work of military medical institutions. The following principles of construction of the Armed Forces medical support system are formulated: The system must be in compliance with troops goals, structure, strategy and tactics, its specificity; development of medical security forms and methods, their historicism; interdependency, completeness and integrity of the system's elements; territorial aspects of its construction and management optimization. Considering character of the goals being laid on the Mobile Forces the paramount importance is attached to the level of readiness of medical service and its formations and units to act in crisis situations.

  18. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces (United States)


    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces AGENCY: Fish and... birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act... the Armed Forces to incidentally take migratory birds. The Authorization Act also stated that...

  19. Kosovo Armed Forces Development; Achieving NATO Non-Article 5 Crisis Response Operations Interoperability (United States)


    KOSOVO ARMED FORCES DEVELOPMENT; ACHIEVING NATO NON-ARTICLE 5 CRISIS RESPONSE OPERATIONS INTEROPERABILITY A thesis presented...Achieving NATO Non- Article 5 Crisis Response Operations Interoperability 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...authorities, and participation in international operations. One of objective of Kosovo Armed Forces is to be fully interoperable with NATO members, in

  20. Medical Services: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and Armed Forces Histopathology Centers (United States)


    request additional material and data of special inter- est and importance for forwarding from the contributor on any patient. Legal medicine, forensic ...display: a. Gross specimens in the fields of medicine, dentistry , and veter- inary medicine. b. Exhibits on specific health topics or specific medical...Education for residency training in forensic pa- thology, neuropathology, and dermatopathology. (2) The AFIP has a residency program in veterinary

  1. Measurements of human force control during a constrained arm motion using a force-actuated joystick. (United States)

    McIntyre, J; Gurfinkel, E V; Lipshits, M I; Droulez, J; Gurfinkel, V S


    1. When interacting with the environment, human arm movements may be prevented in certain directions (i.e., when sliding the hand along a surface) resulting in what is called a "constrained motion." In the directions that the movement is restricted, the subject is instead free to control the forces against the constraint. 2. Control strategies for constrained motion may be characterized by two extreme models. Under the active compliance model, an essentially feedback-based approach, measurements of contact force may be used in real time to modify the motor command and precisely control the forces generated against the constraint. Under the passive compliance model the motion would be executed in a feedforward manner, using an internal model of the constraint geometry. The feedforward model relies on the compliant behavior of the passive mechanical system to maintain contact while avoiding excessive contact forces. 3. Subjects performed a task in which they were required to slide the hand along a rigid surface. This task was performed in a virtual force environment in which contact forces were simulated by a two-dimensional force-actuated joystick. Unknown to the subject, the orientation of the surface constraint was varied from trial to trial, and contact force changes induced by these perturbations were measured. 4. Subjects showed variations in contact force correlated with the direction of the orientation perturbation. "Upward" tilts resulted in higher contact forces, whereas "downward" tilts resulted in lower contact forces. This result is consistent with a feedforward-based control of a passively compliant system. 5. Subject responses did not, however, correspond exactly to the predictions of a static analysis of a passive, feedforward-controlled system. A dynamic analysis reveals a much closer resemblance between a passive, feedforward model and the observed data. Numerical simulations demonstrate that a passive, dynamic system model of the movement captures

  2. Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine Annual Report 2011 (United States)


    tion of microtia . Fabrication of Human Ear-Shaped Scaffold The MGH team demonstrated human ear- shaped cartilage formation in nude mice. By...Regeneration (Focus: Ear) Introduction Total external ear reconstruction for traumatic amputation or congenital microtia remains one of the greatest

  3. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, April - June 1986. (United States)


    monkey measured by hydrogen clearance. Stroke 5:512-517. Metcalfe, D. D., Kaliner, M., and Donlon, M. A. 1981. The mast cell. In CRC Critical Reviews in...H2 clearance measurement of blood flow: A review of technique and polaro- graphic principles. Stroke 11:552-564. Received lune 28, 1985 Revised...receptors of the nucleus accumbens or closely adjacent structures. In most species a large dose of morphine produces catatonia duced hyperactivity (Akil

  4. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, January- March 1986 (United States)


    similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus ) also exhibit a second type of K+ channel [7]. This channel activates at more positive potentials...depolarization, the time to peak was reduced (Fig. 95). The time course of the rise of the outward current was not systematically investigated because the... systematic voltage dependence at voltages positive to -25 mV. In two cells studied at potentials negative to -25, the rate of decay clearly decreased

  5. Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine Annual Report 2010 (United States)


    related open fractures are caused by missile injury, have a large segment of missing bone, and often have concomitant periosteal , vascular, and neural...damage. Malunion or delayed union complicates many of these open fractures (e.g., delayed or nonunion complicated 3 of 5 open tibial fractures...indicated that keratin-filled collagen nerve guides could bridge a 2 cm rat tibial defect in >50% of the animals tested. II: Limb and Digit Salvage

  6. The Future of Officer Career Development System in the Slovenian Armed Forces (United States)


    Professors Anton Zabkar and Uros Svete, at the Faculty for Social Science at University of Ljubljana, clearly identified the deficiencies in the...short-lived solution], Slovenian Armed Forces Bulletin 10, no. 1 (May 2008): 97-120. 5Anton Zabkar and Uros Svete, “Solanje Vojaskih system: Reality or short-lived solution]. Slovenian Armed Forces Bulletin 10, no. 1 (May 2008): 97-120. 97 Zabka,r Anton, and Uros Svete

  7. Suicide after leaving the UK armed forces--a cohort study.


    Kapur, N; While, D.; Blatchley, N; Bray, I.; Harrison, K.


    Editors' Summary Background. Leaving any job can be hard but for people leaving the armed forces the adjustment to their new circumstances can sometimes be particularly difficult. For example, ex-military personnel may face obstacles to getting a new job, particularly if they were injured in action. Some become homeless. Others turn to alcohol or drugs or suffer mental illnesses such as depression. These things probably aren't common but those who leave the armed forces might also be at highe...

  8. The Risk of Mental Health Disorders Among U.S. Military Personnel Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2011 (United States)


    CPT, U.S. Army); Angelia Eick -Cost, PhD, ScM; Jean Lin Otto, DrPH, MPH Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland (Dr. Mirza); Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Silver Spring, MD (Drs. Eick -Cost, Otto). R E F E R

  9. Institutional Memory and the US Air Force (United States)


    War forced the US military first to wage and then constantly prepare for total war. For the US Air Force, this preparation meant that for the first...War consis- tently reveals incredible nuance. Clausewitz’s logic is exemplified as his dialectical method acknowledges a vast gap between “absolute...but none of them is a fragile or failing state. An acquisition plan that includes lower technology and lower-cost solutions to capability gaps gives

  10. Queen Margarethe II Wants You! Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... with more diverse militaries, such as the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, include recognition of diversity as a societal imperative to sustain the legitimacy of the armed forces, the necessity of systematically collecting and reporting personnel data to guide policy, the necessity of patience...

  11. Queen Margarethe II Wants You! Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... and realistic goals, systematically developing recruitment, development, and retention policies, and the superiority of an all-volunteer force over conscription in fulfilling this societal imperative....

  12. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.


    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  13. Suicide prevention in the US armed forces and implications for Chinese armed forces%透视美军自杀防控工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于双平; 杨征; 毛军文


    过去10年间,尤其是阿富汗和伊拉克战争爆发以来,美军的自杀问题日益突出,其自杀率呈持续上升趋势,为此,美国国防部和各军种采取了一系列自杀防控措施,取得了一定效果.本文对美军自杀问题现状、采取的防控措施及面临的主要挑战进行了分析,并对中国军队做好相关工作提出了若干启示.%Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in the US armed forces in the past decade, especially after increased deployments as a result of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq. The US Department of Defense and its four services have done a lot to fight against suicide. Suicide prevention in the US armed forces is briefly reviewed based on the current information and its implications for Chinese armed forces are also summarized.

  14. Information Operations, an Evolutionary Step for the Mexican Armed Forces (United States)


    xii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Saul Hiram Bandala-Garza I would like to thank the faculty and staff of the Naval...109186 & tabla =nacion; Internet; accessed 14 August 2007. Middlebrook, Kevin J., ed., Dilemmas of political change in Mexico. London: Institute of Latin

  15. The Use of Armed Force, Weapons of Mass Destruction and the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Blix


    Full Text Available At the present time we do not see any risk of major powers using armed force against each other. The relations between the great powers are not exactly relaxed, but they are also not tense. All pursue the market economy of various shapes and shades as their economic model. All are bent on pragmatism. After the end of the Cold War European countries do not see Russia as a military threat and many states in Europe are reorienting their armed forces from defense of their own territory to use in international peacekeeping or peace-enforcing operations.

  16. [Application of robotic technology to the needs in the medical service of the Armed Forces]. (United States)

    Iudin, A B; Chepur, S V; shestakov, S V


    Application of robotic technology to the needs in the medical service of the Armed Forces. Further development of the medical service is inseparably associated with the implementation of robot technology into the practice of medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian federation. For this purpose it is necessary to create a clinical scientific research centre of robot technology and interdepartmental scientific research simulation training center on the basis of the Kirov Military Medical Academy. It is also necessary to provide development of medical robotic complexes of tactical level of the medical service.

  17. Transforming the Albanian Armed Forces, Overcoming the Challenges (United States)


    Forces, Overcoming the Challenges FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 03 March 2009 WORD COUNT: 6,156 PAGES: 30 KEY TERMS: Resistance to Change , NATO...operating together. The strategic leadership today is more experienced to deal with the above sources of resistance to change . In 2006, the MOD and GS

  18. After the Countercoup: Advising the Imperial Armed Forces of Iran (United States)


    was obvious to the new Secretary of State, Christian Herter . Herter proposed reducing military and economic aid to force Iran into reassessing their...Shah Gromyko, Andrei Minister of Foreign Affairs, USSR (1957 – 1985) Henderson, Loy United States Ambassador to Iran (1951 – 1954) Herter

  19. Collective Mission Simulation Capability for the Netherlands Armed Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, A.; Karelse, R.; Jacobs, L.R.M.A.; Klomp, J.


    Military forces all over the world are transforming to adapt to the changed world politics. The application of the latest technology is key in this transformation process. Examples of operational changes are more expeditionary operations, joint and combined operations, information data management, a

  20. Swiss Armed Forces Conscription and Militia System: Must They Change? (United States)


    capacities must assume public duties and consequences in an extra professional and volunteer capacity. This expression specific to Switzerland a solid link of trust. The author makes a side note that conscription is lucky, when it comes to pedagogy and relations in the Swiss society. In...Forces. Personal engagement, non- professional and time limited made by male and female citizens in order to accomplish public tasks allotted to the

  1. Optimal dimensional synthesis of force feedback lower arm exoskeletons


    Ünal, Ramazan; Unal, Ramazan; Patoğlu, Volkan; Patoglu, Volkan


    This paper presents multi-criteria design optimization of parallel mechanism based force feedback exoskeletons for human forearm and wrist. The optimized devices are aimed to be employed as a high fidelity haptic interfaces. Multiple design objectives are discussed and classified for the devices and the optimization problem to study the trade-offs between these criteria is formulated. Dimensional syntheses are performed for optimal global kinematic and dynamic performance, utilizing a Pareto ...

  2. A Strategic Capability Review of the Georgian Armed Forces (United States)


    2A36; 10 2A65); MRL: 37 (122mm: 13 BM-21; 6 GRADLAR; 18 RM-70); Mortar : 43 ( 120mm : 13 2S12; 21 M-75; 9 M-120); AT: ε50 (MSL ε10; GUNS ε40) AD... bombing of military and civilian targets to break the resistance if encountered by strong and determined opposition from the GAF, if his ground forces...include both maneuver commander’s organic capabilities ( mortars , cannons, some rockets) as well as supporting systems (cannons, rockets, missiles


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy Heinecken


    Full Text Available After providing a brief background as to why issues of diversity managementwithin armed forces have become important internationally, this article outlines thediversity challenges facing the South African National Defence Force (SANDF.The first part of the article describes how the racial, language/ethnic and genderprofile of the SANDF has changed since 1994 and the tensions this has evoked. Thesecond part provides a brief conceptual framework against which diversitymanagement in the SANDF can be interpreted, whereafter the various diversitymanagement programmes instituted over the years to cultivate a respect for diversityare outlined. It is argued that the predominant emphasis on ‘workplace diversity’ atthe cost of ‘valuing diversity’ has meant that existing stereotypes and tensionswithin the ranks have remained, with dire consequences not only for thecohesiveness and effectiveness of the SANDF, but also for civil-military relations.

  4. 75 FR 2785 - Naturalization for Certain Persons in the U.S. Armed Forces (United States)


    ... serving as members of the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve of the U.S. Armed Forces during specified..., 2001. The NDAA reduced from three years to one year the period of military service required to qualify... hostilities, but also to individuals who have served honorably as members of the Selected Reserve of the...

  5. Postdeployment Battlemind Training for the U.K. Armed Forces: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Fear, Nicola T.; Jones, Norman; Alvarez, Helen; Hull, Lisa; Naumann, Ulrike; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil


    Objective: Combat exposure can increase the risk of subsequent psychological ill-health in armed forces (AF) personnel. A U.S. postdeployment psycho-educational intervention, Battlemind, showed a beneficial effect on mental health in U.S. military personnel exposed to high combat levels. We evaluated the effectiveness of an anglicized version of…

  6. An Assessment of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Modernization Program (United States)


    consultations, exchanges, and the like ( Narcise 2003, 6). Although the VFA would not entail the reopening of the US bases in the country, the signing...AFP acquisition system. Commandant’s Paper, Armed Forces of the Philippines Command and General Staff College, Quezon City, Philippines. Narcise

  7. Haptic perception of force magnitude and its relation to postural arm dynamics in 3D. (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Mugge, Winfred; Kappers, Astrid M L


    In a previous study, we found the perception of force magnitude to be anisotropic in the horizontal plane. In the current study, we investigated this anisotropy in three dimensional space. In addition, we tested our previous hypothesis that the perceptual anisotropy was directly related to anisotropies in arm dynamics. In experiment 1, static force magnitude perception was studied using a free magnitude estimation paradigm. This experiment revealed a significant and consistent anisotropy in force magnitude perception, with forces exerted perpendicular to the line between hand and shoulder being perceived as 50% larger than forces exerted along this line. In experiment 2, postural arm dynamics were measured using stochastic position perturbations exerted by a haptic device and quantified through system identification. By fitting a mass-damper-spring model to the data, the stiffness, damping and inertia parameters could be characterized in all the directions in which perception was also measured. These results show that none of the arm dynamics parameters were oriented either exactly perpendicular or parallel to the perceptual anisotropy. This means that endpoint stiffness, damping or inertia alone cannot explain the consistent anisotropy in force magnitude perception.

  8. Kyrgyzstan’s Fragmented Police and Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marat


    Full Text Available This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police and army personnel are ethnic Kyrgyz and overall frustration with the fragmented political leadership. The situation was further exacerbated by the lack of political control over the security forces and their lack of adequate training to deal with civic unrest.

  9. Suicide after leaving the UK armed forces--a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kapur


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined suicide risk in individuals once they have left the military. We aimed to investigate the rate, timing, and risk factors for suicide in all those who had left the UK Armed Forces (1996-2005. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a cohort study of ex-Armed Forces personnel by linking national databases of discharged personnel and suicide deaths (which included deaths receiving either a suicide or undetermined verdict. Comparisons were made with both general and serving populations. During the study period 233,803 individuals left the Armed Forces and 224 died by suicide. Although the overall rate of suicide was not greater than that in the general population, the risk of suicide in men aged 24 y and younger who had left the Armed Forces was approximately two to three times higher than the risk for the same age groups in the general and serving populations (age-specific rate ratios ranging from 170 to 290. The risk of suicide for men aged 30-49 y was lower than that in the general population. The risk was persistent but may have been at its highest in the first 2 y following discharge. The risk of suicide was greatest in males, those who had served in the Army, those with a short length of service, and those of lower rank. The rate of contact with specialist mental health was lowest in the age groups at greatest risk of suicide (14% for those aged under 20 y, 20% for those aged 20-24 y. CONCLUSIONS: Young men who leave the UK Armed Forces were at increased risk of suicide. This may reflect preservice vulnerabilities rather than factors related to service experiences or discharge. Preventive strategies might include practical and psychological preparation for discharge and encouraging appropriate help-seeking behaviour once individuals have left the services.

  10. A Comparison between Two Force-Position Controllers with Gravity Compensation Simulated on a Humanoid Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Gerardo Muscolo


    Full Text Available The authors propose a comparison between two force-position controllers with gravity compensation simulated on the DEXTER bioinspired robotic arm. The two controllers are both constituted by an internal proportional-derivative (PD closed-loop for the position control. The force control of the two systems is composed of an external proportional (P closed-loop for one system (P system and an external proportional-integrative (PI closed-loop for the other system (PI system. The simulation tests performed with the two systems on a planar representation of the DEXTER, an eight-DOF bioinspired arm, showed that by varying the stiffness of the environment, with a correct setting of parameters, both systems ensure the achievement of the desired force regime and with great precision the desired position. The two controllers do not have large differences in performance when interacting with a lower stiffness environment. In case of an environment with greater rigidity, the PI system is more stable. The subsequent implementation of these control systems on the DEXTER robotic bioinspired arm gives guidance on the design and control optimisation of the arms of the humanoid robot named SABIAN.

  11. Muscle moment-arms: a key element in muscle-force estimation. (United States)

    Ingram, David; Engelhardt, Christoph; Farron, Alain; Terrier, Alexandre; Müllhaupt, Philippe


    A clear and rigorous definition of muscle moment-arms in the context of musculoskeletal systems modelling is presented, using classical mechanics and screw theory. The definition provides an alternative to the tendon excursion method, which can lead to incorrect moment-arms if used inappropriately due to its dependency on the choice of joint coordinates. The definition of moment-arms, and the presented construction method, apply to musculoskeletal models in which the bones are modelled as rigid bodies, the joints are modelled as ideal mechanical joints and the muscles are modelled as massless, frictionless cables wrapping over the bony protrusions, approximated using geometric surfaces. In this context, the definition is independent of any coordinate choice. It is then used to solve a muscle-force estimation problem for a simple 2D conceptual model and compared with an incorrect application of the tendon excursion method. The relative errors between the two solutions vary between 0% and 100%.

  12. The Law of Force or The Force of Law: Does Following The Rule of Law Assist Security Forces in Defeating an Armed Insurgency? (United States)


    and Policy in International Relations (Spring): 40-79 Arendt , Hannah . 1963. On revolution. New York: Viking Cohen, Eliot A., John Horvath, and...conditions, where the armed forces can be trusted to obey the civil authorities” ( Arendt 1965, 40). This is especially the case in countries where

  13. A Biomechanical Assessment of Hand/Arm Force with Pneumatic Nail Gun Actuation Systems. (United States)

    Lowe, Brian D; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen D


    A biomechanical model is presented, and combined with measurements of tip press force, to estimate total user hand force associated with two pneumatic nail gun trigger systems. The contact actuation trigger (CAT) can fire a nail when the user holds the trigger depressed first and then "bumps" the nail gun tip against the workpiece. With a full sequential actuation trigger (SAT) the user must press the tip against the workpiece prior to activating the trigger. The SAT is demonstrably safer in reducing traumatic injury risk, but increases the duration (and magnitude) of tip force exertion. Time integrated (cumulative) hand force was calculated for a single user from measurements of the tip contact force with the workpiece and transfer time between nails as inputs to a static model of the nail gun and workpiece in two nailing task orientations. The model shows the hand force dependence upon the orientation of the workpiece in addition to the trigger system. Based on standard time allowances from work measurement systems (i.e. Methods-Time Measurement - 1) it is proposed that efficient application of hand force with the SAT in maintaining tip contact can reduce force exertion attributable to the sequential actuation trigger to 2-8% (horizontal nailing) and 9-20% (vertical nailing) of the total hand/arm force. The present model is useful for considering differences in cumulative hand/arm force exposure between the SAT and CAT systems and may explain the appeal of the CAT trigger in reducing the user's perception of muscular effort.

  14. Automated processing of data on the use of motor vehicles in the Serbian Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola S. Osmokrović


    Full Text Available The main aim of introducing information technology into the armed forces is the automation of the management process. The management in movement and transport (M&T in our armed forces has been included in the process of automation from the beginning. For that reason, today we can speak about the automated processing of data on road traffic safety and on the use of motor vehicles. With regard to the overall development of the information system of the movement and transport service, the paper presents an information system of the M&T service for the processing of data on the use of motor vehicles. The main features, components and functions of the 'Vozila' application, which was specially developed for the automated processing of data on motor vehicle use, are explained in particular.

  15. The training value of working with armed forces inpatients in psychiatry. (United States)

    de Burgh, H Thomas


    Over the last 10 years, the UK armed forces (UKAF) have been involved in operations worldwide. Mental health in the armed forces (AF) has been the subject of considerable interest in part because of a perceived added risk of psychological distress in this population. Inpatient psychiatric services are provided through partnerships with NHS hospitals. The Cavell Centre, Peterborough's acute inpatient psychiatric unit has up to four beds for service personnel, under the care of a civilian consultant psychiatrist and his AF Foundation Year 2 doctor (F2). This was the only Ministry of Defence (MoD) inpatient unit which had a training post for an AF doctor, but the post ended in August 2014 with the closure of MoD Hospital Unit Peterborough (MDHU(P)). This article outlines the differences in civilian and AF inpatient care and discusses the training value of AF doctors managing service personnel who are psychiatric inpatients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja GARB


    Full Text Available Before employment in the Slovenian Armed Forces, all candidates have to finish basic military training. The empirical survey, done in 2011 on a group of military candidates in a Slovenian Training Center, checked the motivation, level of skills and education, attitudes of leaders, military identity, prestige and social support of these candidates. The results confirmed the skills’ and fighters’ orientation of Slovenian soldiers, but surprised with the paleomodern motivators for military job.

  17. Whores, men, and other misfits: undoing ‘feminization’ in the armed forces in the DRC. (United States)

    Baaz, Maria Eriksson; Stern, Maria


    The global attention focused on sexual violence in the DRC has not only contributed to an image of the Congolese army as a vestige of pre-modern barbarism, populated by rapists, and bearing no resemblance to the world of modern armies; it has also shaped gender and defence reform initiatives. These initiatives have become synonymous with combating sexual violence, reflecting an assumption that the gendered dynamics of the army are already known. Crucial questions such as the ‘feminization’ of the armed forces are consequently neglected. Based on in-depth interviews with soldiers in the Congolese armed forces, this article analyses the discursive strategies male soldiers employ in relation to the feminization of the army. In the light of the need to reform the military and military masculinities, the article discusses how globalized discourses and practices render the Congolese military a highly globalized sphere. It also highlights the particular and local ways in which military identities are produced through gender, and concludes that a simple inclusion of women in the armed forces in order to render men less violent might not have the pacifying effect intended.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Rodionov


    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of modern, complete-standard issue equipment for the Armed Forces Medical Service is an urgent organizational and management task. First aid kits, medical bags, sets of medical equipment, medical kits and packing existed until recently; no longer meet modern requirements for a number of objective reasons. The aim of the study was the formation of programs of development of modern samples of complete-standard-issue equipment. Materials and methods. The study was conducted based on the analysis of scientific literature and guidelines which regulate different aspects of the Armed Forces Medical Service complete-standard issue equipment. The study used methods like: retrospective, content analysis, comparison and description, logical, structural and functional analysis, expert assessments, decision-making, as well as the methods of the theory of constraints and other systems. Results and discussion. rmation of the range of medical property in modern conditions for inclusion into complete-standard issue equipment is connected with the need to make timely decisions on choosing the most efficient models, taking into account market conditions and economic opportunities. There are requirements established for the complete-samples standard issue equipment for their use outside a medical organization. Development program structure of complete-standard-issue equipment is shown, as well as examples of the formation of the content of medical equipment kits. On the basis of the offered program a new complete-standard issue equipment of the Armed Forces Medical Service was created. In accordance with the principles of the theory of constraints a strategy to optimize the composition of sets of medical equipment was developed. It included comprehensive solutions aimed at stabilizing the activity of the pharmaceutical industry in the interest of the Armed Forces Medical Service. Conclusions. An offered program has allowed developing

  19. Forces and moments generated by the human arm: Variability and control (United States)

    Xu, Y; Terekhov, AV; Latash, ML; Zatsiorsky, VM


    This is an exploratory study of the accurate endpoint force vector production by the human arm in isometric conditions. We formulated three common-sense hypotheses and falsified them in the experiment. The subjects (n=10) exerted static forces on the handle in eight directions in a horizontal plane for 25 seconds. The forces were of 4 magnitude levels (10 %, 20%, 30% and 40% of individual MVC). The torsion moment on the handle (grasp moment) was not specified in the instruction. The two force components and the grasp moment were recorded, and the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint torques were computed. The following main facts were observed: (a) While the grasp moment was not prescribed by the instruction, it was always produced. The moment magnitude and direction depended on the instructed force magnitude and direction. (b) The within-trial angular variability of the exerted force vector (angular precision) did not depend on the target force magnitude (a small negative correlation was observed). (c) Across the target force directions, the variability of the exerted force magnitude and directional variability exhibited opposite trends: In the directions where the variability of force magnitude was maximal, the directional variability was minimal and vice versa. (d) The time profiles of joint torques in the trials were always positively correlated, even for the force directions where flexion torque was produced at one joint and extension torque was produced at the other joint. (e) The correlations between the grasp moment and the wrist torque were negative across the tasks and positive within the individual trials. (f) In static serial kinematic chains, the pattern of the joint torques distribution could not be explained by an optimization cost function additive with respect to the torques. Plans for several future experiments have been suggested. PMID:23080084

  20. Between history, amnesia and selective memory: The South African armed forces, a century’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Van der Waag


    Full Text Available 2012 has a double significance for this year sees the centenary of the founding of the African National Congress (8 January and of the creation of the Union Defence Forces (1 July, two organisations that have for much of the twentieth century shared a contested history. Yet, in a remarkable bouleversement, South Africa has come through this difficult past and, over the past two decades, a new South African society has been recreated following an interesting period of adjustment following the end of the Cold War and the growth of democracy in the developing world. These changes have necessarily affected her armed forces and the roles defined for them. Some commentators, particularly in the years immediately following 1994, asserted that military power had lost all of its vaunted, Cold-War importance in a new postmodern environment. Others still, recognising future challenges, argued that South Africa, beset with far-reaching socio-economic crises, could no longer afford the burden of military forces. Most scholars agree now that these perspectives were short-sighted and that, while the risk of major conflict has receded, the events of 9/11, and its consequences, demonstrate that the continental and international landscapes are less certain, less stable and less predictable, than that for which many had hoped. Clearly, South African interests are intertwined inextricably in regional and global affairs and if she is to protect these interests and ensure her security, she must maintain credible military force capable of meeting an array of contingencies. It was with this in mind that the strategic arms deal, since the subject of much debate, was passed by parliament:[i] the promise of a full technological transformation, to accompany the human transformation, offered. [i] J Sylvester & A Seegers. “South Africa’s Strategic Arms Package: A Critical Analysis”. Scientia Militaria 36/1. 2008. 52-77.

  1. Cobb-Douglas Production Function as an Approach for Better Resource Allocation in the Ukrainian Armed Forces (United States)


    identified, and the techniques for the macroeconomic analysis and forecasting of resource support for the armed forces based on the Cobb-Douglas...and long-term planning are identified, and the techniques for the macroeconomic analysis and forecasting of resource support for the armed forces...them has yet been found. Moreover, this century has seen the emergence of new conflicts being waged with new tools and rules of warfare to achieve


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Regardless of the controversies caused by the presence of allied forces on the Romanian territory, reality proves beyond any doubt that the Romanian state wishes to build upon such a situation to the benefit of its own security, especially in the current international conjuncture. Such a choice may seem logical and responsible to the great majority of the Romanian people. However, in our opinion, there is still an element that needs to be adjusted: the same people’s perception on the status of foreign armed forces on the Romanian territory. The current paper aims to approach some legal issues regarding this matter, to contribute to a better understanding of the regulations that govern this domain and to reveal a principle that needs to be unanimously accepted: the allied forces need to be treated, for better or worse, just like a host nation’s military.

  3. Civilization and Contemporary Social Theory: Alternative Approaches to Armed Forces and Society (United States)


    model of Willam H. McNeill, and the post-structuralism of Michel Foucault view armed forces to be central actors in the historical emergence of Western...ENGLISH, John. "Canada’s Road to 1945". Journal of Canadian Studies. Vol 16, Nos. 3 and 4, 1981. Pp. 100-109. FOUCAULT , Michel . Discipline and Punish...of sacred truths concentrates on the legal and political strata of modern societies. Foucault extends this argument, as O’Neill (1986, l986a) has

  4. Sensor Prototype to Evaluate the Contact Force in Measuring with Coordinate Measuring Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cuesta


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, development and evaluation tests of an integrated force sensor prototype for portable Coordinate Measuring Arms (CMAs or AACMMs. The development is based on the use of strain gauges located on the surface of the CMAs’ hard probe. The strain gauges as well as their cables and connectors have been protected with a custom case, made by Additive Manufacturing techniques (Polyjet 3D. The same method has been selected to manufacture an ergonomic handle that includes trigger mechanics and the electronic components required for synchronizing the trigger signal when probing occurs. The paper also describes the monitoring software that reads the signals in real time, the calibration procedure of the prototype and the validation tests oriented towards increasing knowledge of the forces employed in manual probing. Several experiments read and record the force in real time comparing different ways of probing (discontinuous and continuous contact and measuring different types of geometric features, from single planes to exterior cylinders, cones, or spheres, through interior features. The probing force is separated into two components allowing the influence of these strategies in probe deformation to be known. The final goal of this research is to improve the probing technique, for example by using an operator training programme, allowing extra-force peaks and bad contacts to be minimized or just to avoid bad measurements.

  5. Sensor Prototype to Evaluate the Contact Force in Measuring with Coordinate Measuring Arms. (United States)

    Cuesta, Eduardo; Telenti, Alejandro; Patiño, Hector; González-Madruga, Daniel; Martínez-Pellitero, Susana


    This paper describes the design, development and evaluation tests of an integrated force sensor prototype for portable Coordinate Measuring Arms (CMAs or AACMMs). The development is based on the use of strain gauges located on the surface of the CMAs' hard probe. The strain gauges as well as their cables and connectors have been protected with a custom case, made by Additive Manufacturing techniques (Polyjet 3D). The same method has been selected to manufacture an ergonomic handle that includes trigger mechanics and the electronic components required for synchronizing the trigger signal when probing occurs. The paper also describes the monitoring software that reads the signals in real time, the calibration procedure of the prototype and the validation tests oriented towards increasing knowledge of the forces employed in manual probing. Several experiments read and record the force in real time comparing different ways of probing (discontinuous and continuous contact) and measuring different types of geometric features, from single planes to exterior cylinders, cones, or spheres, through interior features. The probing force is separated into two components allowing the influence of these strategies in probe deformation to be known. The final goal of this research is to improve the probing technique, for example by using an operator training programme, allowing extra-force peaks and bad contacts to be minimized or just to avoid bad measurements.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jiafan; FU Hailun; DONG Yiming; ZHANG Yu; YANG Canjun; CHEN Ying


    A particular emphasis is put on a novel wearable exoskeleton arm, ZJUESA, with 6 degrees of freedom, which is used for the robot teleoperation with the force-feedback in the unknown environment. In this external structure mechanism, the 3-revolution-prismatic-spherical (3RPS) parallel mechanism is devised from the concept of the human upper-limb anatomy and applied for the shoulder 3-DOF joint. Meanwhile, the orthogonal experiment design method is introduced for its optimal design. Aiming at enhancing the performance of teleoperation, the force feedback is employed by the pneumatic system on ZJUESA to produce the vivid feeling in addition to the soft control interface. Due to the compressibility and nonlinearity of the pneumatic force feedback system, a novel hybrid fuzzy controller for the precise force control is proposed and realized based on the Mega8 microcontroller units as the units of the distributed control system on ZJUESA. With the results of several experiments for master-slave control with force feedback, the feasibility of ZJUESA system and the effect of its hybrid fuzzy controller are verified.

  7. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration. (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval


    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement.

  8. Satellite vehicle tracking aiming to increase traffic safety within the Serbian Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Milanović


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to show how to affect the most important factor of traffic safety - an individual, by using some technical solutions of satellite tracking of vehicles. By using units of the Land Forces as an example, a brief analysis of traffic safety for vehicles less than 5 years old has been performed. It is noticed that the number of traffic accidents with these vehicles involved has increased, so we tried to use one software package commercially available in order to show all advantages and disadvantages which could be noticed during this kind of vehicle tracking. The conclusion is that preventive vehicle tracking can improve traffic safety, but that a techno-economic analysis has to be done as well, in order to create all the necessary conditions for the introduction of this system in the units of the Serbian Armed Forces.

  9. Influence of Reynolds number and forcing type in a turbulent von K\\'arm\\'an flow

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Michel, Brice; Marié, Louis; Ravelet, Florent; Daviaud, François


    We present a detailed study of of a global bifurcation occuring in a turbulent von K\\'arm\\'an swirling flow. In this system, the statistically steady states progressively display hysteretic behaviour when the Reynolds number is increased above the transition to turbulence. We examine in detail this hysteresis using asymmetric forcing conditions --- rotating the impellers at different speeds. For very high Reynolds numbers, we study the sensitivity of the hysteresis cycle --- using complementary Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and global mechanical measurements --- to the forcing nature, imposing either the torque or the speed of the impellers. New mean states, displaying multiple quasi-steady states and negative differential responses, are experimentally observed in torque control. A simple analogy with electrical circuits is performed to understand the link between multi-stability and negative responses. The system is compared to other, similar "bulk" systems, to understand some relevant ingredients of nega...

  10. Mongolia’s Third Neighbor Policy: Impact on the Mongolian Armed Forces (United States)


    Armed Forces Chief of Staff General Nikolai Makarov. Speaking at the Public Chamber of the Duma on November 17, 2011, General N. Makarov talked about...transformation in Public Chamber of Duma , Moscow, Russia, November 17, 2011. ―В начале своего выступления Макаров отметил новые угрозы, возникшие в...Commander of Land Forces, General Alexander Postnikov. "At present there are 20 in service with thousands of tanks of all variants, but the real need

  11. Conducting qualitative research in the British Armed Forces: theoretical, analytical and ethical implications. (United States)

    Finnegan, Alan


    The aim of qualitative research is to produce empirical evidence with data collected through means such as interviews and observation. Qualitative research encourages diversity in the way of thinking and the methods used. Good studies produce a richness of data to provide new knowledge or address extant problems. However, qualitative research resulting in peer review publications within the Defence Medical Services (DMS) is a rarity. This article aims to help redress this balance by offering direction regarding qualitative research in the DMS with a focus on choosing a theoretical framework, analysing the data and ethical approval. Qualitative researchers need an understanding of the paradigms and theories that underpin methodological frameworks, and this article includes an overview of common theories in phenomenology, ethnography and grounded theory, and their application within the military. It explains qualitative coding: the process used to analyse data and shape the analytical framework. A popular four phase approach with examples from an operational nursing research study is presented. Finally, it tackles the issue of ethical approval for qualitative studies and offers direction regarding the research proposal and participant consent. The few qualitative research studies undertaken in the DMS have offered innovative insights into defence healthcare providing information to inform and change educational programmes and clinical practice. This article provides an extra resource for clinicians to encourage studies that will improve the operational capability of the British Armed Forces. It is anticipated that these guidelines are transferable to research in other Armed Forces and the military Veterans population.

  12. Between Institutions and Global Forces: Norwegian Wage Formation Since Industrialisation

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    Ragnar Nymoen


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of labour market institutions in Norway, shows how labour market regulation has been related to the macroeconomic development, and presents dynamic econometric models of nominal and real wages. Single equation and multi-equation models are reported. The econometric modelling uses a new data set with historical time series of wages and prices, unemployment and labour productivity. Impulse indicator saturation is used to achieve robust estimation of focus parameters, and the breaks are interpreted in the light of the historical overview. A relatively high degree of constancy of the key parameters of the wage setting equation is documented, over a considerably longer historical time period than earlier studies have done. The evidence is consistent with the view that the evolving system of collective labour market regulation over long periods has delivered a certain necessary level of coordination of wage and price setting. Nevertheless, there is also evidence that global forces have been at work for a long time, in a way that links real wages to productivity trends in the same way as in countries with very different institutions and macroeconomic development.

  13. Role of forensic odontology in the Indian Armed Forces: An unexplored arena. (United States)

    Arora, Karandeep Singh; Kaur, Prabhpreet


    Forensic odontology (FO) is a branch of forensic medicine that in the interest of justice deals with proper handling and examination of dental evidence. Teeth can survive in most conditions encountered at death and during decomposition, even when the body is exposed to extreme forces and/or temperatures. FO is being practiced worldwide since 1775, after which it has not only become an integral part of the judicial system of the developed countries but also been adopted by the armed forces and investigative agencies of these countries. In India, the awareness of FO is gaining pace since the last decade after the establishment of various organizations and the Dental Council of India making it a part of the curriculum. However, its identity as an individual endeavour is still to be established. Awareness and applicability of FO in the Indian Defense Forces would be of great help for better and accurate record keeping of the dedicated and vigilant warriors of our army. These records will be of great help for easy recognition of our army men at the time of calamities, wars, and other difficulties. It would also be useful in the identification of terrorists who enter our country and travel easily in disguise.

  14. Diversity of influenza-like illness etiology in Polish Armed Forces in influenza epidemic season. (United States)

    Kocik, Janusz; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Winnicka, Izabela; Michalski, Aleksander; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Kołodziej, Marcin; Joniec, Justyna; Cieślik, Piotr; Graniak, Grzegorz; Mirski, Tomasz; Gaweł, Jerzy; Bielecka-Oder, Anna; Kubiak, Leszek; Russell, Kevin


    The aim of this study was to conduct an epidemiological and laboratory surveillance of Influenza-Like Illnesses (ILI) in Polish Armed Forces, civilian military personnel and their families in 2011/2012 epidemic season, under the United States Department of Defense-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS). ILI incidence data were analyzed in relation to age, gender, patient category as well as pathogen patterns. Multiple viral, bacterial and viral-bacterial co-infections were identified. Nose and throat swabs of active duty soldiers in the homeland country and in the NATO peacekeeping forces KFOR (Kosovo Force), as well as members of their families were tested for the presence of viral and bacterial pathogens. From October 2011 to May 2012, 416 specimens from ILI symptoms patients were collected and analyzed for the presence of viral and bacterial pathogens. Among viruses, coronavirus was the most commonly detected. In the case of bacterial infections, the most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. PTSD, stigma and barriers to help-seeking within the UK Armed Forces. (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Busuttil, Walter


    Among the general public, much is known about the longer-term consequences of not seeking support for mental health difficulties. However, within military populations, and in particular, the UK Armed Forces, less is known. Understanding the factors that present barriers for UK service personnel with mental health difficulties accessing support is important because this may provide a means for support personnel to seek help sooner. This paper explores the literature relating to the impact of untreated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel, attempts to draw conclusions about the barriers that may prevent personnel seeking help and the efficacy of previous interventions to address these. Stigma has been highlighted as the key barrier to help-seeking behaviours, in particular, internal stigma, which can be classified as negative beliefs about the self that an individual may hold as a result of experiencing symptoms of PTSD.

  16. [Development of the system of dietary nutrition in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation]. (United States)

    Makarov, P P; Kuznetsov, S M; Kuz'min, S G; Novoselov, S A


    The analysis of the existing system of organization dietary personnel in the Armed Forces has been done. The new system of improvement of dietary nutrition for military personnel was developed. This system is based on scientifically proven food rationings that provide a balance of nutrients and mechanical and chemical sparing of GI tract. For the purpose of evalution of the given system the research was conducted. Two test groups were formed. First group (control) got dietary nutrition according to the current system; second group (experimental) got dietary nutrition according to the developed system. In 3 months, experimental group showed the significant improvement of health record. Control group had no significant changes. Obtained results show the prospects of developed dietary nutrition.

