WorldWideScience

Sample records for armed conflict outcomes

  1. Pregnancy outcomes in Benghazi, Libya, before and during the armed conflict in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodalal, Z; Agnaeber, K; Nagelkerke, N; Stirling, B; Temmerman, M; Degomme, O

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events experienced by pregnant women may lead to adverse obstetric outcomes. This study in Benghazi compared the rates of preterm, low-birth-weight and caesarean-section births at Al-Jamhouria hospital in the months before and during the armed conflict in Libya in 2011. Data were collected on all women admitted to the delivery ward during February to May 2011 (the months of the most active fighting in the city) (n = 7096), and October to December 2010 (the months immediately before the war) (n = 5935). Compared with the preceding months there was a significant rise during the conflict in the rate of deliveries involving preterm (3.6% versus 2.5%) and low-birth-weight (10.1% versus 8.5%) infants and caesarean sections (26.9% versus 25.3%). Psychosocial stress may have been a factor (among others) in an increase in negative pregnancy outcomes, and obstetric hospitals should be aware of these issues in times of war. PMID:24950075

  2. Pregnancy outcomes, site of delivery, and community schisms in regions affected by the armed conflict in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentlinger, Paula E; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Cedeño, Marcos Arana; Morales, Lic Guadalupe Vargas; Hernán, Miguel A; Micek, Mark A; Ford, Douglas

    2005-09-01

    The Zapatista armed conflict began in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, in 1994, and overlaps pre-existing local disputes about land, religion, and other issues. Related disruptions in access to and utilization of health services have been alleged to have compromised local health status, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as indigenous women and infants. The study objective was to measure maternal and perinatal mortality ratios and utilization of pregnancy-related health services in the region affected by the Zapatista conflict, and to describe associations between these primary outcome measures, socioeconomic and demographic factors, and factors associated with inter-party and intra-community conflict. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in 46 communities in three regions. The study subjects were 1227 women, 13-49 years old, who had been pregnant during the preceding 2 years (1999-2001). Principal outcome measures were maternal and perinatal mortality, and site of delivery. Secondary analyses explored associations between primary outcomes and socioeconomic, demographic, and conflict-related factors. Most births (87.1%) occurred at home. The crude observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were 607/100,000 and 23.5/1000 live births, respectively. Those who died had difficulty accessing emergency obstetrical care. Both home birth and mortality were associated with descriptors of intra-community conflict. Observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were substantially higher than those officially reported for Mexico or Chiapas. Reduction of high reproductive mortality ratios will require attention to socioeconomic and conflict-related problems, in addition to improved access to emergency obstetrical services.

  3. Children In Armed Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan, Tejaswini

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive study. A child soldier is a child under the age of 18 that is recruited into the armed forces and engages in political violence. Child Soldiers are recruited by a state or non-state armed group and used as fighters, cooks, suicide bombers, human shields, messengers, spies, or for sexual purposes. This work of research describes the plight of child soldiers taking in context the scenario of different nations. The International mechanisms to combat this problem have also b...

  4. Psychosocial Outcomes Related to Subjective Threat from Armed Conflict Events (STACE): Findings from the Israeli-Palestinian Cross-Cultural HBSC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Radwan, Qasrowi; Walsh, Sophie D.; Laufer, Avital; Amitai, Gabriel; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relationship between exposure to armed conflict and terror events, and an array of mental and behavioral outcomes within a large cross-cultural scientifically representative sample of 24,935 Palestinian (7,430 West Bank and 7,217 Gaza) and Israeli (5,255 Jewish and 6,033 Arab) 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old school…

  5. Firm exit and armed conflict in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Andriana; Rodriguez, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two unique panel data sets to study the causal effect that armed conflict has over entrepreneurial activity in Colombia. Using a fixed effect estimation methodology at the plant level and controlling for the possible endogeneity of armed conflict through the use of instrumental variables, we find that a one standard deviation in the number of guerrilla and paramilitary attacks in a municipality increases the probability of firm exit in 8.1 percentage points. This effect is str...

  6. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite......This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...

  7. Systematic medical data collection of intentional injuries during armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Abdel-Jabbar Al-Qadi, Ashraf Hasan; Al-Jabriri, Jalal;

    2004-01-01

    A study was undertaken on implementing medical data collection as a tool to assess the relative number and character of intentional injuries before and during an armed conflict.......A study was undertaken on implementing medical data collection as a tool to assess the relative number and character of intentional injuries before and during an armed conflict....

  8. Documenting the Effects of Armed Conflict on Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2016-01-01

    War and other forms of armed conflict have profound adverse effects on population health. It is important to document these effects to inform the general public and policy makers about the consequences of armed conflict, provide services to meet the needs of affected populations, protect human rights and document violations of international humanitarian law, and help to prevent future armed conflict. Documentation can be accomplished with surveillance, epidemiological surveys, and rapid assessment. Challenges include inadequate or absent data systems, social breakdown, forced migration, reporting biases, and the fog of war. The adverse effects of the Iraq War on population health demonstrate how the effects of armed conflict on population health can be documented. We recommend the establishment of an independent mechanism, operated by the United Nations or a multilateral organization, to investigate and document the effects of armed conflict on population health. PMID:26989827

  9. [Protection of medical personnel in contemporary armed conflicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Witold

    2016-01-01

    International humanitarian law provides special protection devices and medical personnel during armed conflicts. In today's wars it became more frequent lack of respect for the protective emblems of the red cross and red crescent and the lack of respect for medical activities. The paper presents selected issues of humanitarian law with a particular emphasis on the rules concerning the protection of medical services and victims of armed conflicts. All countries that have ratified the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols, are required to comply in time of war the principles contained in them and their dissemination in peacetime. Education societies in the field of international humanitarian law can help to eliminate attacks on medical facilities and personnel and significantly improve the fate of the victims of armed conflict and mitigate the cruelty of war. Knowledge of humanitarian law does not prevent further wars, but it can cause all parties to any armed conflict will abide by its rules during such activities.

  10. [Protection of medical personnel in contemporary armed conflicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Witold

    2016-01-01

    International humanitarian law provides special protection devices and medical personnel during armed conflicts. In today's wars it became more frequent lack of respect for the protective emblems of the red cross and red crescent and the lack of respect for medical activities. The paper presents selected issues of humanitarian law with a particular emphasis on the rules concerning the protection of medical services and victims of armed conflicts. All countries that have ratified the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols, are required to comply in time of war the principles contained in them and their dissemination in peacetime. Education societies in the field of international humanitarian law can help to eliminate attacks on medical facilities and personnel and significantly improve the fate of the victims of armed conflict and mitigate the cruelty of war. Knowledge of humanitarian law does not prevent further wars, but it can cause all parties to any armed conflict will abide by its rules during such activities. PMID:27487549

  11. Working with Young Children Who Are Victims of Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Eva; Penn, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Young children are particularly vulnerable to war and armed conflict. Although the long-term priority is always to try to unravel and reduce violence and conflict, in the short term some interventions may reduce suffering. In this article the authors report on recent evidence on psychosocial interventions designed to mitigate the impact of armed…

  12. Armed Conflict, Substance Use and HIV: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Saha, Tulshi D; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-03-01

    Armed conflict is frequently assumed to be a contributor to the global HIV epidemic, but existing evidence is sparse. We examined the relationship between armed conflict between 2002 and 2008 and HIV disability life years (DALYs) in 2010 among WHO Member States. Using partial least squares analysis we also examined moderation of the armed conflict-HIV link by two susceptibility constructs (background risk, substance use) and one vulnerability mediator (numbers of refugees, people on ART, and total HIV spending). Background risk directly impacted HIV DALYs (p natural disasters on the populace in conflict-affected states. Integration of substance prevention/harm reduction programs within national HIV responses, attention to most-at-risk populations and increased surveillance/treatment of drug resistant HIV and TB is warranted. PMID:26286341

  13. Suicide mortality at time of armed conflict in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yur'yev, Andriy; Yur'yeva, Lyudmyla

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the dynamics of suicide mortality rates in Ukraine during an ongoing armed conflict between 2014 and 2015. Suicide mortality data were obtained by reviewing annual analytical releases from the State Service for Emergent Situations of Ukraine and annual release of Russian Federal Service of State Statistics. Suicide mortality in mainland Ukraine and in the Crimea region demonstrated a mild decrease, whereas suicide mortality in the regions directly involved in the armed conflict demonstrated a prominent decrease. The results of this review support Durkheim theory. The limitation of this review includes general concern about quality of data at time of armed conflict in the country. PMID:26420846

  14. Impact of Armed Conflicts of Children, Families, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntakiyimana, Felicien

    2005-01-01

    With the multiplication of armed conflicts around the world, especially in Africa, there are more and more children who are exposed to war related violence. War sows the seeds of fear, restlessness, uncertainty, and despair. Families are scattered, and children are left without care; parents are detained, killed, or disappear. No wonder children…

  15. Children in Armed Conflicts: Rights, Reality and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, Neil

    Throughout this century, there have been numerous attempts to give substance and effective existence to the rights of children in armed conflicts. Humanitarian law dictates that, as civilians, children will not be targets in war, nor will they be used as soldiers. Neither of these rights has ever been implemented. Children are victims of war by…

  16. Chivalry: a principle of the law of armed conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Gill

    2013-01-01

    This contribution explores the role and relevance of chivalry in relation to warfare past and present and its relationship to the law of armed conflict and poses the question whether it still is a principle of that body of the law. It also briefly addresses the question of what its potential relevan

  17. Sexual violence in armed conflicts and modern international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Eboe-Osuji

    2011-01-01

    Sexual violence in various forms is a particular brand of evil that women have endured during armed conflicts, from time immemorial. It is a problem that has continued to task the conscience of humanity, especially in our times. There has been no shortage of basic laws at the international level tha

  18. 15 CFR 971.405 - Breach of international peace and security involving armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... security involving armed conflict. 971.405 Section 971.405 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating... armed conflict. Before issuing or transferring a commercial recovery permit, the Administrator must find... expected to lead to a breach of international peace and security involving armed conflict....

  19. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain ‘invulnerable’ children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental he...

  20. Representations of the armed conflict in Colombian cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo León Rivera-Betancur, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinema is an act of representation and it is based on the construction of reality inspired by experience. In Colombia, cinema has not been the product of a structured industry, but rather the effort of some filmmakers who have found different ways of telling stories about topics that are part of the national experience. The armed conflict in Colombia, understood as the confrontation between government forces and organized outlawed groups, has prevailed for more than fifty years and has been present in art forms ever since. This research examines a sample of Colombian films to establish the different ways the subject of the armed conflict has been represented in Colombian cinema.

  1. Dismemberment: cause of death in the Colombian armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo-Méndez, Maria Dolores; Campos, Isla Yolima

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate major findings in the recovery and analysis of victims, where dismemberment is the cause of death, but also a manner of torture within the context of the armed conflict in Colombia. It is intended to provide useful analytical information and to contribute to the correct interpretation of forensic analyses in cases of dismemberment and/or in the examination of human remains within the context of the Colombian armed conflict. The importance of including dismemberment as an opinion in the forensic report by correlating the findings on the body, the grave and context of the information available, and the accounts on the facts is encouraged. Otherwise these cases will be recorded as undetermined cause of death, which does not reflect the brutality of the war. PMID:22948397

  2. An introduction to the international law of armed conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Robert; Hyde, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a modern and basic introduction to a branch of international law constantly gaining in importance in international life, namely international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict). It is constructed in a way suitable for self-study. The subject-matters are discussed in self-contained chapters, allowing each to be studied independently of the others. Among the subject-matters discussed are, inter alia: the Relationship between jus ad bellum / jus in bello; Historical ...

  3. Surviving Violence: Transgressing Categories and Boundaries in Armed Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Suarez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, activities intended for the protection of civilians have been steadily incorporated into humanitarian, peacekeeping, and development operations across the globe. Yet, what was initially perceived as a progressive step in the advancement of human security (Goldberg and Hubert 2001 is now coming under increasing scrutiny (Fox 2002; Thakur 2002. The civilian protection agenda involves a series of inter-related activities designed to prevent, mitigate, respond to, and recover from physical harm caused by armed conflict. Despite the steady elaboration and execution of this agenda, however, critics point to key challenges including the lack of compliance by states and non-state armed actors (Ferris 2011, problems with coordination and efficiency among aid organizations (Barnett 2009, under-resourced peacekeeping operations with limited training and equipment (Williams 2013, and the lack of capacity and will on the part of the ‘international community’ (Barr 2010.

  4. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hammill, E.; Tulloch, A. I. T.; Possingham, H. P.; Strange, N.; Wilson, K A

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of armed conflicts. We find that ignoring conflict risk will deliver the lowest return on investment. Opting to completely avoid conflict-prone areas offers limited improvements and could lead to species rec...

  5. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammill, E; Tulloch, A I T; Possingham, H P; Strange, N; Wilson, K A

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of armed conflicts. We find that ignoring conflict risk will deliver the lowest return on investment. Opting to completely avoid conflict-prone areas offers limited improvements and could lead to species receiving no protection. Accounting for conflict by protecting additional areas to offset the impacts of armed conflicts would not only increase the return on investment (an effect that is enhanced when high-risk areas are excluded) but also increase upfront conservation costs. Our results also demonstrate that fine-scale estimations of conflict risk could enhance the cost-effectiveness of investments. We conclude that achieving biodiversity targets in volatile regions will require greater initial investment and benefit from fine-resolution estimates of conflict risk. PMID:27025894

  6. 15 CFR 970.505 - Breach of international peace and security involving armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... security involving armed conflict. 970.505 Section 970.505 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating... to a breach of international peace and security involving armed conflict. .../revision; Suspension/revocation § 970.505 Breach of international peace and security involving...

  7. Effects of armed conflict on access to emergency health care in Palestinian West Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Kjældgaard, Anne-Lene; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    To assess the impact of restrictions in access to hospital services imposed on the civilian population during the armed conflict in the Palestinian territories occupied by Israel.......To assess the impact of restrictions in access to hospital services imposed on the civilian population during the armed conflict in the Palestinian territories occupied by Israel....

  8. Armed conflicts have an impact on the spread of tuberculosis: the case of the Somali Regional State of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele Abdi A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pessimistic view of the impact of armed conflicts on the control of infectious diseases has generated great interest in the role of conflicts on the global TB epidemic. Nowhere in the world is such interest more palpable than in the Horn of Africa Region, comprising Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Kenya and Sudan. An expanding literature has demonstrated that armed conflicts stall disease control programs through distraction of health system, interruption of patients' ability to seek health care, and the diversion of economic resources to military ends rather than health needs. Nonetheless, until very recently, no research has been done to address the impact of armed conflict on TB epidemics in the Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods This study is based on the cross-sectional data collected in 2007, utilizing structured questionnaires filled-out by a sample of 226 TB patients in the SRS of Ethiopia. Data was obtained on the delay patients experienced in receiving a diagnosis of TB, on the biomedical knowledge of TB that patients had, and the level of self-treatment by patients. The outcome variables in this study are the delay in the diagnosis of TB experienced by patients, and extent of self-treatment utilized by patients. Our main explanatory variable was place of residence, which was dichotomized as being in 'conflict zones' and in 'non-conflict zones'. Demographic data was collected for statistical control. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used on calculations of group differences. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between outcome and predictor variables. Results Two hundred and twenty six TB patients were interviewed. The median delay in the diagnosis of TB was 120 days and 60 days for patients from conflict zones and from non-conflict zones, respectively. Moreover, 74% of the patients residing in conflict zones undertook self-treatment prior to their diagnosis. The

  9. Fiscal Consequences of Armed Conflict and Terrorism in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Benedict J. Clements; Sanjeev Gupta; Shamit Chakravarti; Rina Bhattacharya

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the fiscal effects of armed conflict and terrorism on low- and middle-income countries. An analysis of 22 conflict episodes shows that armed conflict is associated with lower growth and higher inflation, and has adverse effects on tax revenues and investment. It also leads to higher government spending on defense, but this tends to be at the expense of macroeconomic stability rather than at the cost of lower spending on education and health. Our econometric estimates are c...

  10. Mitigating humanitarian crises during non-international armed conflicts : the role of human rights and ceasefire agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, Lottie

    2016-01-01

    Situations of humanitarian crisis are often caused by armed conflicts. Given the prevalence of non-international armed conflicts today, ways of ameliorating these situations are at the forefront of concerns. The international humanitarian law rules governing non-international armed conflict remain m

  11. The objective qualification of non-international armed conflicts: A Colombian case study

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Machado; Guillermo Otálora Lozano

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has raged in Colombia since at least the 1960’s, involving governmental forces, rebel groups, and paramilitary forces. The Uribe government (2002-2010) declared that Colombia was not in a ‘state of armed conflict’ but was rather facing a ‘terrorist threat’. This declaration was done in fear of conferring a political status to the armed groups, and most particularly, in fear that a recognition of armed conflict would open the possibility of endowing the Revolutionary Ar...

  12. "Development in Reverse?" A Longitudinal Analysis of Armed Conflict, Fragility and School Enrolment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Robin; Paulson, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a longitudinal analysis of cross-national data on armed conflict, state fragility, and enrolment in primary and secondary schooling. The study is motivated by questions raised in the 2012 "Human Security Report," which challenges the widely held assumption that conflict is necessarily detrimental to educational…

  13. Civilian Population and Constructive Transformation of an Internal Armed Conflict: an Application to the Colombian Case

    OpenAIRE

    José Manuel Sabucedo; Mar Durán; Mónica Alzate

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore a set of psychosocial variables that may contribute to the constructive transformation of a violent sociopolitical conflict. Based upon several authors in Social and Political Psychology, we propose an analysis of the conflict through thirteen variables. These variables are stated from the perspective of the non-combatant population within the context of a real armed conflict. The variables are related to beliefs about the conflict’s actors, perceptions of...

  14. The logic of the violence in the civil war: the armed conflict in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a reading of the armed conflict from an evolutionary design that takes into account the concept of private protection agencies in the works of Schelling / Nozick / Gambetta. Their aim is to assess the dynamics of conflict and changes from its author’s scientific output. A context of conflicts that includes new expressions of violence and the relative failure of the paramilitary reintegration involves using new analytical models (ar- gumentation, game theory and inconsist...

  15. The Struggle for Territorial Control in Colombia: An Analysis of the Dynamics of the Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Henao Duque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on the theory of armed conflict and examines its application to the insurgents´ struggle with the State for political and territorial control in Colombia during 1999-2010.  The analysis examines three sub-periods during this period and several geographic regions to analyze the effect of varying levels of participant capability on the dynamics of the conflict, as measured by the intensity of the conflict over time.  We conclude that as long as there are asymmetries between the State and the insurgency, armed confrontation is likely to continue.

  16. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammill, E.; Tulloch, A.I.T.; Possingham, H.P.;

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of armed...... conflicts would not only increase the return on investment (an effect that is enhanced when high-risk areas are excluded) but also increase upfront conservation costs. Our results also demonstrate that fine-scale estimations of conflict risk could enhance the cost-effectiveness of investments. We conclude...

  17. The objective qualification of non-international armed conflicts: A Colombian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Machado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Armed conflict has raged in Colombia since at least the 1960’s, involving governmental forces, rebel groups, and paramilitary forces. The Uribe government (2002-2010 declared that Colombia was not in a ‘state of armed conflict’ but was rather facing a ‘terrorist threat’. This declaration was done in fear of conferring a political status to the armed groups, and most particularly, in fear that a recognition of armed conflict would open the possibility of endowing the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC with a ‘belligerency status’. From a legal point of view, the government’s fears were unfounded, since contemporary international humanitarian law does not require a formal for a situation to qualify as armed conflict. During the Uribe administration, efforts were made by the Ministry of Defense to identify operational rules of engagement with precision, violations of international humanitarian law were publicly denounced, and the apex courts adjudicated on issues of international humanitarian law. This seemingly paradoxical situation illustrates the importance of the objective definition of armed conflict, which has been a defining characteristic of international humanitarian law since 1949.

     

  18. On building methodological and theoretical frameworks to examine the interrelationships between environmental change and armed conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Relationships between environmental change and armed conflict have long been studied. Sometimes referred to as 'warfare' or 'conflict' ecology, much of this scholarship has come in response to local-level perceptions of landscape or livelihood changes that result from regional armed conflict. However, such studies have, first, typically focused on spatiotemporally acute and readily detectable environmental change, like deforestation, to the exclusion of protracted and more subtle environmental changes, like agricultural degradation; second, been limited to situational conflicts or circumstances, thereby inhibiting broader theoretical development; and, third, often only considered the environmental consequences rather than the environmental or climatic circumstances that may contribute to conflict. As a result, there is little opportunity for methodological or theoretical cohesion between studies. In this presentation, I synthesize findings from three case studies examining the interrelationships between agricultural change and armed conflict in the semi-arid landscapes of northwest Pakistan, Palestine, and southern Syria. Using coarse through very high resolution remotely sensed imagery, socio-economic and demographic data, conflict databases, open-source programming, and building on theoretical underpinnings of political ecology and conflict studies, I present methods and modeling approaches that aid in overcoming data scarcity and disparity between scales of analysis and integrate environmental and conflict data in spatiotemporally explicit ways. Results from these case studies illuminate the interrelationships between both protracted and acute agricultural change and armed conflict, and have broad relevance for understanding the means by which environment, conflict, and livelihoods are linked, a nexus that will only become tighter with the advance of global climate change.

  19. Armed-conflict risks enhanced by climate-related disasters in ethnically fractionalized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F; Donner, Reik V; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2016-08-16

    Social and political tensions keep on fueling armed conflicts around the world. Although each conflict is the result of an individual context-specific mixture of interconnected factors, ethnicity appears to play a prominent and almost ubiquitous role in many of them. This overall state of affairs is likely to be exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change and in particular climate-related natural disasters. Ethnic divides might serve as predetermined conflict lines in case of rapidly emerging societal tensions arising from disruptive events like natural disasters. Here, we hypothesize that climate-related disaster occurrence enhances armed-conflict outbreak risk in ethnically fractionalized countries. Using event coincidence analysis, we test this hypothesis based on data on armed-conflict outbreaks and climate-related natural disasters for the period 1980-2010. Globally, we find a coincidence rate of 9% regarding armed-conflict outbreak and disaster occurrence such as heat waves or droughts. Our analysis also reveals that, during the period in question, about 23% of conflict outbreaks in ethnically highly fractionalized countries robustly coincide with climatic calamities. Although we do not report evidence that climate-related disasters act as direct triggers of armed conflicts, the disruptive nature of these events seems to play out in ethnically fractionalized societies in a particularly tragic way. This observation has important implications for future security policies as several of the world's most conflict-prone regions, including North and Central Africa as well as Central Asia, are both exceptionally vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change and characterized by deep ethnic divides. PMID:27457927

  20. The relationship between emotional intelligence and learning outcomes, and the mediating role of emotional conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Hjertø, Kjell B.

    2010-01-01

    A field sample of 1100 employees in the army was investigated to study the relationship between the individuals’ self reported emotional intelligence and learning outcomes in work groups, with two dimensions of emotional conflict as mediators, emotional person conflict and emotional task conflict. Most importantly, emotional intelligence predicted positively learning outcomes and emotional task conflict, and predicted negatively emotional person conflict. Further, emotional task ...

  1. Mechanisms underpinning interventions to reduce sexual violence in armed conflict: A realist-informed systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Zwi, Anthony B; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Davies, Gawaine Powell

    2015-01-01

    Sexual violence is recognised as a widespread consequence of armed conflict and other humanitarian crises. The limited evidence in literature on interventions in this field suggests a need for alternatives to traditional review methods, particularly given the challenges of undertaking research in conflict and crisis settings. This study employed a realist review of the literature on interventions with the aim of identifying the mechanisms at work across the range of types of intervention. The realist approach is an exploratory and theory-driven review method. It is well suited to complex interventions as it takes into account contextual factors to identify mechanisms that contribute to outcomes. The limited data available indicate that there are few deterrents to sexual violence in crises. Four main mechanisms appear to contribute to effective interventions: increasing the risk to offenders of being detected; building community engagement; ensuring community members are aware of available help for and responses to sexual violence; and safe and anonymous systems for reporting and seeking help. These mechanisms appeared to contribute to outcomes in multiple-component interventions, as well as those relating to gathering firewood, codes of conduct for personnel and legal interventions. Drawing on pre-existing capacity or culture in communities is an additional mechanism which should be explored. Though increasing the risk to offenders of being detected was assumed to be a central mechanism in deterring sexual violence, the evidence suggests that this mechanism operated only in interventions focused on gathering firewood and providing alternative fuels. The other three mechanisms appeared important to the likelihood of an intervention being successful, particularly when operating simultaneously. In a field where robust outcome research remains likely to be limited, realist methods provide opportunities to understand existing evidence. Our analysis identifies the

  2. Dynamics of socioeconomic risk factors for neglected tropical diseases and malaria in an armed conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fürst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Armed conflict and war are among the leading causes of disability and premature death, and there is a growing share of civilians killed or injured during armed conflicts. A major part of the civilian suffering stems from indirect effects or collateral impact such as changing risk profiles for infectious diseases. We focused on rural communities in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire, where fighting took place during the Ivorian civil war in 2002/2003, and assessed the dynamics of socioeconomic risk factors for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs and malaria. METHODOLOGY: The same standardized and pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the heads of 182 randomly selected households in 25 villages in the region of Man, western Côte d'Ivoire, shortly before and after the 2002/2003 armed conflict. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was no difference in crowding as measured by the number of individuals per sleeping room, but the inadequate sanitation infrastructure prior to the conflict further worsened, and the availability and use of protective measures against mosquito bites and accessibility to health care infrastructure deteriorated. Although the direct causal chain between these findings and the conflict are incomplete, partially explained by the very nature of working in conflict areas, the timing and procedures of the survey, other sources and anecdotal evidence point toward a relationship between an increased risk of suffering from NTDs and malaria and armed conflict. CONCLUSION: New research is needed to deepen our understanding of the often diffuse and neglected indirect effects of armed conflict and war, which may be worse than the more obvious, direct effects.

  3. The role of the applied epidemiologist in armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonnell Sharon M

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applied epidemiologists are increasingly working in areas of insecurity and active conflict to define the health risks, suggest feasible means to reduce these risks and, monitor the capacity and reconstruction of the public health system. In 2001, The Carter Center and the United States Institute for Peace sponsored a conference within which "Violence and Health" was discussed and a working group on applied epidemiology formed. The group was tasked to describe the skills that are essential to effective functioning in these settings and thereby provide guidance to the applied epidemiology training programs. Methods We conducted a literature review and consultation of a convenience sample of practitioners of applied epidemiology with experience in conflict areas. Results and conclusions The health programs designed to prevent and mitigate conflict are in their early stages of implementation and the evaluation measures for success are still being defined. The practice of epidemiology in conflict must occur within a larger humanitarian and political context to be effective. The skills required extend beyond the normal epidemiological training that focuses on the valid collection and interpretation of data and fall into two general categories: (1 Conducting a thorough assessment of the conflict setting in order to design more effective public health action in conflict settings, and (2 Communicating effectively to guide health program implementation, to advocate for needed policy changes and to facilitate interagency coordination. These are described and illustrated using examples from different countries.

  4. The Association Between Psychological Distress and Decision Regret During Armed Conflict Among Hospital Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Bibi, Haim

    2016-09-01

    The association between psychological distress and decision regret during armed conflict among hospital personnel is of interest. The objective of this study was to learn of the association between psychological distress and decision regret during armed conflict. Data was collected from 178 hospital personnel in Barzilai Medical Center in Ashkelon, Israel during Operation Protective Edge. The survey was based on intranet data collection about: demographics, self-rated health, life satisfaction, psychological distress and decision regret. Among hospital personnel, having higher psychological distress and being young were associated with higher decision regret. This study adds to the existing knowledge by providing novel data about the association between psychological distress and decision regret among hospital personnel during armed conflict. This data opens a new venue of future research to other potentially detrimental factor on medical decision making and medical error done during crisis. PMID:26603623

  5. The Effects of Armed Conflict on Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades, most of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have been affected by armed conflicts. By means of a time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) database, we attempt to measure the impact of war on a sample of 43 countries in Africa from 1950 to 2010. These conflicts, and especially civil wars, are shown to have a strong negative effect on…

  6. Armed Conflict: A Model for Understanding and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death Studies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Acts of deadly violence give rise to powerful emotions and trigger pre-programmed responses that often cause affected persons, including leaders, media, armed forces, and the general public, to act in ways that aggravate the situation and feed into cycles of violence. In this article, a model of the cycle of violence is presented that facilitates…

  7. Determinants of HIV/AIDS in armed conflict populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danvas Omare

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 40 million people worldwide have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV since it was first reported in 1981. Over 25 million of these have lost their lives to the disease. Most of the studies related to HIV/AIDS have been conducted in stable populations across the globe. Few of these studies have been devoted to displaced populations, particularly those in areas of conflict. Displaced populations that are forced to leave their homes in most cases find themselves in unfamiliar territories, often poor and hungry. Many of them become refugees and internally displaced people (IDPs. The objective of this review was to address a number of different social determinants of HIV/AIDS in displaced populations in areas of conflict. A comprehensive review of peer reviewed literature published in English between 1990 and 2010 obtained through an open search of PUBMED database using key words such as “HIV and war”, “HIV/AIDS and conflict”, “AIDS and security” was conducted. Twelve different studies that looked at the implications of HIV/AIDS in conflict or displaced populations were retrieved. The review revealed that there were various factors influencing conflict and HIV/AIDS such as forced population displacement, breakdown of traditional sexual norms, lack of health infrastructure, and poverty and powerlessness of women and children. Social determinants of increased HIV/AIDS prevalence in displaced populations are scarcity of food, poverty, insecurity of displaced populations and gender power differentials.

  8. Synopsis: 2015 Global hunger index: Armed conflict and the challenge of hunger

    OpenAIRE

    von Grebmer, Klaus; Bernstein, Jill; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Towey, Olive; Sonntag, Andrea; Neubauer, Larissa; de Waal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report—the tenth in an annual series—presents a multidimensional measure of national, regional, and global hunger. It shows that the world has made progress in reducing hunger since 2000, but still has a long way to go, with levels of hunger still serious or alarming in 52 countries. The theme of this year’s report is armed conflict and the challenge of hunger. Conflict and hunger are closely associated. Indeed, conflict is the main cause of persistent sever...

  9. Studying Children in Armed Conflict: Data Production, Social Indicators and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jon; Sommerfelt, Tone

    2007-01-01

    The authors seek to give an overview of ways in which social indicators relevant to research on children affected by armed conflict can be developed, and how such research can be carried out. Technical and methodological challenges involved in this pursuit are discussed. It is argued that data production must consider issues of definition and…

  10. Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict: The Case Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Guus; Somasundaram, Daya; Damian S.

    2003-01-01

    Counseling is discussed in relation to traditional resources of the Tamil community for dealing with psychosocial and mental health problems. Describes some problems of clients affected by the armed conflict, approaches of local counselors and mental health professionals, and training offered to future Sri Lankan counselors who want to work with…

  11. Learning for a Bright Future: Schooling, Armed Conflict, and Children's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winthrop, Rebecca; Kirk, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    During and after armed conflicts, policy makers and practitioners often advocate education to support the physical, psychological, and social well-being of children. In such advocacy they reference education's role in promoting children's welfare, although there is evidence that schooling in particular can jeopardize children's well-being. In this…

  12. A Personal Perspective: Armed Conflict--Interests, Values and Dialogic Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollanders, Henry

    2003-01-01

    Dialogue is presented as human alternative to armed conflict. A non-national forum where interests and values can be uncovered, and which provides context for potential dialogic encounter, is tentatively suggested. Some insights from realm of counseling and psychotherapy that can contribute to understanding of the nature of dialogue are explored.…

  13. The Possible Models of Creative Therapies for the Child Victims of War and Armed Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minou, Tabatabai

    2006-01-01

    After war and armed conflicts, the child victims of these events need protection and reintegration. In reality, the physical and psychic consequences of wars on children persist for some time after the war. In this regard, we must prepare the reintegration of these children into society. To reintegrate these children, we must think of both a…

  14. Armed conflict and human behavior: a case study of the environmental management process in North Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, S.T.; Abbas, N.; Nader, M.R.; Molen, van der I.; Lovett, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the variation in the effects of individuals’ vulnerability and trust on human behavior within five geographical areas (Akkar, Menieh, Tripoli, Koura, Batroun) along the northern coastline of Lebanon in the context of recurring armed conflict. Lebanon has been subject to regular e

  15. Does infectious disease cause global variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Kenneth; Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Geographic and cross-national variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war is a subject of great interest. Previous theory on this variation has focused on the influence on human behaviour of climate, resource competition, national wealth, and cultural characteristics. We present the parasite-stress model of intrastate conflict, which unites previous work on the correlates of intrastate conflict by linking frequency of the outbreak of such conflict, including civil war, to the intensity of infectious disease across countries of the world. High intensity of infectious disease leads to the emergence of xenophobic and ethnocentric cultural norms. These cultures suffer greater poverty and deprivation due to the morbidity and mortality caused by disease, and as a result of decreased investment in public health and welfare. Resource competition among xenophobic and ethnocentric groups within a nation leads to increased frequency of civil war. We present support for the parasite-stress model with regression analyses. We find support for a direct effect of infectious disease on intrastate armed conflict, and support for an indirect effect of infectious disease on the incidence of civil war via its negative effect on national wealth. We consider the entanglements of feedback of conflict into further reduced wealth and increased incidence of disease, and discuss implications for international warfare and global patterns of wealth and imperialism. PMID:20377573

  16. CONSEQUENCES OF THE GEORGIAN-SOUTH OSSETIAN ARMED CONFLICT IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. KABISOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the consequences of the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict to the international community. Aspects of contradictions and interests of South Ossetia and Georgia in the international arena. The analysis of the Georgian-South Ossetian relations, in the context of the security problems of the Caucasus region and taking into account the national interests of Russia, as one of the major mediators of the negotiation process between Georgia and South Ossetia. Presented by the opinion of international organizations around the situation in the Georgian-Ossetian conflict in August 2008. It is shown that the reaction of the NATO Council, the European Parliament on the recognition by the Russian Federation of the independence of South Ossetia. Concretized and summarized expert assessments of Russian and foreign political scientists on the causes and consequences of the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict. A new period in the history of the Republic of South Ossetia after the recognition of its independence by the Russian Federation. The estimation of the international community's recognition of independence of the Republic of South Ossetia. This conflict can be defined as a complex type of armed conflict, which is in its ethno-political roots, initially to develop a domestic, but later transformed into the international conflict. The problems of the foreign relations of the young state, the prospects for its viability after the selfdetermination of the Ossetian people and the armed conflict with Georgia in 2008, the forecast is given to development of relations between Georgia and the Republic of South Ossetia and the Caucasus region as a whole. Chronologically, it will be discussed between August 2008 after the recognition by the Russian Federation of the independence of South Ossetia and September 2009, when the final report of the Independent International Fact-Finding Commission on the Conflict in Georgia published.

  17. Conflict, Postconflict, and the Functions of the University: Lessons from Colombia and Other Armed Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ivan Francisco

    2013-01-01

    "Education and conflict" has emerged as a new field of study during the last two decades. However, higher education is still relatively absent from this debate as most of the research has focused on primary and non-formal education. This dissertation is an exploratory qualitative study on the potential role of higher education in…

  18. Military and civilian burn injuries during armed conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, B S; Gunn, S W A; Hayek, S N

    2007-12-31

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment, and war burns have been described for more than 5,000 years of written history. Fire was probably utilized as a weapon long before that. With the ever-increasing destructive power and efficiency of modern weapons, casualties, both fatal and non-fatal, are reaching new highs, particularly among civilians who are becoming the major wartime targets in recent wars, accounting for most of the killed and wounded. Even though medical personnel usually believe that a knowledge of weaponry has little relevance to their ability to effectively treat injuries and that it may in some way be in conflict with their status, accorded under the Geneva and Hague treaties, it is imperative that they know how weapons are used and understand their effects on the human body. The present review explores various categories of weapons of modern warfare that are unfamiliar to most medical and paramedical personnel responsible for burn treatment. The mechanisms and patterns of injury produced by each class of weapons are examined so that a better understanding of burn management in a warfare situation may be achieved. PMID:21991098

  19. Illicit crops and armed conflict as constraints on biodiversity conservation in the Andes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldså, Jon; Alvarez, María D; Lazcano, Juan Mario; León, Blanca

    2005-05-01

    Coca, once grown for local consumption in the Andes, is now produced for external markets, often in areas with armed conflict. Internationally financed eradication campaigns force traffickers and growers to constantly relocate, making drug-related activities a principal cause of forest loss. The impact on biodiversity is known only in general terms, and this article presents the first regional analysis to identify areas of special concern, using bird data as proxy. The aim of conserving all species may be significantly constrained in the Santa Marta and Perijá mountains, Darién, some parts of the Central Andes in Colombia, and between the middle Marañón and middle Huallaga valleys in Peru. Solutions to the problem must address the root causes: international drug markets, long-lasting armed conflict, and lack of alternative income for the rural poor.

  20. The Right of Child Victims of Armed Conflict to Reintegration and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Robinson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Article 39 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child provides for the right to recovery and reintegration of child victims of armed conflict. In this publication an explanation is tendered of when children are considered to be victims of armed conflict. Specific reference is made to the question of whether or not a former child soldier may be viewed as such a child victim. In addition the question is addressed of how a monist or dualist approach in terms of which treaty law is incorporated into municipal law influences the rights of child victims in terms of article 39 of the Convention of the Rights of the Child. Thirdly, article 39 is discussed against the background of the international human rights instrument, the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  1. EXTENDING JUST WAR THEORY: THE JUS AD BELLUM AND THE CAPABILITIES APPROACH TO ARMED CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deane-Peter Baker

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As the nature of armed conflict continues to change, so the living ethical traditionthat is just war theory has to adapt to meet new challenges. This paper offers aproposal for extending just war theory by incorporating into its framework a humancapabilities-based ethic drawn from the work of Martha Nussbaum. This newapproach is analysed in the light of two important recent challenges to just wartheory: David Rodin’s critique of the principle of national defence, and the emergingdoctrine of humanitarian intervention. While the results of this analysis can only beconsidered to be preliminary, the authors argue that indications are thatsupplementing just war theory with Nussbaum’s human capabilities-based ethic, orsomething similar, could yield significant benefits for the ethical analysis ofcontemporary armed conflicts.

  2. Illicit crops and armed conflict as constraints on biodiversity conservation in the Andes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldså, Jon; Alvarez, María D; Lazcano, Juan Mario; León, Blanca

    2005-05-01

    Coca, once grown for local consumption in the Andes, is now produced for external markets, often in areas with armed conflict. Internationally financed eradication campaigns force traffickers and growers to constantly relocate, making drug-related activities a principal cause of forest loss. The impact on biodiversity is known only in general terms, and this article presents the first regional analysis to identify areas of special concern, using bird data as proxy. The aim of conserving all species may be significantly constrained in the Santa Marta and Perijá mountains, Darién, some parts of the Central Andes in Colombia, and between the middle Marañón and middle Huallaga valleys in Peru. Solutions to the problem must address the root causes: international drug markets, long-lasting armed conflict, and lack of alternative income for the rural poor. PMID:16042278

  3. the run for arming and conflicts in Middle-East menace the safety of petroleum supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation in the Middle-East is always a run to get arming equipment. Conflicts between Bahrain and Qatar, between Qatar and Saudi Arabia or between this last one and Yemen are a danger for the stability in this area; without forgetting Iran power rising. This situation is an obstacle to economic development, stability of policy and it goes against local populations interests, against industrialized countries interests and against petroleum industry interest itself

  4. Construction of the enemy in the Colombian armed conflict 1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio González Z

    2016-04-01

    should be taken as a toolbox or as a lens, which are used if they allow a better view and leaving aside whether or disturb the look muddy work. I think the construction of the enemy in the Colombian armed conflict 1998-2010, is that: a good toolbox or good lenses that allow us auscultate some phenomena and raises some concerns?

