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Sample records for armata collembola onychiuridae

  1. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorura armata. For comparison three non-Bt maize varieties, Rivaldo (isogenic to Cascade), Monumental (isogenic to MEB307) and DK242, and two control diets based on baker's yeast (uncontaminated and contaminated with Bt toxin Cry1Ab) were also tested. Due to a lower C:N ratio, individuals reared on yeast performed significantly better in all of the measured endpoints than those reared on maize. P. armata performed equally well when reared on two Bt and three non-Bt maize varieties. Although there were no negative effects of Bt maize in this experiment, we recommend future studies on Bt crops to focus on species interactions in long-term, multi-species experiments. - Protaphorura armata performed equally well when reared on two Bt and three non-Bt maize varieties

  2. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, PO Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Griffiths, Bryan S. [Scottish Crop Research Institute, Department of Soil Plant Dynamics, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA (United Kingdom); Caul, Sandra [Scottish Crop Research Institute, Department of Soil Plant Dynamics, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA (United Kingdom); Thompson, Jacqueline [Scottish Crop Research Institute, Department of Soil Plant Dynamics, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA (United Kingdom); Pusztai-Carey, Marianne [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Moar, William J. [Auburn University, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Andersen, Mathias N. [Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Research Centre Foulum, PO Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Krogh, Paul Henning [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, PO Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: phk@dmu.dk

    2006-07-15

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorura armata. For comparison three non-Bt maize varieties, Rivaldo (isogenic to Cascade), Monumental (isogenic to MEB307) and DK242, and two control diets based on baker's yeast (uncontaminated and contaminated with Bt toxin Cry1Ab) were also tested. Due to a lower C:N ratio, individuals reared on yeast performed significantly better in all of the measured endpoints than those reared on maize. P. armata performed equally well when reared on two Bt and three non-Bt maize varieties. Although there were no negative effects of Bt maize in this experiment, we recommend future studies on Bt crops to focus on species interactions in long-term, multi-species experiments. - Protaphorura armata performed equally well when reared on two Bt and three non-Bt maize varieties.

  3. Agraphorura calvoi n. sp. from Venezuelan caves (Collembola: Onychiuridae).

    OpenAIRE

    Arbea Javier I.

    2005-01-01

    A new species of Agraphorura (Collembola: Poduromorpha: Onychiuridae) from caves in the Nort-West of Venezuela is described. A.calvoi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: antennal organ III with four papillae, 32/133/33343 dorsal pseudocellar formula, 3/000/0112 ventral pseudocellar, subcoxae each with two pseudocelli, postantennalorgan with 7-9 vesicles, unguiculus with a basal lamella, tibiotarsi I-III with 19,19,18 setae (distal whorl o...

  4. Proteomics of cryoprotective dehydration in Megaphorura arctica Tullberg 1876 (Onychiuridae: Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, M A S; Worland, M R; Feret, R; Deery, M J; Lilley, K S; Clark, M S

    2011-06-01

    The Arctic springtail, Megaphorura arctica Tullberg 1876 (Onychiuridae: Collembola), is one of the few organisms known to survive the extreme stresses of its environment by using cryoprotective dehydration. We have undertaken a proteomics study comparing M. arctica, acclimated at -2°C, the temperature known to induce the production of the anhydroprotectant trehalose in this species, and -6°C, the temperature at which trehalose expression plateaus, against control animals acclimated at +5°C. Using difference gel electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we identified three categories of differentially expressed proteins with specific functions, up-regulated in both the -2°C and -6°C animals, that were involved in metabolism, membrane transport and protein folding. Proteins involved in cytoskeleton organisation were only up-regulated in the -6°C animals. PMID:21199019

  5. Comparação das comunidades de Sminthuroidea e Onychiuridae (Collembola entre plantio direto em três níveis de fertilidade, plantio convencional e um ecossistema natural (campo nativo em Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil Coniparison of the communities of Sminthuroidea and Onychiuridae (Collembola among no-tillage in three levels of fertility, conventional tillage and a natural ecosystem (native grassland in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Dieter Sautter

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to compare the communities of Sminthuroidea and Onychiuridae (Collembola among no-tillage in three fertility levels, conventional tillage and a natural ecosystem (native grassland. In the conventional tillage and in the no-tillage in area of medium fertility, the community of Sminthuroidea had regular fluctuation along the period of the experiment, but wtth low densities. The no-tillage in area of high fertility presented a populational pick in the autumn; the no-tillage in area of low fertility, in the spring; and, the natural ecosystem, in the summer. As the final mean density of the population of Sminthuroidea, was observed that the no-tillage in area of low fertility went numerically superior to the others, proceeded by the natural ecosystem, no-tillage in area of high fertility, conventional tillage, and, finally, no-tillage in area of medium fertility. Onychiuridae had three populational picks in the no-tillage in area of low fertility: being a larger in the winter and other two, smaller in the summer and in the autumn. In the no-tillage in area of medium fertility presented only a populational pick in the winter. In the other treatments there was not significantly populational picks. In relation to the final mean density ofthe community of Onychiuridae, the no-tillage plantation in area of low fertility was superior, proceeded by the other treatments of no-tillage, and, in third plan, the natural ecosystem and the conventional tillage.

  6. Evidence of Protaphorura fimata (Collembola: Poduromorpha: Onychiuridae) feeding on germinating lettuce in the Salinas Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V; Bettiga, Christopher; Ramirez, Christian; Soto-Adames, Felipe N

    2015-02-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the impact of Protaphorura fimata Gisin (Family: Onychiuridae) feeding on seeds and germinating seedlings of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae). First, various densities of P. fimata were incubated with 25 lettuce seeds for 7 d and feeding injury was evaluated in three soilless arena experiments. As a second step, 100 P. fimata were incubated with 25 lettuce seeds in three arena experiments with soil media. Finally, in a commercial field the incidence and impact of P. fimata on recently planted lettuce was assessed following applications of pyrethroid-insecticides: 2 d before planting, at planting, and 20 d later. In experiments without soil, the number of ungerminated seeds, feeding injury sites, and plants with injury were significantly greater in arenas with P. fimata than without. Similarly, the number of germinated seedlings, shoot fresh, and dry weights, and the length and width of fully opened-leaves were greater in arenas without than with P. fimata in assays with soil. In the field, P. fimata densities were significantly lower in beds that received insecticides at 2 d before and at planting than in untreated beds. Also, the fresh and dry weights of lettuce plants were significantly greater in the beds that received insecticide than in untreated. The results clearly show that P. fimata is a pest of lettuce and can cause severe feeding injury to germinating seeds or seedlings, thereby reducing their growth rate. The potential implications of P. fimata feeding and feeding injury characteristics are discussed. PMID:26470124

  7. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, L.-H.; Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.;

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorura...

  8. 三江平原棘跳对环境温度的响应研究%Temperature Response of Local Soil Springtail Protaphorura bicampata(Gisin,1956) (Collembola:Onychiuridae) in Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 王雪峰; 常亮; 高梅香; 孙新; 吴东辉

    2016-01-01

    Soil Collembola is one of vital meso-faunal invertebrates in soil ecosystem and most important compartment of soil biodiversi-ty.The knowledge of survival strategy of Collembola is helpful for understanding the transforming procession of terrestrial ecosystem and mechanism of regional maintaining of biological diversity.Low temperature adaptation is one of the important issues of survival strategy of Collembola in wetland of Sanjiang Area, Northeast China.The soil fauna investigated in Sanjiang Plain showed that the species Prot-aphorura bicampata ( Gisin, 1956) was the dominant Collembola population in the cultivated field and the wetland of Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that the most favorable temperature for growing and eggs hatching rate of P.bicampata (Gisin, 1956) was 25℃, but the optimal breeding temperature was 20℃.When temperature was below 15℃, the growing slowed down and breeding stopped. The results illustrated that the dominant Collembola, P.bicampata ( Gisin, 1956) was not an extreme winter active species compared to some Antarctic collembola species which can live even below -30℃.P.bicampata ( Gisin, 1956) might overwinter via eggs but not adults and the main survival strategy might be dormancy or vertical migration.As a behavior adaptation, vertical migration might be fundamental for over-wintering.%土壤跳虫是土壤中重要的无脊椎动物类群之一,对其种群生存策略的认识有利于理解陆地生态系统的演替过程及区域生物多样性维持机制。温度适应是跳虫重要的生存策略之一。在对三江平原野外土壤动物群落调查过程中,发现真土生棘跳(Protaphorura bicampata (Gisin,1956))是农田及湿地中的重要种群之一,具有区域代表性。文章研究了该种棘跳在不同温度下的生长及发育情况,从其最适生长、发育温度的角度探讨三江平原温度对区域生物多样性维持及土壤动物群落形成的影响机制。结

  9. Brain organization in Collembola (springtails).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2011-07-01

    Arthropoda is comprised of four major taxa: Hexapoda, Crustacea, Myriapoda and Chelicerata. Although this classification is widely accepted, there is still some debate about the internal relationships of these groups. In particular, the phylogenetic position of Collembola remains enigmatic. Some molecular studies place Collembola into a close relationship to Protura and Diplura within the monophyletic Hexapoda, but this placement is not universally accepted, as Collembola is also regarded as either the sister group to Branchiopoda (a crustacean taxon) or to Pancrustacea (crustaceans + hexapods). To contribute to the current debate on the phylogenetic position of Collembola, we examined the brains in three collembolan species: Folsomia candida, Protaphorura armata and Tetrodontophora bielanensis, using antennal backfills, series of semi-thin sections, and immunostaining technique with several antisera, in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions. We identified several neuroanatomical structures in the collembolan brain, including a fan-shaped central body showing a columnar organization, a protocerebral bridge, one pair of antennal lobes with 20-30 spheroidal glomeruli each, and a structure, which we interpret as a simply organized mushroom body. The results of our neuroanatomical study are consistent with the phylogenetic position of Collembola within the Hexapoda and do not contradict the hypothesis of a close relationship of Collembola, Protura and Diplura. PMID:21420507

  10. 中国上海棘(虫兆)属一新种(弹尾目:棘(虫兆)科)%A NEW SPECIES OF ONYCHIURUS FROM SHANGHAI,CHINA (COLLEMBOLA:ONYCHIURIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳巧云; 尹文英

    2000-01-01

    During the course of a faunal study of Collembola in Shanghai,Southeast China,a new species of the genus Onychiurus was found from Shanghai Botanical Garden.The species is named as Onychiurus tamurai and described below.%描述了采自上海地区的棘(虫兆)属一新种,田村氏棘(虫兆)Onychiurus,tamurai,sp.nov..新种与依田氏棘(虫兆)O.yodai,Yosii,1966非常相似.但可以根据触角基部的假眼数目、腹管上毛的数目以及后爪中小爪与爪长度比值不同,将二者区分开.模式标本存放在中国科学院上海昆虫研究所标本馆.

  11. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  12. Effects of Afforestation with Pines on Collembola Diversity in the Limestone hills of Szárhalom (West Hungary)

    OpenAIRE

    TÓTH, Viktória; WINKLER, Dániel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the responses of collembolan communities to pine afforestation in an area formerly characterized by a mosaic of autochthonous downy oak woodland and steppe meadows. Study sites were selected in mixed stands of black pine and Scots pine and control samples were taken from downy oak stands and open steppe meadows. A total of 1884 Collembola specimens belonging to 66 species were collected. Three species, namely Protaphorura pannonica (Onychiuridae), Tomocerus mixtus (Tomoceridae...

  13. Avoidance of low doses of naphthalene by Collembola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boitaud, Laetitia [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Salmon, Sandrine [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Bourlette, Celine [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France)]. E-mail: jean-francois.ponge@wanadoo.fr

    2006-02-15

    The introduction of behavioural aspects of soil animals in ecological risk assessment would allow us to better assess soil quality, all the more if a range of animal populations are considered. We compared the avoidance behaviour of several strains of springtails (Arthropoda: Collembola) obtained from different soils. Naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), widely represented in soils polluted with hydrocarbons, was tested in aqueous solutions on nine springtail species issuing from four sites. Fine quartz sand saturated with an aqueous solution of naphthalene was avoided by most of the tested species, avoidance being, however, detected down to a concentration of 0.030 mg L{sup -1}. Folsomia candida (Isotomidae) was shown to be relatively tolerant to pollutants compared to other Collembola such as Mesaphorura macrochaeta, Mesaphorura yosii (Onychiuridae), Parisotoma notabilis (Isotomidae) and Arrhopalites caecus (Arrhopalitidae). Differences between strains could not be explained by properties of the original soils. - PAH avoidance by soil springtails is species-specific and differs among populations of the same species.

  14. Glycolipids from the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al-Fadhli, A.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    Three distinct fractions containing polar glycolipids (PF1–3) were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of crude methanolic extract of red alga Chondria armata (Kütz.) Okamura on gel chromatography over Sephadex LH20. Their structure...

  15. Naalijst van Nederlandsche Collembola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitendijk, A.M.

    1930-01-01

    Aan het slot van zijn dissertatie geeft J. TH. OUDEMANS in 1886 een lijst van Nederlandsche Thysanura en Collembola; deze lijst wordt door denzelfden schrijver in het hoofdstuk Collembola in „De Nederlandsche Insecta" (1900) met eenige soorten aangevuld. Verder vinden we, voor zoover mij bekend, in

  16. New bromotriterpene polyethers from the Indian alga Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Scognamiglio, G.; Cimino, G.

    Six new bromotriterpene polyethers, armatol A-F (1-6), with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from the Indian Ocean red alga Chondria armata. The structures were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, in particular 1D- and 2D-NMR...

  17. Protaphorura zlatiborensis, a new cave-dwelling species (Onychiuridae, Collembola from the Balkan peninsula (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A cave collembolan, new to science, Protaphorura zlatiborensis sp. n., is described from Serbia, thoroughly illustrated, and diagnosed. Its interrelationships with other species, geographic distribution, and origin are briefly discussed.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide and ecdysone in the cryoprotective dehydration strategy of Megaphorura arctica (Onychiuridae: Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana; Petri, Edward T; Kojić, Danijela; Purać, Jelena; Popović, Zeljko D; Worland, Roger M; Clark, Melody S; Mojović, Miloš; Blagojević, Duško P

    2013-02-01

    The Arctic springtail, Megaphorura arctica, survives sub-zero temperatures in a dehydrated state via trehalose-dependent cryoprotective dehydration. Regulation of trehalose biosynthesis is complex; based in part on studies in yeast and fungi, its connection with oxidative stress caused by exposure of cells to oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), or dehydration, is well documented. In this respect, we measured the amount of H₂O₂ and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutases: copper, zinc--CuZnSOD and manganese containing--MnSOD, and catalase--CAT), as the regulatory components determining H₂O₂ concentrations, in Arctic springtails incubated at 5 °C (control) versus -2 °C (threshold temperature for trehalose biosynthesis). Because ecdysone also stimulates trehalose production in insects and regulates the expression of genes involved in redox homeostasis and antioxidant protection in Drosophila, we measured the levels of the active physiological form of ecdysone--20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). Significantly elevated H₂O₂ and 20-HE levels were observed in M. arctica incubated at -2 °C, supporting a link between ecdysone, H₂O₂, and trehalose levels during cryoprotective dehydration. CAT activity was found to be significantly lower in M. arctica incubated at -2 °C versus 5 °C, suggesting reduced H₂O₂ breakdown. Furthermore, measurement of the free radical composition in Arctic springtails incubated at 5 °C (controls) versus -2 °C by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy revealed melanin-derived free radicals at -2 °C, perhaps an additional source of H₂O₂. Our results suggest that H₂O₂ and ecdysone play important roles in the cryoprotective dehydration process in M. arctica, linked with the regulation of trehalose biosynthesis. PMID:23143920

  19. Effects of Afforestation with Pines on Collembola Diversity in the Limestone hills of Szárhalom (West Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÓTH, Viktória

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the responses of collembolan communities to pine afforestation in an area formerly characterized by a mosaic of autochthonous downy oak woodland and steppe meadows. Study sites were selected in mixed stands of black pine and Scots pine and control samples were taken from downy oak stands and open steppe meadows. A total of 1884 Collembola specimens belonging to 66 species were collected. Three species, namely Protaphorura pannonica (Onychiuridae, Tomocerus mixtus (Tomoceridae and Isotoma caerulea (Isotomidae proved to be new to the Hungarian fauna. There are typical Collembola communities which are specific to different habitat types where species of a given composition can only or predominantly be found in that habitat, as well as some basic common species which occur in every habitat. The highest species richness (41 was found in steppe meadows, considerably lower (34 in downy oak forests, reaching the lowest value (25 in pine plantations. Although several forest species present in the oak woodland were completely missing from the pine forests, there was no significant difference between the Collembola diversities of the two forest habitats. The difference became more prominent in collembolan abundance which resulted in less than half of individuals/m2 in pine plantations compared to the soils of downy oak forests, most likely due to the changed soil conditions, especially of humus characteristics, caused by the pine needle litter. Jaccard similarity measure indicated approximately equal similarity (0.24–0.28 for paired comparison, suggesting that a relatively constant 'basic Collembola community' determined by the soil type typical for the area is present; while dissimilarity in communities between sites are partly provided by spatial heterogeneity of open and forest habitats and by the difference of the vegetation type.

  20. Studies on neotropical Collembola, I. Some Collembola from Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Willem N.

    1967-01-01

    Eight species of Collembola are recorded from an ant nest in Guatemala. Two species, described by Denis (1931a) from Costa Rica are redescribed more extensively. A new species of Pseudosinella is described.

  1. Onychiurid species from Wanda Mountains in China, with descriptions of two new species (Collembola, Onychiuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of onychiurid species from the Wanda Mountains in China is presented. Eighteen species belonging to twelve genera have been found, including two new species. Bionychiurus qinglongensis sp. n. can be easily distinguished from other known species of the genus by the absence of pseudocelli on Th. I tergum and fewer number of vesicles in postantennal organ. Onychiurus heilongjiangensis sp. n. is diagnosed by pseudocellar formulae as 32/133/33352 dorsally and 3/011/31120 ventrally, parapseudocellar formula as 0/000/111001+1m, ratio of anal spine/unguis as 0.6, unguiculus without inner basal lamella, and male ventral organ absent.

  2. New Chinese record of the genus Spinonychiurus (Collembola, Onychiuridae, with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new collembolan species is described, Spinonychiurus sinensis sp. n., which has seven chaetae in the distal row of the tibiotarsi. It is placed in the genus Spinonychiurus due to two important characters: the two subsegments on Abd. III sternum and the absence of d0 on the head. This is the first report of the genus Spinonychiurus in China. The diagnosis of Spinonychiurus is broadened and the key to the world species is provided.

  3. Studies on the fatty acids of the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    The alga, Chondria armata, collected from Goa Coast, India has been studied for its fatty acid composition. The analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) revealed the presnece of n-tetradecanoic, n...

  4. Springstaarten op korstmossen (Hexapoda: Collembola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.; Aptroot, A.