  17. Sexually transmitted infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012. (United States)


    This report summarizes incidence rates of the five most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2000 to 2012. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were the most common, followed in decreasing order of frequency by infections associated with chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Compared to their counterparts, women, younger service members, soldiers, and enlisted members had higher incidence rates of each STI. Rates tended to be lower among married personnel. Rates of chlamydia, HPV, and gonorrhea diagnoses were notably higher among women during 2006 to 2008 but rates of the latter two infections have since declined sharply. The relatively recent introduction of STI screening among young service women and the HPV vaccine are discussed.

  18. [Anaesthesiology in the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II]. (United States)

    Rutkiewicz, Aleksander; Duda, Izabela; Musioł, Ewa


    Until the outbreak of WW II, anaesthesiology, as a separate specialty, did not exist in Poland. After the fall of Poland, a large section of the Polish Armed Forces was evacuated to France and after that, to the UK, where Polish military physicians had a unique opportunity to obtain training in modern anaesthesia. The first regular courses were established at the University of Edinburgh. After WW II, doctor Stanisław Pokrzywnicki, a pioneer of Polish anaesthesiology, who was trained by Sir Robert Macintosh, and doctor Bolesław Rutkowski, an anaesthesiologist in London, returned to Poland and started regular services. This led to the registering of anaesthesiology as a separate specialty in 1951. In the article, the wartime and post-war stories of the first Polish anaesthesiologists are presented.

  19. [Prospects of the use of mobile MRI scanner in medical service of the Armed Forces]. (United States)

    Troyan, V N; Dydykin, A V; Rikun, A O; Filisteev, P A; Zayats, V V; Zhigalov, A A


    Computed tomography is currently one of the most informative methods of diagnostics of a broad range of injuries and diseases, as well as an effective additional mean for various surgical interventions thank to intraoperative use. In this regard, the question of the necessity of the use of this diagnostic technology in mobile hospitals is one of the current tasks. The article analyses the experience of the use of mobile CT scanners at the medical service of the armed forces of foreign states and provides calculations indicating the necessity of the introduction of mobile CT scanners into the hospital link. The review and classification of mobile CT scanners have allowed to formulate technical requirements for their hardware capabilities, as well as to draw conclusions about the conditions of their effective use.

  20. South Korean armed forces in their relationship with civil society: a brief empirical guidelines to compare with Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fernando Velarde


    Full Text Available The theme about the Armed Forces and his relation with the civil society is a reflection that must be seriously considered within the Social Sciences, also is a very rich theme from the point of view of transpacific relations, because in globalization times, not only trade and ideas cross the national boundaries, but also security national concepts and the military cooperation. This article more than anything tries to explain from a viewpoint of documentary research, the relations between Civil Society and armed forces in South Korea, as a short approach to future researches and like analysis model.

  1. The stigma of mental health problems and other barriers to care in the UK Armed Forces

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    Thornicroft Graham


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As with the general population, a proportion of military personnel with mental health problems do not seek help. As the military is a profession at high risk of occupational psychiatric injury, understanding barriers to help-seeking is a priority. Method Participants were drawn from a large UK military health study. Participants undertook a telephone interview including the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ; a short measure of PTSD (Primary Care PTSD, PC-PTSD; a series of questions about service utilisation; and barriers to care. The response rate was 76% (821 participants. Results The most common barriers to care reported are those relating to the anticipated public stigma associated with consulting for a mental health problem. In addition, participants reported barriers in the practicalities of consulting such as scheduling an appointment and having time off for treatment. Barriers to care did not appear to be diminished after people leave the Armed Forces. Veterans report additional barriers to care of not knowing where to find help and a concern that their employer would blame them for their problems. Those with mental health problems, such as PTSD, report significantly more barriers to care than those who do not have a diagnosis of a mental disorder. Conclusions Despite recent efforts to de-stigmatise mental disorders in the military, anticipated stigma and practical barriers to consulting stand in the way of access to care for some Service personnel. Further interventions to reduce stigma and ensuring that Service personnel have access to high quality confidential assessment and treatment remain priorities for the UK Armed Forces.

  2. A numerical investigation of flow around octopus-like arms: near-wake vortex patterns and force development. (United States)

    Kazakidi, A; Vavourakis, V; Tsakiris, D P; Ekaterinaris, J A


    The fluid dynamics of cephalopods has so far received little attention in the literature, due to their complexity in structure and locomotion. The flow around octopuses, in particular, can be complicated due to their agile and dexterous arms, which frequently display some of the most diverse mechanisms of motion. The study of this flow amounts to a specific instance of the hydrodynamics problem for rough tapered cylinder geometries. The outstanding manipulative and locomotor skills of octopuses could inspire the development of advanced robotic arms, able to operate in fluid environments. Our primary aim was to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of such bio-inspired robotic models and to derive the hydrodynamic force coefficients as a concise description of the vortical flow effects. Utilizing computational fluid dynamic methods, the coefficients were computed on realistic morphologies of octopus-like arm models undergoing prescribed solid-body movements; such motions occur in nature for short durations in time, e.g. during reaching movements and exploratory behaviors. Numerical simulations were performed on translating, impulsively rotating, and maneuvering arms, around which the flow field structures were investigated. The results reveal in detail the generation of complex vortical flow structures around the moving arms. Hydrodynamic forces acting on a translating arm depend on the angle of incidence; forces generated during impulsive rotations of the arms are independent of their exact morphology and the angle of rotation; periodic motions based on a slow recovery and a fast power stroke are able to produce considerable propulsive thrust while harmonic motions are not. Parts of these results have been employed in bio-inspired models of underwater robotic mechanisms. This investigation may further assist elucidating the hydrodynamics underlying aspects of octopus locomotion and exploratory behaviors.

  3. On the improvement of the control force readiness of students engaged arm sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronkov A.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the most informative tests and test exercises to assess force readiness athletes. Material : the study involved 23 students of mass sports categories. Ascertaining experiment involved testing athletes force readiness, analysis of their competitive activity and determination of strength and reliability of correlation tests with the results of the competition. There were 19 trials and two anthropometric measurements. Results : it was found that traditional tests to determine the strength abilities athletes enough authentic. A significant positive correlation with the results of competitive activity indicators carpal dynamometry (in two different weight classes, and on both hands in the categories of more than 85 kg. And pull-ups on the maximum number of times. A high degree of correlation between the results of competitive activity and holding a dumbbell on a special bench capture below. This exercise is effective for assessing the level of preparedness of special strength in the weight category up to 80 kg and 85 kg. Conclusions : the most informative tests and benchmarks to determine the exercise of power readiness 1-2 athletes in sports categories arm sport.

  4. A Systems Analysis View of the Vietnam War: 1965-1972 Volume 7. Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF) (United States)


    the severity of penalties increased. g Excludes desertions from CIDG, Armed Combat and National Police. Using SEM Statistical Surr•ry’" Tabla I Force...171 863 169 743 183 863 Ii Corps 359 1311 291 1266 237 1121 261 1268 ( XII Corps 372 1028 310 965 148 803 153 835 IV Corps 530 2413 307 2154 380 2004

  5. 22 CFR 40.82 - Alien who departed the United States to avoid service in the armed forces. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alien who departed the United States to avoid service in the armed forces. 40.82 Section 40.82 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Ineligible for Citizenship. § 40.82...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat... (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)(1)-1 Remuneration of... as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  7. Visual feedback of the moving arm allows complete adaptation of pointing movements to centrifugal and Coriolis forces in human subjects. (United States)

    Bourdin, C; Gauthier, G; Blouin, J; Vercher, J L


    A classical visuo-manual adaptation protocol carried out on a rotating platform was used to test the ability of subjects to adapt to centrifugal and Coriolis forces when visual feedback of the arm is manipulated. Three main results emerge: (a) an early modification of the initial trajectory of the movements takes place even without visual feedback of the arm; (b) despite the change in the initial trajectory, the new external force decreases the accuracy of the pointing movements when vision is precluded; (c) a visual adaptive phase allows complete adaptation of the pointing movements performed in a modified gravitoinertial field. Therefore vision would be essential for subjects to completely adapt to centrifugal and Coriolis forces. However, other sensory signals (i.e. vestibular and proprioceptive) may constitute the basis for early but partial correction of the pointing movements.

  8. Clinical application of ocular trauma score for mechanical ocular injury in armed forces

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    Ying ZHANG


    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the predictive value of ocular trauma score(OTS in mechanical ocular injuries occurring in military forces,and compare the difference of OTS application between ocular injury caused by military training and non-military training.Methods The data of 633 inpatients from armed forces suffering from injury of 665 eyes were retrospectively reviewed.Of the 665 injured eyes,326 were injured during military training and 339 during non-military training.The likelihood of final visual acuity(VA calculated with the OTS score was compared with that by the present OTS study,and the correlation between the score and final VA was then analyzed.Results Compared with the distribution of final VA in standard OTS score,the ratio in category 1 was statistically different in present study(P 0.05.There were significant differences in ratio of category 3 between eyes injured by military and non-military training(P < 0.05,and both ratios in category 1 were significantly different compared with those in standard OTS(P < 0.01,e.g.the ratio of NLP was lower(50% vs 73%,P < 0.01;43% vs 73%,P < 0.01;and the ratio in category 2 was significantly different between the eyes injured by non-military training and standard OTS(P < 0.05.However,the OTS showed positive correlation with final VA in present study(P < 0.0001.Conclusion OTS calculated at initial examination may primarily provide a piece of prognostic information of mechanical ocular injuries,and is of special benefit for deciding a prompt management or for evacuation decision for severe ocular injuries caused by military training.

  9. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow: Initialization, Forcing and Multiscale Data Assimilation (United States)

    Li, Z.; Cheng, X.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Xiao, H.; Endo, S.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.


    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is developing a routine large-eddy simulation (LES) modeling framework at the ARM Climate Research Facility sites, known as the "LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation" (LASSO) Workflow. The routine simulations will be assessed using comprehensive ARM observations of the atmosphere and land-surface states, particularly cloud observations. Since small changes in thermodynamic profiles can manifest large changes in cloud properties, successful simulations require careful initialization, appropriate forcing, and possibly suitable lateral boundary conditions. We use a multiscale data assimilation (MS-DA) system as a major methodology for producing forcing datasets required by the LES modeling. The MS-DA will be implemented in the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at a cloud resolving resolution (~1 km). MS-DA leverages existing reanalyses (e.g., the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) and operational forecasting products (e.g. the North American Mesoscale Forecast System, NAM; the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh, HRRR) products, and takes advantage of ARM observations to directly constrain the spectra of horizontal scales down to a few km. The analysis from the MS-DA allows deriving initial conditions and forcing datasets for a range of spatial and temporal scales, developing hydrometeor forcing, exploring time-varying boundary conditions, and diagnosing other needed thermodynamic variables. It is stressed that the datasets from the MS-DA are integrated with datasets from other sources to form ensembles to account for uncertainties. The methodologies, implementation and evaluations are presented.

  10. Irom Chanu Sharmila and the Movement against Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA

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    Aparajita Sharma


    Full Text Available This paper, through the narratives of activists and Meira Paibis reiterates the slogan—repeal the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA, which is draconian and anti-people in spirit. The atroci- ty, which has been meted out on the people of Manipur because of this Act, is a profound viola- tion of human rights. Rape, mindless killings, kidnapping, fake encounters have been normalised by virtue of this Act. The youths have been badly affected due to the conflict emerging out of this Act which treats people in Manipur as ‘objects’ against the imagined boundaries of the Indian na- tion-state for security from the neighbouring nations. In this process, the lived experiences of the people have been pushed to the periphery against the massive motive of the state to protect bor- ders and the imagined nation, which is a direct offshoot of the legacy of colonialism in India. The paper has tried to capture the history of Manipur on a capsule to concretise the struggle of Irom Sharmila and the ‘hopes’ she gives to the people of Manipur for ‘peace’ and ‘justice’. Alongside, it makes a humble attempt to describe the ‘life’ of Irom Sharmila. In addition, it describes the rage of Manipuris, which have given rise to insurgency asking for ‘freedom’ through various platforms.

  11. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC and the Development of Narco-Submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Jacome Jaramillo


    Full Text Available The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC have been one of the world's most consistently formidable violent non-state actors over the last forty years. Unsurprisingly, the group has provided one of the most compelling and concerning examples of the level of technical sophistication attainable by sub-state organizations. Over the last two decades the group has carried out an iterative and innovative process that, in reaction to improved detection capabilities, has brought them from depending on disposable go-fast boats to transport drugs to possessing fully submersible and reusable covert vessels for transportation. The following case study will discuss the development of narco-submarines and the underlying motivations behind the pursuit of this complex engineering task. The case study will outline the different phases of the narco-submarine development and highlight FARC’s determination to overcome the challenges present in each design. This discussion will show how FARC’s systematized acquiring of information and expertise has resulted in the accomplishment of fully submersible vessels, capable of transporting more than 10 tons of illicit product.

  12. Oro-facial pain distribution in the Singapore Armed Forces: a pilot study. (United States)

    Lee, F K; Tay, D K; Tan, W K


    The purpose of the study was to obtain information on the pain distribution in 140 consecutive patients referred to a Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and Craniofacial pain clinic from January 1992 to April 1994 via questionnaire, oral history and clinical examination. A cross-sectional study of 130 patients in the general military population was also done to serve as a control and to obtain initial data on the prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMD in the SAF. The control was age and sex matched with the TMD patient sample. The data showed that the "TMD patient" infrequently presented with temporomandibular joint pain alone. Neck pain, shoulder pain, ear ache and headaches were found quite frequently in addition to masticatory muscle tenderness and should be checked for in any TMD patient. Initial findings support the recommendation that the routine palpation of the styloid regions be included in any clinical screening protocol for patients presenting with head, neck and oro-facial pains. A history of macrotrauma and parafunctional habits were also important. Interesting observations relating to the TMD patients in the SAF are briefly described and discussed and there is a need to further explore the correlation between certain SAF vocations and TMD.

  13. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. (United States)

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G


    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface.

  14. Quality of diabetes care at Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2006

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    Ibrahim S Al-Arfaj


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the current status of care provided by the Diabetes Center at Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region. Materials and Methods : A total of 260 patients were randomly selected from the diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Center. Study tools comprised patients′ data sheets and patients′ interview questionnaire. Results : Two-thirds of the patients were aged 50 years or more. Half of patients had had the disease for less than 10 years. Diet therapy alone was followed by 2.3% of diabetic patients. More than half of patients (56.5% were on insulin. Most of the diabetic patients were tested for HbA1c at least once per year (88.1%, and 71.5% had their lipid profile done at least once within two years. Low indicators included having a dilated eye examination (35.4%, assessment for nephropathy (28.8%, and having a well-documented foot examination (12.7%. Highest risk HbA1c level (>9.5% was reached by 38.8% of patients, 48.8% had a low-density lipoprotein level of <130 mg/dl, and 36.5% of patients had controlled blood pressure (≤130/80 mmHg. Most patients were satisfied with their interaction with the treating doctor, 41.5% were satisfied with access to treatment. Hypertension was found to be the most frequent comorbidity (38.5%. Conclusion : The quality of services as regard to process and outcome are low at the Diabetes Center. The overall diabetic patients′ satisfaction was high, whereas their satisfaction was low as regards to access to treatment or health professionals.

  15. Risk factors of military training-related injuries in recruits of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王心; 汪培山; 周蔚


    Objective: To assess the incidence, types and risk factors of military training-related injuries in recruits of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces (CPAPF). Methods: A cohort study was made on the risk factors of injuries in 805 male recruits during the military training from December 25, 1999 toDecember 25, 2000. Results: A total of 111 recruits (14%) experienced one or more injuries, and the cumulative incidence was 16.1 injuries per 100 soldiers in a year. And 77.7% of the injuries belonged to overuse injuries of the skeletal and muscular systems, the most common type of which was stress fractures. Most injuries occurred in the 3rd month of training. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis of possible risk factors for overuse injuries were carried out, and a number of risk factors were identified: history of agricultural labor, history of lower limb injury, flatfoot and less running exercise before entry into the army. But a suitable body mass index (BMI) was a protective factor. Examination of age, body height, smoking, body flexibility and frequency of 2-mile running revealed no significant association with the injuries. Conclusions: History of agricultural labor, history of lower limb injury, flatfoot, less running exercise before entry into the army and lower BMI were risk factors of the overuse injuries. In order to decrease the incidence of overuse injuries, the young people with good physical ability and shapely body type should be selected during conscription. During the training, nutrition should be improved so as to decrease the incidence of injuries.

  16. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in the Armed Forces: A 5-year single centre study (United States)

    Jakhmola, C.K.; Kumar, Ameet


    Background Surgery for inguinal hernia continues to evolve. The most recent development in the field of surgery for inguinal hernia is the emergence of laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery (LIHS) which is challenging the gold standard Lichtenstein's tension free mesh repair. Our centre has the largest series of LIHS from any Armed Forces hospital. The aim of this study was to analyze the short and long term outcomes at our center since its inception. Methods Retrospective review of prospectively maintained data base of 501 LIHS done in 434 patients by a single surgeon between April 2008 and October 2013. Preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative and follow-up data was analyzed with emphasis on the recurrence rates and the incidence of inguinodynia. Results 402 (92.6%) patients had primary hernias and 367 (84.6%) patients had unilateral hernias. Of the 501 repairs, 453 (90.4 %) were done totally extraperitoneal approach and 48 (9.6 %) were done by the transabdominal preperitoneal approach. The mean operative time for unilateral and bilateral repairs was 40.9 ± 11.2 and 76.2 ± 15.0 minutes, respectively. The conversion rate to open surgery was 0.6%. The intraoperative, and early and late postoperative complication rates were 1.7%, 6.2% and 3%, respectively. The incidence of chronic groin pain was 0.7% and the recurrence rate was 1.6%. The median hospital stay was 1 day (1–5 days). Conclusion We, in this series of over 500 repairs have demonstrated that feasibility as well as safety of LIHS at our centre with good short and long term outcomes. PMID:26663957

  17. The SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada: applications for the Canadian Armed Forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungler, P.C.; Andrews, M.T.; Kelly, D.G.; Nielson, K.S., E-mail: [Royal Military College of Canada, Kington, Ontario (Canada)


    The Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC) has a 20 kW SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor which is used for teaching and research.Since its commissioning, the reactor facility and instruments have been continuously upgraded to develop and enhance nuclear capabilities for the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). Specific applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) and neutron imaging relevant to the CAF are discussed. (author)

  18. The SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada: applications for the Canadian Armed Forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungler, P.C.; Andrews, M.T.; Kelly, D.G.; Nielsen, K.S. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)


    The Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC) has a 20 kW SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor which is used for teaching and research. Since its commissioning, the reactor facility and instruments have been continuously upgraded to develop and enhance nuclear capabilities for the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). Specific applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) and neutron imaging relevant to the CAF are discussed. (author)

  19. [Analysis of the use of field medical units in the armies of NATO and Russian Armed Forces]. (United States)

    Korniushko, I G; Iakovlev, S V; Murashev, I V; Sidorov, V A; Medvedev, V R; Matveev, A G


    An analysis of medical services of NATO and the Medical Service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation of modern technology deployment stages of medical evacuation (tents, inflatable structures, shelters, containers, medical armored vehicles, cars, etc.) is presented. Examples of their usage in isolated employment, usage in the group as a mobile medical stations and field hospitals in various conditions, the prospects and directions of development of technical means deployment of medical service are given.

  20. Concept for a Predeployment Assessment of Basic Military Fitness in the German Armed Forces. (United States)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Sievert, Alexander; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Leyk, Dieter


    Military fitness is defined as a hierarchical 4-level construct in the German armed forces: (a) "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness," (b) "Basic Military Fitness," (c) "Task Fitness," and (d) "Mission Fitness." "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness" is assessed with the "Basic Fitness Test." However, this test alone is not sufficient to assess readiness for the physical demands of deployments. The first part of the article describes the development of a tool mirroring the specific physiological requirements of military operations on a joint forces level. The "Basic Military Fitness Tool" (BMFT) combines 4 crucial military demands into one single timed test run performed with field uniform (5 kg), body armor (13.4 kg), and helmet (1.6 kg): (a) maneuver under fire: 130 m run with changes in direction, velocity, and body position, (b) casualty rescue: 40 m of dragging a 50 kg load, (c) load carrying: 100 m carrying of two 18 kg loads, and (d) load lifting: lifting a 24 kg load on to a 1.25 m high rack 5 times. The second part covers the first assessment of BMFT selectivity between high- and low-performing groups. Muscle mass and strength are important factors for working with loads. Thus, female soldiers are expected to need more time to complete BMFT because of their on average lower muscle mass. Eighteen female (age = 28.5 ± 6.6 years, lean body mass [LBM] = 45.0 ± 4.5 kg; mean ± SD) and 104 male soldiers (age = 30.0 ± 8.4, LBM = 64.3 ± 7.1) completed isometric strength testing (hand grip = 344.3 ± 51.4 N and 547.3 ± 79.1 N, elbow flexors = 118.9 ± 16.9 and 235.1 ± 42.0, knee extensors = 433.2 ± 87.4 and 631.4 ± 111.4) and BMFT (259.2 ± 44.0 and 150.0 ± 21.1 s). Except age, all variables differed significantly (p < 0.01) between groups.

  1. A New Crank Arm-Based Load Cell for the 3D Analysis of the Force Applied by a Cyclist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Balbinot


    Full Text Available This report describes a new crank arm-based force platform designed to evaluate the three-dimensional force applied to the pedals by cyclists in real conditions. The force platform was designed to be fitted on a conventional competition bicycle crankset while data is transmitted wirelessly through a BluetoothTM module and also stored on a SD card. A 3D solid model is created in the SolidWorks (Dassault Systèmes SOLIDWORKS Corp. to analyze the static and dynamic characteristics of the crank arm by using the finite elements technique. Each crankset arm is used as a load cell based on strain gauges configured as three Wheatstone bridges. The signals are conditioned on a printed circuit board attached directly to the structure. The load cell showed a maximum nonlinearity error between 0.36% and 0.61% and a maximum uncertainty of 2.3% referred to the sensitivity of each channel. A roller trainer equipped with an optical encoder was also developed, allowing the measurement of the wheel’s instantaneous velocity.

  2. [Realities of immunizations in the armed forces: necessity of continued adaptation of vaccinations against cerebrospinal meningitis, typhoid and hepatitis A]. (United States)

    Meyran, M; Buisson, Y; Desfontaine, M


    The history of military medicine has always been closely linked with that of vaccinations. Doctors of Armed Forces, doctors of collectivities, have contributed to vaccination progresses in large amounts. But evolutions are often rapid here: epidemiological modifications, improvements in the existing vaccines or creation of new vaccines, diversification of military specificities. Three recent modifications in the vaccination schedule of the Armed Forces show this necessary adaptation: Systematization of the meningococcal A + C vaccination during the incorporation, because of the modification of the disease's epidemiological profile: increase of the frequency in serogroup C with a mortality increase (9 cases of death out of 10 observed between 1991 and 1992). Cancellation of antityphoïd vaccination for recruits serving in home country. Indeed the disease has become rare in France, and this is often due to imported cases (3 cases in the Armed Forces in 1992). Introduction in 1994 of vaccination against viral hepatitis A, systematic under the age of 25 years and after a serological selection above for servicemen having to serve overseas or for outside operations. These 3 examples show the necessity to have updated and adaptable vaccination schedules.

  3. A new crank arm-based load cell for the 3D analysis of the force applied by a cyclist. (United States)

    Balbinot, Alexandre; Milani, Cleiton; Nascimento, Jussan da Silva Bahia


    This report describes a new crank arm-based force platform designed to evaluate the three-dimensional force applied to the pedals by cyclists in real conditions. The force platform was designed to be fitted on a conventional competition bicycle crankset while data is transmitted wirelessly through a Bluetooth™ module and also stored on a SD card. A 3D solid model is created in the SolidWorks (Dassault Systèmes SOLIDWORKS Corp.) to analyze the static and dynamic characteristics of the crank arm by using the finite elements technique. Each crankset arm is used as a load cell based on strain gauges configured as three Wheatstone bridges. The signals are conditioned on a printed circuit board attached directly to the structure. The load cell showed a maximum nonlinearity error between 0.36% and 0.61% and a maximum uncertainty of 2.3% referred to the sensitivity of each channel. A roller trainer equipped with an optical encoder was also developed, allowing the measurement of the wheel's instantaneous velocity.

  4. Institutional Forces and L2 Writing Feedback in Higher Education (United States)

    Seror, Jeremie


    There has recently been growing interest in the relationship between second language (L2) writing development and the institutional contexts in which this process is embedded. The present study examines this relationship by reporting on an eight-month qualitative investigation of international university students and their perspectives on the…

  5. Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic arm and its flow field: application to the crawl stroke. (United States)

    Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Ozaki, Takashi; Matsuuchi, Kazuo


    This study aims to clarify the mechanisms by which unsteady hydrodynamic forces act on the hand of a swimmer during a crawl stroke. Measurements were performed for a hand attached to a robotic arm with five degrees of freedom independently controlled by a computer. The computer was programmed so the hand and arm mimicked a human performing the stroke. We directly measured forces on the hand and pressure distributions around it at 200 Hz; flow fields underwater near the hand were obtained via 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). The data revealed two mechanisms that generate unsteady forces during a crawl stroke. One is the unsteady lift force generated when hand movement changes direction during the stroke, leading to vortex shedding and bound vortex created around it. This bound vortex circulation results in a lift that contributes to the thrust. The other occurs when the hand moves linearly with a large angle of attack, creating a Kármán vortex street. This street alternatively sheds clockwise and counterclockwise vortices, resulting in a quasi-steady drag contributing to the thrust. We presume that professional swimmers benefit from both mechanisms. Further studies are necessary in which 3D flow fields are measured using a 3D PIV system and a human swimmer.

  6. Active Force with Fuzzy Logic Control of a Two-Link Arm Driven by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Jahanabadi; M. Mailah; M. Z. Md Zain; H. M. Hooi


    In this paper,the practicality and feasibility of Active Force Control (AFC) integrated with Fuzzy Logic(AFCAFL) appliedto a two link planar arm actuated by a pair of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) is investigated.The study emphasizes on the application and control of PAM actuators which may be considered as the new generation of actuators comprising fluidic muscle that has high-tension force,high power to weight ratio and high strength in spite of its drawbacks in the form of high nonlinearity behaviour,high hysteresis and time varying parameters.Fuzzy Logic (FL) is used as a technique to estimate the best value of the inertia matrix of robot arm essential for the AFC mechanism that is complemented with a conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control at the outermost loop.A simulation study was first performed followed by an experimental investigation for validation.The experimental study was based on the independent joint tracking control and coordinated motion control of the arm in Cartesian or task space.In the former,the PAM actuated arm is commanded to track the prescribed trajectories due to harmonic excitations at the joints for a given frequency,whereas for the latter,two sets of trajectories with different loadings were considered.A practical rig utilizing a Hardware-In-The-Loop Simulation (H1LS) configuration was developed and a number of experiments were carried out.The results of the experiment and the simulation works were in good agreement,which verified the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed AFCAFL scheme actuated by PAM.

  7. Arm tremor and precision of hand force control in a short and long term flight on the Mir-Space-Station (United States)

    Gallasch, E.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Löscher, W. N.; Konev, A.; Kenner, T.

    To determine whether long and short time exposure of man in 0g alters normal physiological tremor patterns we recorded arm tremor using an accelerometer as well as hand forces and tremor during constant isometric contraction using a load cell. Arm tremor was decreased during both flights in amplitude and frequency. Shortly after the long term flight arm tremor amplitude was increased, indicating adaptive changes in the tonic reflex loop. Isometric hand tremor remained unchanged during the long and short time flight demonstrating that the contractile properties of hand muscles remained constant. Precision of hand force was decreased until the half duration of the long term flight.

  8. The Soviet Armed Forces: A History of Their Organizational Development, A Soviet View (United States)


    repeated savage attacks by international imperialism. "Without armed defense of the socialist republic," noted V. I. Lenin, "we could not have survived.ŕ...rear were disbanded. At the same time, new naval bases were built at Pechenga, Kara , and elsewhere. Moreover, the Tallinn and Riga coastal defense

  9. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide (United States)


    ... members present, final action will be taken only on the business for which the meeting was called. c. A... addressing installation or command concerns or issues. (1) Federal, State, and local judicial, legislative... detrimental to the good order and discipline, health, morale, welfare, safety, and morals of Armed...

  10. The Choice: Social Representation and the Formation of the Hellenic Armed Forces (United States)


    Lernea Hydra: for each one head cut off, two new emerged. (For more on Greek myths go to mythology .) 20 • Minorities (Racial, Ethnic...while holding her two-year old son in her arms and showing pictures of her wedding to a girlfriend, sitting together in the sofa at John’s and

  11. Forças armadas para quê? Para isso Armed forces... for what? For this

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domício Proença Júnior


    Full Text Available Responde-se de maneira estrutural à pergunta: para que se tem Forças Armadas no Brasil? Isso leva a um trajeto expositivo que considera os contextos estratégicos e domésticos à luz das determinações constitucionais e dos termos de acordos internacionais que constrangem as alternativas brasileiras de uso de força. Conclui-se que o Brasil tem apenas três tarefas concretas para suas Forças Armadas: a defesa do território, a participação em ações internacionais e a garantia da lei e da ordem, circunscrito em todos os casos ao uso de armamentos convencionais. Responde-se à pergunta de partida afirmando que se tem Forças Armadas para sustentar a capacidade de realizar estas tarefas ao longo do tempo e em qualquer momento. Como e quanto se sustenta tal capacidade são os critérios essenciais para a formulação, condução e avaliação da política de defesa do Brasil.This article offers a structural answer to the question: what are Brazil's armed forces for? This leads to the appreciation of Brazil's strategic and domestic contexts of the use of armed force. It considers the constitutional imperatives and the terms of international agreements that curtail Brazilian alternatives. It argues that Brazil has only three concrete tasks for its armed forces: the defense of its territory, the participation in international missions, and the guarantee of law and order, being constrained further to the use of conventional weapons. It answers the question it began with as follows: Brazil's armed forces exist to sustain the capacity of carrying out these tasks over time and at any time. It concludes that how and how well a Brazilian defense policy sustains this capacity are the paramount criteria for its conception, management and evaluation.

  12. [Prospective planning of activity of the Medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020]. (United States)

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Redkin, E E; Bershev, M A; Murzo, A V


    The article reflects the characteristics of the Plan of activities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020--an important long-term planning document of the Armed Forces. It stressed the need for synchronization of activities for chain of command and deadline. Presented structure of the Medical Service Plan Military District operations (fleet) military medical organization. The attention is focused on the content of its sections. For example, a military hospital layouts presented an action plan and a schedule of events. Reflecting the requirements of the Minister of Defense for the development and adjustment plans, indicators of their performance.

  13. The FORCE Fitness Profile--Adding a Measure of Health-Related Fitness to the Canadian Armed Forces Operational Fitness Evaluation. (United States)

    Gagnon, Patrick; Spivock, Michael; Reilly, Tara; Mattie, Paige; Stockbrugger, Barry


    In 2013, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) implemented the Fitness for Operational Requirements of Canadian Armed Forces Employment (FORCE), a field expedient fitness test designed to predict the physical requirements of completing common military tasks. Given that attaining this minimal physical fitness standard may not represent a challenge to some personnel, a fitness incentive program was requested by the chain of command to recognize and reward fitness over and above the minimal standard. At the same time, it was determined that the CAF would benefit from a measure of general health-related fitness, in addition to this measure of operational fitness. The resulting incentive program structure is based on gender and 8 age categories. The results on the 4 elements of the FORCE evaluation were converted to a point scale from which normative scores were derived, where the median score corresponds to the bronze level, and silver, gold, and platinum correspond to a score which is 1, 2, and 3 SDs above this median, respectively. A suite of rewards including merit board point toward promotions and recognition on the uniform and material rewards was developed. A separate group rewards program was also tabled, to recognize achievements in fitness at the unit level. For general fitness, oxygen capacity was derived from FORCE evaluation results and combined with a measure of abdominal circumference. Fitness categories were determined based on relative risks of mortality and morbidity for each age and gender group. Pilot testing of this entire program was performed with 624 participants to assess participants' reactions to the enhanced test, and also to verify logistical aspects of the electronic data capture, calculation, and transfer system. The newly dubbed fitness profile program was subsequently approved by the senior leadership of the CAF and is scheduled to begin a phased implementation in June 2015.

  14. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, October-December 1989 (United States)


    homogeneity puripotent hematopoictic stem cells of bone marrow by large granu - anal~sis of proportions and life table data.Computer and Biomedical lar...8217on A-stimulated 3% lymphocytes, and 23±9c granulocytes, primarily eosinophils . PBMC targets. Cultures of PBMC to be used for targets in the CML...Arai R. Ventura U. Hitielman W. Broxmeyer HE. Gutterman JU K. Rennick D (1985) Isolation of cDNA for a human granu - (1988) Stimulation

  15. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, October, November and December 1987. (United States)


    phagocytosis of the extruded mast cell granule by neutrophils, macrophages, or eosinophils could also lead to the production of various eicosanoids. The...1979) Identification of mega- T-cell subpopulation on the immune system in a rhesus mon- karyocyte, macrophages, and eosinophils in colonies of hu- key...units (CFU- tribution of recovered day 8 CFU-S was different S) was well separated from that of in vitro granu - from the distribution of day 12 CFU-S

  16. Wall Attenuation and Scatter Characteristics of Ionization Chambers at Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (United States)


    0.5 0.10 TE 155 Exradin Cylindrical 0.05 0.10 TE, tissue-equivalent plastic type A-150; GR, graphite; MG, magnesium For each wall thickness, the...11 to be used in AAPM protocol (reference 16) tExtrapolated from Table III in reference 16 DISCUSSION The results shown in Table 2 and Appendix B...Physicists in Medicine ( AAPM ) Task Group 21 protocol for High Energy Photon and Electron Dosimetry (16). In this protocol, the chamber wall correction

  17. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, October, January-March 1989 (United States)


    after extensive proteinase that which would be associated with the repair treatment. As is shown in Fig. IB, however, this assay. This was accomplished by...differeccs in rccow rv at thc cellular level. oft proteinas anrd iolher mnoleculecs to nucleic acids. In In Radiation andi Cellular C onio-ol

  18. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Annual Research Report 1 October 1980-30 September 1981. (United States)


    question of the nature of the motor and cognitive changes that occur in these situations. \\lthough thc underlying biological mechanisms of performance...of their potential as a modifier of radiation-induced injury. The nature of the interaction of stromal tissue with hematopoietic cells and its...urinary creatinine, sialic acid, seromucoid, histamine, zinc, and taurine ) are being assessed as biologic dosimeters. Potential biochemical

  19. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, July, August and September 1987. (United States)


    binding sites, consistent with a mechanism of co~mpetitive lejurus quanijuestriatus scorpion toxin receptors .1 Hiccl Chem 25: 11458 inhibition ( Tallarida ...synaptosomal calcium uptake by TALLARIDA , R. .1. AND .JACOH, L S.: The Dose Response Relat ion in Pharnim oI ethanol. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 213

  20. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, July, August, September 1989. (United States)


    pulmonary injury,1 7 andpolycarbonate membranes with 5-mi pores. Chemo- myocardial infarction. I" The study reported here was con-attractant comparisons...212. 1981, calttnpal granule-cell agenesi ’ it acquisititi oft escape tromi tear atid 3S Weishriith. S H. Bacterial and m’.cotic disea’s, Itt. Baker. H

  1. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Annual Research Report 1 October 1981-30 September 1982. (United States)


    activity were found in the kidney cortex after irradiation, but at 6 hours postirradiation, the values for the medullary Na-dependent, K-ATPase...induced lymphomyelopoietic aplasia and its attendant cellular and hunoral immune dysfunctions. Specific objec- tives include Novel applications of...The splenectomy emphasizes the medullary response to an intraperitoneal injection of 10 p’g Escherichia coli (LPS-W). Significant differences were

  2. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, January-March 1985 (United States)


    stains for cell sorting 56 genesis 213 Anticoagulants long-term hematopoiesis, role :472 granulocytic diffeentiation 56 medullary vs.extramedullary 215...functional ability of the mononuclear and macro- phage progeny of the M-CFC derived from the bone marrow and extra- medullary sources. The point to be...hemopoictic aplasia , the implications vival2’. The exact correlation between giucan’s hemo- and possible applications of glueall treatment are in- poietic

  3. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) reports, January-March 1985. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This volume contains AFRRI Scientific Reports SR85-1 through 85-16, and Contract Report CR85-1, for Jan-Mar, 1985. Scientific reports included in this volume follow: Isolation of cellular membranes from rat mast cells; Effect of proteases on the Beta thromboglobulin radioimmunoassay; Effect of gamma irradiation on the healing of gastric biopsy sites in monkeys; Calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels in human macrophages; Radiation abrogation of myelopoietic inhibitors found in thymus-conditioned medium; Cell proliferation kinetics analyzed with BrdU and near-UV light treatment; Special techniques for the separation of hemopoietic cells. Elutriation; Hematopoietic colony-forming cells from mice after wound trauma; The macrophage colony-forming cell; Early kinetics of Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes and histamine release in rat mast cells stimulated with compound 48/80; Hexose regulation of sodium-hexose transport in LLC-PK1 epithelia: The nature of the signal; Plasma histamine and hemodynamic responses following administration of nalbuphine and morphine; Actions of ethanol on voltage-sensitive sodium channels: Effects on neurotoxin-stimulated sodium uptake in synaptosomes; Soluble polyglycans enhance recovery from cobalt-60-induced hemopoietic injury; Effects of pre- and post-irradiation glucan treatment on pluripotent stem cells, granulocyte, macrophage and erythroid progenitor cells, and hemopoietic stromal cells; Alterations in gastric mucus secretion in rhesus monkeys after exposure to ionizing radiation.

  4. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Annual Research Report, 1 October 1984 through 30 September 1985. (United States)


    radiation injury PROGRESS Characterization of Lesions Hydroxyl Radical Model (Blakely, Hagan, Kumar, Dodgen, Holahan , Weiss) Damage induced by the...Modification of Sulfhydryl Concentration ( Holahan , Walden, Blakely, Hagan, Jacocks, Schneiderman) -- T The purpose of this project is to investigate...Dizdaroglu, Holwitt, Blakely, Holahan ) It has become apparent in the past 4 years that the survival of mammalian cells after an exposure to ionizing

  5. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, April-June 1989. (United States)


    8217J. S. McKenzie , R. E. Kemm and L. N. Wilcock, eds., Plenum Press, pp. 513-544. Cubeddu, L. X. and Hoffmann, 1. S., 1982, Operational ,uIlturC gruss lb. %\\Ne riot111 test the titlit\\ ofiht drocortrsone tL11, . IdtaS ti(S ()I sleitI tell produiiionr antd the hemato - addiltins ill

  6. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, October-December 1985. (United States)


    Wadeson LJ, Collins P. McKenzie cell surface of rat thy mocytes. Nature 289:456 IFC. Penington DG (1984) An antigenic difference between 13. W\\Villiams AF...consistent in part with a eral blood neutrophilia and erythroid ane- number of publications that report hemato - mia, increased splenic erythrocytopoiesis...5 Balducci, L.; Hardy, C.: Concentration of hemato - duction, an increase in the destruction of poictic precursors in Lewis lung carcinoma-bear- RBC

  7. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) reports, April-June 1989. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This volume contains AFRRI Scientific Reports Sr89-15 through SR89-25 for April-June 1989. Subjects include: Radiation quality and rat motor performance; Gamma-radiation affects: active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum II; Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology; effects of iron particles on behavioral and brain function: Initial studies; Correlative motor behavioral and striatal dopaminergic alterations induced by Fe iron radiation; The effect of radiation on DNA methylation; Enhanced acoustic startle responding in rats with radiation-induced hippocampal granule cell hypoplasia; Oxidation damage in the guinea pig hippocampal slice; Radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbon production in platelets: Long-term culture of canine bone marrow cells; Radioprotection of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by leukotriene A4 and lipoxin B4; and Selective association and transport of Campylobacter jejuni through M cells of rabbit Peyer's patches.