  5. South African private security contractors active in armed conflicts: citizenship, prosecution and the right to work

    OpenAIRE

    Maritz, M.; Bosch, S.

    2011-01-01

    South Africa has adopted two pieces of legislation since 1998 aimed at restricting one of the fastest growing sectors of the global economy: the private security industry. Not only is this legislation completely unique, but it appears wholly at odds with international opinion. In this article we place private security contractors (PSCs) under the microscope of international law, exploring the role they play in armed conflicts, and the status afforded them by international humanitarian law (IH...

  6. Sexual violence in armed conflict: the least condemned of war crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mike

    2014-03-01

    Sexual violence in armed conflict has traditionally received poor attention until recent years. It has been the "least condemned of war crimes" although, with the inception of the International Criminal Court and various other international courts and tribunals, convictions of high-profile aggressors are increasing. Only recently Charles Taylor, the President of Liberia, was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity which included rape and sexual slavery. He was sentenced to 50 years imprisonment. Is prosecution of these crimes sufficient to minimise sexual violence in war? That seems unlikely given the potential for such violence to be a cheap and effective strategy to terrorise a civilian population and "ethnically cleanse" the newly won territory. However, there is a remarkable variation in the levels of sexual violence in armed conflicts. Some, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, have extremely low levels, whereas in Bosnia and many African states the prevalence of sexual violence is at epidemic levels. The reasons for such differences are many, however, some precipitating factors may be improved by strong military discipline, improved gender balance in armed forces, better political awareness by combatants of the aims of a campaign and pre-deployment ethical training. PMID:24804525

  7. Sexual violence in armed conflict: the least condemned of war crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mike

    2014-03-01

    Sexual violence in armed conflict has traditionally received poor attention until recent years. It has been the "least condemned of war crimes" although, with the inception of the International Criminal Court and various other international courts and tribunals, convictions of high-profile aggressors are increasing. Only recently Charles Taylor, the President of Liberia, was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity which included rape and sexual slavery. He was sentenced to 50 years imprisonment. Is prosecution of these crimes sufficient to minimise sexual violence in war? That seems unlikely given the potential for such violence to be a cheap and effective strategy to terrorise a civilian population and "ethnically cleanse" the newly won territory. However, there is a remarkable variation in the levels of sexual violence in armed conflicts. Some, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, have extremely low levels, whereas in Bosnia and many African states the prevalence of sexual violence is at epidemic levels. The reasons for such differences are many, however, some precipitating factors may be improved by strong military discipline, improved gender balance in armed forces, better political awareness by combatants of the aims of a campaign and pre-deployment ethical training.

  8. historical memory from Victims of armed conflict Construction and reconstruction of the political subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Villa Gómez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title of this article poses a transition between the victim who has been affected by armed conflict or who has suffered a violation of their fundamental rights, compared to being a particular political subject. This is a complex issue that is handled by multiple edges, therefore it is important to reconceptualize the process. The title is intentional to the extent that it does not want to talk about the victim simply because if you look more deeply, which can be seen in the armed conflict in this country is that victimization was not simply collateral damage in the conflict that has affected civilians, has not been a process of horizontal violence where civilians were indiscriminately involved, as Abad Orozco (2005 tried to point to Colombia. It is a dynamic clear conflict, which in most cases has meant the intention and determination to destroy the political subject, both the acting political subject, who openly mobilized in the political opposition, as one who was possible future or suspected of being or becoming a political actor, active political subject, before even be, as Martín-Baró (1989 when analyzing the specific logic of the dirty war and psychological warfare in Latin America (cf. . Martín-Beristain & Riera, 1994

  9. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement.

  10. In the shadow of giants: Superpower arms transfers and Third World conflict during the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsella, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    This is an investigation of the impact of superpower arms transfers on interstate rivalry in the Third World during the Cold War. The study is anchored in a theoretical framework which conceives of interstate rivalry as the basis for the development of security complexes in the international system. In the case of Third World rivalries, these security complexes tend to be local in scope. The superpower security complex was global. The theoretical framework emphasizes the tendency of one security complex to encroach upon another. This study focuses on the extent to which the Cold War was externalized through the process of superpower arms transfers to local rivals. The empirical investigation consists of statistical analysis of four enduring rivalries in the Third World: those between the Arab states and Israel, Iran and Iraq, India and Pakistan, and Ethiopia and Somalia. The author employs a time-series methodology - vector autoregression - which permits a rather rigorous discrimination between cause and effect. A rigorous methodology is essential to decipher the relationship between arms transfer and interstate conflict since there is reason to suspect that causality may be mutual. Historical narratives for each of of the four rivalries facilitate an interpretation of the statistical results, but also serve to highlight anomalies. The results suggest that the impact of superpower arms transfers was most pronounced in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf. Soviet arms transfers to Egypt and Syria tended to exacerbate the Arab-Israeli rivalry. In the case of the Iran-Iraq rivalry, it was American arms transfers to Iran that were influential, but the effect appears to have been a restraining one. An action-reaction dynamic in superpower arms transfers is evident in both these cases. The statistical results are not enlightening for either the India-Pakistan or Ethiopia-Somalia rivalries. Some theoretical refinements to the security-complexes framework are suggested.

  11. The Protection of Journalists in Armed Conflicts: How Can They Be Better Safeguarded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Düsterhöft

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The years 2011 and 2012 were among the most deadly for journalists reporting from conflict situations worldwide. The numbers of assaults, arrests and attacks have been on a constant rise and portray a dramatic image of the journalistic profession. In light of the increasing threats in armed conflicts, being a war reporter has become an inherently dangerous task. Journalists are not only at risk of becoming so-called collateral damage during military operations, they are also increasingly targeted. Their role as a watchdog and witness to the horrors of war, in addition to the undeniable power of the word and image they spread, has made them popular targets. It is therefore essential that the international community re-evaluate journalists' de jure and de facto protections in armed conflicts to allow for better safeguards and consequently less casualties in the imminent future. This article examines the current protections afforded to journalists and aims at detecting proposals for enhanced safeguards that are most likely to effectively improve journalists' safety in the field. In this regard, this article will argue that the legal protections are in fact sufficient and hardly amendable and that therefore, a more practical, hands-on approach to implementation of those protections must be the focus of future actions. This goal can only be achieved by a comprehensive mission jointly pursued by governments, militaries, journalists, media, NGOs and society.

  12. The Protection of Journalists in Armed Conflicts: How Can They Be Better Safeguarded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Düsterhöft

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The years 2011 and 2012 were among the most deadly for journalists reporting from conflict situations worldwide. The numbers of assaults, arrests and attacks have been on a constant rise and portray a dramatic image of the journalistic profession. In light of the increasing threats in armed conflicts, being a war reporter has become an inherently dangerous task. Journalists are not only at risk of becoming so-called collateral damage during military operations, they are also increasingly targeted. Their role as a watchdog and witness to the horrors of war, in addition to the undeniable power of the word and image they spread, has made them popular targets. It is therefore essential that the international community re-evaluate journalists' de jure and de facto protections in armed conflicts to allow for better safeguards and consequently less casualties in the imminent future. This article examines the current protections afforded to journalists and aims at detecting proposals for enhanced safeguards that are most likely to effectively improve journalists' safety in the field. In this regard, this article will argue that the legal protections are in fact sufficient and hardly amendable and that therefore, a more practical, hands-on approach to implementation of those protections must be the focus of future actions. This goal can only be achieved by a comprehensive mission jointly pursued by governments, militaries, journalists, media, NGOs and society.

  13. Symbolic representations of weapons and preparations for conflict: The nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the process through which actors acquire weapons in preparation for a confrontation with some rival. A theory is developed to account for those preparations rooted in two social psychological perspectives; social exchange theory and symbolic interactionism. The empirical aspect of the study deals with the nuclear arms race between the US and Soviet Union. The first portion involves a qualitative analysis to uncover the meaning system. The second portion involves a quantitative test of the theory. Data cover all 53 long range strategic missile systems ever deployed by the US or USSR. Results lend support for the idea of a meaning-based theory of preparation for conflict. By operationalizing weapons as actors perceive the objects in their environment, the results of this study provide a higher level of fit than found in earlier arms race research

  14. Children, education and armed conflict: an analysis of the African reality seen 15 years after the Machel Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Mateos Martín

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While sub-Saharan Africa in recent years has faced a marked decline in the number of armed conflicts, a number of countries continue to suffer the consequences of organized violence, especially some contexts such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Darfur region (western Sudan and Somalia, to name a few. As some institutions (UN or NGO or lead scholars have highlighted for several years, the main victim of violence is often civilians, mainly children and women. This article aims to analyze the impact of armed conflicts in Africa have in childhood and in such important areas as education. This object of study has in recent years an important reference as it has been the publication in 1996 of the so-called “Machel Report”. Fifteen years after the appearance of this document is of interest to a do a brief balance of some of the progress, gaps and main challenges of protecting children in armed conflict.

  15. [Problems of organization of surgical care to the wounded in a modern armed conflict: surgical care to the walking wounded in armed conflicts (Report 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, I M; Kotenko, P K; Severin, V V

    2013-01-01

    There are two triage groups of the walking wounded in a medical company of a brigade/special-purpose medical team: those returning to fighting role and those who have to be evacuated to level 3 echelon of care. The main purposes of surgical care of the walking wounded in the 3rd echelon of care are the following: diagnosis of injury pattern ruling out severe damages and separation of the independent category of the walking wounded. There is medical evacuation of the walking wounded from the 3rd echelon to the 4th echelon deployed in a combat zone. The walking wounded who needs less than 30 days of staying in hospital are evacuated to the garrison military hospitals and medical treatment facilities subordinated to a district military hospital. The wounded with the prolonged period of hospitalization (more than 30 days) are evacuated toward the district military hospital. Treatment of the walking wounded should be accomplished in the military district where the armed conflict goes on.

  16. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

  17. The Impact of War on Children: A Review of Progress Since the 1996 United Nations Report on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machel, Graca

    The outgrowth of a 1996 report on the impact of armed conflict on the well-being of children, and preparation for the 2000 International Conference on War-affected Children, this book examines progress made and obstacles encountered since 1996 in relieving the trauma of armed conflict. The stories recount family displacement, the rise of HIV/AIDS…

  18. Propensity of farmers to conserve forest within REDD+ projects in areas affected by armed-conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Augusto Carlos Castro; Mertz, Ole; Quintero, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of carbon-storage efforts in countries experiencing armed conflicts or confronting illegal activities (such as illicit crop cultivation) will permit additional tropical forests to be protected for climate change mitigation. Yet, despite these potential gains, the appropriate...... areas to conserve forests for climate change mitigation. Such questions include, for what reasons and under what circumstances would such farmer participate in climate change mitigation activities? In this paper we address these questions by developing an econometric Logit model to understand factors...... influencing the propensity to conserve forest of farmers from 14 villages in Colombia. These villages are located in a region recognized as a stronghold of guerrilla insurgencies and as the center for illegal crop cultivation. The region was selected as it is also the proposed target area for piloting...

  19. How Atrocity Becomes Law: The Neoliberalisation of Security Governance and the Customary Laws of Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Dowdeswell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impact of neoliberal ideologies of security governance on the customary laws of armed conflict, and describes how neoliberal practices of privatisation, outsourcing, and risk management within the security sector have facilitated the legalisation of atrocities. Neoliberal mentalities of governance have significantly impacted military administration in combat operations by decentralising control, by promoting discretion and freedom of action down the chain-of-command, and by institutionalising intent-based orders and standing Rules of Engagement. In so doing, the military has shifted the criteria for attack from one based upon an individual's status as a combatant to one of defining and containing risky populations. Whether used to justify counter- insurgent strikes in Iraq or Afghanistan, military intervention in Libya, or protest policing of the Arab Spring, neoliberalised security governance is designed to be waged not against States and regular combatants, but against 'failed States' and 'non-State actors' participating in activities, often political, that authorities perceive as threatening. This article provides a theoretical and historical discussion of what is at stake in such a logic, and illustrates its operation through reference to the intentional killing of civilians in Iraq depicted in the 12 July 2007 video made public by WikiLeaks. It argues that the ideologies and practices of neoliberalism in the security sector are not only facilitating such killings, but are in fact facilitating their justification as lawful, thereby normalising civilian atrocities within the laws of armed conflict in ways that can be described as distinctly imperial.

  20. Preventive interventions among children exposed to trauma of armed conflict: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Increasing research is available on the preconditions for child mental health and optimal development in traumatic conditions, whereas less is known how to translate the findings into effective interventions to help traumatized children. This literature review analyses the effectiveness of psychosocial preventive interventions and treatments and their theoretical bases among children traumatized in the context of armed conflicts (war, military violence, terrorism and refugee). The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive interventions in preventing emotional distress and impairment and promoting optimal emotional-cognitive and social development. The second task is to analyze the nature of the underlying mechanisms for the success of preventive interventions, and the theoretical premises of the choice of intervention techniques, procedures and tools. We found 16 relevant published studies, but an examination of them revealed that only four of them had experimental designs strong enough that they could be included in the meta-analysis. While the subjective reports of the researchers suggested that systematic preventive interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD and depressive symptoms among children traumatized due to armed conflict, the more objective results of the meta-analysis and the weaknesses in designs uncovered during the meta-analysis undermine such a conclusion. Additionally, a majority of the reported preventive interventions focused only on children's biased cognitive processes and negative emotions, while only a few aimed at influencing multiple domains of child development and improving developmental functioning on emotional, social and psychophysiological levels. It is concluded that substantial additional work needs to be done in developing effective preventive interventions and treatments for children traumatized by exposure to war and violence. PMID:19998393

  1. The Mediating Effects of Child Strengths and Hopes on Academic Achievement for Palestinian Children Exposed to Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of academic achievement among Palestinian children, including child and parent characteristics, exposure to armed conflict, child strengths, and children's hope. Participants were 1,697 children of both genders. The mean age of participants was 12 years, 10 months. Results of the final hierarchical multiple…

  2. Colombian Lay People's Willingness to Forgive Different Actors of the Armed Conflict: Results from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, Wilson; Pineda Marin, Claudia; Murcia Leon, Maria Camila; Perilla Garzon, Diana Carolina; Mullet, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study examined lay people's willingness to forgive acts that were committed by actors of the armed conflicts in Colombia. The participants (100 persons living in Bogota) were shown vignettes describing cases in which a member of the guerilla or a member of the former paramilitary forces asks for forgiveness to a victim's family, and were…

  3. Impact of Armed Conflicts on Education and Educational Agents: A Multivocal Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Cervantes-Duarte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the short and long-term pernicious impact of armed conflicts on education and educational agents (students, teachers and students’ parents, using a multivocal review by means of the integration and qualitative analysis of 60 research reports (voices found in two databases: Web of Science and PROQUEST in the period between 1995 –date of the first founding paper- until 2014. Through the analysis of source data (voices and taking the “multivocal review” as a method, the voices have been combined in nine categories, namely: a Refusal and impediments to a return to education; b Educational infrastructure damaged or destroyed; c Cuts in or withdrawal of spending on education; d Loss of the educational and protective functions of the family; e Loss of the academic community; f Non-qualified teaching staff; g Drastic loss of skills; h Abandoning school (population movements, destruction of networks and social environment; i Behavioural problems: traumas, pedagogical roles and self-victimization. These categories have highlighted the serious consequences arising from conflicts, infringing as they do the most basic human rights and in particular the right to a sound education during childhood.

  4. Variations in adrenal hormones in law enforcement servicemen during a mission to local armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Victorovich Koubassov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we reported changes in the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol secretion in blood samples from law enforcement personnel during the mission to local armed conflict region. In the present study, we demonstrate those changes collectively with additional data on changes in the adrenaline and noradrenaline in the urine samples of the same individuals. The study was conducted on 48 male officers who were deployed to an army conflict teritory for a duration of 4 months.At the onset of the mission, there was a modestincreasein all hormones corresponding to the general adaptation syndrome theory. As the mission started, significant increases were observed in the mean levels of the hormonal parameters in both serum and urine at different time points as compared to those before the mission. At first week of deployment, a sharp increase in the secretory activity of medulla and cortical adrenal gland was found and at the termination of the mission a dysfunction of hypophysis-adrenal gland regulation system was identified. These findings might lead to disturbances in interhormonal relationships and causedecreased stress tolerance in the relevant individals.

  5. CHILDREN, CONFLICT AND INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE: EXPLORING THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD DURING ARMED CONFLICT WITH RESPECT TO HUMANITARIAN LAW AND TO HUMAN RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehari Fisseha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between humanitarian law and human rights has become at once more enigmatically ambiguous and more tightly bound during recent years. The ratification of the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children during armed conflicts (hereinafter “Protocol” in February of 2002 is indicative of how inextricably linked international, humanitarian law and human rights have become within the first decade of the twenty-first century.

  6. Reasons and Outcomes of Work-Family Conflict and Work Alienation as one of Its Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdolhossein Nabavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Appearance and increasing development of families with both partners employed is regarded as a social revolution in Iran. There are many pressures in this type of family life due to inefficiency of the traditional opinion about division of labor in family. One of the pressures stems from work-family conflict in which sometimes there is no solution and causes many unpredictable outcomes for social cohesion, family performance, individual work performance and also work alienation. Nowadays employees do not work for living but for a job. Affected by economic, social and organizational determinants, job alienation is presently a threatening and destructive factor in the performance of an organization. Forms of alienation include feeling of lack of discipline and power, absurdity and social isolation. When incorrect and compatible with the individual, the job and leadership style chosen will have adverse effects on the behavior and personality of the individual. If the job is regarded as something external by the individual who undertakes to do it, it will be an alienating job. This study investigates the influence that supportive leadership and job characteristics play in work alienation. Dependent variable (work alienation is studied in relation with social support, role expectations, role ambiguity, work control and work-family conflict variables. In this way, views of Duxbury and Higgins, Carlson and Bluner have been utilized. Material and Methods This research is conducted as a survey. Stratified random sampling has been used for the selection of samples. The main instrument of data collection used in this study was questionnaire. The sample of the research includes 400 female married employees of governmental in Ahvaz. In order to analyze the data, descriptive statistics, variance analysis, regression analysis and path analysis have been used. Discussion of Results and Conclusions In general, the results confirm hypotheses and

  7. Faculty Perceptions of Conflict with Administrators: An Analysis of the Associations between the Nature of Conflict and Positive and Negative Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancks, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of faculty members regarding conflict experiences with administrators. It is driven by the question, "To what extent are faculty perceptions of positive and negative outcomes of faculty-administrator conflict associated with domain, nature and disciplinary context of the conflict," where domain refers…

  8. Maternal health care amid political unrest: the effect of armed conflict on antenatal care utilization in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James I; Bohara, Alok K

    2013-05-01

    Armed conflicts, which primarily occur in low- and middle-income countries, have profound consequences for the health of affected populations, among them a decrease in the utilization of maternal health care services. The quantitative relationship between armed conflict and maternal health care utilization has received limited attention in the public health literature. We evaluate this relationship for a particular type of health care service, antenatal care, in Nepal. Using count regression techniques, household survey data and sub-national conflict data, we find a negative correlation between the number of antenatal care visits and incidents of conflict-related violence within a respondent's village development committee. Specifically, we find that under high-intensity conflict conditions women receive between 0.3 and 1.5 fewer antenatal care check-ups. These findings imply that maternal health care utilization is partially determined by characteristics of the social environment (e.g. political instability) and suggest health care providers need to revise maternal health strategies in conflict-affected areas. Strategies may include decentralization of services, maintaining neutrality among factions, strengthening community-based health services and developing mobile clinics.

  9. Self-reported and performance-based outcomes using DEKA Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Resnik, PT, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of the DEKA Arm and associated engineering innovations are easy to observe. What is less clear is how these advances translate into functional benefits for the user with amputation. Study aims were to (1 quantify outcomes including dexterity, performance of daily activities, and prosthetic skill and spontaneity of users of the DEKA Arm and (2 compare outcomes when using the DEKA Arm with scores using the existing prosthesis. This was a quasi-experimental study. Descriptive analyses examined outcomes by DEKA Arm configuration level. Of the 39 subjects fit with a DEKA Arm, 32 were trained in use and completed end-of-study testing. Data from 26 prosthetic users were used to compare outcomes using existing prostheses with outcomes with the DEKA Arm. Dexterity and activity performance with the DEKA Arm varied by amputation level (p < 0.01. Self-reported function and number of activities performed using the prosthesis were similar across levels. Comparisons with existing prostheses showed the effect on dexterity varied by level. Activity performance and spontaneity of prosthetic use improved for users of the shoulder configuration level, while use of the prosthesis to perform activities and perceived difficulty performing self-selected tasks improved for all levels.

  10. The right to recovery and reintegration of child victims of armed conflict : a public subjective rights approach / Jacobus Abraham Robinson

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jacobus Abraham

    2011-01-01

    The right of child victims of armed conflict to recovery and reintegration in essence is a particular exposition of the public law relationship. In this study reference is made to the theory of public subjective rights as it applies in German law to explain the relationship. Shortcomings in the theory are identified after which aspects of the Reformed Tradition are discussed to come to sound solutions. An effort is made to establish a theoretical framework in terms of which the relationship c...

  11. Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Principle of Unnecessary Suffering : The Use of Nuclear Weapons in an Armed Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Krasny, Jaroslav; Kawano, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    This research is concerned with the use of nuclear weapons against combatants in an armed conflict and whether such a use violates or would violate the principle of unnecessary suffering as codified in St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868 and the Hague Conventions. In order to analyze what constitutes unnecessary suffering the method chosen for this research is comparison of the effects of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons on the human body. The reason for choosing this method is the abh...

  12. “Let Us Have a Little Fun”: The Relationship between Gender, Violence and Sexuality in Armed Conflict Situations*

    OpenAIRE

    Zipfel, Gaby

    2013-01-01

    The genealogy of sexual violence in war, inter-war and post-war periods can only be understood through an analysis of the relationship between gender, violence and sexuality. Armed conflicts function as a kind of magnifying glass, making visible definitions of sexual identity constructed through the legitimization of violence. Wartime crimes of sexual violence, viewed until now as limit phenomena characteristic of a state of exception, thus point to regularities whose form and function may va...

  13. Applications of the Time-Varying Multi-Hazard Index to Armed Conflicts and GDP Growth Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanuk, M.; Skorik, A.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2004-12-01

    The time-varying Multi-Hazard Index has many potential applications for comparisons against quantitative measures of sustainable development. We have compared the time-varying severity of multiple natural hazards against time-varying socio-economic data for selected countries. Our analysis compares Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and armed conflict occurrence against multiple hazard severity as measured by an empirical time-varying multiple hazard index. The purpose of these analyses is to establish and characterize correlations between the Multi-Hazard Index and trends in GDP and conflicts over the past 25 years. To analyze the relationship between natural hazards and armed conflicts, the Multi-Hazard Index was correlated against the number of conflicts at each intensity level for individual countries. A preliminary analysis was performed studying the apparent relationship as well as the possible existence of time lags. In a similar although more quantitative analysis, the GDP data was correlated against the Multi-Hazard Index for a particular country at different time lags. Analysis involving the conflict datasets yielded varying results from country to country. Colombia shows the strongest correlation, with all positive values of the Multi-Hazard Index followed by an escalation in conflict intensity. The results for other countries are more difficult to interpret as certain years show increases in the number of conflicts at one intensity level and a decrease for other intensity levels. Some issues that need to be addressed include the coding of the intensity for the conflict data, the dating for both conflicts and hazards, and the use of national boundaries as geographic extents. The degree of correlation between GDP growth and the Multi-Hazard Index varies from country to country as well. Our calculations for Honduras show an extremely high correlation, for example, implying a strong economic sensitivity to natural hazards, whereas for China no significant

  14. Breach of belongingness: Newcomer relationship conflict, information, and task-related outcomes during organizational socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifadkar, Sushil S; Bauer, Talya N

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of newcomer socialization have underlined the importance of newcomers' information seeking for their adjustment to the organization, and the conflict literature has consistently reported negative effects of relationship conflict with coworkers. However, to date, no study has examined the consequences of relationship conflict on newcomers' information seeking. In this study, we examined newcomers' reactions when they have relationship conflict with their coworkers, and hence cannot obtain necessary information from them. Drawing upon belongingness theory, we propose a model that moves from breach of belongingness to its proximal and distal consequences, to newcomer information seeking, and then to task-related outcomes. In particular, we propose that second paths exist-first coworker-centric and the other supervisor-centric-that may have simultaneous yet contrasting influence on newcomer adjustment. To test our model, we employ a 3-wave data collection research design with egocentric and Likert-type multisource surveys among a sample of new software engineers and their supervisors working in India. This study contributes to the field by linking the literatures on relationship conflict and newcomer information seeking and suggesting that despite conflict with coworkers, newcomers may succeed in organizations by building relationships with and obtaining information from supervisors. PMID:26052711

  15. Breach of belongingness: Newcomer relationship conflict, information, and task-related outcomes during organizational socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifadkar, Sushil S; Bauer, Talya N

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of newcomer socialization have underlined the importance of newcomers' information seeking for their adjustment to the organization, and the conflict literature has consistently reported negative effects of relationship conflict with coworkers. However, to date, no study has examined the consequences of relationship conflict on newcomers' information seeking. In this study, we examined newcomers' reactions when they have relationship conflict with their coworkers, and hence cannot obtain necessary information from them. Drawing upon belongingness theory, we propose a model that moves from breach of belongingness to its proximal and distal consequences, to newcomer information seeking, and then to task-related outcomes. In particular, we propose that second paths exist-first coworker-centric and the other supervisor-centric-that may have simultaneous yet contrasting influence on newcomer adjustment. To test our model, we employ a 3-wave data collection research design with egocentric and Likert-type multisource surveys among a sample of new software engineers and their supervisors working in India. This study contributes to the field by linking the literatures on relationship conflict and newcomer information seeking and suggesting that despite conflict with coworkers, newcomers may succeed in organizations by building relationships with and obtaining information from supervisors.

  16. [Socioeconomic impact of armed conflict on the health of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omba Kalonda, J C

    2011-04-01

    Since 1996, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been the theatre of armed conflict. More than 5.4 millions have died and 500,000 to 1,000,000 women have been raped. As a result of permanent insecurity including frequent massacres, burning of villages and plundering of personal property and crops, millions of Congolese people especially in eastern regions have been displaced with around 1.3 million in internal refugee camps. Rural populations have abandoned farming that was the main source of employment, food, and income. The purpose of this paper is to describe the socioeconomic impact of this armed conflict particularly on the health of women and children. Consequences include i) decreased food production, ii) worsening food insecurity and malnutrition, iii) reduced household income, and iv) inadequate health care leading to epidemic outbreaks of diseases such as cholera, measles, and meningitis. Food insecurity and poverty affect around 70% of the population. Chronic malnutrition and growth retardation affect 38% of children. The mortality rate for children under 5 has reached 205 per 1000 live births. Other than achieving lasting peace that is a prerequisite for development in the DRC, the main priority must be to provide victims with multiform assistance aimed at restarting the economy and ensuring food self-sufficiency, thereby reducing both malnutrition and child mortality. Better access to healthcare and to psychosocial, medical, and legal services is also needed for rape victims. PMID:21695885

  17. Conflict-induced displacement and labour market outcomes: evidence from post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Kondylis, Florence

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a longitudinal data source to study the effects of conflict-induced displacement on labour market outcomes for Bosnians in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina. To account for endogeneity in the displacement status, I exploit the fact that the level of violence in the pre-war residence likely affected the displacement decision for Bosnians and yet is not associated to economic performance. I find evidence of positive selection into displacement, i.e. more 'able' individuals in term...

  18. Discrimination of the Law of Armed Conflict and Related Concepts%武装冲突法与相关概念辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丹; 胡志鹏

    2014-01-01

    目前,在我国军事法学界对于战争和武装冲突法律制度有国际战争法、武装冲突法、国际人道法和国际人权法等称谓。笔者认为武装冲突法继承了国际战争法的大部分内容,是后者的现代表述。而国际人道法是武装冲突法中关于人道主义保护的内容,为其所包含。国际人权法与武装冲突法中的人道主义保护内容有着明显的区别,但在同一种精神和价值下呈现出相互交融的趋势。因此,笔者认为用武装冲突法表述上述法律体系最为恰当。%At present , there are four tiles , which are law of war , law of armed conflict , international humani-tarian law and international human rights law , for the legal system of wars and armed conflicts in our country .I be-lieve that the law of armed conflict has inherited most contents of the law of war , the latter is a modern expression . And international humanitarian law is a part of the law of armed conflict .International human rights law and hu-manitarian protection content in law of armed conflict has a clear distinction , but in the same spirit and values showing a trend of interacting with each other .Therefore, I believe the law of armed conflict is the most appropriate tile for the legal system .

  19. Relationships of supervisor support and conflicts in the work–family interface with the selected job outcomes of frontline employees

    OpenAIRE

    Karatepe, Osman M; Kılıç, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    A research model investigating the relationship of supervisor support and work-family conflict with the selected job outcomes was developed and tested using a sample of frontline employees in Northern Cyprus hotels. The results of the path analysis suggest that supervisor support alleviates frontline employees' conflicts in the work-family interface and increases their job satisfaction. Results demonstrate that family-work conflict influences job performance deleteriously. In contrast, the hy...

  20. Prevalence of and factors influencing posttraumatic stress disorder among mothers of children under five in Kabul, Afghanistan, after decades of armed conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemat Shafiqullah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the period following wars and other forms of armed conflict, health and quality of life of mothers is a major concern as they have the closest contact with children. The present study was performed to examine the impact of exposure to events related to armed conflicts on post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among women raising children, and to identify factors that alleviate the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events. Methods A structured interview survey was conducted in Kabul Province, Afghanistan, in 2006. The subjects were the mothers of children less than 5 years old randomly selected from 1400 households in Kabul Province, Afghanistan. Symptoms of PTSD were assessed according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV. Exposure to traumatic events related to armed conflict, experience of hardship with regard to basic needs, resources that the subjects seek for mental health support, and socioeconomic variables were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between PTSD symptoms and predictor variables. Results The prevalence rate of PTSD among 1172 women participated in this study was 29.8%. The most prevalent symptom was arousal (74.8%, followed by re-experiencing (54.9% and avoidance (33.7%. The prevalence rate of PTSD symptoms among subjects who reported having experienced at least one event related to armed conflict (52.7% was significantly higher than that among those who reported no such experiences (9.6%. Experience of food shortage was independently associated with PTSD. Seeking support for mental health was related to lower prevalence of PTSD symptoms among those who reported no direct experience of events related to armed conflict. However, no such relationship was observed with PTSD symptoms among those who reported having direct experience of events related to armed conflict. Conclusion Direct

  1. De-Conflicting Canada’s Anti-Terrorism Legislation: Khawaja and the Ongoing Challenges of the ‘Armed Conflict’ Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher K. Penny

    2016-01-01

    The definition of ‘terrorist activity’ is fundamental to Canada’s anti-terrorism legislation. Following the recent trial of Momin Khawaja before the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, it is clear that the ‘armed conflict’ exclusion – exempting wartime activities undertaken in accordance with international law – poses serious challenges to the coherence of this legislative regime, threatening the effectiveness of future domestic terrorism prosecutions. This article examines the ‘armed conflict...

  2. Men's and women's experiences of violence and traumatic events in rural Côte d'Ivoire before, during and after a period of armed conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M.; Zimmerman, C.; Kiss, L.; Kone, D.; Bakayoko-Topolska, M; Manan K A, D; Lehmann, H.; Watts, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We assessed men's and women's experiences of gender based violence and other traumatic events in Côte d'Ivoire, a West African conflict-affected setting, before, during and after a period of active armed conflict (2000-2007). DESIGN Cross-sectional, household survey. SETTING 12 rural communities directly impacted by the Crisis in Côte d'Ivoire, spanning regions controlled by government forces, rebels and UN peacekeepers in 2008. PARTICIPANTS 2678 men and women aged 15...

  3. The Paradox of Terrorism, Armed Conflict and Natural Resources in Africa: an Analysis of Cabinda in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ojakorotu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Angola is a coastal west-central African state which currently stands as one of the fastest growing economies on the sub-continent. Angola’s development as a burgeoning economic powerhouse has been attained despite a protracted and brutal civil conflict spanning several decades. In the current post-conflict era, Angola has emerged as one of the leading producers of oil on the African continent, second only to Nigeria, in addition to boasting an equally robust diamond mining industry. However, the main oil-producing region in Angola, the Cabinda province, has been the centre of intense conflict between the inhabitants of the region on one hand in their endeavor for self-determination, and the central government on the other, which defends the economic and geo-strategic importance of the region. At a practical level, the proponents of the conflict are the Liberation Front of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC, which is at the forefront of secessionist calls, and the Luanda government through the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA. The activities of FLEC in the Cabinda region against Luanda (the Angola state have launched a new debate on the dynamics of oil violence in the region. Among the main concerns is that the militia groups in the region are carrying out terrorist acts which,in turn, breed further instability that could have severe consequences for the state’s security. Therefore, it is pertinent to undertake an in-depth exploration of the nexus between terrorism and FLEC activities in the region, as well to establish whether the recurrent breach of national security law committed by the FLEC in their secessionist endeavors have allowed the Angolan government to rightly characterize the violent activities of the militant group as terrorism. 

  4. Conflict and love: predicting newlywed marital outcomes from two interaction contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Elana C; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Miga, Erin; Chango, Joanna; Coan, James

    2011-08-01

    Research on marital interaction has focused primarily on couples in conflict contexts to understand better processes associated with concurrent and longitudinal outcomes such as marital stability and quality. Although this work has consistently revealed particular emotions (e.g., contempt) or behavioral sequences (e.g., demand/withdraw) predictive of later marital distress, it largely has neglected to take positive contexts into consideration. The present longitudinal study begins to address this gap in the literature by directly comparing newlywed behaviors from a conflict-resolution interaction with those from a love-paradigm interaction to predict relationship satisfaction and divorce proneness approximately 15 months later. Results showed that actor and partner negative (contempt) and positive (affection) emotions elicited in both positive (i.e., love) and negative (i.e., conflict) interaction contexts emerged as unique predictors of relationship quality and stability for both husbands and wives. Moreover, using a linear growth model, the temporal course of positive emotion during the love context, but not the conflict context, was predictive of later relationship satisfaction. Implications for future marital research and intervention are discussed.

  5. Forced Conscription of Children during Armed Conflict: Experiences of Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's…

  6. Direct killing of patients in humanitarian situations and armed conflicts: the profession of medicine is losing its meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin

    2015-04-01

    During armed conflicts over the past several years, attacks on humanitarian workers and patients have increased, including the most recent overt killing of patients in their hospital beds in South Sudan and Central African Republic, and bombardments of hospitals in Iraq, Syria, and other countries. Direct attacks on patients inside hospitals, as well as social structural dynamics that undermine patient safety and security, are met with apparent indifference by international and medical communities. How can the medical profession remain silent and stand by while these factors render its core mission futile? In this article, I aim to shed light on this issue, and its implications for the future of the neutral and impartial provision of medical care; provide an analysis of underlying and contributing factors; discuss current international strategies; reflect on the responsibility of health providers; explore ways to strengthen our roles as physician advocates; and call for the medical profession to do more to protect medicine's core values. PMID:25646255

  7. Predicting Physical Activity Outcomes During Episodes of Academic Goal Conflict: The Differential Role of Action Planning and Coping Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Natasha; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The moderating role of academic goal conflict in the relations between action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) with physical activity was tested using samples of university students concurrently pursuing an academic and a physical activity goal. In Study 1 (N = 317), AP was found to positively relate to physical activity goal progress at low, but not at high, levels of goal conflict. CP trended toward being positively related to goal progress at high, but not at low levels of goal conflict. Study 2 (N = 97), using a 1-week daily diary design and measures of self-reported physical activity behavior and goal progress, showed that daily AP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced lower, but not higher, levels of goal conflict relative to their average. Conversely, CP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced higher, but not lower, levels of goal conflict.

  8. The Maguindanao Massacre, critical elections and armed conflict in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Eva-Lotta E. Hedman

    2009-01-01

    The Maguindanao Massacre has sent shock waves through the Philippines and beyond. A convoy of cars was caught in an armed ambush on Monday 23 November, leaving at least 57 persons dead, with mutilated bodies and crushed vehicles found buried in large pits. The convoy was destined for the Commission of Elections office in Shariff Aguak town, Magindanao Province in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). The purpose was to file local vice mayor Esmael Manguda...

  9. Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights…

  10. International humanitarian law applied to cyber-warfare: Precautions, proportionality and the notion of ‘attack’ under the humanitarian law of armed conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. Gill

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the application of international humanitarian law to cyber warfare in the sense of rising to the level of an armed conflict. Building upon the work of the Tallinn Manual on the Application of International Law to Cyber Warfare, it places particular emphasis on the application o

  11. Mental Health and Self-Esteem of Institutionalized Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences.

  12. Mental Health and Self-Esteem of Institutionalized Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences. PMID:25930059

  13. Territorial Service as part of the social and territorial control of the Salvadoran State during the armed conflict (1972-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herard Von Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Historiography study done with a narrative approach, based on documentary research and consulting oral sources. A historical review of the social and territorial control developed by the Salvadoran State during the internal armed conflict (1972-1992 is made. This is an academic effort to bring relevant elements that could be useful for contemporary contexts, especially in stages where irregular armed groups have a presence in the territory and exercise powers. The Territorial Service was a strategy to recover the State’s presence in the territory and exercise social control over vulnerable populations.

  14. [Rwanda: violence committed against women in the context of generalized armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukakayumba, E

    1995-01-01

    Over the course of less than 3 months, the massacres in Rwanda, which followed the assassination of Rwanda¿s president on April 6, 1994, beat all historical records of such horrors in the end of the 20th century. From April 6 to the beginning of July 1994, more than 1 million people were killed in the internal conflict. In addition, millions of refugees were displaced inside and outside of the country. Even in the refugee camps, displaced people were not safe. For example, in the Goma refugee camp, more than 20,000 people died from cholera during the second half of July. Also during the period, the number of unaccompanied children reached more than 200,000. In this context of war, death, and disease, women suffered and continue to suffer violence. Mental and physical cruelty, and being condemned to living a miserable life in silence and isolation are discussed with regard to women in Rwanda. The most frequent reported forms of physical cruelty are rape, bodily mutilation, especially of the reproductive organs, forced marriage, and forced servitude. Such violence and cruelty are discussed. One form of mental cruelty involves forcing a mother to help mutilate and/or kill family members. Young boys were sometimes forced to rape their mothers, while other times soldiers cut off husbands¿ genitals in front of their wives, then placed the body parts into their mouths.

  15. The critical role of conflict resolution in teams: a close look at the links between conflict type, conflict management strategies, and team outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Kristin J; Peterson, Randall S; Mannix, Elizabeth A; Trochim, William M K

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the linkages between strategies for managing different types of conflict and group performance and satisfaction. Results from a qualitative study of 57 autonomous teams suggest that groups that improve or maintain top performance over time share 3 conflict resolution tendencies: (a) focusing on the content of interpersonal interactions rather than delivery style, (b) explicitly discussing reasons behind any decisions reached in accepting and distributing work assignments, and (c) assigning work to members who have the relevant task expertise rather than assigning by other common means such as volunteering, default, or convenience. The authors' results also suggest that teams that are successful over time are likely to be both proactive in anticipating the need for conflict resolution and pluralistic in developing conflict resolution strategies that apply to all group members. PMID:18211143

  16. Into the Caves of Steel: Precaution, Cognition and Robotic Weapon Systems Under the International Law of Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Herbach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The pace of development with respect to robotic weapons systems is staggering. Often formulated in the context of a desire of the ‘haves’ States to minimize battlefield casualties and to reduce monetary costs, technological advancement holds a number of ramifications for the law of armed conflict. Specifically, as technology introduces the possibility of increasingly autonomous forms of robotic weapon systems, the implications of augmenting precision while removing, for all intents and purposes, direct control by or involvement of human beings (‘in the loop’ must be examined, along with differentiated responsibilities of the ‘haves’ versus the ‘have-nots’. The present article takes as a foundation the international humanitarian law principle of precaution, as codified in Article 57 of Additional Protocol I, to assess various aspects of the applicability of the relevant provisions to these new weapons systems, and in particular draws conclusions as to how precaution could influence future developments.