    2003-01-01

    Springtails on lichens (Hexapoda: Collembola) From September 1999 until June 2002 an inventory was made of lichens in the Netherlands. Overall, 53 species of lichens, spread over 63 locations were sampled. When these lichens were prepared for deposition in a reference collections the springtails cra

  5. New Neanurinae (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ru; Wang, Wen-Bin; Jiang, Jigang

    2016-01-01

    Three new species, two of Vitronura and one of Lobellina of subfamily Neanurinae (Neanuridae, Collembola) from Central China are described. In addition a key for valid Lobellina species is included. PMID:27470797

  6. Typhlocharis vicariantes del Estrecho de Gibraltar. I: Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969 (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Trechidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez González, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This first part about the vicariant Typhlocharis from Gibraltar Strait is dedicated to Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969; a second paper will cover T. silvanoides Dieck, 1869. The studied material was obtained in four field campaigns carried out in the south of Spain and north of Morocco between 1997 and 2001 (Zaballos & Banda, 2000; Zaballos, 2005. In these campaigns abundant specimens of Typhlocharis (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Trechidae were collected in different localities, the majority of them belonging to the species T. armata Coiffait, 1969. Their study and the comparison with the type series of this species allowed its complete redescription and clarification of its status within the genus. Contrary to what has been considered traditionally, the marginal umbilicate series of elytra in T. armata is composed of three, instead of four posterior setae. The taxonomical affinities of this species are established, the morphological weight of the umbilicate group of elytral setae as a lineage and species group defining character is discussed, and the theory of Jeanne (1973 about the relation between shortening of elytra and umbilicate series reduction with a decrease in body size is revised. The dispersal abilities are evaluated and a biogeographical explanation for the new distribution of the species is proposed.Esta primera parte sobre las especies de Typhlocharis vicariantes del Estrecho de Gibraltar está dedicada a Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969; mientras que en un segundo artículo se tratará T. silvanoides Dieck, 1869. El material estudiado procede de cuatro campañas entomológicas realizadas en el sur de España y en el norte de Marruecos entre 1997 y 2001 (Zaballos & Banda, 2000; Zaballos, 2005. En estas campañas se recolectaron, en localidades diferentes, abundantes ejemplares de Typhlocharis (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Trechidae, la mayoría de los cuales han resultado pertenecer a la especie T. armata Coiffait, 1969. Su estudio y

  7. Antiproliferative activity of VLC fractions obtained from Asparagopsis armata associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fonseca Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies are showing the presence of bioactive compounds in marine organisms, such as algae and algae associated bacteria. Cancer is one of the major causes of death in the world, consequently research for new antitumor compounds is continuous and have high importance for the human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of Shewanella sp. associated bacteria from Asparagopsis armata. Crude extract of associated bacteria was obtained with methanol and dichloromethane (1:1 extraction. Then the crude extract was fractioned by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC using cyclohexane with increasing amounts of 25% of ethyl acetate, in order to isolate different compounds obtained five fractions (F1-F5. The cell viability and the cell proliferation studies were performed on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 cells according to MTT method. In cytotoxicity assay (1mg/ml; 24 hours, the highest reduction of MCF-7 viability was induced by F2 and F3 fractions (53.6% and 48.6% respectively. On the other hand in cell proliferation assay (1mg/ml; 24 hours, all fractions showed anti-proliferative activity (1mg/mL, however the highest inhibition of MCF-7 proliferation was exhibited by F3 and F5 fractions, 15% and 17,7%, respectively. These results suggest that the Shewanella sp. associated bacteria from Asparagopsis armata can be an interesting source of new antitumor drugs.

  8. Assessment of Invasiveness of the Orange Keyhole Sponge Mycale Armata in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii Based on Surveys 2004-2005 (NODC Accession 0002602)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Orange Keyhole Sponge, Mycale armata Thiele, was unknown in Hawaii prior to 1996. First reported in Pearl Harbor, it now occurs in virtually every commercial...

  9. Assessment of invasiveness of the Orange Keyhole Sponge, Mycale Armata, in Kaneohe Bay Oahu, Hawaii, based on surveys 2004-2005 (NODC Accession 0002602)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Orange Keyhole Sponge, Mycale armata Thiele, was unknown in Hawaii prior to 1996. First reported in Pearl Harbor, it now occurs in virtually every commercial...

  10. Galactan polysaccharides extraction from invasive algae Asparagopsis armata (Harvey of the Peniche coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sofia Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine macroalgae are important sources of sulfated polysaccharides with different structure according to each species of algae. These compounds from the seaweeds of the division Rhodophyta are mainly galactans consisting entirely of galactose or modified galactose units. Galactans, like agar and carrageenan have important biotechnological and commercial applications in several industries. The red seaweed Asparagopsis armata (Harvey, originally from the Pacific Ocean, is well established in Peniche beaches (west of Portugal and other European locations and was classified as an invasive species. These red algae show complex hybrid galactans in their composition. The water–soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the gametophyte form of the seaweed, collected in March 2013 from Peniche coast, using a hot water extraction procedure. The yield (% of the extraction and the galactose ratio content (mmol glucose % were calculated. The polysaccharides were characterized by Infrared spectroscopy. The yield of polysaccharides was 16% and the calculated galactose ratio was 0.30 mmol glucose %. No significant statistical differences between the extraction procedures and the yield result were found. The FTIR spectra presented different bands, such as a band at 843.59 cm-1, characteristic of C4-O-S in galactose unit and a band at 764.68 cm-1 of C2-O-S (3.6-anidrogalactose. The complex hybrid galactans extracted from A. armata are easily obtained from simple extraction procedures. Nevertheless, a better molecular characterization is required, in order to determine the potential of these seaweeds as a galactan source, and compare these polysaccharides with other galactans obtained from other Rodophyta species.

  11. Ecological distribution of collembola in the litter of Tiantong forest ecosystems, Zhejiang%天童森林生态系统凋落物层跳虫群落的生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳亚丽; 由文辉; 易兰; 王向阳; 王强

    2011-01-01

    为了解浙江天童森林生态系统凋落物层跳虫群落的生态特征,于2009年12月至2010年9月对天童常绿阔叶林演替系列固定样地灌丛、马尾松林、木荷林、栲树林凋落物层的跳虫群落,按新鲜凋落物层、腐叶层和腐殖土层进行了详细的四季调查研究.共获跳虫标本15 108个,分别隶属于4目,14科其中优势类群为等节(眺)科Isotomidae、棘(眺)科Onychiuridae和长角(姚)科Entomobryidae,三者共占总数的78.35%.对调查结果的分析表明:(1)4种林型凋落物层跳虫群落随植物群落的演替而发生明显的变化,个体总数和多样性指数均在演替初期较低,中后期较高;(2)跳虫的类群数和个体数量在凋落物中呈现垂直分布现象,总体表现为向下递增的趋势,大量的跳虫个体集中分布在中间腐叶层和底部腐殖土层,分别占总数的33.94%和55.99%;(3)跳虫数量的季节变化为:秋季>夏季>春季>冬季.%To understand the ecological distribution of collembola in different habitats of Zhejiang Tiantong forest ecosystems, we investigated the collembolan community in different layers of four forest types, from September 2009 until December 2010.Forestlitterlayer can be divided into fresh litter layer (L), fermentation layer (F) and humus layer (H), which represent different litter decomposition stages. We sampled 15 108 Collembolas which belong to 4 Orders and 14 families. The dominant families are Isotomidae . Onychiuridae and Entomobryidae, accounting for 78.35% . The results of the investigation indicated that, ① There were significant difference for cmposition of Collembola community in different forest types. The total number and diversity index of Collembola communitie were both biggest at the climax,and smallest at the primary succession stage. ②There was a distinctive vertical distribution of collembola communities in the forest litter layer. The richness and density of the collembola in the litter

  12. Two new species of Allonychiurus Yoshii, 1995 (Collembola, Onychiuridae) from eastern China, with a key to world species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Two new species, Allonychiurus zhejiangensis sp. nov. and Allonychiurus pseudokimi sp. nov., have been reported from eastern China. A. zhejiangensis sp. nov. is particular in the genus as having three pso on ventral side of the head. A. pseudokimi sp. nov. is similar to A. kimi, but they can be distinguished by the number of pso on ventral side of the head, the number of chaetae along axial line on Abd. I-II, the number of chaetae on ventral tube and the presence of basal lamella on unguiculus. A key to the known species of the genus all over the world is given accordingly. PMID:27395511

  13. Subdivision of the tribe Oligaphorurini in the light of new and lesser known species from North-East Russia (Collembola, Onychiuridae, Onychiurinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Babenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a taxonomic review of Oligaphorurini from the north-eastern part of Palaearctic. Two new species, i.e. Oligaphorura ambigua sp. n. and O. duocellata sp. n., are described. Four species, O. nataliae (Fjellberg, 1987, O. interrupta (Fjellberg, 1987, O. pingicola (Fjellberg, 1987, and Micraphorura alnus (Fjellberg, 1987, are redescribed on base of the types and new material, and remarks on other species known for the region, O. groenlandica (Tullberg, 1876, O. ursi (Fjellberg, 1984, O. aborigensis (Fjellberg, 1987, and M. absoloni (Börner, 1901, are given to clarify their generic affiliation. Finally, merits and disadvantages of the current subdivision of the tribe are discussed and a key to the northern species of the tribe is provided.

  14. Ocorrência de Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert (Crustácea, Anomopoda, Daphniidae no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert (Crustácea, Anomopoda, Daphniidae in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes M.A. Elmoor-Loureiro

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert, 1983 is registered in São Paulo State. The previously suggested occurrence of this species in Brazil is confirmed.

  15. The mysid Siriella armata as a model organism in marine ecotoxicology: comparative acute toxicity sensitivity with Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Siriella armata (Crustacea, Mysidacea) is a component of the coastal zooplankton that lives in swarms in the shallow waters of the European neritic zone, from the North Sea to the Mediterranean. Juveniles of this species were examined as standard test organisms for use in marine acute toxicity tests. The effects of reference toxicants, three trace metals (Copper, Cadmium and Zinc), and one surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied on S. armata neonates (\\24 h) reared in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with filtered sea water on individual chambers (microplate wells for metals or glass vials for SDS) incubated in an isothermal room at 20 degrees C, with 16 h light: 8 h dark photoperiod for 96 h. Each neonate was fed daily with 10-15 nauplii of Artemia salina. Acute (96 h) LC50 values, in increasing order, were 46.9 lg/L for Cu, 99.3 lg/L for Cd, 466.7 lg/L for Zn and 8.5 mg/L for SDS. The LC(10), NOEC and LOEC values were also calculated. Results were compared with Daphnia magna, a freshwater cladoceran widely used as a standard ecotoxicological test organism. Acute (48 h) LC(50) values were 56.2 lg/L for Cu, 571.5 lg/L for Cd, 1.3 mg/L for Zn and 27.3 mg/L for SDS. For all the reference toxicants studied, the marine mysid Siriella armata showed higher sensitivity than the freshwater model organism Daphnia magna, validating the use of Siriella mysids as model organisms in marine acute toxicity tests.

  16. Surface structure and wetting characteristics of Collembola cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Håkon; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Thaulow, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cuticles of the arthropods Collembola (springtails) are known to be superhydrophobic, displaying such properties as water-repellence and plastron formation; overhanging surface structures have been suggested as the source of these properties. Superhydrophobicity is closely related to surface structuring and other surfaces with overhanging structures have been shown to possess robust superhydrophobic properties. In effort to correlate the wetting performance and surface structuring of the cuticles, from both a technical and evolutionary point of view, we investigated a selection of Collembola species including species from several families and covering habitats ranging from aquatic to very dry. The observed contact angles of wetting was in general larger than those predicted by the conventional models. Not all the studied Collembola were found to have superhydrophobic properties, indicating that superhydrophobicity is common, but not a universal trait in Collembola. Overhanging structures were found in some, but not all Collembola species with superhydrophobic cuticles; which leads to the conclusion that there is no direct link between overhanging surface structures and superhydrophobicity in Collembola. PMID:24498281

  17. Surface structure and wetting characteristics of Collembola cuticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Gundersen

    Full Text Available The cuticles of the arthropods Collembola (springtails are known to be superhydrophobic, displaying such properties as water-repellence and plastron formation; overhanging surface structures have been suggested as the source of these properties. Superhydrophobicity is closely related to surface structuring and other surfaces with overhanging structures have been shown to possess robust superhydrophobic properties. In effort to correlate the wetting performance and surface structuring of the cuticles, from both a technical and evolutionary point of view, we investigated a selection of Collembola species including species from several families and covering habitats ranging from aquatic to very dry. The observed contact angles of wetting was in general larger than those predicted by the conventional models. Not all the studied Collembola were found to have superhydrophobic properties, indicating that superhydrophobicity is common, but not a universal trait in Collembola. Overhanging structures were found in some, but not all Collembola species with superhydrophobic cuticles; which leads to the conclusion that there is no direct link between overhanging surface structures and superhydrophobicity in Collembola.

  18. Surface Structure and Wetting Characteristics of Collembola Cuticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Håkon; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Thaulow, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cuticles of the arthropods Collembola (springtails) are known to be superhydrophobic, displaying such properties as water-repellence and plastron formation; overhanging surface structures have been suggested as the source of these properties. Superhydrophobicity is closely related to surface structuring and other surfaces with overhanging structures have been shown to possess robust superhydrophobic properties. In effort to correlate the wetting performance and surface structuring of the cuticles, from both a technical and evolutionary point of view, we investigated a selection of Collembola species including species from several families and covering habitats ranging from aquatic to very dry. The observed contact angles of wetting was in general larger than those predicted by the conventional models. Not all the studied Collembola were found to have superhydrophobic properties, indicating that superhydrophobicity is common, but not a universal trait in Collembola. Overhanging structures were found in some, but not all Collembola species with superhydrophobic cuticles; which leads to the conclusion that there is no direct link between overhanging surface structures and superhydrophobicity in Collembola. PMID:24498281

  19. Assessment of Invasiveness of the Orange Keyhole Sponge Mycale Armata in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii Based on Surveys 2005-2006, Year 2 of Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (NODC Accession 0033380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Orange Keyhole Sponge, Mycale armata Thiele, was unknown in Hawaii prior to 1996. It was first reported in Pearl Harbor and has been reported in low abundance...

  20. Assessment of invasiveness of the Orange Keyhole Sponge Mycale Armata in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, based on surveys in 2005 - 2006, Year 2 of Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (NODC Accession 0033380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this study was to determine Mycale armata's distribution, abundance throughout the bay, its growth rates on permanent quadrats, and whether...

  1. Folsomia candida (Collembola): a "standard" soil arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Michelle T; Hopkin, Steve P

    2005-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem 1902, a member of the order Collembola (colloquially called springtails), is a common and widespread arthropod that occurs in soils throughout the world. The species is parthenogenetic and is easy to maintain in the laboratory on a diet of granulated dry yeast. F. candida has been used as a "standard" test organism for more than 40 years for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on nontarget soil arthropods. However, it has also been employed as a model for the investigation of numerous other phenomena such as cold tolerance, quality as a prey item, and effects of microarthropod grazing on pathogenic fungi and mycorrhizae of plant roots. In this comprehensive review, aspects of the life history, ecology, and ecotoxicology of F. candida are covered. We focus on the recent literature, especially studies that have examined the effects of soil pollutants on reproduction in F. candida using the protocol published by the International Standards Organization in 1999.

  2. Collembola and Oribatei of brown coal dumps in Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebaeva, S.K.; Andrievsky, V.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novobirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Nature and rates of forming Collembola and Oribatei groups in catena of technogenic ecosystems on brown coal dumps in Siberia were studied. With increasing age of dumps, the taxonomic diversity and abundance of microarthropod groups increase, the dominance structure is transformed. Colonization of technogenic landscapes by Collembola proceeds faster than that by Oribatei, especially at initial and middle stages of forming the groups resulting in the sharp increase of species abundance and diversity. At the late successional stage the rates of colonizing dumps by Collembola and Oribatei become identical due to increasing the rate of forming the Oribatei group. The dominance structure in microarthropod groups is transformed during succession and becomes similar to the structure, characteristic of the groups from undisturbed meadow ecosystems. In Oribatei this is displayed more distinctly, but in both groups the indicator species for technogenic ecosystems are distinguished.

  3. De springstaarten van Nederland: het genus Orchesella (Hexapoda: Entognatha: Collembola).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The springtails of the Netherlands: genus Orchesella (Hexapoda: Entognatha: Collembola) This is the first in a series of publications on the identification, distribution and ecology of springtails of the Netherlands. In this paper the genus Orchesella Templeton, 1835 is described, which is with four

  4. Ecological risk assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in marine environment using Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Siriella armata and Psetta maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhadhbi, Lazhar; Rial, Diego; Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2012-05-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are anthropogenic substances classified as persistent bioaccumulative compounds and are found in various environmental compartments throughout the world, from industrialized regions to remote zones far from areas of production. In this study, we assessed the effects of PFOA and PFOS on early life stages of marine test species belonging to three different trophic levels: one microalga (Isochrysis galbana), a primary consumer (Paracentrotus lividus) and two secondary consumers (Siriella armata and Psetta maxima). Acute EC(50) values for PFOS were 0.11 mg L(-1) in P. maxima, 6.9 mg L(-1) in S. armata, 20 mg L(-1) in P. lividus and 37.5 mg L(-1) in I. galbana. In the case of PFOA, the toxicity was lower but the ranking was the same; 11.9 mg L(-1) in P. maxima, 15.5 mg L(-1) in S. armata, 110 mg L(-1) in P. lividus and 163.6 mg L(-1) in I. galbana. The Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for PFOS and PFOA in marine water derived from these acute toxicity values are 1.1 μg L(-1) for PFOS and 119 μg L(-1) for PFOA. This study established a baseline dataset of toxicity of PFOS and PFOA on saltwater organisms. The data obtained suggest that PFOA pose a minor risk to these organisms through direct exposure. In the perspective of risk assessment, early life stage (ELS) endpoints provide rapid, cost-effective and ecologically relevant information, and links should be sought between these short-term tests and effects of long-term exposures in more realistic scenarios.

  5. Collembola effects on plant mass and nitrogen acquisition by ash seedling (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussenhop, John; BassirRad, Hormoz [Illinois Univ., Biological Sciences Dept., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2005-04-01

    We studied the effects of varied collembolan numbers on three compensatory mechanisms of nutrient uptake: fine root mass, endomycorrhizal development, and physiological uptake capacity. We grew ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) with or without the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, with 0, 10 or 50 initial Collembola (Folsomia Candida). After 83 d root NH{sub 4} and NO{sub 3} uptake rates, endomycorrhizal development, and plant biomass were determined. Plant mass increased with Collembola number. Collembola interacted with mycorrhizae in their effects on N uptake and leaf N. Collembola in the absence of mycorrhizal roots were associated with lower N uptake and leaf N at 10 than at 0 or 50 initial Collembola. In contrast, Collembola in the presence of mycorrhizal roots were associated with the highest rate of N uptake and leaf N at 10 versus 0 or 50 initial Collembola. Hence as initial Collembola number increased, the relative importance of root system traits that determined N uptake changed from root physiological uptake capacity, presence of mycorrhizal roots, to fine root biomass. (Author)

  6. Collembola Diversity of Moss Habitats in the Sopron Region, NW-Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRASER, György

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collembola fauna of the moss flora in the Sopron region was studied. 18 moss species aswell as 3.451 Collembola specimens (belonging to 60 species were collected in 2003/04 in moss samplesof three habitats. The highest Collembola diversity was found in Tómalom (a reed bed habitat where verylow abundance and relatively high species richness were characteristic. The Collembola diversity of theother two habitats (Sopron, Botanic Garden; Fertőrákos – a dry xerophile grass habitat was lower. Theresults have shown a relatively high similarity between the Collembola communities in Sopron andFertőrákos while just the opposite was observed between the Sopron and Tómalom samples.

  7. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  8. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Janion–Scheepers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  9. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa's springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  10. Ecotoxicological evaluation of four UV filters using marine organisms from different trophic levels Isochrysis galbana, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Paracentrotus lividus, and Siriella armata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, E; Perez, S; Rodil, R; Quintana, J B; Beiras, R

    2014-06-01

    Due to the concern about the negative effects of exposure to sunlight, combinations of UV filters like 4-Methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC), Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-Ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) are being introduced in all kind of cosmetic formulas. These chemicals are acquiring a concerning status due to their increasingly common use and the potential risk for the environment. The aim of this study is to assess the behaviour of these compounds in seawater, the toxicity to marine organisms from three trophic levels including autotrophs (Isochrysis galbana), herbivores (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Paracentrotus lividus) and carnivores (Siriella armata), and set a preliminary assessment of potential ecological risk of UV filters in coastal ecosystems. In general, EC50 results show that both EHMC and 4-MBC are the most toxic for our test species, followed by BP-3 and finally BP-4. The most affected species by the presence of these UV filters are the microalgae I. galbana, which showed toxicity thresholds in the range of μg L(-1) units, followed by S. armata>P. Lividus>M. galloprovincialis. The UV filter concentrations measured in the sampled beach water were in the range of tens or even hundreds of ng L(-1). The resulting risk quotients showed appreciable environmental risk in coastal environments for BP-3 and 4-MBC.