  8. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, October, November, December 1986 (United States)


    Dubois, A., and Shea-Donohue, T. The role of endogenous prostaglandins in the regulation of gastric secretion in rhesus monkeys. SR86-40: Kafka , M. S...production. SR86-41: Kafka , M. S., Benedito, M. A., Steele, L. K., Gibson, M. J., Zerbe, R. L., Jacobowitz, D. M., Roth, R. H., and Zander, K...Helgeson, E. A., and Franz , D. R. Organophosphate-induced histamine release from mast cells. SR86-45: Patchen, M. L., and MacVittie, T. J

  9. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, July-September 1985. (United States)


    of 53Pholochem. Photohiol. 11 1980) 367.. excted 0 m potos t conec th dobly 1131 G. Paillotin. C’E. Swenherg. J. Breton and N.E. (icacin- ectdstate...Zilinskas. Krrni kiw~hem Bioph % Acta 723 0143) M0. Photochem. Photobiol. 33 (1981) 651. I \\I (watinto% ind J Breton . in Biological e~ents probed e-. % r...Secretion and Gastric Motility in Monkeys ETIENNE DANQUECHIN DORVAL, GREGORY P. MUELLER, ROBERT R. ENG, ASAF DURAKOVIC, JAMES J. CONKLIN, and ANDRE DUBOIS

  10. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, January, February and March 1988. First quarter 1988 (United States)


    8217 ond experimnrt a, potassium Icrrocyanide solution (0. 1 M ) containing MNP (00 M ) and glycylglycine (0. 1 M ) were photolyzed generating tile F.SR...and antihistamine. Ex.perientia 33, MD. 1047-1048. CHAPUT. R. L., AND WISE. D. (1969). Miniature Pig In- DUPONT., A.. AND) MERANt). Y. (1978). Enzyme ...decarboxylase. the enzyme that converts histidine to histamine. is localized in different regions ofthe brain (23): histamine activates adenylate cyclase

  11. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, October, November, December 1988 (United States)


    gallbladder epithelial cells. SR88-38: Holahan , E. V., Blakely, W. F., and Walden, T. L. Effect of PGE2 on radiation response of chinese hamster V79 cells in...constituents of the so- called "slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis" (SRS-A) (1,3). Like many other cell types, the mast cell can incorporate exogenous...this, our preliminary data has also sug8ested the presence of a phoepholipase A2 activity in the ast call granule, and its presence has enabled us to

  12. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, July, August, September 1988 (United States)


    syndrome; SR88-22: Holahan , P. K., Knizner, S. A., Gabriel, C. M., and Swenberg, C. E. Alterations in phosphate metabolism during cellular recovery of...hase. also Callett prodronial synldrome. also. although some differen(ces mar exist in animals and a sul)aCUte phase. also called bone marrow and (8...I e called a *hit’. The number and spatial distribution oft v.4 cts in at hit aire hiv.h I\\ \\ariable. I Irnc*, to obtain results with gooid

  13. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, April-June 1985. (United States)


    Friedman. PttI~oD. .L (168) Tu .1cur .~nrilii ReJhm~e ds.j. Amer. Soc. Microbiol.. Washington. D.C. of Beqgfes to Pu, sed. .1Iixved Gainina-% eutron ...IR, W. Youvi and D. A. KussII-R. Performnante of Sequential Tavk. hby Unrestrained Mfonkeyvs tolloviing a 42(g)-rad Puk~e of huied (,amma-% eutron ...sLuch st n’ssors ats wvhole-hodv ir- World War I period. Si milarlv . Sot, that. wshen ct tl li’Ine wtth in - * radiat ison, thermal ill ftlvy and

  14. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Annual Research Report 1 October 1982-30 September 1983. (United States)


    mechanical or thermal trauma can change two individually sublethal events into a lethal response for the combined-injured host. Combined injury, where one They were bilaterally exposed to cobalt-An radiation at a dose rate of 0.6 grays (Gy) per min or ,, eutron -gamma radiation from the AFRRI TRIGA...since the cloth might act as an absorber for neutrons thermalized by the water jackets. This raised the fundamental problem of how to determine

  15. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, July, August and September 1986 (United States)


    counts, monocyte counts, relative neutrophil counts. TABLE I HEMATOLOGY Day I Day 2 Day 3 Hematocrit ( PVC ) (%) 44 ± 0.4 42 ±0.8 41 ±0.5 47 ± 1.0C...cre- atine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydro- genase ( LDH ), glutamic oxaloacetic trans- aminase (SGOT), glutamic pyruvic transam- inase (SGPT...Petroleum 174 ± 14 179 ± 31 215 ± 23c Shale 209 + 32 192 ± 16 256±41c Lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ) (lU/liter) Control 1035 ± 103 1085 ± 73

  16. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Becomes CDC Registered Testing Site for Human Swine Influenza (United States)


    Bethesda, Maryland This impressive course covers general and specialized areas of ana- tomic pathology. An intensive session in inflammatory, infectious ... peritoneal leiomyomatosis, and synovial sarcomas (posi- tive in 5/42, 4/17, and 6/37 cases). Leiomyo- mas colonized by DOG1-positive Cajal cells...and specificity should be recognized. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Sep;33(9):1401-8. Feline peripheral nerve sheath tumors: histologic, immunohis


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dale


    Full Text Available The Point of Departure: The Military Transfer Concept A cursory examination of the literature now available on the South African Defence Force would suggest that such literature contains an embarrassment of riches. A more careful scrutiny, however, suggests that. in terms of nominal measurement. it can be grouped into fairly discrete categories covering the first (1880-1881 and second (1899-1902 Anglo-Boer Wars, World Wars I and II, the Korean conflict. and the growth of the South African Defence Force as a natural complement to the world isolation engendered by the pursuit of the policy of apartheid. The last category is more appropriately considered as part of the civil-military and foreign policy history of the Republic of South Africa because of the severance of the Commonwealth tie in 1961 and the declaration of the arms embargo against the Republic in 1963.

  18. Changes in force production and stroke parameters of trained able-bodied and unilateral arm-amputee female swimmers during a 30 s tethered front-crawl swim. (United States)

    Lee, Casey Jane; Sanders, Ross H; Payton, Carl J


    This study examined changes in the propulsive force and stroke parameters of arm-amputee and able-bodied swimmers during tethered swimming. Eighteen well-trained female swimmers (nine unilateral arm amputees and nine able-bodied) were videotaped performing maximal-effort 30 s front-crawl swims, while attached to a load cell mounted on a pool wall. Tether force, stroke rate, stroke phase durations and inter-arm angle were quantified. The able-bodied group produced significantly higher mean and maximum tether forces than the amputee group. The mean of the intra-cyclic force peaks was very similar for both groups. Mean and maximum tether force had significant negative associations with 100 m swim time, for both groups. Both groups exhibited a similar fatigue index (relative decrease in tether force) during the test, but the amputees had a significantly greater stroke rate decline. A significant positive association between stroke rate decline and fatigue index was obtained for the able-bodied group only. Inter-arm angle and relative phase durations did not change significantly during the test for either group, except the recovery phase duration of the arm amputees, which decreased significantly. This study's results can contribute to the development of a more evidence-based classification system for swimmers with a disability.

  19. Bridge Maintenance Robotic Arm:Mechanical Technique to Reduce the Nozzle Force of a Sandblastine Rig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathan Kirchner; Gavin Paul; D.K. Liu


    This paper describes a mechanical technique to reduce the nozzle reaction force of a sandblasting rig. A theoretical evaluation of the magnitudes and direction of action of typical sandblasting nozzle forces has been conducted and a technique for exploiting available energy in order to reduce the magnitude of the forces at the nozzle has been developed.Experimental results from a variety of tests in different configurations have confirmed the theoretically determined force magnitude's accuracy and shown that forces of up to 106N can be present in typical sandblasting operations. The results have also shown that an up to 77% reduction of force at the nozzle can be achieved by applying the developed mechanicaltechnique.

  20. [Information analytical support of the US Armed Forces Medical Service at the theater of operations (review of foreign online publications)]. (United States)

    Agapitov, A A; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Kuvakin, V I


    The current article is dedicated to the modern state of information analytical support of the US Armed Forces Medical Service at the theater of operations. It is shown that at the present time for that purpose it is employed the Joint Theater Medical Information Program (TMIP) which integrates all medically significant information in a single system. The described program covers the whole evacuation chain, specifically, wounded registration on the battle field, treatment conduction at the stages of evacuation, including the aeromobile evacuation, treatment and rehabilitation at specialized establishments in the United States, subsequent veteran care after retirement. It also provides paperless documents circulation and telemedicine needs, takes into consideration the certain Armed Forces components peculiarities, satisfies the information analytical requirements of the commanding body of the medical service. The main TMIP subprograms are introduced, namely: AHLTA, TMDS, MSAT, TMIP-M, MMM, TC2, NCAT, and the basic providing and supporting unit DHIMS is described. Finally, it is mentioned that currently the TMIP project starts to be used not only on the battlefield but at the garrisons as well and it is supposed that it will gradually expand to the entire national health care system.

  1. Mortality During U.S. Armed Forces Basic Training: A 25-Year Review (1977-2001) (United States)


    post-mortem lung tissue cultures Pneumonia 6 23/W/M 1987 Army GABHS Blood culture Necrotizing fasciitis 7 20/W/M 1991 Air Force GABHS Unknown...Force 30 Infection Necrotizing Fasciitis 8 Infection 3 19/B/M Army 57 Toxic Shock Syndrome 20 59 4 19/B/M Army Infection Meningococcemia 9

  2. Peacekeeping, a New Challenge for Burkina Faso’s Armed Forces (United States)


    Wall, (accessed January 2, 2013.) 2 Francois Mitterand, “Le discours de la Baule », http...Specialized Requirements to Peacekeeping Operations” Peace operations: Trends,Progress and Prospects, p 80 5 Politique de Défense du Burkina Faso, p 5. 6...3462901.stm (accessed 13 February 2013). 24 Politique de Défense du Burkina Faso, p 12. 25

  3. Interdependence between Army Conventional Forces and Special Operations Forces: Changing Institutional Mental Models (United States)


    JCO Joint Commission Observer JCOA Joint and Coalition Operational Analysis JP Joint Publication JTF Joint Task Force GCC Geographic...inherited from British predecessors, the Joint Commission Observer teams ( JCOs ) provided liaison, information exchange, and expedient communications...integration, the operational SOF JCOs were omnipresent throughout the area of responsibility. Their frequent interaction with CF units and leaders

  4. The effect of swinging the arms on muscle activation and production of leg force during ski skating at different skiing speeds. (United States)

    Göpfert, Caroline; Lindinger, Stefan J; Ohtonen, Olli; Rapp, Walter; Müller, Erich; Linnamo, Vesa


    The study investigated the effects of arm swing during leg push-off in V2-alternate/G4 skating on neuromuscular activation and force production by the leg muscles. Nine skilled cross-country skiers performed V2-alternate skating without poles at moderate, high, and maximal speeds, both with free (SWING) and restricted arm swing (NOSWING). Maximal speed was 5% greater in SWING (Pextension. Thus, swinging the arms while performing V2-alternate can enhance both maximal speed and skiing economy at moderate and, in particularly, high speeds.

  5. Factor which cause a level of physical readiness of servicemen of the Land forces of armed forces of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finogenov U.S.


    Full Text Available The level of physical readiness of officers of different age is construed. According to tests of the national charter on physical preparation 564 officers have been inspected. In addition with 395 officers the conducted army test of physical fitness was. Age decrease of parameters of physical readiness is exhibited. The authentic falling of a level of a velocity and force (in the age of 30-35 years, common endurance and a level of common physical readiness (in the age of 40-45 years is established. Among major factors of influence on a level of physical readiness of officers are: age, a stress, presence of harmful habits (smoking, surplus weight of a body.

  6. [Health conditions and physical development of soldiers during enrollment in the Armed Forces of Ukraine and military service in 2001-2010]. (United States)

    Didenko, L V; Ustinova, L A; Khyzhniak, M I


    Fitness of soldiers in military reserve for military service at the stage in the Armed Forces of Ukraine has been studied in the article. It has been established that the growing number of soldiers in military reserve with changes in health and physical condition indicates insufficient level of their health which has a negative impact on their capability and gradually on their fitness for military service. Priorities of changes in organization of the process of completion by human resources of the soldiers' military reserve in the Armed Forces of Ukraine during their transition towards professional army have been defined, to include optimization of criteria of fitness for military service.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of socially responsible behavior in organizations, while the main emphasis is on the social responsibility of universities. The first part of the article briefly describes the concept of social responsibility and the second part presents a case study on the current state of activities related to socially responsible behavior within the Armed Forces Academy of gen. M. R. Štefánik in Liptovský Mikuláš. CSR activities which were implemented at the Armed Forces Academy of gen. M. R. Štefánik can be an example of good practice for other universities in Slovakia and abroad.

  8. Optimización de la agudeza visual en las FAS Optimization of visual acuity in Spanish Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Medin Catoira


    Full Text Available Introducción: La existencia de una agudeza visual óptima es requerida para la mayor parte de las actividades del personal de las FAS, pero se hace estrictamente necesaria en el despliegue dentro del teatro de operaciones internacional. Material y Método: Hemos realizado un estudio sobre el registro de la agudeza visual en un grupo aleatorio (n = 54 durante los reconocimientos periódicos de permanencia realizados en nuestro centro. Resultados: Sólo 3 casos (5,56% reconocen ver mal; 20 (37,04% han utilizado corrección en algún momento de su vida; 12 (22,22% utilizan corrección; en 32 (60,38% sería altamente recomendable el uso de corrección. Ningún caso (0% de los usuarios de corrección posee corrección de repuesto (en gafas. Conclusión: Se hace incidencia en el control y registro de los parámetros visuales en el personal de las FAS, especialmente en actividades de riesgo y despliegue internacional.Introduction: The existence of an optimal visual acuity is required for most of the activities of the membrers of the Armed Forces, but it is strictly necessary in the deployment within the international theater. Materials and Methods: We conducted a study of visual acuity in a random group of periodical surveys in our center. Results: Only 3 cases (5.56% recognize look bad; 20 (37.04% have used correction at some point in their lives; 12 (22.22% used correction; in 32 cases (60.38% was highly recommended the use of correction. No cases (0% of users of correction has a duplicate of it (in glasses. Conclusions: The study suggests the need for better surveillance and control of visual parameters of the Armed Forces members, especially in risky activities and international deployment.

  9. Adverse events following vaccination in the French armed forces: An overview of surveillance conducted from 2002 to 2010. (United States)

    Mayet, A; Haus-Cheymol, R; Bouaiti, E A; Decam, C; Simon, F; Mérens, A; Spiegel, A; Meynard, J B; Deparis, X; Migliani, R


    French military personnel are subject to a compulsory vaccination schedule. The aim of this study was to describe vaccine adverse events (VAE) reported from 2002 to 2010 in armed forces. VAE are routinely surveyed by the military Centre for epidemiology and public health. For each case, military practitioners fill a notification form, providing patient characteristics, clinical information and vaccines administered. For this study, VAE following influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination were excluded. Among the 473 cases retained, 442 (93%) corresponded to non-severe VAE,including local, regional and systemic events, while 31 corresponded to severe VAE, with two leading to significant disability. The global VAE reporting rate (RR) was 14.0 per 100,000 injections. While stationary from 2002 to 2008, the RR increased from 2009. The most important observations were a marked increase of VAE attributed to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine from 2005 to 2008, a high RR observed with the inactivated diphtheria-tetanus (toxoids)-poliovirus vaccine combined with acellular pertussis vaccine (dTap-IPV) from 2008 and an increase in RR for seasonal influenza vaccine VAE in 2009. Our RR for severe VAE (1.1 VAEper 100,000) appears comparable with rates observed among United States civilians and military personnel. The increase observed from 2009 could be partly explained by the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic which increased practitioner awareness towards VAE. In conclusion, the tolerance of the vaccines used in French armed forces appears acceptable.

  10. 3 CFR 8380 - Proclamation 8380 of May 14, 2009. Armed Forces Day, 2009 (United States)


    ... Forces Day, 1961, President Kennedy connected civic engagement and our Nation’s security. He stated, “the.... As they carry out their missions, military families endure the sacrifice of their absence. Worrying about their safety, moving to new duty stations, and managing a home without a loved one, these...

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs, The Armed Forces Disaster Relief Effort in Armenia. (United States)


    According to the Yerevan seismic station, the tremors measured more than force 10 in the epicenter, which was in the area of the city of Leninakan. for over 100,000 people, 22,000 padded jackets and trousers (mainly for the rural regions), and thousands of hats with earflaps and warm mittens

  12. Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2014 (United States)


    took place repeatedly, especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thousand pirate attacks on...Domingo City during revolutionary fighting. Tangier, Morocco . “We want either Perdicaris alive or Raisula dead.” A squadron demonstrated to force

  13. Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2013 (United States)


    ships or squadrons took place repeatedly, especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thousand pirate...during revolutionary fighting. Tangier, Morocco . “We want either Perdicaris alive or Raisula dead.” A squadron demonstrated to force release of a

  14. The Evolution of Armed Forces Enlisted Personnel Management Policies: Executive Summary. (United States)


    War except for the well-publicized exploits of Florence Nightingale in the Crimea. Statistics show that the Civil War soldier had roughly one chanc(e... Florence Nightingale . It was social pressure (as in the case of flogging) that forced official attention to the necessity for proper care and facilities

  15. Chilean Armed Forces and Their Capacity in the Context of the International Crises (United States)


    operations. Proposing the measures that spread to develop a force for the execution of these missions. The idea is to define the characteristics of the...analyzing the Defense Policy, is necessary to know the most important characteristic and ideas about them, and which considers the following: Chile Focus...ably defended. Endnotes 1 Coser, Lewis A., "Las Funciones del Conflicto Social", (México-Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1961) p. 174 2 Fraga

  16. The Armed Forces of the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War: Evaluating in the Past and in the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen N. Osipovskiy


    Full Text Available Military actions of allies in the Crimean War of 1853-1856 had the coalition character, and therefore it is quite problematic to evaluate the contribution of individual troops objectively. At the national historical schools, as well as in public opinion of the state, the army’s participation and its contribution in the course of military operations are actualized. This trend has been common both in the war years and today. The imaginary and the real successes of the army are highly appreciated, and it is impossible to do this without downgrading the role of allies in the coalition. The evaluation of Ottoman troops’ behavior during the Balaklava battle in the Crimean War may serve as an example of such ambiguity. This article deals with the problem of ambiguity of contribution made by the armed forces of the Ottoman Empire to the military operations of the Crimean war in the context of existing assessments. On the one hand, the behavior of the Ottoman forces does not give reasons for the low evaluation of their fighting qualities. On the other hand, current attempts to form an image of the Egyptian contingent as one of the main conflict factors seem to be very far from reality.

  17. The mental health of the UK Armed Forces: where facts meet fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. F. Hunt


    Full Text Available A substantial amount of research has been conducted into the mental health of the UK military in recent years. This article summarises the results of the various studies and offers possible explanations for differences in findings between the UK and other allied nations. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD rates are perhaps surprisingly low amongst British forces, with prevalence rates of around 4% in personnel who have deployed, rising to 6% in combat troops, despite the high tempo of operations in recent years. The rates in personnel currently on operations are consistently lower than these. Explanations for the lower PTSD prevalence in British troops include variations in combat exposures, demographic differences, higher leader to enlisted soldier ratios, shorter operational tour lengths and differences in access to long-term health care between countries. Delayed-onset PTSD was recently found to be more common than previously supposed, accounting for nearly half of all PTSD cases; however, many of these had sub-syndromal PTSD predating the onset of the full disorder. Rates of common mental health disorders in UK troops are similar or higher to those of the general population, and overall operational deployments are not associated with an increase in mental health problems in UK regular forces. However, there does appear to be a correlation between both deployment and increased alcohol misuse and post-deployment violence in combat troops. Unlike for regular forces, there is an overall association between deployment and mental health problems in Reservists. There have been growing concerns regarding mild traumatic brain injury, though this appears to be low in British troops with an overall prevalence of 4.4% in comparison with 15% in the US military. The current strategies for detection and treatment of mental health problems in British forces are also described. The stance of the UK military is that psychological welfare of troops is

  18. The mental health of the UK Armed Forces: where facts meet fiction (United States)

    Hunt, Elizabeth J. F.; Wessely, Simon; Jones, Norman; Rona, Roberto J.; Greenberg, Neil


    A substantial amount of research has been conducted into the mental health of the UK military in recent years. This article summarises the results of the various studies and offers possible explanations for differences in findings between the UK and other allied nations. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates are perhaps surprisingly low amongst British forces, with prevalence rates of around 4% in personnel who have deployed, rising to 6% in combat troops, despite the high tempo of operations in recent years. The rates in personnel currently on operations are consistently lower than these. Explanations for the lower PTSD prevalence in British troops include variations in combat exposures, demographic differences, higher leader to enlisted soldier ratios, shorter operational tour lengths and differences in access to long-term health care between countries. Delayed-onset PTSD was recently found to be more common than previously supposed, accounting for nearly half of all PTSD cases; however, many of these had sub-syndromal PTSD predating the onset of the full disorder. Rates of common mental health disorders in UK troops are similar or higher to those of the general population, and overall operational deployments are not associated with an increase in mental health problems in UK regular forces. However, there does appear to be a correlation between both deployment and increased alcohol misuse and post-deployment violence in combat troops. Unlike for regular forces, there is an overall association between deployment and mental health problems in Reservists. There have been growing concerns regarding mild traumatic brain injury, though this appears to be low in British troops with an overall prevalence of 4.4% in comparison with 15% in the US military. The current strategies for detection and treatment of mental health problems in British forces are also described. The stance of the UK military is that psychological welfare of troops is primarily a chain of

  19. Normalized force, activation, and coactivation in the arm muscles of young and old men. (United States)

    Klein, C S; Rice, C L; Marsh, G D


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the loss of muscle strength in the elderly could be explained entirely by a decline in the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of muscle. Isometric force, muscle activation (twitch interpolation), and coactivation (surface electromyograph) were measured during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the elbow flexors (EFs) and extensors (EEs) in 20 young (23 +/- 3 yr) and 13 older (81 +/- 6 yr) healthy men. PCSA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging, and normalized force (NF) was calculated as the MVC/PCSA ratio. The PCSA was smaller in the old compared with the young men, more so in the EEs (28%) compared with the EFs (19%) (P MVC (approximately 30%) with age was similar in the two muscle groups. Muscle activation was not different between the groups, but coactivation was greater (5%) (P architecture of the triceps brachii muscle. In conclusion, although the decline in PCSA explained the majority of strength loss in the old men, additional factors such as greater coactivation or reduced specific tension also may have contributed to the age-related loss of isometric strength.

  20. A direct measure of morale in the Royal Netherlands Armed Forces Morale survey : ‘Theoretical puzzle, emperical testing and validation’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxmeer, L.E.L.M. van; Verwijs, C.; Bruin, R. de; Duel, J.; Euwema, M.C.


    The psychological stresses on military personnel and units of the Netherlands’ Armed Forces are enormous due to the types of conflict which military personnel is involved in, the use of modern technology and the high pace of operations. High morale is a determinant of sustained effective performance

  1. Morphology, Crystallization, and Melting of Single Crystals and Thin Films of Star-branched Polyesters with Poly(ε-caprolactone) Arms as Revealed by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez, E.; Vancso, G.J.; Gedde, U.W.


    The morphology and thermal stability of different sectors in solution- and melt-grown crystals of star-branched polyesters with poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) arms, and of a reference linear PCL, have been studied by tapping-mode atomic-force microscopy (AFM). Real-time monitoring of melt-crystallizati

  2. Mitigating Corruption in Government Security Forces: The Role of Institutions, Incentives, and Personnel Management in Mexico (United States)


    Preventive Police PJF Policía Judicial Federal, or Federal Judicial Police PRI Partido Revolucionario Institucional , or Institutional Revolutionary...Partido Revolucionario Institucional , or PRI) emerged as the dominating political force in Mexico in the 20th century. The PRI regime was... tradicional /default.aspx Jacob, Brian A., and Steven D. Levitt, “Rotten Apples: An Investigation of the Prevalence and Predictors of Teacher Cheating

  3. Substance use disorders in the U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2011. (United States)

    Servies, Tammy; Hu, Zheng; Eick-Cost, Angelia; Otto, Jean Lin


    Drug misuse is associated with serious health consequences and has detrimental effects on military readiness. During 2000 to 2011, 70,104 service members received an incident diagnosis of a substance use disorder (SUD) (excluding alcohol and tobacco-related disorders). Incidence rates declined with increasing age, time in service, rank, and number of combat deployments. Service members in a combat occupation had 1.2 times the rate of individuals in a health care or administation/supply occupation. The median time to discharge after an SUD diagnosis was longest in the Air Force (327 days) and shortest in the Navy (133 days). The substances with the highest incidence rates were cannabis (160 per 100,000 person-years [p-yrs]), "mixed/unspecified/other" (125 per 100,000 p-yrs), and cocaine (61 per 100,000 p-yrs). Incidence rates of cannabis and cocaine use diagnoses generally declined while rates of mixed/unspecified/other and opioid use increased over the surveillance period. The increasing trend in opioid-related diagnoses since 2002 may reflect an increase in prescription drug misuse. The Department of Defense recently expanded its drug testing program to screen for hydrocodone and benzodiazepines.

  4. Impact on mental health of deploying as an individual augmentee in the U.K. Armed Forces. (United States)

    Sundin, Josefin; Mulligan, Kathleen; Henry, Sophie; Hull, Lisa; Jones, Norman; Greenberg, Neil; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T


    Armed Forces personnel who deploy as individual augmentees (IAs), with a unit other than their formed unit, often fill shortages or provide specialized knowledge or skill sets. This article examined the effect of deploying as an IA on mental health outcomes and unit cohesion. A U.K. military cohort study was used to compare IAs (n = 1352) with personnel who had deployed with a formed unit (n = 2980). Differences between the groups in questionnaire assessed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version), common mental disorders (General Health Questionnaire-12) and alcohol misuse (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) were examined with logistic and negative-binomial regression analyses. There was no difference between IAs and those who deployed with a formed unit in level of unit cohesion, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder or common mental disorder. Deployment as an IA was associated with less alcohol misuse (Odds Ratio 0.77, 95% Confidence Interval 0.63-0.94). IAs appeared able to integrate with the group they deployed with as levels of unit cohesion were similar to personnel who deployed with a formed unit. IAs were also at a lower risk of alcohol misuse compared to personnel who deployed with a formed unit.

  5. The impact of an educational film on promoting knowledge and attitudes toward HIV in soldiers of the Serbian armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranin Željko


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Millions of soldiers around the world represent one of the most vulnerable populations regarding exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The programs for HIV prevention remain the most viable approach to reducing the spread of HIV infection. Very few studies have tested the effectiveness of HIV preventive interventions undertaken in military population. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational film to transfer knowledge about HIV infection to soldiers. Methods. We performed a quasi-experimental study among 102 soldiers of the Serbian Armed Forces. The experimental intervention consisted of the HIV knowledge pre-questionnaire, watching a film on HIV knowledge, then the post-HIV knowledge questionnaire. The results of pre-and post-HIV knowledge questionnaires were compared. Results. There were 23 questions in the test. The average total score on the questionnaire before watching the film was 18.23 and after watching it was 20.14, which was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. Conclusions. The results of the study show that viewing a film on HIV infection is an effective method of transferring knowledge about HIV to the Serbian military population.

  6. Armed forces career exploration for high school students in the fields of engineering and science. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Morgan State University`s School of Engineering conducted its third annual Armed Forces Career Exploration program for high school students in the fields of engineering and science. The four week program was jointly sponsored by the US Army Laboratory Command (Ballistics Research Laboratory and Human Engineering Laboratory) and US Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory). The environment in a predominantly urban school system is such that a significant number of very capable students reach the eleventh grade without plans for the future. These students as a result of teacher influence have taken lower level math and science courses and we feel by participating in this program will see reasons for pursuing higher level math and science courses their last two years in high school. Inasmuch as intervention programs have not yet significantly affected the profile of these schools this pool of students represents an opportunity to make an early impact on the number of students that enter college intending to major in math, science or engineering. This report presents the program that provided selected students with pre-engineering and science enrichment experiences designed to enhance their understanding of engineering, increase their awareness of career opportunities in science and engineering, advance their readiness to enter temporary job situation, and foster the development of self-confidence in their individual capabilities.

  7. Tan Zheng,s On the Problems of Army Political Work and the Maturity and Development of Party Building Theory for the Armed Forces%谭政《关于军队政治工作问题》的报告与军队党建理论成熟与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Delegated by the Party Central and Mao Zedong, Tan Zheng made the report On the Problems of Ar-my Political Work at the Northwestern Senior Cadres, Meeting to elaborate a series of theoretical principles for party building in the armed forces. The report expounded the status and effects of party building in the armed forces, clarified the fundamental tasks of party building in the armed forces, revealed the essential relationship between party building and military building in the armed forces, raised a series of principles for party ideological building in the armed forces, and proposed important arguments such as necessity of scientification and continuous institu-tional innovation for party building in armed forces. The Tan Zheng Report is an important part of Mao Zedong Thought on party building, a programmatic document to guide party building in the armed forces, and still has e-normous guiding significance for party building in the armed forces under the new historical situations.%谭政受党中央、毛泽东同志的委托,在西北局高干会上做的《关于军队政治工作问题》的报告,阐述了军队党的建设一系列重大理论原则:阐明了军队党的建设的地位作用,明确了军队党的建设的根本任务,揭示了军队党的建设与军队建设的本质联系,提出了军队党的思想建设的一系列原则,提出了军队党的建设要科学化和不断进行制度创新等重要观点。《谭政报告》是毛泽东建党思想的重要组成部分,是指导军队党的建设的纲领性文件,对新的历史条件下军队党建仍具有巨大的指导意义。

  8. Toward a transtheoretical model of interprofessional education: stages, processes and forces supporting institutional change. (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G


    The history of interprofessional education (IPE) in the USA is a checkered one, characterized by boom and bust cycles of advancement and retrenchment, expansion and contraction. The successful development, implementation and continuation of IPE in health and social care in US higher education institutions all depend on a number of factors related to how individuals and organizations do or do not support it in the academic setting. Deliberate and planned change to advance IPE requires a comprehensive theoretical framework to guide it and insure its success. A transtheoretical model (TTM) of institutional change is proposed as a comprehensive framework of the stages, processes and forces that can facilitate and maintain change in support of IPE. The TTM framework recognizes the complexity of change, and captures and organizes important elements from different organizational theories. It also provides a structure for conceptualizing the multiple dimensions needed for change, offering intervention strategies and leverage points to be used by leaders in promoting and maintaining it. Finally, the TTM model suggests that the stabilization of IPE programs over the long term is dependent on a real and significant shift in institutional values in response to forces from both within and without the organization.

  9. Workshop on establishing institutional credibility for SEAB Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    At the request of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board`s Task Force on Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, the National Research Council sponsored a workshop on Establishing Institutional Credibility. The purpose of the workshop was to (1) identify the range of available knowledge regarding the theoretical and conceptual issues of how institutions establish their credibility and legitimacy with key constituents, and (2) to help explore and clarify fundamental concepts in management theory related to these issues. The examination was to include what is known about how organizations establish, maintain, lose, and regain public trust and confidence. There was to be no attempt to develop consensus on these issues or to suggest particular courses of action. The workshop was held on October 24-25, 1991, in Denver, Colorado.

  10. The place of Turkish Armed Forces in the history of Turkish drug industry: the historical development of military drug factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Sozen sahne


    Full Text Available Military services have many contributions to the development of societies all over the world. In war and peace and also in emergencies, they continue to serve to their workers and civilian people. It is known that, Turkish Military Forces as one of the largest military forces in the world have the ability to provide health-care services. Firstly, in the Crimean War between 1853 and 1856, Gulhane Military Hospital in Istanbul began to produce medicine and bandages which are needs of the Turkish Army. Afterwards, in the First World War, the production of such needs continued in a storage Beylerbeyi Palace and in Konya. In 1928, these institutions were combined in Ankara the capital city of the Turkish Republic. The production continues in the pharmaceutical factory under the Ministry of National Defense. The historical evaluation of the military drug factory and its contribution to health services were examined in this study. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 171-176

  11. Someone to watch over me: exposure to war events and trust in the armed forces in Israel as factors in war-related stress. (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu; Kimhi, Shaul; Eshel, Yochanan


    This study examined the role of trust in the national armed and security forces in Israel as a potential protective factor in post-war stress symptoms, alongside other known correlates such as exposure to war events, sense of danger, and demographics. A cluster sample of 870 residents of the town of Kiryat-Shemona in Israel participated in this correlational study. The town was under heavy bombing during the second Lebanon war, and data collection took place about a year after the end of the war. Our results suggest that while sense of danger and exposure to war events are the strongest correlates of stress related symptoms, trust in the armed forces was negatively correlated with stress, even after controlling for demographics; therefore supporting our hypothesis. Theoretical, methodological and practical implications are discussed in light of our findings.

  12. Armed Forces Food Preferences (United States)



  13. The Canadian Armed Forces “YouTube War”: A Cross-Border Military-Social Media Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner Mirrlees


    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to conceptualize, contextualize, and critically analyze the Canadian Armed Forces’ (CAF use of YouTube to promote itself, recruit soldiers, and frame its role in the post-9/11 U.S.-led NATO war in Afghanistan. The first section of this paper engages with scholarship on war and the media, the military-industrial-communications complex (MICC, and YouTube War to conceptualize YouTube as a tool and contested battle-space of 21st century new media wars. The second section contextualizes the rise of the CAF’s YouTube channels—Canadian Forces and Canadian Army—with regard to post-9/11 Canadian foreign policy, the growth of the Canadian military publicity state, the creeping militarization of culture, and the CAF’s “social media policy”. The third section conceptualizes the CAF’s two YouTube channels as tools and spaces of its publicity front; then, through a synoptic critical overview of numerous CAF-generated YouTube videos, it shows how the CAF uses YouTube to recruit personnel and frame its role in the war in Afghanistan. The conclusion discusses the characteristics of this cross-border military-social media complex and its contradictions, namely, the spread of pacifist and veteran-generated videos that contest the war in Afghanistan. Overall, the paper offers an initial political-economy of communication of the CAF’s foray into the global battle-space of the Internet and its use of YouTube for publicity.

  14. A Prospective Study of Renal Biopsies Performed Over One-year at the Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa D


    Full Text Available A prospective study of all native kidney biopsies performed over one year at the Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted. During this period, 52 kidney biopsies were performed of which, 49 had adequate tissue. All biopsies were processed for light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The indications for biopsy included the nephrotic syndrome (n=28; 53.8%, asymptomatic proteinuria (n=12; 21.2%, acute nephritic presentation (n=7; 13.5% and asymptomatic hematuria (n=7; 13.5%. Primary glomerulonephritis (GN, excluding IgA nephropathy (IgAN was seen in 34 of the 49 patients (77.6%. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferative GN were the most common histological diagnoses (31% and 20.4% respectively. Surprisingly, we found a high prevalence of IgA nephropathy (IgAN of 14.5% in comparison with other studies. The prevalence of mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN was low (2% and can only be explained as incidental. The study patients were followed-up for an average of 26.3 weeks. At the end of the observation period, 50% has unchanged course, 37.5% had improved their renal function and protein excretion, and 12.5% had deteriorated. The prognosis of different GN groups and renal survival rate cannot be assessed or calculated in this study because of the relatively short duration of follow-up. Our study further emphasizes the need for a national GN registry and long-term follow-up, in order to recognize the common patterns of GN, their natural histories, the appropriate line of management, and to try and arrest their progression to end-stage renal disease.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article stresses the importance of strategic knowledge management in the era of global competition. Strategic knowledge management raises the demand for permanent learning stressing the visions and personal aspirations of everyone within the modern effi cient organisation. Within the AFA of General M.R. Štefánik and, inherently, in the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic, strategic knowledge management employs and implements knowledge as the ultimate step in the knowledge pyramid.

  16. Automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment certificate of eligibility for veterans or members of the armed forces with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Interim final rule. (United States)


    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its adjudication regulation regarding certificates of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment. The amendment authorizes automatic issuance of a certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment to all veterans with service-connected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and members of the Armed Forces serving on active duty with ALS.

  17. Status of Personnel, Use of force, and International Law of Armed Conflict in the Context of New United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (United States)


    equality of nations began as early as 1300, but was not thoroughly articulated until 300 years later by Jean Bodin , Thomas Hobbes, and Hugo Grotius...were similarly limited leading to the intervention of armed forces..." Pictet, Jean , ed. 1 Commentary on the Geneva Conventions 32 (1952). 184...regime remained a body of law applicable only in international warfare. Indeed, ICRC President Jean Pictet held that international humanitarian law

  18. [Current status of immunization in the Armed Forces: need of continuous adaptation of vaccinations against cerebrospinal meningitis, typhoid and hepatitis A]. (United States)

    Meyran, M; Buisson, Y; Desfontaine, M


    The history of military medicine has always been closely linked with that of vaccinations. Doctors of Armed Forces, doctors of collectivities, have contributed to vaccination progresses in large amounts. But evolutions are often rapid here: epidemiological modifications, improvements in the existing vaccines or creation of new vaccines, diversification of military specificities. Three recent modifications in the vaccination schedule of the Armed Forces show this necessary adaptation: systematization of the meningococcal A+C vaccination during the incorporation, because of the modification of the disease's epidemiological profile; increase of the frequency in serogroup C with a mortality increase (9 cases of death out of 10 observed between 1991 and 1992); cancellation of antityphoid vaccination for recruits serving in home country. Indeed the disease has become rare in France, and this is often due to imported cases (3 cases in the Armed Forces in 1992); introduction in 1994 of vaccination against viral hepatitis A, systematic under the age of 25 years and after a serological selection above for servicemen having to serve overseas or for outside operations. These 3 examples show the necessity to have updated and adaptable vaccination schedules.

  19. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) and ARM-ACME 2.5 Final Campaign Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tom, M. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sweeney, C. [NOAA Earth Systems Research Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)


    We report on a 5-year multi-institution and multi-agency airborne study of atmospheric composition and carbon cycling at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, with scientific objectives that are central to the carbon-cycle and radiative-forcing goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP region; 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative-forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM SGP region, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  20. A new crank arm based load cell, with built-in conditioning circuit and strain gages, to measure the components of the force applied by a cyclist. (United States)

    Pigatto, Andre V; Moura, Karina O A; Favieiro, Gabriela W; Balbinot, Alexandre; Pigatto, Andre V; Moura, Karina O A; Favieiro, Gabriela W; Balbinot, Alexandre; Moura, Karina O A; Favieiro, Gabriela W; Balbinot, Alexandre; Pigatto, Andre V


    This report describes the development of a force platform based on instrumented load cells with built-in conditioning circuit and strain gages to measure and acquire the components of the force that is applied to the bike crank arm during pedaling in real conditions, and save them on a SD Card. To accomplish that, a complete new crank arm 3D solid model was developed in the SolidWorks, with dimensions equivalent to a commercial crank set and compatible with a conventional road bike, but with a compartment to support all the electronics necessary to measure 3 components of the force applied to the pedal during pedaling. After that, a 6082 T6 Aluminum Crankset based on the solid model was made and instrumented with three Wheatstone bridges each. The signals were conditioned on a printed circuit board, made on SMD technology, and acquired using a microcontroller with a DAC. Static deformation analysis showed a linearity error below 0.6% for all six channels. Dynamic analysis showed a natural frequency above 136Hz. A one-factor experiment design was performed with 5 amateur cyclists. ANOVA showed that the cyclist weight causes significant variation on the force applied to the bicycle pedal and its bilateral symmetry.