  17. Armed Conflict in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan and the Role of NGOs in Restoring Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ammad; Xiaoying, Jian; Kanwal, Nazish

    2016-07-01

    The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan have been a hotbed of terrorists' violence since 9/11. The unremitted armed conflict in the region and limited role of the government in delivering fundamental health services has left the people at the disposal of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). This research aims at empirically substantiating the successful strategies adopted by the NGOs to run their projects under threats and to know the perceptions of the community toward NGOs and their services. Triangulation methodology was adopted in collecting data. Based on results, the research found that health care is a highly demanded service in the study area, and the government does not have the capacity nor the resources to ensure decent health coverage for all the people of the region. NGOs indeed have a crucial role not only in building the capacity of the government and the community but also in restoring and providing health services in the region, but still many efforts are required to overcome the challenges they are facing. By implication, the research places forward some recommendations. PMID:27030112

  18. “You can know an analysis by the source of its data”. A conceptual and methodological review of databases on armed conflict in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Espinosa M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, there are quantitative databases on armed conflict, some of them public and open-access. This paper reviews the main theoretical and methodological traits in some of those databases and their main features when defining and measuring political violence. Based on the results of a research performed in a Colombian region, several methodological issues will be presented in order to process —statistically, spatially and cartographically― the information delivered by those databases. After the exposition, several procedures are described, which allowed to measure differences among databases. Those contents are addressed aiming to show the consequences that using one or another database has in the quantitative analysis of armed conflict, since the results of those analyses will depend on the source used.

  19. [The power of the notion of resistance in the mental health field: a case study on the life of rural communities whitin the Colombian armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias López, Beatriz Elena

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to identify individual, family and/or community responses of resistance within protracted armed conflict. We conducted a case study with members of rural communities in the municipality of San Francisco, in the eastern area of Antioquia, Colombia, combining biographical and ethnographical approaches. The primary results show that, along with the suffering generated by the experience of armed conflict, rural community members also display a repertoire of multiple and diverse resistance strategies. Resistance is for them an active response and a way to re-weave the fabric torn by the experience. As a type of affirmative opposition, resistance is a powerful category for the entire mental health field, in that it highlights the creativity and capacity for transformation of individuals. In this way, the category allows for overcoming the limits of the conventional biomedical view that tends to pathologize individual and social responses in scenarios of severe distress.

  20. Mutual support, affective leadership, and community rehabilitation. An experience of psychosocial accompaniment for the “rehabilitation” of victims of the armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Villa Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The systematization of an experience of psychosocial accompaniment to victims of the armed conflict in the city of Medellin is introduced. This study allowed to understand and to demonstrate that the strategies for community strengthening, the training of leaders and affective men and women leaders, the peer support, the psychosocial action from the empowerment of communities and their support networks, are necessary actions to generate personal and collective empowerment, emotional recovery, subjective transformations, and experiences of reconstruction of projects of life, the social fabric, and the re-dignification of victims of the armed conflict inColombia. It is therefore proposed to develop processes of integral repair from the communities rather than to carry out, from above and vertically, projects, usually away from the needs and possibilities of the people.

  1. [The power of the notion of resistance in the mental health field: a case study on the life of rural communities whitin the Colombian armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias López, Beatriz Elena

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to identify individual, family and/or community responses of resistance within protracted armed conflict. We conducted a case study with members of rural communities in the municipality of San Francisco, in the eastern area of Antioquia, Colombia, combining biographical and ethnographical approaches. The primary results show that, along with the suffering generated by the experience of armed conflict, rural community members also display a repertoire of multiple and diverse resistance strategies. Resistance is for them an active response and a way to re-weave the fabric torn by the experience. As a type of affirmative opposition, resistance is a powerful category for the entire mental health field, in that it highlights the creativity and capacity for transformation of individuals. In this way, the category allows for overcoming the limits of the conventional biomedical view that tends to pathologize individual and social responses in scenarios of severe distress. PMID:25237800

  2. Continuity and change in the dynamics of armed conflict after the fall of the USSR. New wars and war against terrorism: two decades of transnational violence

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Alberto Mantilla

    2013-01-01

    This text aims to approach to a characterization of the major transformations in armed conflicts that have been occurring after the fall of the Soviet Union (USSR) and the positioning of the United States as the sole superpower. These changes show the need to give new meaning to what we now understand as war. They also monopolize the last twenty years of international violence, which can be analyzed from a double causal perspective, from which historical breaks are recognized as those in 1...

  3. Work-Family Conflict Among Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: A Structural Equation Model of Antecedents and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Lynn Y; Raffenaud, Amanda; Fottler, Myron

    2016-01-01

    Conflict between work and family is a human resource management issue that is particularly relevant for nurses. Nursing is a demanding profession, and a high proportion of nurses are women, who tend to have greater family responsibilities than men. Little is known regarding work-family conflict among nurses, and even less is known about how this affects newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs), who can be stressed from their new jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a model of antecedents and outcomes of work-family and family-work conflict among a sample of NLRNs. We developed a model of the relationships between personal and work environment characteristics, work-family and family-work conflicts, job satisfaction, and intent to leave the job and profession. We used structural equation modeling (Amos, IBM SPSS) to test the model with data from.a survey of NLRNs. We examined a number of latent variables, as well as direct and mediating relationships. The measurement models for all latent variables were validated. The final model indicated that age, health, and family responsibilities are antecedents of family-work conflict; job demands lead to work-family conflict; family-work conflict contributes to job difficulties, which lowers job satisfaction, which, in turn, increases the intent to leave the job and profession; and work-family conflict increases the intent to leave the job and profession (but does not directly affect job satisfaction). Policies to help NLRNs with family responsibilities could reduce family-work conflict, which might reduce job difficulties and improve satisfaction and retention. In addition, policies to reduce job demands could reduce work-family conflict and improve retention.

  4. Work-Family Conflict Among Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: A Structural Equation Model of Antecedents and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Lynn Y; Raffenaud, Amanda; Fottler, Myron

    2016-01-01

    Conflict between work and family is a human resource management issue that is particularly relevant for nurses. Nursing is a demanding profession, and a high proportion of nurses are women, who tend to have greater family responsibilities than men. Little is known regarding work-family conflict among nurses, and even less is known about how this affects newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs), who can be stressed from their new jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a model of antecedents and outcomes of work-family and family-work conflict among a sample of NLRNs. We developed a model of the relationships between personal and work environment characteristics, work-family and family-work conflicts, job satisfaction, and intent to leave the job and profession. We used structural equation modeling (Amos, IBM SPSS) to test the model with data from.a survey of NLRNs. We examined a number of latent variables, as well as direct and mediating relationships. The measurement models for all latent variables were validated. The final model indicated that age, health, and family responsibilities are antecedents of family-work conflict; job demands lead to work-family conflict; family-work conflict contributes to job difficulties, which lowers job satisfaction, which, in turn, increases the intent to leave the job and profession; and work-family conflict increases the intent to leave the job and profession (but does not directly affect job satisfaction). Policies to help NLRNs with family responsibilities could reduce family-work conflict, which might reduce job difficulties and improve satisfaction and retention. In addition, policies to reduce job demands could reduce work-family conflict and improve retention. PMID:27111932

  5. 论当代武装冲突法面临的挑战%Analysis of the Challenges to Contemporary Armed Conflict Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    As the use of force diversity, the network, combat drones, private military companies and other new means and methods widely used, effectiveness of the armed conflict law becomes weaker and weaker. Therefor,on one hand, its should be combined with the new characteristics of the armed conflict law practice, make up for the loopholes by making specification law files;on the other hand, actively promote international cooperation, ensuring all countries comply with the armed conflict law by further improving the supervision mechanism.%在武力使用借口日益多样,信息网络、无人攻击机以及私人军事、安保公司等新型作战力量和新的方法手段被广泛运用的形势下,武装冲突法出现了效力缺失的局面。对此,一方面应结合武装冲突实践的新特点进行创新发展,制订规范文件弥补法律漏洞,增强可行性与操作性;另一方面积极推进国际合作,进一步完善执行监督机制,保证各国较好地遵守武装冲突法。

  6. Ending war against women. CRLP sponsors workshop on violence against women in situations of armed conflict during Beijing + 5 regional conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, J

    2000-03-01

    Sexual violence during armed conflict has been the primary concern in conferences and meetings of international organizations. It has been rightly viewed as a war crime and a violation of women's human rights. In the Economic Commission for Europe conference in January 2000, the issue was discussed extensively. For the part of the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy and the International Women's Health Coalition, they sponsored a workshop addressing women's sexual and reproductive rights in situations of armed conflict. Participants of the workshop shared experiences from the conflicts in Eastern Europe. Reports indicated that affected women experienced rape and domestic violence, and that trafficking of women has escalated. Compounding these factors has decreased the government funding for contraception, abortion, and health education. In addition, the panelists suggested that women's reproductive health and rights could be improved with greater mental and physical health services and stronger social support during wartime. They further recommended that peacekeeping personnel and others pay closer attention to who is perpetrating the violence against women so that prosecutions can take place after the conflict has ended. Moreover, international relief workers should also work to build capacity of local health personnel to meet women's health needs throughout the transition period. PMID:12295772

  7. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  8. Peace Education, Conflict Resolution, and Outcomes of Instruction. Peace Education Miniprints No. 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden

    An interview with Linden Nelson presents his views on peace education and conflict resolution. Nelson, a professor of Psychology at California Polytechnic State University, has a long term interest in research on cooperation, competition, and conflict resolution and in the promotion of instruction about conflict and peace. Nelson answers 13…

  9. Associations between Social Understanding, Sibling Relationship Quality, and Siblings' Conflict Strategies and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated…

  10. Hassan v United Kingdom: The Interaction of Human Rights Law and International Humanitarian Law with regard to the Deprivation of Liberty in Armed Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric De Koker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In 'Hassan' v 'United Kingdom', the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights reviewed the deprivation of liberty of a young male by British armed forces during the phase of active hostilities in Iraq, which had raised issues relating to extraterritoriality, the right to liberty and security in times of armed conflict and the relationship between international humanitarian law (IHL and human rights law (HRL.1 In its judgment of 16 September 2014, the Court ruled that by reason of the co-existence of the safeguards provided by IHL and by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR in time of armed conflict, the grounds of permitted deprivation of liberty found in both bodies of law should, as far as possible, be accommodated and applied concomitantly. The greatest merit of the judgment is that for the first time it explicitly offered its view on the interaction between IHL and HRL and did not rely on the lex specialis principle, the traditional but flawed method for explaining the relationship between these spheres of law. However, the judgment is also a missed opportunity as the Court limited its analysis to the case at hand and provided limited guidance for the future, leaving a number of questions unaddressed.

  11. 美军联合电子战消除频率冲突方式%Method to Eliminate Electronic Warfare Electromagnetic Frequencies Conflicts by US Armed Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈邓安; 丛中旖; 吴杰

    2012-01-01

    为在作战、通信和情报活动中协调地使用电磁频谱,对美军联合电子战消除频率冲突的方式进行研究.研究美军联合电子战消除频率冲突的程序和内容,介绍美军在联合电子战中分析频率冲突的2种方式,并分析美军联合部队各相关部门的职责.该研究可为提升我军电子战水平提供参考.%Under battle, communication and intelligence activity, in order to make good use of the electromagnetic spectrum, research the method to eliminate the electromagnetic frequencies conflicts by US armed force. Study the procedure of the US armed force dealing with electromagnetic frequencies conflicts, introduce the methods to analysis electromagnetic frequencies conflicts, and analysis the responsibility of the relevant departments, which can provides active reference for the coordination in the joint operations.

  12. Enhancing resilience, empowerment, and conflict management among baccalaureate students: outcomes of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Eula W; Rauschhuber, Maureen L; Cook, Jennifer D; Norgan, Gary H; Canchola, Leticia; Richardson, Cynthia; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2014-01-01

    To manage interpersonal conflict, nursing students need evidence-based interventions to strengthen stress resiliency, psychological empowerment, and conflict management skills. A pilot 1-group, pre-post-design, 2-semester intervention used simulated experiences to enhance these skills with 60 undergraduate nursing students. Findings suggest that integration of conflict resolution skills throughout the curriculum, with repeated opportunities to practice using a variety of styles of conflict management in relation to situational factors, may be beneficial to prepare students for the challenges of today's healthcare environment. PMID:24535184

  13. Expanding the TRI Network for Doctoral Researchers in the Fields of Terrorism, Political Violence and Armed Conflict to the United States of America and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2011, the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI announced the creation of a post-graduate terrorism research network in the United Kingdom. The idea was to compile a list of post-graduates conducting research in the UK in the overlapping fields of terrorism, political violence, and armed conflict. While much research is conducted in these three overlapping fields, those involved in research are often unsure what is going on outside their own university department. They also wonder how their own work relates to current research developments elsewhere. To address these concerns, TRI has been inviting UK researchers to complete a profile form

  14. Associations between Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Armed Conflict, and Probable PTSD among Women in Rural Côte d’Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Jhumka Gupta; Falb, Kathryn L.; Hannah Carliner; Mazeda Hossain; Denise Kpebo; Jeannie Annan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Objectives were to assess associations between intimate partner violence (IPV), violence during armed conflict (i.e. crisis violence), and probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS Using a sample of 950 women in rural Côte d'Ivoire, logistic generalized estimating equations assessed associations between IPV and crisis violence exposures with past-week probable PTSD. RESULTS Over one in 5 (23.4%) women reported past-year IPV, and over one in 4 women (26.5%) r...

  15. Interventions for Children Affected by Armed Conflict: a Systematic Review of Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordans, Mark J D; Pigott, Hugo; Tol, Wietse A

    2016-01-01

    Over one billion children under the age of 18 live in countries affected by armed conflict. This systematic review replicates an earlier study, aiming to provide a comprehensive update of the most current developments in interventions for children affected by armed conflict. For the period 2009-2015, a total of 1538 records were collected from PubMed, PsycINFO, and PILOTS. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and the included interventions involve data from 4858 children. Although the number of publications and level of evidence has improved since the previous review, there is still a general lack of rigor and clarity in study design and reported results. Overall, interventions appeared to show promising results demonstrating mostly moderate effect sizes on mental health and psychosocial well-being. However, these positive intervention benefits are often limited to specific subgroups. There is a need for increased diversification in research focus, with more attention to interventions that focus at strengthening community and family support, and to young children, and improvements in targeting and conceptualizing of interventions. PMID:26769198

  16. A decade of an HIV workplace programme in armed conflict zones; a social responsibility response of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mortier, Stéphane; Mukangu, Silas; Sagna, Charles; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Aebischer Perone, Sigiriya

    2016-01-01

    The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) works in fragile States and in armed conflict zones. Some of them are affected by the HIV pandemic. Within the framework of its social responsibility programme concerning HIV affecting its staff members, the organization has implemented an HIV workplace programme since 2004. We carried out a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Data collected were initially essentially qualitative and process-oriented, but were complemented over the years by data on annual voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) uptake and on direct annual costs covering awareness, testing and antiretroviral therapy. The number of people covered by the programme grew from none in 2003 to 4,438 in 2015, with an increase in annual VCT uptake over the years increasing from 376 persons (14 %) in 2007 to 2,663 in 2015 (60 %). Over the years, the services were expanded from awareness raising to bringing VCT to the workplace, as well as offering testing and health coverage of other conditions and innovative approaches to facing challenges linked to situations of violence. Within its social responsibility framework, the ICRC has shown the importance and feasibility of a workplace HIV programme in conflict zones. A sustainable workplace programme in these conflict settings requires constant adaptation, with regular follow-up given the relatively high turnover of staff, and ensuring sustainable stocks of condoms and antiretroviral drugs. PMID:27247611

  17. 美军联合电子战消除频率冲突研究%Research on Electromagnetic Frequencies Conflicts for US Armed Force Electronic Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈邓安; 李冬; 吴杰

    2011-01-01

    Under the complicated electromagnetic environment, in view of the topic about dealing with the electromagnetic frequencies conflicts, this article expatiate the procedure of the US armed force dealing with electromagnetic frequencies conflicts and the responsibility of the relevant departments, and the methods of dealing with electromagnetic frequencies conflicts, and provides active reference for the coordination in the joint operations.%针对电子战中的频率冲突问题,研究了美军联合电子战消除频率冲突的程序和内容,系统阐述了美军联合部队各相关部门的职责,分析了美军在联合电子战中消除电子战频率冲突的方式,为我军在未来联合作战中解决电磁频率冲突的相关问题提供参考。

  18. A decade of an HIV workplace programme in armed conflict zones; a social responsibility response of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mortier, Stéphane; Mukangu, Silas; Sagna, Charles; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Aebischer Perone, Sigiriya

    2016-01-01

    The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) works in fragile States and in armed conflict zones. Some of them are affected by the HIV pandemic. Within the framework of its social responsibility programme concerning HIV affecting its staff members, the organization has implemented an HIV workplace programme since 2004. We carried out a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Data collected were initially essentially qualitative and process-oriented, but were complemented over the years by data on annual voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) uptake and on direct annual costs covering awareness, testing and antiretroviral therapy. The number of people covered by the programme grew from none in 2003 to 4,438 in 2015, with an increase in annual VCT uptake over the years increasing from 376 persons (14 %) in 2007 to 2,663 in 2015 (60 %). Over the years, the services were expanded from awareness raising to bringing VCT to the workplace, as well as offering testing and health coverage of other conditions and innovative approaches to facing challenges linked to situations of violence. Within its social responsibility framework, the ICRC has shown the importance and feasibility of a workplace HIV programme in conflict zones. A sustainable workplace programme in these conflict settings requires constant adaptation, with regular follow-up given the relatively high turnover of staff, and ensuring sustainable stocks of condoms and antiretroviral drugs.

  19. Does child gender moderate the relationship between interparental conflict and child outcomes? Findings from the Danish Longitudinal Study of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Baviskar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that child gender moderates the relationship between interparental conflict (IPC, conceptualized as a normative phenomenon, and child outcomes was evaluated using Danish mother data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC, which follows a nationally representative sample of children born in September-October 1995. IPC was assessed at age seven using a five-item scale measuring frequency of quarrels between parents on topics common to daily family life. Child outcomes were evaluated at age eleven using three indicators of internalizing (emotional problems, somatic symptoms, psychological symptoms and two indicators of externalizing symptoms (conduct problems and hyperactivity. OLS regression analyses indicated, overall, that the longitudinal association between IPC and the chosen outcomes was weak and child gender weakly moderated the association between IPC and child outcomes. Specifically, gender differences were limited only to conduct problems after controlling for the child’s psycho-social adjustment and health characteristics, mother’s depressive symptoms and disciplinary behaviour and parents’ socio-economic status at age 7. Furthermore, contrary to expectations derived from the male vulnerability and differential reactivity models, the IPC-conduct problems association was stronger among girls than among boys. In general, IPC predicted a number of outcomes among girls but did not predict any among boys. These findings suggest that it is important in both academic and professional work to consider that the impact of IPC on boys and girls may vary depending on the nature of the conflict and the type of families affected by it. Furthermore, while IPC may not have a direct impact over time, its effects may continue to be felt through other elements of the family system, such as the parent-child relationship.

  20. Work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Tori L; Hammer, Leslie B; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Moen, Phyllis; Lilienthal, Richard; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-04-01

    Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work-family interface and sleep. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a 1 week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work-family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work-family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work-family interface as a means for improving sleep health.

  1. Work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Tori L; Hammer, Leslie B; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Moen, Phyllis; Lilienthal, Richard; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-04-01

    Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work-family interface and sleep. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a 1 week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work-family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work-family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work-family interface as a means for improving sleep health. PMID:24730425

  2. Continuity and change in the dynamics of armed conflict after the fall of the USSR. New wars and war against terrorism: two decades of transnational violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Mantilla

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to approach to a characterization of the major transformations in armed conflicts that have been occurring after the fall of the Soviet Union (USSR and the positioning of the United States as the sole superpower. These changes show the need to give new meaning to what we now understand as war. They also monopolize the last twenty years of international violence, which can be analyzed from a double causal perspective, from which historical breaks are recognized as those in 1991 and 2001, since when an acceleration seemed to have started in the logical mutation that war exercise came to acquire over the last decade of the twentieth century.

  3. The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial lipid lowering arm: extended observations 2 years after trial closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Poulter, Neil R; Dahlof, Bjorn;

    2008-01-01

    Aims To determine the cardiovascular benefits in those originally assigned atorvastatin in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-2.2 years after closure of the lipid-lowering arm of the trial (ASCOT-LLA). Methods and results The Blood Pressure Lowering Arm of the ASCOT trial (ASCOT...... mortality, all cause mortality, development of chronic stable angina, heart failure, and peripheral arterial disease. By the end of ASCOT-LLA, there was a 36% relative risk reduction in primary events (n = 254) in favour of atorvastatin [hazard ratio (HR) 0.64, 95% CI: 0.50-0.83, P = 0.0005]. At the end...... essentially unchanged and in the case of all cause mortality, the risk reduction of 15% now achieved borderline statistical significance (P = 0.02). Conclusion Carry-over benefits from those originally assigned atorvastatin but no longer taking the drug may account for unchanged relative risk reductions...

  4. Collective action, political identites and armed conflict: the ethnization of a black community in the norte of the Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jimena López León

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the production process of nonviolent collective action in a Afro-Colombian community in response to the social, political, environmental, labor conflicts that have jeopardized their stay in the territory. The artvile presents elements of analysis of ethnographic work conducted by the author in 2012 and 2013 in the municipality of Santander de Quilichao are presented. The theoretical development of the paper takes the concept proposed by Elisabeth Wood on “social processes of the Civil War” (2010 to establish correspondences between social dynamics generated by conflict –increased since 2008 in the region– and processes of collective action and identity agency of Afro-Colombians. Some of these conflicts are territorial tensions between different social actors in the processes of legalization and expansion of ethnic territories, mining, the process of Land Consolidation; and the strengthening of interethnic organizational alliances, and organizational process of black communities in the area. Under these conditions, the narratives of “ancestral”, “being black” and “autonomy” have become guiding axes of collective action that legitimizes the territorial presence of the study community and its demand in the access to rights such as collective ownership and consultation.

  5. Risk for family rejection and associated mental health outcomes among conflict-affected adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Mullany, Luke C; Murhula, Clovis Mitima; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikengi; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Ntwali, Eric Mpanano; Glass, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Stigma due to sexual violence includes family rejection, a complex outcome including economic, behavioral, and physical components. We explored the relationship among conflict-related trauma, family rejection, and mental health in adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, who participate in a livestock-based microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Exposure to multiple and different types of conflict-related trauma, including sexual assault, was associated with increased likelihood of family rejection, which in turn was associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Design of appropriate and effective interventions will require understanding family relationships and exposure to different types of trauma in postconflict environments. PMID:24660941

  6. Armed conflict, homonegativity and forced internal displacement: implications for HIV among Colombian gay, bisexual and transgender individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Reisen, Carol A; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Colombia has endured six decades of civil unrest, population displacement and violence. We examined the relationships between contextual conditions, displacement and HIV among gay, bisexual and transgender individuals in Bogotá, Colombia. A total of 19 key informants provided information about internal displacement of sexual minorities. Life-history interviews were conducted with 42 participants aged 18 to 48 years and included questions about displacement experiences, sexual behaviour, life prior to displacement and participants' economic and social situation in Bogotá. The interplay of a variety of factors - including internal conflict and violence, homonegativity and 'social cleansing', gender and sexual identity and poverty - strongly shaped the varied experiences of displacement. Migration, sexual violence, exchange sex and low rates of HIV testing were risk factors that increased vulnerability for HIV in this displaced sample. Although displacement and HIV in Colombia are major problems, both are understudied. PMID:23586420

  7. 2013年西方武装冲突法前沿研究趋势述评%Comments on the Cutting-edge Research of Western Armed Conflict Law in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐奇; 崔森; 章成

    2015-01-01

    伴随日益加深的全球化进程,武装冲突的表现形式更为多样化,武装冲突法在继续保持传统特点的同时,更侧重于寻求新形势下的应对之策。武装冲突法的许多问题,都存在着广泛的争议和不确定性,西方武装冲突法学者对此开展了深入的讨论和分析,并就完善武装冲突法的执行和适用提出可行性建议。在收集西方武装冲突法最新研究成果的基础上,经过认真地选择和分析,从宏观问题、热点问题、执行适用问题等方面对其最新进展进行梳理并做评述,为新形势下国内武装冲突法学的研究提供借鉴。%With the deepening progress of globalization,the forms of armed conflicts are becoming more diverse.In addition,the Law of Armed Conflict still maintains its traditional characteristics as well as laying particular emphasis on seeking potential solutions to deal with the currently new circumstances.Many problems in the Law of Armed Conflict are extensively controversial and uncertain.Western Scholars in the Law of Armed Conflict has launched a series of thorough discussion and analysis,and put forward feasible proposals to promote the implementation and application of the Law of Armed Conflict.This article collects the up-to-date research achievements in the Law of Armed Conflict made by Western scholars.Furthermore, through careful selection and analysis,it will review the recent developments in this field from the perspective of macro problems,hot issues,implementation and application,then make detailed comments about these issues above,in order to providing significant references for the domestic studies in the future.

  8. Annual Research Review: Resilience and Mental Health in Children and Adolescents Living in Areas of Armed Conflict--A Systematic Review of Findings in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A.; Song, Suzan; Jordans, Mark J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers focused on mental health of conflict-affected children are increasingly interested in the concept of resilience. Knowledge on resilience may assist in developing interventions aimed at improving positive outcomes or reducing negative outcomes, termed promotive or protective interventions. Methods: We performed a systematic…

  9. Complejidad, conflicto armado y vulnerabilidad de niños y niñas desplazados en colombia (complexity, armed conflict, and vulnerability of displaced children in colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar una reflexión acerca de la vulnerabilidad de los niños y niñas víctimas del conflicto armado en Colombia. Para ello se recurriro al principio de auto-eco-organización y de Bucle inter-retroactivo. La violencia es un fenómeno complejo de múltiples interacciones, de características no-lineales y tendencia auto-eo-organizativa que afecta la noción de sujeto y altera el modo como los niños y niñas interpretan el mundo y sus interacciones. ABSTRACT: This paper aims to carry out a reflection on the vulnerability of children, who are victims of the armed conflict in Colombia. This was used at the beginning of the self-eco-organization and the inter-retroactive loop. Violence is a complex phenomenon of multiple interactions, non-linear features, and a self-ecoorganizational tendency, which affects the notion of subject and alters the way that children interpret the world and their interactions.

  10. Representación de los actores armados en conflicto en la prensa colombiana Representation of the authors of the armed conflict in Colombian press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEYLA GRACIELA PARDO ABRIL

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, la reflexión sobre la responsabilidad social de los medios es fundamental para comprender su papel dentro de la construcción de la realidad y, en consecuencia, se hace necesario desentrañar sus significados. En esta dirección, el artículo presenta los resultados parciales de dos investigaciones que han permitido una primera reflexión sobre las representaciones de los actores armados del conflicto colombiano en cuatro periódicos. Los resultados del análisis crítico del discurso indican que existen diversas formas de nominación de los distintos actores sociales que están asociadas con la construcción de sus identidades colectivas.Currently, there is a fundamental reflection on the social responsibility of the media in order to understand their role in the process of reality construction, and as a consequence it is necessary to disentangle its significations. From this viewpoint, the author of the article presents the partial results of the investigations which have made it possible to venture a first reflection on the representation of the armed authors of the Colombian conflict in four newspapers. The results of the critical analysis of the discourse show that there are diverse forms of nominal references to the different social authors, regarding the construction of their collective identities.

  11. CONSTRUCTIVE CONFLICT IN TEAMWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Brsec Rolih

    2013-01-01

    Conflict is a necessary part of teamwork. Without it, team synergy and creativity cannot be maximized. In fact, there would be no advantage to working together at all. Conflict can have both positive and negative outcomes. Negative outcomes from conflict that has not been properly managed can be very disruptive to teaming activities and possibly quite devastating to individual team members. The three most important principles behind the realization of the benefits of conflict are open communi...

  12. The Dirty War Index: A Public Health and Human Rights Tool for Examining and Monitoring Armed Conflict Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2009-01-01

    This month's Editorial discusses the unconscionable use of rape as a weapon of war and calls for more pressure to be put on international authorities to take concerted action and to make protection from sexual violence a central part of peacekeeping efforts.

  13. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    The Arabic term al-Nakba literally means the catastrophe and is used in Palestinian national discourse to designate the outcome of the Arab-Israeli war of 1948, when the state of Israel was declared and more than 700,000 Palestinians became stateless. Among Palestinians in Denmark, though, the co...... off what is at hand within a specific milieu at a given time, such as contemporary conflicts, artefacts and people. It is this plasticity that enables the conflict to be recreated anew and to become meaningful in new settings and at different times....

  14. Always going somewhere, never being anywhere: Exploring associations among business travel, work-family conflict, the emotional exhausten component of burnout, and health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Maria Therese

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current thesis was to gain increased knowledge with regard to how business travel associates with conflict between employees’ work and family life, and how these factors again relate to the emotional exhaustion component of burnout and health outcomes. The Job-Demand Resources model and Conservation of Resources Theory were applied as theoretical frameworks. The studies in this thesis were conducted in a large Norwegian oil and gas company. Measurement relate...

  15. The Nexus of Armed Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2010-01-01

    politologiske definitioner af krig. Det andet aspekt vedrører afgrænsningsproblematikken (issue of delineation), dvs. sondringen mellem anvendelsen af den humanitære folkeret som lex specialis og anvendelsen af de internationale menneskerettigheder som lex generalis under væbnet konflikt. Denne problematik har...... kravet om humanitet som er tilpasset til krigens logik. Denne funktion og balance spiller en afgørende rolle for opretholdelsen af orden i det internationale samfund, selv under væbnet konflikt. For det andet, adskiller konstruktionen af de normative strukturer i den humanitære folkeret og de...

  16. [Epidemiologic profile of the population displaced by the internal armed conflict of the country in a neighborhood of Cartagena, Colombia, 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Diana Carolina; Izquierdo, Vilma Fabiola; Mantilla, Leonardo; Jara, Jorge; Velandia, Martha

    2002-12-01

    Colombia faces internal displacement as a consequence of internal armed conflict. From 1985 to the present, it is estimated that 1,500,000 people have been displaced. A transversal descriptive study aimed at characterizing the health situation of this highly vulnerable and continually growing population was carried out in Cartagena between September and December, 2000. The sample size was calculated to meet a 2% precision, 40% of maximum expected prevalence, design effect of 2 and 15% of information loss, total sample size 1.600 home's interviews. Single-stage sampling with replacement was done by clusters. To socioeconomic, sanitary conditions, morbidity and mental health variables was done univariate analysis, determining frequencies, central trend and dispersion, as well as a bivariate analysis to determine X2 or Fisher exact test, p values and stratified analysis. The study found severe deterioration in socioeconomic conditions, high exposure to violence (80% was exposed to violence before displacement and murder cause 60% of deads in teenagers and adults after displacement but even children under 4 years-old was affected by this phenomenon), family disintegration, bad sanitary conditions, high prevalence of tracing diseases in all ages (80% of under 5 years-old had respiratory symptoms, 30% diarrhoea and 32% purulent lesions in skin), school desertion (20% children between 5 and 11 years and 16% teenagers), late schooling, poor performance at school, high proportion of working children (4% children between 5 and 11 years and 20% teenagers), low affiliation to social security systems (only 20% under 5 years-old children and 50% adults), low coverage and access to health services, among many other factors whose interaction affects this population's physical and mental health. We found that is difficult to make an early detection of internally displaced populations and thus provide adequate health care when such displacements are recent or involve individual

  17. [Epidemiologic profile of the population displaced by the internal armed conflict of the country in a neighborhood of Cartagena, Colombia, 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Diana Carolina; Izquierdo, Vilma Fabiola; Mantilla, Leonardo; Jara, Jorge; Velandia, Martha

    2002-12-01

    Colombia faces internal displacement as a consequence of internal armed conflict. From 1985 to the present, it is estimated that 1,500,000 people have been displaced. A transversal descriptive study aimed at characterizing the health situation of this highly vulnerable and continually growing population was carried out in Cartagena between September and December, 2000. The sample size was calculated to meet a 2% precision, 40% of maximum expected prevalence, design effect of 2 and 15% of information loss, total sample size 1.600 home's interviews. Single-stage sampling with replacement was done by clusters. To socioeconomic, sanitary conditions, morbidity and mental health variables was done univariate analysis, determining frequencies, central trend and dispersion, as well as a bivariate analysis to determine X2 or Fisher exact test, p values and stratified analysis. The study found severe deterioration in socioeconomic conditions, high exposure to violence (80% was exposed to violence before displacement and murder cause 60% of deads in teenagers and adults after displacement but even children under 4 years-old was affected by this phenomenon), family disintegration, bad sanitary conditions, high prevalence of tracing diseases in all ages (80% of under 5 years-old had respiratory symptoms, 30% diarrhoea and 32% purulent lesions in skin), school desertion (20% children between 5 and 11 years and 16% teenagers), late schooling, poor performance at school, high proportion of working children (4% children between 5 and 11 years and 20% teenagers), low affiliation to social security systems (only 20% under 5 years-old children and 50% adults), low coverage and access to health services, among many other factors whose interaction affects this population's physical and mental health. We found that is difficult to make an early detection of internally displaced populations and thus provide adequate health care when such displacements are recent or involve individual

  18. 双边投资条约在武装冲突情况下的适用问题研究%The Applicability of Bilateral Investment Treaties in Situations of Armed Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张膑心

    2013-01-01

    利比亚冲突使得武装冲突中保护投资的问题受到了普遍关注。本文讨论的是该问题的一个面向,即双边投资条约(以下简称“BITs”)在武装冲突情况下是否仍然适用。本文首先讨论了BITs中与武装冲突相关的常见条款,并分析包含这些条款的BITs在武装冲突中的适用性。本文继而讨论了如何根据条约法的一般规则判断不包含此类条款的BITs的适用性。最后,本文分析了在反政府武装成功夺取政权的情况下BITs的效力问题以及违约行为的责任问题。%The Libya conflict raised the issue of protection of investment in situations of armed conflict, of which the applicability of bilateral investment trea-ties ( BITs) is no doubt a very important dimension.This article firstly discusses common clauses in BITs that are related to armed conflict, and analyses the appli-cability of BITs that contains such clauses.It then moves to examine the applica-bility of BITs without such clauses, according to the general rules of the law of treaties.Final y, the article examines the applicability of BITs and the responsibili-ty for breaches when an anti-governmental armed group achieves final success and establishes a new government.

  19. Implementing DDR in Settings of Ongoing Conflict: The Organization and Fragmentation of Armed Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Richards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is common for armed groups to splinter (or “fragment” during contexts of multi-party civil war, current guidance on Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR does not address the challenges that arise when recalcitrant fighters, unwilling to report to DDR, break ranks and form new armed groups. This Practice Note addresses this issue, drawing lessons from the multi-party context of the DRC and from the experiences of former members of three armed groups: the Rally for Congolese Democracy-Goma (RCD-Goma, the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP, and the DRC national army (FARDC. While the findings indicate that the fragmentation of armed groups may encourage desertion and subsequent participation in DDR, they also show that active armed groups may monitor DDR programs and track those who demobilize. Remobilization may follow, either as active armed groups target ex-combatants for forced re-recruitment or as ex-combatants remobilize in armed groups of their own choice. Given these dynamics, practitioners in settings of partial peace may find it useful to consider non-traditional methods of DDR such as the use of mobile patrols and mobile disarmament units. The temporary relocation of ex-combatants to safe areas free from armed groups, or to protected transitional assistance camps, may also help to minimize remobilization during the reintegration phase.

  20. Getting There from Here: Research on the Effects of Work-Family Initiatives on Work-Family Conflict and Business Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Erin L; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie B; Durham, Mary; Bray, Jeremy; Chermack, Kelly; Murphy, Lauren A; Kaskubar, Dan

    2008-08-01

    Many employing organizations have adopted work-family policies, programs, and benefits. Yet managers in employing organizations simply do not know what organizational initiatives actually reduce work-family conflict and how these changes are likely to impact employees and the organization. We examine scholarship that addresses two broad questions: first, do work-family initiatives reduce employees' work-family conflict and/or improve work-family enrichment? Second, does reduced work-family conflict improve employees' work outcomes and, especially, business outcomes at the organizational level? We review over 150 peer-reviewed studies from a number of disciplines in order to summarize this rich literature and identify promising avenues for research and conceptualization. We propose a research agenda based on four primary conclusions: the need for more multi-level research, the necessity of an interdisciplinary approach, the benefits of longitudinal studies that employ quasi-experimental or experimental designs and the challenges of translating research into practice in effective ways.

  1. Impact of conflict in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Touré

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Since independence, few African countries have beenspared violence and armed conflict. Two West Africanresearch networks recently organised an internationalcolloquium to assess the impact and develop linkagesbetween education, peace and democracy.

  2. Effectiveness of Functional Electrical Stimulation in Improving Clinical Outcomes in the Upper Arm following Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir K. Vafadar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Different therapeutic methods are being used to prevent or decrease long-term impairments of the upper arm in stroke patients. Functional electrical stimulation (FES is one of these methods, which aims to stimulate the nerves of the weakened muscles so that the resulting muscle contractions resemble those of a functional task. Objectives. The objective of this study was to review the evidence for the effect of FES on (1 shoulder subluxation, (2 pain, and (3 upper arm motor function in stroke patients, when added to conventional therapy. Methods. From the 727 retrieved articles, 10 (9 RCTs, 1 quasi-RCT were selected for final analysis and were rated based on the PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database scores and the Sackett’s levels of evidence. A meta-analysis was performed for all three considered outcomes. Results. The results of the meta-analyses showed a significant difference in shoulder subluxation in experimental groups compared to control groups, only if FES was applied early after stroke. No effects were found on pain or motor function outcomes. Conclusion. FES can be used to prevent or reduce shoulder subluxation early after stroke. However, it should not be used to reduce pain or improve upper arm motor function after stroke.

  3. Silahlı Örgütler Üzerinde Çatışma Yönetimi: Silah Bıraktırma, Tasfiye ve Bütünleştirme(Conflict Management on Armed Groups: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefer YILMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict is a phenomenon with an ever increasing importance which, almost all the organizations face with. Conflict management is the activity shaping this phenomenon in line with the organizational goals. Despite plentiful studies conducted on various organizational levels in the literature in our country in this management field, the number of studies conducted on the level of illegal armed organizations is scarcely any. Conflict management activities on this kind of organizations in the world for the last quarter century is conducted under the topic of “Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration” (DDR. A considerable amount of knowledge accumulation is formed throughout the world. In this study, for a successful conflict management regarding illegal armed organizations, some lessons to be taken from DDR programs conducted in the world are tried to be put forth. In this way, it is aimed both to fill a gap in the literature in our country and to shed light on the practices on this issue.