  11. Responses of soil Collembola to long-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment in a mature temperate forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responses of Collembola to 7 years of CO2 enrichment (550 ppm) in a Swiss free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a forest with 80- to 120-year-old trees were investigated in this study. Contrary to our expectations, increased CO2 caused a significant decrease in Collembola numbers, including a significant decrease in euedaphic Collembola. Increased CO2, however, did not affect community group richness. Collembola biomass was not significantly changed by CO2 enrichment, regardless of whether it was considered in terms of the total community, life-strategy groups, or individual species (with an exception of Mesaphorura krausbaueri). The reason for this is that CO2 enrichment caused a general increase in individual body size, which compensated for reduced abundances. The results are consistent with the idea that the rhizosphere is important for soil fauna, and the combination of reduced fine root growth and increased soil moisture might trigger a reduction in Collembola abundance. - Highlights: ► Increased CO2 caused a significant decrease in Collembola abundance. ► Increased CO2 caused a significant decrease in euedaphic Collembola. ► Collembola body size tended to be larger. ► A decrease in fine roots biomass might trigger the reduction in Collembola. - Seven years of CO2 enrichment caused a significant decrease in Collembola abundance, especially in euedaphic species.

  12. A new cave species of the genus Protaphorura Absolon, 1901 (Collembola, Onychiuridae) from the Western Carpathians (Slovakia) with critical comments to the Palaearctic representatives of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimuchová, Andrea; Kováč, Ľubomír

    2016-01-01

    The new species Protaphorura borinensis sp. nov. from a cave of the Western Carpathians, Central Europe, is described. It belongs to congeners with ~40 vesicles in PAO and three pseudocelli at the base of antennae and the hind margin of head. P. borinensis sp. nov. has coarse granulation of cuticle on head, and specific distribution of "s" chaetae on abdominal terga and chaetotaxy of ventral tube. Critical comments to the Palaearctic representatives of the genus Protaphorura and an identification key to 85 species are provided. PMID:27394585

  13. A NEWLY RECORDED GENUS OF ONYCHIURINAE FROM CHINA (COLLEMBOLA, ONYCHIURIDAE)%中国棘(虫兆)亚科一新纪录属(弹尾纲,棘(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新; 吴东辉

    2013-01-01

    记述棘(虫兆)科Onychiuridae棘(虫兆)亚科Onychiurinae乌拉(虫兆)属Uralaphorura Martynova,1978及通古斯乌拉(虫兆)U.tunguzica Babenko,2007在中国的首次发现.乌拉(虫兆)属Uralaphorura角后器具简单型或两叶型囊泡,胫跗节最外圈具11根毛,头部do毛存在,弹器退化为1个颗粒状区域且后面具4根小毛呈1排排列.提供了形态描述及特征图.研究标本保存在中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所湿地生态与环境重点实验室.

  14. Ancient Ephemeroptera-Collembola symbiosis fossilized in amber predicts contemporary phoretic associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Penney

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography is used to identify a unique example of fossilized phoresy in 16 million-year-old Miocene Dominican amber involving a springtail being transported by a mayfly. It represents the first evidence (fossil or extant of phoresy in adult Ephemeroptera and only the second record in Collembola (the first is also preserved in amber. This is the first record of Collembola using winged insects for dispersal. This fossil predicts the occurrence of similar behaviour in living springtails and helps explain the global distribution of Collembola today.

  15. Ancient Ephemeroptera-Collembola symbiosis fossilized in amber predicts contemporary phoretic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, David; McNeil, Andrew; Green, David I; Bradley, Robert S; Jepson, James E; Withers, Philip J; Preziosi, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography is used to identify a unique example of fossilized phoresy in 16 million-year-old Miocene Dominican amber involving a springtail being transported by a mayfly. It represents the first evidence (fossil or extant) of phoresy in adult Ephemeroptera and only the second record in Collembola (the first is also preserved in amber). This is the first record of Collembola using winged insects for dispersal. This fossil predicts the occurrence of similar behaviour in living springtails and helps explain the global distribution of Collembola today. PMID:23082186

  16. Introduction of some Entomobryidae species (Collembola) from different Caspian regions

    OpenAIRE

    Elliyeh Yahyapoor; Masoumeh Shayanmehr

    2013-01-01

    The family Entomobryidae is a group of Collembola which is also called "slender springtails". They are considered as a group of springtails characterized as having an enlarged fourth abdominal segment and a well-developed furcula. Fourth segmented antenna always is present. The species in this family may be heavily scaled and can be very colorful. They can be found throughout the world in a wide range of habitats but most species live in leaf litter, on the soil surface, under the bark of tre...

  17. Microarthropod community structures (Oribatei and Collembola) in Tam Dao National Park, Vietnam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quang Manh Vu; Tri Tien Nguyen

    2000-12-01

    A study on the microarthropod community with special reference to species diversity of Oribatid and Collembola communities (Microarthropoda: Oribatei and Collembola) in Tam Dao National Park of Vietnam, a subtropical evergreen broad leaf alpine forest, was undertaken with the aim to explain how they are related to forest decline, and whether they can be used as bioindicators of forest plant succession. The results have shown that microarthropod community structures, particularly species diversity of oribatid and collembolan communities, are related to forest decline. Therefore they can be used as bioindicators of forest plant succession. In Tam Dao National Park, there was an inverse relation between species diversity of the oribatid and collembola communities. The species diversity of the oribatid community gradually decreased with forest decline whereas the species diversity of the collembola community gradually increased.

  18. An annotated checklist of the springtail fauna of Hungary (Hexapoda: Collembola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dányi, L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the species of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola hitherto recorded from Hungary is presented. Each entry is accompanied by complete references, and remarks where appropriate. The present list contains 414 species.

  19. First record of Orchesella pannonica Stach, 1960 (Hexapoda, Collembola in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the first record of the springtail Orchesella pannonica (Hexapoda: Collembola in the Romanian fauna. Notes on the taxonomic status, distribution and ecology of the species are given.

  20. A standardized description of European Sminthuridae (Collembola, Symphypleona), 1: genera Lipothrix, Gisinurus, and Caprainea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nayrolles, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    A new standard description of Collembola Symphypleona is proposed. In particular, a standard table of the appendicular chaetotaxy (antennae, legs, and furcula) is given. According to this presentation, the following species are redescribed: Lipothrix lubbocki (Tullberg, 1872), Gisinurus malatestai D

  1. Springtails in the Classroom: Collembola as Model Organisms for Inquiry-based Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John C.; Tripp, Bradley B.; Simpson, Rod T.; Coleman, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Advocates the use of springtails (Collembola) in the K-12 classroom as a model invertebrate that can easily be reared and manipulated to demonstrate key concepts in biology. Describes experimental procedures using springtails. (SAH)

  2. Three new species of Collembola from soils of Mediterranean cork-oak forests of Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuga, Luca; Jordana, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of soil Collembola from cork-oak (Quercus suber) forests located in eastern Sicily (Italy) are described Neonaphorura alicatai sp. nov., Friesea guarinoi sp. nov. and Arrhopalites antonioi sp. nov..

  3. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Charlene Janion-Scheepers; Chown, Steven L; Grant A. Duffy

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can ...

  4. Chewing up the Wood-Wide Web: Selective Grazing on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi by Collembola

    OpenAIRE

    Clarisse Kanters; Anderson, Ian C.; David Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The mycelia of some symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi form extensive networks—the so called “wood-wide web”—that have key roles in biogeochemical cycling. By interacting with myriad soil organisms such as collembola, the fungi directly affect the functioning of above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions in ecosystems. Here we tested whether the grazing activities of collembola affected the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi in single or mixed species axenic cultures, and their impact on e...

  5. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    OpenAIRE

    Alatalo, Juha M.; Annika K. Jägerbrand; Peter Čuchta

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified....

  6. Introduction of some Entomobryidae species (Collembola from different Caspian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliyeh Yahyapoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Entomobryidae is a group of Collembola which is also called "slender springtails". They are considered as a group of springtails characterized as having an enlarged fourth abdominal segment and a well-developed furcula. Fourth segmented antenna always is present. The species in this family may be heavily scaled and can be very colorful. They can be found throughout the world in a wide range of habitats but most species live in leaf litter, on the soil surface, under the bark of trees, in the forest canopy or in caves. In order to investigate the fauna of the Entomobryidae, different soil samples were taken from leaf litter in Caspian regions located in Mazandaran province (orchards, agricultural crops and forests. The Collembola specimens were extracted by heat in Berlise funnel during 1388-1390. Furthermore, some specimens were caught by pitfall traps. In general, five genera and five species were collected among which three species (indicated by * were new for Iran. The specimens belonging to the genus Lepidocyrtus (Bourlet, 1839 were not matched with available taxonomic keys. The identified species were as follows: Entomobrya atrocincta *, E. multifasciata*, Seria domestica*, Heteromurus major, Pseudosinella octopunctata.

  7. Environmental correlates of species richness of European springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Werner; Fiera, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge about environmental correlates of the spatial distribution of animal species stems mostly from the study of well known vertebrate and a few invertebrate taxa. The poor spatial resolution of faunistic data and undersampling prohibit detailed spatial modeling for the vast majority of arthropods. However, many such models are necessary for a comparative approach to the impact of environmental factors on the spatial distribution of species of different taxa. Here we use recent compilations of species richness of 35 European countries and larger islands and linear spatial autocorrelation modeling to infer the influence of area and environmental variables on the number of springtail (Collembola) species in Europe. We show that area, winter length and annual temperature difference are major predictors of species richness. We also detected a significant negative longitudinal gradient in the number of springtail species towards Eastern Europe that might be caused by postglacial colonization. In turn, environmental heterogeneity and vascular plant species richness did not significantly contribute to model performance. Contrary to theoretical expectations, climate and longitude corrected species-area relationships of Collembola did not significantly differ between islands and mainlands.

  8. Negative responses of Collembola in a forest soil (Alptal, Switzerland) under experimentally increased N deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Guoliang, E-mail: xugl@scbg.ac.c [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Schleppi, Patrick; Li Maihe [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Fu Shenglei, E-mail: sfu@scib.ac.c [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The response of specific groups of organisms, like Collembola to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is still scarcely known. We investigated the Collembola community in a subalpine forest (Alptal, Switzerland) as subjected for 12 years to an experimentally increased N deposition (+25 on top of ambient 12 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}). In the 0-5 cm soil layer, there was a tendency of total Collembola densities to be lower in N-treated than in control plots. The density of Isotomiella minor, the most abundant species, was significantly reduced by the N addition. A tendency of lower Collembola group richness was observed in N-treated plots. The Density-Group index (d{sub DG}) showed a significant reduction of community diversity, but the Shannon-Wiener index (H') was not significantly affected by the N addition. The Collembola community can be considered as a bioindicator of N inputs exceeding the biological needs, namely, soil N saturation. - Collembola community, which was significantly affected by a long-term N addition experiment, can be considered as a bioindicator of N saturation.

  9. Collembola and macroarthropod community responses to carbamate, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: Direct and indirect effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Geoff K. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gkf@soton.ac.uk; Brink, Paul J. van den [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    Non-target effects on terrestrial arthropod communities of the broad-spectrum insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin and the selective insecticide pirimicarb were investigated in winter wheat fields in summer. Effects of chlorpyrifos on arthropod abundance and taxonomic richness were consistently negative whereas effects of cypermethrin were negative for predatory arthropods but positive for soil surface Collembola. Pirimicarb effects were marginal, primarily on aphids and their antagonists, with no effect on the Collembola community. Collembola-predator ratios were significantly higher following cypermethrin treatment, suggesting that cypermethrin-induced increases in collembolan abundance represent a classical resurgence. Observations in other studies suggest Collembola resurgences may be typical after synthetic pyrethroid applications. Collembola responses to insecticides differed among species, both in terms of effect magnitude and persistence, suggesting that coarse taxonomic monitoring would not adequately detect pesticide risks. These findings have implications for pesticide risk assessments and for the selection of indicator species. - Direct and indirect insecticide effects differ among closely-related arthropod taxa; resurgence of Collembola may occur widely after synthetic pyrethroid insecticide applications.

  10. Negative responses of Collembola in a forest soil (Alptal, Switzerland) under experimentally increased N deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of specific groups of organisms, like Collembola to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is still scarcely known. We investigated the Collembola community in a subalpine forest (Alptal, Switzerland) as subjected for 12 years to an experimentally increased N deposition (+25 on top of ambient 12 kg N ha-1 year-1). In the 0-5 cm soil layer, there was a tendency of total Collembola densities to be lower in N-treated than in control plots. The density of Isotomiella minor, the most abundant species, was significantly reduced by the N addition. A tendency of lower Collembola group richness was observed in N-treated plots. The Density-Group index (dDG) showed a significant reduction of community diversity, but the Shannon-Wiener index (H') was not significantly affected by the N addition. The Collembola community can be considered as a bioindicator of N inputs exceeding the biological needs, namely, soil N saturation. - Collembola community, which was significantly affected by a long-term N addition experiment, can be considered as a bioindicator of N saturation.

  11. Constituents of Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    ). Silica gel 60W (Merck) TLC plates were used. Spots were visualised by exposure to I 2 vapours and by spraying with 5% methanolic sulfuric acid followed by heating. Table 1 13 C-NMR data of compound 2 and caulerpin 3 (CDCl 3 ) a 23 b 4 c 4a c 166.65 (s...

  12. Six New Records of Springtails (Collembola from North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyi, Laszlo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Six species of springtails (Collembola are reported for the first time from North Korea: Pachyotoma takeshitai (Kinoshita, 1916, Folsomia bisetosa Gisin, 1953 and Agrenia agilis Fjellberg, 1986 of Isotomidae, Entomobrya sibirica Stach, 1963 and Willowsia buski (Lubbock, 1870 of Entomobryidae, and Ptenothrix setosa (Krausbauer, 1898 of Dicyrtomidae. The genus Pachyotoma Bagnall, 1949 is mentioned for the first time from the Korean Peninsula. In order to facilitate the identification of these species, illustrations and short diagnoses are provided and the poorly known P. takeshitai is described in detail. Ptenothrix setosa and E. sibirica link the Korean peninsular fauna with Central Asia, P. takeshitai shows the zoogeographical connection of the Korean Peninsula with the Japanese Islands and A. agilis has a trans-pacific distribution. Folsomia bisetosa is an interesting circumpolar element in the Korean fauna while W. buski is a subcosmopolitan species.

  13. A new species of Mucrosomia (Collembola: Isotomidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cleide de Mendonça

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Collembola, Mucrosomia alticola sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on material from "Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos" (State of Rio de Janeiro and from "Parque Nacional da Serra do Caparaó" (State of Minas Gerais. This is the first record of a species of Mucrosomia for Brazil. The genus has, up to date, only three species and can be diagnosed by the absence of eyes and pigmentation, PAO present, tenent hair pointed, Abd V and VI fused, manubrium with 1+1 chaetae on anterior side, long dens and a remarkable mucro with five teeth. The presence of chaetae on ventral thorax, between segments II-III, supports the new species.

  14. Temporal variations of Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda in the semiarid Caatinga in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aila Soares Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The richness and abundance of Collembola species can be influenced by many biotic and abiotic factors, mainly humidity. The semiarid region of Brazil is dominated by Caatinga dryland vegetation which experiences distinct seasonal alterations of its physiognomy linked to regional rainfall regimes. The present study evaluated the environmental factors affecting populations of Collembola in an area of Caatinga vegetation in Northeastern Brazil during a 12-months period. Specimens were collected by active searching in ten 20 x 20 m plots, with a sampling effort of 1 hour/person/plot. A total of 1231 specimens were collected, comprising 15 morphospecies, 12 genera, and nine families. Both species richness and individual abundances demonstrated oscillations during the year, with the highest values occurring during the rainy season; rainfall was the principal predictive variable for the observed temporal oscillations. Minimum temperatures and precipitation influenced the structural composition of the Collembola. Populations of Collembola demonstrated clustered distribution during the year. The direct and indirect effects of precipitation on the quality of microhabitats and resource availability were apparently responsible for the numerical and compositional alterations of the Collembola fauna observed in the Caatinga site.

  15. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Juha M; Jägerbrand, Annika K; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness. The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change. PMID:26670681

  16. Chewing up the Wood-Wide Web: Selective Grazing on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi by Collembola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Kanters

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mycelia of some symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi form extensive networks—the so called “wood-wide web”—that have key roles in biogeochemical cycling. By interacting with myriad soil organisms such as collembola, the fungi directly affect the functioning of above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions in ecosystems. Here we tested whether the grazing activities of collembola affected the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi in single or mixed species axenic cultures, and their impact on ectomycorrhizal diversity in litterbags in the field. We also used 14CO2 pulse-labelling to test the effects of collembola on respiratory losses of recent plant assimilate from external mycelium of ectomycorrhizal fungi in symbiosis with Scots pine or birch. We found that the effects of collembola varied across species, and caused a significant reduction in the amount of 14CO2 released from external mycorrhizal mycelium from three of the eight species combinations but increased it in one. Selective grazing also significantly affected the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Our findings demonstrate the importance of collembola in regulating ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and activity and below-ground pathways of carbon flow.

  17. Soil Warming Elevates the Abundance of Collembola in the Songnen Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumin Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil warming and precipitation control in the context of soil warming on Collembola community was studied in Songnen grassland, China. Treatments included (1 control; (2 soil warming; (3 soil warming with low precipitation; and (4 soil warming with high precipitation. The open top chambers were used to increase the soil temperature, and the low and high precipitation were created by covering 30% of the chamber and artificial addition after rainfall through the three-year long field experiment. Soil samples were taken and collembolans were extracted in the 15th in June, August and October from 2010 to 2012. Abundance of total Collembola and dominant morphospecies Orchesellides sp.1 was significantly increased by soil warming. Total Collembola abundance was not affected by the precipitation. However, the abundance of Mesaphorura sp.1 was significantly increased by warming with low precipitation treatment. Collembola species richness, diversity and evenness were not impacted by any treatment through all the sampling times. These results suggest that more attention should be paid to the Collembola community variation under global warming in the future.

  18. A case of an apparent infestation by Proisotoma spp. springtails (Collembola: Isotomidae) in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccati, Massimo; Gallo, Maria G; Chiavassa, Elisa; Peano, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    This case report is presumed to be the first case of infestation of a cat by springtails which are small arthropods closely related to insects. The organisms, found by skin scrapings, were identified as Proisotoma spp. (Collembola: Isotomidae). The cat presented with dermatological lesions (itchy, furfuraceous dermatitis), and we speculate that they were due to this infestation. The pathogenic role of the Collembola was hypothesized because of the large number of organisms, the presence of eggs indicating an active reproduction cycle, the lack of other pathogens (fleas, mites or lice) and the clinical recovery accompanied by the disappearance of Collembola following treatment. The owner seemed to be affected by the infestation, because a few days after having purchased the cat, she developed a pruriginous papular dermatitis on the neck and the arms, which disappeared shortly after treatment of the kitten and a careful washing of all of its toys and other accoutrements. PMID:22049948

  19. Phylogeny of Collembola based on cuticular compounds:inherent usefulness and limitation of a character type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porco, David; Deharveng, Louis

    2009-08-01

    The phylogeny of Collembola, originally discussed from a morphological point of view, has more recently benefited from novel insights brought by molecular analyses. Both morphological and molecular characters produced a well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis including all orders, most families, and a large number of genera. However, several conflicting points exist between molecular and morphological data, and new characters are clearly needed to resolve these inconsistencies. In this study the usefulness of a new character type not previously used in the phylogenetic study of Collembola was tested: the epicuticular chemical compounds. Our phylogenetic analysis was based on 380 compounds from 26 Collembola species. The results show good resolution for terminal branches but not for internal nodes. This is probably due to the partial involvement of epicuticular lipids in ecological functions such as water conservation and sexual attraction. Thus, this character type is appropriate for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships among recently diversified groups.

  20. De corticole fauna van platanen: ii. Springstaarten, stofluizen, loopkevers (Collembola, Psocoptera, Carabidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: ii. Springtails, barklice and ground beetles (Collembola, Psocoptera, Carabidae) From July 1999 until September 2001 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of 450 plane trees (Platanus x hybrida), spread over 69 localities in the Netherlands.