  1. The dental specialties related articles published in Medical Journal Armed Forces India from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal


    There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. PMID:26858474

  2. The dental specialties related articles published in Medical Journal Armed Forces India from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal


    There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

  3. Farewell to Arms: A Plan for Evaluating the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force and Its Alternatives (United States)


    of Kenneth Roth , Executive Director of Human Rights Watch), statement-senate-armed-services-committee-aumf...52 Director Kenneth Roth explains how the U.S. government’s failure to demonstrate a clear...290 Elsea and Garcia, Judicial Activity Concerning Enemy Combatant Detainees, 50. 291 “Democracy or a Republic?” George Mason University, accessed

  4. Study of the existing problems and public consciousness of the in-service military officers in Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meepien Supawadee


    Full Text Available The public consciousness is an important characteristic which requires serious enhancement in Thailand. The objective of this study is to examine the existing problems and the public consciousness of the inservice military officers. As a result shows, there is currently no precise training system for public consciousness training at the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters. The tasks are carried out by the chain of command. A study of the existing problems and the public consciousness could lead to the development of a training model to enhance public consciousness. If the in-service military officers, who would return to their hometown all over the country after being discharged, were to have public consciousness characteristics as a foundation for everyday life, the nation would head up the force to help society.

  5. Worldwide Report, Arms Control (United States)


    world war, a nuclear inferno , for over 40 years. A sober assessment of the situation in world politics was conducted at the meet- ing of the...there is success in stopping the arms race, or those forces accelerating the arms race and driving humanity to the edge of a nuclear inferno will gain...dialogue with all forces fighting against a nuclear inferno , affirmed by the Warsaw Pact countries, is being seen more and more as the only practicable

  6. Annual Research Report on Projects of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 1 October 1979 - 30 September 1980. (United States)


    harmaline) elevate cyclic nucleotides, most notably guanosine-3’,5’- monophosphate (cGMP). On the other hand, depressant drugs (such as diazepam ...burns) and those with more than moderately severe secondary blast injury (single laceration, abrasion, and/or simple fracture not of the long bone). This

  7. Progress in research and work of psychological health in U.S.Armed Forces%美军心理健康维护进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文娜; 楼铁柱; 刁天喜; 吴东


    With the United States still involved in military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, psychological and cognitive injuries among those deployed are of growing concern, such as traumatic brain injury ( TBI ), suicide and post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ). This paper reviews the main progress in the research and work of psychological health in the U. S. Armed Forces.%美军自2001年参加阿富汗战争和2003年参加伊拉克战争以来,创伤性脑损伤、自杀、创伤后应激障碍等成为其日益关注的问题.本文围绕目前美军心理健康维护的工作重点,介绍了其在心理健康维护方面的科研和工作进展.

  8. Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive Equipment Certificate of Eligibility for Veterans or Members of the Armed Forces With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Connected to Military Service. Final rule. (United States)


    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published an Interim Final Rule on February 25, 2015, to amend its adjudication regulations to provide a certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment for all veterans with service-connected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and servicemembers serving on active duty with ALS. The amendment authorized automatic issuance of a certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment to all veterans with service-connected ALS and members of the Armed Forces serving on active duty with ALS. The intent of this final rule is to confirm the amendment made by the interim final rule without change.

  9. The Freedom of Expression of Members of the Armed Forces Under the European Convention on Human Rights In Jokšas V. Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchner Stefan


    Full Text Available Freedom of expression is one of the most fundamental rights in a democratic society. In fact, the freedom to express one’s opinion and to impart, as well as to receive, information, is essential for the participation in the democratic process. The ability to make decisions as a citizen requires access to information; the participation in the life of the society requires the ability to express one’s opinions. It is imperative that in a democratic society, as it is envisaged by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, everybody is able to express their views, regardless as to whether these views correspond to the views of those who are in power. This ability is one of the key differences between democracy anddictatorship. In particular in the nation-states of Eastern Europe, which have only known freedom for a bit less than a quarter of a century, the growth of democratic structures is inextricably linked to the ability to exercise this right. But while human rights in principle pit the citizen against the State, the citizen who serves the State in a professional function might also wish to express opinions that go against the view of those who are entrusted with leading the State. This is particularly the case when it comes to members of the armed forces. The jurisprudence of the Convention organs with regard to the right of public officials and other State agents to express their opinion freely is not as coherent as it is with regard to other questions concerning the ECHR. In a case decided in late 2013, the European Court of Human Rights dealt with this question with regard to Lithuania. In this article, the authors look at the question of how far the State can restrict the freedom of expression of members of the armed forces under the European Convention on Human Rights.

  10. Armed Forces Knowledge Management Fuzzy Neural Network Evaluation%军队知识管理模糊神经网络评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐远林; 高鹏; 吕本富


    According to the characteristics of armed forces knowledge management, con struct the armed forces knowledge management performance evaluation system. The index system includes four first level indexes (organizational structure, human, technology, and knowledge systems) and 12 secondary level indexes. Ascertain the weight of fuzzy compre hensive evaluation by using the neural network. At the same time, the network is trained by using the improved back propagation algorithm and revise the neural network weight step by step , it make the weight in fuzzy evaluation accord with the fact well, which can get better effect.%根据军队知识管理的特点,构建了军队知识管理水平评价指标体系.指标体系从组织结构、人力、技术及知识系统4个一级指标和12个二级指标体系.运用四层模糊神经网络确定模糊综合评价中的权重值,同时采用改进的反向传播算法,用样本对网络进行训练,逐步修正网络的连接权值,使权重值更符合实际情况,最后用训练好的样本对六个单位的知识管理进行评估,结果表明,训练好的模糊神经网络可以对军队的知识管理进行评估,并得到很好的结果.

  11. Portuguese Armed Forces in the International Security and Assistance Force in Afghanistan: Psychological Support for the Command of Kabul International Airport (United States)


    Performance: The Australian Defence Force Experience, pp. 221-231. Melbourne: Melbourne University Publishing. Lazarus , R.S. & Folkman , S. (1984). Stress...Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Lazarus , R.S. (1999). Stress and Emotion: A New Synthesis. New York: Springer

  12. Report of the Task Force on the Impact of the Research, Development and Field Activities of The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Working Papers. (United States)

    Gage, N. L.; And Others

    The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) established a task force to investigate the impact of its activities in two areas, research and development and field development. In the first part of this report, the task force and its work are discussed, and the central issues that the task force is concerned with are defined. In Part Two,…

  13. A Validity Study on Predictors of Success in Resident Master’s Degree Programs at the Air Force Institute of Technology. (United States)


    1. 0% DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE *AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio I Dzsnm ION SATE A I A edfor ... k 6 or more examinees is a useful and valid measurement i.e., within reliability limits (10:3). The GRE and the GMAT are divided into various

  14. Quadratic Sagnac effect — the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921 - 1926) (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.


    It is shown that when an equal-arm Michelson interferometer is involved in rotation (for example, Earth's rotation around its axis or around the Sun) and its arms are oriented differently with respect to the plane of rotation, a phase difference arises between the light rays that pass through different arms. This phase difference is due to the fact that the arms experience variously the Newtonian (nonrelativistic) scalar gravitational potential of the Coriolis forces. It is shown that the phase difference is proportional to the length of the interferometer arm, the square of the angular velocity of the rotation, and the square of the distance from the center of rotation — hence, the proposal to call this phenomenon the quadratic Sagnac effect. In the present paper, we consider, as an illustrative example, the results of the once well-known experiments of D C Miller, who claimed to observe the translational motion of Earth relative to the hypothetical ‘luminiferous ether’. It is shown that this claim can actually be explained by the fact that, because of the orbital revolution of Earth, the time dilations in the orthogonal arms of the Michelson interferometer are influenced differently by the scalar gravitational potential of the Coriolis forces.

  15. Air Force Institute of Technology, Civil Engineering School: Environmental Protection Course. (United States)

    Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. School of Engineering.

    This document contains information assembled by the Civil Engineering School to meet the initial requirements of NEPA 1969 and Executive Orders which required the Air Force to implement an effective environmental protection program. This course presents the various aspects of Air Force environmental protection problems which military personnel…

  16. The Effects of Army and Air Force Institutional Theories of Victory on Operation Desert Storm (United States)


    these pillars interact to create powerful social systems.16 These sociological elements of institutions can be compared to the psychological ...throughout nature and sees violence rooted in the permanent biological and psychological nature of men. As between the good and evil in man, the...schemas by establishing an integrative gestalt within an organization or institution.96 Surowiecki refers to this gestalt as a “convention


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin BAJKOWSKI


    Full Text Available This paper presents the laboratory stand, designed for research and didactic purposes. The stand allows investigating the performance of the programmable system for controlling the recoil effect in the small caliber arm–shooter configuration. The system incorporates synchronized magnetorheological (MR damper. The aim of the study is to describe the influence of the damping of a high-energy pulse from small caliber arm, on the value of the thrust force. For the considered set of MR dampers the range of the operating currents for the MR coil is experimentally selected and adjusted. In the study of the results the emphasis is put on the influence of MR damper on the force characteristics, which directly affects the accuracy of the weapon. The obtained results show that the proposed system special object–MR damper–shooter, has a major, positive effect on the accuracy by reducing the components of the recoil. A scheme of the laboratory stand is presented. Basic parameters of the investigated system and research results are discussed

  18. The Impact of Balance of Payment Considerations Upon Logistical Support of U.S. Armed Forces Europe 1960-1974 (United States)


    63RosweUl Gilpatric, Speech given in Chicage, Illinois on October 19, 1963, as cited in Allan R. Scholin, *Big Lift Boon, Boon- doggle or Bust", Air...August 1973), 64-65 and 136. hooitn, Allan R. "Big Lift Boon, Boondoggle or Busts’ Air Force ad Spge. Dizestp December 1963, pp. 33-37. Unmblished...Requisition, C celto Csee ’Miltary Traff ic hif t in fiance.’ 0 ashinaton Poe July 21,s 1963# p. I1e NATO Information Servicei. hae4~tthe North Atlantic

  19. [History of malaria control in the French armed forces: from Algeria to the Macedonian front during the first World War]. (United States)

    Migliani, R; Meynard, J-B; Milleliri, J-M; Verret, C; Rapp, C


    The French joint military health corps has long experience in malaria control. Many military physicians played an essential role in the 19th century: Maillot revolutionized malaria treatment by using quinine during the conquest of Algeria, and Laveran discovered the causal parasite (the genus Plasmodium) there. This experience continued under the direction of Laveran and the Sergent brothers on the eastern front in Greek Macedonia during World War I. The vast coordinated control plan established on this front from 1917 delivered the French infantrymen from malaria and led to victory over the Bulgarian forces, which capitulated in September 1918.

  20. Arms Trafficking and Colombia (United States)


    Brasil , February 20, 2001. 20 Arms Trafficking and Colombia chased, when and how they were transferred to the guerrillas or paramilitaries, or through...Mercado Blanco De Armas,” 1999, p. 44. 31Franco, Ilimar, “Pf to Block Farc Supply Routes in Amazon,” Jornal do Brasil , August 20, 1999. 26 Arms...Forces Mobilize in Response to Farc,” Sao Paulo Veja, November 10, 1999. 43“Arms Trafficking to Colombia Increases,” El Comercio , August 23, 2000

  1. The Social Media Policy of U.S. Armed Forces in the Information Security Perspective%美军在信息安全视野下利用社交媒体政策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周殷夏; 白文杰


    近年来,美军逐步调整社交媒体政策,重视发挥其在公共事务、家庭服务以及塑造军队形象中的独特功能。从信息安全的角度出发,在分析美军社交媒体政策发展变化及其内在动因的基础上,总结出美军运用社交媒体所采取的信息安全措施。%In recent years, the U. S. armed forces gradually adjust the social media policy to attach impor- tance of its unique features in public affairs, family services, as well as shaping the image of the Armed Forces. From the perspective of information security, this article on the basis of the analysis of the U. S. armed forces social media policy development and changes in their intrinsic motivations, summed up the information security measures taken by the U.S. armed forces using social media.

  2. Contribution of the Mission in Afghanistan to the Burden of Past-Year Mental Disorders in Canadian Armed Forces Personnel, 2013 (United States)

    Zamorski, Mark A.


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the contribution of the mission in Afghanistan to the burden of mental health problems in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). Methods: Data were obtained from the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, which assessed mental disorders using the World Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The sample consisted of 6696 Regular Force (RegF) personnel, 3384 of whom had deployed in support of the mission. We estimated the association of past-year mental health problems with Afghanistan deployment status, adjusting for covariates using logistic regression; population attributable fractions (PAFs) were also calculated. Results: Indication of a past-year mental disorder was identified in 18.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.0% to 19.7%) of Afghanistan deployers compared with 14.6% (95% CI, 13.3% to 15.8%) in others. Afghanistan-related deployments contributed to the burden of a past-year disorder (PAF = 8.7%; 95% CI, 3.0% to 14.2%), with the highest PAFs being seen for panic disorder (34.7%) and posttraumatic stress disorder (32.1%). The PAFs for individual alcohol use disorders and suicide ideation were not different from zero. Child abuse, however, had a much greater PAF for any past-year disorder (28.7%; 95% CI, 23.4% to 33.7%) than did the Afghanistan mission. Conclusions: The mission in Afghanistan contributed significantly to the burden of mental disorders in the CAF RegF in 2013. However, the much stronger contribution of child abuse highlights the need for strong military mental health systems, even in peacetime, and the need to target the full range of determinants of mental health in prevention and control efforts. PMID:27270744

  3. Force decomposition in robot force control (United States)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.


    The unit inconsistency in force decomposition has motivated an investigation into the force control problem in multiple-arm manipulation. Based on physical considerations, it is argued that the force that should be controlled is the internal force at the specified frame in the payload. This force contains contributions due to both applied forces from the arms and the inertial force from the payload and the arms. A least-squares scheme free of unit inconsistency for finding this internal force is presented. The force control issue is analyzed, and an integral force feedback controller is proposed.

  4. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George


    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  5. The evolving role of lyophilized plasma in remote damage control resuscitation in the French Armed Forces Health Service. (United States)

    Sailliol, Anne; Martinaud, Christophe; Cap, Andrew P; Civadier, Corinne; Clavier, Benoit; Deshayes, Anne-Virginie; Mendes, Anne-Christine; Pouget, Thomas; Demazeau, Nicolas; Chueca, Marine; Martelet, François-Régis; Ausset, Sylvain


    Freeze-dried plasma was developed by the US Army for the resuscitation of combat casualties during World War II. The French Military Blood Institute began producing French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) in 1949, in accordance with French blood product guidelines. Since 2010, a photochemical pathogen inactivation process has been implemented to reduce the remaining transfusion-related infectious risk. All quality controls for this procedure verify that the hemostatic properties of FLYP are conserved. FLYP is compatible with all blood types, can be stored at room temperature for 2 years, and its reconstitution requires less than 6 minutes. As a result, FLYP allows quick delivery of all the coagulation proteins and the application of a 1:1 ratio of FLYP and red blood cells in the context of a massive transfusion. Hemovigilance data collected in France since 1994 have included FLYP. Results indicate no reporting of infection related to the use of FLYP. Clinical monitoring with a focus on hemostasis was implemented in 2002 and expanded in 2010. The data, obtained from overseas operations, confirmed the indications, the safety and the clinical efficacy of FLYP. Further research is needed to determine specific indications for FLYP in the therapeutic management of civilian patients with severe hemorrhage.

  6. The Economic Rationality and Institutional Driving Force of Edible Agro-products Enterprises Adopting ISO9000 Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-jing; WU Xiu-min; CHEN Hong-yue


    This paper analyzed the economic rationality and institutional driving force of edible agro-products enterprises adopting ISO9000 standards,and built the theoretical analysis framework of enterprises adopting ISO9000 standards.The results indicated that the enterprises adopted ISO9000 standards form a variety of promoting product quality and safety business strategy options based on the considerations that getting economic efficiency and the access to resources.Based on the results,some recommendations were given for stimulating enterprises to adopt ISO9000 standards.

  7. Incidence of hiatal hernia in service members, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Francis L; Taubman, Stephen B


    From 2005 through 2014, a total of 27,276 active component service members had incident diagnoses of hiatal hernia documented in their medical records. The overall incidence rate was 19.7 cases per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs); annual incidence rates ranged from 16.5 to 22.2 cases per 10,000 p-yrs. Rates overall increased monotonically with increasing age and were higher among Air Force and Army members, officers, and healthcare workers than their respective counterparts. During the surveillance period, the 27,276 service members who had incident diagnoses of hiatal hernia accounted for 44,092 hiatal hernia-related encounters overall (1.6 encounters per case). Among all incident cases, 235 (0.86%) had surgical repairs documented during the period. The frequency of surgical treatment of hiatal hernias among military members mirrored the low frequency in U.S. civilian practice. During 2010-2014, most surgical procedures (79%) were accomplished via laparoscopic approaches. The incidence rates of hiatal hernia diagnoses reported here likely greatly underestimate the true incidence in U.S. military populations. Reasons for the underestimates and comparisons with other populations are discussed.

  8. Transitional Forces in a Resource Based Economy: Phases of Economic and Institutional Development in Hawaii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Roumasset, James


    -evolution of production systems, organizational forms and authority structures in a resource dependent economy. We model the resource dependency as a multi-trophic ecologically based system. Productivity is a dynamic function of the available resource, human populations of laborers and wealth (capital) accumulation......We illuminate several important aspects of the nature and causes of growth and institutional change. To do this, we focus on the role resource pressures have played in the historic development of Hawaii’s institutions. We discuss the Hawaiian story in the context of the natural co....... Decentralization occurs after Western contact (1778), though not immediately. Unlike many existing analyses of primitive economic development, there does not exist a monotonic relationship between population and resource pressure. In a model of second-best resource management, optimal governance changes...

  9. [The directions of activity of the medical service on prophylaxis and early revealing of tuberculosis in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation]. (United States)

    Khalimov, Iu Sh; Beznosik, R V; Shitov, Iu N; Dantsev, V V; Muchaidze, R D


    The basic directions of system of antituberculous actions in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation includes: 1) non-admission of citizens, sick of tuberculosis, on military service; 2) allocation of group of persons with the raised risk of tuberculosis among all military servicemen, dispensary dynamic supervision over them and carrying out of chemoprophylaxis; 3) revealing of tuberculosis among military servicemen at preventive medical inspections (including fluorography), and also in case of reference for medical aid with the symptoms specifying on possibility of tuberculosis; 4) carrying out antiepidemic actions in military unit, in case of revealing patient, sick of tuberculosis, well-timed, qualitatively and in full. The major stage of antituberculous actions is a profound medical examination of young reinforcement (recruits under service call and under the contract) after the arrival in army. Preventive actions in group of persons with the raised risk of tuberculosis also are a priority for the medical service of military unit. Final desinfection, controllable emergency chemoprophylaxis and extraordinary fluorography of contact persons under epidemic indications are crucial important for decrease of morbidity in the army focuses of tuberculosis.

  10. Searching for non-genetic molecular and imaging PTSD risk and resilience markers: Systematic review of literature and design of the German Armed Forces PTSD biomarker study. (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Willmund, Gerd-Dieter; Holsboer, Florian; Wotjak, Carsten T; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kowalski, Jens T; Zimmermann, Peter


    Biomarkers allowing the identification of individuals with an above average vulnerability or resilience for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) would especially serve populations at high risk for trauma exposure like firefighters, police officers and combat soldiers. Aiming to identify the most promising putative PTSD vulnerability markers, we conducted the first systematic review on potential imaging and non-genetic molecular markers for PTSD risk and resilience. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically screened the PubMed database for prospective longitudinal clinical studies and twin studies reporting on pre-trauma and post-trauma PTSD risk and resilience biomarkers. Using 25 different combinations of search terms, we retrieved 8151 articles of which we finally included and evaluated 9 imaging and 27 molecular studies. In addition, we briefly illustrate the design of the ongoing prospective German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) PTSD biomarker study (Bw-BioPTSD) which not only aims to validate these previous findings but also to identify novel and clinically applicable molecular, psychological and imaging risk, resilience and disease markers for deployment-related psychopathology in a cohort of German soldiers who served in Afghanistan.

  11. Experience of the air medical evacuation team of Serbian armed forces in the united nations mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo - deployment stress and psychological adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joković Danilo B.


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Wars of the nineties in former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Rwanda imposed new tasks to the United Nations (UN forces, such as providing humanitarian aid, protection of civilians, peacekeeping, and in many instances providing armed enforcement of peace. The aim of this study was an observational analysis of Serbian participation in the UNs Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo with the emphasis on stress and coping techniques. Methods. Serbian contribution in this mission dates back to April 2003 till the present days with a military contingent consisting of six members as a part of Air Medical Evacuation Team. The observed stressogenous factors acted before arrival to the mission area and in the mission area. In this paper we analysed ways to overcome them. Results. The productive ways of overwhelming stress used in this mission were: honesty and openness in interpersonal communications, dedication to work, maintaining discipline and order, strict following of appropriate regime of work, diet, rest and recreation; regular communication with family and organizing and participation in various social, cultural and sports manifestations. Conclusion. This analysis indicates that out of all the observed factors, the most important is appropriate selection of personnel.

  12. Optics and optronics in university courses for officers of the Federal Armed Forces - special curricula and hands-on lessons vs. academic requirements (United States)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Rothe, Hendrik


    For more than two decades lessons in optics, digital image processing and optronics are compulsory optional subjects and as such integral parts of the courses in mechanical engineering at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Hamburg. They are provided by the Chair for Measurement and Information Technology. Historically, the curricula started as typical basic lessons in optics and digital image processing and related sensors. Practical sessions originally concentrated on image processing procedures in Pascal, C and later Matlab. They evolved into a broad portfolio of practical hands-on lessons in lab and field, including high-tech and especially military equipment, but also homemaker style primitive experiments, of which the paper will give a methodical overview. A special topic - as always with optics in education - is the introduction to the various levels of abstraction in conjunction with the highly complex and wide-ranging matter squeezed into only two trimesters - instead of semesters at civil universities - for an audience being subject to strains from both study and duty. The talk will be accompanied by striking multi-media material, which will be also part of the multi-media attachment of the paper.

  13. Ideas as Institutions: Explaining the Air Force’s Struggle With Its Aerospace Concept (United States)


    necessitate, prepare and maintain plans, in consonance with the latest information to provide for destruction of the decisive units of the key...soldier goes where his leaders point, and with little question. Thus, the subtle signs of dissonance between airmen and the aerospace concept that...occasionally to adopt language more consonant with the language framing the national discourse. This subtle perspective shift of Air Force

  14. Blue Moon Rising? Air Force Institutional Challenges to Producing Senior Joint Leaders (United States)


    and Geoffrey Parker , “The Post-War World,” in The Cambridge History of Warfare, ed. Geoffrey Parker (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005...the Air Force does not specifically identify any C-NAF or other general officer billets as warfighting billets; Lieutenant Colonel Charlie ...1983. Murray, Williamson A., and Geoffrey Parker . "The Post-War World." In The Cambridge History of Warfare, edited by Geoffrey Parker , 362-412

  15. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D


    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  16. JPRS Report, Arms Control (United States)


    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  17. Hello to Arms (United States)


    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  18. 美军军官联合资格认证制度评析%Comment On Officer Joint Qualification System of US Armed Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Since October 1,2007 US armed forces have put onto practice new joint officer management system: Officer Joint Qualification System. The new management system established four levels of joint qualification from bottom to top for all officers including reserve component. If an officer has achieved the qualification level Ⅲ, he/she will obtain the designation "joint qualified officer" that replaces previous "joint specialty officer". It is an important reform of joint officer management system established by Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. Its aim is to solve increasingly growing contradiction between offering and need of joint officers by improving the flexibility and comprehensiveness of joint officer management.%美军自2007年10月1日起,实行了新的联合军官管理制度——军官联合资格认证制度。面向全体现役和后备役军官,设置由低到高4个联合资格水平等级,军官达到联合资格三级即可获得“联合资格军官”称号,以此取代之前的“联合专业军官”。它是对1986年《戈德华特一尼科尔斯国防部改组法》所确立的联合军官管理制度的重大调整,目的在于通过提高联合军官管理的灵活性和包容性,解决日益突出的联合军官供需矛盾。

  19. Self-rated health and its relationship to health/ life problems and coping strategies in members of the professional Slovenian armed forces. (United States)

    Selić, Polona; Petek, Davorina; Serec, Masa; Makovec, Maja Rus


    The aim of this study was to test the association between self-rated health status (i.e. psychological and interpersonal welfare, physical health, coping mechanisms) and absence from work due to illness in the Slovenian armed forces. 390 military personnel were included in the study. Two groups of soldiers, healthy (G1-H) and sick/less healthy (G2-S), were created according to the median value of their annual sick leave. A third group consisted of soldiers on a mission (G3-M). A background questionnaire (demographic data, lifestyle habits, a list of life problems and a list of health problems in the last three years), a Self-Rated Health Scale and the Folkman-Lazarus Ways of Coping Questionnaire were administered. Self-rated physical health was best in group G1-H and worst in G2-S, with differences between the groups being statistically significant. No gender differences were found either between the groups or in the whole sample. The most common coping strategies amongst all the soldiers were found to be problem solving, positive re-evaluation of the situation and self-control. The groups differed only in their use of the distancing strategy. The self-rated health of all the participants was found to be in strong negative correlation with the escape/avoidance coping strategy. In group G2-S, more soldiers assessed their health as poor; the differences between the groups were statistically significant. Strong positive correlations between self-rated health and satisfaction with interpersonal relationships were found. Self-rated health was found to be significantly associated with the quality of interpersonal relationships and the socio-economic and psycho-physical conditions of the soldiers.

  20. 德国联邦国防军心理卫勤工作%Mental Health Service in German Federal Armed Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯杰; 李晨; 刘柳; 郭树森; 张建杰


    德国联邦国防军历来重视军事作业过程的心理因素,以及军事人员心理问题和心理疾病的预防.德军心理卫勤工作严格依照该国相关法律法规,确立心理卫生人员的执业范围及资质,建立健全相应管理制度和督导体系,其研究工作科学、系统,尤其重视实战应用.这些做法为我军心理卫勤工作发展、人员教育培训及管理体系健全等方面提供有益借鉴和参考.%The psychological factors of military operations usually are focused by The German Federal Armed Forces, as well as the prevention of psychological problems and mental illness in military personnel. The mental health - care work is in strict accordance with the Germany laws and regulations in army. The practice scope and qualification in mental health staff are limited by German Psychological Association, including the management system and supervision system. The focus of psychological service in army is to promote the practical fighting capacity. The measures of German are the useful references of Chinese peoples Liberation Army in the logistic support of mental health, the education & training of psychological specialist, and the perfection of management - supervision system.

  1. Influência da posição do braço na relação EMG-força em músculos do braço Influence of arm position on the EMG-force relationship in arm muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Siriani de Oliveira


    Full Text Available A relação entre a amplitude do sinal eletromiográfico e a força muscular (EMG-força tem sido tomada como medida indireta da força muscular. Este estudo, em 18 voluntárias saudáveis e destras, visou avaliar a influência da posição do braço na relação EMG-força em músculos do braço em três tarefas - flexão do braço (FB, abdução do braço (AB e neutra do braço (NB - enquanto se tomavam ambas as medidas: uma célula de carga foi acoplada ao conversor do eletromiógrafo para registrar simultaneamente força e sinal eletromiográfico. Foram analisados os sinais dos músculos bíceps braquial, braquiorradial e tríceps braquial, e estimada a força de flexão e de extensão do braço nas diferentes tarefas. A relação entre esses conjuntos de valores foi analisada estatisticamente, verificando se havia correlação entre força e sinal eletromiográfico. Os resultados mostraram não haver tal correlação nas tarefas avaliadas. A posição do braço não influenciou a relação EMG-força dos músculos avaliados, com exceção do tríceps braquial, cuja atividade eletromiográfica foi maior durante a tarefa NB. Conclui-se que, em isometria, as tarefas podem ser empregadas para ativar o bíceps braquial e o braquiorradial; a tarefa NB é a mais indicada para ativar o tríceps braquial.The relationship between myoelectric signal amplitude and muscle strength (EMG-force has been used as an indirect measure of muscle strength. The aim of this study, in 18 healthy, female, right-handed volunteers, was to assess the influence of arm position on the relationship EMG-force of arm muscles in three different tasks: arm flexion, arm abduction, and neutral arm position. Both myoelectric signals and strength measures were acquired simultaneously, by coupling a load-cell to the electromyograph transducer. Signals from the biceps brachii, braquioradialis, and triceps brachii muscles were analysed, and arm extension and flexion force was

  2. 武警某部新兵艾滋病健康教育研究%Research of health education on AIDS in recruits of Armed Police Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏霞; 李浴峰; 曹春霞; 单学娴


    OBJECTIVE To explore the influence of health education on AIDS related knowledge attitude and practice in CPAPF (Chinese People's Armed Police Forces). To provide scientific evidences for making health education mode of preventing AIDS in CPAPF. METHODS Cluster sampling was used to select 1 500 CPAPF recruits. Used the approach of expert lecture, making web page and materials, training pioneers for one year health education, compared the awareness rate of related knowledge attitude, practice to AIDS before and after intervention. RESULTS The awareness rate of AIDS related knowledge, attitude, practice after intervention was significantly higher than before (P< 0.05). CPAPF soldier's favorite education patterns were lectureship, video, handbook, games, discussion, folding. 69.2% of soldiers accepted the health education. CONCLU- ' SION Active health education can improve awareness rates of AIDS related knowledge and change attitude, practice.%目的 研究健康教育对武警战士艾滋病相关知识态度行为的影响,为探讨武警部队艾滋病健康教育模式提供科学依据.方法 采用整群抽样的方法抽取武警某部1 500名新兵,采取专家专题巡讲、网页与传播材科制作、规范培训骨干等方式进行为期1年的健康教育,比较干预前后战士艾滋病相关知识知晓率和相关态度、行为持有率.结果 干预后艾滋病基本知识知晓率、态度及行为持有率高于教育前,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05).战士最受欢迎的教育方式依次是讲座、录像、手册、活动或游戏、集体讨论、展板、折页.最佳受教育时间依次为平时加强、新兵入伍.69.2%的战士认为健康教育效果很好.结论 采取多样化的健康教育方式能积极促进战士艾滋病相关知识知晓率的提高和态度、行为的改变.

  3. Do soldiers seek more mental health care after deployment? Analysis of mental health consultations in the Netherlands Armed Forces following deployment to Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth (Liesbeth M. Taal


    Full Text Available Background: Military deployment to combat zones puts military personnel to a number of physical and mental challenges that may adversely affect mental health. Until now, few studies have been performed in Europe on mental health utilization after military deployment. Objective: We compared the incidence of mental health consultations with the Military Mental Health Service (MMHS of military deployed to Afghanistan to that of non-deployed military personnel. Method: We assessed utilization of the MMHS by the full cohort of the Netherlands Armed Forces enlisted between 2008 and 2010 through linkage of mental health and human resource information systems. Results: The total population consisted of 50,508 military (18,233 deployed, 32,275 non-deployed, who accounted for 1,906 new consultations with the MMHS. The follow-up was limited to the first 2 years following deployment. We observed higher mental health care utilization in deployed vs. non-deployed military personnel; hazard ratio (HR, adjusted for sex, military branch and time in service, 1.84 [95% CI 1.61–2.11] in the first and 1.28 [1.09–1.49] in the second year after deployment. An increased risk of adjustment disorders (HR 2.59 [2.02–3.32] and 1.74 [1.30–2.32] and of anxiety disorders (2.22 [1.52–3.25] and 2.28 [1.50–3.45] including posttraumatic stress disorder (5.15 [2.55–10.40] and 5.28 [2.42–11.50], but not of mood disorders (1.33 [0.90–1.97] and 1.11 [0.68–1.82], was observed in deployed personnel in the first- and second-year post-deployment, respectively. Military personnel deployed in a unit with a higher risk of confrontation with potentially traumatic events had a higher HR (2.13 [1.84–2.47] and 1.40 [1.18–1.67]. Conclusions: Though absolute risk was low, in the first and second year following deployment to Afghanistan there was an 80 and 30% higher risk for mental health problems resulting in a consultation with the Dutch MMHS compared to military never

  4. Epidemiological investigation of dry eye among soldiers in Beijing Armed Police Force%武警某部战士干眼症患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蒂; 兰雅维; 李洁; 范珊珊


    Objective To investigate the morbidity of dry eye disease in the Beijing Armed Police Forces,and to evaluate the risk factors attributable to dry eye. Methods A total of 680 outpatients and soldiers stationed near the hospital were recruited from May 2008 to June 2010. After having informed consent from the objects, questionnaires and four dry eye tests were conducted, including fluorescein staining test, break -up time, meibomian gland function, and Schirmer I test. Multivariate conditional logistic regression model was used for analysis of the risk factors. Results The six hundred and eighty soldiers ranged in age from 19 to 25 years ( with a mean of 22.9 years). Dry eye was present in 67 ( 9.85% ) of the study subjects. On analyzing the presenting complaints, the most common complaint was dryness, found in 50(74.62% ) subjects, followed by sense of foreign body in 36(53.73% ) and transient blurred vision in 27(40.29% ), and the most least complaint was ocular pain in 3(4.47% ). The following factors were associated with dry eye in a multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis: meibomian gland dysfunction (P <0.001, B 3. 414, Exp(B)30.375), a history of LASIK (P<0. 001, B2.624, Exp(B) 13.793), the use of eye drop(P <0.001, B2.619, Exp(B) 13.717)and video display terminal(P <0.001, B2.234,Exp(B)9.340). No correlation was found between dry eye sickness and history of keratitis or conjunctivitis. Conclusions Meibomian gland dysfunction, LASIK, and a history of the use of eye drop are the major causes of dry eye among the duty troops in the Armed Police Forces.%目的 了解驻京武警某部战士干眼症患病情况,探讨其发病危险因素.方法 自2008-05至2010-06抽检武警某部共680例执勤战士作为研究对象,在获得知情同意后进行干眼症问卷调查及角膜荧光素染色、泪膜破裂时间(break up time,BUT)试验、睑板腺功能检查、基础泪液分泌试验4项干眼症的客观检查,并分

  5. Update: routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2008-June 2013. (United States)


    This report contains an update through June 2013 on the results of screening for HIV infection among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the Armed Forces. Among civilian applicants, annual rates of prevalence of HIV infection showed a continuing downward trend. Rates among black, non-Hispanic applicants were higher than other racial/ethnic groups but have declined sharply since 2008. Among service members, annual rates have varied by service and component, with higher rates in the Army and Navy and lower rates in the Marine Corps and Air Force. Members of the Army and Air Force Reserves have had consistently higher rates than members of their respective active components. For both civilian applicants and service members, rates among men are notably higher than among women. The possible roles of unprotected sex and pre-deployment behaviors and the associated challenges to prevention of HIV infection are discussed.

  6. Report of the Task Force on the Impact of the Research, Development and Field Activities of The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Summary and Conclusions. (United States)

    Gage, N. L.; And Others

    This report contains highlights of findings and major conclusions of a task force investigating the impact of research, development, and field activities of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). The various data gathering activities and their results are summarized in Section A. Data collection efforts involved questionnaires sent…

  7. 三种环境力下MEMS保险机构的设计与分析%Design and Analysis of MEMS Safety and Arming Device under Triple Environment Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史春景; 邓炬锋; 郝永平; 刘双杰


    Based on the working principle of fuze safety and arming device in the emission process, a kind of MEMS-based safety and arming device applied in cluster bombs was designed. The dynamic mod-el of the device was established under recoil force, centrifugal force and throwing force, and the main fac-tors concerning the operation of this device were analyzed. The dynamic analysis was accomplished by the software of ADAMS, and the motion curves were obtained. The calculation results show that the MEMS safety and arming device can work under the setback environment, centrifugal environment and shed en-vironment of fuze normally. At the same time, it is safe and reliable in the service process.%基于发射过程引信保险机构的工作原理,设计了一种应用于子母弹下的MEMS保险机构。在后坐力、离心力和抛撒力作用下,建立了相应的动力学模型,研究了影响保险机构工作的因素。应用ADAMS软件,对MEMS保险机构进行动力学仿真分析,得到相应的运动曲线。计算结果表明,该MEMS保险机构在后坐环境、离心环境和抛撒环境下能够可靠执行动作,并且在勤务处理时是安全可靠的。

  8. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch (United States)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  9. Posture Statement of General Douglas M. Fraser, United States Air Force Commander, United States Southern Command, Before the 112th Congress House Armed Services Committee (United States)


    seen in the hemisphere since Colombia in the 1980s; in 2011, San Pedro Sula overtook Ciudad Juarez as the most violent city in the world, with 159...leadership transition to his brother Raul is complete, but the long-term effects of the government’s market reforms remain to be seen. Haiti, while...years, and the Latin American market represents a large and growing segment of global arms sales by Russia. Historically, Russia’s strongest

  10. Incidence of Salmonella infections among service members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces and among other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, 2000-2013. (United States)

    Clark, Leslie L; Daniele, Denise O; O'Donnell, Francis L


    This report reviews the incidence of cases of typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella infections based on diagnoses recorded in healthcare records and reported through the Armed Forces reportable medical event (RME) system. During 2000-2013, there were 1,815 incident cases of non-typhoidal Salmonella and 456 incident cases of typhoidal Salmonella diagnosed in the active component force. The crude incidence rate for non-typhoidal Salmonella was 0.91 cases per 10,000 person years (p-yrs) and the rate for typhoidal Salmonella was 0.23 cases per 10,000 p-yrs. Among retirees and family members, children under 5 years of age and those aged 75 years or older comprised the greatest number of non-typhoidal Salmonella cases. Preventive measures for reducing the risk of infection with Salmonella are discussed.

  11. 77 FR 20054 - Agreements in Force as of December 31, 2011, Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the... (United States)


    ... for patent and trademark applications. Signed April 10, 1996. Entered into force April 10, 1996.... Entered into force December 15, 2005. 4. Information and communication technologies (ICT) forum terms of... February 7, 1992. Entered into force February 7, 1992. 3. Agreement on the application of an EMS...

  12. What is the Role of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) in a Post-Castro Cuba? What Role will the U.S. Military Play (United States)


    York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. Rand National Defense Research Institute. Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World . Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1992. Ratliff...gone and democracy is attempted. The political and economic power of the one million or so Cuban-Americans - living primarily in southern Florida...U.S./Latin-American History ............................... 6 Tightening the Chokehold on Cuba: Cuban Democracy Act of 1992

  13. Update: Routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2011-June 2016. (United States)


    This report contains an update through June 2016 of the results of routine screening for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces. During the surveillance period, annual seroprevalences among civilian applicants for military service peaked in 2015 (0.31 per 1,000 tested), up 29% from 2014 (0.24 per 1,000 tested). Seroprevalences among Marine Corps reservists, Navy active component service members, and Navy reservists also peaked in 2015. In the Army National Guard and the reserve component of the Marine Corps, full-year seroprevalences have trended upward since 2011. Overall (January 2011-June 2016) seroprevalences were highest for Army reservists, Army National Guard members, Navy active component members, and Navy reservists. Among active and reserve component service members, seroprevalences continue to be higher among Army and Navy members and males than their respective counterparts.