  4. Intergenerational cultural conflict, mental health, and educational outcomes among Asian and Latino/a Americans: Qualitative and meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, P Priscilla

    2015-03-01

    Among immigrant Asian and Latino groups, the contrast between collectivism in traditional heritage and individualism in the mainstream American cultures presents unique challenges for their family relationships. This systematic review was designed to answer 3 fundamental questions: to what extent do(es) (a) acculturation mismatch (AM) correlate with intergenerational cultural conflict (ICC); (b) ICC correlate with offspring's mental health and educational outcomes; and (c) demographic and study characteristics moderate these relationships. Sixty-one research reports were reviewed, with 68 independent study samples (N = 14,453; 41 and 27 Asian and Latino/a samples, respectively) subjected to 3 meta-analyses. AM positively correlated with ICC (r = .23), which in turn negatively correlated with offspring mental health (r = -.20) and educational outcomes (r = -.09). Findings provided support for acculturation gap-distress theory. While these effect size estimates were small, participant and methodological variables affected their magnitude. Contrary to findings on intergenerational conflict within mainstream non-immigrant families, the relationships among AM, ICC, and mental health were larger in young adult than adolescent groups within immigrant families. ICC significantly correlated with internalizing problems and adaptive functioning, but not externalizing problems. AM was more closely related to ICC among women and second-generation immigrant offspring. AM and ICC were more problematic among offspring who were low-risk and lived in less ethnically disperse regions, particularly when studied in cross-sectional studies. Effect sizes also differed significantly across measurement tools for the key constructs. Limitations to generalizability (few studies on educational outcomes, relative under-representation of Latino/a to Asian American samples), and implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  5. Intergenerational cultural conflict, mental health, and educational outcomes among Asian and Latino/a Americans: Qualitative and meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, P Priscilla

    2015-03-01

    Among immigrant Asian and Latino groups, the contrast between collectivism in traditional heritage and individualism in the mainstream American cultures presents unique challenges for their family relationships. This systematic review was designed to answer 3 fundamental questions: to what extent do(es) (a) acculturation mismatch (AM) correlate with intergenerational cultural conflict (ICC); (b) ICC correlate with offspring's mental health and educational outcomes; and (c) demographic and study characteristics moderate these relationships. Sixty-one research reports were reviewed, with 68 independent study samples (N = 14,453; 41 and 27 Asian and Latino/a samples, respectively) subjected to 3 meta-analyses. AM positively correlated with ICC (r = .23), which in turn negatively correlated with offspring mental health (r = -.20) and educational outcomes (r = -.09). Findings provided support for acculturation gap-distress theory. While these effect size estimates were small, participant and methodological variables affected their magnitude. Contrary to findings on intergenerational conflict within mainstream non-immigrant families, the relationships among AM, ICC, and mental health were larger in young adult than adolescent groups within immigrant families. ICC significantly correlated with internalizing problems and adaptive functioning, but not externalizing problems. AM was more closely related to ICC among women and second-generation immigrant offspring. AM and ICC were more problematic among offspring who were low-risk and lived in less ethnically disperse regions, particularly when studied in cross-sectional studies. Effect sizes also differed significantly across measurement tools for the key constructs. Limitations to generalizability (few studies on educational outcomes, relative under-representation of Latino/a to Asian American samples), and implications for intervention and future research are discussed. PMID:25528344

  6. De-Conflicting Canada’s Anti-Terrorism Legislation: Khawaja and the Ongoing Challenges of the ‘Armed Conflict’ Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K. Penny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of ‘terrorist activity’ is fundamental to Canada’s anti-terrorism legislation. Following the recent trial of Momin Khawaja before the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, it is clear that the ‘armed conflict’ exclusion – exempting wartime activities undertaken in accordance with international law – poses serious challenges to the coherence of this legislative regime, threatening the effectiveness of future domestic terrorism prosecutions. This article examines the ‘armed conflict’ exclusion and its judicial treatment in Khawaja, identifying key challenges and making specific recommendations to address them. Coupled with other issues arising from the ‘armed conflict’ exclusion, Khawaja serves to highlight a clear and pressing need for amendment of the statutory definition of ‘terrorist activity.’ La définition d’ « activité terroriste » est un élément fondamental de la législation canadienne contre le terrorisme. Suite au récent procès de Momin Khawaja devant la Cour supérieure de justice de l’Ontario, il est clair que l’exclusion « conflit armé » - qui fait exemption d’activités en temps de guerre entreprises conformément au droit international – présente des défis importants à la cohérence de ce régime législatif, menaçant l’efficacité de poursuites contre le terrorisme au Canada à l’avenir. Cet article examine l’exclusion « conflit armé » et le traitement juridique que l’on en fait dans Khawaja, identifiant des défis-clés et faisant des recommandations précises pour en traiter. En conjonction avec d’autres questions que soulève l’exclusion « conflit armé », Khawaja sert à mettre en évidence un besoin clair et pressant de modification à la définition statutaire d’ « activité terroriste ».

  7. (Re)constructions: armed conflicts, cultural heritage, (inter)national policies and local practices of memorialization in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Musi, Maja

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia collapsed into a set of wars dominated by aggressive nationalist ideologies, that crucially reinterpreted ‘history’ and ‘memory’ to recollect past sufferings and intergroup animosities and corroborate ethnic distinctiveness in essentialist terms. In the mixed area of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the conflict (1992-1995) entailed the use of systematic violence to eradicate and/or eliminate the ethnic “Other” from contested territories...

  8. Objectively-assessed outcome measures: a translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure applied to the Chedoke McMaster Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Sabine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardised translation and cross-cultural adaptation (TCCA procedures are vital to describe language translation, cultural adaptation, and to evaluate quality factors of transformed outcome measures. No TCCA procedure for objectively-assessed outcome (OAO measures exists. Furthermore, no official German version of the Canadian Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI is available. Methods An eight-step for TCCA procedure for OAO was developed (TCCA-OAO based on the existing TCCA procedure for patient-reported outcomes. The TCCA-OAO procedure was applied to develop a German version of the CAHAI (CAHAI-G. Inter-rater reliability of the CAHAI-G was determined through video rating of CAHAI-G. Validity evaluation of the CAHAI-G was assessed using the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA. All ratings were performed by trained, independent raters. In a cross-sectional study, patients were tested within 31 hours after the initial CAHAI-G scoring, for their motor function level using the subscales for arm and hand of the CMSA. Inpatients and outpatients of the occupational therapy department who experienced a cerebrovascular accident or an intracerebral haemorrhage were included. Results Performance of 23 patients (mean age 69.4, SD 12.9; six females; mean time since stroke onset: 1.5 years, SD 2.5 years have been assessed. A high inter-rater reliability was calculated with ICCs for 4 CAHAI-G versions (13, 9, 8, 7 items ranging between r = 0.96 and r = 0.99 (p Conclusions The TCCA-OAO procedure was validated regarding its feasibility and applicability for objectively-assessed outcome measures. The resulting German CAHAI can be used as a valid and reliable assessment for bilateral upper limb performance in ADL in patients after stroke.

  9. Narraciones de Cien Años de Soledad Acerca del Conflicto Armado y la Violencia Política en Colombia (Naratives of One Hundred Years of Solitude About the Armed Conflict and Political Violence in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Eduardo Umaña Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore the narrations of the conflict and political violence embedded in the novel One hundred years of solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. As one of the most important Colombian books of the last century, “One Hundred years of Solitude” evidences the magical narrative and imagination of the Caribbean as well as the reality of life, death, family, love, work, social conflicts and other aspects that are relevant for understanding and exploring the perceptions of justice of a certain society. After a brief recount of certain relevant descriptions of the novel, this essay proposes the analysis of these narrations focusing in the narrations of violence and of the Colombian armed conflict in the novel. El presente artículo explora y analiza las narraciones del conflicto y la violencia política en Colombia inmersas en Cien años de soledad de Gabriel García Márquez. Como uno de los más destacados libros colombianos del último siglo, esta novela propone una narración que se desliza en un vaivén de magia e imaginación, tanto como de realidad. Un vaivén de vida y muerte, que transita por la familia, el amor, el trabajo, los conflictos sociales y otros tantos ingredientes fundamentales para entender y explorar las percepciones de justicia de una cierta sociedad. Después de hacer un recuento breve de las narraciones del libro, a través del análisis de estos relatos, el presente trabajo reflexiona sobre diferentes aspectos de la realidad colombiana inmersos en la novela, concentrándose en las narraciones de violencia política y del conflicto armado en Colombia.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2526668

  10. The Bi-Directional Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Treatment Outcome in Treatment-Resistant Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon M.; Hilton, Robert; Porta, Giovanna; He, Jiayan; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent-child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Method: Depressed youth who had not responded to an adequate course of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were randomized to either a switch to another SSRI or venlafaxine, with or…

  11. Synthèse: 2015 Indice de la faim dans le monde: Conflict armés et le défi de la faim

    OpenAIRE

    von Grebmer, Klaus; Bernstein, Jill; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Towey, Olive; Sonntag, Andrea; Neubauer, Larissa; de Waal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    L’Indice de la faim dans le monde 2015 (GHI) – le dixième d’une parution annuelle – propose une mesure multidimensionnelle de la faim au niveau national, régional et mondial. Il démontre que le monde a progressé en matière de réduction de la faim depuis 2000, mais qu’il reste encore un long chemin à faire, avec des niveaux de faim « alarmants » ou « graves » dans encore 52 pays. La thématique du rapport de cette année est celle des conflits armés et de la faim. Si l’Histoire a montré que la f...

  12. 民族冲突研究的独特视角--《武器与民族冲突》介评%A Unique Perspective in the Study of Ethnic Conflict--A Review of Arms and Ethnic Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾强

    2004-01-01

    @@ 冷战结束以来,世界范围内民族冲突(ethnic conflict)的数量明显增多,已成为国际社会面对的一大突出问题,并对一些国家的政局稳定构成了严峻的挑战.同期,国际武器交易也呈现出显著的变化,从某种意义上讲进一步加剧了民族冲突的烈度.美国罗曼与利特菲尔德出版公司2001年出版由长期研究冲突管理及和平与冲突等问题的专家约翰·西斯林和弗雷德里克·皮尔逊所著的①一书,对读者了解当代国际武器交易与民族冲突之间的关系颇有裨益.

  13. Two Decades Later: The Resilience and Post-Traumatic Responses of Indigenous Quechua Girls and Adolescents in the Aftermath of the Peruvian Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana Barrios

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In comparison to other traumatic events, the impact of a childhood during war on resilience later in life has been seldom examined. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the long term outcomes of post-traumatic responses and resilience of a sample of adult Indigenous Quechua women, who were girls or adolescents during the…

  14. Handling Conflict in the Work Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of workplace conflict management examines erroneous assumptions inherent in traditional reaction patterns, considers key elements of planning for conflict prevention, and some workplace strategies to help minimize conflicts. Several approaches to conflict management, and their outcomes, are highlighted, and stages of the…

  15. Anger Management in Parent-Adolescent Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an outcome investigation of the role of anger management in parent-adolescent conflict. Eighteen parent-adolescent dyads were randomly assigned either to a conflict resolution group treatment or combined conflict management and conflict resolution group treatment. Findings suggest that the combination treatment group parents and teens…

  16. Democracy and International Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Vesperoni, Alberto; Wärneryd, Karl

    2016-01-01

    During the past two centuries, western nations have successively extended the voting franchise to citizens of lower income. We explain this process of democratization as a rational way for incumbent elites to wage war effectively on other nations, as in a strategic game of international conflict handing over military spending decisions to citizens who face a lower tax cost of arming may confer a strategic delegation advantage. We find supporting empirical evidence in case studies of franchise...

  17. Unfinished Business: Canada’s Contribution to Promoting Compliance with International Humanitarian Law Through the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict Agenda of the United Nations Security Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle A. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During its 1999-2000 term on the United Nations Security Council, Canada helped launch the Council’s “Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict” agenda. This aimed to reduce civilian war casualties through better respect for international humanitarian law [IHL]. This article reviews the agenda’s origins and evolution ten years on. The authors focus on Canada’s contributions in increasing the Council’s efforts to protect civilians, with three main assertions. First, Canada had a key role in creating and promoting the agenda, an important IHL initiative. Second, the agenda is well established in the Council’s work, but needs further effort to ensure greater impact in specific situations. Third, Canada could develop the agenda and improve respect for IHL if it joins the Security Council for the 2011-2012 term, picking up its “unfinished business” from its last Council term. Pendant son mandat de 1999-2000 au Conseil de Sécurité de l’ONU, le Canada a aidé à lancer le programme « La protection des civils dans les conflits armés » du Conseil. Le but était de réduire le nombre de victimes civiles de la guerre en faisant respecter davantage le droit international humanitaire [DIH]. Cet article passe en revue l’origine du programme et son évolution après dix années. Les auteurs portent leur attention sur les contributions du Canada pour augmenter les efforts du Conseil en vue de la protection des civils, en faisant trois affirmations principales. D’abord, le Canada a joué un rôle-clé dans la création et la promotion du programme, une initiative importante de DIH. Deuxièmement, le programme est bien établi au sein du travail du Conseil, mais nécessite des efforts additionnels afin d’assurer plus d’impact dans des situations particulières. Troisièmement, le Canada pourrait développer le programme et améliorer le respect du DIH s’il devient membre du Conseil de Sécurité pour 2011- 2012 lui permettant de

  18. 国外近期武装冲突法研究综述%The Recent Research of Foreign Armed Conflict Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2010-01-01

    近年来,国外关于武装冲突法的专著或论文都会提到现代武装冲突发生的一个巨大变化,即非对称战争(asymmetrical conflicts)问题.由于在非对称战争中,战争双方力量的不对等,从而使武装冲突法的中立原则、区分原则、比例原则等基本原则受到了极大的破坏和挑战,也使得许多无辜的人员受到伤害,就成为学界备加关注的问题.如何使冲突双方遵守武装冲突法基本原则,保护不参加战斗的无辜人员免受伤害,同样成为国外武装冲突法学界关注和探讨的主要问题.

  19. The long arm of mentoring: a counterfactual analysis of natural youth mentoring and employment outcomes in early careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Steve; Lambert, Joshua

    2014-12-01

    Young people often develop natural mentoring relationships with nonparental adults during adolescence and young adulthood. While much has been learned about the benefits of natural mentoring for more proximate outcomes such as mental health and education, relatively little is known about the causal impact of youth mentoring relationships on career opportunities. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) survey to explore the effects of different kinds of natural mentoring relationships on employment outcomes during the early career years (when workers are in their late twenties and early thirties). Whereas traditional methods of causal conditioning show a broad range of employment benefits from being mentored, results from counterfactual analysis using propensity score matching reveal that the benefits of mentoring are confined to intrinsic job rewards. The findings imply that mentors help steer youth toward intrinsically rewarding careers.

  20. 试析海战法面临的挑战及应对措施%On the challenge and countermeasure about the law of armed conflict on the sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于恩志

    2012-01-01

    TLaw is one of the significant factors influencing the war process. The thesis analyzes the challenges caused by factors such as military interest maximization, complex electromagnetic environ- ment and present ocean laws. On the basis of the analysis, this paper puts forward some corresponding countermeasures to provide legal insurance for the coming armed conflict on the sea, including taking part in the international legislation, battling lawfully, making use of escape clauses, applying the law flexibly and establishing military restricted areas on the sea.%法律是影响战争进程的重要因素之一。文中通过分析军事利益最大化、滞后性、复杂电磁环境、现代海洋法律制度等因素对海战法带来的挑战,提出了积极参与国际立法活动、守法作战、充分利用例外性条款、灵活运用海战法规则、建立海上军事禁区等应对措施,以求为未来海上作战行动提供法律借鉴。

  1. Illicit drugs in the midst of Colombia’s armed conflict and within it’s peace treaties: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Stella Baracaldo Méndez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colombia’s recent history has been marked by violence, mainly due to the fact that the country’s political and economic power is held in the hands of less than 20% of thepopulation, as well as the issues resulting from the presence of the “Lords of War” and their ties with drug-trafficking.Cocaine processing for export was a business promoted by United States citizens during the seventies and it represented the largest “illegal economic bonanza” experienced inthe country to date. However, this “white gold” can also be considered the “root cause of a long series of deep permanent conflicts embedded in the country’s social and political processes that one way or the other have managed to shake the foundations of our society as well as that of the institutional apparatus which governs it” (Camacho Guizado,1988. Drug trafficking has been very profitable for many –members of the guerrilla, paramilitary, mafia groups, U.S. mercenaries – but it’s also left behind a numerous trail ofvictims that never received any kind of compensation, as well as many an unpunished criminal.During 2015, Colombia has vigorously pursued signing a peace treaty after which illicit drugs will become a matter for the health authorities, and more than likely, a discussion concerning legalization.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 301-352

  2. Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonthep Nuttapong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%. These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%. A total of 18 patients (11.7% had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS. However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04, abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P P P Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future.

  3. Three-dimensional conformal arc radiotherapy using a C-arm linear accelerator with a computed tomography on-rail system for prostate cancer: clinical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the feasibility and treatment outcomes of image-guided three-dimensional conformal arc radiotherapy (3D-CART) using a C-arm linear accelerator with a computed tomography (CT) on-rail system for localized prostate cancer. Between 2006 and 2011, 282 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with in-room CT-guided 3D-CART. Biochemical failure was defined as a rise of at least 2.0 ng/ml beyond the nadir prostate-specific antigen level. Toxicity was scored according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. A total of 261 patients were analyzed retrospectively (median follow-up: 61.6 months). The median prescribed 3D-CART dose was 82 Gy (2 Gy/fraction, dose range: 78–86 Gy), and 193 of the patients additionally received hormonal therapy. The 5-year overall survival rate was 93.9 %. Among low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, 5-year rates of freedom from biochemical failure were 100, 91.5 and 90.3 %, respectively. Rates of grade 2–3 late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities were 2.3 and 11.4 %, respectively. No patient experienced late grade 4 or higher toxicity. In-room CT-guided 3D-CART was feasible and effective for localized prostate cancer. Treatment outcomes were comparable to those previously reported for intensity-modulated radiotherapy

  4. La participation des femmes dans le conflit interne armé au Pérou durant la période 1980-2000 The Participation of Women in Peru’s Internal Armed Conflict during the 1980-2000 Period La participación de las mujeres en el conflicto armado peruano durante 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Silva Santisteban

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1980 et 2000, le Pérou a vécu un conflit interne armé qui s’est soldé par un nombre de victimes sans précédent dans l’histoire de l’Amérique latine. Les protagonistes de la lutte armée furent aussi bien des collectifs subversifs (PCP-SL et MRTA que l’Armée et la Police ainsi que la population paysanne organisée en milices (rondes paysannes. Les conséquences furent évidemment dramatiques puisqu’en plus des nombreuses pertes humaines qu’il faut déplorer se combinait la tragique désagrégation du lien social. Les femmes qui participèrent directement ou indirectement au conflit, si elles ne sont pas aujourd’hui décédées, portent les stigmates des affrontements : cicatrices, viols, grossesses non désirées, stress post-traumatique. Il s’agit ici des victimes des deux camps, mais aussi de celles qui se sont converties en agent de la justice pour récupérer leurs proches, leurs époux et leurs fils, formant ainsi les premiers collectifs de revendication des droits de l’homme. Cependant, celles qui ont bénéficié de la reconnaissance médiatique sont sans nul doute celles qui ont perpétré les crimes : les femmes qui ont pris les armes comme militantes, combattantes ou comme membres des forces de l’ordre.Between 1980 and 2000, Peru experienced an internal armed conflict that resulted in victims in numbers unprecedented in the history of Latin America. The protagonists of the armed struggle included the subversive collectives (PCP-SL and MRTA, as much as the army, the police and the rural militias («ronde paysanne».  The consequences were dramatic in that the sheer human losses were compounded by a tragic unraveling of the social fabric. Women who participated directly or indirectly in the conflict – if they still live – bear the stigmata of their experience:  scars, rape, post-traumatic stress. Here, we consider the victims of both camps, but also those women who became justice agents making

  5. Does Conflict Help or Hinder Creativity in Teams? An Examination of Conflict’s Effects on Creative Processes and Creative Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Claus W. Langfred; Neta Moye

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between conflict and creativity-relevant intra-group processes over time. Morespecifically, we explore whether task and relationship conflict have effects on the extent to which teams engagein information exchange and creative problem solving. We test these relationships with multiple waves oflongitudinal data collected from 141 individuals across 35 project teams. We find that, replicated across multipleperiods of time, task conflict does not have an effect on eit...

  6. Science Education Policy for Emergency, Conflict, and Post-Conflict: An Analysis of Trends and Implications for the Science Education Program in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udongo, Betty Pacutho

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of armed conflicts on the development of education policy and particularly science education program in Uganda. Since independence from the British colonial rule, Uganda has experienced a series of armed conflicts, with the most devastating being the 21 years of conflict in Northern Uganda. The research study was…

  7. High-conflict divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J R

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Interparental conflict after divorce (defined as verbal and physical aggression, overt hostility, and distrust) and the primary parent's emotional distress are jointly predictive of more problematic parent-child relationships and greater child emotional and behavioral maladjustment. As a group, children of high-conflict divorce as defined above, especially boys, are two to four times more likely to be clinically disturbed in emotions and behavior compared with national norms. Court-ordered joint physical custody and frequent visitation arrangements in high-conflict divorce tend to be associated with poorer child outcomes, especially for girls. Types of intervention programs and social policy appropriate for these kinds of families are presented.

  8. A angústia dos corpos indóceis: prostituição e conflito armado na Colômbia contemporânea The anguish of indocile bodies: prostitution and the armed conflict in contemporary Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Nieto Olivar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das estratégias de controle usadas pelos grupos armados no marco da agudização do conflito na Colômbia é o controle e a "gerência" da prostituição (e da sexualidade em geral nos territórios de dominação. O que significa ser prostituta no contexto de controle armado masculino na Colômbia contemporânea? Quais as possibilidades da vivência dos direitos humanos nas mulheres trabalhadoras sexuais nesse contexto? Essas perguntas surgem da vivência próxima da história da Lady entre os anos 2003 e 2005, e levam, a partir do trabalho de campo realizado em 2007 no município de Puerto Berrío (Colômbia, a uma reconstrução etnográfica do significado da prostituição num contexto de dominação masculina paramilitar. O tráfico de mulheres apresenta-se como o lado feminino do recrutamento e, mesmo que seja relativamente voluntário, termina se configurando numa dinâmica de retenção-punição com altíssimos custos para a experiência feminina.One of the control strategies used by armed groups as the conflict worsens in Colombia is the control and "management" of prostitution (sexuality in general in the territories under domination. A sex industry, characterized by violence, fear, manipulation and restricted options, is produced in this situation. What does it means to be a prostitute in the context of armed control in contemporary Colombia? What possibilities do these female sex workers have to exercise their human rights in this context? These questions first arose through our close contact with Lady, "comadre" and friend, between 2003 and 2005. Subsequent field work was conducted in 2007 in Puerto Berrío (central Colombia, aiming at the ethnographic reconstruction of the meaning of prostitution within a paramilitary context of male domination in contemporary Colombia. The traffic of women is shown to be the female part of the recruitment; although the process may be considered relatively voluntary, the final configuration is

  9. Peter H.L.Chang and Historical Causes of the Armed Conflict Due to the Interests in the Railways with Harbin as Center in Northeast China%张学良与中东路事件的缘起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海晨; 胡玉海

    2009-01-01

    关于中东路权益的交涉,是伴随铁路修建开始的,到上世纪20年代初,中俄双方先后签订了、后,交涉中的矛盾并未因此而结束.张学良执掌东北军政后,为争取两协定赋予中方的权益,对苏采取了强硬的交涉手段,导致中东路事件的发生.中东路事件发生后,致使收回中东路权益的目标未能实现.客观分析,张学良收回中东路权益的初衷及强硬立场是正确的,但他对内外局势的错误判断,并接受蒋介石"武力接管"中东路的主张是错误的.从外交史上看,这一教训是深刻的.%The negotiation on China's interests in the railways with Harbin as the center in Northeast China had begun as early as they were about to construct. Although the Sino-Russia Treaty and Fengtian-Russia Treaty had been signed in the early 1920s, the conflicts were not settled through negotiation. After the whole Northeast China fell into Peter H. L. Chang's power including the military and politics, he took an intransigent attitude in negotiation to strive against the former USSR for the interests as stipulated in the two treaties. As a result, an armed conflict happened due to China's interests in those railways. However, Peter H. L. Chang had not attained his goal, i.e., the interests in those railways couldn't be retaken. In an objective view of the historical incident, his original intention and unyielding standpoint of retaking the interests in those railways were regarded as positive, but his judgment about the domestic and international political situation at that time were wrong, especially his wrong acceptance of Chiang Kai Shek's proposition that all those railways should be taken over through military force. It was really a bitter experience in the perspective of diplomatic history.

  10. Optimizing performance by stimulating conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van de Vliert; C.K.W. de Dreu

    1994-01-01

    To enhance the quality of group decision making, to promote affective acceptance of decisions by all participants involved, or to increase joint outcomes, a principal party or a third party may stimulate social conflict. We argue that when conflict focuses on identity issues, when tension level is h

  11. Optimizing performance by conflict stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; De Dreu, C K W

    1994-01-01

    To enhance the quality of group decision making, to promote affective acceptance of decisions by all participants involved, or to increase joint outcomes, a principal party or a third party may stimulate social conflict. We argue that when conflict focuses on identity issues, when tension level is h

  12. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants....... In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain...

  13. Efeitos do conflito armado sobre a vida e a saúde na Colômbia The effects of the armed conflict on the life and health in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Franco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata das conseqüências do conflito armado interno (CAI que a Colômbia tem vivido durante as últimas quatro décadas. Começa identificando o contexto e o momento atual do conflito. A seguir, são descritas algumas das formas, expressões e conseqüências do conflito armado interno, com maior impacto sobre a vida, a qualidade de vida, a saúde e as doenças da população e sobre os serviços de saúde no país. Especial ênfase é dada às altas taxas de mortalidade por homicídio, ao fenômeno do deslocamento forçado pela violência, aos seqüestros e às minas antipessoais. Entre os grupos populacionais mais afetados, destacam-se homens jovens, mulheres, crianças e as minorias étnicas indígenas e afrodescendentes. Esta análise também se refere ao sério problema das contínuas infrações da Lei Internacional Humanitária e aos ataques contra a Missão Médica, assim como às conseqüências negativas do conflito sobre a prestação de serviços de saúde. Para concluir, são feitos alguns comentários gerais sobre a situação descrita e dadas algumas sugestões para o estudo do problema e possíveis ações partindo do setor saúde.This article is an approach to the consequences of the internal armed conflict that Colombia has lived during the last four decades. It starts with the identification of the conflict's context and its current characteristics. It then focuses on the different manifestations and consequences of the conflict and on their deep impact on the life, quality of life, health,disease, and health services of the population. In special we refer to the high homicide rates, forced internal displacement, kidnapping and the use of antipersonnel mines. Among the most affected groups are young men, women, children, and ethnic minorities such as indigenous and afro-american people. This analysis also refers to the frequent violations of International Human Rights and to the negative impact of violence

  14. The effects of the armed conflict on the life and health in Colombia Os efeitos do conflito armado sobre a vida e a saúde na Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Franco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an approach to the consequences of the internal armed conflict that Colombia has lived during the last four decades. It starts with the identification of the conflict's context and its current characteristics. It then focuses on the different manifestations and consequences of the conflict and on their deep impact on the life, quality of life, health, disease, and health services of the population. In special we refer to the high homicide rates, forced internal displacement, kidnapping and the use of antipersonnel mines. Among the most affected groups are young men, women, children, and ethnic minorities such as indigenous and afro-american people. This analysis also refers to the frequent violations of International Humanitarian Law and to the negative impact of violence on the provision of health services. Finally, general conclusions are drawn, and alternatives for studies on the problem and for possible solutions from the standpoint of the health sector are proposed.O presente trabalho trata das conseqüências do conflito armado interno (CAI que a Colômbia tem vivido durante as últimas quatro décadas. Começa identificando o contexto e o momento atual do conflito. A seguir, são descritas algumas das formas, expressões e conseqüências do conflito armado interno com maior impacto sobre a vida, a qualidade de vida, a saúde e as doenças da população, e sobre os serviços de saúde no país. Especial ênfase é dada às altas taxas de mortalidade por homicídio, ao fenômeno do deslocamento forçado pela violência, aos seqüestros e às minas antipessoais. Entre os grupos populacionais mais afetados, destacam-se homens jovens, mulheres, crianças e as minorias étnicas indígenas e afrodescendentes. Esta análise também se refere ao sério problema das contínuas infrações da Lei Humanitária Internacional e aos ataques contra a Missão Médica, assim como às conseqüências negativas do conflito sobre a presta

  15. Sexual conflict in Gerris gillettei (Insecta: Hemiptera): intraspecific intersexual correlated morphology and experimental assessment of behaviour and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, M-C; Turgeon, J

    2011-07-01

    The contemporary dynamics of sexually antagonistic coevolution caused by sexual conflicts have seldom been investigated at the intraspecific level. We characterized natural populations of Gerris gillettei and documented significant intersexual correlations for morphological traits previously related to sexual conflict in water striders. These results strongly indicate that sexually antagonistic coevolution contributed to population differentiation and resulted in different balances of armaments between the sexes within natural populations of this species. No-choice mating experiments further revealed that both male and male-female relative arms levels influence copulation duration. However, there were no asymmetries in reproductive behaviour and fitness between sympatric and allopatric mating pairs, suggesting that differentiation by sexual conflict was not sufficient to influence the outcome of mating interactions. Altogether, these results question the relative importance of female connexival spines vs. genitalia traits in mediating pre- and post-copulatory conflict in Gerris.

  16. Integrated copy number and expression analysis identifies profiles of whole-arm chromosomal alterations and subgroups with favorable outcome in ovarian clear cell carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriko Uehara

    Full Text Available Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC is generally associated with chemoresistance and poor clinical outcome, even with early diagnosis; whereas high-grade serous carcinomas (SCs and endometrioid carcinomas (ECs are commonly chemosensitive at advanced stages. Although an integrated genomic analysis of SC has been performed, conclusive views on copy number and expression profiles for CCC are still limited. In this study, we performed single nucleotide polymorphism analysis with 57 epithelial ovarian cancers (31 CCCs, 14 SCs, and 12 ECs and microarray expression analysis with 55 cancers (25 CCCs, 16 SCs, and 14 ECs. We then evaluated PIK3CA mutations and ARID1A expression in CCCs. SNP array analysis classified 13% of CCCs into a cluster with high frequency and focal range of copy number alterations (CNAs, significantly lower than for SCs (93%, P < 0.01 and ECs (50%, P = 0.017. The ratio of whole-arm to all CNAs was higher in CCCs (46.9% than SCs (21.7%; P < 0.0001. SCs with loss of heterozygosity (LOH of BRCA1 (85% also had LOH of NF1 and TP53, and LOH of BRCA2 (62% coexisted with LOH of RB1 and TP53. Microarray analysis classified CCCs into three clusters. One cluster (CCC-2, n = 10 showed more favorable prognosis than the CCC-1 and CCC-3 clusters (P = 0.041. Coexistent alterations of PIK3CA and ARID1A were more common in CCC-1 and CCC-3 (7/11, 64% than in CCC-2 (0/10, 0%; P < 0.01. Being in cluster CCC-2 was an independent favorable prognostic factor in CCC. In conclusion, CCC was characterized by a high ratio of whole-arm CNAs; whereas CNAs in SC were mainly focal, but preferentially caused LOH of well-known tumor suppressor genes. As such, expression profiles might be useful for sub-classification of CCC, and might provide useful information on prognosis.

  17. Role of blood pressure and other variables in the differential cardiovascular event rates noted in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulter, Neil R; Wedel, Hans; Dahlöf, Björn;

    2005-01-01

    Results of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA) show significantly lower rates of coronary and stroke events in individuals allocated an amlodipine-based combination drug regimen than in those allocated an atenolol-based combination drug regimen (HR...... 0.86 and 0.77, respectively). Our aim was to assess to what extent these differences were due to significant differences in blood pressures and in other variables noted after randomisation....

  18. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    Within the field of ‘transnational conflicts’ a wide range of studies have explored how diasporas may contribute to or diminish conflicts within their homeland by sending remittances or weapons or by partaking in NGOs. A common assumption in this literature is that conflicts are linked to a...... specific place of origin and that movement of conflicts or peace can be described as relations between homeland and diaspora. Based on 16 months of fieldwork among Palestinians in Denmark this paper challenges this assumption and offers a different conceptualization of conflicts on the move. The Arabic...... everyday life in Denmark, and to single out specific contemporary political events like the publishing of the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, local clashes with the Danish police and the Israeli invasion of Gaza. The ethnography discloses that the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is not a chronological...

  19. Watchlist on children and armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Freedson

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available My name is Wilmot, from Liberia. I am 16 years old. At age five, I fled from Liberia with my mother to Sierra Leone. I was too young at the time to really understand what was happening. I heard the sounds of guns. I saw people running. I saw people shooting. I saw people being killed. I saw people dying. People as young as I were dying... I saw families like mine, in the thousands, leave everything behind and run…The children of Liberia appeal to the Security Council of the United Nations to do everything possible to stop the fighting in Liberia.

  20. Conflict resolution in healthcare management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipcamon, James D; Mainwaring, Brian A

    2004-01-01

    Conflict causes decided tension in the workplace and often produces poor professional outcomes. A manager dealing with conflict can experience a crisis of confidence and often ends up second-guessing himself or herself, regardless of how a situation has been handled. In some organizations, conflict is not viewed positively or as an opportunity for improvement. In these organizations, most individuals will see conflict as being unproductive, unpleasant, and a waste of time and energy. Yet, conflict provides employees with critical feedback on how things are going. When viewed in a positive context, even personality conflicts may provide information to the healthcare manager about what is not working in the organization. If conflict is not directed and controlled, it can have damaging effects in the workplace, stifling the growth of departments and deflating employee morale. Our job as healthcare managers is to deal with conflict so that it does not decrease productivity or detract from the provision of patient-centered care. There are 4 general sources for interpersonal conflict: personal differences, informational deficiency, role incompatibility, and environmental stress. There are 5 common responses used in dealing with conflict: forcing, accommodating, avoiding, compromising, and collaborating. Healthcare managers should become comfortable with using all of these approaches.

  1. The Colombian conflict: a description of a mental health program in the Department of Tolima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grais Rebecca F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colombia has been seriously affected by an internal armed conflict for more than 40 years affecting mainly the civilian population, who is forced to displace, suffers kidnapping, extortion, threats and assassinations. Between 2005 and 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières-France provided psychological care and treatment in the region of Tolima, a strategic place in the armed conflict. The mental health program was based on a short-term multi-faceted treatment developed according to the psychological and psychosomatic needs of the population. Here we describe the population attending during 2005-2008, in both urban and rural settings, as well as the psychological treatment provided during this period and its outcomes. We observed differences between the urban and rural settings in the traumatic events reported, the clinical expression of the disorders, the disorders diagnosed, and their severity. Although the duration of the treatment was limited due to security reasons and access difficulties, patient condition at last visit improved in most of the patients. These descriptive results suggest that further studies should be conducted to examine the role of short-term psychotherapy, adapted specifically to the context, can be a useful tool to provide psychological care to population affected by an armed conflict.

  2. The Colombian conflict: a description of a mental health program in the Department of Tolima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Casas, German; Grais, Rebecca F; Hustache, Sarah; Moro, Marie-Rose

    2009-01-01

    Colombia has been seriously affected by an internal armed conflict for more than 40 years affecting mainly the civilian population, who is forced to displace, suffers kidnapping, extortion, threats and assassinations. Between 2005 and 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières-France provided psychological care and treatment in the region of Tolima, a strategic place in the armed conflict. The mental health program was based on a short-term multi-faceted treatment developed according to the psychological and psychosomatic needs of the population. Here we describe the population attending during 2005-2008, in both urban and rural settings, as well as the psychological treatment provided during this period and its outcomes.We observed differences between the urban and rural settings in the traumatic events reported, the clinical expression of the disorders, the disorders diagnosed, and their severity. Although the duration of the treatment was limited due to security reasons and access difficulties, patient condition at last visit improved in most of the patients. These descriptive results suggest that further studies should be conducted to examine the role of short-term psychotherapy, adapted specifically to the context, can be a useful tool to provide psychological care to population affected by an armed conflict. PMID:20030811

  3. 非洲妇女在武装冲突中遭受性暴力的人权保护法律问题及对策%The Legal Issues and Countermeasures of Protecting African Women's Human Rights from Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伯军; 石婷

    2012-01-01

    The issue that African women are suffering sexual violence in armed conflicts has attracted extensive concerns all around the world. The sexual violence may be divided into two main categories: accidental sexual as- sault and purposeful and systematic sexual assault. In international community, there still exit many legal problems for protecting African women from sexual violence in the armed conflicts. For example, the human rights law and humanitarian law worldwide fail to pay attention to the criminal actions of sexual violence. Therefore, it is necessary to take legislative and judicial policies worldwide to protect the African women in the armed conflicts.%非洲妇女在武装冲突中遭受性暴力侵害的问题日益引发全世界的广泛关注,该行为的实施主要表现为偶然发生及有目的、系统地实施两种类型。国际上在保护武装冲突中遭受性暴力的非洲妇女的人权方面还存在许多法律问题:立法上全球性的人权法与人道法公约缺乏对性暴力犯罪行为的应有关注,区域性的人权法公约缺乏针对性暴力犯罪的强制执行机制;司法上全球性与区域性层面的司法保护不力。因此,非洲妇女在武装冲突中遭受性暴力侵害的问题需要在国际立法、司法层面提出相应的对策加以解决。

  4. Differences in Patient Outcomes of Prevalence, Interval, and Screen-Detected Lung Cancers in the CT Arm of the National Lung Screening Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massion, Pierre P.; Thompson, Zachary J.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Goldof, Dmitry; Aberle, Denise R.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer screening identifies cancers with heterogeneous behaviors. Some lung cancers will be identified among patients who had prior negative CT screens and upon follow-up scans develop a de novo nodule that was determined to be cancerous. Other lung cancers will be identified among patients who had one or more prior stable positive scans that were not determined to be lung cancer (indeterminate pulmonary nodules), but in follow-up scans was diagnosed with an incidence lung cancer. Using data from the CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial, this analysis investigated differences in patient characteristics and survival endpoints between prevalence-, interval-, and screen-detected lung cancers, characterized based on sequence of screening results. Lung cancers immediately following a positive baseline (T0), and prior to the T1 screen, formed the prevalence cohort. Interval cancers were diagnosed following a negative screen at any time point prior to the next screening round. Two cohorts of screen-detected lung cancers (SDLC) were identified that had a baseline positive screen that was that was not determined to be lung cancer (i.e., an indeterminate pulmonary nodule), but in follow-up scans was diagnosed with an incidence lung cancer 12 (SDLC1) or 24 (SDLC2) months later. Two other incidence cohorts had screen-detected lung cancers that had baseline negative screen and upon follow-up scans developed a de novo nodule determined to be cancerous at 12 (SDLC3) or 24 (SDLC4) months later. Differences in patient characteristics, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed. The lung cancer-specific death rate was higher for SDLC3/SDLC4 compared to SDLC1/SDLC2 lung cancers (136.6/1,000 person-years vs. 71.3/1,000 person-years, P lung cancers (HR = 1.00). Lung cancer patients who develop a de novo nodule that determined to be cancerous (i.e., at least one negative CT screen prior to cancer diagnosis) had poorer survival outcomes compared

  5. Substantive and relational effectiveness of organizational conflict behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwema, M C; Van de Vliert, E; Bakker, A B

    2003-01-01

    In this observation study the theory of conglomerated conflict behavior is tested. The impact of seven conflict behaviors on substantive and relational conflict outcomes is examined through multiple independent observations of 103 Dutch nurse managers handling a standardized conflict. Results show t

  6. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  7. Conflict in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, T.; Hsiang, S. M.; Burke, M.

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of research illuminates the role that changes in climate have had on violent conflict and social instability in the recent past. Across a diversity of contexts, high temperatures and irregular rainfall have been causally linked to a range of conflict outcomes. These findings can be paired with climate model output to generate projections of the impact future climate change may have on conflicts such as crime and civil war. However, there are large degrees of uncertainty in such projections, arising from (i) the statistical uncertainty involved in regression analysis, (ii) divergent climate model predictions, and (iii) the unknown ability of human societies to adapt to future climate change. In this article, we review the empirical evidence of the climate-conflict relationship, provide insight into the likely extent and feasibility of adaptation to climate change as it pertains to human conflict, and discuss new methods that can be used to provide projections that capture these three sources of uncertainty.