  1. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-07-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  2. De springstaart Axelsonia littoralis nieuw voor de fauna van Nederland (Hexapoda: Collembola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.; Faasse, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The springtail Axelsonia littoralis new to the fauna of the Netherlands (Hexapoda: Collembola) Axelsonia littoralis (Moniez, 1890) is a rare springtail in Europe. It is recorded here for the first time from the Netherlands. Specimens of this species were found in the littoral zone in the southwester

  3. The rapid cold hardening response of Collembola is influenced by thermal variability of the habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Loeschcke, Volker; Pertoldi, Cino;

    2009-01-01

    1. It has been argued that species living under unpredictable thermal conditions need to have more flexible physiological capabilities to meet with thermal stress than species living in thermally stable environments. Here we investigate if the ability to rapidly cold-harden in Collembola is influ......1. It has been argued that species living under unpredictable thermal conditions need to have more flexible physiological capabilities to meet with thermal stress than species living in thermally stable environments. Here we investigate if the ability to rapidly cold-harden in Collembola...... is influenced by thermal conditions of the habitat. 2. Collembola exploit diverse habitats and are therefore exposed to different thermal environments: soil dwelling (euedaphic) species occupy relatively stable environments, whereas surface dwelling (epedaphic) species can be exposed to more fluctuating thermal...... environments, but a single species can also be found in diverse thermal habitats within its geographic distribution. 3. We compared the inherent cold shock tolerance and ability to rapidly cold-harden in three epedaphic, two near surface dwelling (hemiedaphic) and four euedaphic species of Collembola using...

  4. De springstaarten van Nederland: het genus Ptenothrix, nieuw voor de fauna (Hexapoda: Entognatha: Collembola).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    The springtails of the Netherlands: genus Ptenothrix, new to the Dutch fauna (Hexapoda: Entognatha: Collembola) This paper is the second in a series on the identification, distribution and ecology of springtails of the Netherlands. The genus Ptenothrix Börner, 1906 is described, with one new species

  5. De springstaart Lepidocyrtus paradoxus nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Hexapoda: Collembola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.; Heijerman, T.

    2002-01-01

    The springtail Lepidocyrtus paradoxus new to the Dutch fauna (Hexapoda: Collembola) Lepidocyrtus paradoxus Uzel, 1890 is a central European springtail, which is recorded here as new to the Dutch fauna. The species was collected in high numbers on a site called the Sint Pietersberg (near Maastricht),

  6. De springstaart Isotomurus maculatus nieuw voor de fauna van Nederland (Insecta: Collembola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.; Noordijk, J.; Schakel, A.; Bongers, M.

    2001-01-01

    The springtail Isotomurus maculatus new to the fauna of the Netherlands (Insecta: Collembola) Isotomurus maculatus (Schäffer, 1896) is a southern European springtail, which is recorded here as new for the fauna of the Netherlands. Specimens were collected on five sites in different regions of the Ne

  7. Plant species richness drives the density and diversity of Collembola in temperate grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2011-05-01

    Declining biodiversity is one of the most important aspects of anthropogenic global change phenomena, but the implications of plant species loss for soil decomposers are little understood. We used the experimental grassland community of the Jena Experiment to assess the response of density and diversity of Collembola to varying plant species richness, plant functional group richness and plant functional group identity. We sampled the experimental plots in spring and autumn four years after establishment of the experimental plant communities. Collembola density and diversity significantly increased with plant species and plant functional group richness highlighting the importance of the singular hypothesis for soil invertebrates. Generally, grasses and legumes beneficially affected Collembola density and diversity, whereas effects of small herbs usually were detrimental. These impacts were largely consistent in spring and autumn. By contrast, in the presence of small herbs the density of hemiedaphic Collembola and the diversity of Isotomidae increased in spring whereas they decreased in autumn. Beneficial impacts of plant diversity as well as those of grasses and legumes were likely due to increased root and microbial biomass, and elevated quantity and quality of plant residues serving as food resources for Collembola. By contrast, beneficial impacts of small herbs in spring probably reflect differences in microclimatic conditions, and detrimental effects in autumn likely were due to low quantity and quality of resources. The results point to an intimate relationship between plants and the diversity of belowground biota, even at small spatial scales, contrasting the findings of previous studies. The pronounced response of soil animals in the present study was presumably due to the fact that plant communities had established over several years. As decomposer invertebrates significantly impact plant performance, changes in soil biota density and diversity are likely

  8. A quantitative protocol for DNA metabarcoding of springtails (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Seikoh; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Fujii, Saori; Sunagawa, Haruki; Nagahama, Hideki; Akutsu, Masako; Shinzato, Naoya; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Nakamori, Taizo

    2016-09-01

    We developed a novel protocol with superior quantitative analysis results for DNA metabarcoding of Collembola, a major soil microarthropod order. Degenerate PCR primers were designed for conserved regions in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (mt16S) genes based on published collembolan mitogenomes. The best primer pair was selected based on its ability to amplify each gene, irrespective of the species. DNA was extracted from 10 natural communities sampled in a temperate forest (with typically 25-30 collembolan species per 10 soil samples) and 10 mock communities (with seven cultured collembolan species). The two gene regions were then amplified using the selected primers, ligated with adapters for 454 technology, and sequenced. Examination of the natural community samples showed that 32 and 36 operational taxonomic units (defined at a 90% sequence similarity threshold) were recovered from the mtCOI and mt16S data, respectively, which were comparable to the results of the microscopic identification of 25 morphospecies. Further, sequence abundances for each collembolan species from the mtCOI and mt16S data of the mock communities, after normalization by using a species as the internal control, showed good correlation with the number of individuals in the samples (R = 0.91-0.99), although relative species abundances within a mock community sample estimated from sequences were skewed from community composition in terms of the number of individuals or biomass of the species. Thus, this protocol enables the comparison of collembolan communities in a quantitative manner by metabarcoding. PMID:27611697

  9. The multi-layered protective cuticle of Collembola: a chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerl, Julia; Tsurkan, Mikhail; Hensel, René; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2014-10-01

    Collembola, also known as springtails, are soil-dwelling arthropods that typically respire through the cuticle. To avoid suffocating in wet conditions, Collembola have evolved a complex, hierarchically nanostructured, cuticle surface that repels water with remarkable efficiency. In order to gain a more profound understanding of the cuticle characteristics, the chemical composition and architecture of the cuticle of Tetrodontophora bielanensis was studied. A stepwise removal of the different cuticle layers enabled controlled access to each layer that could be analysed separately by chemical spectrometry methods and electron microscopy. We found a cuticle composition that consisted of three characteristic layers, namely, a chitin-rich lamellar base structure overlaid by protein-rich nanostructures, and a lipid-rich envelope. The specific functions, composition and biological characteristics of each cuticle layer are discussed with respect to adaptations of Collembola to their soil habitat. It was found that the non-wetting characteristics base on a rather typical arthropod cuticle surface chemistry which confirms the decisive role of the cuticle topography. PMID:25100321

  10. Trophic transfer of silver nanoparticles from earthworms disrupts the locomotion of springtails (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jin Il; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how nanomaterials are transferred through food chains and evaluating their resulting toxicity is important. However, limited research has been conducted on the toxic consequences of trophically transferred nanomaterials in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we documented the adverse effects of trophically transferred silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a soil-earthworm (Eisenia andrei)-Collembola (Lobella sokamensis) food chain. We exposed E. andrei to soil with AgNPs at concentrations of 50, 200, and 500μg AgNPs/g soil dry weight and assessed their survival after 7days. Trophic-transfer containers were then prepared and E. andrei that survived the 7days test period were washed, killed in boiling water, and added to the containers with L. sokamensis. We noted negligible effects and low bioaccumulation at the lowest AgNP concentration (50μg AgNPs/g soil dry weight) in earthworms and the L. sokamensis that fed on them. The highest concentration of AgNPs (500μg AgNPs/g soil dry weight) resulted in juvenile earthworm mortality and increased transfer of AgNPs to Collembola, which subsequently inhibited their locomotion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the trophic transfer and adverse effects of AgNPs in a soil-earthworm-Collembola food chain, a common prey-decomposer interaction in soil ecosystems. PMID:27187058

  11. The multi-layered protective cuticle of Collembola: a chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerl, Julia; Tsurkan, Mikhail; Hensel, René; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Collembola, also known as springtails, are soil-dwelling arthropods that typically respire through the cuticle. To avoid suffocating in wet conditions, Collembola have evolved a complex, hierarchically nanostructured, cuticle surface that repels water with remarkable efficiency. In order to gain a more profound understanding of the cuticle characteristics, the chemical composition and architecture of the cuticle of Tetrodontophora bielanensis was studied. A stepwise removal of the different cuticle layers enabled controlled access to each layer that could be analysed separately by chemical spectrometry methods and electron microscopy. We found a cuticle composition that consisted of three characteristic layers, namely, a chitin-rich lamellar base structure overlaid by protein-rich nanostructures, and a lipid-rich envelope. The specific functions, composition and biological characteristics of each cuticle layer are discussed with respect to adaptations of Collembola to their soil habitat. It was found that the non-wetting characteristics base on a rather typical arthropod cuticle surface chemistry which confirms the decisive role of the cuticle topography. PMID:25100321

  12. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  13. Soil Collembola communities within Plešné Lake and Čertovo Lake catchments, the Bohemian Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuchta, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The soil Collembola communities were studied for three years in disturbed spruce forest stands in the catchments areas of Čertovo and Plešné Lakes in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. The study was focused on the impact of the windthrow, bark beetle outbreak damage and consecutive changes in the forest stands including soil environment. Four different treatments were selected for the study on both study areas: undamaged (control) forest stands, "dead" forest stands damaged by bark beetle, slightly managed windthrown forest stands left for the natural succession, and freshly harvested windthrown stands. After two years of research a total of 7,294 Collembola specimens were recorded belonging to 93 species. We recorded the highest collembolan abundance and species richness in the reference stands within catchments of both lakes, while both given parameters were considerably lower in harmed forest stands. To summarize, the disturbance led to a general decrease of Collembola communities.

  14. Collembola populations under sclerophyllous coppices in Provence (France): comparison between two types of vegetation, Quercus ilex L. and Quercus coccifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortet, Jérôme; Poinsot-Balaguer, Nicole

    1998-10-01

    A comparative analysis of soil Collembola using two types of sclerophyllous vegetation ( Quercus ilex and Quercus coccifera) was performed at a calcareous site in Provence (France). Collembola populations were examined over a one-year period (11 successive months) in three different soil layers. Although no statistically significant differences could be observed for Collembola abundance and diversity, multivariate analyses (FCA) differentiated the two coppices. Phenologies of some species showed specific responses to the microclimate induced by edaphic conditions. Even though the two coppices were sclerophyllous, the structure of each vegetation, the quantity and quality of litter, which were different, could influence environmental conditions and thus the dynamics of collembolan populations.

  15. A Holarctic Biogeographical Analysis of the Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda Unravels Recent Post-Glacial Colonization Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Ávila-Jiménez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to describe the main Arctic biogeographical patterns of the Collembola, and analyze historical factors and current climatic regimes determining Arctic collembolan species distribution. Furthermore, we aimed to identify possible dispersal routes, colonization sources and glacial refugia for Arctic collembola. We implemented a Gaussian Mixture Clustering method on species distribution ranges and applied a distance-based parametric bootstrap test on presence-absence collembolan species distribution data. Additionally, multivariate analysis was performed considering species distributions, biodiversity, cluster distribution and environmental factors (temperature and precipitation. No clear relation was found between current climatic regimes and species distribution in the Arctic. Gaussian Mixture Clustering found common elements within Siberian areas, Atlantic areas, the Canadian Arctic, a mid-Siberian cluster and specific Beringian elements, following the same pattern previously described, using a variety of molecular methods, for Arctic plants. Species distribution hence indicate the influence of recent glacial history, as LGM glacial refugia (mid-Siberia, and Beringia and major dispersal routes to high Arctic island groups can be identified. Endemic species are found in the high Arctic, but no specific biogeographical pattern can be clearly identified as a sign of high Arctic glacial refugia. Ocean currents patterns are suggested as being an important factor shaping the distribution of Arctic Collembola, which is consistent with Antarctic studies in collembolan biogeography. The clear relations between cluster distribution and geographical areas considering their recent glacial history, lack of relationship of species distribution with current climatic regimes, and consistency with previously described Arctic patterns in a series of organisms inferred using a variety of methods, suggest that historical phenomena shaping contemporary

  16. Invertebrate fauna (Coleoptera, Collembola, Diplopoda, Isopoda collected in the karst areas of the Aninei - Locvei Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Giurginca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors identified 132 species of invertebrates (14 Oniscidea, 25 Diplopoda,31 Collembola and 62 Coleoptera recently sampled (2001–2006 from the soil and subterranean (MSS and caves environments from the Banat Mountains. Some new,rare and endemic species are discussed. The seasonal changes of the species diversity in the superficial subterranean environments at 0.5 to 1 m in depth are for the first time presented for the Reşiţa – Moldova Nouă synclinorium. The characteristic and preferential species for the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS, belonging to the analyzed taxa, are identified.

  17. A new species of Troglobius (Collembola, Paronellidae, Cyphoderinae from a Brazilian iron cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Zeppelini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Troglobius (Collembola: Paronellidae: Cyphoderinae is known only from the Southern Hemisphere, the two species found so far were described from caves in Madagascar and Brazil. In this paper we describe a new Brazilian species and complement the descriptions of the previously known species. The new species is a troglomorph and was collected in a single cave, in iron formations in the state of Minas Gerais. Brazil. The original diagnosis of the genus is supplemented with new characters based on observations of the new species.

  18. New genus, new species and new record of Neanurinae (Collembola, Neanuridae) for the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Gabriel C; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and a new species of Paleonurini (Collembola, Neanurinae) are described in this paper. The new species Ectonura snowdeni sp. nov., is the first record of the austral genus Ectonura for the Neotropics. A new genus from Southeast Brazil, Itanura gen. nov., is created based mainly on head tubercles arrangement. Its type species is Neanura brasiliensis Arlé, 1959 comb. nov., which is redescribed with the designation of a lectotype. Its distribution range is expanded with two new records from high altitude mountains of Southeast Brazil. Specimens from these two localities exhibit small morphological differences with those of the type locality, which are discussed. PMID:26624092

  19. Austrodontella monticola sp. nov., a new species of Collembola from montane New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Anatoly; Minor, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Collembola were collected from soil in the alpine belt (1600-1900 m a.s.l.) of the Southern Alps of New Zealand. A list of species found is provided. Austrodontella monticola sp. nov., the third species of a Odontellidae genus with a southern distribution is described. The other two species in the genus occur in southern Australia and in the Indian Ocean sector of the Subantarctic respectively. Notes on A. trispina (Womersley, 1935), the type species of the genus, are provided. PMID:26249888

  20. First Record of a Neozygites species (Zygomycetes:Entomophthorales) Infecting Springtails (Insecta:Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Eilenberg, J; Bresciani, J.

    1996-01-01

    A fungal pathogen from the Entomophthorales (Zygomycetes) was discovered in populations of the lucerne flea Sminthurus viridis (Collembola) collected from grassland and leguminous crops in Denmark during July to October. The morphology of the fungus was studied in springtails, collected live, whi...... Conidiobolus coronatus. Verticillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina:Hyphomycetes) were also isolated from S. viridis....

  1. The spermatogenesis and oogenesis of the springtail Podura aquatica Linné, 1758 (Hexapoda: Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanciulli, Pietro Paolo; Gottardo, Marco; Dallai, Romano

    2013-06-01

    Podura aquatica is a springtail of uncertain systematic position. Our study dealing with the ultrastructure of the spermatogenesis and oogenesis of this species is a contribution to a better knowledge of both the reproduction and the systematics of the taxon. In the male, the spermatogenesis proceeds in a similar way to that of other Collembola. Primary spermatocytes do not show synaptonemal complexes which, instead, are found in primary oocytes. Thus a genomic recombination seems to be present only in females, as it occurs in other springtails. Degeneration of secondary spermatocytes, as reported in some families of the Symphypleona, was not observed in P. aquatica. At the end of spermiogenesis, a rolled up sperm cell provided with an anterior long appendage adhering to the acrosome is produced. In the female, the oogenesis also proceeds in a conventional way with the production of eggs rich in yolk. A branched spermatheca is present at the end of the common oviduct, close to the genital opening. It contains many sperm in its lumen. Contrary to the globular appearance of sperm cells in the male genital ducts, in the spermatheca they are straight, elongated, and lack the long anterior appendage. P. aquatica shows a spermatogenesis, sperm structure, and oogenesis similar to those of other Collembola. In agreement with the results of recent phylogenetic studies, we confirm that P. aquatica is a member of Poduridae, and it does not belong to a group close to the Symphypleona. PMID:23515073

  2. The impact of disturbance and ensuing forestry practices on Collembola in spruce forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuchta, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Soil Collembola communities were investigated in spruce forest stands of the High Tatra Mts that had been heavily damaged by a windstorm in November 2004 and subsequently by a wildfire in July 2005. The study focused on the impact of these disturbances and forestry practices on collembolan community distribution and structure four years after the disturbance. Four different treatments were selected for this study: intact forest stands (REF), non-extracted windthrown stands (NEX), clear-cut windthrown stands (EXT) and burnt windthrown stands (FIR). From a total of 7,820 individuals, 72 species were identified. The highest total abundance mean was recorded in FIR stands followed by NEX and EXT stands and, surprisingly, the lowest in REF stands. The highest total species richness was observed in REF stands, followed by NEX stands and FIR stands and the lowest in EXT stands. In REF and NEX stands the most abundant species were Folsomia penicula and Tetracanthella fjellbergi, while in heavily damaged stands the most abundant was Anurophorus laricis. The present study shows the negative impact of windthrow on Collembola communities as reflected in decreased species richness and abundance. However, disturbance by fire caused a considerable increase in collembolan abundance three years after the event. Moreover, we found out that clearing of windthrown spruce forests after a windstorm is less favourable for communities of soil collembolans and slows down the recovery process.