  14. Total Quality Management (TQM) in Self-Financed Technical Institutions: A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Force Field Analysis Approach (United States)

    Thakkar, Jitesh; Deshmukh, S. G.; Shastree, Anil


    Purpose: To explore the potential for adoption of TQM in self-financed technical institutions in the light of new demands and challenges posed by customers/students and society. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents use of quality function deployment (QFD) which prioritizes technical requirements and correlates them with various…

  15. Advanced Operational Aviation Medicine Course, (4th), held at Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough, Hampshire on 17-26 June 1975 (United States)


    U.N %valuation of aircrew protective halmets woru during crashes and ejections. Flying For- smmol Vesearch Comittta. Deport IPRC 1330. Mintistry of...Defence (Air Force boaptazsat)i Lostan, 1974. Glaistar,D.H. Standardisation of ispact testing of protective helmato. AGMZ Deport No. 629, 1975. Uawker...43 WARNOC SYITO)U IN am""A~ C0t1002ATiaFORI 10MNLIThUY OPZUItOlII by Sqn Ldr D C Reader MY Institute of Aviation Medicina , Farnborough. Hampshire

  16. The Role of the Armys Sustainment Think Tank in Force Modernization (United States)


    CASCOM then uses a blended delivery technique for institution- al training. Delivery methods de- veloped in CASCOM include the face-to-face classroom ...Armed Forces. He is a graduate of the Defense Leadership and Man- agement Program, the Defense Sys- tems Management College Program Manager’s Course

  17. Building Armies for Democracy: U.S. Attempts to Reform the Armed Forces of Cuba (1906-1909) and Nicaragua (1927-1933). (United States)


    Superintendent of the Rural Guard and Cuerpo de Artilleria of the Island of Cuba," Civil Report 1902, (Washington, D.C., 1902) III, pp. 67-71. 36 V... politicos and intimidation of other opponents. Clearly a versatile and effective force, these units were neither nonpartisan nor apolitical. ,6 The...viability of a government which could not secure recognition from the United States, it was hoped that Central American politicos might adopt democracy out

  18. 75 FR 51287 - Agreements in Force as of December 31, 2009, Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the... (United States)


    ...-hydraulic code applications and maintenance research. Signed December 13, 2004 and December 13, 2004... priority filing rights for patent and trademark applications. Signed April 10, 1996. Entered into force... and communication technologies (ICT) forum terms of reference. Signed October 31, 2007. Entered...

  19. An Examination of the Demographic and Career Progression of Air Force Institute of Technology Cost Analysis Graduates. (United States)


    program include the ACEIT software training and the combination of Department of Defense (DOD) application, regression, and statistics. The weaknesses...and Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) software and training could not be praised enough. AFIT vs. Civilian Institutions. The GCA program provides a Department...very useful to the graduates and beneficial to their careers. The main strengths of the program include the ACEIT software training and the combination

  20. Incidence of Campylobacter infections among service members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces and among other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, 2000-2013. (United States)


    This report reviews the incidence of illness due to Campylobacter bacteria based on diagnoses recorded in healthcare records and reported through the Armed Forces reportable medical event (RME) system. During 2000-2013, incident cases of Campylobacter infection were diagnosed in 1,393 active component service members, 188 members of the reserve component, and 3,891 retirees and family members. Among members of the active component, incidence rates tended to be higher among females, those aged 40 years or older, members of the Army and Air Force, and offi cers. Incidence rates declined from 2002 through 2007 but have risen steadily since, especially from 2010 through 2013. Among retirees and family members, the highest numbers of cases were diagnosed among those aged 5 years or younger and those aged 75 years or older. Cases identifi ed through RME reports (n=2,938) showed the highest numbers of cases in May-August, especially July, and that cases reported from Fort Shafter, HI, accounted for 20% of all cases. Measures and precautions important in preventing Campylobacter infections as well as other food- and waterborne infections are discussed.

  1. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm. (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W


    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  2. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eDura-Bernal


    Full Text Available Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm.This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility

  3. Updates: Routine screening for antibodies to HIV-1, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components. (United States)


    During routine testing of civilian applicants for U.S. military service, the overall seroprevalence of antibodies to HIV-1 was lower in 2010 than in any year since 1990. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Army and Air Force, HIV-1 seroprevalences were higher in 2008-2010 than in recent prior years. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, the Marine Corps Reserve, and the Army National Guard, HIV-1 seroprevalences have slightly declined or remained relatively stable for at least ten years. In the reserve components of most of the service branches, it is difficult to discern long-term trends because of instability of seroprevalences observed in the relatively small numbers of reserve component members tested each year.

  4. Aero radiometric measurements in the framework of the ARM06 experiment; Aeroradiometrische Messungen im Rahmen der Uebung ARM06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, B.; Butterweck, G.; Rybach, L.; Schwarz, G


    The measurement flights of the exercise ARM06 were performed between 19th and 22nd of June 2006 under the direction of Y. Loertscher of the National Emergency Operations Centre (NAZ) and coordination by the Expert Group for Aeroradiometrics (FAR). According to the alternating schedule of the annual ARM exercises, the environs of the nuclear power plants Beznau (KKB) and Leibstadt (KKL), of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) research facility and of the Intermediate Storage Facility for Nuclear Waste (ZWILAG) were inspected. The measurements showed similar results to those obtained in former years. Additionally, a neutron detector provided by the Kompetenzzentrum ABC Spiez was employed during these flights. With this detector, the neutron radiation of the proton accelerator of PSI was detected, whereas the nuclear power plants and ZWILAG showed no increase of neutron count rate. The measurements above cities were continued with the cities of Neuchatel and La Chaux-de-Fonds. Western Switzerland was largely spared from Chernobyl fallout, a fact which was reflected in the results of the airborne gamma spectroscopic (ARM) measurements. Training of the measuring teams was intensified with two dedicated training flights in the vicinity of Unteriberg (SZ) and Rothenthurm (SZ). A training search for radioactive sources was performed together with the local emergency response forces in the vicinity of Le Cerneux-Pequinot (NE). The calibration of the ARM equipment was checked with in-situ gamma spectroscopic and ambient dose equivalent rate measurements performed near Biaufond (NE, JU) by teams from Spiez Laboratory, Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), Sektion Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet (SueR) of the Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH) and the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) . The railway line between Berne and Zurich was inspected with airborne gamma spectroscopy due to a request from the Swiss National Railways (SBB). (author)

  5. System evaluation of health status and intervention in US Armed Forces%美军健康相关状况及干预措施研究的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢莎丽; 林辉; 蒙艺; 杨洋; 马骁


    Objective To systematically evaluate the health status and intervention measures in the US Armed Forces, and to provide reference for the development of health promotion strategies in our army.Methods The PubMed, Medline, Springer, Elservier, HighWire and CNKI Database were searched electronically, with assigned search strategy for American military health status and intervention measures published from Jan.1997 to Dec.2015.Results There were 25 of pieces literature about training injury, low back pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression and cardiovascular disease that were screened.Conclusion The main health problems facing the US Armed Forces and the focus of the intervention measures involved training injuries, low back pain, mental illness and cardiovascular disease.Protection of military health is shifting from the single disease prevention to diversified comprehensive maintenance in the new era.%目的:系统评价美军健康相关状况及干预措施,为我军健康促进策略的制定提供借鉴。方法计算机检索PubMed、Medline、Springer、Elservier、HighWire和CNKI等数据库,利用设定的检索策略检索1997年1月~2015年12月发表的关于美军健康相关状况及干预策略或措施的文献。结果经筛选后最终纳入25篇文献,包含训练伤、腰腿痛、创伤后应激障碍、抑郁症、心血管疾病等方面。结论美军主要的健康问题及其所关注的干预策略或措施包括训练伤、腰腿痛、心理疾病和心血管疾病等4个方面,对军人的健康保障正在从单一的疾病预防走向多元化的全面维护,以实现新时期部队的整体强健。

  6. Mao Zedong' s Experience on the Armed Forces Being Also a Working Team%解放战争后期毛泽东工作队的经验及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    解放战争后期,尤其是辽沈、淮海、平津三大战役胜利结束以后,毛泽东审时度势,及时地提出了军队不仅是战斗队而且是工作队,要求军队干部应当学会接收、管理城市和新区工作,对促进当时新解放区干部问题的解决和革命事业的顺利发展起到了巨大的促进作用。在新世纪新阶段,我军要借鉴毛泽东的工作队经验。努力做到突出核心军事能力建设,注重非战争军事行动能力建设,注重培养“学习型”高素质复合型军事人才,为维护国家安全、社会稳定和经济发展作贡献。%In the later stage of War of Liberation,especially after Liaoxi-Shenyang,Huai-Hai and Beiping-Tianjing Campaigns, Mao Zedong, correctly appraising the situations, presented the thinking that the armed forces were not only a fighting team but also a working team,requiring that cadres should learn to take over and manage cities and new areas.That has played an important role in developing the cause of the revolution. In the new era,our armed forces should draw lessons from Mao Zedong's experience on the working team,strive to give prominence to improving the core military capacity, focus on the improvement of their unmilitary capacity, try hard to train "learning-oriented" high-quality composite type personnel, safeguard China's security and contribute to economic and social development.

  7. 某军队医学院校学生性行为与性观念的调查分析%Survey on the sexual behavior and sexual concept of the students of an armed forces medical university

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆英; 胡役兰; 刘淑红


    [目的]了解军队医学生的性行为和性观念情况,为有针对的实施性教育提供依据.[方法]采用问卷调查的方法,对某军队医学院校542名大学生进行性行为和性观念情况进行调查.[结果]不同性别军校医学生的性行为和性观念情况均存在显著性差异,男性性观念比较开放,对于婚前性行为,只有5.1%的男生表示不能接受,而女生有30.2%持此态度;对于多个性伴侣,91.8%的女学生表示绝对不能接受,男生持此态度的占61.2%;男性性行为发生率为30.8%,显著高于女性3.7%,但是女性主动避孕率高于男性.[结论]军队医学生性行为和性观念与性别有关,男性比女性更为开放.%[Objective] To get the message of sexual behavior and sexual concept of the students of an armed forces medical university, for providing a basis on sexual education in future. [Method] A survey was conducted among 542 students by clustered sampling. [Results] There were significant difference among different sex medical students, the sex concept of boys were more open than girls, there were only 5.1% boys could't accept sex behavior before marriage, while there were 30.2% girls took it for granted; 91.8% girls could't accept many sex companions, whik 61.2% boys hold this attitude .the incidence rate of sex behavior of boys was 30.8%, it was higher than girls too, but the initiative contraception rate was higher than boys. [Conclusions] The sexual behavior and sexual concept of armed forces students are related with sex, male are more open than female.

  8. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir


    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  9. Response of the middle atmosphere to anthropogenic and natural forcings in the CMIP5 simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth system model

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, H.


    The ECHAM6 atmospheric general circulation model is the atmosphere component of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that is used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations. As ECHAM6 has its uppermost layer centered at 0.01 hPa in the upper mesosphere, these simulations offer the opportunity to study the middle atmosphere climate change and its relation to the troposphere on the basis of a very comprehensive set of state-of-the-art model simulations. The goals of this paper are (a) to introduce those new features of ECHAM6 particularly relevant for the middle atmosphere, including external forcing data, and (b) to evaluate the simulated middle atmosphere and describe the simulated response to natural and anthropogenic forcings. New features in ECHAM6 with respect to ECHAM5 include a new short-wave radiation scheme, the option to vary spectral irradiance independent of total solar irradiance, and a latitude-dependent gravity-wave source strength. The description of external forcing data focuses on solar irradiance and ozone. Stratospheric temperature trends simulated with the MPI-ESM for the last decades of the 20th century agree well with observations. The future projections depend strongly on the scenario. Under the high emission scenario RCP8.5, simulated temperatures are locally lower by more than 20 K than preindustrial values. Many of the simulated patterns of the responses to natural forcings as provided by solar variability, volcanic aerosols, and El Nino-Southern Oscillation, largely agree with the observations. 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  10. The impact of the military mission in Afghanistan on mental health in the Canadian Armed Forces: a summary of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Zamorski


    Full Text Available Background: As Canada's mission in Afghanistan winds down, the Canadian Forces (CF are reflecting on the psychological impact of the mission on more than 40,000 deployed personnel. Methods: All major CF studies of mental health outcomes done before and during the Afghanistan era are summarized, with an eye toward getting the most complete picture of the mental health impact of the mission. Studies on traumatic brain injury (TBI, high-risk drinking, and suicidality are included given their conceptual link to mental health. Results: CF studies on the mental health impact of pre-Afghanistan deployments are few, and they have inadequate detail on deployment experiences. Afghanistan era findings confirm service-related mental health problems (MHPs in an important minority. The findings of the studies cohere, both as a group and in the context of data from our Allies. Combat exposure is the most important driver of deployment-related MHPs, but meaningful rates will be found in those in low-threat areas. Reserve service and cumulative effects of multiple deployments are not major risk factors in the CF. Many deployed personnel will seek care, but further efforts to decrease the delay are needed. Only a fraction of the overall burden of mental illness is likely deployment attributable. Deployment-related mental disorders do not translate into an overall increase in in-service suicidal behavior in the CF, but there is concerning evidence of increased suicide risk after release. TBI occurred in a distinct minority on this deployment, but severe forms were rare. Most TBI cases do not have persistent “post-concussive” symptoms; such symptoms are closely associated with MHPs. Conclusion: The mental health impact of the mission in Afghanistan is commensurate with its difficult nature. While ongoing and planned studies will provide additional detail on its impacts, greater research attention is needed on preventive and therapeutic interventions.

  11. Update: routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2010-June 2015. (United States)


    This report contains an update through June 2015 of the results of routine screening for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces. Seroprevalences among civilian applicants in 2014 and the first half of 2015 (0.21 and 0.22 per 1,000 tested, respectively) were markedly lower than in 2012 (0.28 per 1,000 tested). In nearly every component of every military service, seroprevalences in 2014 and 2015 were either lower than, or relatively similar to, prevalences in prior years; however, in the Army National Guard, seroprevalences increased each year and approximately doubled from 2010 (0.18 per 1,000 tested) to 2014-2015 (0.36-0.39 per 1,000 tested). Among active and reserve component service members, seroprevalences continue to be higher among Army and Navy members and males than their respective counterparts.

  12. Update: Routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2009-June 2014. (United States)


    This report contains an update through June 2014 of the results of routine screening for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces. Seroprevalences among civilian applicants in 2013 and the first half of 2014 (0.19 and 0.15 per 1,000 tested, respectively) were markedly lower than in 2012 (0.27 per 1,000 tested). In nearly every component of every service, seroprevalences in 2013 and 2014 were either similar or lower than in prior years; however, in the Army National Guard, seroprevalences increased each year and approximately doubled from 2010 (0.18 per 1,000 tested) to 2013-2014 (0.35-0.41 per 1,000 tested). Among active and reserve component service members, seroprevalences continue to be higher among Army and Navy members and males than their respective counterparts.

  13. Zaštita računarskih mreža Ministarstva odbrane i Vojske Srbije primenom virtuelnog honeyneta / Security of computer network of the Ministry of Defence and the Serbian Armed Forces using virtual honeynets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bobar


    Full Text Available U ovom radu obrađena je zaštita računarskih mreža u Ministarstvu odbrane i Vojsci Srbije primenom virtuelnog honeyneta. Zaštita je obrađena sa aspekta arhitekture računarskih mreža koje imaju pristup internetu. Predloženi koncept primene virtuelnog honeyneta uzima u obzir dostignuća nauke u ovoj oblasti u svetu, ostale primenjene metode i tehnike zaštite, mogućnosti i potrebe korisnika i elemente delova računarskog sistema Ministarstva odbrane i Vojske koji bi mogli biti meta napada sa udaljenih mesta globalne (internet mreže. / This paper covers the proposed solution for security of computer network in the Ministry of Defence and the Serbian Armed Forces using virtual honeynets. The security is covered from the aspect of the architecture of computer networks with Internet access. The proposed usage of virtual honeynets for protection takes into account the accomplishments of science in this field as well as security methods and techniques, users' needs and opportunities along with the computer network components of the MoD and the SAF that can be targets for attack.

  14. 武警院校多媒体资源库建设的现状及对策%The status quo and countermeasures of multimedia resources library construction in armed police force academies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建鹏; 王基生


    Based on the survey results of multimedia resources library construction in related academies amongtechnieal staff participating in armed police force educational technology training, the paper tries to identify the main factors affecting and constraining the construction of academic multimedia resources library. It also brings forward some countermeasures and suggestions for multimedia resources construction in order to improve the teaching support of multimedia resources library and provide better services for multimedia-assisted teaching.%通过对参加武警部队教育技术骨干培训的人员进行有关院校多媒体教育资源建设现状的调查,分析了影响和制约多媒体资源库建设的主要因素,提出了对策与建议,以提高多媒体资源库的教学保障能力,更好地为多媒体教学服务.

  15. Dynamics of Non-Steady Spiral Arms in Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Junichi; Wada, Keiichi


    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional $N$-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms are originated in the continual repetition of this non-linear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the co-rotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, ...

  16. Improved orthopedic arm joint (United States)

    Dane, D. H.


    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  17. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent


    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.

  18. Determining loads on the arms of a milling longwall shearer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, K. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Instytut Maszyn Gorniczych, Przerobczych i Automatyki)


    Derives formulae for calculating forces in the hydraulic cylinder of a shearer arm and reactions in cylinder joints at the points of mounting to the shearer body. Force variation trends are shown for front and rear arms of ripping heads of the KGS and KWB shearer loaders equipped with cutters or discs. A computer program developed on the basis of the calculation methods presented allows the loads on the arms to be determined for various kinematic configurations and design parameters of a shearer. It was found that cutting tools of the disc type cause increased load variations on shearer arms.

  19. Arm Lift (Brachioplasty) (United States)

    ... sagging. An arm lift might also boost your body image. As you get older, the skin on your upper arms changes — sagging and becoming loose. Significant weight loss also can cause the undersides of your upper arms to droop. While exercise can strengthen and improve muscle tone in the ...

  20. Analysis of Low Back Pain and Health Education of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces%武警官兵下腰痛的调查分析及健康教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪慧茹; 刘春梅; 徐继培; 张倩


    目的:探讨武警官兵的下腰痛的特点及影响因素,制定预防措施及健康教育对策,为武警部队提供科学训练的依据.方法:对2007年6月至2010年6月我科门诊诊治的1806例武警部队下腰痛患者进行调查分析,了解引起下腰痛的主病因、下腰痛类型与兵种的关系、下腰痛复发的影响因素、下腰痛与兵龄长短的关系.结果:引起下腰痛的主原因为急性腰扭伤及腰肌劳损,勤务兵主是急性腰痛为主(P<0.001),而运输兵、通讯兵和公务员主是慢性腰痛(P<0.001),特种兵则急性腰痛与慢性腰痛基本接近(p=0.0897),运输兵和特种兵容易出现腰肌劳损的复发,腰肌劳损及韧带炎的复发多与不正规治疗有关,兵龄短的官兵的下腰痛主为急性腰痛,而兵龄超过3年的官兵的下腰痛主为慢性腰痛,随着兵龄的增加,慢性腰痛的发病率增加.结论:科学训练是减少武警官兵下腰痛的关键,尤其是慢性下腰痛的发生,出现下腰痛后,及时、正规的诊治是防治和避免其复发的关键.%Objective: To investigate the characteristics and affecting factors of low back pain of the Chinese people's armed police officers, it is to develop the preventive measures and strategies of health education, which is provide a scientific basis for training. Methods: Our out-patient treatment of 1806 cases of armed police was investigated from June 2007 to June 2010. Then we analysis the major cause of low back pain, relationship between type of low back pain and branches of the military, the factors of recurrence of low back pain and relationship of the length of military age. Results: The main reason for low back pain was lumbar sprain and strain of lumbar muscles. Orderlies officer was mainly acute low back pain (P< 0. 001); transport troops, communications troops and civil servants was mainly chronic low back pain (P<0. 001), and acute low back pain and chronic low back pain of special force was

  1. The Latvian Armed Forces today / Raimonds Graube

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graube, Raimonds


    Ülevaade Läti kaitsevägede olukorrast, eesmärkidest, rahvusvahelisest koostööst ja valmistumisest liitumiseks NATO-ga. Tabelid: Läti kaitsejõudude planeerimise süsteem, käsuliinid, kaitsejõudude struktuur rahu- ja sõjaajal. Raimonds Graube biograafia

  2. 76 FR 30497 - Armed Forces Day, 2011 (United States)


    ... participation and cooperation of civil authorities and private citizens. I invite the Governors of the States... known. These brave men and women are willing to sacrifice their lives for the security of our Nation and the freedoms of their fellow citizens. We are humbled by their continued resolve to respond to...

  3. The Businesses of the Indonesian Armed Forces (United States)


    role while President Sukarno , Indonesia’s first President, and his government waged the political battle. This was to change in December 1948 when... Sukarno and his government were taken prisoner by the Dutch in the capital Yogyakarta because of their refusal to leave and wage a guerilla war, as had...been agreed upon earlier between Sukarno and Soedirman. Despite being critically ill, Soedirman disregarded Sukarno’s orders to surrender, and

  4. Satellite Constellation Optimization for Turkish Armed Forces (United States)


    investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of the design, 9 Jeff Foust , “Emerging Opportunities for Low-Cost...Jeff Foust , “Smallsats on the Rise,” Space Quarterly Magazine, December 17, 2012, URL: 13 Ibid...October 06, 2011, News-Archive?story=1899 under “News&Events.” 18 Foust , “Smallsats on the Rise.” 19

  5. The Mexican Armed Forces in Transition (United States)


    Jordi Diaz wrote on Mexican security and defense policy for his doctoral dissertation at the University of Toronto, and continues to broaden his...reconstruction, mostly carried out by the military. In 1876, during this process of reconstruction, General Porfirio Díaz ascended to the presidency. Having

  6. Armed Forces 2002 Sexual Harassment Survey (United States)


    of Sex Roles in the Active Duty Military. The second, Form B, represent- ed a complete redesign of the approach to inquiring about sexual harassment...or other regular daily activities as a result of your physical health? Please mark one answer for each statement. Were limited in the...MANPOWER DATA CENTER iii The Department of Defense (DoD) conducted sexual harassment surveys of active -duty members in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air

  7. Econometric Models of Armed Forces Enlistment Levels (United States)


    PROJECT. TASK AREA A «ORK UNIT NUMBERS IJ. REPORT DATE October 1976 II. NUMBER OF PASES is. SECURITY CLASS, (OI m-» «ponj Uncl. ISa...34The Cost of the Draft...," loc. cit., csp. pp. 240-246. 33 5. Ibid.. p. 241. 6. Ibid. 7. The distribucion also allows him Co define W as...resources spent by the services in each of these areas . However, offsetting their strength in the superior enlistment data they use, they are weak in

  8. Inspection of the Armed Forces Retirement Home (United States)


    psychologists, • dietitians, • social workers, • physical therapists , • occupational therapists , • optometrists, and • speech pathologists. 27 National...Occupational Therapists , Speech Therapists , and Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates certifications on two physicians. Results – Part organization. At the time of the DoD IG inspection, the supporting organization was not able to supply a speech therapist or support the total

  9. The construction of driver' s personality trait model of armed police force%武警部队汽车驾驶员人格特质模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文; 余淑君; 王丹


    目的 探讨武警部队汽车驾驶员人格特点,构建驾驶员的人格特质模型与评价标准.方法 应用卡特尔16PF个性测验对武警部队北京、四川、内蒙古、云南等1187名汽车驾驶员进行心理测试.结果 武警部队汽车驾驶员的职业人格特质主要由稳定自控性、能动合作性、幻想开放性、聪明直率性4个因子构成,可解释总变异50.13%.结论 四个因子基本可以构建武警部队汽车驾驶员的人格特质模型,对选拔、培训和评价驾驶员具有一定的参考价值.%Objective To investigate the personality characteristics of the drivers in the Armed Police Force ( CAPF), as well as construct a personality traits model for drivers and evaluation criteria. Methods Adopting Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire(16PF) to collect data from 1187 CAPF drivers in Beijing,Sichuan,Inner Mongolia and Yunnan. Results The paper concludes that career personality traits of CAPF drivers are made up of 4 factors: stability and self-control, self-motivation and cooperation, fantasy and openness, intelligence and candor, which explain 50.13% of the total variance. Conclusion The four factors basically construct the personality trait model of CAPF drivers. They could also be of great significance in recruiting, training and evaluating drivers.

  10. Inconsistencies in the work of P Maraner (reply to comment [Usp. Fiz. Nauk 186 795 (2016)] on the paper "Quadratic Sagnac effect - the influence of gravitational potential of Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921-1926)" (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 185 431 (2015) [Phys. Usp. 58 398 (2015)]) (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.


    We consider the distributions of the scalar gravitational potential of Coriolis forces in different parts of the shoulder of a rotating equal-arms Michelson interferometer. It results in a view of the very small difference between the phases of light in the shoulders of the Michelson interferometer, in comparison with the phase difference due to the quadratic Sagnac effect. It has been shown that there is an effect, discussed earlier by P Maraner, which is a higher approximation to quadratic Sagnac effect.

  11. 武警部队执行地震救援中的药材保障%Medicinal materials guarantee of earthquake emergency medical relief team of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺智; 安茜; 谢红; 郭海涛; 叶路


    Objective To develop a reasonable and scientific scheme for medicinal materials that disaster relief teams of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces (CPAPF) should carry in earthquake relief work. Methods The cases of disposition of medicinal materials of the disaster relief teams of the CPAPF in Wenchuan and Yushu Earthquake areas , 2008 and 2010 respectively, were investigated. The relevant disease spectra during the early periods of earthquake (within 3 days) were analyzed. In addition, literatrure review and expert counseling were used. According to the maximum outpatient quantity of 800 persons, the bases of medicinal materials needed for single appropriate medical skills were calculated based on the“Standard for the guarantee of military related medicines”and the“Standards of millitary matrerials of the Chinese Armed Police Forces”, and with the method of management of single disease cases. Thus the species of medicinal materials and quantities thererof necessary for the relief teams during the first 3 days after earthquake were determined . Results A detailed list of medicinal materials any relief team should carry during the first 3 days after earthquake, including 10 categories with 87 species, had been developed. Conclusion A reasonable and scientific scheme for medicinal materials carried by disaster relief teams of the CPAPF in earthquake relief work based on quantitative study has been made, thus providing a useful model for reference.%目的:为武警部队医学救援队携运药材制定合理、科学的药材保障配置方案。方法分析总结汶川和玉树地震救援中药材配置方面的现状,并根据地震早期伤病谱,采用文献调研法、以《军队相关药材保障标准》及《武警部队战材标准》为基本依据,借鉴单病种病例管理方法,同时结合救援专家建议,计算单项适宜医学治疗技术所需的药材保障基数,从而确定武警部队医学救援队

  12. 78 FR 26328 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification (United States)


    ...)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (U) (i) Prospective Purchaser: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (ii) Total Estimated Value: * As defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. Major... NATO and furthering weapon system standardization and interoperability with U.S. forces. NATO...

  13. Retraining of interjoint arm coordination after stroke using robot-assisted time-independent functional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B. Brokaw, MS


    Full Text Available We have developed a haptic-based approach for retraining of interjoint coordination following stroke called time-independent functional training (TIFT and implemented this mode in the ARMin III robotic exoskeleton. The ARMin III robot was developed by Drs. Robert Riener and Tobias Nef at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich, or ETH Zurich, in Zurich, Switzerland. In the TIFT mode, the robot maintains arm movements within the proper kinematic trajectory via haptic walls at each joint. These arm movements focus training of interjoint coordination with highly intuitive real-time feedback of perform-ance; arm movements advance within the trajectory only if their movement coordination is correct. In initial testing, 37 nondisabled subjects received a single session of learning of a complex pattern. Subjects were randomized to TIFT or visual demonstration or moved along with the robot as it moved though the pattern (time-dependent [TD] training. We examined visual demonstration to separate the effects of action observation on motor learning from the effects of the two haptic guidance methods. During these training trials, TIFT subjects reduced error and interaction forces between the robot and arm, while TD subject performance did not change. All groups showed significant learning of the trajectory during unassisted recall trials, but we observed no difference in learning between groups, possibly because this learning task is dominated by vision. Further testing in stroke populations is warranted.

  14. “经济与核武并行路线”及朝鲜经济政策走向%Strategy of Carrying out Economic Construction and Building Nuclear Armed Forces Simultaneously and North Korean Economic Policy Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    North Korea proposed the strategy of carrying out economic construction and building nuclear armed forces simultaneously on March 2013.For various factors, economy was more emphasized in this strategy than the similar policy in the past while the national defense was the priority.However, such an economic reform can not re-move the drawbacks of planned economy;therefore, it is limited.Besides, factors such as nuclear weapon develop-ment and investment environment may impede and challenge North Korea’ s economic cause.It is proposed that North Korea should improve its economic efficiency and management, as well as attract more foreign investment and open wider to the outside world.%2013年3月,朝鲜提出金正恩时代的“国家运行基本政策”———“经济与核武并行路线”。其中经济领域的任务,呈现不同以往的特征,对经济的重视较以往已达到了更高的程度,多种因素促使朝鲜把经济当作最重要的任务之一,同样为“并行路线”,金日成时期的“并行路线”重在国防,金正恩则将焦点置于经济。然而,不涉及计划经济本身的弊端的经济改革仍将是有限度的,加之核开发问题、投资环境等一系列制约性因素,未来朝鲜在经济领域所推行的任务仍将面临各种障碍和挑战,其预期的效果也将有待时间的检验。在内部提高效率改善经济管理,同时为从外部引进外资而扩大开放将成为今后一个时期朝鲜的经济政策方向。

  15. 组织支持感对特战队员人格与情绪耗竭的调节作用%Perceived organizational support's moderating effect on the relationship between personality and emotional exhaustion of Chinese armed police force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴改改; 郭文汇; 李永娟; 张玉梅


    Objective To test the hypothesis that perceived organizational support(POS) plays a moderate role in the process of personality' s effect on emotional exhaustion.Methods Using POS,Revised NEO Personality Inventory and Emotional Exhaustion Inventory,376 special combat soldiers were tested from the Chinese Armed Police Force.Then SPSS 16.0 was used to conduct descriptive analysis,correlational analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.Results The interaction of neuroticism and POS as well as the interaction of conscientiousness and POS were significant or marginally significant,respectively.POS significantly moderated the relationship between neuroticism and emotional exhaustion(β=-0.19,t=-2.82,P<0.01)as well as the relationship between conscientiousness and emotional exhaustion(β=-0.12,t=-1.95,P=0.052).Conclusion Neuroticism and conscientiousness are more strongly related with emotional exhaustion among individuals with low POS than high POS.%目的 探讨组织支持感在人格影响特战队员情绪耗竭过程中的调节作用.方法 采用组织支持感问卷、大五人格量表和情绪耗竭问卷对来自6个省区的武警部队的376名特战队员进行问卷调查,并使用SPSS16.0进行描述性统计分析、相关分析和多层回归分析.结果 神经质和组织支持感的交互作用以及尽责性与组织支持感的交互作用均显著或边缘显著,即组织支持感显著调节神经质与情绪耗竭的关系(β=-0.19,t=-2.82,P<0.01),以及尽责性与情绪耗竭的关系(β=-0.12,t=-1.95,P=0.052).结论 神经质和尽责性在低组织支持感的情况下对情绪耗竭的影响较强,而在高组织支持感的情况下对情绪耗竭的影响减弱.

  16. Analysis and research of overweight among the officers and soldiers in certain armed forces%某部队官兵发生超重的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英; 刘庆森; 杨云生; 郭旭


    目的 调查某部队官兵发生超重的影响因素,为部队官兵的生活、训练提供更科学的指导.方法 问卷调查采用双盲法(7359份问卷),将结果用CHISS软件实现非条件Logistic回归分析,筛选出对超重有显著影响的危险因素.结果 有效应答7338份,调查结果显示,睡眠时间少(<6 h)、失去亲人、情绪压抑、进食速度快(<5 min)、运动强度小、暴饮暴食、工作压力大、出生在城市、婚后9项因素与超重有明确相关性;并且发现前6项是对超重有显著影响的独立危险因素(P<0.01).结论 超重和肥胖的原因除了公认的运动强度小、高热量饮食外,睡眠时间少、进食速度快、情绪压抑等因素也与超重密切相关,应引起人们的足够重视.%Objective To survey and analyze the influencing factors of overweight in the officers and soldiers in certain armed forces,and to offer more scientific guidance on the living and training of the officers and soldiers. Methods Investigations with questionnaires using double blind method were carried out and logistic regression analysis were implemented by software CHISS. The significant risk factors which affected the overweight were picked out. Results The logistic regression analysis showed that the factors affecting overweight include sleep deprivation, missing family members,depressed mood, eating too fast,low exercise intensity, binge overeating, overwork,city background and post marriage. The first six items were the significant independent risk factors of inducing overweight (P<0.01). Conclusions The influencing factors of overweight and obesity include not only minor amount of exercise and high calorie diet, but also sleep deprivation(≤6h) .eating too fast (≤5min), and depressed mood etc. These factors are important and should be emphasized.

  17. Engaging armed non-state actors in mechanisms for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Lacroix


    Full Text Available Experience of engagement with armed non-state actors on the landmine ban may point the way to innovative approaches to preventing forced displacement and other abuses of human rights....

  18. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  19. Selection, training and retention of an armed private security department. (United States)

    Hollar, David B


    To arm or not to arm security officers? One hospital which has opted for arming its officers is Cook Children's Healthcare System, Fort Worth, TX, an integrated pediatric healthcare facility with over 4000 employees. Because of its location in a major metropolitan area and based on several factors including demographics, exterior risk assessments and crime statistics, the hospital's Administration and its Risk Manager supported the decision to operate as an armed security force, according to the author. In this article he shares its current program and presents some thoughts and ideas that may benefit others who are considering this important step.

  20. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi


    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  1. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi


    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  2. 武警部队部分护理人员卫勤战备能力的调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis on Combat Readiness Capacity of Nurses in Armed Police Force Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐秀花; 徐丽; 陆萍; 解温品; 胡青; 刘蕾


    Objective To investigate the combat readiness capacity of nurses in Armed Police Force (APF) hospitals and to discuss the strategy to improve their combat readiness capacity. Methods From January 2010 to December 2011, the data of combat readiness capacity of 1321 nurses who had participated in major health service of Olympics security, preservation of stability, earthquake relief and flood rescue, National Games security, World Expo security and Asian Games security from 5 Class-Ⅲ Level-A hospitals and 2 motor division hospital of APF(including soldier nurses, non-commissioned civilian nurses, noncommissioned nurses and contract nurses). Results The survey results showed that the clinical nurses gained the highest scores (3. 16±0. 85) in clinical nursing capacity in the three dimensions of combat readiness evaluation; compared with the combat readiness, they gained higher scores in the overall scores of the relative sense of identity related to combat readiness and the highest scores were in personal matters / physical fitness / psychosocial readiness (3. 96±0. 86). Conclusion The combat readiness capacity of the APF nurses needs to be improved, especially in the ability of military action and soldier/survival skills. We need to develop a normative, targeted training program to further improve the quality and effectiveness of the combat readiness training.%目的 了解我国武警部队部分护理人员卫勤战备能力的现状和水平,探讨提高其战备能力的方法.方法 2010年1月至2011年12月,对参加奥运会安保、处理突发事件、维护社会稳定、抗震救灾、抗洪抢险、全运会安保、世博会安保、亚运会安保等重大卫勤任务的武警部队5所三级甲等医院和2所机动师医院1 321名护理人员(包括军人护士、非现役文职护士、士官护士、合同制护士等)进行问卷调查.结果 有关战备能力评估的3个维度中,护理人员的临床护理能力得分最高,为(3.16±0

  3. Arm CT scan (United States)

    ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano


    A multisensory polishing arm with integrated three component force sensor, a miniature acoustic emission (AE) sensor and an accelerometer was developed for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process. The arm design was optimized for integration of a force and an AE sensor. The f...

  5. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  6. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula. (United States)


    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  7. Hearing Protection Evaluation for the Combat Arms Earplug at Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Lovejoy


    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) for the Department of Energy. The INL Protective Security Forces (Pro Force) are involved in training exercises that generate impulse noise by small arms fire. Force-on-force (FOF) training exercises that simulate real world scenarios require the Pro Force to engage the opposition force (OPFOR) while maintaining situational awareness through verbal communications. The Combat Arms earplug was studied to determine if it provides adequate hearing protection in accordance with the requirements of MIL-STD-1474C/D. The Combat Arms earplug uses a design that allows continuous noise through a critical orifice while effectively attenuating high-energy impulse noise. The earplug attenuates noise on a non linear scale, as the sound increases the attenuation increases. The INL studied the effectiveness of the Combat Arms earplug with a Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) head and torso simulator used with a selection of small arms to create impulse sound pressures. The Combat Arms earplugs were inserted into the B&K head and torso ears, and small arms were then discharged to generate the impulse noise. The INL analysis of the data indicates that the Combat Arms earplug does provide adequate protection, in accordance with MIL-STD-1474C/D, when used to protect against impulse noise generated by small arms fire using blank ammunition. Impulse noise generated by small arms fire ranged from 135–160 dB range unfiltered un-weighted. The Combat Arms earplug attenuated the sound pressure 10–25 dB depending on the impulse noise pressure. This assessment is consistent with the results of previously published studies on the Combat Arms earplug (see Section 5, “References”). Based upon these result, the INL intends to use the Combat Arms earplug for FOF training exercises.

  8. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot (United States)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew


    contains a force-and-torque sensor that provides feedback for force (compliance) control of the arm. The end effector could be a tool or a robot hand, depending on the application.