  8. La noción de guerra revolucionaria en Fernando Landazábal Reyes y sus repercusiones en el conflicto armado colombiano The Notion of Revolutionary War in Fernando Landazábal Reyes and its Repercussions in Colombian Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Velásquez Rivera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Una de las características del conflicto armado colombiano es el asesinato de civiles por parte de miembros de organismos de seguridad del Estado. Estos justifican sus acciones acusándolos de participar en una estrategia subversiva liderada por el Partido Comunista Colombiano. Esta, a su vez, se origina supuestamente en la guerra revolucionaria, antítesis de la guerra clásica. En Colombia, quien con mayor profundidad abordó el fenómeno de la guerra revolucionaria fue el oficial Fernando Landazábal Reyes. Este artículo pretende mostrar los principales rasgos de la guerra revolucionaria, desde la perspectiva del mencionado militar y la manera como pudo haber repercutido en el conflicto armado colombiano.Abstract One of the characteristics of the armed Colombian conflict is the murder of civilians by the members of organisms of national security, who accuse those they kill of participating in a subversive strategy led by the Colombian Communist Party, which in turn supposedly originates in the revolutionary war, antithesis of the classic war. In Colombia, the phenomenon of revolutionary war has been approached in depth by the officer Fernando Landazábal Reyes. This article tries to show the principal features of the revolutionary war, from the perspective of the mentioned military man and the way since it could have reverberated in the armed colombian conflict.

  9. THE ROLE OF THE ARMED CONFLICT IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND TERRITORIAL DIFFERENTIATION IN “THE CAGUAN” REGION, WESTERN COLOMBIAN AMAZON. EL PAPEL DEL CONFLICTO ARMADO EN LA CONSTRUCCIÓN Y DIFERENCIACIÓN TERRITORIAL DE LA REGIÓN DE “EL CAGUÁN”, AMAZONÍA OCCIDENTAL COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Vásquez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the territorial and temporal variations of the armed conflict in the region of the El Caguan. The explanations which associate the region only with the exclusive domain of the FARC, with coca crops, and the absence of the State, are addressed in it, and also, the territory is considered to be a homogeneous and undifferentiated reality. To propose that the armed conflict in the El Caguan has not been a continuous and homogeneous process, but which was developed heterogeneously in space and time, with large variations according to the dynamics of the population and the social and political settings of the territory. That is why in this article, the factors that explain the modalities of inclusion, intensity discrete levels of the armed conflict in the foothills of San Vicente del Caguan and the middle and lower areas of the Caguan River will be shown. These differences must be taken into account to meet the challenges posed by the current negotiation with the FARC and they are the input to realize what has been called the territorial dimension of the post-conflict. RESUMEN: En este artículo se muestran las variaciones temporales y territoriales del conflicto armado en la región del El Caguán. Se interpelan las explicaciones que asocian la región solamente con el dominio exclusivo de la FARC, con los cultivos de coca y con la ausencia del estado, y que además, consideran al territorio como una realidad homogénea e indiferenciada. Para proponer que el conflicto armado en El Caguán no ha sido un proceso continuo y homogéneo, sino que se desarrolló de manera heterogénea en el espacio y el tiempo, con grandes variaciones según las dinámicas del poblamiento y la configuración social y política del territorio. Por eso en este artículo serán mostrados los factores que explican las modalidades de inserción, niveles de intensidad diferenciados del conflicto armado en el piedemonte de San Vicente del Caguán y en la zona

  10. Resistance during the armed conflict in the Chocó, Colombia : a case study on the development of territorial and cultural resistance of the indigenous communities since the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Baumeister, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This Master’s thesis aims to study the resistance process of the indigenous communities of the Colombian department of Chocó and the development of this process into potential grass-roots peace initiative via a particular form of identity reaffirmation through ancestral territories. Particularly, this studies focus on the conflict territorialization and the consequential inclusion of indigenous territories into the conflict logic, which has promoted the development of an indige...

  11. A Typology of Post-Conflict Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Graham; Langer, Arnim; Stewart, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Despite the apparent decline in the global incidence of major armed conflict, there remain many countries in conflict and many others that are struggling with the legacy of recent violence. The majority of these countries are among the poorer and less developed ones. Increasing attention within the international community is therefore being paid to the inter-connections between sustainable peace-building and socioeconomic development within a “post-conflict” environment. Countries that are in...

  12. Plotting Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Margaret Ann; Wilkinson, John Provost

    1997-01-01

    Conflict management theory is illustrated in a series of hypothetical scenarios, typical of library situations. Each scenario is discussed in terms of a specific management theory and the theories are transposed into useful management tools by plotting each situation along relevant axes. (Author/AEF)

  13. Differences in Patient Outcomes of Prevalence, Interval, and Screen-Detected Lung Cancers in the CT Arm of the National Lung Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabath, Matthew B; Massion, Pierre P; Thompson, Zachary J; Eschrich, Steven A; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Goldof, Dmitry; Aberle, Denise R; Gillies, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer screening identifies cancers with heterogeneous behaviors. Some lung cancers will be identified among patients who had prior negative CT screens and upon follow-up scans develop a de novo nodule that was determined to be cancerous. Other lung cancers will be identified among patients who had one or more prior stable positive scans that were not determined to be lung cancer (indeterminate pulmonary nodules), but in follow-up scans was diagnosed with an incidence lung cancer. Using data from the CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial, this analysis investigated differences in patient characteristics and survival endpoints between prevalence-, interval-, and screen-detected lung cancers, characterized based on sequence of screening results. Lung cancers immediately following a positive baseline (T0), and prior to the T1 screen, formed the prevalence cohort. Interval cancers were diagnosed following a negative screen at any time point prior to the next screening round. Two cohorts of screen-detected lung cancers (SDLC) were identified that had a baseline positive screen that was that was not determined to be lung cancer (i.e., an indeterminate pulmonary nodule), but in follow-up scans was diagnosed with an incidence lung cancer 12 (SDLC1) or 24 (SDLC2) months later. Two other incidence cohorts had screen-detected lung cancers that had baseline negative screen and upon follow-up scans developed a de novo nodule determined to be cancerous at 12 (SDLC3) or 24 (SDLC4) months later. Differences in patient characteristics, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed. The lung cancer-specific death rate was higher for SDLC3/SDLC4 compared to SDLC1/SDLC2 lung cancers (136.6/1,000 person-years vs. 71.3/1,000 person-years, P < 0.001). Moreover, PFS and OS were significantly lower for SDLC3/SDLC4 compared to SDLC1/SDLC2 (P < 0.004; P < 0.002, respectively). The findings were consistent when stratified by stage and histology

  14. 交叉影响还是直接影响?工作-家庭冲突的影响机制%Cross-over Effects or Direct Effects? The Mechanism Linking Work-family Conflict with Outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勉; 李海; 魏钧; 杨百寅

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of work-family conflict on well-being and work-related outcomes among Chinese managers. Work-family conflict is viewed as a bi-directional construct in which work can interfere with family (referred to as work-to-family conflict, WIF) and family can interfere with work (referred to as family-to-work conflict, FIW). The central idea of this study is that how people perceive work versus family roles affects work-family conflict. We posited the Chinese work priority may limit the generalization of some findings from Westem studies to Chinese samples. To test our proposition, we investigated the relationship between work-family conflict and two types of consequences. Specifically, we examined the effects of WIF and FIW on a psychological well-being consequence (life satisfaction) and three work-related consequences (organizational commitment, intent to stay and job satisfaction) among Chinese managers.Our literature review identified two mechanisms linking work-family conflict to consequences:"cross-over" effects model and "direct" effects model. The "cross-over" model postulates that one likely experiences high levels of psychological distress associated with a given role if one is frequently struggling to meet the demands of that role because of hindrance stemming from another role. In line with this rationale, WIF predicts family-related affective and behavioral consequences such as family satisfaction, while FIW predicts work-related consequences such as job satisfaction. A complementary argument ("direct model") posits that one may blame the role domain causing conflict and thus experience high levels of dissatisfaction associated with the given role. Consistent with this rationale, WIF affects work-related affective and behavioral consequences, while FIW influences family-related consequences.In this study, we argue that the Chinese work priority is critical to understanding consequences of work

  15. The relationship between task conflict, task performance and team member satisfaction: the mediating role of relationship conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Task conflict and its potential positive effect on team outcomes has been questioned over the years. The findings have been inconsistent, with different studies indicating that task conflict can be positively related, negatively related or unrelated to measures of team outcomes. This study is a response to the request presented in de Wit, Greer and Jehn s (2012) recent meta-analysis, to further investigate the effect relationship conflict can have on the association between task conflict and...

  16. [Mitochondrial DNA typing--a new level for solving identification problems in forensic medical expert identification of unidentified remains of victims of terrorist acts in Moscow and the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P L; Frolova, S A; Orekhov, V A; Iankovskiĭ, N K; Zemskova, E Iu

    2001-01-01

    Two large-scale episodes described in this paper reflect the first in Russia use of molecular genetic matrilinear markers (analysis of polymorphism of sequences of amplified fragments of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable locuses) in solution of a complex identification problem: forensic medical identification of unidentified fragments of victims of explosions of houses in Moscow in September, 1999, and of soldiers dead in the war conflict in the Chechen Republic in 1994-1996. The results of this work and methodological experience gained in it essentially extend the potentialities of expert studies as regards forensic medical identification of victims of large scale disasters, terroristic acts, and war conflicts.

  17. Cocaleros. Violence, Drugs and Social Mobilization in the Post-Conflict Upper Huallaga Valley, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dun, M.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    During Peru’s internal armed conflict (1980s-1990s) the Upper Huallaga Valley became one of the most violent theaters of conflict, with political violence and violent crime becoming causally related phenomena. In the Upper Huallaga different sorts of armed actors (whether their motivations were poli

  18. On the theory of ethnic conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caselli

    2007-01-01

    We present a theory of ethnic conflict in which coalitions formed along ethnic lines compete for the economy's resources. The role of ethnicity is to enforce coalition membership: in ethnically homogeneous societies members of the losing coalition can defect to the winners at low cost, and this rules out conflict as an equilibrium outcome. We derive a number of implications of the model relating social, political, and economic indicators such as the incidence of conflict, the distance among e...

  19. The impact of conflict exposure and social support on posttraumatic growth among the young adults in Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayees Mohammad Bhat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of social support and conflict exposure on posttraumatic growth (PTG among the young adults who have been exposed to stressful experiences regarding the armed conflict in Kashmir. The aim of the study is to explore PTG in this population and its association with conflict exposure and perceived social support. This is a cross-sectional study involving 803 college students. The data were collected by four self-report instruments comprising of demographic data schedule, the exposure to Kashmir conflict checklist, the posttraumatic growth inventory and the multidimensional scale of perceived social support. The respondents reported relatively high levels of PTG and social support. Conflict exposure and total perceived social support were significantly associated with an increase in PTG. Formulation of programmes to sensitize people living in conflict zones about the importance of PTG and social support in buffering negative outcomes can help lessen their stress, increase their ability to withstand adversities and help them move towards personal growth.

  20. Group conflict and faculty engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    assessed the effect of group trust, group relational conflict and group task conflict on indicators of behavioural, cognitive and emotional engagement. Our findings show a strong positive association between group trust and all academic staff engagement variables as well as a strong negative association...... between group relational conflict and all staff engagement variables. Task conflict was negatively associated with indicators of staff cognitive engagement. However, surprisingly, group trust did not have any moderating effect. Implications for educational organisation managers and policy makers......In educational settings, substantial scholarly interest has focused on student engagement as an antecedent for educational development and positive school outcomes. Very limited research, however, has focused on the engagement of academic staff members. This may be a crucial oversight because...

  1. SELF-DEFENSE IN KARABAKH CONFLICT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law which has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. But applying self-defense requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. Immediacy defined as the time span between armed attacks and reaction to it, is the main discourse. This condition requires self defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a rational time span since its occurance.In this respect, the emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. After Armenia’s armed attacks, Azerbaijan has acted within the scope of legitimate self-defense. But in accordance with UN Security Council cease-fire resolution Azerbaijan has suspended its self-defense actions. However, today, still twenty percent of Azerbaijani territory is still under Armenian occupation. Accordingly, after a long time the validity of Azerbaijan’s right to legitimate self-defense is still subject to arguments.In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation approaches on the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and armed attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  2. FUZZY PREFERENCES IN CONFLICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubarak S. AL-MUTAIRI; Keith W. HIPEL; Mohamed S. KAMEL

    2008-01-01

    A systematic fuzzy approach is developed to model fuzziness and uncertainties in the preferences of decision makers involved in a conflict. This unique fuzzy preference formulation is used within the paradigm of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution in which a given dispute is modeled in terms of decision makers, each decision maker's courses of actions or options, and each decision maker's preferences concerning the states or outcomes which could take place. In order to be able to determine the stability of each state for each decision maker and the possible equilibria or resolutions, a range of solution concepts describing potential human behavior under conflict are defined for use with fuzzy preferences. More specifically, strong and weak definitions of stability are provided for the solution concepts called Nash, general metarational, symmetric metarational, and sequential stability. To illustrate how these solution concepts can be conveniently used in practice, they are applied to a dispute over the contamination of an aquifer by a chemical company located in Elmira, Ontario, Canada.

  3. Effective components of feedback from Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) in youth mental health care: Study protocol of a three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonsbeek, A.M.S. van; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.; Veerman, J.W.; Tiemens, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Routine Outcome Monitoring refers to regular measurements of clients' progress in clinical practice, aiming to evaluate and, if necessary, adapt treatment. Clients fill out questionnaires and clinicians receive feedback about the results. Studies concerning feedback in youth mental healt

  4. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa.......From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In...... the policy realm, celebrity endorsement may shift attention, shape decisions, and build or erode key alliances. Meanwhile, the figure of the celebrity offers an enticing lens to refract critical issues of power, influence, and voice within neoliberal north-south relations. This essay, using emerging...

  5. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa.......From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2...... In the policy realm, celebrity endorsement may shift attention, shape decisions, and build or erode key alliances. Meanwhile, the figure of the celebrity offers an enticing lens to refract critical issues of power, influence, and voice within neoliberal north-south relations. This essay, using emerging...

  6. Small Arms Survey 2010—GANGS,GROUPS,AND GUNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    1.Background of The Small Arms Survey The proliferation of small arms and light weapons represents a grave threat to human security. The unchecked spread of these weapons has exacerbated inter-and intra-state conflicts,contributed to human

  7. Passive responses to interpersonal conflict at work amplify employee strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T.M. Dijkstra; C.K.W. de Dreu; A. Evers; D. van Dierendonck

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict at work correlates with stress related outcomes such as psychological strain and exhaustion. Consistent with conflict theory, we argued that this relationship is moderated by the way conflict is managed. Cross-sectional data collected in The Netherlands, from students with par

  8. La participation des femmes dans le conflit interne armé au Pérou durant la période 1980-2000 The Participation of Women in Peru’s Internal Armed Conflict during the 1980-2000 Period La participación de las mujeres en el conflicto armado peruano durante 1980-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío Silva Santisteban

    2012-01-01

    Entre 1980 et 2000, le Pérou a vécu un conflit interne armé qui s’est soldé par un nombre de victimes sans précédent dans l’histoire de l’Amérique latine. Les protagonistes de la lutte armée furent aussi bien des collectifs subversifs (PCP-SL et MRTA) que l’Armée et la Police ainsi que la population paysanne organisée en milices (rondes paysannes). Les conséquences furent évidemment dramatiques puisqu’en plus des nombreuses pertes humaines qu’il faut déplorer se combinait la tragique désagrég...

  9. Modeling and Controlling Interstate Conflict

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian neural networks were used to model the relationship between input parameters, Democracy, Allies, Contingency, Distance, Capability, Dependency and Major Power, and the output parameter which is either peace or conflict. The automatic relevance determination was used to rank the importance of input variables. Control theory approach was used to identify input variables that would give a peaceful outcome. It was found that using all four controllable variables Democracy, Allies, Capability and Dependency; or using only Dependency or only Capabilities avoids all the predicted conflicts.

  10. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  11. Suppression of social conflict and evolutionary transitions to cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Evolutionary conflict arises at all levels of biological organization and presents a barrier to the evolution of cooperation. This barrier can be overcome by mechanisms that reduce the disparity between the fitness optima of subunits, sometimes called the "battleground" of conflict. An alternative, unstudied possibility is that effort invested in conflict is unprofitable. This possibility has received little attention because most existing models of social conflict assume that fitness depends on the ratio of players' conflict efforts, so that "peaceful" outcomes featuring zero conflict effort are evolutionarily unstable. Here I show that peaceful outcomes are stable where success depends on the difference rather than the ratio of efforts invested in conflict. These difference form models are particularly appropriate to model strategies of suppression or policing. The model suggests that incomplete information and asymmetries in strength can act to eliminate costly conflict within groups, even among unrelated individuals, and thereby facilitate the evolution of cooperation.

  12. The Arms Trade and States' Duty to Ensure Respect for Humanitarian and Human Rights Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Maya

    2007-01-01

    The unregulated international trade in conventional arms, especially in small arms and light weapons, has come to be viewed as an exacerbating factor in armed conflict, violent crime and internal repression. Concern about the negative humanitarian, development and security impact of this trade ha...

  13. Team composition and conflict : the role of individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, Lindred Leura

    2008-01-01

    The effects of team composition and conflict on team outcomes have been largely contradictory. In this dissertation, I strive to unravel these relationships through better incorporating two key factors when understanding relationships between team composition, conflict, and team outcomes - the role

  14. Low Literacy Decision Aid Enhances Knowledge and Reduces Decisional Conflict among Diverse Population of Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer L.; Trupin, Laura; Schillinger, Dean; Evans-Young, Gina; Imboden, John; Montori, Victor M.; Yelin, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite innovations in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), adherence is poor and disparities persist. Shared decision making (SDM) promotes patient engagement and enhances adherence, however few tools support SDM in RA. Our objective was to pilot a low literacy medication guide and decision aid to facilitate patient-clinician conversations about RA medications. Methods RA patients were consecutively enrolled into one of three arms: (1) control, patients received existing medication guide prior to clinic visit; (2) adapted guide prior to visit; (3) adapted guide prior plus decision aid during visit. Outcomes were collected immediately post-visit, at 1-week, 3- and 6-month interviews. Eligible adults had to have failed at least one DMARD and fulfill one of the following: age >65, immigrant, non-English speaker, immigrants (66%), non-English speakers (54%), and had limited health literacy (71%). Adequate RA knowledge post visit in arm 3 was higher (78%) than arm 1 (53%, adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–6.1). Among patients with a medication change, there was lower (better) mean decisional conflict in arms 2 and 3 (p=0.03). No significant differences in acceptability. Conclusion A low literacy medication guide and decision aid was acceptable, improved knowledge, and reduced decisional conflict among vulnerable RA patients. Enhancing knowledge and patient engagement with decision support tools may lead to medication choices better aligned with patient values and preferences in RA. PMID:26605752

  15. Urban Conflict Vs. Urban “War:” Another “Key” to Read the Conflict in Medellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Muñoz Guzmán

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The urban conflict in Medellin between 1995 and 2002 has been described, fundamentally, as an urban war that can be explained based on the armed political conflict that took place on a national level. The presence of armed actors linked to the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC – essentially the “cacique nutibara” block – and the guerilla groups Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia FARC and Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional ELN, allowed many analysts to explain the conflict in Medellin as a “local expression” of the conflict that took place on the national stage. This article questions this thesis. Instead it suggests that more than an urban “war,” explainable from the national situation and under a conception of state and instrumental/rational politics and power, Medellin has been living inserted into a multiplicity of conflicts that articulate in specific ways, and which involve much more subjective aspects that can be seen in pre-existing neighborhood dynamics from before the “war,” which because of these circumstances we prefer to call urban conflict instead. On the basis on what we found during the investigation and centered on systematic and extensive fieldwork (workshops, interviews, walkthroughs, images, photographs etc. that took four months to complete, we suggest to the experts on urban violence some new “keys” to interpret the conflict in Medellin. One of those is tied to subjective aspects or dimensions of neighborhood life that intervene significantly in conflict dynamics, including political conflicts

  16. Legal Dilemmas in Fighting Asymmetrical Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pnina Sharvit Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available What legal rules apply to armed confrontations against non-state elements in areas populated by civilians? What rules apply when the enemy does not honor the basic laws of warfare - does not distinguish itself from the local population, and even uses it for shelter and as a base of operations? This essay, which presents my position on the issue, refers to such confrontations as "asymmetrical conflicts."

  17. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution

  18. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenzel, Paula V., E-mail: p.v.prenzel@student.rug.nl; Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl

    2014-02-15

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution.

  19. Methods for Measuring Aggregate Costs of Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Gardeazabal, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods for measuring the economic cost of conflict. Estimating the economic costs of conflict requires a counterfactual calculation, which makes this a very difficult task. Social researchers have resorted to different estimation methods depending on the particular effect in question. The method used in each case depends on the units being analyzed (firms, sectors, regions or countries), the outcome variable under study (aggregate output, market valuation of firms, mar...

  20. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  1. Self-Defense in Karabakh Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law that has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. Applying self-defense, however, requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. This is defined as the timeframe between armed attacks and reaction to it. This situation requires self-defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a reasonable timeframe since its occurance.In this respect, emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation of the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  2. Conflict cultures in organizations: how leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Leslie, Lisa M; Keller, Kirsten; de Dreu, Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether organizations create socially shared and normative ways to manage conflict. In a sample of leaders and members from 92 branches of a large bank, factor analysis and aggregation analyses show that 3 conflict cultures-collaborative, dominating, and avoidant-operate at the unit level of analysis. Building on Lewin, Lippitt, and White's (1939) classic work, we find that leaders' own conflict management behaviors are associated with distinct unit conflict cultures. The results also demonstrate that conflict cultures have implications for macro branch-level outcomes, including branch viability (i.e., cohesion, potency, and burnout) and branch performance (i.e., creativity and customer service). A conflict culture perspective moves beyond the individual level and provides new insight into the dynamics of conflict management in organizational contexts.

  3. Conflict cultures in organizations: how leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Leslie, Lisa M; Keller, Kirsten; de Dreu, Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether organizations create socially shared and normative ways to manage conflict. In a sample of leaders and members from 92 branches of a large bank, factor analysis and aggregation analyses show that 3 conflict cultures-collaborative, dominating, and avoidant-operate at the unit level of analysis. Building on Lewin, Lippitt, and White's (1939) classic work, we find that leaders' own conflict management behaviors are associated with distinct unit conflict cultures. The results also demonstrate that conflict cultures have implications for macro branch-level outcomes, including branch viability (i.e., cohesion, potency, and burnout) and branch performance (i.e., creativity and customer service). A conflict culture perspective moves beyond the individual level and provides new insight into the dynamics of conflict management in organizational contexts. PMID:23025807

  4. Post-conflict housing restitution : the European human rights perspective, with a case study on Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buyse, Antoine Christian

    2008-01-01

    The loss of one’s house is often one of the most dramatic personal consequences of armed conflict. In fragile post-conflict societies such a loss does not only cause a flow of refugees and other displaced persons, but it can also be a source of renewed conflict. Restitution of housing could help to

  5. ¿Reír o llorar?: El drama del conflicto y la resiliencia de la economía en Colombia, 2007 Shall We Rejoice or Weep?: The Predicament of the Armed Conflict and the Resilience of the Economy in Colombia, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE BOTERO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombia sigue siendo un país de contrastes marcados. El año 2007 fue uno en el que brilló el desempeño económico y a la vez uno de los más sombríos en términos de la situación de orden público. Sobresale la incapacidad del gobierno y las FARC para acordar un acuerdo humanitario que permita la liberación de los secuestrados en poder de la guerrilla. Igualmente, son notorios los avances en el proceso de desmovilización de los paramilitares que han permitido que se sepa la verdad sobre innumerables crímenes y sobre el involucramiento de múltiples políticos con los ejércitos paramilitares.Colombia continues to be a country of marked contrasts. During 2007 the performance of the economy was strong, and yet it was a dire time in regards to the armed conflict. It is remarkable that the government and the FARC were unable to agree on terms for a humanitarian exchange. The advances in the process of demobilization of right-wing paramilitaries are also notorious because they have brought to light countless crimes as well as the involvement of several politicians with the paramilitaries.

  6. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  7. A Typology of Post-Conflict Environments: An Overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Graham; Langer, Arnim; Stewart, Frances

    2008-01-01

    Despite the apparent decline in the global incidence of major armed conflict, there remain many countries in conflict and many others that are struggling with the legacy of recent violence. The majority of these countries are among the poorer and less developed ones. Increasing attention within the international community is therefore being paid to the inter-connections between sustainable peace-building and socioeconomic development within a “post-conflict” environment. Cou...

  8. ROLE OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN OCCURRENCE OF CONFLICTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabova Evgenia Vasilevna

    2012-01-01

    Lack of resources has become one of the key factors that contributed to the beginning of the armed conflict in the Middle East, North Africa and other regions. Competition for natural resources has a long history: it has long been a source of conflict around the world. Environmental changes raise questions about the availability of resources and most of the control. Increasing scarcity of resources, can lead to increased actions by States to ensure control over key resources, resulting in the...

  9. The agrarian question and violence in Colombia: conflict and development

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Frances

    2011-01-01

    This article examines connections between Colombia’s internal armed conflict and agrarian questions. It pays attention to the country’s specific historical trajectory of agrarian change, the violent expression of social tensions that this elicited, and the particular ways in which these dynamics were influenced by a changing global context.This analysis of the intimate ties between violent conflict and agrarian questions in Colombia, both in terms of their historical development and their con...

  10. Work-life conflict and associations with work- and nonwork-related factors and with physical and mental health outcomes: a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutzwiller Felix

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine work- and nonwork- related factors and physical and mental health outcomes associated with combined time- and strain-based work-life conflict (WLC among adult employees living and working in Switzerland as well as possible gender differences in this regard. Methods The data used for the study were taken from wave 6 of the nationally representative Swiss Household Panel (SHP collected in 2004. The analysis was restricted to 4'371 employees aged 20 to 64 years. Trivariate crosstabulations and multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by gender were performed in order to calculate gender-specific prevalence rates (%, beta coefficients (β and crude as well as multiple adjusted odds ratios (OR as measures of association. Results Every eighth person (12.5% within the study population has a high or very high WLC score. Prevalence rates are clearly above average in men and women with higher education, in executive positions or managerial functions, in full-time jobs, with variable work schedules, regular overtime, long commuting time to work and job insecurity. Working overtime regularly, having variable work schedules and being in a management position are most strongly associated with WLC in men, whereas in women the level of employment is the strongest explanatory variable by far, followed by variable work schedules and high job status (managerial position. In both men and women, WLC is associated with several physical and mental health problems. Employees with high or very high WLC show a comparatively high relative risk of self-reported poor health, anxiety and depression, lack of energy and optimism, serious backache, headaches, sleep disorders and fatigue. While overall prevalence rate of (very high WLC is higher in men than in women, associations between degrees of WLC and most health outcomes are stronger in women than in men. Conclusion This

  11. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  12. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    , interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... as drivers for innovation, provided they are carefully managed. However, we claim that more focus on different types of conflicts and the handling of these conflicts is important in public administration and processes of citizen participation. The paper, thus, aims at connecting the knowledge from vast...... literature on conflicts and conflict solution with the field of public administration. The article calls for giving more attention to conflict studies on the part of public administration scholars. Hence, the paper has in addition to its analytical aim a prescriptive aim of providing those public...

  13. Cocaleros. Violence, Drugs and Social Mobilization in the Post-Conflict Upper Huallaga Valley, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    van Dun, M.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    During Peru’s internal armed conflict (1980s-1990s) the Upper Huallaga Valley became one of the most violent theaters of conflict, with political violence and violent crime becoming causally related phenomena. In the Upper Huallaga different sorts of armed actors (whether their motivations were political, ideological or financial) came into contact with one another, while boundaries between political and non-political violence in the region became more and more porous, and at times even disap...

  14. Conflict Approaches of Effective Project Manager in the Upstream Sector of Indonesian Oil & Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Adhi Cahyono; Yanki Hartijasti

    2012-01-01

    Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional to the organization’s performance. This study focused on the relationship between conflict approaches implemented by the project manager based on project team member’s perception on the effectiveness of the project manager in managing project’s conflict. Questionnaires were modified from Barker et al. (1988) to measure conflict management approaches and outcomes of managing project conflict. Data were gathered from 57 respondents who worked in the E...

  15. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is importan

  16. Arms control: misplaced focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, W.A.; Derber, C.

    1986-03-01

    Most of the nuclear debate consists of arguments about which weapons systems should be built, controlled, canceled, frozen, or retired. Short of virtually complete, multilateral nuclear disarmament, however, no change in the pace, balance, or even the direction of the arms race can make much difference in the risk of nuclear war, the damage should one occur, or the division of international political power. This includes Star Wars, the nuclear freeze, and even large cuts in or stabilization of offensive nuclear arsenals. A better starting point for nuclear politics would be the insight that nuclear weapons have completely changed the logic of power as it has been handed down through the ages. Military force, perfected to its highest level, has invalidated itself - for in a nuclearized world, any resort to force by a nuclear power risks escalation to its ultimate level, and thus to oblivion for all. Trying to rationalize and control the ultimate force is far less realistic and important than limiting the provocation of conflict and the use of force at lower, non-nuclear levels - by the United States, it clients, and, to the extent possible, its adversaries. 13 references.

  17. Reparations for Girl Soldiers in the Armed Conflict---Based on First Judicial Reparations Order from ICC%武装冲突下的女性儿童兵赔偿--基于国际刑事法院首份赔偿裁决的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Girls who were forced either to be recruited by or volunteer with an armed group, performing a variety of integral and strong functions in armed conflict, suffered serious damage to their physical and mental health. Limited by treaty fragmentation and diversification of girl-soldiers’identity, international legislations are increasingly unable to satisfy sufficiently their special needs. In the Lubanga case, ICC practices under the guidance of inclusive compensation theory allowed girls to participate in the reparation phase and put forward gender-protection measures, and seemingly had access to justice. The initial charge decision from the prosecutor and the judge’s lack of understanding from a gender perspective gave rise to inequality for the same verdict. The difficulties, including uncertainty of victims’identity, practical obstacles of individual apportioning awards, common discrimination and gender inequality, mean it will be more appropriate to choose collective reparations under the current situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo.%被强制征募或“自愿”加入武装团体的女性儿童,在承担其辅助功能的同时,身心健康受到严重侵害。虽然关于儿童保护的国际立法与日俱增,但囿于条约的碎片化及女性儿童兵身份的多元化,其并未充分保护她们的特殊需求。在卢班加案中,包容性赔偿理论指导下的国际刑事法院准许女童重新参与赔偿阶段并提出“性别保护措施”的做法,似乎显露了正义的曙光。但检察官的初步指控决定及法院对儿童兵的非性别视角的解读,导致同样裁决下的不少女性儿童兵无法获此庇护。而主体识别的不确定、个人赔偿金分配的现实障碍、性别不平等的世俗歧视,使得现实情境下的刚果(金)选择集体赔偿机制更合时宜。

  18. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  19. Conflict and the evolution of institutions: Unbundling institutions at the local level in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Maarten J.; Bulte, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    The impact of armed conflict may persist long after the end of war, and may include a lasting institutional legacy. We use a novel dataset from rural Burundi to examine the impact of local exposure to conflict on institutional quality, and try to ‘unbundle’ institutions by distinguishing between thr

  20. Conflict and the Evolution of Institutions: Unbundling Institutions at the Local Level in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, M.J.; Bulte, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of armed conflict may persist long after the end of war, and may include a lasting institutional legacy. We use a novel dataset from rural Burundi to examine the impact of local exposure to conflict on institutional quality, and try to ‘unbundle’ institutions by distinguishing between thr

  1. External Interventions and Conflicts in Africa after the End of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R. Pedrosa de Sousa (Ricardo Real)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In light of the persistence of armed conflict within the context of exten-sive foreign interventions, this research investigates the effect of external interventions on state-based conflict intensity. The main study comprises four papers using a mixed method approach an

  2. The Gains From Trade: South American Economic Integration and the Resolution of Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Weisbrot; Jake Johnson

    2010-01-01

    It has long been argued that expanding commercial relations between countries acts as an incentive for countries to avoid hostilities up to and including armed conflict. The case of Venezuela and Colombia may provide an example of how economic integration can establish important incentives to conflict resolution.

  3. Dealing with diversity, Sri Lankan discourses on peace and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.; Klem, B.

    2004-01-01

    Dealing with Diversity: Sri Lankan Discourses on Peace and Conflict Georg Frerks and Bart Klem [eds] What is the conflict in Sri Lanka? An ethnic problem? A historical threat to Buddhism? A liberation struggle? Or the unfortunate outcome of political mismanagement? Dealing with Diversity bundles con

  4. Examining the relationship between environmental factors and conflict in pastoralist areas of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayana, Essayas K; Ceccato, Pietro; Fisher, Jonathan R B; DeFries, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    The eastern Africa region has long been known for recurring drought, prolonged civil war and frequent pastoral conflicts. Several researchers have suggested that environmental factors can trigger conflicts among pastoralist communities, but quantitative support for this hypothesis is lacking. Here we use 29years of georeferenced precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to evaluate long term trends in scarcity of water and forage for livestock, and then ask whether these environmental stressors have any predictive power with respect to the location and timing of 11years of conflict data based on Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) and Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). Results indicate that environmental stressors were only partly predictive of conflict events. To better understand the drivers behind conflict, the contribution of other potential stressors to conflict need to be systematically quantified and be taken into consideration. PMID:27037881

  5. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    : the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...... that are associated with this process. As a result, this paper offers new insights into the causes and structure of conflicts triggered by change processes as well as into the management of repetitive conflicts....

  6. Globalization and domestic conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle R. Garfinkel; Skaperdas, Stergios; Syropoulos, Constantinos

    2005-01-01

    We examine how globalization affects trade patterns and welfare when conflict prevails domestically. We do so in a simple model of trade, in which a natural resource like oil is contested by competing groups using real resources (”guns”). Thus, conflict is viewed as ultimately stemming from imperfect property-rights enforcement. When comparing autarky with free trade in such a setting, the gains from trade have to be weighed against the possibly higher resource costs of conflict. We find that...

  7. Corporate Conflicts of Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Joel S. Demski

    2003-01-01

    This paper surveys conflicts of interest in the corporate governance arena, with emphasis on auditors, boards of directors, analysts and investment bankers, regulators, management, attorneys and investors. Enron provides a host of examples as well. I stress the multifaceted nature of these conflicts, and the fact most research looks at some conflicts, such as auditor independence, absent the larger setting and potential interactions among various players. I further speculate herding behavior ...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-01-01

    At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  10. Tobacco Use and Nicotine Dependence among Conflict-Affected Men in the Republic of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Patel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is very little evidence globally on tobacco use and nicotine dependence among civilian populations affected by armed conflict, despite key vulnerability factors related to elevated mental disorders and socio-economic stressors. The study aim was to describe patterns of smoking and nicotine dependence among conflict-affected civilian men in the Republic of Georgia and associations with mental disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional household survey using multistage random sampling was conducted in late 2011 among conflict-affected populations in Georgia. Respondents included in this paper were 1,248 men aged ≥18 years who were internally displaced persons (IDPs and former IDPs who had returned in their home areas. Outcomes of current tobacco use, heavy use (≥20 cigarettes per day, and nicotine dependence (using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence were used. PTSD, depression, anxiety and hazardous alcohol use were also measured, along with exposure to traumatic events and a range of demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Results: Of 1,248 men, 592 (47.4% smoked and 70.9% of current smokers were heavy smokers. The mean nicotine dependence score was 5.0 and the proportion with high nicotine dependence (≥6 was 41.4%. In multivariate regression analyses, nicotine dependence was significantly associated with PTSD (β 0.74 and depression (β 0.85, along with older age (except 65+ years, and being a returnee (compared to IDPs. Conclusions: The study reveals very high levels of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence among conflict-affected persons in Georgia. The associations between nicotine dependence, PTSD and depression suggest interventions could yield synergistic benefits.

  11. Understanding healthcare professionals' self-efficacy to resolve interprofessional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Martha; Orchard, Carole

    2016-05-01

    Conflict within interprofessional healthcare teams, when not effectively resolved, has been linked to detrimental consequences; however, effective conflict resolution has been shown to enhance team performance, increase patient safety, and improve patient outcomes. Alarmingly, knowledge of healthcare professionals' ability to resolve conflict has been limited, largely due to the challenges that arise when researchers attempt to observe a conflict occurring in real time. Research literature has identified three central components that seem to influence healthcare professional's perceived ability to resolve conflict: communication competence, problem-solving ability, and conflict resolution education and training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of communication competence, problem-solving ability, and conflict resolution education and training on healthcare professionals' perceived ability to resolve conflicts. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that two of the three central components-conflict resolution education and training and communication competence-were found to be statistically significant predictors of healthcare professionals' perceived ability to resolve conflict. Implications include a call to action for clinicians and academicians to recognize the importance of communication competence and conflict resolution education and training as a vital area in interprofessional pre- and post-licensure education and collaborative practice. PMID:27152535

  12. Understanding healthcare professionals' self-efficacy to resolve interprofessional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Martha; Orchard, Carole

    2016-05-01

    Conflict within interprofessional healthcare teams, when not effectively resolved, has been linked to detrimental consequences; however, effective conflict resolution has been shown to enhance team performance, increase patient safety, and improve patient outcomes. Alarmingly, knowledge of healthcare professionals' ability to resolve conflict has been limited, largely due to the challenges that arise when researchers attempt to observe a conflict occurring in real time. Research literature has identified three central components that seem to influence healthcare professional's perceived ability to resolve conflict: communication competence, problem-solving ability, and conflict resolution education and training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of communication competence, problem-solving ability, and conflict resolution education and training on healthcare professionals' perceived ability to resolve conflicts. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that two of the three central components-conflict resolution education and training and communication competence-were found to be statistically significant predictors of healthcare professionals' perceived ability to resolve conflict. Implications include a call to action for clinicians and academicians to recognize the importance of communication competence and conflict resolution education and training as a vital area in interprofessional pre- and post-licensure education and collaborative practice.

  13. Multicultural team conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  14. Multicultural team conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  15. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation f

  16. Mental Health and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Baingana, Florence

    2003-01-01

    Addressing mental health is gradually being recognized as an important development issue, especially in the case of conflict-affected countries. Although mental health issues have received increased attention in post-conflict settings, there has been a tendency to implicitly assume that the impact of trauma caused by mass violence (i) may be transitory and non-disabling, and (ii) that inte...

  17. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  18. Conflicts in Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恋

    2011-01-01

    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy. This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina, which involves the conflicts between religious ethics, capitalistic new ideas, bravery and limitation, love for son and love for a lover, plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  19. Conflicts in Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恋

    2011-01-01

    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy.This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina,which involves the conflicts between religious ethics,capitalistic new ideas,bravery and limitation,love for son and love for a lover,plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  20. Conflicts as Aversive Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Fischer, Rico

    2012-01-01

    Theories of human action control deal with the question of how cognitive control is dynamically adjusted to task demands. The conflict monitoring theory of anterior cingulate (ACC) function suggests that the ACC monitors for response conflicts in the ongoing processing stream thereby triggering the mobilization of cognitive control. Alternatively,…

  1. Arms Control and Strategic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yumin

    2014-01-01

    This essay intends to offer a comment on concepts, trends and attitudes concerning arms control and strategic stability with reference to the current international security situation. It also offers observations from two different perspectives about strategic stability: one proceeds from the concept of universal security and aims to prevent conflicts and instability from disrupting regional and international security environment on which nation states depend so much for their peaceful development; the other starts from maintaining the global leadership by a super power and aiming to contain any challenge that sways or is likely to sway its dominating status. If China and the United States commit themselves to the undertaking of a new type of major powers relationship that stresses win-win cooperation, they will be able to contribute greatly to a stable international security architecture that is good for world peaceful development.