  3. Sorting out non-sorted circles: Effects of winter climate change on the Collembola community of cryoturbated subarctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, Eveline; Monteux, Sylvain; Becher, Marina; Blume-Werry, Gesche; Keuper, Frida; Klaminder, Jonatan; Kobayashi, Makoto; Lundin, Erik J.; Milbau, Ann; Roennefarth, Jonas; Teuber, Laurenz Michael; Weedon, James; Dorrepaal, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Non-sorted circles (NSC) are a common type of cryoturbated (frost-disturbed) soil in the arctic and store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) by the burial of organic matter. They appear as sparsely vegetated areas surrounded by denser tundra vegetation, creating patterned ground. Snowfall in the arctic is expected to increase, which will modify freezing intensity and freeze-thaw cycles in soils, thereby impacting on SOC dynamics. Vegetation, soil fauna and microorganisms, important drivers of carbon turnover, may benefit directly from the altered winter conditions and the resulting reduction in cryoturbation, but may also impact each other through trophic cascading. We investigated how Collembola, important decomposer soil fauna in high latitude ecosystems, are affected by increased winter insulation and vegetation cover. We subjected NSC in North-Swedish subarctic alpine tundra to two years of increased thermal insulation (snow fences or fiber cloth) in winter and spring, increasing soil temperatures and strongly reducing freeze-thaw frequency. From these NSC we sampled the Collembola community in: (i) the non-vegetated center, (ii) sparsely vegetated parts in the center and (iii) the vegetated domain surrounding NSC. To link changes in Collembola density and community composition to SOC dynamics, we included measurements of decomposer activity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total extractable nitrogen (TN). We observed differences in Collembola density, community composition and soil fauna activity between the sampling points in the NSC. Specifically Collembola diversity increased with the presence of vegetation and density was higher in the vegetated outer domains. Increased winter insulation did not affect diversity but seemed to negatively affect density and decomposer activity in the vegetated outer domains. Interestingly, SOM distribution over NSC changed with snow addition (also to a lesser extent with fleece insulation) towards less SOM in the

  4. Structure of Poduromorpha (Collembola communities in "restinga" environments in Brazil Estrutura de comunidades de Poduromorpha (Collembola em áreas de restinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Henriques Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the richness and diversity of the Poduromorpha fauna in two biotopes in Restinga de Maricá, RJ, Brazil, to identify the characteristic species of each biotope and to determine the relationships between the community structure and the abiotic environmental parameters. Representatives of the Poduromorpha (Collembola order were studied under an ecological viewpoint in halophyte-psammophyte vegetation and foredune zone in preserved areas of Restinga de Maricá, a sand dune environment in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The foredune zone showed the highest diversity, richness and equitability of springtail species. Differences in the fundamental, accessory and accidental species in each environment were encountered. Paraxenylla piloua was found to be an indicator species of the halophyte-psammophyte vegetation, while Friesea reducta, Pseudachorutes difficilis and Xenylla maritima were indicators of the foredune zone. The canonical correspondence analysis indicated pH, organic matter content and soil humidity as the most important factors influencing the spatiotemporal distribution of the species.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a riqueza e a diversidade da fauna de Poduromorpha em dois biótopos na Restinga de Maricá, RJ, identificar as espécies características de cada biótopo e determinar as relações da estrutura da comunidade com parâmetros ambientais abióticos. Representantes da ordem Poduromorpha (Collembola foram estudados do ponto de vista ecológico nos ambientes de vegetação halófila-psamófila reptante e de primeiro cordão arenoso em áreas preservadas da Restinga de Maricá, localizada no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os maiores valores de diversidade, riqueza e equitabilidade de espécies de colêmbolos foram observados no ambiente de primeiro cordão arenoso. Foram encontradas diferenças nas espécies fundamentais, acessórias e acidentais nos ambientes

  5. Redescriptions of two onychiurid species from Tibet, with a key to known Chinese species of Onychiuridae (Collembola)%中国西藏棘(虫兆)科两物种的重新记述及中国已知种检索表(弹尾纲)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新; 黄复生

    2014-01-01

    首次报道中国西藏棘(虫兆)科两物种:符氏直棘(姚) Orthonychiurus folsomi (Sch(a)ffer,1900)和喜马拉雅直棘(虫兆)Orthonychiurus himalayensis (Choudhuri,1958),附详细描述及特征图;编制了中国棘(虫兆)科已知种类分种检索表.研究标本保存于中国科学院动物研究所动物标本馆.

  6. Population dynamics and diapause response of the springtail pest Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae) in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John M K; Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Weeks, Andrew R

    2011-04-01

    The springtail, Sminthurus viridis (L.) (Collembola: Sminthuridae), is an important agricultural pest across southern Australia. We investigated the seasonal abundance patterns and summer diapause response of S. viridis in southeastern Australia by using field and shadehouse (a greenhouse that offers seedlings shade) experiments. Seasonal activity patterns of S. viridis were largely consistent with previous studies, with the pest active from autumn to spring. In addition, the timing and pattern of the summer-diapausing egg stage was established, with multiple generations probably producing diapause eggs. A strong relationship between soil moisture and temperature with autumn emergence also was observed. These results suggest that S. viridis autumn pest pressure can be predicted and indicate that late-season spraying strategies currently used for a sympatric agricultural pest are unlikely to be as effective against S. viridis. PMID:21510194

  7. Nutrient allocations and metabolism in two Collembola with contrasting reproduction and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Damgaard, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    1.  Physiological mechanisms such as allocation and release of nutrients are keys to understanding an animal's adaptation to a particular habitat. This study investigated how two detrivores with contrasting life-history traits allocated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to growth, reproduction and meta......1.  Physiological mechanisms such as allocation and release of nutrients are keys to understanding an animal's adaptation to a particular habitat. This study investigated how two detrivores with contrasting life-history traits allocated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to growth, reproduction...... in tissue, growth and reproduction for 28 days. In addition, we measured the composition of C, N and phosphorus (P) to gain complementary information on the stoichiometry underlying life-history traits and nutrient allocation. 3.  For P. minuta, the smallest and most fecund of the two species, the tissue...... budgets and life-history traits in small invertebrates such as Collembola....

  8. Effects of Season and Management of Irrigated Cotton Fields on Collembola (Hexapoda) in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton-Hitchins, James A; Greenslade, Penelope; Wilson, Lewis J

    2015-06-01

    The effects of production practices on the relative abundance of springtails (Collembola) in irrigated cotton fields of northern New South Wales (NSW) were studied over 2 yr to examine effects of farm management on these decomposer organisms. Pitfall trapping and soil core extraction was undertaken in both pseudoreplicated plots within whole fields on cotton farms and on experimental replicate plots of Envirofeast cotton and Lucerne. The relative abundance of surface-active springtails in cotton rows and densities of soil species from the rhizosphere were calculated. Twenty-three species of Collembola were collected from 5 fields, 19 in pitfall traps, and 11 in soil cores. Five species, Setogaster sp., Proisotoma minuta, Entomobrya unostrigata, Entomobrya multifasciata grp, and Lepidobrya sp. were numerically dominant on the ground at 86-96% of individuals and Mesaphorura sp., Folsomides parvulus, and Hemisotoma thermophila grp dominant in the soil. Native grassland samples contained 15 species of which a probable 10 were native and 8 were not found in cotton. Nineteen species of the 24 species identified from cotton were predominantly fungal feeders. Highest catches of Collembola occurred after flowering and soil Collembola increased with depth and during cotton growth on unsprayed plots but decreased on sprayed plots. Surface soil moistures affected daily catch rates with decomposing residues, crop stage, predator abundance, and season as secondary factors. Insecticide (endosulfan, pyrethroid, carbamate, and organophosphate) and predator effects were either negligible or unclear depending on the factor involved. Springtails appear to be predominately food limited during times of adequate soil moisture in cotton fields. PMID:26313958

  9. The effect of the glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine e nicosulfuron herbicides upon the Edaphic collembola (Arthropoda: Ellipura) in a no tillage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Vilma S; Santos, Honório R; Gonçalves, Manoel C

    2007-01-01

    The use of herbicides is a common and intensive practice in no tillage systems. The herbicides can influence, directly or indirectly, the population of edaphic arthropods. Collembola is a group that functions as a bio-indicator of soil conditions. The degree of abundance and diversity of Collembola provides the level of soil disturbance provoked by agricultural practices. This experiment was designed to compare the influence of herbicides on the population fluctuation of Collembola in a no-till soil preparation system. The work was conducted in a non irrigated no-till area at the Núcleo Experimental de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campus de Dourados, in soil planted with corn as a surface covering, during the period of December, 2002 to December, 2003. The data were analyzed according to a completely randomized model, in a split plot design. The plots received four types of herbicides: glyphosate, atrazine, 2,4-D and nicosulfuron. A fifth plot did not receive any herbicide (control), for a total of five treatment types. The sub plots were represented by their collection times (10, 20, 30 and 40 days after the herbicide applications). Both the type of herbicide and the time of data sampling influenced the Collembola population fluctuaction. The treatments with atrazine and 2,4-D caused the most reduction of the population of Collembola, depending on the time of application.

  10. Assessing the potential for intrinsic recovery in a Collembola two-generation study: possible implementation in a tiered soil risk assessment approach for plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Gregor; Kabouw, Patrick; Barth, Markus; Marx, Michael T; Frommholz, Ursula; Royer, Stefanie; Friedrich, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Collembola are soil dwelling organisms that provide important ecosystem services within soils. To increase realism in evaluating potential effects of plant protection products a Collembola two-generation study was developed. This test assesses the potential for recovery of Collembola when exposed to plant protection products. Juvenile individuals of Folsomia candida (Willem, Ann Soc Entomol Belg 46:275-283, 1902) which hatched under conditions of exposure to a test substance in a modified OECD 232 bioassay were introduced into a second consecutive bioassay containing the same test substance aged in soil. This test system determines whether a population which was initially impacted by a substance in a 1st bioassay shows normal reproduction or survival in a 2nd bioassay after aging of the test substance in soil. An intermediate period for juvenile growth is included between the 1st and 2nd bioassay in order to reduce the control treatment variability in reproduction and mortality to fulfill the validity criteria according to the OECD 232 guideline. The Collembola two-generation study is able to differentiate between substances showing either a potential long-term risk or comprising a low risk. Comparing the results of this two generation study with data from semi-field or field studies indicates a high degree of conservatism when this test is considered within a tiered risk assessment scheme. This approach represents a valuable tool which makes the risk assessment more efficient by providing an alternative refinement option for highly conservative tier 1 Collembola risk assessment. PMID:26441339

  11. Biodiversity of Collembola in urban soils and their use as bioindicators for pollution Biodiversidade de Collembola em solos urbanos e o seu uso como bioindicadores de poluição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fiera

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of pollutants on the abundance and diversity of Collembola in urban soils. The research was carried out in three parks (Cişmigiu, Izvor and Unirea in downtown Bucharest, where the intense car traffic accounts for 70% of the local air pollution. One site in particular (Cişmigiu park was highly contaminated with Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu at about ten times the background levels of Pb. Collembola were sampled in 2006 (July, September, November using the transect method: 2,475 individuals from 34 species of Collembola were collected from 210 samples of soil and litter. Numerical densities differed significantly between the studied sites.The influence of air pollutants on the springtail fauna was visible at the species richness diversity and soil pollution levels. Species richness was lowest in the most contaminated site (Cismigiu, 11 species, which presented an increase in springtails abundances, though. Some species may become resistant to pollution and occur in high numbers of individuals in polluted sites, which makes them a good bioindicator of pollutants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de poluentes na abundância e na diversidade de Collembola em solos urbanos. A pesquisa foi conduzida em três parques (Cişmigiu, Izvor e Unirea no centro de Bucareste, onde o tráfego intenso de carros é responsável por 70% da poluição do ar local. Um local em particular (parque Cişmigiu está altamente contaminado com Pb, Cd, Zn e Cu, com nível de Pb dez vezes superior aos níveis de fundo. Os Collembola foram coletados em 2006 (julho, setembro, novembro, usando o método de transecto: foram coletados 2.475 indivíduos de 34 espécies de Collembola a partir de 210 amostras de solo e serapilheira. As densidades numéricas diferiram significativamente entre os locais estudados. A influência da poluição do ar na fauna de colêmbolos foi visível em termos de riqueza de espécies e do grau

  12. Cryptic diversity in the ubiquist species Parisotoma notabilis (Collembola, Isotomidae: a long-used chimeric species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Porco

    Full Text Available Parisotoma notabilis is the most common species of Collembola in Europe and is currently designated as ubiquist. This species has been extensively used in numerous studies and is considered as well characterized on a morphological ground. Despite the homogeneity of its morphology, the sequencing of the barcoding fragment (5' end of COI for several populations throughout Europe and North America revealed four distinct genetic lineages. The divergence found between these lineages was similar to the genetic distance among other species of the genus Parisotoma included in the analysis. All four lineages have been confirmed by the nuclear gene 28S. This congruence between mitochondrial and nuclear signals, as well as the geographical distribution pattern of lineages observed in Europe, supports the potential specific status of these lineages. Based on specimens from the type locality (Hamburg, the species name was successfully assigned to one of these lineages. This finding raises several problems as Parisotoma notabilis has been widely used in many ecological studies. Accumulation of new data for the different lineages detected, especially ecological information and life history traits, is needed to help resolve this situation.

  13. Genetic diversity among populations of Antarctic springtails (Collembola) within the Mackay Glacier ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beet, Clare R; Hogg, Ian D; Collins, Gemma E; Cowan, Don A; Wall, Diana H; Adams, Byron J

    2016-09-01

    Climate changes are likely to have major influences on the distribution and abundance of Antarctic terrestrial biota. To assess arthropod distribution and diversity within the Ross Sea region, we examined mitochondrial DNA (COI) sequences for three currently recognized species of springtail (Collembola) collected from sites in the vicinity, and to the north of, the Mackay Glacier (77°S). This area acts as a transition between two biogeographic regions (northern and southern Victoria Land). We found populations of highly divergent individuals (5%-11.3% intraspecific sequence divergence) for each of the three putative springtail species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic diversity. Based on molecular clock estimates, these divergent lineages are likely to have been isolated for 3-5 million years. It was during this time that the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) was likely to have completely collapsed, potentially facilitating springtail dispersal via rafting on running waters and open seaways. The reformation of the WAIS would have isolated newly established populations, with subsequent dispersal restricted by glaciers and ice-covered areas. Given the currently limited distributions for these genetically divergent populations, any future changes in species' distributions can be easily tracked through the DNA barcoding of springtails from within the Mackay Glacier ecotone. PMID:27463035

  14. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of the mesofauna organisms was low, especially collembolan families.O impacto de quatro sistemas de cultivo sobre a fauna de solo foram estudados, utilizando-se como bioindicadores os acari Oribatida e Gamasida e os Collembola. A pesquisa foi conduzida em campos experimentais, localizados na EMBRAPA - CPAO no município de Dourados, MS, no período de julho de 1997 à dezembro de 1999. O sistema de pastagem contínua apresentou menor impacto sobre a fauna de solo seguido da rotação agricultura pecuária e do sistema de plantio direto. Nas sucessões do plantio convencional, a densidade populacional dos organismos da mesofauna foi baixa, em especial as famílias de colembolos.

  15. THREE SPECIES OF COLLEMBOLA FROM ANTARCTIC%南极三种弹尾目记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳巧云; 田村浩志

    2001-01-01

    Three species of Collembola from Antarctic were reported in this paper. Diagnostic characters on head, thorax, and abdomen of one new species Cryptopygus nanjiensis sp. nov. such as antenna, PAO, leg,tenaculum, ventral tube and so on, was described in details. Two known species, Tullbergia mediantarctica and Friesea woyciechowskii were compared with the type forms. Specimens were deposited in the museum of Shanghai Institute of Entomology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.%本文描述了采自南极的三种弹尾目,其中详细描述了新种南极隐跳Cryptopygus nanjiensis头、胸、腹部诸如:触角、角后器、足、弹器、腹管以及毛序等鉴别特征,并将两种已知种Tullbergia mediantarctica 和Friesea woyciechowskii与模式种进行了比较.新种及观察的已知种标本存放在中科院上海昆虫研究所的标本馆中.

  16. [Distribution and diversity of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) on the altitudinal gradient of a temperate forest in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Arturo; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela; Palacios-Vargas, José G

    2011-03-01

    Mountain ecosystems have shown slow mineralization activity due to weather conditions, and to some groups with arthropods with special roles. The Collembola is an important group for litter fragmentation, showing different distribution patterns. The objective of the present study was to determine the diversity of Collembola along a volcano altitudinal gradient. For this, four sampling expeditions evaluated four altitudinal levels (I = 2 753, II = 3 015, III = 3 250 and IV = 3 687 masl) in Iztaccihuatl Volcano, from November 2003, and March, June and August 2004. Shannon diversity (H'), Pielou evenness (J') and Simpson dominance (1/lambda) indices were calculated. The similarity between the associations of springtails between the sampling sites was evaluated by a cluster analysis using the Pearson correlation coefficient, as distance and the unpaired arithmetic averages (UPGMA) as amalgamation method. A total of 24 075 springtails, distributed in 12 families, 46 genera and 86 species was collected. The higher species abundance was found at the altitudinal area II. The lowest diversity value was recorded in IV, while the higher diversity values were found in III. Significant differences between Shannon indices were found between zones II-III (t(0.01, 187) = 4.11, p springtail abundances was not found, but it was observed that, the lower altitude (I) resulted more homogeneous along the studied period, followed by level II and III. There is a particular assemblage of springtails community in each altitudinal area studied; in general, the sites with low slope resulted more diverse in Collembola communities. These results show that there are important factors such as altitude, vegetation type and microhabitat heterogeneity that may affect the distribution of springtails communities along an altitudinal gradient. PMID:21516653

  17. Catalogue of type materials of springtails (Hexapoda, Collembola) in the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids & Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebaeva, Sophya; Lonsdale, Owen; Babenko, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    The catalogue assembles and updates all data concerning the type material of Collembola kept in the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids & Nematodes in Ottawa (CNC). Information is provided for type material of 69 species. Included are holotypes of 31 species (together with 5 ones from Cretaceous amber), syntypes of 26 species (four of them are presently considered to be junior synonyms) and paratypes of 32 species (one of which is considered a junior synonym). Essential label data, references to original descriptions, and modern status including synonyms are given. PMID:27394350

  18. Diversity in plants and other Collembola ameliorate impacts of Sminthurus viridis on plant community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gary M.

    2006-05-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of herbivory by Sminthurus viridis in structuring botanical composition in developing grasslands, and how these effects may be modified by diversity in collembolan and plant species. Differential susceptibility to S. viridis feeding was demonstrated in 23 dicotyledonous and three monocotyledonous plants assayed as seedlings at the first true leaf stage. The composition of seedling communities developing from natural and artificially constructed soil seed banks varied with the level of S. viridis infestation, with plant species least susceptible to herbivory making the greatest contribution to plant biomass. The combined effect of herbivory by S. viridis and Bourletiella hortensis on Trifolium repens biomass was shown to be less than the effect of S. viridis alone, indicating competitive interference. The adverse effects of herbivory by S. viridis on T. repens biomass was reduced by increased diversity of plants growing in association with the legume, and the presence of four non-herbivorous arthropleonan Collembola. S. viridis was shown to reduce seedling numbers, species diversity and biomass in communities developing from the soil seed bank, but the presence of non-herbivorous arthropleonan species reduced the effect of S. viridis. The experiments demonstrate the potential for herbivory by S. viridis to significantly alter species composition in developing grassland communities. However, interactions with collembolan and plant species profoundly modified S. viridis herbivory impacts, either by reducing feeding intensity or enhancing plant growth. These results highlight the fact that data from simple, synthetic systems may be poor predictors of herbivory impacts under field conditions where more complex species interactions occur.

  19. Appendage patterning in the primitively wingless hexapods Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae) and Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeper, Nina D; Wimmer, Ernst A; Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2013-11-01

    Arthropod appendages are among the most diverse animal organs and have been adapted to a variety of functions. Due to this diversity, it can be difficult to recognize homologous parts in different appendage types and different species. Gene expression patterns of appendage development genes have been used to overcome this problem and to identify homologous limb portions across different species and their appendages. However, regarding the largest arthropod group, the hexapods, most of these studies focused on members of the winged insects (Pterygota), but primitively wingless groups like the springtails (Collembola) or silverfish and allies (Zygentoma) are underrepresented. We have studied the expression of a set of appendage patterning genes in the firebrat Thermobia domestica and the white springtail Folsomia candida. The expressions of Distal-less (Dll) and dachshund (dac) are generally similar to the patterns reported for pterygote insects. Modifications of gene regulation, for example, the lack of Dll expression in the palp of F. candida mouthparts, however, point to changes in gene function that can make the use of single genes and specific expression domains problematic for homology inference. Such hypotheses should therefore not rely on a small number of genes and should ideally also include information about gene function. The expression patterns of homothorax (hth) and extradenticle (exd) in both species are similar to the patterns of crustaceans and pterygote insects, but differ from those in chelicerates and myriapods. The proximal specificity of hth thus appears to trace from a common hexapod ancestor and also provides a link to the regulation of this gene in crustaceans. PMID:23873479

  20. Experimental studies of ice nucleation in an Antarctic springtail (Collembola, Isotomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, W; Worland, M R

    2001-05-01

    Ice nucleation was studied in field-fresh and acclimated (4 degrees C without food for 11-20 days) samples of the springtail Cryptopygus antarcticus Willem (Collembola, Isotomidae) at Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island on the Antarctic Peninsula. Ice nucleator activity (INA) was measured by a freezing droplet technique in addition to supercooling point (SCP) profiles and polyol, sugar, and water contents. Field and acclimated samples showed bimodal SCP distributions with a distinct high group (HG; mean SCP -8 to -10 degrees C) and low group (LG: mean SCP -23 to -25 degrees C), which were significantly different. Acclimation at 4 degrees C increased the proportion of individuals in the LG relative to that in the HG without significant effects on the mean SCP of both groups. INA of the HG was significantly greater than that of the LG, and acclimation further reduced the INA of the LG. The number of active ice nucleator agents (INAs) calculated for the HG of field samples increased by 23-100 times over the temperature range -5 to -8 degrees C compared to only 7 times for the LG over the same range. These differences were accentuated in the acclimation experiments. Glucose and galactose were the main carbohydrates in both field and acclimated springtails, with the latter compound occurring in almost twice the concentration in the LG compared with that in the HG. Acclimation reduced the concentration of both compounds (glucose by 77% and galactose by 54%), whereas water content increased significantly. Digestion of food may have continued during acclimation at 4 degrees C, which could reduce the LG INA. Lowering of temperature over time is more likely to elicit a cold hardening response than constant temperature acclimation. INA numbers calculated at the nucleation temperatures for C. antarcticus samples were higher in the LG than in the HG. However, inactivation of INAs may be a key mechanism underlying cold hardening in this species, either by sequestration

  1. The first record of the genus Allacma Börner and the species Allacma fusca (L. (Collembola: Sminthuridae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid\tSaeid Bakhshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the epigeic Collembola fauna of Shahid Zare forest (Latitude 36° 32' 2" N, Longitude 52° 7' 45" E and elevation of 40-116 meters above mean sea level, located in the east of Sari city (Mazandaran Province, Iran, some pit fall traps were placed in several sites of this forest, in April 2012. Then, the trapped springtails were separated after being transported to the entomology laboratory of Sari University of agricultural sciences and natural resources. The microscopic slides were prepared and the species were identified using verified identification keys. Among the collected specimens, the genus Allacma Börner and the species Allacma fusca (Linnaeus were recorded from Iran for the first time.