  9. 武警部队护理士官学员学习压力分析与对策研究%Analysis and countermeasures of people's armed police force nursing officer students' learning stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳菊; 李雅平; 陈振锋


    Objective: Through the methods of questionnaire survey care pressures about the nursing officer students' feel, performance and causes, and to find effective methods and measures in order to reduce the students psychological disorders and to ensure security and stability. Methods:Using cluster sampling method, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 229 students in grade 2009 to determine their during the school's perception of stress .sources of stress, the main reason of pressure form, the adverse effects of pressure unresolved, self - resolve ways, and the objects of conversation, get someone to help the situation and find a psychiatrist to conduct. Results :229 students during the school experience greater stresses. The main source of stress was study which accounted for 86.46% ,the team event too much accounted for 46.29% , others accounted for 43.23% ,the employment accounting for 41.92%. The main reasons of the pressure formation were lack of capacity for individuals accounted for 37.12% ,fast pace of life accounted for 35.81 % ,learning competition accounted for 35.81 % ,lack of communication accounted for 29.69% and the resolve channels are poor. The stress are unsolved will affect learning,normal life and strained relations with fellow students. The ways to resolve themselves when the face of pressure to use more methods of listening music,chatting and walking. They face the pressure choice people to talk to them, the object by turns are classmates, comrades, and parents. When the face pressures to get help from team leaders are more. They was no time to find a psychiatrist and counseling agencies to resolve the pressure. Conclusion: People's Armed Police Force nursing soldier offices feel more pressure, learning is the main source of stress which should be established social support systems to reduce the adverse effects of stress,to achieve to ensure improved quality of teaching,to ensure security and stability.%目的:通过调查问卷了解护理

  10. 武警某执勤部队膳食铁与血脂水平的相关性研究%Associations between intake of dietary iron and blood lipid in soldiers of Armed Police Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚琳; 王磊; 李严; 李卉


    Objective To investigate the associations between intake of the dietary iron and blood lipid in the soldiers of Armed Police Forces .Methods Dietary survey for 3 days by dietary weighing method was made and the total iron content , heme-iron and non heme-iron intakes were counted in 115 soldiers.Fasting total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol ( LDL-C) were also measured .Logistic regression models and one-way ANOVA were used to assess associa-tions and prevalence between the total iron content , heme-iron and non heme-iron intakes and dyslipidemia risks after adjusting for age , BMI and energy consumption .Results The average iron intake was higher than the Chinese DRIs value .The total dietary iron , heme iron and non-heme iron contents were 47.1mg, 26.5mg and 19.9mg, respectively.The total dietary iron content and heme-iron were positively associated with the blood total cholesterol ( TC) , triglycerides ( TG) , and low density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C) ( P<0.05).With increasing dietary iron content and heme-iron, dyslipidemia risks were significantly increased .Conclusion Dietary iron from animal foods may have a bad effect on the blood lipid levels .%目的:研究武警某执勤部队战士膳食铁与血脂间的关系,为进一步提供合理膳食结构、保持机体血脂代谢平衡提供理论基础。方法115名战士作为调查对象,采用3 d称重法对其食堂伙食供应情况连续调查,计算其食物总铁元素、动物来源的血红素铁及植物来源的非血红素铁摄入量;取空腹静脉血,全自动生化分析仪检测血浆总胆固醇( total cholesterol , TC)、三酰甘油(triglycerides,TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL cholesterol,HDL-C)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL cholesterol, LDL-C),采用多元回归分析食物总铁元素、动物性食物来源的血红蛋白铁,以及植物性食物来源的非血红蛋白铁摄

  11. 武警南疆某部新兵健康教育需求调查评估%Investigation and evaluation of demands of health education in Chinese People’ s Armed Police Forces in southern Xinjiang region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保平; 许德仓; 张新军; 贾涛; 朱强


    Objective To investigate and evaluate the demands of health education in Chinese People ’ s Armed Police Forces in Nanjiang region .Methods By using the method of the self-made questionnaire , The demands of health education in 480 recruits were investigated about the contents of demands of health education , the ways of health demands , the status of health knowledge-atti-tude-behavior、According to different academic diplomas and different origins , comprehensive evaluation of the demands of health edu-cation was done .Results The total rate of awareness of knowledge about health education reached 70.25%.The total rates of holding health attitude and health behavior were 88.46%and 62.35%.Demands of health education in recruits were extensive , The top five demands were as follows.self-protection against terrorism (100%), mental regulation against terrorism (100%), custom of minority area (87.95%), cold-warm knowledge in desert area (83.93%),wound ambulance (83.09%),and characteristics of desert climate (83.09%).The need of stress and social disabilities was the lowest (43.97%).Multi-media and self-study online were the favorite means of health education , accounting for 84.24%and 60.44%, respectively.There was statistically significant difference in academic diplomas and different origins in sexual physiology and psychology needs .Conclusions Self-protection against terrorism , mental regu-lation against terrorism , custom of minority area along with multi-media and self-study online are the most urgent demands .%目的:调查并评估南疆武警某部新兵的健康教育需求。方法通过自编调查问卷的方法,调查了南疆武警某部480名新兵的健康教育需求内容、健康需求方式、健康知信行现状,并按不同学历、不同户籍对新兵的健康教育需求进行综合分析、评估。结果武警南疆某部新兵健康知信行现状中健康知识总知晓率为70.25%,健康态度总持有率为88.46%

  12. Study on muscular damage biomarkers of armed police force soldiers after intensive exercise%大强度训练后某部队员肌肉损伤标志物水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简明; 罗俊卿; 喻红波; 刘阳


    Objective:To observe the muscular damage biomarkers level changes and clinical significance of creatine kinase, myoglobin, heart-type fatty-acid binding protein, glycogen phosphorylase BB and cardiac troponin of the armed police force soldiers after intensive exercise. Methods:The levels of CK、Mb、H-FABP、GPBB、cTnI were tested and compared at the moment of before the 20-km cross-coutry run, immediately after the run, and 3h, 6h, 24h thereafter from 20 commandos.Results:20 soldiers completed the whole course of the 20 km cross-country training and had a 24h observation period rest after the training without other activities. The average drinking water during the cross-country run was (0.50+0.27) L. Because of the loss of water, and avoiding the effect of the change of blood volume on the changes of blood volume, the change of hemoglobin level before and after the training was used to calculate the changes of blood volume and each indicator concentration were corrected by it.At the time of before and after train-ing, the level of muscle damage markers in each time point were listed as table 1.In all the indexes, there were significantly differences of CK,Mb,H-FABP and GPBB, which were F=85.70,P<0.001;F=44.91,P<0.001;F=21.99,P<0.001;F=33.34,P<0.001. While there was no signicantly difference of cTnI(F=1.599,P=0.221).Mb increased range was biggest, showing the most obvious change which was more than 3 times the baseline level after training and more than 4 times at the highest point of 3h. But the change was still high at 6h after the training in which there were 7 cases showing beyond the critical value 72μg/L of cardiac events. The ini-tial 6h of CK was not significantly increased, and the 24h was gradually increased in the situation. GPBB increased significantly, while the highest point was 2 times higher than the baseline level at 3h, but the decrease was not obvious, and remained at a high lev-el at 24h. After training, H-FABP reached the highest level and

  13. 424名武警官兵救援创伤后成长状况的调查分析%Survey of rescue posttraumatic growth of 424 Chinese people's armed forces soldiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月娟; 王进礼; 赵蕴; 杨帆; 周喻; 孙江男; 邢宏树


    Objective To explore the status and influencing factors of the rescue posttraumatic growth of Chinese people' s armed forces soldiers in order to provide a new point of view for psychological intervention.Methods 424 soldiers who had executed earthquake rescue task were assessed with Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI),and the growth status between different groups were compared.Results (1) The average score of PTGI 21 items ranged from 2.72-3.72,and the score of most items were above 3,which implied the growth degree was between "middle change" and "more change".8 items with highest score were focused on three dimensions which were labeled interpersonal relationship,appreciation of life and personal strength.(2) There was no significant difference between the total score of different rank groups (F=0.885,P>0.05),which score were 3.43±0.66,3.50±0.62,3.50±0.79,3.30±1.11 respectively.The was significant difference in 4 dimensions and total score of PTGI between the group which had executed rescue task for more than 14 days and the other which had executed rescue task for less than 14 days,and the scores of the group which had executed rescue task for more than 14 days were higher (P<0.05 or 0.01).Conclusion Almost all rescue soldiers perceives mental growth,such as the changes of interpersonal relationship,attitude of life,and personal strength particularly.The duration of rescue task might be a influencing factor of posttraumatic growth.%目的 探讨武警官兵救援创伤后成长的状况及影响因素,为救援官兵的心理干预工作提供新的思路.方法 以创伤后成长量表PTGI为研究工具,施测于执行抗震救灾任务的424名官兵,对其成长状况进行分析并对不同群体间成长差异进行比较.结果 (1)424名被试在PTGI21个条目的平均得分在2.72~ 3.72之间,绝大部分条目平均得分在3分以上,成长程度在“变化中等(3分)”与“变化较大(4分)”之间.8个得分最高的条目分别

  14. A biomechanical analysis of the 'high guard' position of arms during walking in toddlers. (United States)

    Kubo, Masayoshi; Ulrich, Beverly


    In this study, we investigated biomechanical contributions of the high guard position of the arms observed only in a subgroup of toddlers at very early stages of gait development. Six healthy toddlers who showed this peculiar arm posture were involved in this study. They participated in two data collection sessions (1 month apart). We used three-dimensional analysis of arm posture during gait to estimate the changes in forces and torques generated by the arms and acting on the upper trunk segment. Across visits, toddlers' increase in walking speeds coincided with lowering arm postures. Despite the apparent trend of changes in arm posture in this group of toddlers, the interaction between arm posture and upper trunk position created a variety of changes in forces and torques among individuals. Findings of this study exhibited an example of the exploration of dynamics by toddlers in the early stage of gait development.

  15. Worldwide Report, Arms Control. (United States)


    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  16. JPRS Report, Arms Control. (United States)


    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  17. Worldwide Report, Arms Control (United States)


    Soviet Laser Expert (N. G. Bazov Interview; CAMBIO 16, 11-18 Feb 85) 86 Unnamed General Urges French ’Star Wars’ Effort (Hoplites; LE MONDE, 6...1024 85 JPRS-TAC-85-002 1 April 1985 SPACE ARMS SPANISH MAGAZINE CITES SOVIET LASER EXPERT PM211619 [Editorial Report] Madrid CAMBIO 16 in Spanish

  18. Worldwide Report, Arms Control (United States)


    Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT, 12 Oct 85) . 14 GDR Commentary on Geneva Talks (Various sources,various dates) 19 Military...USSR GENEVA TALKS FRG DEFENSE UNDERSECRETARY SUPPORTS U.S. VIEW ON ARMS CONTROL Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT in German 12 Oct 85 p 3

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control (United States)


    like tired runners exposed to the sights of millions of viewers. The fear of oxygen starvation was handled by the U.S. President on several levels...and to present the U.S. attitudes as the only way out of the maze of the arms race. It is an attempt to push through the old principles of U.S

  20. Star Formation in Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G


    The origin and types of spiral arms are reviewed with an emphasis on the connections between these arms and star formation. Flocculent spiral arms are most likely the result of transient instabilities in the gas that promote dense cloud formation, star formation, and generate turbulence. Long irregular spiral arms are usually initiated by gravitational instabilities in the stars, with the gas contributing to and following these instabilities, and star formation in the gas. Global spiral arms triggered by global perturbations, such as a galaxy interaction, can be wavemodes with wave reflection in the inner regions. They might grow and dominate the disk for several rotations before degenerating into higher-order modes by non-linear effects. Interstellar gas flows through these global arms, and through the more transient stellar spiral arms as well, where it can reach a high density and low shear, thereby promoting self-gravitational instabilities. The result is the formation of giant spiral arm cloud complexes,...

  1. Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming. (United States)

    Sfakiotakis, M; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P


    The outstanding locomotor and manipulation characteristics of the octopus have recently inspired the development, by our group, of multi-functional robotic swimmers, featuring both manipulation and locomotion capabilities, which could be of significant engineering interest in underwater applications. During its little-studied arm-swimming behavior, as opposed to the better known jetting via the siphon, the animal appears to generate considerable propulsive thrust and rapid acceleration, predominantly employing movements of its arms. In this work, we capture the fundamental characteristics of the corresponding complex pattern of arm motion by a sculling profile, involving a fast power stroke and a slow recovery stroke. We investigate the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning. A lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer, which considers arm compliance and the interaction with the aquatic environment, was used to study the characteristics of these gaits, the effect of various kinematic parameters on propulsion, and the generation of complex trajectories. This investigation focuses on relatively high-stiffness arms. Experiments employing a compliant-body robotic prototype swimmer with eight compliant arms, all made of polyurethane, inside a water tank, successfully demonstrated this novel mode of underwater propulsion. Speeds of up to 0.26 body lengths per second (approximately 100 mm s(-1)), and propulsive forces of up to 3.5 N were achieved, with a non-dimensional cost of transport of 1.42 with all eight arms and of 0.9 with only two active arms. The experiments confirmed the computational results and verified the multi-arm maneuverability and simultaneous object grasping capability of such systems.

  2. Instituto Mesoamericano de Salud Pública: órgano de apoyo técnico y fortalecimiento del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud Pública Mesoamerican Public Health Institute: Technical support and capacity strengthening arm of the Mesoamerican Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A González-Block


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El Instituto Mesoamericano de Salud Pública (IMSP se constituyó en 2009 como órgano técnico del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud Pública (SMSP y la Red Virtual de Instituciones Académicas. En la primera fase se identificaron las necesidades de fortalecimiento de sistemas de salud y se evaluaron los primeros resultados de capacitación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis de contenido de los Planes Maestros del SMSP para cada prioridad y se encuestó a los integrantes del Grupo de Trabajo en Malaria y Dengue. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron los temas de capacitación requeridos por áreas de prioridad del SMSP y las necesidades de gestión de conocimiento para control y eliminación de la malaria y dengue. Se elaboró un mapeo de competencias a desarrollar con el personal estratégico, táctico y operativo. El IMSP capacitó a 91 funcionarios de ocho países en su primer año. Estas actividades se desarrollaron de julio 2009 a junio 2010, en consulta a directivos de servicios de salud de países integrantes del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud Pública, Colombia y México. CONCLUSIONES: El IMSP está respondiendo a las necesidades de salud pública en la región mesoamericana.OBJECTIVE: The Mesoamerican Public Health Institute (IMSP was constituted in 2009 as the technical organ of the Mesoamerican Public Health System (SMSP and the Virtual Network of Academic Institutions. Health system capacity strengthening needs and preliminary training results were assessed in the first phase. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The SMSP Master Plans were content-analyzed for each priority and members of the Malaria and Dengue Working Group were surveyed. RESULTS: The training needs required for each SMSP priority area were identified and knowledge management needs for malaria and dengue analyzed. Competencies were mapped across strategic, tactical and operative personnel that will be requiring them. IMSP trained in its first year 91 persons in eight

  3. 'Laptops in Social Science Lectures - Pedagogical Challenges and Benefits' in: Walter Feichtinger, Benedikt Hensellek, (eds.):'Viribus Unitis. ISMS Annual Conference 2014. Armed Forces for 2020 and beyond - Roles, Tasks, Expectations.' Federal Ministry of Defence and Sports. Vienna, Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke


    This presentation gives inspirations to researchers and teachers in higher military education who want to develop the students’ use of laptops in lectures. In my job as a lecturer at the Danish Defence Language Institute I conducted a pilot project in autumn 2013 – winter 2014, aimed at developing...

  4. A Festschrift of Technical Papers Presented to Wilhelm S. Ericksen on the Occasion of his Joining the Emeritus Faculty of the Air Force Institute of Technology. (United States)


    Weapons Laboratory Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 ABSTRACT The linear velocity and velocity profile of argon flowing in a flow tube were...fed into a Keithly Model 427 cur- rent amplifier. The signal was then sent into a Princeton Applied Research Model TDH -9 Waveform Eductor (signal...Silicon and Germanium Oxide Reactions", PhD Dissertation, Department of Chemistry, The University of New Mexico , December 1977. 12. R. A. Davis and S

  5. The role of market forces and food safety institutions in the adoption of sustainable farming practices: The case of the fresh tomato export sector in Morocco and Turkey


    Codron, Jean Marie; Adanacioglu, Hakan; Aubert, Magali; Bouhsina, Zouhair; El Mekki, Abdelkader Ait; Rousset, Sylvain; Tozanli, Selma; Yercan, Murat


    Fresh produce growers are the main source of food contamination by chemical pesticides. In their choice of farming practices, producers are influenced by market forces as well as public and private safety regulations – or “macro-drivers” – as opposed to farm-level micro-drivers. Growers respond to their business and regulatory environment by implementing integrated pest management (IPM) and other good agricultural practices (GAP), where profitable through certification schemes. Our paper atte...

  6. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR


    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  7. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu


    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  8. JPRS Report, Arms Control (United States)


    SINMUN in Korean 19 Jan 90 p 2 [ Editorial : "Arms Reduction Amid East-West Reconcil- iation"] [Text] It appears that with the end of cold-war, the...Navigation Radar Deployment PY1701143090 La Paz La Red Panamericana in Spanish 1130 GMT 17 Jan 90 [Text] Aeronautics Minister Luis Gonzales...airspace and that it can guarantee our sovereignty. Aeronautics Military Under Secretary Installed PY1701125290 La Paz La Red Panamericana in

  9. Worldwide Report, Arms Control. (United States)


    Soviet violations, the Pentagon and the White House ended up in mush . Nevertheless, armed with mush as evidence, the American secretary of...YORK TIMES calling anti-Soviet charges mush is out- numbered by thousands of statements on radio and television, speeches before various...audiences, and articles in newspapers and magazines where that same mush is used as a serious argument. USSR Complying Treaties LD120557 Moscow

  10. Worldwide Report, Arms Control (United States)


    Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. In order- ing, it is recommended that the JPRS number, title, date and author, if applicable, of publication be...Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-025 14 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS U.S.-USSR GENEVA TALKS, USSR: Possibility for...34Vreyma" newscast] [Excerpts] A Moscow premiere. Our correspondent reports: The audience is hurrying to a premiere at the Moscow Satire Theater. What

  11. A review of assistive devices for arm balancing. (United States)

    Dunning, A G; Herder, J L


    Due to neuromuscular disorders (e.g., Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy) people often loose muscle strength and become wheelchair bound. It is important to use muscles as much as possible. To allow this, and to increase independency of patients, an arm orthosis can be used to perform activities of daily life. The orthosis compensates for the gravity force of the arm, allowing people to perform movements with smaller muscle forces. For patients, the aesthetics of the orthosis is one of the critical issues. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in passive and wearable active arm orthoses, and investigates how to proceed towards a suitable structure for a wearable passive arm orthosis, that is able to balance the arm within its natural range of motion and is inconspicuous; in the ideal case it fits underneath the clothes. Existing devices were investigated with respect to the body interface, the volume, and the workspace. According to these evaluation metrics it is investigated to what extent the devices are wearable and inconspicuous. Furthermore, the balancing principle of the devices, the architecture, force transmission through the devices, and alignment with the body joints are investigated. It appears that there is only one wearable passive orthosis presented in literature. This orthosis can perform throughout the natural workspace of the arm, but is still too bulky to be inconspicuous. The other passive orthoses were conspicuous and mounted to the wheelchair. Except one, the wearable active orthoses were all conspicuous and heavy due to a large backpack to enclose the actuators. They also could not achieve the entire natural workspace of the human arm. A future design of an inconspicuous, wearable, passive arm orthoses should stay close to the body, be comfortable to wear, and supports pronation and supination.

  12. The Political Views of Students at the Universities of the Armed Forces in Comparison to Those of Students at Public Institutions (Die politischen Orientierungen der Studenten an den Universitaeten der Bundeswehr im Vergleich zu den Studenten an oeffentlichen Hochschulen) (United States)


    politischer Orientierungen bei Studierenden seit Beginn der 80er Jahre. Hefle zur Bildungs - und Hochschulforschung 33, Universitdit Kon- stanz...18 298-102 Inhalt Seite 1. Vorwort 1 2. Politische Einstellungen in der Veranderung? Zum Verfahren 1 3. Ergebnisse 3 3.1. Vergleich: UniBw versus...Verortung der politischen Grundrichtung im Links-Rechts-Kontinuum 12 6. Politische Ziele 14 7. Demokratische Prinzipien 19 8. Demokratische Wirklichkeit

  13. An overview of mining-related environmental and human health issues, Marinduque Island, Philippines: observations from a joint U.S. Geological Survey - Armed Forces Institute of Pathology reconnaissance field evaluation, May 12-19, 2000 (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morton, Robert A.; Boyle, Terence P.; Medlin, Jack H.; Centeno, Jose A.


    This report summarizes results of a visit by the report authors to Marinduque Island, Philippines, in May 2000. The purpose of the visit was to conduct a preliminary examination of environmental problems created by a 1996 tailings spill from the Marcopper open-pit copper mine. The mine was operated from 1969-1996 by Macropper Mining Corperation, under 39.9% ownership, and design and management control of Placer Dome, Inc. Our trip expenses to and from the Philippines were funded by the USGS. In-country expenses were paid by the offices of Congressman Reyes and the Governor of Marinduque, Carmencita O. Reyes. This report includes observations we made based on our relatively short visit to the island, and observations based upon a preliminary review of the literature available on the islanda??s mining-environmental issues. In addition, we have included preliminary interpretations and analytical results of some water, sediment, and mine waste samples collected during our trip. We also highlight the environmental and human health issues we fell are in need of further study and consideration for mitigation or remediation. This report is preliminary and is not intended to be a comprehensive or final review of the islanda??s mining-environmental issues; many areas of further study are clearly neededa?|

  14. Design and Implementation of Telemedicine Net Platform by Using the Armed Police Forces' Video Conferencing System%依托武警部队视频会议系统的远程医学网平台设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温剑; 胡永峰


    Objective To promote the telemedicine by using the computer technology and the modern communications technology in order to improve the remote areas officers' medical service support in ihe Armed Police Forces. Methods Distance medical nets hardware platform of the Level 3 distance medical center network was build which relies on the Armed Police Forces video conferencing system and the questions around the technical framework, the mean characteristics and the key technology were explained. Results The video conferencing system was use to build a telemedicine net hardware platform which would help to promote the telemedicine consultation. CnnrJiurinn Telemedicine service based on ihe present video conferencing system improves the army's medical support ability.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2011 ,32(10) ? 70-71]%目的:利用计算机技术与现代通讯技术开展远程医学,进一步改善武警部队边远地区官兵的医疗卫勤保障.方法:依托武警部队视频会议系统构建三级远程医学中心组网的远程医学网硬件平台,并对平台设计与实施过程中的技术架构、主要特点、关键技术等若干问题进行分析.结果:能够实现依托视频会议系统,建成远程医学网硬件平台,开展远程医学会诊.结论:通过现有的视频会议系统,开展远程医疗服务,提高部队卫勤保障能力.

  15. The Total Force Policy and Effective Force (United States)


    analysis.” 23 Roald Dahl, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory , (New York: Pequin Books, 1964), 87, 150. Mr. Dahl’s image of the everlasting gobstopper...Office of the Chief, Army Reserve, 1997. Dahl, Roald. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Penguin Books: New York, 1964. Feaver, Peter D. Armed Servants...knot24 that must be untied in order to prove relevance as a military force. Of course, we know the end of these ancient and modern stories. Charlie

  16. Multidirectional manual arm strength and its relationship with resultant shoulder moment and arm posture. (United States)

    La Delfa, Nicholas J; Potvin, Jim R


    Previous work has quantified manual force capabilities for ergonomics design, but the number of studies and range of conditions tested are limited in scope. Therefore, the aims of this study were to collect seated manual arm strength (MAS) data from 24 females in several unique exertion directions (n = 26) and hand locations relative to the shoulder (n = 8), and to investigate the associations between MAS and shoulder/elbow moments. MAS was generally highest when the direction of force application was oriented parallel to the vector from the shoulder to knuckle, and weakest when oriented orthogonal to that vector. Moderate correlations were found between MAS and: (1) resultant shoulder moment (r = 0.34), (2) resultant moment arms (r = -0.545) and (3) elbow flexion/extension moment (r = 0.481). Our strength data will be used in the development of a comprehensive MAS predictive method, so that strength capabilities can be predicted to help design acceptable tasks in the workplace. Practitioner Summary: This study sought to enhance our understanding of one-handed manual arm strength capabilities for ergonomics task evaluations. Our findings provide researchers and practitioners with manual strength data for off-axis force directions, as well as hand locations not previously measured. These data will contribute to future methods for predicting strength capabilities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dhengle


    Full Text Available There are many causes of flywheel failure. Among them, maximum tensile and bending stresses induced in the rim and tensile stresses induced in the arm under the action of centrifugal forces are the main causes of flywheel failure. Hence in this work evaluation of stresses in the rim and arm are studied using finite element method and results are validated by analytical calculations .The models of flywheel having four, six and eight no. arms are developed for FE analysis. The FE analysis is carried out for different cases of loading applied on the flywheel and the maximum Von mises stresses and deflection in the rim are determined. From this analysis it is found that Maximum stresses induced are in the rim and arm junction. Due to tangential forces, maximum bending stresses occurs near the hub end of the arm. It is also observed that for low angular velocity the effect gravity on stresses and deflection of rim and arm is predominant.

  18. Task Force on Integrated Energy and Environmental Planning: The Netherlands - Poland. Working Paper 2: Government institutions of the energy sector in the EC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, A.D. [Unit ECN Policy Studies, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands); Verhagen, H.M. [Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, The Hague (Netherlands)


    The Polish Government is interested in a broad perspective of institutional arrangements in the national energy sector. A brief review of energy administrations in the EC countries illustrates that only a few of the energy ministries established in 1970`s after the oil crisis still remain. At present, energy departments are incorporated in a ministry of economic affairs or trade and industry and have broad energy policy responsibilities. Their subdivisions are oriented towards energy resources and in some cases also with energy conservation. Energy is not treated as a common commodity, but is strongly controlled by legislation. Germany and United Kingdom have the most strongly privatized energy sectors in EC but nevertheless still have a plethora of laws concerning pricing, investment, organization, monopolies, supply areas, grid development, maintenance, etc. Government involvement in energy sector is still far greater than set by EC policies directed to privatisation and competition. Comparison of energy administrations of Poland and EC countries is hampered by incomparable key economic figures and different political and cultural traditions; however the overall institutional set-up for energy has some common characteristics in the EC countries: Energy departments within a ministry of economic affairs are subdivided according to energy carriers and include energy conservation and energy planning units in general energy policy units. Polish parliament is responsible for election and establishment of an adequate and competent energy administration structure. Energy planning plays an important role in EC countries. National energy plans are strongly related to key economic figures for economic sectors and subsectors and are usually commissioned by general policy units in the department of energy and updated at regular intervals. They function as anchor points for industry, thus providing basic data.

  19. AES i ARM procesori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Protić


    Full Text Available Potreba za zaštitom informacija dovodi do velikih problema u izradi prenosivih uređaja kojima su limitirani snaga, memorija i energija. Ukoliko se takvim uređajima dodaju koprocesori, koji treba da obavljaju funkcije kriptozaštite, njihove se dimenzije povećavaju, pojavljuje se nefleksibilnost pa cena uređaja raste i do nekoliko puta. Na drugoj strani, algoritmi za zaštitu podataka su često memorijski zahtevni, a zbog velikog broja operacija koje je potrebno izvršavati u procesima šifrovanja i dešifrovanja, koprocesori često uspore rad osnovnog procesora. Za jedan od standarda za kriptozaštitu, AES, NIST je prihvatio Rijndaelov blokovski algoritam sa dužinom ulaznog i izlaznog bloka od 128 b, i dužinama šifarskog ključa od 128 b, 192 b i 256 b. Zbog karakteristika male potrošnje, 32-bitske arhitekture i brzog izvršavanja instrukcija, ARM procesori mogu da realizuju kriptozaštitu podataka, između ostalog i AES-om, a da ne opterete glavne procese u sistemima u kojima se koriste. Tehnologija ARM-a zaštićena je kao intelektualna svojina, pa je veliki broj proizvođača koristi za razvoj sopstvenih proizvoda, što je rezultovalo činjenicom da je u svetu proizvedeno preko 2 milijarde čipova koji su bazirani na ovoj tehnologiji. U radu su prikazane mogućnosti za poboljšanja u izvršenju algoritma AES primenom najnovijih verzija ARM procesora.

  20. Evaluating the European Defense Force (United States)


    and Haitian Armed Forces ( FADH ) had initiated joint patrolling operations. This caused no small amount of angst among a populace who expected removal...sincerity of US intentions and contributed to demobilizing the FRAPH elements. In one instance a firefight broke out among Marine forces and FADH elements...that helped convince the local populace and 50 later, the rest of the country, that it was not in the US plan to retain and bolster FADH forces.26

  1. Worldwide Report, Arms Control (United States)


    put their feet on the table.... But that Is not the USSR’s problem. It is not for the USSR to teach the rules of etiquette vh~nh are broken in the...34 /12858 CSO: 5200/2634 • 138 - RELATED ISSUES LABOR PARTY DISTRICT CONGRESS: BAN NUCLEAR ARMED SHIPS Oslo AFTENPOSTEN in Norwegian 27 Jan 86 p 3 [Article...that countries which send warships into Norwegian ports should guarantee that these ships are not carry- ing nuclear weapons. The requirement would

  2. Policy Jolts in U.S. Arms Transfers: The Post Cold War Security Environment


    Misheloff, Jane


    Policy Jolts in U.S. Arms Transfers: The Post-Cold War Security Environment Jane Misheloff (ABSTRACT) This research addresses the subject of conventional arms transfers in the Post Cold War Era. ("Conventional arms" herein are defined as high cost, state-of-the-art weapons systems in aerospace, land vehicles, missiles and naval vessels. ") The rapid and startling changes in the international political environment that took place in the late 1980's forced the U.S. and her Wes...

  3. March to Armageddon: The United States and the nuclear arms race, 1939 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powaski, R.


    This history of the events, forces, and factors that have brought the world to the brink of nuclear holocaust probes two basic questions: what factors perpetuate the nuclear arms race and why is it so difficult to end. Starting with the opening days of World War II, this study traces the escalating arms race up to the present and notes that, while nuclear arsenals continue to grow, nuclear arms treaties are on the verge of collapse.

  4. Telerobotics with whole arm collision avoidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Strenn, S.


    The complexity of teleorbotic operations in a cluttered environment is exacerbated by the need to present collision information to the operator in an understandable fashion. In addition to preventing movements which will cause collisions, a system providing some form of virtual force reflection (VFR) is desirable. With this goal in mind, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed a kinematically master/slave system and developed a whole arm collision avoidance system which interacts directly with the telerobotic controller. LLNL has also provided a structure to allow for automated upgrades of workcell models and provide collision avoidance even in a dynamically changing workcell.

  5. NATO-Warsaw Pact. Force Mobilization (United States)


    for Strategic Studies, 1985); and Andr6 Fours, Au-deld du Sanctuaire (Paris: Editions Economica , 1986). 54. Lieutenant-Colonel J, Marc, "Le 26me CATAC...Q4 THE ROMANIAN ARMED FORCES 487 After long debates by the military specialists with regard to "the armed nation doctrine," the Enciclopedia Romaniei

  6. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process is capable of achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm on industrial components. In RAP, a robot arm carries a polishing module with controlled contact force utilizing oscillating or rotating tools. In this work a multisensory polishing arm with integrat...

  7. Armed Conflict: A Model for Understanding and Intervention (United States)

    Death Studies, 2013


    Acts of deadly violence give rise to powerful emotions and trigger pre-programmed responses that often cause affected persons, including leaders, media, armed forces, and the general public, to act in ways that aggravate the situation and feed into cycles of violence. In this article, a model of the cycle of violence is presented that facilitates…

  8. 78 FR 703 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification (United States)


    ... world. Turkey will have no difficulty absorbing these missiles into its armed forces. The proposed sale.... Government or contractor representatives to Turkey on a temporary basis for program technical support and...- planned product improvement (P\\3\\I) program in order to improve its counter-countermeasures...

  9. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable (United States)


    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. The Neanderthal lower arm. (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle


    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids.

  11. Confucius Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Confucius Institute(simplified Chinese:孔子学院;traditional Chinese:孔子學院;pinyin:kǒngzǐ xuéyuàn)is a non-profit public institute which aims at promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese teaching internationally through affiliated Confucius Institutes.

  12. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier


    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  13. ASEAN Combined Forces Command (United States)


    nation building and the restoration of the democratic system through the general election which took place in March 1992. Malaysia. In West Malaysia’s...This problem is a result of different concepts for building the nation’s democratic system . I believe they will eventually solve it. Sinaapore...people, not only the armed forces. This organization is once more threatening to the democratic system of the country. By the next election, it is

  14. 基于德尔菲法的武警部队卫生应急救援分队灾害救援能力评价指标体系构建%Evaluation Indicator System of Disaster Relief Capability Building for People's Armed Police Force Corps-Level Health Emergency Rescue Unit by Using Delphi Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈昫; 李三强; 王心


    Objective:To build evaluation indicator system capability of disaster relief for People Armed Police Force (PAP) Corps-level health emergency rescue unit in order to provide standards for the construction and evaluation of health emergency rescue unit. Methods:30 ex ̄perts were consulted 2 rounds using Delphi method. Results:An evaluation indicator system including 6 primary indicators,12 secondary indica ̄tors and 40 third-level indicators was built. Conclusion: The evaluation indicator system capability of disaster relief for People Armed Police Force (PAP) Corps-level health emergency rescue unit had a relatively high reliability and accuracy. The system would provide reference and standard for next capability evaluating.%目的::构建武警部队卫生应急救援分队灾害救援能力评价指标体系,为卫生应急救援分队的评价和建设提供标准。方法:运用文献分析法等初步确定评价指标,采用德尔菲法对30名专家进行2轮咨询。结果:经过2轮专家咨询,构建的武警部队卫生应急救援分队灾害救援能力评价指标体系包括组织指挥与管理、伤病救治、分类后送、医技保障、后勤保障、基础支撑等能力的6个一级指标、12个二级指标和40个三级指标。结论:本研究建立的灾害救援能力评价指标体系具有较高的可靠性和准确性,可为武警部队卫生应急救援分队的灾害救援能力评价提供参考和标准。

  15. Updates: Routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components. (United States)


    During routine testing of civilian applicants for U.S. military service, the overall seroprevalence of antibodies to HIV-1 in 2011 was the second lowest of any year since 1990. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Army, HIV-1 seroprevalences were higher during 2008 to 2011 than in recent prior years. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps, the Marine Corps Reserve, and the Army National Guard, HIV-1 seroprevalences have slightly declined or remained relatively stable for at least ten years. In the reserve components of most service branches, it is difficult to discern long-term trends because of instability of seroprevalences in the relatively small numbers of reserve component members tested each year. Monitoring of HIV-1 seroprevalences can help target and focus prevention initiatives. The recent repeal of the Don't Ask Don't Tell policy has created opportunities for prevention messages targeted to men who have sex with men.

  16. JPRS Report, Arms Control (United States)


    initiates the week of numerous friendly meetings with Soviet soldiers throughout the country. He said that 140 years ago, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ...of being destroyed, this scientifically founded optimism of Marx and Engels is becoming more of a material force than it has ever been before. In

  17. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier


    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  18. JPRS Report, Arms Control (United States)


    Roberto Lopes] [Text] Brazil has received permission from Great Britain to import small quantities of the CAM (Chemical Agent Monitor), a portable...Bautista Vasquez and Jorge Montenegro in Tegucigalpa; date not given—live or recorded] [Text] [Reporter] What will be your initial policy to achieve...constitutional mandate to be an apolitical institution that is obedient rather than deliberative? [Cantarero] Good morning, Mr Jorge Montenegro . Yes, the

  19. Study on a 7-DOF anthropomorphic weld arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A kind of new obstacle space expression is proposed in this paper, in which a virtual force field (VFF) is built. Using the torque and joint optimization acted by the virtual force field on the anthropomorphic weld arm, the real-time selection of a redundant join (R-joint) is done and its equivalent virtual torque is obtained, thus the redundant joint can be controlled with whose force feedback. An inverse kinematics solution of a 6-DOF robot is applied to other six joints of the arm. Simulation experiments indicate the new inverse kinematics solution has perfect collision avoidance effect, and it is well simplified. Therefore, it can be applied to a welding task in complex operation space.

  20. Design and Vibration Control of Safe Robot Arm with MR-Based Passive Compliant Joint (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Seong-Sik; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang

    In this paper, vibration control of a safe arm with passive compliant joints and visco-elastic covering for a human-friendly service robot is presented. The passive compliant joint (PCJ) is designed to passively attenuate the applied force. The rotary spring gives the arm compliant property, and yet it can be a source of vibration. We use an input-preshaping method which is motivated by the input shaping technique (IST) based on impulse responses. Experiments prove that both of fast motion and force attenuation of the safe arm can be achieved.

  1. XIAO Liye: New head of the Institute of Electrical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Prof. XIAO Liye, an expert in superconducting technology, has been appointed new director of the Institute of Electrical Engineering(IEE), a research arm of CAS dedicating to the promotion of technical level of power generation and electrical equipment manufacturing.

  2. ARM Soc Based Enotebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranita C Bawankar


    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic media has grown very fast replacing papers, tape devices, books, etc. The new technologies provide large number of data into single device, fast searching options and more readability than ever. As eBooks are replacing books; we are proposing ENotebook system in which user can write as he did in notebook, save, searches and then reread content. This paper presents design and development of ENotebook using ARM7. The system uses touch screen to get input data and operations like save, delete, open & close of data file. All data sensed by touch screen is digitized by internal ADCs of LPC2148 microcontroller which gives low power platform with fast execution. The output is shown on graphical LCD. Whatever user writes on screen it may need to save for future use. The content of such hand written data will be in graphical/pictorial form hence required large of memory for storage. We can provide external memory using pen drive, memory card, EEPROM etc. in this system we are using SD card interfacing through SPI port.

  3. JPRS Report, Arms Control. (United States)


    to France, Polish President L. Walesa made the following statement in an interview with the newspaper LA CROIX L’EVENEMENT on the subject of Soviet...was closed by French President Francois Mitterrand, was organised by the French Ecole Superieure de Guerre , an army officers’ think tank. ’Common...Land Forces [Ecole Superieure de Guerre ], was devoted to this extremely topical issue. It was also attended by students from the higher military

  4. JPRS Report, Arms Control. (United States)


    no danger will whether President Vaclav Havel and Jiri Dienstbier, our threaten from its side. The united Germany should foreign minister, discussed...exist in Europe at present and Czechoslovakia belongs to the Warsaw Treaty. He quoted President Vaclav Havel’s Briefs on Military Spending, Deployment...document gation at the Vienna negotiations on conventional forces continues. According to the draft of the coalition agree- in Europe, Ambassador Klaus

  5. Worldwide Report, Arms Control. (United States)


    noteworthy for htPr abundance of factual materia characterising the ap nrSrh of the West the USA first and formost, to the militarisation of oX space...Soviet program has been drawn up with due consideration for the fact that the currently prevailing balance of forces in the world is to be...side have promoted a balance in trade exchange between the two countries. The Soviet side expressed a readiness to further boost the commodity

  6. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL


    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  7. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier


    rackets, to the material reciprocation of the recognition of rights. Focusing on the taxation practices of armed groups, the article argues that taxation is at the core of armed groups’ production of public authority and citizenship, and that their modes of taxation are based on long-standing registers...... of authority and practices of rule that originate in the colonial era. In particular, the article shows that by appealing to both local customary and national forms of political community and citizenship, armed groups are able to assume public authority to tax civilians. However, their public authority may...

  8. The Influences of Arm Resist Motion on a CAR Crash Test Using Hybrid III Dummy with Human-Like Arm (United States)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Bae, Hanil; Choi, Hyeonki

    Safety of the occupant during the crash is very essential design element. Many researches have been investigated in reducing the fatal injury of occupant. They are focusing on the development of a dummy in order to obtain the real human-like motion. However, they have not considered the arm resist motion during the car accident. In this study, we would like to suggest the importance of the reactive force of the arm in a car crash. The influences of reactive force acting on the human upper extremity were investigated using the impedance experimental method with lumped mass model of hand system and a Hybrid III dummy with human-like arm. Impedance parameters (e.g. inertia, spring constant and damping coefficient) of the elbow joint in maximum activation level were measured by free oscillation test using single axis robot. The results showed that without seat belt, the reactive force of human arm reduced the head, chest, and femur injury, and the flexion moment of the neck is higher than that of the conventional dummy.

  9. Relationships Between Culture and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken


    the relationships between culture and institutions and how they are connected. Finally, the article points at the influence of globalization challenging the national origin of many institutions when relating to a world of organizations, which increasingly are becoming global. For some companies, organizational...... cultures become global institutional forces in their own right, while some institutions become trapped in their own local organizational cultures. In conclusion, the article is a call for the development of a more temporal perspective on the relationships between culture and institutions- seen in a global......This article suggests four different relationships between institutionalism and organizational culture seen as two different levels of analysis. The relationships represent a continuum from a significant influence of the institutional level on organizational culture to a significant cultural...

  10. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.


    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  11. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne


    . In institutional ethnography the notion of objectification is applied to describe research processes like those that have been found to dominate in scholarly work on M&As. In this chapter, we offer an outline of Smiths critique of objectification, elucidate how institutional ethnography seeks to address it...

  12. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva


    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  13. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers (United States)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.


    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  14. Segmental and kinetic contributions in vertical jumps performed with and without an arm swing. (United States)

    Feltner, Michael E; Bishop, Elijah J; Perez, Cassandra M


    To determine the contributions of the motions of the body segments to the vertical ground reaction force (Fz), the joint torques produced by the leg muscles, and the time course of vertical velocity generation during a vertical jump, 15 men were videotaped performing countermovement vertical jumps from a force plate with and without an arm swing. Linear kinematic, Fz, and joint torque data were computed and compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Maximum jump height was significantly larger in the arm swing jumps compared to the no arm swing jumps and was due to both a higher height of the center of mass (CM) at takeoff (54%) and a larger vertical velocity of the CM at takeoff (46%). The net vertical impulse created during the propulsive phase of the arm swing jumps was greater due to a trend of an increased duration (0.021 s) of the propulsive phase and not to larger average values of Fz. In the arm swing jumps, the arm motion resulted in the arms making a larger maximal contribution to Fz during the middle of the propulsive phase and decreased the negative contribution of the trunk-head and thigh to Fz late in the propulsive phase. Last, the arm swing decreased the extensor torques at the hip (13%), knee (10%), and ankle (10%) early in the propulsive phase but augmented these same extensor torques later in the propulsive phase.