  2. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...

  3. Military and Civilian Burn Injuries During Armed Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Atiyeh, B.S.; Gunn, S.W.A.; Hayek, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment, and war burns have been described for more than 5,000 years of written history. Fire was probably utilized as a weapon long before that. With the ever-increasing destructive power and efficiency of modern weapons, casualties, both fatal and non-fatal, are reaching new highs, particularly among civilians who are becoming the major wartime targets in recent wars, accounting for most of the killed and wounded. Even though medical pe...

  4. Conflict acts as an implicit cost in reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, James F; Masters, Sean E; Bath, Kevin; Frank, Michael J

    2014-11-04

    Conflict has been proposed to act as a cost in action selection, implying a general function of medio-frontal cortex in the adaptation to aversive events. Here we investigate if response conflict acts as a cost during reinforcement learning by modulating experienced reward values in cortical and striatal systems. Electroencephalography recordings show that conflict diminishes the relationship between reward-related frontal theta power and cue preference yet it enhances the relationship between punishment and cue avoidance. Individual differences in the cost of conflict on reward versus punishment sensitivity are also related to a genetic polymorphism associated with striatal D1 versus D2 pathway balance (DARPP-32). We manipulate these patterns with the D2 agent cabergoline, which induces a strong bias to amplify the aversive value of punishment outcomes following conflict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that interactive cortico-striatal systems implicitly modulate experienced reward and punishment values as a function of conflict.

  5. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2012-01-01

    conflicts change when enacted from the perspective of staff and management in a non-profit organisation that participated in conflict management training. The case study was constructed as a longitudinal investigation with ethnographic fieldwork as the primary method of inquiry. The training worked....... Some conflicts did not change through training, where the perpetual structural bases of the conflicts remained intact. Insights from the study call attention to the embedding of conflict in the organisation's social fabric. As a practical implication of the study, trainers in conflict management...... are recommended to give more weight to the structural dimensions of conflict and organisational level conflict management when putting training programmes together....

  6. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  7. Conflict Approaches of Effective Project Manager in the Upstream Sector of Indonesian Oil & Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Cahyono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional to the organization’s performance. This study focused on the relationship between conflict approaches implemented by the project manager based on project team member’s perception on the effectiveness of the project manager in managing project’s conflict. Questionnaires were modified from Barker et al. (1988 to measure conflict management approaches and outcomes of managing project conflict. Data were gathered from 57 respondents who worked in the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC contractors serving the upstream sector of the Oil and Gas industry in Indonesia. By using Pearson correlation, result of this study indicated that project managers were perceived to be effective in managing project conflict when implementing cooperative and confi rmative approaches, but ineffective when combining competitive and avoidance approaches. Further research should investigate correlation between cultural dimensions with conflict approaches and outcomes of managing conflict.

  8. Crippling Violence: Conflict and Incident Polio in Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Norris

    Full Text Available Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question.We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004-2009.We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010-0.0404.The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio.

  9. Family business conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Yanes Ruiz, Eugenio José

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Administració d'Empreses. Codi: AE1049. Curs 2013-2014 The society usually perceives the conflicts like a negative aspect that represents a problem, but this is not certain, since the conflict by itself is not a problem. Within the companies a conflict does not have to consider a negative aspect, since what it really can be detrimental or beneficial for an organization it is the form and the time in which they solve. These factors really can create the true economi...

  10. Reputation and the evolution of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElreath, Richard

    2003-02-01

    The outcomes of conflicts in many human societies generate reputation effects that influence the nature of later conflicts. Those willing to escalate over even trivial offenses are considered honorable whereas those who do not are considered dishonorable (Nisbett & Cohen, 1996). Here I extend Maynard Smith's hawk-dove model of animal conflict to explore the logic of a strategy which uses reputation about its opponents to regulate its behavior. I show that a reputation-based strategy does well when (1) the value of the resource is large relative to the cost of losing a fight, (2) communities are stable, and (3) reputations are well known but subject to some amount of error. Reputation-based strategies may thus result in greater willingness to fight, but less fighting at equilibrium, depending upon the nature of the contests and the local socioecology. Additionally, this strategy is robust in the presence of poor knowledge about reputation.

  11. Conflicts and Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Israel adopts a two-pronged strategy to dominate the Middle East situation Recently, Israel has had several conflicts with its Middle East neighbors. At the same time, however, it has prepared to begin direct negotiations with the Palestinians.

  12. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  13. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  14. conflicts in international teams

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdovanidze, Salome

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to define international team and conflicts and identify the essential competencies for a manager and employee of international teams. It is argued that everyone in an international team should possess more skills and competencies than those who belong to homogeneous teams. As a result, representatives of international team must be able to understand culturally diverse backgrounds manage conflicts constructively, and comprehend different strategies to handle sensitive cases. T...

  15. Modernization and Islamist Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Meierrieks, Daniel; Krieger, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This contribution studies the impact of modernization on the onset of Islamist conflict. To capture the multi-dimensional phenomenon of modernization, we create a unique modernization index. Our empirical analysis for 154 countries for the 1971-2006 period provides robust evidence that modernization rather than economic underdevelopment or a lack of democracy increases the likelihood of the onset of Islamist conflict. This relationship especially matters to Islamist groups that aim at a regim...

  16. Collective Identity and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Nanna Gorm; Pinhasi, Tami; Christensen, Jonas Juhl; Vahl, Hans Peter; Johannsen, Christina; Christensen, Julie Hellesøe; Stockner, Selma Maria; Adler, Tara Maria Sellner

    2009-01-01

    This project, “Collective Identity and Conflict”, is a largely theoretical approach to gaining an understanding of how identity groups are shaped and reinforced, and why opposing groups get into seemingly unsolvable conflicts. We create a synthesis of theory on collective identity and social conflict mechanisms by drawing upon the fields of social psychology, sociology and cultural studies. Our ambition is to construct a comprehensive body of knowledge, which will be helpful when analyzing an...

  17. Forecasting civil conflict along the shared socioeconomic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegre, Håvard; Buhaug, Halvard; Calvin, Katherine V.; Nordkvelle, Jonas; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Gilmore, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Climate change and armed civil conflict are both linked to socioeconomic development, although conditions that facilitate peace may not necessarily facilitate mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While economic growth lowers the risk of conflict, it is generally associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and costs of climate mitigation policies. This study investigates the links between growth, climate change, and conflict by simulating future civil conflict using new scenario data for five alternative socioeconomic pathways with different mitigation and adaptation assumptions, known as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We develop a statistical model of the historical effect of key socioeconomic variables on country-specific conflict incidence, 1960-2013. We then forecast the annual incidence of conflict, 2014-2100, along the five SSPs. We find that SSPs with high investments in broad societal development are associated with the largest reduction in conflict risk. This is most pronounced for the least developed countries—poverty alleviation and human capital investments in poor countries are much more effective instruments to attain global peace and stability than further improvements to wealthier economies. Moreover, the SSP that describes a sustainability pathway, which poses the lowest climate change challenges, is as conducive to global peace as the conventional development pathway.

  18. Conflicts between Afar Pastoralists and their Neighbors: Triggers and Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Hundie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Particularly pervasive violent conflicts in the Horn of Africa have detrimental effects on people's livelihoods there. While the intensity, causes, and repercussions of violent conflicts vary spatially and temporally, pastoral areas are currently the hotspots. This paper examines the causes and consequences of violent conflicts in Ethiopia between Afar pastoralists and two of their neighbors, the Issa and the Karrayyu. The findings are based on primary data (individual interviews, group discussions, and field observations and secondary data (documents and publications collected in 2005 and 2006. The results indicate that contemporary challenges such as recurrent droughts, resource appropriation, livestock raiding, proliferation of small arms, and illicit trade contribute to the perpetuation of violent conflicts. While traditional institutions manage inter-clan conflicts, their effectiveness is quite limited with regard to inter-ethnic conflicts, where the contemporary challenges in pastoral areas are too diverse and complex to be managed solely by traditional institutions. The perpetuation of violent conflicts has affected the livelihoods of pastoralists, thereby causing humanitarian crisis and limiting access to resources and opportunities.

  19. Forecasting civil conflict along the shared socioeconomic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegre, Håvard; Buhaug, Halvard; Calvin, Katherine V.; Nordkvelle, Jonas; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Gilmore, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Climate change and armed civil conflict are both linked to socioeconomic development, although conditions that facilitate peace may not necessarily facilitate mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While economic growth lowers the risk of conflict, it is generally associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and costs of climate mitigation policies. This study investigates the links between growth, climate change, and conflict by simulating future civil conflict using new scenario data for five alternative socioeconomic pathways with different mitigation and adaptation assumptions, known as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We develop a statistical model of the historical effect of key socioeconomic variables on country-specific conflict incidence, 1960–2013. We then forecast the annual incidence of conflict, 2014–2100, along the five SSPs. We find that SSPs with high investments in broad societal development are associated with the largest reduction in conflict risk. This is most pronounced for the least developed countries—poverty alleviation and human capital investments in poor countries are much more effective instruments to attain global peace and stability than further improvements to wealthier economies. Moreover, the SSP that describes a sustainability pathway, which poses the lowest climate change challenges, is as conducive to global peace as the conventional development pathway.

  20. The Prophet and the Engineer Meet under the Mango Tree: Leadership, Education, and Conflict in the Southern Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala

    2010-01-01

    This essay represents an attempt to contribute to the growing body of literature on education in conflict and emergency situations by analyzing shifts in sources of authority and their influence on conceptions of leadership in the context of a decades-long armed conflict in the predominately Muslim regions of the southern Philippines. Interviews…

  1. Moving beyond relationship and task conflict: toward a process-state perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChurch, Leslie A; Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica R; Doty, Dan

    2013-07-01

    Teams are formed to benefit from an expanded pool of expertise and experience, yet 2 aspects of the conflict stemming from those core differences will ultimately play a large role in determining team viability and productivity: conflict states and conflict processes. The current study theoretically reorganizes the literature on team conflict--distinguishing conflict states from conflict processes--and details the effects of each on team effectiveness. Findings from a meta-analytic cumulation of 45 independent studies (total number of teams = 3,218) suggest states and processes are distinct and important predictors of team performance and affective outcomes. Controlling for conflict states (i.e., task and relationship conflict), conflict processes explain an additional 13% of the variance in both team performance and team affective outcomes. Furthermore, findings reveal particular conflict processes that are beneficial and others detrimental to teams. The truth about team conflict: conflict processes, that is, how teams interact regarding their differences, are at least as important as conflict states, that is, the source and intensity of their perceived incompatibilities.

  2. 中国对陆地边界争议的应对及对处理海洋争端的启示——以1962年中印边界武装冲突中的对印政策为例%China′s Countermeasure against Land Border Dispute and Its Inspiration to Handle Maritime Disputes: A Case Study of China′s Policy towards India during the Sino-Indian Boundary Armed Conflict in 1962

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆亮

    2012-01-01

    Territory(including Marine) dispute is one important factor that affects the Chinese-foreign relations.Especially in recent years,the sea disputes between China and neighboring countries are increasing gradually,and have become a hot issue in the Asia-Pacific regions.At the same time,there has been a heated Sino-Indian territorial dispute in land borders,which results from the boundary armed conflict in 1962.It is,thereafter,greatly helpful for China to take history as a mirror by summarizing and analyzing China′s policy towards India in the process of handling the conflict,and handle the marine problem with reflections on its comprehensive national power,interests appeal and great power mentality perspectives.%领土(包括海洋)争端是影响中外关系的重要因素。特别是近几年,中国与周边国家的海上纷争日益增多,成为亚太地区关系格局中持续升温的热点话题。与此同时,在陆界方面,中国尚与印度存在巨大的领土争议,其直接原因在于1962年两国的边界冲突。以史为鉴,总结和分析冲突前后的对印政策,并从综合国力、利益诉求、大国心态等方面进行思考,对当今中国处理海洋问题具有积极的启示意义。

  3. The impact of conflict exposure and social support on posttraumatic growth among the young adults in Kashmir

    OpenAIRE

    Rayees Mohammad Bhat; B. Rangaiah

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social support and conflict exposure on posttraumatic growth (PTG) among the young adults who have been exposed to stressful experiences regarding the armed conflict in Kashmir. The aim of the study is to explore PTG in this population and its association with conflict exposure and perceived social support. This is a cross-sectional study involving 803 college students. The data were collected by four self-report instruments comprising of demographic data sch...

  4. New Evidence on the Relationship Between Climate and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    We synthesize a large new body of research on the relationship between climate and conflict. We consider many types of human conflict, ranging from interpersonal conflict -- domestic violence, road rage, assault, murder, and rape -- to intergroup conflict -- riots, coups, ethnic violence, land invasions, gang violence, and civil war. After harmonizing statistical specifications and standardizing estimated effect sizes within each conflict category, we implement a meta-analysis that allows us to estimate the mean effect of climate variation on conflict outcomes as well as quantify the degree of variability in this effect size across studies. Looking across more than 50 studies, we find that deviations from moderate temperatures and precipitation patterns systematically increase the risk of conflict, often substantially, with average effects that are highly statistically significant. We find that contemporaneous temperature has the largest average effect by far, with each 1 standard deviation increase toward warmer temperatures increasing the frequency of contemporaneous interpersonal conflict by 2% and of intergroup conflict by more than 10%. We also quantify substantial heterogeneity in these effect estimates across settings.

  5. Theorizing ‘conditions for success’ in military conflict management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2015-01-01

    with the need for further theoretical research in this realm and seeks to respond to it. It hopes to contribute to the development of a mid-range theory, which explains the relationship between structure, agency and outcome in military conflict management operations conducted by international organizations......Violent conflict and military conflict management are both complex phenomena. Consequently, success in military conflict management is a difficult issue to explain and predict. Because of this complexity it is crucial that such success (or indeed lack thereof) is theorized, so we can draw lessons...... from past operations to future operations and study military conflict management across time, space, agency and structure. Scholars such as Paris (2000) and Bures (2007) have called for more theoretically oriented research in the study of international peacekeeping. This contribution concurs...

  6. Forests in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States

    OpenAIRE

    Harwell, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Recognizes in failed states or states at risk of becoming failed states the linkages between forests, armed conflict, poverty, and various aspects of state fragility. Forests are valuable for local subsistence livelihoods, timber, and other commercially valuable forest products, as well as ecosystem services including forest carbon and biodiversity. This makes the linkage between forests and fragile states significant to local poverty reduction, national and global trade, and global public go...

  7. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  8. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  9. Identities in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Ahuja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kashmir has witnessed violent conflict for many years, and India has been one of the main players in this conflict. This study used the method of drawings to assess how this ongoing conflict has shaped the identities of young Muslims in Kashmir. The identities they expressed were compared with those expressed by young Muslims in Delhi. At each location, one group of participants was asked to draw on the theme “Me and my country” while the other group was asked to draw whatever they desired. When allowed to draw what they wished, adolescents in Kashmir drew symbols of regional identity more often and symbols of India less often than adolescents in Delhi. “I dominant” identities were depicted only by the Delhi-based sample. Drawings from Kashmir did not represent high levels of violence or a fractured relationship with the Indian state. Possible reasons have been discussed.

  10. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...... diversity and the geographical dispersion is unstable and depends on the situation. Moreover, in some of its aspects the finding regarding cultural diversity is different from Hofstede’s theory, while the effect of geographical dispersion changes with the difference in communication technology....

  11. A randomized clinical trial comparing advanced pneumatic truncal, chest, and arm treatment to arm treatment only in self-care of arm lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, Sheila H; Murphy, Barbara; Deng, Jie; Kidd, Nancy; Galford, Emily; Bonner, Candace; Bond, Stewart M; Dietrich, Mary S

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the truncal lymphatics prior to treatment of the lymphedematous arm is an accepted, although not empirically tested, therapeutic intervention delivered during decongestive lymphatic therapy (DLT). Breast cancer survivors with arm lymphedema are encouraged to use these techniques when performing simple lymphatic drainage as part of their life-long lymphedema self-care. Self-massage is at times difficult and pneumatic compression devices are used by many patients to assist with self-care. One such device, the Flexitouch(®) System, replicates the techniques used during DLT; however, the need for application of pneumatic compression in unaffected truncal areas to improve self-care outcomes in arm only lymphedema is not established. The objective of this study was to compare the therapeutic benefit of truncal/chest/arm advanced pneumatic compression therapy (experimental group) verses arm only pneumatic compression (control group) in self-care for arm lymphedema without truncal involvement using the Flexitouch(®) System. Outcomes of interest were self-reported symptoms, function, arm impedance ratios, circumference, volume, and trunk circumference. Forty-two breast cancer survivors, (21 per group), with Stage II lymphedema completed 30 days of home self-care using the Flexitouch(®) System. Findings revealed a statistically significant reduction in both the number of symptoms and overall symptom burden within each group; however, there were no statistically significant differences in these outcomes between the groups. There was no statistically significant overall change or differential pattern of change between the groups in function. A statistically significant reduction in bioelectrical impedance and arm circumference within both of the groups was achieved; however, there was no statistically significant difference in reduction between groups. These findings indicate that both configurations are effective, but that there may be no added benefit to

  12. Passado e presente nas relações Colômbia-Estados Unidos: a estratégia de internacionalização do conflito armado colombiano e as diretrizes da política externa norte-americana Past and present in the Colombia-United States relations: the strategy of internationalization of the Colombian armed conflict and the guidelines of North American foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a dinâmica das relações entre Colômbia e EUA, com ênfase no governo de Álvaro Uribe (2002-.... Para tanto, são examinadas a estratégia de internacionalização do conflito armado colombiano e os aspectos da intervenção dos EUA mediante o Plano Colômbia. Como conclusão, o trabalho sugere que as recentes mudanças políticas nos EUA têm causado impacto nas diretrizes das relações das relações entre EUA e Colômbia.This article aims to analyze the dynamics of the relationship between Colombia and United States, with emphasis on the Uribe Government. For this purpose, the internationalization strategy of the Colombian armed conflict and the aspects of the U.S. intervention under Plan Colombia were examined. In the final analysis, this paper suggests that recent political changes in the United States have impacted the guidance for U.S. - Colombia relations.

  13. Effects of hand clasping and arm folding on academic performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxiang Zang; Zaizhu Han; Yufeng Zang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Similar to handedness, hand clasping and arm folding are also lateral preferences.Previous studies showed a variation frequency for hand clasping and arm folding among different populations.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between patterns of lateral preferences (hand clasping or arm folding) and academic performance of middle school students.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTINGS: Cross-sectional investigation. The data were collected in the Beijing Zhongguancun High School in Beijing in May 2007. Data analysis was performed in the State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University during June to July 2007.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 102 senior-grade students from Beijing Zhongguancun High School, including 58 males and 44 females, were selected for this study.METHODS: Different forms of hand clasping and arm folding were recorded. More specifically, hand clasping was either right-thumb-top or left-thumb-top, and arm folding was either right-arm-top or left-arm-top. Students with congruent preference used right-thumb-top-right-arm-top or left-thumb-top-left-arm-top, and incongruent preference was displayed by right-thumb-top-left-arm-top or left-thumb-top-right-arm-top. Academic performances were collected from mid-term exams in six subjects (Chinese, Mathematics, English, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology), with a total points = 100 for each. A three-way (hand clasping, arm folding, and sex) ANOVA was performed to determine the effect on academic performances.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The relationship between hand clasping, arm folding, sex, and academic performance of students.RESULTS: (1) There was no significant difference in distribution frequency between right-thumb-top and left-thumb-top (P > 0.05), or between right-arm-top and left-arm-top (P > 0.05). The distribution frequency difference between boys and girls was not significant for any subtype (P > 0.05). (2) hand clasping had no significant main effect on any of the

  14. Ready to rumble: how team personality composition and task conflict interact to improve performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bret H; Klotz, Anthony C; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Brown, Kenneth G

    2013-03-01

    Although prior work has proposed a number of conditions under which task conflict in teams may improve performance, composition variables have been left unexplored. Given the effects of personality traits on team processes and outcomes demonstrated in prior work, investigating whether specific personality compositions influence the effect of task conflict on team performance is critical to researchers' understanding of conflict in teams. Our results indicate that team-level averages of both openness to experience and emotional stability function as moderators of the relationship between task conflict and team performance. Specifically, task conflict had a positive impact on performance in teams with high levels of openness or emotional stability; in contrast, task conflict had a negative impact on performance in teams with low levels of openness or emotional stability. Thus, when task conflict emerges, teams composed of members who are open minded or emotionally stable are best able to leverage conflict to improve performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:22963513

  15. Children and Security Sector Reform in Post-conflict Peace-building

    OpenAIRE

    David Nosworthy

    2010-01-01

    The restoration of justice and security is a priority of post-conflict peace-building, but children and youth - two groups especially affected by armed conflict - rarely receive consideration in this process. This paper considers how reform of the security sector can contribute to making security provision more relevant to the concerns of young people and more reflective of their needs and aspirations. Security sector reform and transitional justice have been recognized as central elements of...

  16. Unrecognized Victims: Sexual Violence Against Men in Conflict Settings Under International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Dustin Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article casts light on the international law aspects of a largely unrecognized occurrence in armed conflict: sexual violence against men. The article discusses causes and consequences of such violence, and assesses pertinent aspects of international law. The article argues that, to reduce and prevent sexual violence against men in conflict settings, international law should be interpreted, applied, and enforced in ways that delegitimize the prejudicial and discriminatory conceptions of g...

  17. Recognizing Suffering or Resistance? Honoring the Courage of Indigenous Quechua Women in Post Conflict Ayacucho, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Barrios Suarez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on extensive field work in Ayacucho, the area most affected by the past armed conflict in Peru (1980–2000, this practice note outlines some of the contributions to justice and reconciliation made by Quechua women in post-conflict Ayacucho and hypothesizes a number of reasons why these contributions have not been recognized to the same extent as their suffering.

  18. Conflict and Tao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lyall

    What can philosophical Taoism teach us about interpersonal conflict and effective approaches for dealing with it? Examination of selected portions of the R. Hendricks translation of the "Lao-Tzu" or "Te-Tao Ching," and experiences recorded in fieldnotes while a member of a Taoist commune suggest a four-point protocol for managing interpersonal…

  19. Identities in Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    When Danish soldiers wage war abroad and far from home, family relations are strained. Both during the mission and after return, the soldier experiences civil life as unorderly and conflicting with the warrior mindset with its clear demarcations of friend/foe, peace and war, battletime and the time...

  20. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  1. Resolving Conflicts Peacefully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRADLE: Center for Research and Development in Law-Related Education, Winston-Salem, NC.

    Focusing on the theme of conflict resolution, this booklet contains 22 lessons developed and used by classroom teachers at all grade levels. The lessons generally contain a brief overview, goals and objectives, student activities, and corresponding handouts or materials useful in implementing the lessons. Each lesson contains insights into methods…

  2. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  3. Islamophobia, Conflict and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Sally; Mc Cormack, Pip; Walker, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some preliminary findings of the English part of a European Commission Fundamental Rights and Citizenship funded project "Children's Voices" (2011-2013) concerned with exploring and understanding children and young people's experiences of interethnic conflict and violence in primary and secondary schools. This is a…

  4. Leading through Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  5. Intralocus sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, G. Sander; Schlichting, CD; Mousseau, TA

    2009-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict arises when there are sex-specific optima for a trait that is expressed in both sexes and when the constraint of a shared gene pool prevents males and females from reaching their optima independently. This situation may result in a negative intersexual correlation for fitn

  6. Group-based Crop Change Planning: Application of SmartScapeTM Spatial Decision Support System for Resolving Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyebi, Amin; Arsanjani, Jamal Jokar; Tayyebi, Amir H.;

    2016-01-01

    makers to resolve external conflicts in a group while taking into account the diverse goals of stakeholders. The outcomes of this study can inform policy-makers about both internal conflicts within a crop change scenario and external conflicts among stakeholders and provide a unique framework to resolve...

  7. Understanding What an Individual Experiencing Work-Family Conflict Finds Helpful While in Counseling: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Argent, Julie

    2014-01-01

    According to Aryee, Fields, and Luk (1999), work-family conflict has become a prevalent problem in society. Past research in this area has focused primarily on outcomes and predictors of work-family conflict. Although research found that work-family conflict often leads to mental health concerns, few studies have focused on the area of work-family…

  8. Conflict management styles of Asian and Asian American nurses: implications for the nurse manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Davidhizar, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Foreign nurses and American nurses who are culturally diverse make up an increasing number of the US nursing workforce. Of foreign nurses, Asians constitute the largest number. Conflict is an inevitable aspect of human relations in health care settings. Nurses and other health team members with diverse cultural background bring to the workplace different conflict behaviors that directly impact the outcomes of conflicts. It is essential for health care team members and managers to be cognizant of different conflict behaviors as well as different conflict management styles so that strategies can be designed to build a culturally diverse health care team that is able to effectively achieve group and organizational objectives. PMID:15035348

  9. Mainstreaming Gender Into Conflict And Peace Building Through Women Led Madras’s In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zil-e-Huma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Armed conflict has many significant effects on gender relations. Women and girls have special vulnerabilities to many forms of violence. Women bear many consequences of wars and suffer violations of human rights in situations of armed conflict including terrorism, rape, disappearance, ethnic cleansing, family separation, displacement, and social and psychological traumas. Peace building is generally defined as initiatives that are designed to prevent the eruption or return of armed conflict. As argued in this initiative, and as increasingly recognized in scholarship and diplomacy, religion can be used or mobilized to promote either conflict or peace building. There are strong connections among women and peace building processes. United Nations Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1325 (SCR, 1325, recognized that armed conflict affects women in different ways and women plays an important role in conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and peace building processes. Mostly, women’s engagement in religious peacemaking is often invisible because, in many contemporary conflict zones and faith traditions, men tend to dominate formal religious leadership. Historical tendencies of male domination in security matters - and violent conflict specifically – accentuate women’s invisibility. And it is evident that women are crucial in conflict situations, because women’s perspectives, needs and unique leverage are often ignored by policy makers and scholars in the design of traditional religious peacemaking initiatives. This suggests new ways of understanding peace processes and making them more effective. This paper focuses on mainstreaming a gender approach to peace building, emphasizing the interests and needs of women and girls in post-conflict situations. The paper presents a bottom-up approach to religious peace building, exploring how institutes led by women, home based madrassas, can play a crucial role in rebuilding peace in

  10. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  11. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  12. Effects of age, sex and arm on the accuracy of arm position sense – Left-arm superiority in healthy right-handers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eSchmidt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Position sense is an important proprioceptive ability. Disorders of arm position sense (APS often occur after unilateral stroke, and are associated with a negative functional outcome. In the present study we assessed horizontal APS by measuring angular deviations from a visually defined target separately for each arm in a large group of healthy subjects. We analyzed the accuracy and instability of horizontal APS as a function of age, sex and arm. Subjects were required to specify verbally the position of their unseen arm on a 0-90° circuit by comparing the current position with the target position indicated by a LED lamp, while the arm was passively moved by the examiner. Eighty-seven healthy subjects participated in the study, ranging from 20 to 77 years, subdivided into three age groups. The results revealed that APS was not a function of age or sex, but was significantly better in the non-dominant (left arm in absolute but not in constant errors across all age groups of right-handed healthy subjects. This indicates a right-hemisphere superiority for left arm position sense in right-handers and neatly fits to the more frequent and more severe left-sided body-related deficits in patients with unilateral stroke (i.e. impaired arm position sense in left spatial neglect, somatoparaphrenia or in individuals with abnormalities of the right cerebral hemisphere. These clinical issues will be discussed.

  13. The dynamic nature of conflict in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandica, Y.; Sampaio dos Aidos, F.; Carvalho, J.

    2014-10-01

    The voluntary process of Wikipedia edition provides an environment in which the outcome is clearly a collective product of interactions involving a large number of people. We propose a simple agent-based model, developed from real data, to reproduce the collaborative process of Wikipedia edition. With a small number of simple ingredients, our model mimics several interesting features of real human behaviour, namely in the context of edit wars. We show that the level of conflict is determined by a tolerance parameter, which measures the editors' capability to accept different opinions and to change their own opinion. We propose to measure conflict with a parameter based on mutual reverts, which increases only in contentious situations. Using this parameter, we find a distribution for the inter-peace periods that is heavy tailed. The effects of wiki-robots in the conflict levels and in the edition patterns are also studied. Our findings are compared with previous parameters used to measure conflicts in edit wars.

  14. The dynamic nature of conflict in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Gandica, Y; Carvalho, J

    2014-01-01

    The voluntary process of Wikipedia edition provides an environment where the outcome is clearly a collective product of interactions involving a large number of people. We propose a simple agent-based model, developed from real data, to reproduce the collaborative process of Wikipedia edition. With a small number of simple ingredients, our model mimics several interesting features of real human behaviour, namely in the context of edit wars. We show that the level of conflict is determined by a tolerance parameter, which measures the editors' capability to accept different opinions and to change their own opinion. We propose to measure conflict with a parameter based on mutual reverts, which increases only in contentious situations. Using this parameter, we find a distribution for the inter-peace periods that is heavy-tailed. The effects of wiki-robots in the conflict levels and in the edition patterns are also studied. Our findings are compared with previous parameters used to measure conflicts in edit wars.

  15. Irrational beliefs and marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; de Beer, Z C

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the major irrational evaluative beliefs postulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are related to marital conflict, 15 married couples participated in a thought-listing procedure. During this procedure, three idiosyncratic scenes portraying marital conflict and three control scenes free of conflict were identified for and presented to each member of the dyad. Analysis indicated that the conflict-portraying scenes were associated with significantly more irrational evaluative beliefs and significantly fewer rational cognitions than the control scenes.

  16. Information, Reputation and Ethic Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Rohner, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    Empirical studies have found ethic cleavages to play an important role in the occurrence of civil conflict. Surprisingly, theoretical research on ethnic conflict has been very scarce. In the present contribution a theoretical model of reputation and ethnic conflict is built. Depending on the information structure and the reputation cost of defecting, economic interaction can either result in (peaceful) trade or in appropriative conflict. Ethnic divisions affect the reputation cost of defectio...

  17. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  18. ARM7-kehityskortti

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkonen, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa ARM-mikro-ohjain pohjainen kehityskortti. Kortin tuli olla soveltuva ARM-ohjelmoinnin opettamiseen. Työssä myös selvitettiin ARM-mikro-ohjaimen ohjelmointiympäristön käyttöönotto. Teoriaosassa käsitellään ARM-arkkitehtuuria, työssä käytettyjen Atmelin AT91R40008-mikro-ohjaimen sekä Philipsin LPC2105-mikro-ohjaimen ominaisuuksia. Erityisesti työssä keskitytään kehityskorttien suunnitteluun. Kehityskortin vaatimuksina oli, että se ...

  19. Family conflicts and conflict resolution regarding food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...... with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions...

  20. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  1. Does the queen win it all? Queen-worker conflict over male production in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaux, Cédric; Savarit, Fabrice; Jaisson, Pierre; Hefetz, Abraham

    Social insects provide a useful model for studying the evolutionary balance between cooperation and conflict linked to genetic structure. We investigated the outcome of this conflict in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, whose annual colony life cycle is characterized by overt competition over male production. We established artificial colonies composed of a queen and unrelated workers by daily exchange of callow workers between colony pairs of distinct genetic make-up. Using microsatellite analysis, this procedure allowed an exact calculation of the proportion of worker-derived males. The development and social behavior of these artificial colonies were similar to those of normal colonies. Despite a high worker reproduction attempt (63.8% of workers had developed ovaries and 38.4% were egg-layers), we found that on average 95% of the males produced during the competition phase (CPh) were queen-derived. However, in four colonies, queen death resulted in a considerable amount of worker-derived male production. The different putative ultimate causes of this efficient control by the queen are discussed, and we suggest a possible scenario of an evolutionary arms race that may occur between these two female castes.

  2. El negoci de les armes al s.XXI

    OpenAIRE

    López Galera, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    This final dissertation is about the creation of a website which presents an infographic dealing with the global weapons selling. This work analyses cases of different countries, which import or export weapons during armed conflicts of the XXI century all around the world. Regarding the objectives, the main point of this work is that it not only pretends to reach the creation of a website owning a great graphic quality, but also talk about an interesting topic which may help...

  3. [The Italian armed forces health service during the Great War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Walter; Marucci, Anna Rita; Sansoni, Julita

    2014-06-01

    The Great War had a huge impact on Italian society. The organisation of the armed forces health service faced extreme difficulties due to the extensive loss of life of an almost exclusively terrestrial war. In this context, the role of the medical staff and nursing staff was essential, as the example of the volunteer Red Cross nurses testifies. However, this conflict revealed the need to improve the training of the nursing staff, as was the case in Anglo-Saxon countries.

  4. Media and conflict in Sierra Leone: national and international perspectives of the civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Bau

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the media in Sierra Leone. The media and the civil conflict. The evolution of the conflict. The Western media perspective of a "barbaric" Africa. Western media coverage of the civil war in Sierra Leone: the British example. The role of NGOs in news reporting.

    The end of the twentieth century saw an adverse escalation in armed conflict. A characteristic of this was that whilst the majority of wars that took place before the 1990s were fought between state...

  5. Overview of studies on the conflict method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van de & Kraay, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The conflict method is a method which observes those types of (serious) conflict behaviours by road users that are considered related to unsafe traffic behaviour. This international overview on the conflict method has collected several conflict techniques actually in use.

  6. Conflict engagement: workplace dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  7. Economics and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The thesis that war redistributes income within as well as between societies, and that this creates a destructive, bellicose incentive, has a distinguished idea history in Marxism and other critical approaches. In this essay, I will introduce these and contending theories that help us to understand the economic causes and consequences of violent conflict in general and the empirical evidence that has been assembled in support of, or in contradiction to, these conjectures. My survey starts out...

  8. Timing of cyber conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  9. Interocular conflict attracts attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L E; Hessels, Roy S; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    During binocular rivalry, perception alternates.between dissimilar images presented dichoptically. Since.its discovery, researchers have debated whether the phenomenon is subject to attentional control. While it is now clear that attentional control over binocular rivalry is possible, the opposite is less evident: Is interocular conflict (i.e., the situation leading to binocular rivalry) able to attract attention?In order to answer this question, we used a change blindness paradigm in which observers looked for salient changes in two alternating frames depicting natural scenes. Each frame contained two images: one for the left and one for the right eye. Changes occurring in a single image (monocular) were detected faster than those occurring in both images (binocular). In addition,monocular change detection was also faster than detection in fused versions of the changed and unchanged regions. These results show that interocular conflict is capable of attracting attention, since it guides visual attention toward salient changes that otherwise would remain unnoticed for longer. The results of a second experiment indicated that interocular conflict attracts attention during the first phase of presentation, a phase during which the stimulus is abnormally fused [added]. PMID:22167536

  10. Armed, Non-State Actors and Compliance with International Humanitarian Law

    OpenAIRE

    Furuseth, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    How can we explain compliance with international humanitarian law (IHL) by armed, non-state actors (ANSAs)? All parties to armed conflicts are bound by the IHL. Still, the expectations for rebel group compliance with international law are low, because they are, by definition, political entities fighting against existing authorities. There are, however, ANSAs which express their will to commit or comply with provisions of IHL. This thesis seeks to explore why, and under what conditions, ANSAs ...

  11. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  12. Nudging Armed Groups: How Civilians Transmit Norms of Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kaplan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available What are the varying roles that norms play to either enable or constrain violence in armed conflict settings? The article examines this question by drawing on experiences from communities and armed groups in Colombia and Syria. It begins by presenting an explanation of how norms of violence and nonviolence may arise within communities and influence the behavior of civilian residents, reducing the chances of them becoming involved with armed groups. It then considers how civilian communities can transmit those same norms, shared understandings, and patterns of interaction to the ranks of illegal armed groups and subsequently shape their decisions about the use of violence against civilians. The author argues that civilians may be better positioned to promote the principles codified in International Humanitarian Law than international humanitarian organizations because they have closer contact with irregular armed actors and are viewed with greater legitimacy. The analysis illustrates that to better understand civilian protection mechanisms it is essential to study the interactions between communities and armed actors.

  13. Situations de conflit armé comme champs d’analyse des rapports de genre

    OpenAIRE

    Reysoo, Fenneke

    2016-01-01

    Armed conflicts are in the headlines. Yet the meaning of these conflicts for the different social actors involved, especially for civil populations, has only slowly emerged as a field for research. Gender disaggregated social roles and responsibilities can change dramatically in a situation where all the usual social relations are disrupted. During this colloquium, we intend to consider war as a deep social breaking and as gender relations analyser.In the introduction part, gender’s structuri...

  14. The Georgian-Abkhaz Conflict / Chapter 5 of Europeanization and Conflict Resolution: Case Studies from the European Periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Coppieters

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter analyses the historical background to the secessionist conflict in Abkhazia and the prospect of a settlement. The Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, driven by a need for identity and security, is one that failed to be resolved within the hierarchical federal framework of the Soviet state. Abkhazia seceded from Georgia as a result of the 1992-93 war. UN mediation has so far failed to bring a political settlement closer. The chapter describes the solutions proposed and political actions taken both by the parties to the conflict and by the external mediators. It assesses the way in which the conflicting parties perceive the process of Europeanization in their region, the role of the European Union in the conflict on Abkhazia, and possible future outcomes. The UN proposals for a settlement make it possible to envisage the future of Abkhazia either as part of a federation with Georgia or as an associated state with Georgia, but as long as the external powers are unable to devise a common approach to overcoming the present deadlock in the political negotiations, it remains difficult to predict the precise outcome of the conflict.

  15. Phoenix Stretches its Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation The Phoenix spacecraft is scheduled to begin raising its robotic arm up and out of its stowed configuration on the third Martian day, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008) of the mission. This artist's animation, based on engineering models, shows how Phoenix will accomplish this task. First, its wrist actuator will rotate, releasing its launch-restraint pin. Next, the forearm moves up, releasing the elbow launch-restraint pin. The elbow will then move up and over in small steps, a process referred to as 'staircasing.' This ensures that the arm's protective biobarrier wrap, now unpeeled and lying to the side of the arm, will not get in the way of the arm's deployment. The arm is scheduled to straighten all the way out on Sol 4 (May 29, 2008), after engineers have reviewed images and telemetry data from the spacecraft showing that the biobarrier material has been cleared. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Neglected Voices : Untold Stories of Gender, Conflict and Transitional Justice in the Great Lakes Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Theo

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation consists out of an introduction and one book chapter and three journal articles that are based on extensive field research in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Uganda. The three overarching themes of this dissertation are gender, armed conflict and transitional

  17. The (In)visible City: Conflict and Survival in Kinshasa and Bukavu

    OpenAIRE

    De Boeck, Filip; Van Zeyl, Femke

    2009-01-01

    War and Conflict often acquire an outspoken urban translation. Whether being the scene of armed struggle, or the focal point of a humanitarian operation, the city compels ordinary people to cope with the spatial dimensions of violent social change. In a series of four lectures a team of international specialists discusses these contemporary aspects of urban violence in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

  18. Global Agriculture Yields and Conflict under Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, J.; Cane, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aspects of climate have been shown to correlate significantly with conflict. We investigate a possible pathway for these effects through changes in agriculture yields, as predicted by field crop models (FAO's AquaCrop and DSSAT). Using satellite and station weather data, and surveyed data for soil and management, we simulate major crop yields across all countries between 1961 and 2008, and compare these to FAO and USDA reported yields. Correlations vary by country and by crop, from approximately .8 to -.5. Some of this range in crop model performance is explained by crop varieties, data quality, and other natural, economic, and political features. We also quantify the ability of AquaCrop and DSSAT to simulate yields under past cycles of ENSO as a proxy for their performance under changes in climate. We then describe two statistical models which relate crop yields to conflict events from the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict dataset. The first relates several preceding years of predicted yields of the major grain in each country to any conflict involving that country. The second uses the GREG ethnic group maps to identify differences in predicted yields between neighboring regions. By using variation in predicted yields to explain conflict, rather than actual yields, we can identify the exogenous effects of weather on conflict. Finally, we apply precipitation and temperature time-series under IPCC's A1B scenario to the statistical models. This allows us to estimate the scale of the impact of future yields on future conflict. Centroids of the major growing regions for each country's primary crop, based on USDA FAS consumption. Correlations between simulated yields and reported yields, for AquaCrop and DSSAT, under the assumption that no irrigation, fertilization, or pest control is used. Reported yields are the average of FAO yields and USDA FAS yields, where both are available.