  2. 跳虫系统进化的研究进展%A review of the progress of Collembola phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊燕; 栾云霞

    2007-01-01

    跳虫是弹尾纲(Collembola)的俗称,在所有六足动物中化石年代最早,因此跳虫是六足动物起源及进化研究中非常重要的类群.跳虫的起源、分类地位和系统关系等问题,对于阐明六足动物甚至节肢动物各大类群的系统关系非常关键,日益成为相关学者关注和争论的焦点.本文就跳虫形态学和分子系统学方面的研究工作进行了综述.

  3. The Influence of Soil Characteristics on the Toxicity of Oil Refinery Waste for the Springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Adriaan J; van Wyk, Mia; Reinecke, Sophie A

    2016-06-01

    We determined the toxicity of oil refinery waste in three soils using the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola) in bioassays. Sublethal exposure to a concentration series of API-sludge presented EC50's for reproduction of 210 mg/kg in site soil; 880 mg/kg in LUFA2.2- and 3260 mg/kg in OECD-soil. The sludge was the least toxic in the OECD-soil with the highest clay and organic matter content, the highest maximum water holding capacity, and the least amount of sand. It was the most toxic in the reference site soil with the lowest organic matter content and highest sand content. The results emphasized the important role of soil characteristics such as texture and organic matter content in influencing toxicity, possibly by affecting bioavailability of toxicants. PMID:27048278

  4. First record of the genus Schoettella and three new records of the family Hypogastruridae (Collembola, Hexapoda for fauna of Iran with an identification key for Mazandaran province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Yoosefi Lafooraki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hypogastruridae family belonging to the class Collembola (Springtails are among the most important and abundant soil arthropods. These animals play important roles in decomposition processes and nutrient cycling. However, their fauna have remained too much unknown in Iran. In order to study of Collembola fauna in the Mazandaran province, some sampling from soil, leaf litters and mosses were made from different regions of the province during 2012-2013 years. Then, the springtails of samples were separated using Berlese funnel and preserved in 75-85 % ethyl alcohol. During the investigation, some samples belonging to Hypogastruridae were collected and identified. The genus Schoettella and the three species S. unungiuculata, Hypogastrura purpurescens and Ceratophysella engadinensis are new records for fauna of Iran and the two species Xenylla maritima and C. stercoraria are recorded for the first time from Mazandaran province. In addition, an identification key for local genera and species of the family Hypogastruridae in Mazandaran is presented here.

  5. Indirect effects of habitat disturbance on invasion: nutritious litter from a grazing resistant plant favors alien over native Collembola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinaas, Hans Petter; Bengtsson, Jan; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are major threats to biodiversity, with impacts that may be compounded by other forms of environmental change. Observations of high density of the invasive springtail (Collembola), Hypogastrura manubrialis in heavily grazed renosterveld vegetation in the Western Cape, South Africa, raised the question of whether the invasion was favored by changes in plant litter quality associated with habitat disturbance in this vegetation type. To examine the likely mechanisms underlying the high abundance of H. manubrialis, cages with three types of naturally occurring litter with different nutrient content were placed out in the area and collected after different periods of time. Hypogastrura manubrialis was mainly found in the nutrient-rich litter of the yellowbush (Galenia africana), which responds positively to disturbance in the form of overgrazing. This suggests that invasion may have been facilitated by a positive interaction with this grazing resistant plant. By contrast, indigenous Collembola were least abundant in yellowbush litter. Negative correlations between high abundance of H. manubrialis and the abundance and diversity of other species suggest that competitive interactions might underlie low abundance of these other species at the patch level. Group behavior enables H. manubrialis to utilize efficiently this ephemeral, high quality resource, and might improve its competitive ability. The results suggest that interactions among environmental change drivers may lead to unforeseen invasion effects. H. manubrialis is not likely to be very successful in un-grazed renosterveld, but in combination with grazing, favoring the nutrient-rich yellowbush, it may become highly invasive. Field manipulations are required to fully verify these conclusions. PMID:26380678

  6. Indirect effects of habitat disturbance on invasion: nutritious litter from a grazing resistant plant favors alien over native Collembola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinaas, Hans Petter; Bengtsson, Jan; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L

    2015-08-01

    Biological invasions are major threats to biodiversity, with impacts that may be compounded by other forms of environmental change. Observations of high density of the invasive springtail (Collembola), Hypogastrura manubrialis in heavily grazed renosterveld vegetation in the Western Cape, South Africa, raised the question of whether the invasion was favored by changes in plant litter quality associated with habitat disturbance in this vegetation type. To examine the likely mechanisms underlying the high abundance of H. manubrialis, cages with three types of naturally occurring litter with different nutrient content were placed out in the area and collected after different periods of time. Hypogastrura manubrialis was mainly found in the nutrient-rich litter of the yellowbush (Galenia africana), which responds positively to disturbance in the form of overgrazing. This suggests that invasion may have been facilitated by a positive interaction with this grazing resistant plant. By contrast, indigenous Collembola were least abundant in yellowbush litter. Negative correlations between high abundance of H. manubrialis and the abundance and diversity of other species suggest that competitive interactions might underlie low abundance of these other species at the patch level. Group behavior enables H. manubrialis to utilize efficiently this ephemeral, high quality resource, and might improve its competitive ability. The results suggest that interactions among environmental change drivers may lead to unforeseen invasion effects. H. manubrialis is not likely to be very successful in un-grazed renosterveld, but in combination with grazing, favoring the nutrient-rich yellowbush, it may become highly invasive. Field manipulations are required to fully verify these conclusions. PMID:26380678

  7. Effect of a High Dose of Three Antibiotics on the Reproduction of a Parthenogenetic Strain of Folsomia candida (Isotomidae: Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, R.; Weber, E; Waite, J;

    2010-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem (Isotomidae: Collembola) is an edaphic parthenogenetic species commonly used in ecotoxicity studies. We exposed F. candida to a high dose of three antibiotics, tylosin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline, that target different bacterial groups. Possible toxic effects were...... of the antibiotic spiked food. Active toxin avoidance by F. candida in toxicological assays may play a role in minimizing their exposure to toxic compounds. Despite the administration of high doses of oxytetracycline, F. candida individuals remained infected with the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia indicating...

  8. Type 'A' and 'B' recovery revisited: The role of field-edge habitats for Collembola and macroarthropod community recovery after insecticide treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Geoff K. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gkf@soton.ac.uk; Gould, Philip J.L. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Brink, Paul J. van den [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Hendy, Eleanor [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    Previous work has identified two patterns of arthropod recovery after insecticide applications to arable crops: dispersal-mediated recolonisation from untreated areas (Type A) and recolonisation within treated areas assisted by reduced predation (Type B). In this study, connectivity between field-edge habitats was manipulated using barriers to investigate whether a crop edge and adjacent hedgerow influence recolonisation of an insecticide-treated crop by surface-active Collembola and other arthropods. Collembola recovery patterns differed among closely-related taxa. Epigeic collembolan and macroarthropod communities were more diverse and abundant, and rates of artificial prey predation were higher, in sprayed crop areas connected to both hedgerow and unsprayed crop edge than in sprayed areas connected to the unsprayed edge alone. These findings indicate that effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of field recolonisation may depend on adjoining field margin habitats. An assumption in risk assessment that unsprayed crop edges assist population recovery within treated areas is not supported. - Collembola recolonisation differs among species; effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of arthropod recolonisation may depend on adjacent habitat.

  9. Intraspecific Phenotypic Variation and Morphological Divergence of Strains of Folsomia candida (Willem) (Collembola: Isotomidae), the "Standard" Test Springtaill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Thomas; Potapov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    We describe and compare the external morphology of eleven clonal strains and one sexual lineage of the globally distributed Folsomia candida, known as "standard" test Collembola. Of the 18 morphological characters studied, we measured 14 to have significant between-strains genetic variations, 9 of these had high heritabilities (>78%). The quantified morphological polymorphism was used to analyse the within-species relationships between strains by using both a parsimony analysis and a distance tree. These two detailed morphological phylogenies have revealed that the parthenogenetic strains grouped themselves into two major clades. However the exact position of the sexual strain remains unclear and further analysis is needed to confirm its exact relationship with the parthenogenetic ones. The two morphologically based clades were found to be the same as the ones previously described using molecular analysis. This shows that despite large within-strain variations, morphological characters can be used to differentiate some strains that have diverged within a single morphospecies. We discuss the potential evolutionary interpretations and consequences of these different levels of phenotypic variability. PMID:26355293

  10. Intraspecific Phenotypic Variation and Morphological Divergence of Strains of Folsomia candida (Willem (Collembola: Isotomidae, the "Standard" Test Springtaill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Tully

    Full Text Available We describe and compare the external morphology of eleven clonal strains and one sexual lineage of the globally distributed Folsomia candida, known as "standard" test Collembola. Of the 18 morphological characters studied, we measured 14 to have significant between-strains genetic variations, 9 of these had high heritabilities (>78%. The quantified morphological polymorphism was used to analyse the within-species relationships between strains by using both a parsimony analysis and a distance tree. These two detailed morphological phylogenies have revealed that the parthenogenetic strains grouped themselves into two major clades. However the exact position of the sexual strain remains unclear and further analysis is needed to confirm its exact relationship with the parthenogenetic ones. The two morphologically based clades were found to be the same as the ones previously described using molecular analysis. This shows that despite large within-strain variations, morphological characters can be used to differentiate some strains that have diverged within a single morphospecies. We discuss the potential evolutionary interpretations and consequences of these different levels of phenotypic variability.

  11. Within-species variation in long-term trajectories of growth, fecundity and mortality in the Collembola Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, F; Farina, M; Tully, T

    2015-12-01

    Senescence--the progressive deterioration of organisms with age--affects many traits of which survival and reproduction are the most commonly studied. Recent comparative studies have revealed a remarkable amount of variation in the patterns of ageing across the tree of life. This between-species diversity raises many questions about the evolution of senescence and of the shapes of the life-history age trajectories. Here, we study how the different components of the shapes of these life-history age trajectories can vary within a single species to shed light on the possible constraints involved in their evolution. To do so, we closely followed in controlled laboratory conditions, and for more than 450 days, the mortality, body length and fecundity of small cohorts of two clonal lineages of the Collembola Folsomia candida. We studied three components of the adult mortality trajectory: the baseline mortality, onset and speed of senescence. We found that they can differ between strains of a single species in such a way that, remarkably, an increased life expectancy is not synonymous with a delayed senescence: the strain that grows bigger has the longest life expectancy but suffers from a precocious senescence. We observed marked differences between the strains in the asymptotic body length and reproductive investment. More generally, our results highlight the importance of finely describing the long-term trajectories of several life-history traits in order to better understand how the patterns of senescence have been shaped by natural selection. PMID:26348879

  12. Polarization sensitivity in Collembola: an experimental study of polarotaxis in the water-surface-inhabiting springtail Podura aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egri, Ádám; Farkas, Alexandra; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2016-08-15

    The ventral eye of the water-surface-inhabiting springtail Podura aquatica has six ommatidia with horizontal and vertical microvilli and perceives light from the ventral, frontal and frontodorsal regions, whereas the dorsal eye possesses two upward-looking ommatidia with vertical microvilli. The ventral eye may detect water by its polarization sensitivity, even if the insect is resting with its head slightly tipped down on a raised surface. The polarization sensitivity and polarotaxis in springtails (Collembola) have not been investigated. Therefore, we performed behavioural choice experiments to study them in P. aquatica We found that the strength of phototaxis in P. aquatica depends on the polarization characteristics of stimulating light. Horizontally and vertically polarized light were the most and least attractive, respectively, while unpolarized stimulus elicited moderate attraction. We show that horizontally polarized light attracts more springtails than unpolarized, even if the polarized stimulus was 10 times dimmer. Thus, besides phototaxis, P. aquatica also performs polarotaxis with the ability to measure or at least estimate the degree of polarization. Our results indicate that the threshold d* of polarization sensitivity in P. aquatica is between 10.1 and 25.5%. PMID:27312471

  13. Deep phylogeographic divisions and long-term persistence of forest invertebrates (Hexapoda: Collembola) in the North-Western Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconardi, F; Nardi, F; Emerson, B C; Frati, F; Fanciulli, P P

    2010-01-01

    The North-Western Mediterranean basin is well known for its high number of relictual endemic taxa, and has been indicated as one of the world's major biodiversity hotspots at the species level. A possible contributing factor may be long-term persistence of populations and their prolonged stability. This study was designed to investigate the phylogeographic structure of three common species of the genus Lepidocyrtus (Hexapoda: Collembola), soil-dwelling arthropods characterized by limited dispersal capabilities and generally associated with forest habitats. We observed a remarkable geographic structure, with numerous deeply divergent genetic lineages occupying islands as well as mainland sites with no apparent gene flow among most sites, even across distances of only tens of kilometres. The reconstructed time frame for the evolution of these lineages suggests divergence between 5 and 15 Ma. This indicates a remarkably ancient origin and long-term persistence of individual lineages over a fine geographic scale despite the occurrence of abrupt sea level and climatic fluctuations in the area. This further suggests that currently recognized morphological species might be a serious underestimation of the true springtail biodiversity within this region. PMID:20015142

  14. Intraspecific Phenotypic Variation and Morphological Divergence of Strains of Folsomia candida (Willem) (Collembola: Isotomidae), the "Standard" Test Springtaill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Thomas; Potapov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    We describe and compare the external morphology of eleven clonal strains and one sexual lineage of the globally distributed Folsomia candida, known as “standard” test Collembola. Of the 18 morphological characters studied, we measured 14 to have significant between-strains genetic variations, 9 of these had high heritabilities (>78%). The quantified morphological polymorphism was used to analyse the within-species relationships between strains by using both a parsimony analysis and a distance tree. These two detailed morphological phylogenies have revealed that the parthenogenetic strains grouped themselves into two major clades. However the exact position of the sexual strain remains unclear and further analysis is needed to confirm its exact relationship with the parthenogenetic ones. The two morphologically based clades were found to be the same as the ones previously described using molecular analysis. This shows that despite large within-strain variations, morphological characters can be used to differentiate some strains that have diverged within a single morphospecies. We discuss the potential evolutionary interpretations and consequences of these different levels of phenotypic variability. PMID:26355293

  15. Genetic structure and long-distance dispersal in populations of the wingless pest springtail, Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John M K; Weeks, Andrew R

    2011-02-01

    The lucerne flea, Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae) (L.) is a major pest of broadacre agriculture across southern Australia. Few molecular studies have been conducted on S. viridis and none have examined its population genetics, despite the importance for developing effective control strategies. Here, we characterize the genetic structure of Australian populations using three allozyme and eight microsatellite loci, as well as sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene. We found that S. viridis in Australia are diploid, sexually reproducing and exhibit significant population structure as a result of limited gene flow. Despite significant differentiation between populations, there was very low cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence variation, indicating the presence of a single species in Australia. The observed structure only marginally complied with an 'isolation by distance' model with human-mediated long-distance dispersal likely occurring. Allozymes and microsatellites gave very similar FST estimates, although differences found for novel alternative estimates of differentiation suggest that the allozymes did not capture the full extent of the population structure. These results highlight that control strategies may need to vary for locally adapted S. viridis populations and strategies aimed at limiting the spread of any future pesticide resistance will need to manage the effects of human-mediated dispersal. PMID:21219669

  16. 常熟尚湖周边农田土壤弹尾类的分布特征研究%Study on the Distribution Features of Collembola in the Surrounding Farmlands of Shanghu in Changshu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾影波; 苏永春

    2011-01-01

    The distribution features of Collembola in the surrounding farmland of Shanghu in Changshu were investigated and analyzed. Results showed that the vertical distribution of Collembola presented extremely significant congregation on the surface. The average density of soil Collembola decreased gradually from winter to summer, while increased obviously from summer to winter. The population density of Collembola is negatively correlated with soil temperature, while positively correlated with soil humidity.%调查分析了常熟尚湖周边农田土壤弹尾类的分布特征,结果表明,土壤弹尾类的垂直分布具有极其显著的表聚性.其季节消长特征是从冬季到夏季土壤弹尾类平均密度呈现逐渐下降趋势,而由夏季到冬季弹尾类的平均密度则有较明显的上升过程.土壤温度与弹尾类种群密度呈负相关关系,而土壤湿度与弹尾类种群密度具有正相关性.

  17. 中国鳞属Tomocerus一新种(弹尾目:鳞(虫兆)科)%A New Species of the Genus Tomocerus (Tomocerina) (Collembola: Tomo-ceridae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永琴; 李忠诚

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a new species of Collembola, Tomocerus (Tomocerina) wang-langensis, from Sichuan Province, China is described. It is alike to T.(Tomocerina) calceus Liu, Hou and Li 1999. All the type specimens are deposited in the College of Life and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology.

  18. Colêmbolos (Hexapoda: Collembola como bioindicadores de qualidade do solo em áreas com Araucaria angustifolia Springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola as soil quality bioindicators in areas with Araucaria angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Não existem informações sobre a diversidade de colêmbolos associados às florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze no Brasil. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o potencial da diversidade de famílias de colêmbolos como bioindicadores da qualidade do solo e para separar diferentes áreas com araucária, utilizando atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo como variáveis explicativas. O estudo foi realizado em quatro áreas: 1. floresta nativa com predominância de araucária (NF; 2. reflorestamento de araucária (R; 3. reflorestamento de araucária submetido a incêndio acidental (RF; e 4. pastagem natural com araucárias nativas e ocorrência de incêndio acidental (NPF. Na captura dos organismos, utilizaram-se dez armadilhas, distribuídas ao acaso em cada área, nos mesmos pontos de coleta dos atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo. O número de colêmbolos de cada família, extraído por armadilhas (abundância, o índice de diversidade de Shannon (H e a riqueza de famílias foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA. A abundância de cada família de Collembola foi submetida à Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Considerando as quatro áreas, foram identificadas oito famílias de colêmbolos (Brachystomellidae, Entomobryidae, Hypogastruridae, Isotomidae, Katiannidae, Paronellidae, Sminthuridae e Tomoceridae. A diversidade de famílias de colêmbolos foi maior nas áreas NF e R, em comparação com as áreas RF e NPF. Os atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo foram eficientes como variáveis explicativas, pois auxiliaram na interpretação das modificações das famílias de colêmbolos. A ACP mostrou que a identificação ao nível de família de Collembola é suficiente para separar as áreas estudadas, além de indicar quais foram as famílias de colêmbolos mais associadas a cada área, o que possibilita sua utilização como bioindicadores de intervenções antrópicas, bem como da

  19. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariën J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of Collembola, suggested that the hexapod body plan evolved at least twice. Here, we re-evaluate the position of Collembola using ribosomal protein gene sequences. Results In total 48 ribosomal proteins were obtained for the collembolan Folsomia candida. These 48 sequences were aligned with sequence data on 35 other ecdysozoans. Each ribosomal protein gene was available for 25% to 86% of the taxa. However, the total sequence information was unequally distributed over the taxa and ranged between 4% and 100%. A concatenated dataset was constructed (5034 inferred amino acids in length, of which ~66% of the positions were filled. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods, resulted in a topology that supports monophyly of Hexapoda. Conclusion Although ribosomal proteins in general may not evolve independently, they once more appear highly valuable for phylogenetic reconstruction. Our analyses clearly suggest that Hexapoda is monophyletic. This underpins the inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial datasets when analyzing pancrustacean relationships. Caution is needed when applying mitochondrial markers in deep phylogeny.