  15. Transparent Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fombona


    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to create sets of media-based imagery that illustrate the internal workings of public institutions to the common citizen. This is an important need in countries that are seeking to open up their public and private institutions and bring them closer to their users. Method: There is a clear need to carry out proposals that tackle organizational lack of transparency; to this end, through an interdisciplinary approach, we propose the creation of a freeaccess Web-based portal that shows the interior of the institutions at hand, learning institutions to start with, this scope will be broadened later to institutions of health and public safety. The project chooses and shows a core selection of features capable of becoming international models for each kind of institutions, elementary schools in this phase. These features are shown in short videos, depicting every core element found: installations, governing bodies, documentation, samples of learning and teaching methodologies in use, etc. Results: the propossed project succeeds in getting institutions closer to their users. It has been developed in Spain, and translated to other Latin-American countries and the United States.

  16. The objective qualification of non-international armed conflicts: A Colombian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Machado


    Full Text Available

    Armed conflict has raged in Colombia since at least the 1960’s, involving governmental forces, rebel groups, and paramilitary forces. The Uribe government (2002-2010 declared that Colombia was not in a ‘state of armed conflict’ but was rather facing a ‘terrorist threat’. This declaration was done in fear of conferring a political status to the armed groups, and most particularly, in fear that a recognition of armed conflict would open the possibility of endowing the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC with a ‘belligerency status’. From a legal point of view, the government’s fears were unfounded, since contemporary international humanitarian law does not require a formal for a situation to qualify as armed conflict. During the Uribe administration, efforts were made by the Ministry of Defense to identify operational rules of engagement with precision, violations of international humanitarian law were publicly denounced, and the apex courts adjudicated on issues of international humanitarian law. This seemingly paradoxical situation illustrates the importance of the objective definition of armed conflict, which has been a defining characteristic of international humanitarian law since 1949.


  17. Pain Management Task Force (United States)


    Additionally, the Task Force consulted with the Samueli Institute, a non-profit research organization that supports the scientific investigation of healing...and its role in medicine and health care. The Samueli Institute has been working on several research projects related to military and Veterans’ pain... Samueli communication). The CAM subgroup of the TF studied the issues surrounding credentialing and licensing of CAM providers. The tiered

  18. New Horizons and New Strategies in Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. editor


    In the last ten years, since the break-up of the Soviet Union, remarkable progress in arms control and disarmament has occurred. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and the Chemical Weapons Treaty (CWC) are indicative of the great strides made in the non- proliferation arena. Simultaneously, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), all associated with US-Soviet Union (now Russia) relations have assisted in redefining European relations and the security landscape. Finally, it now appears that progress is in the offing in developing enhanced compliance measures for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). In sum, all of these achievements have set the stage for the next round of arms control activities, which may lead to a much broader, and perhaps more diffused multilateral agenda. In this new and somewhat unpredictable international setting, arms control and disarmament issues will require solutions that are both more creative and innovative than heretofore.

  19. Plants versus pathogens: an evolutionary arms race. (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan P; Gleason, Cynthia A; Foley, Rhonda C; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy B; Singh, Karam B


    The analysis of plant-pathogen interactions is a rapidly moving research field and one that is very important for productive agricultural systems. The focus of this review is on the evolution of plant defence responses and the coevolution of their pathogens, primarily from a molecular-genetic perspective. It explores the evolution of the major types of plant defence responses including pathogen associated molecular patterns and effector triggered immunity as well as the forces driving pathogen evolution, such as the mechanisms by which pathogen lineages and species evolve. Advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling, stomatal regulation, R gene-effector interactions and host specific toxins are used to highlight recent insights into the coevolutionary arms race between pathogens and plants. Finally, the review considers the intriguing question of how plants have evolved the ability to distinguish friends such as rhizobia and mycorrhiza from their many foes.

  20. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Kigawa

    Full Text Available Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  1. Impact Effect Analysis of Dual-arm Space Robot Capturing a Non-cooperative Target and Force/Position Robust Stabilization Control for Closed-chain Hybrid System%双臂空间机器人捕获非合作目标冲击效应分析及闭链混合系统力/位形鲁棒镇定控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董楸煌; 陈力


    分析漂浮基双臂空间机器人捕获非合作目标所受的冲击影响效应,及捕获后空间机器人和目标组成的闭链混合系统对目标夹持内力和位形的鲁棒镇定控制。将捕获目标过程视为两机械臂末端与目标碰撞前、碰撞过程和碰撞后三个阶段。在碰撞前空间机器人和目标是分离的两分体系统,利用第二类拉格朗日方程建立漂浮基双臂空间机器人系统的动力学模型。在机械臂末端与目标碰撞阶段,基于空间机器人与目标总动量守恒,利用动量定理计算翻滚目标对空间机器人运动状态的冲击影响效应。在碰撞后,双臂空间机器人已捕获翻滚目标并组成闭链混合系统,针对混合系统在碰撞阶段受冲击影响而产生不稳定运动,提出一种鲁棒控制算法对其进行镇定控制,以实现双臂对目标夹持内力和空间机器人位形的协调控制,并达到期望的稳定状态。数值仿真验证了上述控制算法的有效性。%The impact effect of a free-floating dual-arm space robot to capture a non-cooperative target is analyzed, and during the post-capture the space robot and the target compose a closed-chaln hybrid system, then a clamp force and position robust stabilization control is discussed. The target capture process is considered as pre-impact phase,impact phase and post-impact phase. The space robot and target are separated subsystem in the pre-impact phase, and the dynamics model of free-floating space robot is derived by the second Lagrange equation. In the impact phase, base on the total momentum conservation of space robot and target, the impact effect for the space robot motion is calculated by momentum theorem. In the post-impact phase, the dual-arm space robot has captured the target and formed a closed-chaln hybrid system, considering the unstable motion which is caused by the impact effect in the impact phase, a robust control algorithm is proposed

  2. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...

  3. Institutional Controls (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  4. Burn Institute (United States)

    ... Now Help keep local seniors safe from fire! Burn Survivor Support If you are reading this, chances ... year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute provides fire ...

  5. Determination of the feed force of a milling type longwall shearer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, K. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Instytut Maszyn Gorniczych, Przerobczych i Automatyki)


    Presents an analytical method of determining forces that appear in a shearer. Departing from loads on a shearer during its various operation phases, formulae are derived for feed forces and loads on skids of the slide base. Schematic diagrams of loads on a shearer body from arm forces, reduced forces, forces of resistance to motion, the tractor force and reaction torque of the coal body are presented. Exemplary calculations of the feed force and reaction force in shearer skids are given for the KWB-3RDU and KGS-320 shearer loaders. Graphs of forces versus cutting head rotation angle, slotting time and arm motion time are provided. 2 refs.

  6. Mobilization and Defence plans of the Latvian Armed forces

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuzmins, Valdis


    Esimesel iseseisvusperioodil töötati välja kolm kaitseplaani, igaühega neist kaasnes mobilisatsiooniplaan. Rahvusvahelise olukorra muutudes töötati ka välja neljas mobilisatsiooniplaan ja alustati viienda mobilisatsiooniplaani väljatöötamist, mida ei jõutud aga lõpetada

  7. Internationally recognised armed forces / Urmas Roosimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosimägi, Urmas


    Eesti Kaitseväe juhataja kohusetäitja kolonel Urmas Roosimägi Eesti kaitseväest, osalemisest NATO-PFP (NATO-Partnership for Peace) programmis ja sõjalisest koostööst NATO partnerriikidega. Urmas Roosimägi biograafia. Programm Partnerlus Rahu Nimel

  8. [Prevention of tobacco addiction in the Armed Forces]. (United States)

    Shamreĭ, V K; Marchenko, A A; Fomin, S A


    The problems of tobacco smoking among servicemen are analyzed from the position of their interrelations with the quality of service duties performance. On the basis of received data the conclusion is drawn that the servicemen with tobacco dependence are characterized by lower level of mental resilience, adjustment capacities and are related to lower category of fitness for duty. Based on analyzes of the world and own country experience the program of tobacco smoking prevention among servicemen is proposed.

  9. Counter-Attrition Programs in the United States Armed Forces (United States)


    Recruit Assimilation Exercise (PIRATE) resulted in a 74 minute color videotape named "The Beginning." It’s purpose is to orient male Marine Corps recruits... vowels , dipthouxgs, and blends. Identifying compounA words. prefixes, suffixes, syllabication, and other activities are included as well. The objective

  10. The Role of Women in the Soviet Armed Forces (United States)


    Soldier," in The Soviet Military: Political Education , Training & Morale, by E. S. Williams, p. 124. 71. Olimpiyev and Gusev. 72. Saywell, p. 131. 73...67-68. Williams, E. S. The Soviet Military: Political , Education , Training & Morale. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986. pp. 103-125. Women’s

  11. The Political Control of the Soviet Armed Forces. (United States)


    operational responsibilities. The most important job of the MPA is its responsibility for directing the political education of all military personnel...the next higher headquarters on the morale of the personnel, about the conduct of politica 5 affairs and the political education work.1 While there Zampolit provides the first line political contact with the men. He plays a major role in their political education by holding daily discussions

  12. The Russian Armed Forces at the Dawn of the Millennium (United States)


    weakening of health in the young generation of Russians. People are consuming less meat, milk and eggs , and the diet is vitamin-deficient. Hypotrophy or... recipe for competition between a physically potent but economically weak and socially fragile Russia and a considerably more prosperous and dynamic West...of commu ni ca tions and scrambling of enemy data; � De ter mi na tion of state to which a mili tary objec tive belongs; � De struc tion of an

  13. Trajectory and Force Control of a Direct Drive Arm. (United States)


    fixed-point arithmetic. Written in the C lan- guage, the controller, including the full computation of the robot dynamics , runs at a 133 Hz sampling...Featherstone, R, 1984, Robot Dynamics Algorithms, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Edinburgh. Franklin, G.F. and Powel, J.D., 1980, Digital Control of Dynamic...Proceedings, 64, pp. 1198-1208. Neuman, C.P., and Khosla, P.K., 1985, "Identification of robot dynamics : an ap- plication of recursive estimation

  14. Officer Candidates Education and Training in the Albanian Armed Forces (United States)


    communicate effectively and to reason ethically. This education will provide future leaders with the required quantitative literacy skills to solve process includes the additional cost of providing adequate educational materials, books, learning facilities, and didactical materials. The...means not only students and staff but also facilities, materials and didactical help, which surely will be more expensive especially for the

  15. National Unification and Transition in the German Armed Forces (United States)


    Elector, Frederick William of Brandenburg, created what we know as Prussia.2 The Brandenburger had little chance to prove his military skills...G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1943), p. 3. 6 • • • •• • • * 0 0 S 0 h 0 0 0 ’- In his memorandum to his successor, Frederick William wrote in 1667, "Alliances...Helmut Kohl in an address to South African president F.W. De Klerk stated: "Now that German unity with complete sovereignty has been achieved, the FRG


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Laleff Ilieff


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the party consensus on the rules that frame and define the role of the Argentine military in democratic times. In this sense, it examines not only the continuity and coherence between the articles of the various laws but also investigates the correspondent legislative debates. In order to take into account the historical context, stars from a perspective that emphasizes the heterogeneity of the military world and the different variables that have influenced the current profile of their organizations. Such exercise not only allows us to rebuild the story of the past but also look at the party agreements substrate in relation to a nodal theme of political life in Argentina.

  17. The Armed Force of the Philippines and Special Operations (United States)


    The ongoing truce between the government and MILF combined with the presence of the 21 Malaysian-led, international monitoring team ( IMT ) makes... swimmers . The larger organization has eight platoons that are subdivided into squads, and then elements. Forty-eight platoons of 16 men exist.62 3

  18. Future Role for Women in the Armed Forces (United States)


    slaughtered, perhaps we would feel more inclined to believe that the military is seriously considering changing its role. Judging from the literature ...SUBSTANTIAL GAINS IN MUSCLE FITNESS. * WOMEN ARE BETTER PERFORMERS THAN THE SPARSE LITERATURE ON THAT SUBJECT INDICATES. * WOMEN SHOULD HAVE A fan that game was a thriller . I look forward to seeing you again in November as I understand that you may be at the DACOWITS meeting. I hope

  19. Industrial College of the Armed Forces Industry Studies 2003: Biotechnology (United States)


    Salisbury, Wiltshire, England Church of Scotland, Society, Religion and Technology Project, Edinburgh, Scotland Defence Science & Technology...effects that Copernicus and Darwin had on science and society. Those debates were overcome once the observations became obvious. The debate over

  20. A Medicosocial Study Of Paraplegics In Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Col P.K


    Full Text Available A cross sectional study of 81 paraplegics was carried out to determine various medical and psychosocial aspects of the disability. Majority of the cases were results of preventable external injuries, which mostly affected the young productive age group. A large number of cases had permanent impairment of mobility, bowel, bladder and sexual functions. Psychological reactions of anxiety and denial were most frequently encountered in initial stages, but gradually declined in successive stages of rehabilitation. Individuals with independent vocations were psychologically and socially well adjusted.

  1. Transforming Armed Forces to National Guard Units in Latin America (United States)


    Leonel Fernández, Populismo y Socialdemocracia, noticias/ articulos /art-012b.htm. March 19, 2001. 10 Trade and...Populismo y Socialdemocracia, articulos /art-012b.htm. March 19, 2001. 12 Dominican Republic Constitution

  2. Industrial College of the Armed Forces Industry Studies 2002: Biotechnology (United States)


    isolating the proteins (which are components of genes ) associated with specific diseases, then patenting them and licensing them to the established...Communities, Washington, DC Hemodyne Inc., Richmond, VA Human Genome Sciences Incorporated, Rockville, MD Monsanto , Inc., Washington, DC National...concept of the gene has changed from that of particles or "unit characters" to that of segments of the DNA molecule, composed of unique chains of proteins

  3. Armed Forces 1996 Equal Opportunity Survey: Administration, Datasets, and Codebook (United States)


    Male 2 0 Female SR.P SREDA-1 SRED .), .RE)t 1. Do not include partial years. 0 2. How much education have you completed? Mark For example, indicate " this survey fall into this category: SRSEX (for gender), SRED (for education), SRHISPA1 (for Hispanic ethnicity), SRRACE1 (for race), SRSVC (for...multiple responses. SRED is coded as a standard mark one item while SREDA-SREDI are coded as a mark-all-that-apply. SREDA-SREDI are coded as 1 (Not marked

  4. [Treating mentally wounded patients within the French armed forces]. (United States)

    Raffray, Pierre; Rio, Anaïck; Lahutte, Bertrand; Boisseaux, Humbert


    The French army has put in place a doctrine aimed at treating mentally wounded soldiers. A real treatment pathway comprising different specialised medical staff, places and time frames supports the soldier from the theatre of operations to France.

  5. Organizational Change for the United States Armed Forces (United States)


    Defense, 2001, accessed 11 July 2003); available from EBSCOhost Research Database , identification no. 32W2751700411. 26 It is my position each medium...Accessed 11 July 2003. Database on-line. Available from EBSCOhost Research Database . Identification no. 32W2751700411. Ash, Eric A. “Purple... databases , other scholarly publications, and academic presentations. Third, the evaluation criteria for the purpose of this monograph are based on current

  6. Factors Favoring Military Unions in the United States Armed Forces. (United States)


    sions for government employees in a general labor law . The act expli- citly prohibited federal employees from participating in any strike. 2 3 Private...titled, "Soldiers in Unions - Protected First Amendment Right?" which appeared in Labor Law Journal in September 1969, Daniel P. Sullivan, an Indiana

  7. Medical Service: Quarantine Regulations of the Armed Forces (United States)


    tuberculosis, suspected smallpox, and suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers ( lassa , marburg, ebola, congo-crimean, and others not yet isolated or named). b. Those...disease. The quarantinable diseases are cholera, plague, and yellow fever . Note. The U.S. Public Health Service, under the authority of an Executive Order...always be accomplished during visits to and upon leaving ports where yellow fever , malaria, or other arthropod–borne diseases are known to exist

  8. Malaria prophylaxis in the French armed forces: evolution of concepts. (United States)

    Touze, J E; Paule, P; Baudon, D; Boutin, J P


    Malaria is still a serious public health problem in the world and control remains a major priority for the approximately 25.000 French troops deployed, mostly on permanent assignment, in malaria transmission regions. Epidemiological surveillance of malaria provides data necessary to assess morbidity, monitor changing patterns of Plasmodium falciparum drug-sensitivity, and evaluate the efficacy of malaria control measures. About 540 cases were observed in 1999 for an incidence of 4.1 p. 100 men. year. Since 1991, strong emphasis has been placed on prophylaxis. In addition to vector control measures and individual protection against mosquito bites (impregnated bednets, protective clothing, application of repellents, and indoor insecticide spraying), drug prophylaxis has been recommended using a combination of 100 mg of chloroquine and 200 mg of proguanil chlorhydrate (CQ + PG) in a single capsule manufactured by the French Health Army Service. Initially this policy led to a significant decrease in malaria cases among French soldiers. However the incidence of malaria rose in 1995 and 1996. This recrudescence was attributed to poor compliance with chemoprophylaxis and to the declining efficacy of the CQ + PG combination. In response to these problems, a new policy was implemented especially in countries where cycloguanil-resistant Plasmodium falciparum incidence rate is increasing. The new chemoprophylactic regimen calls for a personal prescription of mefloquine. Doxycycline monohydrate is used in case of mefloquine contra-indication or intolerance. Combination of CQ + PG delivered in a single capsule remains a suitable chemoprophylactic regimen in Sahel countries as well as Horn of Africa.

  9. Employment of the El Salvador Armed Forces for Internal Security (United States)


    Factores que inciden en el consumo de drogas licitas e ilícitas”, (accessed November 15 2010). 10 La...Primerísima “Suma preocupación por consumo de droga ” June 29, 2008,, (accessed November 15 2010). 11 La...confirma n- investigacion -a-alto-jefe-policial-salvadoreno&catid=92:ultimas-noticias&Itemid=117, accessed January, 08 2011). 23 El Diario de Hoy

  10. EU Armed Forces’ Use of Social Media in Areas of Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hellman


    Full Text Available The advent of social media can be seen both as a risk and an opportunity by armed forces. Previous research has primarily examined whether or not the use of social media endangers or strengthens armed forces’ strategic narrative. We examine armed forces’ perceptions of risks and opportunities on a broad basis, with a particular focus on areas of deployment. The article is based on a survey of perceptions of social media amongst the armed forces of EU member states, thus adding to previous research through its comparative perspective. Whereas previous research has mainly focused on larger powers, such as the US and the UK, this article includes the views of the armed forces of 26 EU states, including several smaller nations. In analyzing the results we asked whether or not risk and opportunity perceptions were related to national ICT maturity and the existence of a social media strategy. The analysis shows that perceptions of opportunities outweigh perceptions of risks, with marketing and two-way communication as the two most prominent opportunities offered by the use of social media. Also, armed forces in countries with a moderate to high ICT maturity emphasize social media as a good way for marketing purposes.

  11. The effects of the arm swing on biomechanical and physiological aspects of roller ski skating. (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; de Koning, Jos J; Rognstad, Asgeir Bakken; Hoset, Martin; Sandbakk, Øyvind


    This study analyzed the biomechanical and physiological effects of the arm swing in roller ski skating, and compared leg-skating (i.e. ski skating without poles) using a pronounced arm swing (SWING) with leg-skating using locked arms (LOCKED). Sixteen elite male cross-country skiers performed submaximal stages at 10, 15 and 20kmh(-1) on a 2% inclined treadmill in the two techniques. SWING demonstrated higher peak push-off forces and a higher force impulse at all speeds, but a longer cycle length only at the highest speed (all Pski skating increases the ski forces and aerobic energy cost at low and moderate speeds, whereas the greater forces at high speed lead to a longer cycle length and smaller anaerobic contribution.

  12. 武警部队参与抢险救灾组织指挥的程序和重点问题%Key points and procedures of organization and command of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force participating in rescue and disaster relief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何敬和; 郭季平; 王寻


    为实现抢险救灾行动的组织指挥能力的全面提升,需要具备高效快速的指挥机构和完善的信息化指挥网络,并加快构建灾情资源信息保障和支持系统,实行现场指挥和联合决策,做到快速反应、动态调控。笔者主要探讨了抢险救灾组织指挥程序的关键环节及组织指挥应该把握的重点问题,为全面提高武警部队遂行抢险救灾行动的组织指挥能力,建立健全信息化指挥网络和快速高效的指挥机构提供参考。%In order to achieve the goal of improving organization and command of disaster rescue and disaster relief, it’s essential to build up a highly efficient rapid commanding agency and perfect information network, and speed up the construction of disaster information resources and support system. The author mainly presented the key link and important points of organization and command, so as to comprehensively improve the competency of organization and command in rescue and disaster relief of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, establish and strengthen information command network and rapid and efficient commanding agency.

  13. Haptic stabilization of posture: changes in arm proprioception and cutaneous feedback for different arm orientations (United States)

    Rabin, E.; Bortolami, S. B.; DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.


    Postural sway during quiet stance is attenuated by actively maintained contact of the index finger with a stationary surface, even if the level of applied force (proprioceptive information about the hand and arm can serve as an active sensor of body position relative to the point of contact. A geometric analysis of the relationship between hand and torso displacement during body sway led to the prediction that arm and hand proprioceptive and finger somatosensory information about body sway would be maximized with finger contact in the plane of body sway. Therefore, the most postural stabilization should be possible with such contact. To test this analysis, subjects touched a laterally versus anteriorly placed surface while in each of two stances: the heel-to-toe tandem Romberg stance that reduces medial-lateral stability and the heel-to-heel, toes-outward, knees-bent, "duck stance" that reduces fore-aft stability. Postural sway was always least with finger contact in the unstable plane: for the tandem stance, lateral fingertip contact was significantly more effective than frontal contact, and, for the duck stance, frontal contact was more effective than lateral fingertip contact. Force changes at the fingertip led changes in center of pressure of the feet by approximately 250 ms for both fingertip contact locations for both test stances. These results support the geometric analysis, which showed that 1) arm joint angles change by the largest amount when fingertip contact is maintained in the plane of greatest sway, and 2) the somatosensory cues at the fingertip provide both direction and amplitude information about sway when the finger is contacting a surface in the unstable plane.

  14. The Financial Arm Of The FARC: A Threat Finance Perspective


    Thomas Cook


    The FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) transformed from a traditional guerrilla group into a full-fledged insurgency because of its ability to effectively convert the proceeds derived from illegal narcotic trafficking into operational funds. Those financial capabilities allowed the FARC to challenge government authority in large swathes of the Colombian state. The FARC moved into the drug trade, initially controlling production territo...

  15. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K


    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  16. Postural adjustments for online corrections of arm movements in standing humans. (United States)

    Leonard, Julia A; Gritsenko, Valeriya; Ouckama, Ryan; Stapley, Paul J


    The aim of this study was to investigate how humans correct ongoing arm movements while standing. Specifically, we sought to understand whether the postural adjustments in the legs required for online corrections of arm movements are predictive or rely on feedback from the moving limb. To answer this question we measured online corrections in arm and leg muscles during pointing movements while standing. Nine healthy right-handed subjects reached with their dominant arm to a visual target in front of them and aligned with their midline. In some trials, the position of the target would switch from the central target to one of the other targets located 15°, 30°, or 45° to the right of the central (midline) target. For each target correction, we measured the time at which arm kinematics, ground reaction forces, and arm and leg muscle electromyogram significantly changed in response to the target displacement. Results show that postural adjustments in the left leg preceded kinematic corrections in the limb. The corrective postural muscle activity in the left leg consistently preceded the corrective reaching muscle activity in the right arm. Our results demonstrate that corrections of arm movements in response to target displacement during stance are preceded by postural adjustments in the leg contralateral to the direction of target shift. Furthermore, postural adjustments preceded both the hand trajectory correction and the arm-muscle activity responsible for it, which suggests that the central nervous system does not depend on feedback from the moving arm to modify body posture during voluntary movement. Instead, postural adjustments lead the online correction in the arm the same way they lead the initiation of voluntary arm movements. This suggests that forward models for voluntary movements executed during stance incorporate commands for posture that are produced on the basis of the required task demands.

  17. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski


    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to

  18. Relative Contribution of Arms and Legs in 30 s Fully Tethered Front Crawl Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Morouço


    Full Text Available The relative contribution of arm stroke and leg kicking to maximal fully tethered front crawl swimming performance remains to be solved. Twenty-three national level young swimmers (12 male and 11 female randomly performed 3 bouts of 30 s fully tethered swimming (using the whole body, only the arm stroke, and only the leg kicking. A load-cell system permitted the continuous measurement of the exerted forces, and swimming velocity was calculated from the time taken to complete a 50 m front crawl swim. As expected, with no restrictions swimmers were able to exert higher forces than that using only their arm stroke or leg kicking. Estimated relative contributions of arm stroke and leg kicking were 70.3% versus 29.7% for males and 66.6% versus 33.4% for females, with 15.6% and 13.1% force deficits, respectively. To obtain higher velocities, male swimmers are highly dependent on the maximum forces they can exert with the arm stroke (r=0.77, P<0.01, whereas female swimmers swimming velocity is more related to whole-body mean forces (r=0.81, P<0.01. The obtained results point that leg kicking plays an important role over short duration high intensity bouts and that the used methodology may be useful to identify strength and/or coordination flaws.

  19. From Territorial Defence to Expeditionary Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe; Staun, Jørgen Meedom


    After the Cold War the Danish Armed Forces moved away from its traditional role of territorial defense of Danish soil and towards a role as a globally deployable expeditionary force, imbedded with UK and/or US forces. This shift in national strategy amplified the requirements of the young officer......’ ability to think and act strategically in international missions. This article discusses to what extent this has been reflected in the education of the young officers....

  20. Unimagined Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, Mikkel Bruun


    In this paper it is argued that war contains inherent and thus necessary aesthetic traits (ranging from sensory data to narrative features), but that existing research institutions throughout the West have failed to address this issue adequately, in terms of research policy, recruitment and metho......In this paper it is argued that war contains inherent and thus necessary aesthetic traits (ranging from sensory data to narrative features), but that existing research institutions throughout the West have failed to address this issue adequately, in terms of research policy, recruitment...... and methodology. Accordingly, it is suggested that scholars from the humanities in particular aggressively seek to develop new types of research institutions and methods in order to deal with the manifold forms of overlap between warfare and aesthetics. In empirical terms, focus is limited to the current...

  1. Autonomous sensor-based dual-arm satellite grappling (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian; Tso, Kam; Litwin, Todd; Hayati, Samad; Bon, Bruce


    Dual-arm satellite grappling involves the integration of technologies developed in the Sensing and Perception (S&P) Subsystem for object acquisition and tracking, and the Manipulator Control and Mechanization (MCM) Subsystem for dual-arm control. S&P acquires and tracks the position, orientation, velocity, and angular velocity of a slowly spinning satellite, and sends tracking data to the MCM subsystem. MCM grapples the satellite and brings it to rest, controlling the arms so that no excessive forces or torques are exerted on the satellite or arms. A 350-pound satellite mockup which can spin freely on a gimbal for several minutes, closely simulating the dynamics of a real satellite is demonstrated. The satellite mockup is fitted with a panel under which may be mounted various elements such as line replacement modules and electrical connectors that will be used to demonstrate servicing tasks once the satellite is docked. The subsystems are housed in three MicroVAX II microcomputers. The hardware of the S&P Subsystem includes CCD cameras, video digitizers, frame buffers, IMFEX (a custom pipelined video processor), a time-code generator with millisecond precision, and a MicroVAX II computer. Its software is written in Pascal and is based on a locally written vision software library. The hardware of the MCM Subsystem includes PUMA 560 robot arms, Lord force/torque sensors, two MicroVAX II computers, and unimation pneumatic parallel grippers. Its software is written in C, and is based on a robot language called RCCL. The two subsystems are described and test results on the grappling of the satellite mockup with rotational rates of up to 2 rpm are provided.

  2. Arms control and international security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolkowicz, R. (ed.); Joeck, N.


    This book compiles the papers delivered at a symposium held at the University of California, in 1983. It provides the discussions upon the value and importance of arms debate. The paper presents an expression of personal views rather than an analysis of the arguments of the primary presentations.

  3. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K


    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  4. Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems (United States)

    ... your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisYou may have TENDINITIS, inflammation of a tendon.Self CareUse an over- ... OverDiagnosisYour may have TENNIS ELBOW, a type of TENDINITIS.Self CareRest the arm, apply ice packs to ...

  5. Analyzing surface EMG signals to determine relationship between jaw imbalance and arm strength loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Quang Dang Khoa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relationship between dental occlusion and arm strength; in particular, the imbalance in the jaw can cause loss in arm strength phenomenon. One of the goals of this study was to record the maximum forces that the subjects can resist against the pull-down force on their hands while biting a spacer of adjustable height on the right or left side of the jaw. Then EMG measurement was used to determine the EMG-Force relationship of the jaw, neck and arms muscles. This gave us useful insights on the arms strength loss due to the biomechanical effects of the imbalance in the jaw mechanism. Methods In this study to determine the effects of the imbalance in the jaw to the strength of the arms, we conducted experiments with a pool of 20 healthy subjects of both genders. The subjects were asked to resist a pull down force applied on the contralateral arm while biting on a firm spacer using one side of the jaw. Four different muscles – masseter muscles, deltoid muscles, bicep muscles and trapezoid muscles – were involved. Integrated EMG (iEMG and Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD were used to analyze the EMG signals. Results The results showed that (1 Imbalance in the jaw causes loss of arm strength contra-laterally; (2 The loss is approximately a linear function of the height of the spacers. Moreover, the iEMG showed the intensity of muscle activities decreased when the degrees of jaw imbalance increased (spacer thickness increased. In addition, the tendency of Higuchi fractal dimension decreased for all muscles. Conclusions This finding indicates that muscle fatigue and the decrease in muscle contraction level leads to the loss of arm strength.

  6. Acoustical Evaluation of Combat Arms Firing Range, Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota (United States)


    noise for the M870 and M9 in accordance with Air Force Occupational Safety and Health (AFOSH) Standard 48-20 due to acoustical reflections. Conversely...15. SUBJECT TERMS Impulse noise , impact noise , continuous noise , decay time, Combat Arms, CATM, firing range, hearing, acoustics , noise , firearms...Combat Arms instructors wearing dual hearing protection. Note: Moldex Camo ear plugs have a noise reduction rating of 33 decibels A-Weighted (dBA

  7. Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Forces,” July 26, 1948. 66 At this time the policy did not mention discrimination based on gender ...employers. In addition, some argue that even though equal protections may exist in policy, more needs to be done to ensure that servicemembers do not...Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress Kristy N. Kamarck Analyst in Military




  9. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian


    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the Europea

  10. Institutional Paralysis (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, Adam


    Institutional paralysis of higher education is the result of the disjunction between faculty and administration; the disjunction between substantive planning and bugetary decision-making; the disjunction between departmental structures and functional areas of university concern; and the disjunction between the theory of direct democracy and its…

  11. Institution Morphisms (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  12. Effect of Tendon Vibration on Hemiparetic Arm Stability in Unstable Workspaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan O Conrad

    Full Text Available Sensory stimulation of wrist musculature can enhance stability in the proximal arm and may be a useful therapy aimed at improving arm control post-stroke. Specifically, our prior research indicates tendon vibration can enhance stability during point-to-point arm movements and in tracking tasks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of forearm tendon vibration on endpoint stability, measured at the hand, immediately following forward arm movements in an unstable environment. Both proximal and distal workspaces were tested. Ten hemiparetic stroke subjects and 5 healthy controls made forward arm movements while grasping the handle of a two-joint robotic arm. At the end of each movement, the robot applied destabilizing forces. During some trials, 70 Hz vibration was applied to the forearm flexor muscle tendons. 70 Hz was used as the stimulus frequency as it lies within the range of optimal frequencies that activate the muscle spindles at the highest response rate. Endpoint position, velocity, muscle activity and grip force data were compared before, during and after vibration. Stability at the endpoint was quantified as the magnitude of oscillation about the target position, calculated from the power of the tangential velocity data. Prior to vibration, subjects produced unstable, oscillating hand movements about the target location due to the applied force field. Stability increased during vibration, as evidenced by decreased oscillation in hand tangential velocity.

  13. Cultural synergy in information institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Smiraglia, Richard P


    Cultural forces govern a synergistic relationship among information institutions that shapes their roles collectively and individually. Cultural synergy is the combination of perception- and behavior-shaping knowledge within, between, and among groups. Our hyperlinked era makes information-sharing among institutions critically important for scholarship as well as for the advancement of humankind. Information institutions are those that have, or share in, the mission to preserve, conserve, and disseminate information objects and their informative content. A central idea is the notion of social

  14. Multiple Identifications in Multi-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Viswanathan, Nitin


    We study the problem of identifying the top $m$ arms in a multi-armed bandit game. Our proposed solution relies on a new algorithm based on successive rejects of the seemingly bad arms, and successive accepts of the good ones. This algorithmic contribution allows to tackle other multiple identifications settings that were previously out of reach. In particular we show that this idea of successive accepts and rejects applies to the multi-bandit best arm identification problem.

  15. The armed hand of State-party: The National Guard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Grecu


    Full Text Available The single party was the militarized political institution of the new authoritarian regime lead by King Carol II by using the armed hand of single organization in the state, The National Guard. The militarization of policy represented the main dimension of the regime and the state architecture revealed the single party capacity to militarize the administrative institutions. The architecture of National Renaissance Front was similar to a military unit, the official attributions of the National Guard consisted in the maintenance of order in the territory, and unofficially regarded the monitoring of members and opposites of the party and regime, by control and surveillance activity. The National Guard was politicized institution of the regime and of the single party which proved its inefficiency because of the subordination of the commandant general to the single party. Militaries lead the single organization as well as the National Guard.

  16. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meek, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs

  17. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements VI (ACME VI) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


    From October 1 through September 30, 2016, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility will deploy the Cessna 206 aircraft over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, collecting observations of trace-gas mixing ratios over the ARM’s SGP facility. The aircraft payload includes two Atmospheric Observing Systems, Inc., analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2 and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2, 14CO2, carbonyl sulfide, and trace hydrocarbon species, including ethane). The aircraft payload also includes instrumentation for solar/infrared radiation measurements. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s ARM Climate Research Facility and Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program and builds upon previous ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) missions. The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange at the SGP site, 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative forcing, convective processes and CO2 concentrations over the SGP site, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  18. Compartment Syndrome of the Arm After Cable-Wakeboard Accident. (United States)

    Barendse-Hofmann, Minke G; Steenvoorde, Pascal; van Doorn, Louk; Zeillemaker, Anneke


    A compartment syndrome is an increased tissue pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment. This compromises blood flow to the muscles and nerves within that compartment, which -if not treated adequately in an early stage-results in permanent tissue and nerve damage. It most frequently occurs in the lower leg, but can also occur elsewhere when muscles are enclosed in tight fascial compartments, such as the forearm and hand. In this report a patient is described who developed an acute compartment syndrome of the arm after a cable-wakeboard accident in which his arm was strangulated. Cable-wakeboarding is an extreme sport that has become very popular over the last years. Early recognition and treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is of extreme importance since in short term necrotic muscles can lead to severe irreversible complications. Accidents with cable-wakeboarding often occur during the start. This is caused by the strong forces that are on the cable during the start. Strangulation injuries of the arm can cause a compartment syndrome of the arm. Possibly a wet-suit or dry-suit offers some protection. However, the duration of strangulation determines much of the damage. Although diagnosis of a compartment syndrome can be difficult, a high index of suspicion combined with fast and adequate treatment with a fasciotomy improve outcome and prognosis.

  19. NetCDF structure versioning on the ARM program (United States)

    Macduff, M.; Beus, S.; Ermold, B.; Sivaraman, C.


    The DOE ARM program has produced netcdf data for more than 600 instruments (and more than 100 unique types) since 1994. In addition to instrument changes over time, the software processes have gone through several iterations. So, while the data is in a common netcdf format, some significant variability has occurred over time. Processes that use long-time ranges of these data are forced to deal with these unannounced changes and determine their relevance. In 2006 the ARM program adopted a definition for the structure of a netcdf data file. Using this definition, libraries, a database and management tools were developed to create, store, review, use and enforce changes to the structure of the netcdf files. These are stored as discrete versions allowing for clarity and consistency over time. ARM recently completed the migration of most of the active instruments into this new system and has more than 200 versions created. Having these versions is an important tool for communicating and planning data reprocessing and especially for higher order products to use as a reference of known, documented change. This paper discusses the implementation of structure versioning on ARM, the benefits we foresee and its limitations.

  20. A comparison of levels of satisfaction with the effect of application of EAP to psychological service in Armed Police Forces%武警某部心理服务导入员工帮助计划项目的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简明; 朱强; 罗俊卿; 冯领霖; 王文蒙


    目的 评估比较武警部队心理服务导入员工帮助计划(employee assistant program,EAP)项目的 效果.方法 抽取驻湘某部1276名官兵随机分为实验组和对照组,实施EAP项目前后采用工作满意度量表进行效果对照分析和相关性研究.结果 项目实施后实验组工作环境满意度、工作性质满意度、工作关系满意度、单位经营满意度和总体满意度得分显著高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(u=2.14,1.98,2.31,2.48,2.19,P<0.01),晋升满意度、培训满意度、薪酬满意度无统计学差异(u=1.35,1.16,1.66,P>0.05).结论 导入EAP的心理服务有助于官兵在工作态度和认知方面发生良性改变,较常规服务方式有效.%Objective To evaluate the effect of application of EAP ( employee assistant program ) to psychological services in the Armed Police Forces. Methods WTBZ1276 soldiers were divided into study group and control group . The assessment was conducted with job satisfaction charts before and after the application of EAP . Results The satisfaction level relating to the job environ -ment, job characteristics, job relationships, payment and the overall satisfaction level in the study group were markedly higher than those in control group with statistical significance (u = 2.14,1. 98,2.31,2.48,2. 19,P <0. 01). In the study group, officers' level of satisfaction was positively correlated with the soldiers '. Conclusions The application of EAP facilitates the improvement in job atti — rude and self assessment of the soldiers , to better effect than routine service.

  1. Torque control in lingual orthodontics with lever arm mechanics: a case report. (United States)

    Aravind, M; Shivaprakash, G; Ramesh, G C


    The aim of this report is to illustrate treatment mechanics for torque control in lingual mechanotherapy using a lever arm and transpalatal arch (TPA) tab system during en masse retraction of anterior teeth. An 18-year-old female with bimaxillary dentoalveolar proclination with crowding was treated with a lever arm-TPA tab system. The retraction tabs bent into the TPA placed across the maxillary second molars were used as anchorage. The retraction force on the maxillary anterior teeth was applied using lever arm hooks soldered between the lateral incisors and canines on a lingual mushroom archwire. By applying a retraction force to the lever arm hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced greater palatal root movement as compared to the conventional retraction forces applied at the crown level. The tabs, placed high in the TPA, produced a distal tipping moment on the maxillary second molars, reinforcing their anchorage. The retraction force applied to the long lever arm hooks from the TPA tabs at the level of center of resistance (CRes) of anterior and posterior teeth is advantageous mainly in two aspects. First, it reinforces the anchorage, and second, it favors the palatal root movement of anterior teeth, thus obtaining better control over the torque during en masse retraction.