  19. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. SOME PROSPECTS ON THE LABOR CONFLICTS

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia Badoi

    2013-01-01

    Managers wish for harmony within their organizations, that the satisfied employees to work in well balanced teams in order to achieve the institutional goals without taking into account the individual and cultural differences, personal or group interests. Conflicts can be classified according to several criteria. This study aims to present the particularities of conflict resolution within labor relations. Starting from the analysis of the conflict concept viewed from several perspectives, inc...

  20. Identities in Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagetic

    2015-01-01

    When Danish soldiers wage war abroad and far from home, family relations are strained. Both during the mission and after return, the soldier experiences civil life as unorderly and conflicting with the warrior mindset with its clear demarcations of friend/foe, peace and war, battletime and the time......, that systems theory is both able and competent to analyze the missing gaps and empty spaces of the competing identities inside and outside the forms of peace and war. Through the use of Luhmannian systems theory and form analysis, the children and partners of war veterans give us the chance to observe...

  1. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  2. PHENIX Muon Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons (∼10-3). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described

  3. PHENIX Muon Arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akikawa, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Archuleta, J.B.; Archuleta, J.R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baldisseri, A.; Barker, A.B.; Barnes, P.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Batsouli, S.; Behrendt, J.; Bellaiche, F.G.; Bland, A.W.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Borel, H.; Brooks, M.L.; Brown, A.W.; Brown, D.S.; Bruner, N.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chavez, L.L.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Chung, M.S.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D.J.; Cobigo, Y.; Dabrowski, C.M.; Debraine, A.; DeMoss, J.; Dinesh, B.V.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Drapier, O.; Echave, M.A.; Efremenko, Y.V.; En' yo, H.; Fields, D.E.; Fleuret, F.; Fried, J.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Gadrat, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T.F.; Glenn, A.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hance, R.H.; Hart, G.W.; Hayashi, N.; Held, S.; Hicks, J.S.; Hill, J.C.; Hoade, R.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Horaguchi, T.; Hunter, C.T.; Hurst, D.E.; Ichihara, T.; Imai, K.; Isenhower, L.D.L. Davis; Isenhower, L.D.L. Donald; Ishihara, M.; Jang, W.Y.; Johnson, J.; Jouan, D.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kang, J.H.; Kapoor, S.S.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kinnison, W.W.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Koehler, D.; Kotchenda, L.; Kuberg, C.H.; Kurita, K.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G.S.; LaBounty, J.J.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lee, D.M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, M.X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lockner, E.; Lopez, J.D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, X.B.; McCain, M.C.; McGaughey, P.L.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R.E.; Mohanty, A.K.; Montoya, B.C.; Moss, J.M.; Murata, J.; Murray, M.M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nakada, Y.; Newby, J.; Obenshain, F.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S.F.; Plasil, F.; Pope, K.; Qualls, J.M.; Rao, G.; Read, K.F. E-mail: readkf@ornl.gov; Robinson, S.H.; Roche, G.; Romana, A.; Rosnet, P.; Roth, R.; Saito, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sandhoff, W.F.; Sanfratello, L.; Sato, H.D.; Savino, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Shaw, M.R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sim, K.S.; Skank, H.D.; Smith, D.E.; Smith, G.D. [and others

    2003-03-01

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons ({approx}10{sup -3}). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described.

  4. Tools for Productively Managing Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Zucker, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    In scientific teams as in life, conflicts arise. This paper aims to provide an introduction to tools and skills to help in managing conflicts in practice. Using a structured approach enables the concerns and interests of all involved to be identified and clarified. It also permits a better understand yourself and others and will help empower those in conflict to find acceptable and workable resolutions.

  5. Information, Reputation and Ethnic Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Rohner, D

    2006-01-01

    Empirical studies have found ethnic cleavages to play an important role in the occurrence of civil conflict. Surprisingly, theoretical research on ethnic con.ict has been very scarce. In the present contribution a theoretical model of reputation and ethnic conflict is built. Depending on the information structure and the reputation cost of defecting, economic interaction can either result in (peaceful) trade or in appropriative conflict. Ethnic divisions affect the reputation cost of defectio...

  6. Managing Conflicts in Relational Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Li; Niko Matouschek

    2013-01-01

    A manager and a worker are in an infinitely repeated relationship in which the manager privately observes her opportunity costs of paying the worker. We show that the optimal relational contract generates periodic conflicts during which effort and expected profits decline gradually but recover instantaneously. To manage a conflict, the manager uses a combination of informal promises and formal commitments that evolves with the duration of the conflict. Finally, we show that liquidity constrai...

  7. Population conference: consensus and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, P D

    1984-01-01

    The United Nations-sponsored International Conference on Population held in Mexico City was both a rejection and an affirmation of a new policy of the Reagan administration. The policy denies international family planning funds to nongovernmental organizations that perform or actively promote abortion as a family planning method in other nations. A compromise statement was accepted urging governments to take appropriate measures to discourage abortion as a family planning method and when possible to provide for the humane treatment and counseling of women ho resorted to abortion. The statement on abortion was 1 of 88 reccomendations approved by the conference. The commitment expressed in the 10-year-old World Population Plan of Action to the rights and responsiblity to all people as reaffirmed. The conference also endorsed family life education and sex education as well as suitable family planning, information and services for adolescents, with due consideration given to the role, rights and obligations of parents. Increased support for international population and family planning programs was urged and World Bank President, Clausen, urged a 4-fold increase in international funding by the year 2000. Most of the conference's recommendations re devoted to the broad range of population policy issues, including morbidity and mortality, international and internal migration, the relationship between population and economic development and the status of women. The purpose of the recommendations is to increase the momentum of international support. The Mexico City conference was characterized by a remarkable degree of consensus about population policies with respect to integration with economic development, the need to respect individual rights and the recognition that all nations have sovereign rights to develop and implement their own population policies. Conflict and controversy arose in the areas of the arms race and the Middle East. The US position on abortion funding

  8. The cultural contagion of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  9. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  10. Parenting style, parent-youth conflict, and medication adherence in youth with type 2 diabetes participating in an intensive lifestyle change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletsky, Ronald D; Trief, Paula M; Anderson, Barbara J; Rosenbaum, Paula; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2014-06-01

    Parenting behaviors and family conflict relate to type 1 diabetes outcomes in youth. Our purpose was to understand these relationships in parents and youth with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The TODAY (Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth) trial enrolled youth (10-17 years) with T2DM and parent/guardian. For this ancillary study, we enrolled a sample of youth-parent pairs (N = 137) in 1 study arm (metformin plus lifestyle intervention). They completed questionnaires measuring parenting style related to normative (e.g., completing homework) and diabetes self-care (e.g., testing blood glucose) tasks, and parent-youth verbal conflict (baseline, 6, and 12 months). Parenting style was consistent across normative and diabetes tasks, with gradual increases in autonomy perceived by youth. Conversations were generally calm, with greater conflict regarding normative than diabetes tasks at baseline (youth: p parent: p = .01), 6 months (youth: p = .02, parent: p > .05), and 12 months (youth: p > .05., parent: p = .05). A permissive parenting style toward normative tasks and a less authoritarian style toward diabetes tasks, at baseline, predicted better medication adherence (8-12 months) (normative: adjusted R2 = 0.48, p Parent-youth conflict did not predict medication adherence. Youth with T2DM who perceive more autonomy (less parental control) in day-to-day and diabetes tasks are more likely to adhere to medication regimens. It may be valuable to assess youth perceptions of parenting style and help parents understand youths' needs for autonomy. PMID:24548045

  11. Parenting style, parent-youth conflict, and medication adherence in youth with type 2 diabetes participating in an intensive lifestyle change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletsky, Ronald D; Trief, Paula M; Anderson, Barbara J; Rosenbaum, Paula; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2014-06-01

    Parenting behaviors and family conflict relate to type 1 diabetes outcomes in youth. Our purpose was to understand these relationships in parents and youth with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The TODAY (Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth) trial enrolled youth (10-17 years) with T2DM and parent/guardian. For this ancillary study, we enrolled a sample of youth-parent pairs (N = 137) in 1 study arm (metformin plus lifestyle intervention). They completed questionnaires measuring parenting style related to normative (e.g., completing homework) and diabetes self-care (e.g., testing blood glucose) tasks, and parent-youth verbal conflict (baseline, 6, and 12 months). Parenting style was consistent across normative and diabetes tasks, with gradual increases in autonomy perceived by youth. Conversations were generally calm, with greater conflict regarding normative than diabetes tasks at baseline (youth: p parent: p = .01), 6 months (youth: p = .02, parent: p > .05), and 12 months (youth: p > .05., parent: p = .05). A permissive parenting style toward normative tasks and a less authoritarian style toward diabetes tasks, at baseline, predicted better medication adherence (8-12 months) (normative: adjusted R2 = 0.48, p Parent-youth conflict did not predict medication adherence. Youth with T2DM who perceive more autonomy (less parental control) in day-to-day and diabetes tasks are more likely to adhere to medication regimens. It may be valuable to assess youth perceptions of parenting style and help parents understand youths' needs for autonomy.

  12. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2002-05-01

    September 11, 2001 will live in infamy. Ideological differences have also led to senseless atrocities in Angola, Congo Republic, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Hundreds of thousands have died, scores mutilated, and millions displaced. These have gone virtually unnoticed for decades. Unnoticed that is until it became evident that these barbaric acts were fueled by the sale or bartering of diamonds for arms, or by more ingenious ways that are less traceable. There is no end in sight. Industry has long recognized that about 20% of diamonds reaching the open market are smuggled from operating mines, and more recently that an additional 4% originates from conflict diamond sources. Diamond identification by laser inscription, ion implantation, or certification protocols are subject to fraudulent tampering. And these applied methods are thwarted if cutting and polishing centers are infiltrated, or if terrorist facilities are independently established. Mark ups are substantial (40-60%) from raw material to finished product. Tracking the paths of rough stones from mines to faceted gems is impractical because some 30-50 million cts of top quality material, or about 100 million stones, would require branding each year. Moreover, the long standing tradition of site-holdings and the bourse system of mixing or matching diamonds, inadvertently ensures regional anonymity. Conflict diamonds are mined in primary kimberlites and from widely dispersed alluvial fields in tropical jungle. Landscapes, eroded by 1-5 vertical km over 100 Ma, have transformed low grade primary deposits into unconsolidated sedimentary bonanzas. The current value of stones retrieved, by motivated diggers and skillful jiggers, in rebel held territories, is impossible to determine, but in 1993 amounted to tens of millions USD. Diamonds over 100 cts continue to surface at premier prices. Borders are porous, diamonds flow easily, and armed networks are permeable and mobile. Diamonds form at great depths (over 200 km

  13. Conflicts on Parade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    These three papers would speak (from a distance) to the themes of ‘Attacks on popular culture, culture debates and wars’, ‘The idea of ‘the people’ in politics and history’ and ‘The visual iconography of the popular (in media, the street, museums)’ from the vantage point of the Northern Irish...... rehearse a master commemorative narrative composed of a sectarian selection of events, reminding a group of its distinct social identity and historical development in a ritual performance (cf Zerubavel 1995, Connerton 1989). The protestant and loyalist master narrative commemorates a seamless sequence...... complicated notions of ‘the people’, and the place of popular culture in divided societies, as parades literally traverse terrains of political and social conflict. We start from a classical cultural studies position that a) culture is a site of struggle over meaning and b) to understand a particular aspect...

  14. Georges Bank conflict resolved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    The International Court of Justice has resolved the long-term conflict between the United States and Canada over claims to mineral and living resources lying along the countries' common Atlantic maritime border. On October 12, in a 4-1 decision, the World Court rejected the United States' claim to the entire Georges Bank area, a region of the Continental Shelf off Massachusetts and Nova Scotia that is a prime fishing ground and is believed to have good potential for oil and gas deposits as well. The disputed area is roughly the top third of the Georges Bank area. The court awarded each country approximately half of this disputed area. No appeals are allowed under this decision.

  15. Otto Hahn - Research and responsibility. Conflicts of a scientist; Otto Hahn - Forschung und Verantwortung. Konflikte eines Wissenschaftlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, K.

    2005-07-01

    The life of Otto Hahn is documented and the time where science started in the mysterious field of radioactivity. The main steps: Youth, studies, first practical experiences, research at Berlin university, first world war, success for atomic researchers, national socialism - night over Germany, fission of uranium atom, menace with the atomic bomb of Hitler, the American super explosive U235, hunting on atomic researchers, diplomacy with atomic bombs, in conflict with conscience and policy, against nuclear arm tests and atomic arm race. (GL)

  16. Conflict Management Strategies in Workplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉霞

    2011-01-01

    As we all know, it is inevitable to be confronted with verbal aggressiveness by employees, peers, and supervisors in the workplace. In order to avoid these conflict with others in the future workplace, this paper is to discuss about the management strategies dealing with these conflicts.

  17. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... FR 80948 (December 23, 2010)]. The original comment period for Release No. 34-63547 is scheduled to... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... 1934 (the ``Exchange Act'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are...

  18. Reward Modulates Adaptations to Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Senne; Verguts, Tom; Roggeman, Chantal; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Both cognitive conflict (e.g. Verguts & Notebaert, 2009) and reward signals (e.g. Waszak & Pholulamdeth, 2009) have been proposed to enhance task-relevant associations. Bringing these two notions together, we predicted that reward modulates conflict-based sequential adaptations in cognitive control. This was tested combining either a single…

  19. Climate Change, Conflict, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have good reason to predict that a warming climate will produce more conflict and violence. A growing contingent of researchers has been examining the relationship in recent years, and they've found that hotter temperatures and reduced rainfall are linked to increases in conflict at all scales, from interpersonal violence to war. Children are…

  20. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...

  1. International Dimensions of Internal Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.W. Metternich; K.S. Gleditsch; H. Dorussen; A. Ruggeri

    2012-01-01

    Civil wars are by definition violent conflicts between a state and some form of non-state actors (Sambanis 2004b). Perhaps not surprisingly, most scholars have looked for features within countries to account for why such conflicts break out and how they evolve (Blattman and Miguel 2010). However, it

  2. Leadership Strategies for Managing Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanski, Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of conflict in small group development theory. Views conflict as a positive, normally occurring behavior and presents leadership strategies involving withdrawal, suppression, integration, compromise, and power. Examines situational contingencies and presents a rationale for strategy selection and intervention. (Author)

  3. Auditory Conflict Processing in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…

  4. Structural embeddedness and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, K

    2001-01-01

    Social structure affects the likelihood of group conflicts, although it has been disregarded by previous explanations. This study extends the intergroup public goods game model and integrates the influence of structural embeddedness and social incentives in the analysis of harmful group conflict. Th

  5. Violent Conflicts and Civil Strife in West Africa: Causes, Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Annan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of intra-state conflicts or ‘new wars’ in West Africa has brought many of its economies to the brink of collapse, creating humanitarian casualties and concerns. For decades, countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea- Bissau were crippled by conflicts and civil strife in which violence and incessant killings were prevalent. While violent conflicts are declining in the sub-region, recent insurgencies in the Sahel region affecting the West African countries of Mali, Niger and Mauritania and low intensity conflicts surging within notably stable countries such as Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal sends alarming signals of the possible re-surfacing of internal and regional violent conflicts. These conflicts are often hinged on several factors including poverty, human rights violations, bad governance and corruption, ethnic marginalization and small arms proliferation. Although many actors including the ECOWAS, civil society and international community have been making efforts, conflicts continue to persist in the sub-region and their resolution is often protracted. This paper posits that the poor understanding of the fundamental causes of West Africa’s violent conflicts and civil strife would likely cause the sub-region to continue experiencing and suffering the brunt of these violent wars.

  6. Threat Is a Multidimensional Construct: Exploring the Role of Children's Threat Appraisals in the Relationship between Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Erin R.; Dadds, Mark R.; Chipuer, Heather; Dawe, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Past research has emphasised the importance of children's appraisals of the threat posed by parent conflict for understanding links between interparental conflict and child outcomes. However, little is known about what it is that children actually find threatening about parent conflict. Children (n = 236) aged 10-16 years were recruited to examine…

  7. Considerations Regarding the Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The conflict has always been present among people. It arises at the level of human relationships and has a specific form of expression, according to its evolutionary stage. Because of the fact that people are part of an organization, they bring the conflict with themselves. Any attempt of efficiently managing an organization without taking into account the fact that organizational conflicts are inevitable are bound to failure. In order to successfully handle conflicting situations, old habits and empirical pieces of knowledge are no longer sufficient. We therefore witness the birth of new theoretical concepts and innovative practices, as well as the coming into being of different strategies and approaches re garding conflict management which are based on a set of clear ideas that we will develop in the following article.

  8. INTELLIGENT RESOLUTION OF COOPERATIVE CONFLICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    First, the concept of cooperative conflict is presented, and the characteristic of cooperative air combat is researched. Then, four methods of conflict resolution are designed by way of the first order predicate logic, I.e., link-up, coordination, accommodation and integration, and corresponding examples are given. A 2 vs 2 air combat simulation was carried out; after conflict resolution, the loss ratio is dropped to 0.54 from the original 1.32, so the enhancement of effectiveness is notable. The present research findings are that the wide conflicts discover the essence of multi-fighter cooperation, I.e., to as fully as possible enhance the effectiveness of each fighter to attain global optimization, and that the possibility of conflict resolution shows the application prospect. The proposed method in this paper is a helpful try to the application of the Fifth Generation Computer in the new generation of C3I system.

  9. APPROACH TO TEAM CONFLICT RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enes Huseinagić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work includes research of team conflict resolution styles in sports by basketball coaches. This research was conducted at the European Junior Basketball Championship B Division held from July 23 to August 2, 2009 in Sarajevo. Research tasks were created with the goal to establish styles for resolving team conflict by coaches in basketball, to determine dominating styles and with the help of a questionnaire to analyze opinion about correlation of the offered styles and their effectiveness. The questionnaire created by Kreitner and Kinicki (1998, has given answers on these hypotheses. Sample was comprised of 14 coaches from 24 basketball teams which took part in competition. The research was conducted through the questionnaire which covered five different conflict resolution styles: bonding, reconciling, imposing, avoiding and compromise. Coaches of tested teams who have dominating styles for resolving team conflicts caused by certain reasons, have shown that hypothesis relating to coach’s different adaptational styles of conflict resolution is completely confirmed.

  10. Bibliography on peace, security, and international conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography presents an annotated list of approximately one hundred titles for public libraries seeking to serve the college-educated nonspecialist in the fields of peace, security, and international conflict management. representative titles have been selected in eight subject areas: (1) arms control, disarmament, and proliferation; (2) causes and nature of international conflict; (3) conflict management, diplomacy, and negotiation; (4) human rights and ethnic and religious conflicts; (5) international law and international order; (6) international organizations and transnationalism; (7) other approaches to, and overviews of, security and peace; and (8) religion and ethics. Three criteria determined selection of titles: the book is in print and is expected to remain in print for the foreseeable future; the book is of interest to the college-educated lay reader with a serious interest in the subject; and the list, as a whole, illustrates the full spectrum of debate, both in selection of topics and selection of titles. As an aid to the identification and acquisition of any of these materials, the editors have provided a bibliographic citation with an annotation that includes the following: author, title, statement of responsibility, publisher, publication information, pagination, and ISBN or ISSN

  11. Eradication of poliomyelitis in countries affected by conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, R H; Hull, H F; Jafari, H; Nkowane, B; Everts, H; Aylward, R B

    2000-01-01

    The global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis is focusing on a small number of countries in Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan) and Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), where progress has been hindered by armed conflict. In these countries the disintegration of health systems and difficulties of access are major obstacles to the immunization and surveillance strategies necessary for polio eradication. In such circumstances, eradication requires special endeavours, such as the negotiation of ceasefires and truces and the winning of increased direct involvement by communities. Transmission of poliovirus was interrupted during conflicts in Cambodia, Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Efforts to achieve eradication in areas of conflict have led to extra health benefits: equity in access to immunization, brought about because every child has to be reached; the revitalization and strengthening of routine immunization services through additional externally provided resources; and the establishment of disease surveillance systems. The goal of polio eradication by the end of 2000 remains attainable if supplementary immunization and surveillance can be accelerated in countries affected by conflict. PMID:10812729

  12. Hydraulic modeling support for conflict analysis: The Manayunk canal revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study which used a standard, hydraulic computer model to generate detailed design information to support conflict analysis of a water resource use issue. As an extension of previous studies, the conflict analysis in this case included several scenarios for stability analysis - all of which reached the conclusion that compromising, shared access to the water resources available would result in the most benefits to society. This expected equilibrium outcome was found to maximize benefit-cost estimates. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. CONFLICT PERSONALITY AS A PARTICIPANT OF CONFLICT DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyranyan Margarita Yuryevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict discourse as a communicative event reveals the characteristics of its participants as linguistic personalities. In this respect, this study enables us to reveal and describe their personal and social features. Undoubtedly, the individual characteristics of participants, their cultural and ideological differences and similarities have a great impact on the interaction process in general and on the use of linguistic means in particular. To better understand the nature of conflict discourse, its causes and consequences, one should take into account that adverse behaviour depends on the personality type and the role the speaker plays in different situations. Conflict personality is referred to as an archetype, transcendental phenomenon common to everybody. The research revealed such key characteristics typical of conflict personality as: verbal (use of language units with "conflict" connotation, the "manipulation" of speech means that convey negative, conflict meaning in particular contexts and non-verbal (communicative aim, communication medium, pre- and post-supposition of the speaker and the listener, mode of behaviour. It also proved that conflict patterns of behavior may lead to confrontation and/or transfer of collaborative interaction into an adverse one.

  14. ROLE STRESSOR AS AN ANTECEDENT OF EMPLOYEES’ FAMILY CONFLICT: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman ISMAIL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of stressors is recognized as a crucial human resource development and management issue where it can have an overpowering consequence on organizational and employee performance. This study was conducted to discover the relationship between role stressor and family conflict using self-report questionnaires gathered from academic staff of a public comprehensive university in Sarawak, Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model revealed three findings: first, role ambiguity significantly correlated with family conflict. Second, role conflict significantly correlated with family conflict. Third, role overload significantly correlated with family conflict. This finding demonstrates that role stressor is recognized in employees’ family conflict. The paper provides discussions, implications and conclusion.

  15. Team negotiation: social, epistemic, economic, and psychological consequences of subgroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir

    2008-12-01

    Large collectives (e.g., organizations, political parties, nations) are seldom unitary players. Rather, they consist of different subgroups that often have conflicting interests. Nonetheless, negotiation research consistently regards negotiating teams, who represent these collectives, as monolithic parties with uniform interests. This article integrates concepts from social psychology, management, political science, and behavioral game theory to explore the effects of subgroup conflict on team negotiation. Specifically, the present research introduced a conflict of interests within negotiating teams and investigated how this internal conflict affects the outcome of the negotiation between teams. An experiment with 80 four-person teams found that conflict between subgroups had a detrimental effect on the performance of negotiating teams. This research also employed a recent model of motivated information processing in groups to investigate possible processes underlying the effect of subgroup conflict on team negotiation.

  16. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  17. Robot arm apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  18. Arm-specific dynamics of chromosome evolution in malaria mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Ai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The malaria mosquito species of subgenus Cellia have rich inversion polymorphisms that correlate with environmental variables. Polymorphic inversions tend to cluster on the chromosomal arms 2R and 2L but not on X, 3R and 3L in Anopheles gambiae and homologous arms in other species. However, it is unknown whether polymorphic inversions on homologous chromosomal arms of distantly related species from subgenus Cellia nonrandomly share similar sets of genes. It is also unclear if the evolutionary breakage of inversion-poor chromosomal arms is under constraints. Results To gain a better understanding of the arm-specific differences in the rates of genome rearrangements, we compared gene orders and established syntenic relationships among Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus, and Anopheles stephensi. We provided evidence that polymorphic inversions on the 2R arms in these three species nonrandomly captured similar sets of genes. This nonrandom distribution of genes was not only a result of preservation of ancestral gene order but also an outcome of extensive reshuffling of gene orders that created new combinations of homologous genes within independently originated polymorphic inversions. The statistical analysis of distribution of conserved gene orders demonstrated that the autosomal arms differ in their tolerance to generating evolutionary breakpoints. The fastest evolving 2R autosomal arm was enriched with gene blocks conserved between only a pair of species. In contrast, all identified syntenic blocks were preserved on the slowly evolving 3R arm of An. gambiae and on the homologous arms of An. funestus and An. stephensi. Conclusions Our results suggest that natural selection favors specific gene combinations within polymorphic inversions when distant species are exposed to similar environmental pressures. This knowledge could be useful for the discovery of genes responsible for an association of inversion polymorphisms with

  19. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  20. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  1. Investigation on clinical outcomes of reproductive abnormalities with secondary constric﹣ tion increase polymorphism of chromosome long arm%染色体多态性qh+与临床生殖异常关系的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂玲; 任春娥; 姜爱芳

    2015-01-01

    目的::目的:分析染色体长臂次缢痕增加( qh+)与生殖异常的临床效应关系。方法:对2080例不孕不育患者进行常规外周血染色体核型分析。结果:2080例不孕不育患者共检出染色体多态性208例,检出率为10.0%,其中qh+患者88例,占42.31%。88例qh+患者中,男性72例,女性16例。1 qh+22例;9 qh+17例;16 qh+14例;Yqh+(46,XY,大Y)29例;46,XY,Yqh+,9qh+5例;46,XY,Yqh+,16qh+患者1例。72例男性患者中存在精子质量问题者60例,占83.33%。配偶有胚胎停育史者共12例,占16.7%,其中2次以上胚胎停育史者共8例,占11.11%;配偶有畸形儿生育史者3例。16例女性患者中有胚胎停育史者7例(43.12%),其中2次以上胚胎停育史者5例(31.25%)。结论:染色体qh+与不孕不育、复发性流产、生育畸形儿等生殖异常存在明显的相关性,不能忽视其临床效应。%Objective:To investigate the association between secondary constriction polymorphisms of chromosome long arm and clinical effects of reproductive abnormalities. Methods:Karyotypes were analyzed from peripheral blood of 2080 patients suffering infertility. Results:Detection rate of chromosomal polymorphism was 10. 0% (208/2080) of patients suf—fering infertility. 88 cases of secondary constriction increase ( qh +) were checked out (42. 31%,88/208). In 88 cases of qh+,there were 22 cases of 1qh+,17 cases of 9qh+,14 ca—ses of 16 qh+,29 cases of large Y chromosome ( Yqh+) ,5 cases of Yqh+ and 9 qh+ simultane—ously and 1 case of Yqh+ and 9qh+ simultaneously. In 72 cases of male patients,60cases of dysspermia were checked out (83. 33%,60/72). There were 12 female cases of nearly embry—onic death,the spouses of 72 male patients (16. 7%,12/72),in which 8 cases of recurrent miscarriage were detected(11. 11%,8/72),and in which 3 cases have a child with a birth de—fect. In 16 cases of female patients, 7 cases of nearly embryonic death were checked out (43. 12%,7/16),in which

  2. Atmospheric effects and societal consequences of regional scale nuclear conflicts and acts of individual nuclear terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Toon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We assess the potential damage and smoke production associated with the detonation of small nuclear weapons in modern megacities. While the number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986, the number of nuclear weapons states is increasing and the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build substantial arsenals of low-yield (Hiroshima-sized explosives. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in megacities, which might be targeted in a nuclear conflict. We find that low yield weapons, which new nuclear powers are likely to construct, can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires per kt yield as previously estimated in analyses for full scale nuclear wars using high-yield weapons, if the small weapons are targeted at city centers. A single "small" nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in the major historical conflicts of many countries. We analyze the likely outcome of a regional nuclear exchange involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal. We find that such an exchange could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II, or to those once estimated for a "counterforce" nuclear war between the superpowers. Megacities exposed to atmospheric fallout of long-lived radionuclides would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Our analysis shows that smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war would rise into the upper troposphere due to pyro-convection. Robock et al. (2007 show that the smoke would subsequently rise deep into the

  3. Atmospheric effects and societal consequences of regional scale nuclear conflicts and acts of individual nuclear terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Toon

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We assess the potential damage and smoke production associated with the detonation of small nuclear weapons in modern megacities. While the number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986, the number of nuclear weapons states is increasing and the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build substantial arsenals of low-yield (Hiroshima-sized explosives. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in megacities, which might be targeted in a nuclear conflict. Our analysis shows that, per kiloton of yield, low yield weapons can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires as high-yield weapons, if they are targeted at city centers. A single "small'' nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in the major historical conflicts of many countries. We analyze the likely outcome of a regional nuclear exchange involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal. We find that such an exchange could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II, or to those once estimated for a "counterforce'' nuclear war between the superpowers. Megacities exposed to atmospheric fallout of long-lived radionuclides would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Our analysis shows that smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war would rise into the upper troposphere due to pyro-convection. Robock et al. (2006 show that the smoke would subsequently rise deep into the stratosphere due to atmospheric heating, and then might induce significant climatic

  4. Atmospheric effects and societal consequences of regional scale nuclear conflicts and acts of individual nuclear terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Robock, A.; Bardeen, C.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2007-04-01

    We assess the potential damage and smoke production associated with the detonation of small nuclear weapons in modern megacities. While the number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986, the number of nuclear weapons states is increasing and the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build substantial arsenals of low-yield (Hiroshima-sized) explosives. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in megacities, which might be targeted in a nuclear conflict. We find that low yield weapons, which new nuclear powers are likely to construct, can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires per kt yield as previously estimated in analyses for full scale nuclear wars using high-yield weapons, if the small weapons are targeted at city centers. A single "small" nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in the major historical conflicts of many countries. We analyze the likely outcome of a regional nuclear exchange involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal). We find that such an exchange could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II, or to those once estimated for a "counterforce" nuclear war between the superpowers. Megacities exposed to atmospheric fallout of long-lived radionuclides would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Our analysis shows that smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war would rise into the upper troposphere due to pyro-convection. Robock et al. (2007) show that the smoke would subsequently rise deep into the stratosphere due

  5. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  6. Fueling war : the impact of Canadian oil investment on the conflict in Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, S.

    2002-11-15

    Canadian oil companies have become increasingly involved in oil exploration and development in Columbia over the last 2 years. This paper examined the impact of Canadian oil investment on armed conflict in Columbia, and suggested that there is a strong correlation between regions of mineral wealth and regions of political conflict. The role of Canadian companies in contributing to the escalation of political violence was explored, and the economics of civil war from a theoretical perspective were examined with regards to the financing of rebellion and the role of international investment. The origins and evolution of the civil war in Colombia were outlined. Possibilities for ethical oil investment in Colombia were also explored. The paper supported recent assertions that in order to understand the political economy of civil war, the role of the international private sector must be evaluated. The significance of primary resources as a funding source for armed groups was confirmed, as well as the tendency for conflict to centre on areas of resource wealth in the country. A case study of Talisman Energy's activities in Sudan was also presented. It was suggested that oil companies operating in Colombia must become involved in local development projects to improve education and health, and should also design security measures from a corporate social responsibility perspective. It was concluded that in order to work towards the resolution of armed conflict there the root causes of the conflict, issues such as land reform, social inequality, and the terms of foreign investment must be addressed in addition to the means by which illegal armed actors finance themselves. 73 figs.

  7. The Alaskan gas pipeline conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savich, P.; Fraser, N.M.; Hippel, K.W.

    1983-03-01

    A new conflict analysis technique is employed to study the dispute surrounding the selection of a natural gas pipeline route to transport gas from the American state of Alaska and also northern Canada to southern markets in the United States and Canada. The improved metagame analysis algorithm is the type of conflict analysis method that is used for providing a framework to study systematically the Alaskan gas pipeline controversy and to put the historical information into proper perspective. In addition, the methodology is utilized for predicting the possible feasible political solutions to the conflict.

  8. Conflict resolution vs. conflict escalation in online markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Bolton; Ben Greiner; Axel ockenfels

    2015-01-01

    Many online markets encourage traders to make good after an unsatisfactory transaction by offering the opportunity of withdrawing negative reputational feedback in a conflict resolution phase. Motivated by field evidence and guided by theoretical considerations, we use laboratory markets with two-sided moral hazard to show that this option, contrary to the intended purpose, produces an escalation of conflict in the form of strategically distorted reputation information and less trust and trus...

  9. Analysis for water conflicts in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Like any subject which involves billions of dollars and thousands or millions of people, managing water involves serious conflicts among contending objectives and interest groups. These conflicts usually spill into the technical and scientific analysis of water resources problems and potential solutions. A favorable or unfavorable analytical outcome can be worth millions or cost millions to a stakeholder, so they have a self-interested duty to contend. This talk examines ideas for conducting analysis to improve the technical and scientific quality of public and policy discussions of controversial water problems. More than just solid technical work is needed. Investigators must organize, disseminate, and communicate their work effectively and attentively. Research must often be designed to be effective in informing policy discussions. Several sometimes conflicting strategies are available for this.

  10. Compensatory arm reaching strategies after stroke: Induced position analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu, PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available After stroke, movement patterns of the upper limb (UL during functional arm reaching change to accommodate altered constraints. These compensatory movement control strategies do not, however, have a one-to-one mapping with posttraining outcomes. In this study, we quantify arm movement control strategies in unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks using induced position analysis. In addition, we assess how those strategies are associated with UL residual impairments and with functional improvement after a specific bilateral arm training intervention. Twelve individuals with chronic stroke were measured while reaching to a box as part of their pre- and posttesting assessments. Other measurements included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Assessment (FM, Modified Wolf Motor Function Test (WT, and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke (UMAQS. We identified arm control strategies that did not differ between unilateral and bilateral tasks but did differ by FM impairment level and by predicted gains in WT but not UMAQS. Increased shoulder relative to elbow moment contribution was associated with less impairment and greater gains of speed in functional tasks. These results suggest that one goal of training to achieve better outcomes may be to decrease the abnormal coupling of the shoulder and elbow.

  11. Approaches to regional security and arms control in North-East Asia: Tasks ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to pave the way towards regional security and arms control in North-East Asia, one of the outstanding issues left over from the cold war, that is, the question of a divided Korea-must be solved first. In settling the Korean problem, the importance of the bilateral negotiation between the parties in direct conflict can never be overemphasized. Over the past few years, fortunately, there has been an accumulation of developments that would have a positive effect on the improvement of inter-Korean relations and peaceful unification of the peninsula. In this sense, the first challenge for the two Koreas is to fulfil the pledges that they committed in the agreements. Concluding agreements is only a first step. They must be implemented fully both in letter and in spirit. Only upon the sincere and complete translation of the agreements into action can the two Koreas establish a solid peace system and move towards unification. This fulfilment will eventually contribute to security and stability in North-East Asia. To emphasize the importance of bilateral negotiation between the two Koreas is not necessarily to exclude the role of external Powers. The four major Powers in North-East Asia-China, Japan, Russia and the United States - could support the South-North dialogue, help ease tensions, facilitate discussion of common security concerns and possibly guarantee the outcomes negotiated between the two Koreas. By fostering bilateral negotiation between the parties to the conflict, they could contribute to enhancing security, confidence and disarmament in the region. At this moment, the most urgent task in the Korean peninsula relates to the problem of Pyongyang's nuclear weapons programme. To solve the nuclear problem, a significant progress on mutual reciprocal inspections must be made immediately in accordance with the wordings of the Declaration. Mutual inspection will test whether Pyongyang intends to go towards nuclear weapons, or away from them and towards

  12. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boonstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts. To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. In so doing, it aims to identify various types of IS conflicts and to develop a framework that can be helpful in assessing these conflicts. To this end, we have conducted a meta-ethnographic study – that is, we synthesized earlier case studies in which IS conflicts are described. We purposefully selected 11 descriptions of IS conflicts and we analyzed the topics, contexts, and processes of these conflicts. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional framework of IS conflicts that leads to a categorization involving four IS conflict types: task; implementation process; structure; and value conflicts. Based on the conflicts that were studied, this paper also reveals that, in reality, many IS conflicts have a hybrid form and develop from one type to another over time.

  13. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., Release No. 34-63547 (Dec. 15, 2010) [75 FR 80948] (the ``Proposing Release''). \\5\\ Public Law 111-203... (Jan. 7, 2011) (``WGC I''). \\33\\ Conflict Minerals, Release No. 34-63793 (Jan. 28, 2011) [76 FR...

  14. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...

  15. APPROACH TO TEAM CONFLICT RESOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Enes Huseinagić; Adnan Hodžić

    2010-01-01

    This work includes research of team conflict resolution styles in sports by basketball coaches. This research was conducted at the European Junior Basketball Championship B Division held from July 23 to August 2, 2009 in Sarajevo. Research tasks were created with the goal to establish styles for resolving team conflict by coaches in basketball, to determine dominating styles and with the help of a questionnaire to analyze opinion about correlation of the offered styles and their effectiveness...

  16. Assimilation, Criminality and Ethnic Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Indraneel; Mukherjee, Diganta

    2014-01-01

    We examine the consequences, of integrating large minorities into productivity-relevant majority ethno-linguistic norms, for distribution, ethnic conflict and crime. We develop a two-community model where such assimilation generates social gains by: (a) facilitating economic interaction, and (b) dampening religious or racial conflict over symbolic and normative contents of the public sphere. However, integration shifts the distribution of both material and symbolic goods against the minority....

  17. Visual Rivalry Without Spatial Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J. A.; Koch, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Visual rivalry has been extensively characterized in the literature. It is thought to require spatial conflict between overlapping visual presentations, even in studies that have found nonspatial (i.e. nonretinal) influences on rivalry. Unexpectedly, we identified visual rivalry in the complete absence of spatial conflict. Participants experienced visual rivalry when we placed a nonambiguous motion stimulus in a nonspatial (in our case, object-based) reference frame. Moreover, a stimulus that...

  18. Stockholder Conflicts and Dividend Payout

    OpenAIRE

    Berzins, Janis; Bøhren, Øyvind; Stacescu, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how dividend policy influences conflicts of interest between majority and minority stockholders in a large sample of private firms with controlling blockholders. We find that a higher potential for stockholder conflicts is associated with higher payout. This tendency is stronger when the minority stockholder structure is diffuse and when the minority is not on the firm’s board. Minority-friendly payout is also associated with higher subsequent minority inves...

  19. Essays on household behaviour at the intersection of conflict and natural disasters: the 2010 floods in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorpade, Yashodhan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines household behaviour at the intersection of natural disasters and conflict. I structure this research around four distinct analytical chapters that use empirical microeconomic analysis to study household-level decisions and outcomes in the year following the 2010 floods in Pakistan. I first examine how does conflict affect household access to cash transfer programmes, and what mechanisms explain such effects. Using IV estimation to overcome endogeneity of conflict expo...