  20. Co-occurrence analyses show that non-random community structure is disrupted by fire in two groups of soil arthropods (Isopoda Oniscidea and Collembola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Monica; Luiselli, Luca; Bologna, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that natural catastrophes may destroy non-random community structure in natural assemblages of organisms. As a study system, we selected fire as the catastrophic event, and two groups of soil arthropods (Collembola and Isopoda Oniscidea) as target organisms. By co-occurrence analyses and Monte Carlo simulations of niche overlap analysis (C-score, with fixed-equiprobable model; RA2 and RA3 algorithms) we evaluated whether the community structure of these two groups were random/non-random at three unburnt sites and at three neighbour burnt sites that were devastated by a large-scale fire in summer 2000. Both taxa experienced a remarkable reduction in the number of species sampled in burnt versus unburnt sites, but the difference among sites was not statistically significant for Oniscidea. We determined that community structure was clearly non-random at the unburnt sites for both Collembola (according to RA3 algorithm) and Isopoda Oniscidea (according to co-occurrence analysis) and that, as predicted by theory, the catastrophic event did deeply alter the community structure by removing the non-random organization of the species interactions. We also observed a shift from segregation to aggregation/randomness in soil arthropods communities affected by fire, a pattern that was similar to that observed in natural communities of organisms perturbed by the introduction of alien species, thus indicating that this pattern may be generalizable when alteration of communities may occur.

  1. The mitochondrial genome of the antarctic springtail Folsomotoma octooculata (Hexapoda; Collembola, and an update on the phylogeny of collembolan lineages based on mitogenomic data

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    A. Carapelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the description of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic collembola Folsomotoma octooculata. Since mitogenomic data are extensively used for phylogenetic reconstruction, we also provide a phylogenetic reconstruction of the internal relationships of some collembola taxa using the complete mitochondrial DNA data available at present for this group. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of F. octooculata has been obtained using standard amplification and sequencing methods for long DNA templates. Sequence data are analyzed using bayesian methods based on the analysis of nucleotide and amino acid sequences. The complete set of available mitochondrial DNA sequences for ten species of the group is also analyzed for the presence of lineage-specific gene order of the 37 encoded genes. The results of the phylogenetic analysis are compared with previous morphological and molecular analyses, showing some intriguing outcomes, such as the paraphyly of Entomobryomorpha, the derived position of Podura aquatica within Poduromorpha, and the sister group relationships between the single Symphypleona species available for comparison and the entomobryid Orchesella villosa. The F. octooculata mitochondrial genome generally conforms with those observed in other basal hexapod species and displays the plesiomorphic gene order observed for Pancrustacea. Mitogenomic data are useful to reconstruct a molecular phylogeny of major collembolan taxa. In spite of the limited number of species for which entire mitochondrial genomes are known, the coverage of many of the major lineages allows some preliminary conclusions concerning the relationships among families and suborders.

  2. Nonconsumptive Predator-Prey Interactions: Sensitivity of the Detritivore Sinella curviseta (Collembola: Entomobryidae) to Cues of Predation Risk From the Spider Pardosa milvina (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitvarin, Michael I; Romanchek, Christian; Rypstra, Ann L

    2015-04-01

    Predators can affect prey indirectly when prey respond to cues indicating a risk of predation by altering activity levels. Changes in prey behavior may cascade through the food web to influence ecosystem function. The response of the collembolan Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae) to cues indicating predation risk (necromones and cues from the wolf spider Pardosa milvina (Hentz) (Araneae: Lycosidae)) was tested. Additionally, necromones and predator cues were paired in a conditioning experiment to determine whether the collembolan could form learned associations. Although collembolans did not alter activity levels in response to predator cues, numerous aspects of behavior differed in the presence of necromones. There was no detectable conditioned response to predator cues after pairing with necromones. These results provide insight into how collembolans perceive and respond to predation threats that vary in information content. Previously detected indirect impacts of predator cues on ecosystem function are likely due to changes in prey other than activity level. PMID:26313189

  3. Metais pesados, agrotóxicos e combustíveis: efeito na população de colêmbolos no solo Heavy metal, pesticides and fuels: effect in the population of collembola in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Inês Antoniolli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de colêmbolos no solo com diferentes níveis de metais pesados, combustíveis e agrotóxicos em condição de laboratório. Os tratamentos foram: Cádmio (1, 10 e 100mg kg-1 de solo; Cobre (50, 500 e 5000mg kg-1 de solo; Zinco (100, 1000 e 10000mg kg-1 de solo; fungicida epoxiconazol + piraclostrobina (1 e 2L ha-1; fungicida epoxiconazol (0,75 e 1,5L ha-1; herbicida glifosato (2 e 4L ha-1; óleo lubrificante queimado (5, 50 e 100mL kg-1 solo e óleo diesel (5, 50 e 100mL kg-1 solo e controle. Na dose de 1mg kg-1 de Cd no solo, houve grande aumento na população de colêmbolos e o pH do solo diminuiu à medida que aumentaram as doses de Cd, Zn e Cu no solo. Na presença de combustíveis, os colêmbolos apresentaram incapacidade de reprodução, independente da dose aplicada no solo. O número de colêmbolos apresentou incremento com o aumento da dosagem de glifosato e epoxiconazol. Os metais pesados Cu e Zn têm ação negativa sobre a população de colêmbolos e somente o Cd (1mg kg-1 solo proporciona aumento na população de colêmbolos no solo. A presença de óleo lubrificante queimado e óleo diesel no solo inibem o desenvolvimento dos colêmbolos no solo. Os agrotóxicos glifosato, epoxiconazol e epoxiconazol + piraclostrobina não influenciam negativamente sobre a população de colêmbolos no solo.The aim of this research was to evaluate the collembola development in soils with different levels of heavy metals, fuels and pesticides, in laboratory conditions. Treatments were: Cadmium - 1, 10 and 100mg kg-1 soil; Copper - 50, 500 and 5000mg kg-1 soil; Zinc - 100, 1000 and 10000 mg kg-1 soil; fungicide epoxiconazol + piraclostrobina - 1 and 2L ha-1; fungicide epoxiconazol - 0,75 and 1,5L ha-1; herbicide glyphosate - 2 and 4L ha-1; burned lubricating oil - 5, 50 and 100mL kg-1 soil and diesel oil - 5, 50 and 100mL kg-1 soil and control. In the 1mg kg-1 dose of Cd there was a great

  4. 中国鳞姚属一新种(弹尾纲,鳞姚科)%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS TOMOCERUS (COLLEMBOLA,TOMOCERIDAE) FROM CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永琴; 周建华; 张清东

    2013-01-01

    记述了采自中国四川鳞姚属(弹尾纲,鳞姚科)1新种,模式标本保存在西南科技大学生命科学与工程学院昆虫标本室.九寨鳞姚,新种omocerus jiuzhaiensis sp.nov.(图1~11)该种与f zayuensis Huang and Yin,1981和f ocreatus Dems,1948相似,主要区别是齿节刺结构、胫跗节刺状钝毛数、小爪内齿的有无、握弹器体上刚毛数等.新种主要鉴别特征:齿节刺简单,胫跗节刺状钝毛数为6、6、6,小爪有1内齿、握弹器体上刚毛数为17支,弹器端节间齿数为3~4.词源:新种种名源自模式标本采集地地名.%Tomocerus jiuzhaiensis,a new species of the genus Tomocerus (Collembola,Tomoceridae) from Sichuan Province,China is described.All the type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Insect Collection College of Life and Engineering,Southwest University of Science and Technology.

  5. Two new genera and five new species of Tullbergiidae (Collembola) from the southern Appalachian Mountains of North America, with redescription of Tullbergia clavata Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Ernest C

    2016-01-01

    Two new genera and five new species of Tullbergiidae (Collembola) are described from the North American Appalachian zone in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina. Ameritulla n. gen. is established for species with 15 setae on the middle tibiotarsus, blunt papilla A on the labial palpus, two long rows of vesicles in the postantennal organ (PAO), two dorsal sensilla on the third antennal segment and crescentic pseudocelli. Ameritulla clavata (Mills, 1934) n. comb. (=Tullbergia clavata Mills, 1934) is designated as type species and redescribed from type specimens, and A. obscura n. sp. is described. On Mixturatulla ozwini n. gen., n. sp. papillae A and B of the labial palpus are thick and blunt, the second row of the PAO is laterally broken into numerous spherical vesicles, and the dorsum of Abd. VI has two rows of large, coalesced tubercles. Psammophorura miniclavata n. sp. lacks pseudocelli on the third abdominal segment, which are present in previously described species. Stenaphorura shaconage n. sp. is the first species of its genus reliably recorded from North America. It differs from its Palaearctic relatives in having 2+2 pseudocelli on most body segments. Tullbergia nearctica n. sp. resembles T. arctica (Wahlgren, 1900) but differs in several chaetotaxic characters. Sensilliform setae traditionally considered as ordinary pointed setae are recognized and charted. A new setal nomenclature is proposed for the ventral setae of the sixth abdominal segment. PMID:27615985

  6. Laboratory assessment of the impacts of transgenic Bt rice on the ecological fitness of the soil non-target arthropod, Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Xiao, Nengwen; Krogh, Paul Henning; Chen, Fajun; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins (Bt rice) for pest control is considered an important solution to food security in China. However, tests for potential effects on non-target soil organisms are required for environmental risk assessment. The soil collembolan Folsomia candida L. (Collembola: Isotomidae) is a potential non-target arthropod that is often used as a biological indicator in bio-safety assessments of transgenic crops. In the present study, the roots, stems, and leaves of Bt rice were exposed to F. candida under laboratory conditions, with survival, reproduction and growth of the collembolan as ecological fitness parameters. Significant differences in ecological fitness were found among the different treatments, including differences in the plant parts and varieties of non-Bt rice, presumably as the result of three factors: gene modification, plant parts and rice varieties. The fitness of F. candida was less affected by the different diets than by the exposure to the same materials mixed with soil. Our results clearly showed that there was no negative effect of different Bt rice varieties on the fitness of F. candida through either diet or soil exposure.

  7. Free Sterols of the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    % methanolic sulfuric acid as the detecting agent. The sterol fraction for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and for spectral data [Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); Electron Im- pact Mass spectrum (EIMS)] refers to two different fractions obtained.... Govenkar and S. Wahidulla methyl silicone capillary Hewlett Packard column (25 m, 0.2 mm D). The column temperature was pro- grammed from 200 8C to 290 8Cat28C/min. Helium was used as the carrier gas. The ions were detected in the m/z range of 402600 Da...

  8. Catalogue of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. II. Hexapoda: Collembola, Diplura, Archaeognatha, Ephemeroptera and Blattaria Catálogo dos espécimes-tipo da Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil. II. Hexapoda: Collembola, Diplura, Archaeognatha, Ephemeroptera e Blattaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moacir Ferreira Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of type specimens of Collembola, Diplura, Archaeognatha, Ephemeroptera, and Blattaria deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to June, 2007. It contains a total of 22 holotypes and 18 lots of paratypes of 22 species of Collembola; one holotype and one paratype of one species of Diplura; four holotypes and four paratypes of four species of Archaeognatha; 10 holotypes and thirteen lots of paratypes of 11 species of Ephemeroptera; and one holotype and two lots of paratypes of one species of Blattaria. Specific names are listed alphabetically within family, followed by bibliographical citation, original genus name, status of type, collection number and locality data.É apresentado um catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de Collembola, Diplura, Archaeognatha, Ephemeroptera e Blattaria depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brasil, atualizado até junho de 2007. É relacionado um total de 22 holótipos e 18 lotes de parátipos de 22 espécies de Collembola; um holótipo e um lote de parátipos de uma espécie de Diplura; quatro holótipos e quatro parátipos de quatro espécies de Archaeognatha; dez holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de 11 espécies de Ephemeroptera e um holótipo e dois lotes de parátipos de uma espécie de Blattaria. São listados alfabeticamente em cada família os nomes das espécies, seguidos da citação bibliográfica, nome original do gênero, categoria do tipo, número de registro na coleção e dados de localidade.

  9. Short-term biochemical ill effects of insect growth regulator (IGR) pesticides in Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola: Insecta) as potential biomarkers of soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ipsita; Joy, V C

    2016-02-01

    The insect growth regulator (IGR) chemicals are considered as safe alternatives to synthetic organic pesticides, but only scant information are available on their possible impact on non-target and ecologically important soil insect fauna of croplands. Previous studies by the authors showed that recommended agricultural doses of IGRs buprofezin (Applaud 25SC at 250 g a.i. ha(-1)), flubendiamide (Takumi 20WG at 50 g a.i. ha(-1)) and novaluron (Rimon 10EC at 100 g a.i. ha(-1)) produced less mortality of adults of a non-target soil insect Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola) but decreased major life history parameters namely moulting, fecundity and egg hatching success. This detritivorous microarthropod is very sensitive to soil characteristics and is ecologically relevant to the tropical soils. Present microcosm study showed strong biochemical impact of the above doses of IGRs on tissue nutrient levels and digestive enzyme activities in C. javanus within 7 days of exposure to treated sandy loam soil. The levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and free amino acids declined significantly and persistently in the specimens reared in IGR-treated soils than in the specimens of untreated soil. Similarly, α-amylase, cellulase and protease activities declined significantly in the specimens of IGR-treated soil. These nutritional scarcities would reduce metabolism, growth and reproduction in the affected insects. Therefore, the observed biochemical responses, especially the levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates and α-amylase activity in C. javanus are early warning indices and potential biomarkers of soil pollution in croplands. PMID:26780417

  10. Colémbolos (Hexapoda como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México Collembola (Hexapoda as quality bioindicators of the hydrocarburans polluted soils in Southestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Uribe-Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron invertebrados del suelo, en particular los colémbolos, como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México. Se realizaron 2 muestreos en verano-otoño del 2004, en 4 parcelas de 2 hectáreas, denominadas zona 1, 2, 3 y control. De cada unidad se tomaron 8 muestras que fueron procesadas por medio del embudo de Berlese-Tullgren y 4 por el método de flotación. Para colémbolos se determinaron los siguientes índices ecológicos: abundancia, riqueza, índice de Shannon (H', dominancia (λ, equidad(J' e índice de similitud (S. Se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos del suelo: hidrocarburos totales del petróleo (HTP e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP, porosidad, pH, CE, MO, N, P, K, CIC y textura. Los HTP, en las zonas contaminadas, sobrepasan los límites de las normas mexicanas ambientales. En todas las zonas de estudio se observaron colémbolos, ácaros y larvas de dípteros, por lo que su abundancia y diversidad pueden ser utilizadas como bioindicadores del grado de contaminación y calidad del suelo. En las zonas contaminadas se registraron abundancias muy bajas de Crustacea, Formicidae, Araneae, Diptera, Pseudoscorpionida, y Diplopoda. Las familias de los colémbolos más ampliamente distribuidas fueron Sminthurididae e Isotomidae. De acuerdo con el análisis de correlación, su diversidad de colémbolos es afectada por la presencia de HAP (flouranteno, naftaleno, pireno, criseno y fenantrenoWe evaluated invertebrates, with an emphasis on Collembola, as bioindicators of soil quality in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in southeastern Mexico. We carried out 2 sampling periods in summer-fall of 2004 in 4 parcels of 2 hectares each. From each parcel we processed 8 samples using the Berlese-Tullgren funnel technique and 4 using the flotation method. For Collembola we calculated the following ecological indices: abundance, richness, the Shannon index (H', dominance (

  11. 土壤跳虫在碳循环中的作用--13C示踪研究%Role of Collembola in Carbon Transformation--A13C-labelling Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    很容易通过呼吸作用释放回到大气,尤其在初期,绝大部分排放的 CO2都源自新 C。土壤跳虫在食物网中的作用明显,对土壤微生物具有显著的调控作用。%Terrestrial carbon cycle is one of the key issues in the world. Soil fauna play essential roles in soil ecosystem which is the largest terrestrial carbon sink. However, both the contributions of soil fauna to carbon transformation and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The isotope technology provided an useful method to quantify the key processes in soil food web and material cycling. In this study,13C-labeled leaf litter was used to investigate the effect of the Collembola (Folsomia Candida) on carbon transformation in laboratory microcosms. Three treatments were set up: (1) soil (control, S), (2) soil and labeled litter (SL), and (3) soil, labeled litter and Collembola (SLC). Each treatment has four replicates. These microcosms were destructively sampled on day 7, 21, 63 after the experiment initiation. The results showed that litter-derived C was incorporated into soil biota rapidly. The originalδ13C values of Collembola was -9.91‰±0.08‰, and it reached 522.70‰ after 7 days of incubation indicating that Collembola could efficiently assimilate this newly introduced litter-derived C. Similarly, theδ13C values in PLFAs increased significantly, especially at the initial experimental stage. In addition, the presence of Collembola significantly promoted the PLFAsδ13C suggesting that Collembola could accelerate the microbial assimilation of litter carbon. Unexpectedly, treatment SLC exhibited significantly lowerδ13C values than treatment SL. This may indicate that the presence of Collembola stimulated the release of newly metabolized litter C. Both of the treatments stimulated CO2 flux significantly. By C isotope analysis, over 85% of the mineralized C derived from litter at the initiation state (21 days), demonstrating that new C from fresh litter

  12. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS TOMOCERUS (S. STR. ) ( COLLEMBOLA: TOMOCERIDAE ) FROM CHINA%中国鳞属Tomocerus 1新种 (弹尾目:鳞科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永琴

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a new species of Collembola, Tomocerus (s. str. ) jinyunensis of the genus Tomocerus Nicolet 1841 in China, is described. It is similar to Tomocerus (s. str.) jesonicus Yosii 1967, but differs from the latter in its tibiotarsus color, ungui inner teeth, tibiotarsal blunt spiny setae and scale color. All the type specimens are deposited in the College of Life and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology.%记述了中国鳞属Tomocerus Nicolet 1841 1新种--缙云鳞Tomocerus(s.str.)jinyunensis,sp.nov..该新种与杰氏鳞Tomocerus(s.str.)jesonicus Yosii 1967很相似,但可以从胫跗节颜色、爪内缘齿数、胫跗节粗钝刺状大刚毛及鳞片颜色等特征相区别.模式标本保存于西南科技大学生命科学与工程学院昆虫标本室.

  13. A New Chinese Recorded Species of Hypogastruridae (Collembola:Poduromorpha) and the List of the Family of Hypogastrurids in Shanxi%球角跳科(弹尾纲∶原跳目)一中国新纪录及山西球角跳科动物名录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾俊丽; 李友莲

    2013-01-01

    描述了弹尾纲球角跳科一中国新记录种,同时简单介绍了球角跳科两个主要属的研究历史,给出了球角跳科山西省名录并编制了检索表.%A new Chinese record of Collembola species was reported and illustrated in the paper.The research history on two important genera of Hypogastruridae was included,and the list and the key of ShanXi Hypogastrurids were provided.