  2. Uncalibrated Neuro-Visual Servoing Control for Multiple Robot Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo García-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Diverse image-based tracking schemes for a robot moving in free motion have been proposed and experimentally validated. However, few visual servoing schemes have addressed the tracking of the desired trajectory and the contact forces for multiple robot arms. The main difficulty stems from the fact that camera information cannot be used to drive force trajectories. Recognizing this fact, a unique error manifold that includes position-velocity and force errors in orthogonal complements is proposed. A synergistic scheme that fuses camera, encoder and force sensor signals into a unique error manifold allows proposing a control system which guarantees exponential tracking errors under parametric uncertainty. Additionally a small neural network driven by a second order sliding mode surface is derived to compensate robot dynamics. Residual errors that arise because of the finite size of the neural network are compensated via an orthogonalized second order sliding mode. The performance of the proposed scheme, in two significant applications of the multiple robot arms, is validated through numerical simulations.

  3. Structural Optimization of Slender Robot Arm Based on Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Luo


    Full Text Available An effective structural optimization method based on a sensitivity analysis is proposed to optimize the variable section of a slender robot arm. The structure mechanism and the operating principle of a polishing robot are introduced firstly, and its stiffness model is established. Then, a design of sensitivity analysis method and a sequential linear programming (SLP strategy are developed. At the beginning of the optimization, the design sensitivity analysis method is applied to select the sensitive design variables which can make the optimized results more efficient and accurate. In addition, it can also be used to determine the scale of moving step which will improve the convergency during the optimization process. The design sensitivities are calculated using the finite difference method. The search for the final optimal structure is performed using the SLP method. Simulation results show that the proposed structure optimization method is effective in enhancing the stiffness of the robot arm regardless of the robot arm suffering either a constant force or variable forces.

  4. A Study of Joint Transformation at United States Joint Forces Command (United States)


    College, 1989), 19. 24Allen Frenzel , COL, USA, Restructuring the Armed Forces to Meet U.S. National Security Interests Through 2015, AWC Strategic Research...1984. Frenzel , Allen, COL, USA. Restructuring the Armed Forces to Meet U.S. National Security Interests Through 2015, AWC Strategic Research Paper

  5. Development of Integrated ASR Model Forcing Data and Their Applications to Improve CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minghua [Research Foundation of the State University of New York, Albany, NY (United States)


    In this project, we have (1) improved the constrained variational analysis algorithm of ARM model forcing data, and (2) used the ARM forcing data to identify systematic biases in clouds and radiation in the CAM5 and design new physical parameterizations to improve it.

  6. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.


    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  7. The application of multilayer elastic beam in MEMS safe and arming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guozhong, E-mail:; Shi, Gengchen; Sui, Li [National Lab of Mechatronic Engineering and Control, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, P.R.CHINA (China); Yi, Futing; Wang, Bo [Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R.CHINA (China)


    In this paper, a new approach for a multilayer elastic beam to provide a driving force and driving distance for a MEMS safe and arming system is presented. In particular this is applied where a monolayer elastic beam cannot provide adequate driving force and driving distance at the same time in limited space. Compared with thicker elastic beams, the bilayer elastic beam can provide twice the driving force of a monolayer beam to guarantee the MEMS safe and arming systems work reliably without decreasing the driving distance. In this paper, the theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental verification of the multilayer elastic beam is presented. The numerical simulation and experimental results show that the bilayer elastic provides 1.8–2 times the driving force of a monolayer, and a method that improves driving force without reducing the driving distance.

  8. Dual arm master controller concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.


    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.

  9. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg


    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  10. Stereotypical reaching movements of the octopus involve both bend propagation and arm elongation. (United States)

    Hanassy, S; Botvinnik, A; Flash, T; Hochner, B


    force (<0.0016 for an average strain along the arm of around 0.5). This was not observed and moreover such extremely low value does not seem to be physiologically possible. Hence the assumptions made in applying the dynamic model to behaviors such as static arm stiffening that leads to arm extension through bend propagation and the patterns of activation used to simulate such behaviors should be modified to account for movements combining bend propagation and arm elongation.

  11. High precision detector robot arm system (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong


    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  12. Overview and Updated Status of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, David M.; Chodas, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley N.; Ticker, Ronald


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder and regolith samples from its surface, demonstrate a planetary defense technique known as the enhanced gravity tractor, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s and other destinations, as well as provide other broader benefits. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. Current plans are for the robotic mission to be launched in late 2021 with the crewed mission segment conducted using an Orion capsule via a Space Launch System rocket in 2026. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is providing accommodations for payloads to be carried on the robotic segment of the mission and also organizing an ARM Investigation Team. The Investigation Team will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals from US industry, government, academia, and international institutions to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. The presentation will provide a mission overview and the most recent update concerning the robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, and potential

  13. A influência francesa na estruturação da escola de educação física da Força Pública de São Paulo, Brasil (1906-1914 = The French Influence in the Structuring of the School of Physical Education of the Armed Forces of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1906-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barsottini


    ário de uma missão militar francesa que tinha o interesse central na modernização da polícia paulista, a partir de demandas políticas e econômicas do contexto da época. Observamos também que a partir desta influência criou-se uma tradição representada por uma cultura de ginástica, lutas, esgrima, e dança.----------------------------------------------------------------The objective of this study was to describe the French cultural influence in the field of Physical Education in the context of the Armed Forces of Sao Paulo in the early 20th, but also analyzed the political demands of the state government in the organization of this school. Regarding the methodological procedures, there was a documentary research about the theme, which was characterized by collecting data for research on the structure of the School of Physical Education of the Armed Forces of Sao Paulo (1906-1914. These documents, consisting of books, tracts, letters, journals and abstracts were collected at the Museum of Military Police of São Paulo. It concluded that the formation of this school was a secondary goal of a French military mission, because the main objective of São Paulo was the modernization of the police in terms of training and equipment, from political and economic demands of the context of the time. Also observed this influence has created a tradition represented by a culture of gymnastics, martial arts, fencing, and dancing.

  14. Hot Galactic Arms Point To Vicious Cycle (United States)


    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed the aftermath of a titanic explosion that wracked the elliptical galaxy known as NGC 4636. This eruption could be the latest episode in a cycle of violence that is triggered by gas falling into a central massive black hole. Chandra's images of NGC 4636 show spectacular symmetric arms, or arcs, of hot gas extending 25,000 light years into a huge cloud of multimillion-degree-Celsius gas that envelopes the galaxy. At a temperature of 10 million degrees, the arms are 30 percent hotter than the surrounding gas cloud. "The temperature jump, together with the symmetry and scale of the arms, suggests that we are observing the effects of a tremendous outburst that occurred in the center of the galaxy," said Christine Jones of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., lead author of a paper on these observations scheduled for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The energy of this explosion would be the equivalent of several hundred thousand supernovas." The arms appear to be the leading edges of a galaxy-sized shock wave that is racing outward at 700 kilometers per second, or 1.6 million miles per hour. At this speed, it would take 3 million years for the structures to attain their present size. Cavities detected in the hot gas cloud to the east and west of the center of the galaxy support the shockwave explanation. The authors suggest that the explosion is part of a majestic cosmic feedback process that keeps the galaxy in a state of turmoil. Over a period of a few million years, a hot gas cloud that envelops the stars in the galaxy cools and falls inward toward a central, massive black hole. The feeding of the black hole by the infalling material leads to an explosion that heats the hot gaseous envelope, starting the cycle anew. NGC 4636 NGC 4636 Background Subtracted This feedback cycle may explain one puzzling feature of the galaxy - the lack of a strong radio source of the type that is

  15. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald


    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  16. Institute news (United States)


    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  17. Higher Education Research Institutes in Chinese Universities (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Nian Cai


    Initially emerged in 1978, higher education research institutes (HERIs) in Mainland China have experienced rapid expansion and have become a major force in higher education reform in the last three decades. The development of these research institutes is closely related to the substantive growth of the higher education system itself as well as…

  18. Different strategy of hand choice after learning of constant and incremental dynamical perturbation in arm reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie eHabagishi


    Full Text Available In daily life, we encounter situations where we must quickly decide which hand to use for a motor action. Here, we investigated whether the hand chosen for a motor action varied over a short timescale (i.e., hours with changes in arm dynamics. Participants performed a reaching task in which they moved a specified hand to reach a target on a virtual reality display. During the task, a resistive viscous force field was abruptly applied to only the dominant hand. To evaluate changes in hand choice caused by this perturbation, participants performed an interleaved choice test in which they could freely choose either hand for reaching. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of temporal changes on arm dynamics and hand choice, we exposed the same participants to another condition in which the force field was introduced gradually. When the abrupt force was applied, use of the perturbed hand significantly decreased and not changed during the training. In contrast, when the incremental force was applied, use of the perturbed hand gradually decreased as force increased. Surprisingly, even though the final amount of force was identical between the two conditions, hand choice was significantly biased toward the unperturbed hand in the gradual condition. These results suggest that time-varying changes in arm dynamics may have a greater influence on hand choice than the amplitude of the resistant force itself.

  19. Dual arm master controller development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.


    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Arms Race in Maghreb Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Maghreb countries competitive altitude towards each other’ s has reached a higher level by entering an arms race.Morocco and Al ̄geria have dominated more than 50 percent of the Africa’ s imported weapons,mainly because of inherited cold war mentality of competi ̄tion and hostility. Maghreb countries competition has drugged the re ̄gion into a chaos that threatens regional stability obviously which af ̄fect the domestic political stability,since military spending weakens the financial capacity of states.

  1. Anticipatory postural adjustments to arm movement reveal complex control of paraspinal muscles in the thorax. (United States)

    Lee, Linda-Joy; Coppieters, Michel W; Hodges, Paul W


    Anatomical and empirical data suggest that deep and superficial muscles may have different functions for thoracic spine control. This study investigated thoracic paraspinal muscle activity during anticipatory postural adjustments associated with arm movement. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were made from the right deep (multifidus/rotatores) and superficial (longissimus) muscles at T5, T8, and T11 levels using fine-wire electrodes. Ten healthy participants performed fast unilateral and bilateral flexion and extension arm movements in response to a light. EMG amplitude was measured during 25ms epochs for 150ms before and 400ms after deltoid EMG onset. During arm flexion movements, multifidus and longissimus had two bursts of activity, one burst prior to deltoid and a late burst. With arm extension both muscles were active in a single burst after deltoid onset. There was differential activity with respect to direction of trunk rotation induced by arm movement. Right longissimus was most active with left arm movements and right multifidus was most active with right arm movements. All levels of the thorax responded similarly. We suggest that although thoracic multifidus and longissimus function similarly to control sagittal plane perturbations, these muscles are differentially active with rotational forces on the trunk.

  2. Labor Force (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012


    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  3. Failure of Arm Movement Control in Stroke Patients, Characterized by Loss of Complexity. (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Han, Kyungreem; Ryu, Jehkwang; Kim, Seonjin; Choi, MooYoung


    We study the mechanism of human arm-posture control by means of nonlinear dynamics and quantitative time series analysis methods. Utilizing linear and nonlinear measures in combination, we find that pathological tremors emerge in patient dynamics and serve as a main feature discriminating between normal and patient groups. The deterministic structure accompanied with loss of complexity inherent in the tremor dynamics is also revealed. To probe the underlying mechanism of the arm-posture dynamics, we further analyze the coupling patterns between joints and components, and discuss their roles in breaking of the organization structure. As a result, we elucidate the mechanisms in the arm-posture dynamics of normal subjects responding to the gravitational force and for the reduction of the dynamic degrees of freedom in the patient dynamics. This study provides an integrated framework for the origin of the loss of complexity in the dynamics of patients as well as the coupling structure in the arm-posture dynamics.

  4. A testbed for a unified teleoperated-autonomous dual-arm robotic system (United States)

    Hayati, S.; Lee, T.; Tso, K.; Backes, P.; Lloyd, J.


    This paper describes a complete robot control facility built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as part of NASA a telerobotics program to develop a state-of-the-art robot control environment for laboratory based space-like experiments. This system, which is now fully operational, has the following features: separation of the computing facilities into local and remote sites, autonomous motion generation in joint or Cartesian coordinates, dual-arm force reflecting teleoperation with voice interaction between the operator and the robots, shared control between the autonomously generated motions and operator controlled teleoperation, and dual-arm coordinated trajectory generation. The system has been used to carry out realistic experiments such as the exchange of an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU), bolt turning, and door opening, using a mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation, with either a single arm or two cooperating arms.

  5. Bionic robot arm with compliant actuators (United States)

    Moehl, Bernhard


    Traditional robotics uses non-compliant materials for all components involved in the production of movement. Elasticity is avoided as far as possible, because it leads to hazardous oscillations and makes control of precise movements very difficult. Due to this deliberate stiffness, robots are typically heavy and clumsy structures in comparison to their living counterparts (i.e. man and animals). Yet, moving systems in nature cope not only with the difficulties introduced by compliant materials, they also take advantage of the elasticity in muscles and tendons to produce smooth and even rapid movements. It is understood, that elasticity in a multi-jointed moving system requires sophisticated control mechanisms- as provided by a nervous system or a suitably programmed computer. In this contribution I shall describe a two-jointed robot with purpose-built elasticity in its actuators. This is accomplished by spiral springs places in series with a conventional electric motor and a tendon to the arm. It is shown that, with sufficiently soft elasticity, oscillations can be avoided by active oscillation damping. (Such active oscillation damping presumably also governs movement control in man and animals.) Furthermore, once the major problem has been overcome, elasticity is found to offer a wide spectrum of valuable advantages, as far as the most serious problems in traditional robotics are concerned. They are summarized by terms such as less dangerous, position tolerant, lightweight construction, controlled forces, and ballistic movements. These will be explained in detail and presented for discussion.

  6. Human movement training with a cable driven ARm EXoskeleton (CAREX). (United States)

    Mao, Ying; Jin, Xin; Gera Dutta, Geetanjali; Scholz, John P; Agrawal, Sunil K


    In recent years, the authors have proposed lightweight exoskeleton designs for upper arm rehabilitation using multi-stage cable-driven parallel mechanism. Previously, the authors have demonstrated via experiments that it is possible to apply "assist-as-needed" forces in all directions at the end-effector with such an exoskeleton acting on an anthropomorphic machine arm. A human-exoskeleton interface was also presented to show the feasibility of CAREX on human subjects. The goals of this paper are to 1) further address issues when CAREX is mounted on human subjects, e.g., generation of continuous cable tension trajectories 2) demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of CAREX on movement training of healthy human subjects and a stroke patient. In this research, CAREX is rigidly attached to an arm orthosis worn by human subjects. The cable routing points are optimized to achieve a relatively large "tensioned" static workspace. A new cable tension planner based on quadratic programming is used to generate continuous cable tension trajectory for smooth motion. Experiments were carried out on eight healthy subjects. The experimental results show that CAREX can help the subjects move closer to a prescribed circular path using the force fields generated by the exoskeleton. The subjects also adapt to the path shortly after training. CAREX was also evaluated on a stroke patient to test the feasibility of its use on patients with neural impairment. The results show that the patient was able to move closer to a prescribed straight line path with the "assist-as-needed" force field.

  7. Environmental Conditions in Kentucky's Penal Institutions (United States)

    Bell, Irving


    A state task force was organized to identify health or environmental deficiencies existing in Kentucky penal institutions. Based on information gained through direct observation and inmate questionnaires, the task force concluded that many hazardous and unsanitary conditions existed, and recommended that immediate action be given to these…

  8. Management of polytraumatized patients in the resuscitation room Resources, standards and training at the German Armed Forces Hospital in Ulm, Germany%多发性创伤患者的医疗处理——德国乌尔姆市联邦国防军医院的资源、标准和培训

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.库拉; A.比茨; S.克林格; L.兰波


    Continuous quality control of patient management in the resuscitation room has enabled the Federal Armed Forces Medical Centre Ulm to achieve quality standards that are recognized at both the national and the international levels. This is shown in the fact that the hospital is currently being certified as a supraregional trauma center. A major focus has invariably been placed on interdisaplinarity and compliance with nationally and internationally agreed standards. ATLS @ and PHTLS @ algorithms, which are recognized both nationally and internationally, have been successfully adapted to meet the latest requirements such as a multi-slice CT examination of the whole body and thromboelastography. With this background, medical service officers and non-commissioned officers are able to use the knowledge and skills they have acquired in Ulm also on foreign deployments, which require a particularly high level of flexibility and adaptability.%德国乌尔姆市联邦国防军医疗中心复苏病房对患者实行连续质量控制的医疗处理,此项措施使得该中心的医疗处理工作质量达到了国内和国际先进水平,该院最近被认证为跨地区的创伤医疗中心.医院始终不渝地坚持多学科性建设并保持医疗技术处于国内和国际先进水平.按照国内和国际标准制定的ATIS@和PHTLS@规则系统,例如全身多层CT检查、血栓弹性描记法已被用来满足最新的技术需求.在这样的技术背景下,当部队被派往需要高度的灵活性和适应能力的国外部署时,医务人员和非现役军官就能够充分地运用他们在乌尔姆中心医院获得的知识和技能来完成他们所承担的任务.本文介绍了在复苏病房中对多发性创伤患者进行预处理、为复苏医疗组成员提供培训所需要的现有资源,以及对患者的预处理可获得最佳效果的规则方法,此外还介绍了近十年来为达到现有质量标准所做的改进措施.

  9. EMG feedback tasks reduce reflexive stiffness during force and position perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Happee, R.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schouten, A.C.


    Force and position perturbations are widely applied to identify muscular and reflexive contributions to posture maintenance of the arm. Both task instruction (force vs. position) and the inherently linked perturbation type (i.e., force perturbations-position task and position perturbations-force tas

  10. Latent herpesvirus infection arms NK cells. (United States)

    White, Douglas W; Keppel, Catherine R; Schneider, Stephanie E; Reese, Tiffany A; Coder, James; Payton, Jacqueline E; Ley, Timothy J; Virgin, Herbert W; Fehniger, Todd A


    Natural killer (NK) cells were identified by their ability to kill target cells without previous sensitization. However, without an antecedent "arming" event, NK cells can recognize, but are not equipped to kill, target cells. How NK cells become armed in vivo in healthy hosts is unclear. Because latent herpesviruses are highly prevalent and alter multiple aspects of host immunity, we hypothesized that latent herpesvirus infection would arm NK cells. Here we show that NK cells from mice latently infected with Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) were armed as evidenced by increased granzyme B protein expression, cytotoxicity, and interferon-gamma production. NK-cell arming occurred rapidly in the latently infected host and did not require acute viral infection. Furthermore, NK cells armed by latent infection protected the host against a lethal lymphoma challenge. Thus, the immune environment created by latent herpesvirus infection provides a mechanism whereby host NK-cell function is enhanced in vivo.

  11. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi


    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  12. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  13. Force-Control Algorithm for Surface Sampling (United States)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Quadrelli, Marco B.; Phan, Linh


    A G-FCON algorithm is designed for small-body surface sampling. It has a linearization component and a feedback component to enhance performance. The algorithm regulates the contact force between the tip of a robotic arm attached to a spacecraft and a surface during sampling.

  14. Enhancing Army Joint Force Headquarters Capabilities (United States)


    Ad hoc (Army) 2004–2005 MNSTC-I SSTR CENTCOM Ad hoc (Army) 2004-2005 JTF-G8/ DNC /RNC HD/CS NORTHCOM Ad hoc (Army) x 3 2004 JTF-515 SSTR PACOM 2004...AFIC = Armed Forces Inaugural Committee; CENTCOM = Central Command; DNC = Democratic National Committee; EUCOM = European Command; FSSG = Fleet

  15. The Force de Frappe: A US Viewpoint (United States)


    and Its Armed Forces, 9p. cit., p. 52. 2 6Christian Reboul , First Strategic Rocket Bases Will Be Ready in 1968, JPRS, GUO:935, 2 Nov. 1965, pp. 18-20...26. Rand McNallv Comnercial Atlas and Marketing Guide, 1963. 27. Reboul , Christian. "First Strategic Rocket Bases Will be Ready in 1968

  16. Armed Helicopters: How the Army Fought Its Way into Attack Aviation (United States)


    20th century. Leadership found it challenging to embrace the evolution of combined arms warfare while an over-zealous drive by aviation proponents...leaders saw potential where the Air Force saw competition, and they were able to bend the rules between the services and the bureaucracy enough 4 bureaucracy instead of reacting to the operational needs of the force is essential to appreciating the magnitude of these changes. The

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  18. The Intervention of the ICRC in Protecting the Dignity of Victims of Military and Police in Armed Conflict against FARC in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rojas


    Full Text Available The many armed conflicts in the world demand a constant and permanent analysis of the actions from the international organizations, that in one way or another plays a decisive role in the understanding and support of the different actors of armed conflicts, this facing an internal armed conflict in Colombia between the Armed Forces of the State and FARC. This article summarizes an investigation within a specified type of descriptive- analytical, with time analysis retro – prospective study, within a universe and shows that the ICRC's annual reports for Colombia 1998 - 2010 analyze the actions of the International Committee of the Red Cross in Colombia, during the period between 1998 and 2010 regarding the actions concerning the protection of human rights of members of the Armed Forces of Colombia and their families. Its main objective is to pose a proposal to intervene the actions of the ICRC for the protection of the dignity of victims of armed conflict with the FARC in the Colombian state, so that it aims for the protection of members of the Armed Forces of Colombia in pursuit of respect for Human Rights. Finally after the development of this research, we highlight that there’s no evidence of a fair standard in the care of victims of the armed conflict with the FARC, among civilian casualties unrelated to the public forces and those who do not belong to them. These reflections will be deepened on the findings of this research.

  19. New mitral annular force transducer optimized to distinguish annular segments and multi-plane forces. (United States)

    Skov, Søren Nielsen; Røpcke, Diana Mathilde; Ilkjær, Christine; Rasmussen, Jonas; Tjørnild, Marcell Juan; Jimenez, Jorge H; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Jensen, Morten Olgaard


    Limited knowledge exists about the forces acting on mitral valve annuloplasty repair devices. The aim of this study was to develop a new mitral annular force transducer to measure the forces acting on clinically used mitral valve annuloplasty devices. The design of an X-shaped transducer in the present study was optimized for simultaneous in- and out-of-plane force measurements. Each arm was mounted with strain gauges on four circumferential elements to measure out-of-plane forces, and the central parts of the X-arms were mounted with two strain gauges to measure in-plane forces. A dedicated calibration setup was developed to calibrate isolated forces with tension and compression for in- and out-of-plane measurements. With this setup, it was possible with linear equations to isolate and distinguish measured forces between the two planes and minimize transducer arm crosstalk. An in-vitro test was performed to verify the crosstalk elimination method and the assumptions behind it. The force transducer was implanted and evaluated in an 80kg porcine in-vivo model. Following crosstalk elimination, in-plane systolic force accumulation was found to be in average 4.0±0.1N and the out-of-plane annular segments experienced an average force of 1.4±0.4N. Directions of the systolic out-of-plane forces indicated movements towards a saddle shaped annulus, and the transducer was able to measure independent directional forces in individual annular segments. Further measurements with the new transducer coupled with clinical annuloplasty rings will provide a detailed insight into the biomechanical dynamics of these devices.

  20. Instituting Commoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . STEALTH.unlimited


    Full Text Available Starting from the origins of the notion of management, this paper explores how commons governance is constituted by the earlier influential research of Elinor Ostrom, and pursues this with reference to scholars such as Saki Bailey, who emphasises that the choice of regulatory frame is ultimately a political one. We then argue that commons have to be ‘instituted’ in an open manner in order to remain accessible. This demands a set of scripts, rules or agreements that keep the process of commoning in place, and, simultaneously, keep commoning in a constant process of reproduction. We examine this tension and look at the shift in understanding about what ‘institutions of the commons’ have entailed in practice over the course of the last century and a half. Finally, we return to the political dimension to touch upon the question of whether, with the disappearance of the welfare state, a coherent concept of society can emerge from the current upsurge of commons initiatives.

  1. Segregation of chromosome arms in growing and non-growing Escherichia coli cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad L. Woldringh


    Full Text Available In slow-growing Escherichia coli cells the chromosome is organized with its left (L and right (R arms lying separated in opposite halves of the nucleoid and with the origin (O in-between, giving the pattern L-O-R. During replication one of the arms has to pass the other to obtain the same organization in the daughter cells: L-O-R L-O-R. To determine the movement of arms during segregation six strains were constructed carrying three coloured loci: the left and right arms were labeled with red and cyan fluorescent-proteins, respectively, on loci symmetrically positioned at different distances from the central origin, which was labeled with green-fluorescent protein. In non-replicating cells with the predominant spot pattern L-O-R, initiation of replication first resulted in a L-O-O-R pattern, soon changing to O-L-R-O. After replication of the arms the predominant spot patterns were, L-O-R L-O-R, O-R-L R-O-L or O-L-R L-O-R indicating that one or both arms passed an origin and the other arm. To study the driving force for these movements cell growth was inhibited with rifampicin allowing run-off DNA synthesis. Similar spot patterns were obtained in growing and non-growing cells, indicating that the movement of arms is not a growth-sustained process, but may result from DNA synthesis itself. The distances between loci on different arms (LR-distances and between duplicated loci (LL- or RR-distances as a function of their distance from the origin, indicate that in slow-growing cells DNA is organized according to the so-called sausage model and not accordingto the doughnut model.

  2. Simple Arm Muscle Model for Oil Palm Harvesting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Aliff


    Full Text Available Arm are essential in order to perform manual material handling work that normally involves lifting, handling, placing, push and pull, carrying and moving heavy loads. When these work elements are performed over prolonged periods repeatedly, it will expose workers arm to awkward posture and possible ergonomic risk factor. For example, work element that requires repetitions frequently may lead the arm to face physical stress and mental fatigue. The situation can be extremely risky if the worker task requires higher focus or time consumable. These issues are unavoidable in palm oil harvesting process since the workers are still using manual handling when harvesting the fresh fruit bunch (FFB. The worker using a chisel to harvest the young palms and a sickle mounted on a bamboo or aluminum pole to harvest taller palms. When perform this work element combining with heavy physical workload, it may lead to work-related muscle disorders (WSMDs. This study was conducted to identify the force reaction and inverse dynamic analysis during oil palm harvesting process using ergonomics software called Anybody Technology. Inverse dynamic analysis is a technique for figuring strengths and/or moments of power (torques taking into account the kinematics (movement of a body and the body’s inertial properties.

  3. Go Big or Go Home: Employing America’s Heavy Force (United States)


    apply. During the first six months of operations in Ramadi, the 1st Brigade, 1st Armored Division fired over five-hundred 120mm main gun rounds. Noting...everything the Soviets tried operationally drove more of the population into the mujahedeen’s arms. Mass bombings of Herat and other cities...insurgency attacks coalition forces with IEDs, mortars , and small arms fire. US heavy forces could allow light forces to dominate these threats

  4. Temporal development of anticipatory reflex modulation to dynamical interactions during arm movement. (United States)

    Kimura, Toshitaka; Gomi, Hiroaki


    It is known that somatosensory reflex during voluntary arm movement is modulated anticipatorily according to given tasks or environments. However, when and how reflex amplitude is set remains controversial. Is the reflex modulation completed preparatorily before movement execution or does it vary with the movement? Is the reflex amplitude coded in a temporal manner or in a spatial (or state-dependent) manner? Here we studied these issues while subjects performed planar reaching movements with upcoming opposite (rightward/leftward) directions of force fields. Somatosensory reflex responses of shoulder muscles induced by a small force perturbation were evaluated at several points before the arm encountered predictable force fields after movement start. We found that the shoulder flexor reflex responses were generally higher for the rightward than for the leftward upcoming force fields, whereas the extensor reflex responses were higher for the leftward force field. This reflex amplitude depending on the upcoming force field direction became prominent as the reflex was evoked closer to the force fields, indicating continuous changes in reflex modulation during movement. An additional experiment further showed that the reflex modulation developed as a function of the temporal distance to the force fields rather than the spatial distance. Taken together, the results suggest that, in the force field interaction task, somatosensory reflex amplitude during the course of movement is set anticipatorily on the basis of an estimate of the time-to-contact rather than the state-to-contact, to upcoming dynamical interaction during voluntary movement.

  5. Institutional mysteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney W. Mintz


    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Africa and the Americas: Interconnections During the Slave Trade. José C. Curto & Renenée Soulodrere-La France (eds.. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 2005. vii + 338 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas. Gwenendolyn Midlo Hall. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005. xxii + 225 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.95 The forced movement of enslaved Africans to the New World – before the nineteenth century, surely the largest and longest such uprooting and transfer of people in global history – resulted over time in a vast corpus of research and publication, of which these two books are a part. The first is an edited collection of twelve essays, preceded by a slightly giddy preface; the second is its author’s attempt to widen her research on African ethnic groups in the Americas, so as to demonstrate their existence. The themes of both books exemplify recent thinking among scholars of the African-American experience.

  6. 中美战略文化差异性探究*--基于《中国武装力量的多样化运用》与《美国国防战略指针》的解读%A Study of the Strategic Cultural Differences between China and America Based on an Interpretation of The Diversified Employment of China's Armed Forces and of The U.S.Defense Strategic Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍; 刘少华


    Strategic culture is the strategic thinking mode that national strategic decision makers have in the aspect of national security.The Diversified Employment ofChina's Armed Forces and U.S.Defense Strategic Guidance are different in the understanding of the strategic environment,in the view of international conflicts,and in the understanding of the effect of the force.It shows differences between cooperative strategic culture of China and offensive strategic culture of America.China should construct mature cooperative strategic culture,strengthen strategic interaction with the United States,and take advantage of the weaknesses and flaws of American strategic culture,to effectively reduce the strategic pressure of America,and to gain initiative in future Sino-US strategic gaming.%战略文化是国家战略决策者在国家安全事务方面的战略思维模式。《中国武装力量的多样化运用》与《美国国防战略指针》在战略环境的认识、国际冲突的看法、暴力效用的理解上均有明显不同,凸显了中国合作型战略文化与美国冲突型战略文化的差异。中国应通过建构成熟的合作型战略文化、加强与美国的战略互动、充分利用美国战略文化的弱点来有效地规避美国的战略压力,掌握未来中美战略博弈的主动权。

  7. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar


    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  8. Arms Control and Strategic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yumin


    This essay intends to offer a comment on concepts, trends and attitudes concerning arms control and strategic stability with reference to the current international security situation. It also offers observations from two different perspectives about strategic stability: one proceeds from the concept of universal security and aims to prevent conflicts and instability from disrupting regional and international security environment on which nation states depend so much for their peaceful development; the other starts from maintaining the global leadership by a super power and aiming to contain any challenge that sways or is likely to sway its dominating status. If China and the United States commit themselves to the undertaking of a new type of major powers relationship that stresses win-win cooperation, they will be able to contribute greatly to a stable international security architecture that is good for world peaceful development.

  9. Role of attractive forces in tapping tip force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Bohr, Jakob


    We present experimental and numerical results demonstrating the drastic influence of attractive forces on the behaviour of the atomic force microscope when operated in the resonant tapping tip mode in an ambient environment. It is often assumed that tapping is related to repulsive interaction. In......, the frequency bias point, and the distance between the fixed end of the cantilever and the sample. These points of instability can result in disturbances during image acquisition on hard elastic surfaces. ©1997 American Institute of Physics....

  10. Books in Action: The Armed Services Editions. (United States)

    Cole, John Y., Ed.

    In an effort to reach a wide audience, the Center for the Book in the Library of Congress presents this book in honor of the 40th anniversary celebration of the Armed Services Editions (ASE), the paperback books distributed during World War II. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: "The Armed Services Editions: An…

  11. Why we cannot grow a human arm. (United States)

    Ricci, John L


    There are several significant issues that prevent us from growing a human arm now, or within the next 10-20 years. From a tissue engineering perspective, while we can grow many of the components necessary for construction of a human arm, we can only grow them in relatively small volumes, and when scaled up to large volumes we lack the ability to develop adequate blood/nerve supply. From a genetic engineering perspective, we will probably never be able to turn on the specific genes necessary to "grow an arm" unless it is attached to a fetus and this presents enormous ethical issues related to farming of human organs and structures. Perhaps the most daunting problem facing the transplantation of a tissue engineered or transplanted arm is that of re-innervation of the structure. Since the sensory and motor nerve cells of the arm are located outside of the structure, re-innervation requires those nerves to regenerate over relatively large distances to repopulate the nervous system of the arm. This is something with which we have had little success. We can grow repair parts, but "growing an arm" presents too many insurmountable problems. The best we could possibly do with tissue engineering or genetic engineering would be the equivalent of a fetal arm and the technical problems, costs, and ethical hurdles are enormous. A more likely solution is a functional, permanent, neuroelectronically-controlled prosthesis. These are nearly a reality today.

  12. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail:


    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  13. New developments in prosthetic arm systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaklija I


    Full Text Available Ivan Vujaklija,1 Dario Farina,1 Oskar C Aszmann2 1Institute of Neurorehabilitation Systems, Bernstein Focus Neurotechnology Göttingen, University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany; 2Christian Doppler Laboratory for Restoration of Extremity Function, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Abstract: Absence of an upper limb leads to severe impairments in everyday life, which can further influence the social and mental state. For these reasons, early developments in cosmetic and body-driven prostheses date some centuries ago, and they have been evolving ever since. Following the end of the Second World War, rapid developments in technology resulted in powered myoelectric hand prosthetics. In the years to come, these devices were common on the market, though they still suffered high user abandonment rates. The reasons for rejection were trifold – insufficient functionality of the hardware, fragile design, and cumbersome control. In the last decade, both academia and industry have reached major improvements concerning technical features of upper limb prosthetics and methods for their interfacing and control. Advanced robotic hands are offered by several vendors and research groups, with a variety of active and passive wrist options that can be articulated across several degrees of freedom. Nowadays, elbow joint designs include active solutions with different weight and power options. Control features are getting progressively more sophisticated, offering options for multiple sensor integration and multi-joint articulation. Latest developments in socket designs are capable of facilitating implantable and multiple surface electromyography sensors in both traditional and osseointegration-based systems. Novel surgical techniques in combination with modern, sophisticated hardware are enabling restoration of dexterous upper limb

  14. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma


    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  15. The coordinate system for force control. (United States)

    Saha, Devjani J; Hu, Xiao; Perreault, Eric; Murray, Wendy; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A


    The primary objective of this study was to establish the coordinate frame for force control by observing how parameters of force that are not explicitly specified by a motor task vary across the workspace. We asked subjects to apply a force of a specific magnitude with their hand. Subjects could complete the task by applying forces in any direction of their choice in the transverse plane. They were tested with the arm in seven different configurations. To estimate whether contact forces are represented in extrinsic or intrinsic coordinates, we applied the parallel transport method of differential geometry to the net joint torques applied during the task. This approach allowed us to compare the force variability observed at different arm configurations with the force variability that would be expected if the control system were applying an invariant pattern of joint torques at the tested configurations. The results indicate that for the majority of the subjects, the predominant pattern was consistent with an invariant representation in joint coordinates. However, two out of eleven subjects also demonstrated a preference for extrinsic representation. These findings suggest that the central nervous system can represent contact forces in both coordinate frames, with a prevalence toward intrinsic representations.

  16. The KALI multi-arm robot programming and control environment (United States)

    Backes, Paul; Hayati, Samad; Hayward, Vincent; Tso, Kam


    The KALI distributed robot programming and control environment is described within the context of its use in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot project. The purpose of KALI is to provide a flexible robot programming and control environment for coordinated multi-arm robots. Flexibility, both in hardware configuration and software, is desired so that it can be easily modified to test various concepts in robot programming and control, e.g., multi-arm control, force control, sensor integration, teleoperation, and shared control. In the programming environment, user programs written in the C programming language describe trajectories for multiple coordinated manipulators with the aid of KALI function libraries. A system of multiple coordinated manipulators is considered within the programming environment as one motion system. The user plans the trajectory of one controlled Cartesian frame associated with a motion system and describes the positions of the manipulators with respect to that frame. Smooth Cartesian trajectories are achieved through a blending of successive path segments. The manipulator and load dynamics are considered during trajectory generation so that given interface force limits are not exceeded.

  17. Parametric analysis of a shape memory alloy actuated arm (United States)

    Wright, Cody; Bilgen, Onur


    Using a pair of antagonistic Shape Memory Allow (SMA) wires, it may be possible to produce a mechanism that replicates human musculoskeletal movement. The movement of interest is the articulation of the elbow joint actuated by the biceps brachii muscle. In an effort to understand the bio-mechanics of the arm, a single degree of freedom crankslider mechanism is used to model the movement of the arm induced by the biceps brachii muscle. First, a purely kinematical analysis is performed on a rigid body crank-slider. Force analysis is also done modeling the muscle as a simple linear spring. Torque, rocking angle, and energy are calculated for a range of crank-slider geometries. The SMA wire characteristics are experimentally determined for the martensite detwinned and full austenite phases. Using the experimental data, an idealized actuator characteristic curve is produced for the SMA wire. Kinematic and force analyses are performed on the nonlinear wire characteristic curve and a linearized wire curve; both cases are applied to the crankslider mechanism. Performance metrics for both cases are compared, followed by discussion.

  18. Some mechanical design aspects of the European Robotic Arm (United States)

    Lambooy, Peter J.; Mandersloot, Wart M.; Bentall, Richard H.


    The European Robotic Arm (ERA) is a contribution to the Russian Segment of the International Space Station Alpha. It will start operating on the Russian Segment during the assembly phase. ERA is designed and produced by a large industrial consortium spread over Europe with Fokker Space & Systems as prime contractor. In this paper, we will describe some of the overall design aspects and focus on the development of several mechanisms within ERA. The operation of ERA during the approach of its end effector towards the grapple interface and the grapple operation is discussed, with a focus on mechanisms. This includes the geometry of the end effector leading edge, which is carefully designed to provide the correct and complete tactile information to a torque-force sensor (TFS). The data from this TFS are used to steer the arm such that forces and moments are kept below 20 N and 20 N.m respectively during the grappling operation. Two hardware models of the end effector are built. The problems encountered are described as well as their solutions. The joints in the wrists and the elbow initially used a harmonic drive lubricated by MoS2. During development testing, this combination showed an insufficient lifetime in air to survive the acceptance test program. The switch-over to a system comprising planetary gearboxes with grease lubrication is described. From these development efforts, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are given for the design of complex space mechanisms.

  19. VFI-based Robotic Arm Control for Natural Adaptive Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosung Yang


    Full Text Available Since neural oscillator based control methods can generate rhythmic motion without information on system dynamics, they can be a promising alternative to traditional motion planning based control approaches. However, for field application, they still need to be robust against unexpected forces or changes in environments so as to be able to generate “natural motion” like most biological systems. In this study a biologically inspired control algorithm that combines neural oscillators and virtual force is proposed. This work gives the condition with respect to parameters tuning to stably activate the neural oscillators. This is helpful to achieve motion adaptability to environmental changes keeping the motion repeatability. He efficacy and efficiency of the proposed methods are tested in the control of a planar three-linkage robotic arm. It is shown that the proposed controller generates a given circular path stably and repeatedly, even with unexpected contact with a wall. The adaptivity of motion control is also tested in control of a robotic arm with redundant degrees of freedom. The proposed control algorithm works throughout the simulations and experiments.

  20. Strong Force

    CERN Document Server

    Without the strong force, there could be no life. The carbon in living matter is synthesised in stars via the strong force. Lighter atomic nuclei become bound together in a process called nuclear fusion. A minor change in this interaction would make life impossible. As its name suggests, the strong force is the most powerful of the 4 forces, yet its sphere of influence is limited to within the atomic nucleus. Indeed it is the strong force that holds together the quarks inside the positively charged protons. Without this glue, the quarks would fly apart repulsed by electromagnetism. In fact, it is impossible to separate 2 quarks : so much energy is needed, that a second pair of quarks is produced. Text for the interactive: Can you pull apart the quarks inside a proton?