  20. Worse, Not Better?’ Reinvigorating Early Warning For Conflict Prevention In The Post Lisbon European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Franco, Chiara; Meyer, Christoph O.; Brante, John;

    and slower responses due to growing information noise, excessively hierarchical relations as well as an even tighter bottleneck in information processing and decision-making at the top of the broader pyramidal structure. We argue that warning-response will always be a challenge and it is unrealistic to get......The number and lethality of conflicts has been declining significantly since the end of the Cold War, but five new armed conflicts still break out each year. While costly peace-making, stabilisation and reconstruction efforts have helped to end conflicts, no comparative efforts have gone...... embraced the case for conflict prevention in policy documents as well as in the Lisbon Treaty itself, making it a hallmark of its approach to international security and conflict in contrast to conventional foreign policy. Yet, it has fallen significantly short in translating these aspirations...

  1. Using the Military Instrument in Conflict Resolution: A Changing Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of current armed conflicts have grown in complexity, and the operations carried out to solve them are often performed without the agreement of all of those involved. Accordingly, the traditional use of military forces in the resolution of conflicts seems to be undergoing a rapid evolution. In face of this mounting complexity, peace operations began to be considered as broader “military operations” guided by principles that in the past were limited to the execution of combat operations, materialized by the implementation and application of a complex set of techniques and activities. In this new paradigm, the same “peace” operation may comprise a wide range of activities, ranging from conflict prevention to medium and high intensity fighting operations, and including also parallel humanitarian support activities. For this reason, and in accordance with the concept of employment and the functions to be carried out, the performance of the military forces in current peacekeeping operations is based on the simultaneous completion of a set of tasks that are required to attain the required final military goal. In the presence of the wide range of tasks that need to be performed, a military force should have the resources and be organized based on multiple capacities and characteristics. Areas that in the past used to support the actual force have now assumed increased relevance and are perceived as being crucial, given that the main role of military forces is that of creating and maintaining a safe and stable atmosphere that enables the remaining sectors participating in the process to act. In an integrated approach system to conflict, the aim is that military forces attain and ensure safety conditions, and guarantee the necessary support so that other agents can come up with the most appropriate solutions to address the causes of conflict.

  2. The conflict of interest problem in EIS preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States); Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCold, L.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federal agencies prepare environmental impact statements (EISs) on proposals for major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations require that EISs be prepared directly by the lead agency or a contractor it selects. EIS contractors must execute a disclosure statement specifying that they have ``no financial or other interest`` in the outcome of the project. The intent of the ``conflict of interest`` prohibition is to ensure that the EIS is defensible, free of self-serving bias, and credible to the public. Those coming to the federal government for money, permits, or project approvals must not be placed in the position of analyzing the environmental consequences of their own proposals. This paper analyzes the conflict of interest problem faced by government contractors who maintain and operate government-owned or-controlled facilities for which EISs are required. In the US Department of Energy (DOE) system, these are referred to as ``M and O`` contractors. It also examines organizational conflicts presented by current or prospective government contractors who have a financial or other interest in the outcome of a project or program for which an EIS is prepared. In responding to these and related questions, the paper discusses and interprets the CEQ regulations and guidance on EIS preparation conflict of interest as well as leading federal court opinions. It also distinguishes ``preparers`` from ``participants`` in the EIS preparation process.

  3. Conflicts Over "Conflict": Preventing Fragmentation of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Ramanujan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Public international law does not envisage a single source of law; nor does it contemplate a single supreme law-creating body. Conflict between various norms, whatever be their nature, is therefore an inevitability. Such conflicts are one of the many causes that affect the ability of the legal system to maintain stability and accountability. Resolving such conflicts is essential to ensure that any system does not fall under its own weight. The importance of resolving conflicts is amplified in the context of the public international law regime, which consists of a number of sub-systems, thereby resulting in a higher probability of conflicts. Equally important to the issue of resolving conflict is identifying when the solution is to be applied. After all, what good is any “ultimate answer” without identifying the “ultimate question”! In other words, one must first identify the existence of a conflict to resolve it. Very few publicists of international repute have, however, dealt with this issue, in particular, in sufficient substantive detail. Despite the limited number of opinions, there is, unfortunately, no consensus on this topic. The present comment portrays the author’s view on this issue. In this comment, the question has been analyzed with a very simple policy objective: avoiding fragmentation of international law. The author’s views are presented by way of critically examining the opinion of Joost Pauwelyn, a noted scholar in this field, who has most recently dealt with this issue in a comprehensive manner. Moulded into this crtique are three hypothetical scenarios that would allow the reader to grasp the significance of the question.

  4. New Technology and the Prevention of Violence and Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mancini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amid unprecedented growth in access to information communication technologies (ICTs, particularly in the developing world, how can international actors, governments, and civil society organizations leverage ICTs and the data they generate to more effectively prevent violence and conflict? New research shows that there is huge potential for innovative technologies to inform conflict prevention efforts, particularly when technology is used to help information flow horizontally between citizens and when it is integrated into existing civil society initiatives.1 However, new technologies are not a panacea for preventing and reducing violence and conflict. In fact, failure to consider the possible knock-on effects of applying a specific technology can lead to fatal outcomes in violent settings. In addition, employing new technologies for conflict prevention can produce very different results depending on the context in which they are applied and whether or not those using the technology take that context into account. This is particularly true in light of the dramatic changes underway in the landscapes of violence and conflict on a global level. As such, instead of focusing on supply-driven technical fixes, those undertaking prevention initiatives should let the context inform what kind of technology is needed and what kind of approach will work best.

  5. An Experimental Analysis of Asymmetric Power in Conflict Bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Reed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Demands and concessions in a multi-stage bargaining process are shaped by the probabilities that each side will prevail in an impasse. Standard game-theoretic predictions are quite sharp: demands are pushed to the precipice with nothing left on the table, but there is no conflict regardless of the degree of power asymmetry. Indeed, there is no delay in reaching an agreement that incorporates the (unrealized costs of delay and conflict. A laboratory experiment has been used to investigate the effects of power asymmetries on conflict rates in a two-stage bargaining game that is (if necessary followed by conflict with a random outcome. Observed demands at each stage are significantly correlated with power, as measured by the probability of winning in the event of disagreement. Demand patterns, however, are flatter than theoretical predictions, and conflict occurs in a significant proportion of the interactions, regardless of the degree of the power asymmetry. To address these deviations from the standard game-theoretic predictions, we also estimated a logit quantal response model, which generated the qualitative patterns that are observed in the data. This one-parameter generalization of the Nash equilibrium permits a deconstruction of the strategic incentives that cause demands to be less responsive to power asymmetries than Nash predictions.

  6. Job factors and Work Outcomes of Public Sector Expatriates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Fenner, Jr., Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    with job satisfaction, making it a more important job factor than role conflict, role overload or role discretion. While role clarity may have a similar impact on work outcomes of expatriates both in the private and public sector, the findings regarding role conflict and role overload may constitute...

  7. Is work-family balance more than conflict and enrichment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn S; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Zivnuska, Suzanne

    2009-10-01

    This study deepens our theoretical and practical understanding of work-family balance, defined as the 'accomplishment of role-related expectations that are negotiated and shared between an individual and his/her role-related partners in the work and family domains' (Grzywacz & Carlson, 2007: 458). We develop a new measure of work-family balance and establish discriminant validity between it, work-family conflict, and work-family enrichment. Further, we examine the relationship of work-family balance with six key work and family outcomes. Results suggest that balance explains variance beyond that explained by traditional measures of conflict and enrichment for five of six outcomes tested: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, family satisfaction, family performance, and family functioning. We conclude with a discussion of the applications of our work.

  8. Is work-family balance more than conflict and enrichment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn S; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Zivnuska, Suzanne

    2009-10-01

    This study deepens our theoretical and practical understanding of work-family balance, defined as the 'accomplishment of role-related expectations that are negotiated and shared between an individual and his/her role-related partners in the work and family domains' (Grzywacz & Carlson, 2007: 458). We develop a new measure of work-family balance and establish discriminant validity between it, work-family conflict, and work-family enrichment. Further, we examine the relationship of work-family balance with six key work and family outcomes. Results suggest that balance explains variance beyond that explained by traditional measures of conflict and enrichment for five of six outcomes tested: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, family satisfaction, family performance, and family functioning. We conclude with a discussion of the applications of our work. PMID:20148121

  9. 32 CFR 776.6 - Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict. 776.6 Section 776.6 National Defense... Conflict. To the extent that a conflict exists between this part and the rules of other jurisdictions that... conflict between the rules contained in subpart B of this part and the rules of other jurisdictions...

  10. A holistic approach to natural resource conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the field of natural resource conflict management by investigating the holistic context of a conflict case and argues against a simple resource scarcity-conflict thesis. The article takes point of departure in a pragmatic world view of conflicts in Laikipia County, Kenya...

  11. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  12. Sovereignty in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Besson

    2004-09-01

    implied by constitutional pluralism, while also enhancing the legitimacy of the European polity. This can be observed in the context of difficult issues such as constitutional conflicts, legislative cooperation and, finally, multi-level constitutionalism.

  13. Resolving future fire management conflicts using multicriteria decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Bode, Michael; Bradstock, Ross A; Keith, David A; Penman, Trent D; Price, Owen F

    2016-02-01

    Management strategies to reduce the risks to human life and property from wildfire commonly involve burning native vegetation. However, planned burning can conflict with other societal objectives such as human health and biodiversity conservation. These conflicts are likely to intensify as fire regimes change under future climates and as growing human populations encroach farther into fire-prone ecosystems. Decisions about managing fire risks are therefore complex and warrant more sophisticated approaches than are typically used. We applied a multicriteria decision making approach (MCDA) with the potential to improve fire management outcomes to the case of a highly populated, biodiverse, and flammable wildland-urban interface. We considered the effects of 22 planned burning options on 8 objectives: house protection, maximizing water quality, minimizing carbon emissions and impacts on human health, and minimizing declines of 5 distinct species types. The MCDA identified a small number of management options (burning forest adjacent to houses) that performed well for most objectives, but not for one species type (arboreal mammal) or for water quality. Although MCDA made the conflict between objectives explicit, resolution of the problem depended on the weighting assigned to each objective. Additive weighting of criteria traded off the arboreal mammal and water quality objectives for other objectives. Multiplicative weighting identified scenarios that avoided poor outcomes for any objective, which is important for avoiding potentially irreversible biodiversity losses. To distinguish reliably among management options, future work should focus on reducing uncertainty in outcomes across a range of objectives. Considering management actions that have more predictable outcomes than landscape fuel management will be important. We found that, where data were adequate, an MCDA can support decision making in the complex and often conflicted area of fire management. PMID

  14. Intra-Party Dynamics and the Political Transformation of Non-State Armed Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Dudouet

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although non-state armed groups are primary stakeholders in contemporary political conflicts, there has been little research into their members’ perspectives on internal factors shaping radicalisation and de-radicalisation. State and international actors often assume that bringing rebel leaders to the negotiating table or “converting” them to peaceful politicians means weakening, splitting, or dismantling militant structures. This paper re-evaluates those assumptions in the light of rebel leaders’ own accounts of internal organisational dynamics before, during, and after political conflicts and peace settlements. Participatory action research with “insider experts” from armed movements in Northern Ireland, Kosovo, Nepal, Aceh, El Salvador, Colombia, and South Africa reveals insiders’ analysis of leadership and organisational dynamics during armed conflict and political talks and highlights the rational decision-making process whereby proactive leaders constantly (reassess and adjust their tactics (from unarmed to armed and vice versa as the strategic environment evolves. Horizontal and vertical communication between members is critical for enabling collective ownership of transformation processes from violent insurgency to peaceful transition and preventing internal splits and disaffection during peace negotiations. The claim that rebel organisations should be dismantled as quickly as possible during peace processes is found to be dubious, highlighting instead the importance of retaining cohesive coordination and communication structures during volatile post-war transitions.

  15. The involvement of women in anti-establishment armed groups: deviance in the service of a citizenship enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Felices-Luna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies of women’s involvement in armed conflict and the majority of the existing research has gender as its main concern. However, through empirical research, this article will attempt to shows that gender is not a relevant issue when women discuss their motivations and experiences in being part of armed struggle. The interviewees refute the deviant label attributed to them and represent themselves as social and political actors. Thus, the analysis of their discourse leads us to see womens’ involvement in armed struggle as an active practice of citizenship, given that participating in political and war enterprises has traditionally been considered an essential component of citizenship.

  16. Public Perception of the Motives that Lead Political Leaders to Launch Interstate Armed Conflicts: A Structural and Cross-Cultural Study / Percepción pública de los motivos que conducen a los líderes políticos para desarrollar los conflictos armados interestatales: Un estudio estructural y transcultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Djeriouat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The way the people from two culturally very different countries perceive thepsychological motives that lead political leaders to launch armed actionsagainst other states was examined. Three types of possible psychologicalmotives, taken from McClelland’s (1985 theory of human motivation, wereconsidered: motives associated with the state’s power (e.g., increasing thecountry’s economic power, motives associated with other states’ politicalcharacter (e.g., whether neighboring states are relatively peaceful democraciesor threatening autocracies, and motives associated with domestic issues(e.g., appearing as a strong leader able to efficiently fight for the security ofthe country. A total of 442 participants living in Western Europe (Franceand 180 participants living in the Maghreb (Algeria were presented with aMotives of War questionnaire that was created for the present set of studies.Exploratory and confirmatory analyses showed that the hypothesizedmodel of motives holds with the condition that the increasing power motiveis divided into two separate motives: one associated with the economy andone associated with the territory. The motives of war tended to be seen asmore personal and as more associated with domestic issues among peopleliving in Algeria than among people living in France. Among traditional/authoritarian people living in France, the motives of war tended to be seenin a more positive light than among liberal people. In contrast, among traditional/authoritarian people living in Algeria, the motives of war tend tobe seen in a more negative light than among liberal people.

  17. The Conflict Analysis Framework (CAF) : Identifying Conflict-Related Obstacles to Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shardesai, Shonali; Wam, Per

    2002-01-01

    The Conflict Analysis Framework (CAF), developed by the CPR Unit, aims to integrate sensitivity to conflict in Bank assistance, and to help Bank teams consider factors affecting both conflict and poverty when formulating development strategies, policies, and programs. Conflict sensitive approaches that take account of problem areas and potential sources of conflict may help to prevent the onset, ...

  18. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived interparental conflict in…

  19. Fragile and conflict affected states: report from the Consultation on Collaboration for Applied Health Research and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Raven, Joanna; Martineau, Tim; MacPherson, Eleanor; Baba Dieu-Merci, Amuda; Ssali, Sarah; Torr, Steve; Theobald, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Fragile and Conflict Affected States present difficult contexts to achieve health system outcomes and are neglected in health systems research. This report presents key debates from the Consultation of the Collaboration for Applied Health Research and Delivery, Liverpool, June, 2014.

  20. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  1. How to Preempt Team Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toegel, Ginka; Barsoux, Jean-Louis

    2016-06-01

    Team conflict can add value or destroy it. Good conflict fosters respectful debate and yields mutually agreed-upon solutions that are often far superior to those first offered. Bad conflict occurs when team members simply can't get past their differences, killing productivity and stifling innovation. Destructive conflict typically stems not from differences of opinion but from a perceived incompatibility between the way certain team members think and act. The conventional approach to working through such conflict is to respond to clashes as they arise. But this approach routinely fails because it allows frustrations to build for too long, making it difficult to reset negative impressions and restore trust. In their research on team dynamics and experience working with executive teams, Toegel and Barsoux have found a proactive approach to be much more effective. In this article, they introduce a methodology that focuses on how people look, act, speak, think, and feel. Team leaders facilitate five conversations--one focused on each category--before the team gets under way, to build a shared understanding of the process, rather than the content, of work and lay the foundation for effective collaboration. PMID:27491198

  2. How to Preempt Team Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toegel, Ginka; Barsoux, Jean-Louis

    2016-06-01

    Team conflict can add value or destroy it. Good conflict fosters respectful debate and yields mutually agreed-upon solutions that are often far superior to those first offered. Bad conflict occurs when team members simply can't get past their differences, killing productivity and stifling innovation. Destructive conflict typically stems not from differences of opinion but from a perceived incompatibility between the way certain team members think and act. The conventional approach to working through such conflict is to respond to clashes as they arise. But this approach routinely fails because it allows frustrations to build for too long, making it difficult to reset negative impressions and restore trust. In their research on team dynamics and experience working with executive teams, Toegel and Barsoux have found a proactive approach to be much more effective. In this article, they introduce a methodology that focuses on how people look, act, speak, think, and feel. Team leaders facilitate five conversations--one focused on each category--before the team gets under way, to build a shared understanding of the process, rather than the content, of work and lay the foundation for effective collaboration.

  3. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Religious Conflict, Sexual Identity, and Suicidal Behaviors among LGBT Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jeremy J; Goldbach, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This is the first known study to explore how religious identity conflict impacts suicidal behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults and to test internalized homophobia as a mediator. A secondary analysis of 2,949 youth was conducted using a national dataset collected by OutProud in 2000. Three indicators of identity conflict and an internalized-homophobia scale (mediator), were included in logistic regressions with three different suicide variable outcomes. Internalized homophobia fully mediates one conflict indicator and partially mediates the other two indicators' relationship with suicidal thoughts. Internalized homophobia also fully mediates the relationship between one conflict indicator and chronic suicidal thoughts. Two indicators were associated with twice the odds of a suicide attempt. LGBT young adults who mature in religious contexts have higher odds of suicidal thoughts, and more specifically chronic suicidal thoughts, as well as suicide attempt compared to other LGBT young adults. Internalized homophobia only accounts for portions of this conflict.

  5. Religious Conflict, Sexual Identity, and Suicidal Behaviors among LGBT Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jeremy J; Goldbach, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This is the first known study to explore how religious identity conflict impacts suicidal behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults and to test internalized homophobia as a mediator. A secondary analysis of 2,949 youth was conducted using a national dataset collected by OutProud in 2000. Three indicators of identity conflict and an internalized-homophobia scale (mediator), were included in logistic regressions with three different suicide variable outcomes. Internalized homophobia fully mediates one conflict indicator and partially mediates the other two indicators' relationship with suicidal thoughts. Internalized homophobia also fully mediates the relationship between one conflict indicator and chronic suicidal thoughts. Two indicators were associated with twice the odds of a suicide attempt. LGBT young adults who mature in religious contexts have higher odds of suicidal thoughts, and more specifically chronic suicidal thoughts, as well as suicide attempt compared to other LGBT young adults. Internalized homophobia only accounts for portions of this conflict. PMID:25763926

  6. The conflict trap in the Greek Civil War 1946-1949: an economic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulakis, Nicos

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a quantitative analysis of the armed confrontation that took place in Greece between the Communist Party and the Centre-Right Government during 1946-1949. Using monthly data for battle casualties a dynamic Lotka-Volterra framework is estimated, pointing to the existence of a conflict trap that explains the prolongation of the civil war and its dire consequences for the country. To examine the extent to which the confrontation was influenced by socio-economic factors, a regi...

  7. Maternal–Fetal Conflict: Rapidly Evolving Proteins in the Rodent Placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Edward B. Chuong; Tong, Wenfei; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting evolutionary interests between mother and offspring are hypothesized to drive an evolutionary arms race during mammalian pregnancy, and thus, positive selection may cause the rapid divergence of placental proteins that affect maternal or fetal fitness. We investigated the genomic consequences of placental expression in rodents and report that a substantial proportion (20.5%) of genes specifically expressed in the mature placenta are rapidly evolving. Moreover, we found that most r...

  8. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...... al, 2007; Nguyen, 2007; Mweemba, C.E. 2007). The purpose of these overviews was to position the research findings on the extent and nature of local-level water-related conflict and cooperation in the context of ongoing efforts to improve the policy, legal and administrative water governance framework...

  9. The environmental impact of civil conflict The deforestation effect of paramilitary expansion in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Leopoldo Fergussony Dario Romeroz Juan F. Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on how environmental degradation can fuel civil war, the reverse effect, namely that of conflict on environmental outcomes, is relatively understudied. From a theoretical point of view, this effect is ambiguous, with some forces pointing to pressures for environmental degradation and some pointing in the opposite direction. Hence, the overall effect of conflict on the environment is an empirical question. We study this relationship in the case of Colombia....

  10. Conflict Management Training in China: The Value of Cooperative Conflict Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjosvold, Dean; Ding, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Asserts the value of a theory for conflict management training and summarizes the theory of cooperative and competitive conflict and its empirical base. Outlines the theory's specific implications for conflict management training in China. (EV)

  11. A Simple Model of Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Ille, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a simple dynamic, non-symmetric game between two player populations that can be generalised to a large variety of conflicts. One population attempts to re-write a current (social) contract in its favour, whereas the other prefers to maintain the status quo. In the model's initial set up, the free-rider problem obstructs the occurrence of a conflict, leading to a low probability of a successful turn-over. The normative and conventional framework, in which players interact, ...

  12. Conflict, Ideology and Foreign Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Arcand, Jean-Louis; Bah, Adama; Labonne, Julien

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a rent-seeking model of conflict, which highlights the role of ideology in determining whether the government or the rebels take the initiative. We use the model to interpret the impact of a large-scale Community-Driven Development project on civil conflict in the Philippines. The country is characterized by the presence of two rebel groups, the New People's Army (NPA) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), with two distinct ideologies. We use a unique geo-ref...

  13. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  14. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. Actual component design, fabrication, testing, and inspection will be performed by various DOE laboratories, industry, and academia. This document augments WHC-SD-TD-FRD-003, 'Functions and Requirements for the Light Duty Utility Arm Integrated System' (F). All requirements dictated in the F shall also be applicable in this document. Whenever conflicts arise between this document and the F, this document shall take precedence

  15. Behavioral Responses to Interpersonal Conflict in Decision Making Teams: A Clarification of the Conflict Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Felice Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict in organizations plays an important role in performance, but the exact nature of that role remains unclear. Among conflict researchers a shift has occurred from believing that all conflict is debilitating for organizational performance to the realization that there are both positive and negative aspects of conflict. Contemporary research adopts a distinction between task conflict and relationship conflict. Conceptually, a positive relationship has been proposed between ...

  16. Conflict Prevention through Post Conflict Housing Reconstruction: Good Practices and Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, Krisanthi; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘DRR’ within natural and technological disasters context conform to the concept of ‘conflict prevention and peace building’ within conflicts or wars context. Similar to DRR measures within disaster context, it is important to study conflict prevention measures within conflicts or wars. This paper presents such measures within post conflict housing reconstruction. Literature identifies a number of implications of post conflict housing reconstruction contributes on development...

  17. The development of an arm activity survey for breast cancer survivors using the Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refshauge Kathryn M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research evidence indicates that women should return to normal use of their arm after breast cancer surgery. However, it appears some women continue to hold the view that they are supposed to protect their arm from strenuous activities because of the risk of lymphoedema. Many factors contribute to women's perceptions about lymphoedema and their ability to use their affected arm, and it is the aim of this study to explore and understand these perceptions. Methods/design A survey, based on the Protection Motivation Theory, has been developed and tested. The survey assesses whether subjective norms, fear and/or coping attributes predict women's intention to use their affected arm. In addition, the survey includes questions regarding cancer treatment and demographic characteristics, arm and chest symptoms, and arm function. Recruitment of 170 breast cancer survivors has begun at 3 cancer treatment sites in Sydney, Australia. Discussion This study will identify perceptions that help predict the extent women use their affected arm. The results will also determine whether upper limb impairments arise secondary to over-protection of the affected arm. Identification of factors that limit arm use will enable appropriate prevention and better provision of treatment to improve upper limb outcomes.

  18. Mental health outcomes of Mexico's drug war in Ciudad Juárez: A pilot study among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathleen; Vizcaino, Maricarmen; Benavides, Nora A

    2014-03-01

    During the most intense period of armed conflict related to the drug trade in Mexico, forty students attending the Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez (UACJ) in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, were surveyed in this pilot study for symptoms of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. The percentage of participants who scored positively for symptoms of PTSD depression and anxiety were 32.5%, 35% and 37.5%, respectively. Criteria for post-traumatic stress were analyzed separately. The most frequently-reported traumatic events included extortion or robbery, confinement to home, injury to loved one, being in an armed conflict, witnessing a killing or dead body and being beaten. Trauma events positively associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms included robbery or extortion, armed conflict situation, exposure to frequent arms fire, and witnessing a killing or dead body. PMID:25110466

  19. Mental health outcomes of Mexico's drug war in Ciudad Juárez: A pilot study among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathleen; Vizcaino, Maricarmen; Benavides, Nora A

    2014-03-01

    During the most intense period of armed conflict related to the drug trade in Mexico, forty students attending the Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez (UACJ) in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, were surveyed in this pilot study for symptoms of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. The percentage of participants who scored positively for symptoms of PTSD depression and anxiety were 32.5%, 35% and 37.5%, respectively. Criteria for post-traumatic stress were analyzed separately. The most frequently-reported traumatic events included extortion or robbery, confinement to home, injury to loved one, being in an armed conflict, witnessing a killing or dead body and being beaten. Trauma events positively associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms included robbery or extortion, armed conflict situation, exposure to frequent arms fire, and witnessing a killing or dead body.

  20. Conflict translates environmental and social risk into business costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Daniel M; Davis, Rachel; Bebbington, Anthony J; Ali, Saleem H; Kemp, Deanna; Scurrah, Martin

    2014-05-27

    Sustainability science has grown as a field of inquiry, but has said little about the role of large-scale private sector actors in socio-ecological systems change. However, the shaping of global trends and transitions depends greatly on the private sector and its development impact. Market-based and command-and-control policy instruments have, along with corporate citizenship, been the predominant means for bringing sustainable development priorities into private sector decision-making. This research identifies conflict as a further means through which environmental and social risks are translated into business costs and decision making. Through in-depth interviews with finance, legal, and sustainability professionals in the extractive industries, and empirical case analysis of 50 projects worldwide, this research reports on the financial value at stake when conflict erupts with local communities. Over the past decade, high commodity prices have fueled the expansion of mining and hydrocarbon extraction. These developments profoundly transform environments, communities, and economies, and frequently generate social conflict. Our analysis shows that mining and hydrocarbon companies fail to factor in the full scale of the costs of conflict. For example, as a result of conflict, a major, world-class mining project with capital expenditure of between US$3 and US$5 billion was reported to suffer roughly US$20 million per week of delayed production in net present value terms. Clear analysis of the costs of conflict provides sustainability professionals with a strengthened basis to influence corporate decision making, particularly when linked to corporate values. Perverse outcomes of overemphasizing a cost analysis are also discussed.

  1. Conflict translates environmental and social risk into business costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Daniel M; Davis, Rachel; Bebbington, Anthony J; Ali, Saleem H; Kemp, Deanna; Scurrah, Martin

    2014-05-27

    Sustainability science has grown as a field of inquiry, but has said little about the role of large-scale private sector actors in socio-ecological systems change. However, the shaping of global trends and transitions depends greatly on the private sector and its development impact. Market-based and command-and-control policy instruments have, along with corporate citizenship, been the predominant means for bringing sustainable development priorities into private sector decision-making. This research identifies conflict as a further means through which environmental and social risks are translated into business costs and decision making. Through in-depth interviews with finance, legal, and sustainability professionals in the extractive industries, and empirical case analysis of 50 projects worldwide, this research reports on the financial value at stake when conflict erupts with local communities. Over the past decade, high commodity prices have fueled the expansion of mining and hydrocarbon extraction. These developments profoundly transform environments, communities, and economies, and frequently generate social conflict. Our analysis shows that mining and hydrocarbon companies fail to factor in the full scale of the costs of conflict. For example, as a result of conflict, a major, world-class mining project with capital expenditure of between US$3 and US$5 billion was reported to suffer roughly US$20 million per week of delayed production in net present value terms. Clear analysis of the costs of conflict provides sustainability professionals with a strengthened basis to influence corporate decision making, particularly when linked to corporate values. Perverse outcomes of overemphasizing a cost analysis are also discussed. PMID:24821758

  2. Local mate competition mediates sexual conflict over sex ratio in a haplodiploid spider mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Emilie; Olivieri, Isabelle; Magalhães, Sara

    2014-12-01

    In haplodiploids, females pass their genes on to all their offspring, whereas a male's genes are only passed on to his daughters. Hence, males always benefit from female-biased sex ratios, whereas for females the optimal offspring sex ratio depends on the level of local mate competition (LMC), ranging from highly female-biased under strict LMC to unbiased in Panmixia. This generates a sexual conflict over sex ratio, the intensity of which depends on the LMC level, with most intense conflict in Panmixia. Such conflict might lead to an evolutionary arms race, with persistence traits evolving in males and resistance traits in females. Although this prediction is theoretically straightforward, it remains untested empirically. We addressed this by crossing spider mites that evolved under varying intensities of LMC (hence of sexual conflict), to mates from inbred lines. Under high levels of sexual conflict, both sexes evolved manipulative traits to shift the sex ratio to their own advantage. In females, this was partly achieved through changes in egg size. We thus show that (1) LMC levels modulate sexual conflict over sex ratio in haplodiploids, driving the evolution of manipulative traits, and (2) fathers can affect sex ratio, challenging conventional assumptions.

  3. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  4. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  5. Right vs wrong, right vs right or wrong vs wrong? : the concept and history of nationalism in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    OpenAIRE

    Svindseth, Dag

    2011-01-01

    According to Ernest Gellner , nationalism is primarily a political principle, which holds that the political and the national unit should be congruent. Consequently only one nation should live within the state borders. Nationalism involves a strong identification of a group of individuals, and as Ger Duijzings states, conflict is an extremely powerful tool when it comes to creating identity . Within nationalism, Kjetil Tronvoll is crystal clear when elaborating on how external armed conflicts...

  6. Impunity and peace, is it possible to find a solution to the conflict in Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Harvey Cepeda Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transitional justice in Colombia made passes at the level of the symbolic, not only under the assumption of failure, the conviction of the existence of tools to achieve peace and misrepresentation of his purposes as it is also linked with distrust State. Additionally, the dispute against the establishment of a transitional justice model, must start by recognizing the context of the armed conflict itself, since the elements inherited from the transitions from dictatorship to democracy presents difficulties when trying to mediate between the negotiated solution to the conflict and achieving peace versus annihilation the opposite or alternative sentencing. To this end , there is the recognition of the autonomy and participation of individuals and social groups to the development of peace and confront experiences serious violations of human rights, in court, finally, deals with the prosecution of those responsible for major crimes in Colombia, from the limitations of the criminal justice system and the need for demobilization of armed groups to achieve peace, recognizing in this regard that a solution must confront serious and realistic penalties applying to the determination of the causes structural conflict. We conclude that strategies to achieve peace and punishment of those responsible, must arise from community responses and broader allegations against the determinants of conflict.

  7. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  8. The replication-transcription conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Soultanas, Panos

    2011-01-01

    In response to environmental and nutritional stimuli, a whole array of proteins remodel genome architecture, activate or transcribe genes, suppress genes, repair lesions and base-modifications, faithfully replicate and safely separate the parental and daughter genomes during cell division. Negotiating and resolving conflicts of genome trafficking is essential for genome stability.

  9. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in offsp

  10. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  11. Discussing Conflict in Contemporary China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletic, Tania; Bretherton, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The research suggests there is a gap in the peace studies and conflict resolution literature, with little representation or understanding of Chinese perspectives. In a project to address this gap, the researchers conducted interviews individually with 30 participants identified as "emerging leaders," who came from diverse universities…

  12. Intragroup Conflict during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Co-national groups of individuals from the same country can provide members with psychological and sociocultural support when coping with the stresses of studying abroad. This article examines intragroup task and relationship conflict that occurred in one co-national group during a 14-week short-term study abroad program. Findings reveal the…

  13. The paradox of intragroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Franciscus Remendus Cornelis de

    2013-01-01

    During group decision making, people often experience disagreements in which they need to choose between their own viewpoint and the viewpoint of another group member, for example, when cabinet members disagree about the best decision to tackle a crisis. These intragroup conflicts often pose a parad

  14. Does conflict shatter trust or does trust obliterate conflict? Revisiting the relationships between team diversity, conflict, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.; Schruijer, S.G.L.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the interplay between trust and conflict as antecedents of team effectiveness. In the first cross-sectional study, two alternative path models are tested in a sample of 174 teams (897 participants) with the emergent states of task conflict, relationship conflict, and trust acti

  15. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  16. [Apothecaries' arms of Voltaire's family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigneau, M

    1998-01-01

    Apothecaries of Voltaire's family can be divided into two groups. Marceton Family: Claude Marceton, Hierosme and Pierre Testefolle, from Thouars. Arouet family: Jehan Arouet, Pierre Rochard and Jean Gougeard. Five of those apothecaries beand arms. PMID:11625327

  17. Links between Conflict Management Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the implications of my research on conflict management for self improvement and for practitioners who work to improve the conflict management of others. I also note how my experiences with practitioners have informed my research.

  18. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  19. Computer aided control of a mechanical arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Zermuehlen, r. O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for computer-aided remote control of a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm involved in the on-orbit servicing of a spacecraft is presented. The control configuration features a supervisory type of control in which each of the segments of a module exchange trajectory is controlled automatically under human supervision, with manual commands to proceed to the next step and in the event of a failure or undesirable outcome. The implementation of the supervisory system is discussed in terms of necessary onboard and ground- or Orbiter-based hardware and software, and a one-g demonstration system built to allow further investigation of system operation is described. Possible applications of the system include the construction of satellite solar power systems, environmental testing and the control of heliostat solar power stations.

  20. Conflict and Social Change: Three Sociological Traditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail Rarita

    2012-01-01

    To a considerable number of sociologists, conflict is of utmost importance in explaining social evolution. The present paper deals with three established orientations, which constitute the unavoidable point of departure for any contemporary approach of conflict and social change: Durkheim treats social conflict as a symptom of a dysfunction; Weber and Simmel consider it as a normal social relation, while Marx sees social conflict as the driving force of the entire society. Despite their diver...

  1. Economic Performance Over the Conflict Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Staines

    2004-01-01

    The paper finds a significant shift in the economic characteristics of civil conflicts during the1990s. Conflicts have become shorter but with more severe contractions and a stronger recovery of growth. The overall length and cost of the conflict cycle has probably declined. The stance of macroeconomic policy was an important factor while the underlying "conflict process" remained unchanged. This shift seems related to changes in aid flows since the Cold War: donors became disinclined to prov...

  2. Natural Resources, Conflict and Growth Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Shahida Wizarat

    2013-01-01

    Using panel data and GMM estimators we find that conflict and less developed countries (LDCs) natural resources have a positive and significant impact on GDP in the developed countries (DCs), while the lagged value of the conflict coefficient has a negative and significant impact on GDP in the LDCs for the period 1980-2006. In the conflict model using panel data and GMM estimates on oil, gas and coal production in the LDCs have a profound impact on world conflict.

  3. Evolution in nuclear strategy in US and Russia and its implications in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokov, N

    2003-07-01

    Today, there is a growing tendency in war-fighting scenarios to include limited use of nuclear weapons. New developments in nuclear policy could be attributed to changes in the international situation like the multiplication of low level conflicts and the threat of terrorism. This paper analyzes the evolution of the Russian nuclear doctrine, the transformation of the US nuclear policy and their consequences on arms control. (J.S.)

  4. Organizational Conflicts Perceived by Marketing Executives

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Ana Akemi; Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira, Tania; Cortez Campomar, Marcos

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the conflict phenomenon and examines some strategies to overcome it. Concepts are discussed and employed for the development of an exploratory field survey carried out with Brazilian marketing executives. Results show that conflicts are more felt in the marketing area itself and in near and related areas. Communication is the main source of conflict, followed by different expectations and organizational structure.

  5. Context, Not Conflict, Drives Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Martini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Theories of cognitive control generally assume that perceived conflict acts as a signal to engage inhibitory mechanisms that suppress subsequent conflicting information. Crucially, an absence of conflict is not regarded as being a relevant signal for cognitive control. Using a cueing, a priming, and a Simon task, we provide evidence that conflict…

  6. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  7. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  8. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gendron; C. Hille

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are current

  9. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L. Greer; O. Saygi; H. Aaldering; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives  Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are benef

  10. Coping with Conflict in Educational Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebgen, Mary K.

    1979-01-01

    The author presents ideas on what the school administrator should know in order to successfully manage conflict situations so that the conflict does not impede school functioning, and suggests that proper handling of the inevitable conflict situations that arise can bring about group cohesiveness and unity. (KC)

  11. Marital Conflict in Stepfamilies: Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Clinical research shows that children have emotional investments in stepfamilies and are negatively affected by marital conflict, which can actually be greater than between couples without stepchildren. Stepchildren's perceptions of conflict heightens their need for affection. Views of parents and children about conflict do not necessarily…

  12. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  13. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed. PMID:24436688

  14. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  15. Friendship Conflict, Conflict Responses, and Instability: Unique Links to Anxious and Angry Forms of Rejection Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Carissa D.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) instigates conflict and prompts maladaptive conflict responses within romantic relationships. We tested whether RS had similar effects within friendships (N = 262, X[subscript age] = 11.7) by investigating whether (a) RS was associated with more frequent conflict, (b) two RS forms prompted different conflict responses,…

  16. Cardiovascular reactivity and resistance to opposing viewpoints during intragroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Frank R C; Scheepers, Daan; Jehn, Karen A

    2012-11-01

    This study examined how the outcomes of joint decision making relate to cardiovascular reactions when group members disagree about the decision to be taken. A conflict was experimentally induced during a joint decision-making task, while cardiovascular markers of challenge/threat motivational states were assessed following the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat (BPSM; J. Blascovich, 2008). Results show that individuals were less likely to adjust their initially preferred decision alternative the more they exhibited a cardiovascular pattern indicative of threat (i.e., relatively high total peripheral resistance and low cardiac output) compared to challenge. This finding extends the BPSM by showing a link between threat and rigidity, and emphasizes the importance of psychophysiological processes for studying intragroup conflict and decision making. PMID:22971071

  17. Two-player conflicting interest Bayesian games and Bell nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Haozhen

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocality, one of the most remarkable aspects of quantum mechanics, is closely related to Bayesian game theory. Quantum mechanics can offer advantages to some Bayesian games, if the payoff functions are related to Bell inequalities in some way, most of these Bayesian games that have been discussed are common interest games. Recently, the first conflicting interest Bayesian game is proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 020401 (2015). In the present paper, we present three new conflicting interest Bayesian games where quantum mechanics offers advantages. The first game is linked with Cereceda inequalities, the second game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement outcomes, and the third game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement settings.

  18. Family conflict tendency and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K

    2004-04-01

    A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation. PMID:15154188

  19. CONFLICTS BETWEEN TOURISTS AND HUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism recreational outdoors bring revenue for the major economies of many states, for example communities should contribute with more than 800 billion dollars annually on U.S. economy, where three out of four Americans participate actively in the open air at recreation each year, as well as as well as hiking, biking, camping, wildlife generates an enormous economic power and a multiplier effect in major sectors of the economy. Empirical Research reveals a ambiguity of the feelings and attitudes concerning the relationship and potential for real conflicts between hunting recreational-sports and leisure and other activities of tourism recreational outdoors. Quantitative methods of analysis have revealed many common items, the reasons for and the environment, which are shared by both classes. An investigation carried out by means of interviews and questionnaires revealed three key elements which offers the potential of conflict: group characteristics, behavior and use of weapons for killing of animals.

  20. Nonlocality and conflicting interest games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Anna; Kumar, Niraj; Lawson, Thomas; Santha, Miklos; Zhang, Shengyu; Diamanti, Eleni; Kerenidis, Iordanis

    2015-01-16

    Nonlocality enables two parties to win specific games with probabilities strictly higher than allowed by any classical theory. Nevertheless, all known such examples consider games where the two parties have a common interest, since they jointly win or lose the game. The main question we ask here is whether the nonlocal feature of quantum mechanics can offer an advantage in a scenario where the two parties have conflicting interests. We answer this in the affirmative by presenting a simple conflicting interest game, where quantum strategies outperform classical ones. Moreover, we show that our game has a fair quantum equilibrium with higher payoffs for both players than in any fair classical equilibrium. Finally, we play the game using a commercial entangled photon source and demonstrate experimentally the quantum advantage. PMID:25635538