  14. TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS CROSSODONTHINA (COLLEMBOLA,NEANURIDAE) FROM CHINA%中国颚毛(虫兆)属二新种(弹尾目,疣(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊燕; 陈立侨; 尹文英

    2005-01-01

    记述了采自海南和浙江省的弹尾目疣(虫兆)科颚毛(虫兆)属Crossodonthina Yosii,2新种,海南颚毛(虫兆)C.hainana sp.nov.和天童颚毛(虫兆).tiantongshana sp.nov..海南颚毛(虫兆)头部每侧有眼2个,弹器痕上有6根刚毛,非常容易与本属其它已知种类分开.天童颚毛(虫兆)与上海产的Crossodonthina tridentiens Yue&Yin,1999相似,两者的主要区别是:新种的上颚有两条长的、羽毛状分支和具5齿的片状突起,且基部齿长而细;下颚的内颚叶端部及近基部各有1齿;新种腹部第5节有3+3个疣状突起,而C.tridentiens有2+2个疣状突起;新种的爪部内侧有2个小齿,1个大齿,C.tridentiens只有1大齿.模式标本保存于上海生命科学研究院,植物生理生态所昆虫标本馆.%In the present study, two new species of Collembola, Crossodonthina hainana sp. nov. and Crossodonthina tiantongshana sp. nov. were described respectively from Hainan and Zhejiang Provinces, China. The new species Crossodonthina hainana is easily discriminated from all known species of Crossodonthina by having 2 + 2 eyes and furcular hump with 6 setae. C. tiantongshana is similar to C. tridentiens Yue & Yin, 1999 in some aspects, but differs from the latter in having peculiar mandibles and maxillae.

  15. 不同施氮浓度下弹尾虫季节动态特征研究%Researc h on seasonal change of Collembola under different nitrogen application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 陈璐; 杨志浩; 邵红涛

    2016-01-01

    弹尾虫是土栖动物中一个重要类群,分布广泛。在小兴安岭森林生态系统定位研究站,在不同施氮浓度下(对照、低氮、中氮和高氮)采用Tullgren干漏斗法分离弹尾虫并进行鉴定与数据分析。共获得标本3430个,隶属于7科。类群数方面,优势科为等节科、棘科和球角科,常见科为疣科,稀有科为长角科、鳞科,极稀有科为圆科。不同季节主要差距体现在稀有类群方面。总个体数夏季最多,秋季最少。在春季和夏季,个体数总体规律为中氮下最多,高氮下最少。对照、低氮和高氮3组弹尾虫数量的动态变化为从春季到秋季为先增多后减少,而中氮组为连续性数量减少。%Collembola are small important soil animals , distributed widely .We chose the sampling site in Forest Research Center in Xiaoxinganling Mountains .Tullgren method was used to separate the specimens under different nitrogen application ( Control, Lew nitrogen, Moderate nitrogen, High nitrogen ).In total, there are 3 430 specimens , belonging to 7 families.The dominant groups are Isotomidae , Onchiuridae , and Hypogastruridae and the common groups are Neanuridae , the rare groups are Entomobryidae and Tomoceridae and Sminthuridae is the extremely rare group .The main difference exists in rare group .The total individual number is the highest in summer, and the lowest in autumn .In spring and summer of 2014 , the total number is highest in Moderate nitrogen, and the lowest in High nitrogen .In Control, Low nitrogen and High nitrogen , it incresed then decreased from spring to autumn , but in Moderate nitrogen , it decreased successively .

  16. Effects of Tobacco Bacterial Wilt on the Abundance of Acari and Collembola in Tobacco Rhizosphere Soil%烟草青枯病危害对烟株根际土壤螨类和弹尾虫发生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白耀宇; 庞帅; 李石力; 丁伟

    2015-01-01

    为了明确烟草青枯病的危害对烟株根际土壤螨类和弹尾虫发生的影响,于2013年7-9月在重庆市彭水县烟区青枯病发病典型试验地进行了调查,共捕获土壤动物27169头,其中螨类和弹尾虫共占86%~99%.研究结果表明,在发病初期,发病烟株(3级以下)根际土中螨类和弹尾虫的数量与健康植株相比差异均不具有统计学意义(p>0.05);在发病中期,仅3级以下烟株0~10 cm根际土中的螨类和弹尾虫数量显著高于5~7级和9级(p<0.05);但在发病后期,无论是0~10 cm还是10~20 cm的3级以下烟株的螨类数量均显著高于5~7级和9级( p<0.05),而9级的弹尾虫数量显著高于3级以下和5~7级(p<0.05);随着发病时间的推移,根际土中螨类和弹尾虫的比值随着青枯病危害程度的加剧而显著降低(p<0.05).青枯病危害强烈影响根际土壤螨类和弹尾虫的发生.%During July‐September ,2013 ,field studies were conducted at Pengshui County in Chongqing , China ,to assess the potential effects of tobacco bacterial wilt on abundance of Acari and Collembola in to‐bacco rhizosphere soil .A total of 27 ,169 soil animals were collected ,86 -99% of which was Acari and Collembola .The results showed that the abundance of Acari or Collembola in tobacco rhizosphere soil did not significantly increased in the disease plants than its control at the early stage of the diseased ( p >0.05) .The abundance of Acari and Collembola in 0-10 cm rhizosphere soil of the 9 level of damage in the disease plants significantly increased than those of the below 3 level and 5-7 level of damage at the mid‐term of the diseased (p<0.05) .At the later period of the diseased ,the abundance of Acari in 0-10 cm or 10-20 cm rhizosphere soil of the below 3 level of damage in the diseased both significantly increased than those of the 5-7 level and the 9 level of damage ;while those of

  17. Ecological Distribution of Collembola in the Litter under Different Ground Cover Treatment of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%天童常绿阔叶林砍伐后凋落物层跳虫群落生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳亚丽; 蒋跃

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To understand the effects of ground cover removal on collembola communities in the litter and the community restoration situations. [Method] The collembola community investigation of 4 seasons in an evergreen broad-leaved forest after 7 years since the ground cover removal in Tiantong Region, Zhejiang Province was carried out during Dec. 2019-Sep. 2010. The five treatments in five sites were as follows:(Ⅰ) big trees were removed but sprouts retained;(Ⅱ) ground surface vegetation was removed but litter retained;(Ⅲ) all vegetation and 0–10 cm topsoil were removed;(Ⅳ) undergrowth was removed but big trees retained; and (Ⅴ) a control plot without any disturbance. [Result] The number of collembolan groups did not vary widely. The number of collembola community was as follows:Ⅱ(28. 79%) > Ⅳ(21. 03%) >Ⅰ(20. 75%) > Ⅴ(17. 09%) >Ⅲ(12. 33%) . The community composition vary in different seasons. The number of collembola community was as follows:autumn > summer > spring > winter. The organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus had obvious differences among the plots. Even after 7 years of restoration, the collembola community traits were obviously different among the treatments. [ Conclusion] Collembola community was very sensitive to the environmental disturbing, which can be used as the indicator species to evaluate the soil environmental dis-turbance.%[目的]了解不同砍伐处理对常绿阔叶林凋落物层跳虫群落结构的影响以及各处理样地跳虫群落恢复状况。[方法]于2009年12月至2010年9月在浙江天童地区常绿阔叶林5个砍伐7年后的恢复样地进行四季采样,对浙江森林公园不同砍伐处理下常绿阔叶林土壤动物优势类群跳虫群落进行调查。样地处理分别为:(Ⅰ)去除大树保留萌枝、(Ⅱ)去除地表植物保留枯枝落叶层、(Ⅲ)去除地表植物和10 cm表土、(Ⅳ)清除下木层保留大树、(Ⅴ)对照。[结果]各处理样地各科

  18. Una società armata è una società libera

    OpenAIRE

    Stagnaro, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Guns are mere objects. Preventing people from owning them, or limiting their availability, is an infringement of the natural right to property. Guns are also a peculiar good, since they are the key for the protection of liberty and property. In this perspective, gun control is not about guns: it is about control. In fact, government growth may be slowed by private gun ownership. A tyranny is unlikely to occur where people are armed. Historical evidence confirms this point: for exa...

  19. Soil Insect Community Structure and the Relationship with Artificial Disturbance Intensity in the Nanhu Park of Changchun%长春南湖公园土壤昆虫群落结构及其与人为干扰强度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏志刚; 房岩; 孙刚; 胡子祎; 都兴莉

    2013-01-01

    采用大类群分类法和分层取样法,研究了长春南湖公园土壤昆虫群落结构特征及其与人为干扰强度的关系.结果表明:共采集土壤昆虫15个科(成虫与幼虫单列),其中弹尾目(Collembola)的鳞跳虫科(Tomoceridae)为优势科,占土壤昆虫总个体数的68.71%;节跳虫科(Isotomid)、长角跳虫科(Paronellidae)、蚁科(Formicidae)、棘跳虫科(Onychiuridae)、虻科幼虫(Tabanidae larva)、蚊科幼虫(Culicidae larva)、山跳虫科(Pseudachortidae)、疣跳虫科(Neanuridae)、蓟马科(Thripidae)、蚜科(Aphididae)为常见科,占土壤昆虫总个体数的24.60%.随着人为干扰强度的增大,土壤昆虫的科数和个体数减少,表聚性下降.

  20. Two new Megalothorax species of the minimus group (Collembola, Neelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Clément; Porco, David; Deharveng, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Two new Megalothorax species, Megalothorax potapovi sp. n. from the Russian Far East and Megalothorax sanguineus sp. n. from the French Pyrénées are described. The two new species have a set of morphological characters (including a smooth mucro) that places them among the minimus group sensu Schneider and D'Haese (2013). Megalothorax potapovi characteristics include dorsal protuberance on forehead, peculiar chaetotaxy of antenna III and strong lanceolate chaetae on body. Megalothorax sanguineus characteristics include strong red pigmentation, large network of integumentary channels on head and elongated apex of the two postero-distal spines of dens. The DNA barcodes (cytochrome oxidase subunit I-COI) of the two species are also provided and analyzed among a broader sampling of the genus in order to support further their specific status. A special focus is given to the labral morphological characteristics. Pseudopores-like elements are reported for the first time in the genus. Positions of the τ-chaetae near the dorsal sensory field of thorax II are compared for several species of the genus. PMID:26877679

  1. Pax6 in Collembola: Adaptive Evolution of Eye Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ya-Nan; Li, Sheng; Luan, Yun-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the compound eyes in insects, collembolan eyes are comparatively simple: some species have eyes with different numbers of ocelli (1 + 1 to 8 + 8), and some species have no apparent eye structures. Pax6 is a universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. In this study, full-length Pax6 cDNAs, Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6, were cloned from an eyeless collembolan (Folsomia candida, soil-dwelling) and an eyed one (Ceratophysella denticulata, surface-dwelling), respectively. Their phylogenetic positions are between the two Pax6 paralogs in insects, eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy), and their protein sequences are more similar to Ey than to Toy. Both Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6 could induce ectopic eyes in Drosophila, while Fc-Pax6 exhibited much weaker transactivation ability than Cd-Pax6. The C-terminus of collembolan Pax6 is indispensable for its transactivation ability, and determines the differences of transactivation ability between Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6. One of the possible reasons is that Fc-Pax6 accumulated more mutations at some key functional sites of C-terminus under a lower selection pressure on eye development due to the dark habitats of F. candida. The composite data provide a first molecular evidence for the monophyletic origin of collembolan eyes, and indicate the eye degeneration of collembolans is caused by adaptive evolution. PMID:26856893

  2. Entomobryoidea (Collembola) from Himachal Pradesh (India) in the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Enrique; Mandal, Gurupada; Jordana, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Collections made during March-April, 2010, October-November, 2010 and 2011 from different districts of Himachal Pradesh, India, by the Apterygota section of the Zoological Survey of India contained new species of Entomobryoidea. Localities sampled were Solan, Shimla, Kullu, Bilaspur, Kagra, Chamba and Sirmaur districts of Himachal Pradesh. Collections were mainly made using an aspirator from leaf litter, mosses, under stones, flowering garden plants and river embankments, wetlands and rotting logs. Sixteen species were found, belonging to genera: Entomobrya, Himalanura, Homidia, Sinella, Willowsia, Lepidocyrtus (Acrocyrtus), Lepidocyrtus (Cinctocyrtus), Seira, Drepanosira and Salina. Twelve of these have been described as new species. PMID:26624165

  3. New species of Pseudachorutes (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoughailech, Abdelmalek; Hamra-Kroua, Salah; Deharveng, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Pseudachorutes are described from the Collo massif in northeastern Algeria, all three with morphological features unique or rare in the genus. P. deficiens sp. nov. lacks chaeta E on the labium, a character only retrieved in P. ouatilouensis Najt & Weiner, 1997 from New Caledonia, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and of chaeta M on tibiotarsus. P. octosensillatus sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that have 8 S-chaetae on Ant IV. P. labiatus sp. nov. has 3 x-papillae on the labium, like P. cf. indiana Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980 from Alaska, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and a lower number of vesicles in PAO (5-6 vs 10-14). PMID:27615903

  4. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  5. A new species of Dicranocentroides (Collembola: Paronellidae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Hazra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Dicranocentroides duduaensis sp. nov., is described from the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, Uttar Pradesh, India. A key to the Indian species of the genus is also provided. 

  6. Arrhopalites potapovi sp. nov. (Collembola, Symphypleona) from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargovitsh, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    A new springtail species of the family Arrhopalitidae, Arrhopalites potapovi sp. nov., is described. It belongs to the caecus species group characterized by 3,2,1,1,1 anterior setae on dens and separates from Arrhopalites caecus (Tullberg) and other congeners by strongly differentiated cuticular spines on sixth abdominal segment, shape of female subanal appendages and foot complex. It was found under the loose bark of trees from two localities along Lake Baikal and it is the second representative of the genus Arrhopalites Börner sensu stricto in Russia. PMID:25947839

  7. Interaction between humus form and herbicide toxicity to Collembola (Hexapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Bandyopadhyaya, Ipsa; Marchetti, Valérie

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted using intact collembolan communities, exposed to Madit D-(R) a phenylurea herbicide (active ingredient isoproturon). Effects were investigated using two distinct humus types, an acid Dysmoder and a neutral Eumull. Within two weeks, no effect of the herbicide was displayed by the Eumull population, while the Dysmoder population was stimulated. When animals were able to escape from the herbicide through a perforated wall separating two compartments filled w...

  8. First record of the littoral family Isotogastruridae (Collembola in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The new species Isotogastrura trichaetosa sp. n. is described from a sand beach of Hainan, South China. It differs from all its congeners by 3+3 axial setae on Abd. IV (vs. 2+2 and by the presence of a pair of tubercles on Abd.VI. The geography of this strictly littoral genus is discussed.

  9. Collembola Poduromorpha de áreas preservadas e impactadas do litoral sudeste do Brasil Collembola Poduromorpha from preserved and polluted areas in the Brazilian southeast littoral

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    Liliane H. Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo amplia para 34 o número de espécies de Poduromorpha conhecidas no litoral brasileiro através do registro de Paraxenylla piloua Thibaud & Weiner, 1997; Xenylla welchi Folsom, 1916; Friesea claviseta (Axelson, 1900; Friesea magnicornis Denis, 1931 e Friesea mirabilis (Tullberg, 1871 no litoral de Maricá, estado do Rio de Janeiro. O estudo morfológico das 23 espécies encontradas permitiu anexar caracteres às descrições de Aethiopella littoralisFernandes & Mendonça, 2002; Brachystomella ceciliae Fernandes & Mendonça, 2004; Maricaella duna Mendonça & Fernandes, 1997 e Rapoportella pitomboi Mendonça & Fernandes, 1995. Dentre o total de colêmbolos coletados, foi constatada a boa representatividade taxonômica de Poduromorpha (53% em áreas de restinga.The present article increases the knowledge of Poduromorpha species to 34 in the Brazilian littoral thought the record of Paraxenylla piloua Thibaud & Weiner, 1997; Xenylla welchi Folsom, 1916; Friesea claviseta (Axelson, 1900; Friesea magnicornis Denis, 1931 and Friesea mirabilis (Tullberg, 1871 in Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State. The morphological study of the 23 species allowed attach new characters in the descriptions of Aethiopella littoralis Fernandes & Mendonça, 2002; Brachystomella ceciliae Fernandes & Mendonça, 2004; Maricaella duna Mendonça & Fernandes, 1997 and Rapoportella pitomboi Mendonça & Fernandes, 1995. Among the collected springtails was verified the good taxonomical representation of the Poduromorpha Order (53% in the restinga areas.

  10. The occurrence of Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae on Pseudocyphellaria granulata (lichenized Ascomycota La presencia de Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae sobre Pseudocyphellaria granulata (Ascomycota liquenizados

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    María Inés Messuti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The springtail species Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previously recorded in austral America inhabiting the surfaces of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst. bark, has been collected growing on the epiphytic lichen species Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. This is the first record of an arthropod-lichen association in the cool temperate forest of Argentina.El colémbolo Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previamente registrada en América austral como habitante de la superficie de la corteza de Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst., fue coleccionada sobre la especie liquénica Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. Éste es el primer registro de una asociación artrópodo-líquen en los bosques templado-fríos de la Argentina.

  11. A new species of Tyrannoseira (Collembola: Entomobryidae: Seirini from the Brazilian coastal region

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    Bruno Cavalcante Bellini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tyrannoseira Bellini & Zeppelini, 2011 (Entomobryidae is described and illustrated. Specimens of T. diabolica sp. nov. were collected in Barreira do Inferno, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This is the fourth described species in the genus. All males of Tyrannoseira have the femora of the first pair of legs enlarged and slender tibiotarsi, both bearing several spine-like setae. Probably the closest species to T. diabolica sp. nov. is T. sex Bellini & Zeppelini, 2011. They share many similarities in their color pattern and dorsal chaetotaxy.

  12. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (Collembola: Paronellidae) from Atlantic Forest, Northeast Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Dias da Silva; Bruno Cavalcante Bellini

    2015-01-01

    Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in DBEZ from Brazil, state of Rio Grande do Norte State, municipality of Bani Formosa), a new springtail from the Atlantic Forest domain, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species is diagnosed by unique coloration pattern, presence of 8+8 eyes, reduced number of setae on metatrochanteral organ, unguiculi truncated and dorsal chaetotaxy. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. is the first species of the genus f...

  13. Collembola feeding habits and niche specialization in agricultural grasslands of different composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sechi, Valentina; D ’ Annibale, Alessandra; Ambus, Per;

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of white clover in grassland is a common practice to improve the quality of the pasture and to limit the use of industrial sources of inorganic fertilizer N inputs. However, little is known about the extent to which the introduction of different crop compositions affects soil...

  14. The occurrence of Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae on Pseudocyphellaria granulata (lichenized Ascomycota

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    María Inés MESSUTI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El colémbolo Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previamente registrada en América austral como habitante de la superficie de la corteza de Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst., fue coleccionada sobre la especie liquénica Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. Éste es el primer registro de una asociación artrópodo-líquen en los bosques templado-fríos de la Argentina.

  15. Two new records of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola for the Romanian Fauna – Maramures county

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    Ionut Popa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents data about the collembolan species collected from the Maramureş County. Forty-three species of springtails were identified. Among them, Caprainea bremondi Dallai, 1972 and Sminthurinus reticulatus Cassagnau, 1964 are recorded for the first time for the Romanian fauna.

  16. Grazing preference of Ceratophysella sp. 1 (Collembola for Pseudoperonospora cubensis - fungal pathogen of Cucumis sativus

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    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grazing preferences of collembolans Ceratophysella sp. 1 were noted. The collembolans feed on the sporangia of Pseudoperonospora cubensis growing on plants Cucumis sativus in greenhouses in Esfahan province in Iran. Sporangia of Pseudoperonospora cubensis were the preferred food of all fungal species noted in the alimental tract of the springtails. All digestive tracts of the springtails contained sporangia of P. cubensis.

  17. A new genus of cave-dwelling springtails (Collembola, Neanuridae, from Serbia

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    Lučić Luka R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and a new species from the collembolan family Neanuridae Trojanura mirocensis n. g., n. sp. has been described from the Buronov Ponor, village Miroč, Miroč Mt. (The Iron Gate, East Serbia, Yugoslavia. This form represents a very old remnant of the once existing tropical and subtropical fauna. It is also an endemic form, restricted only to cave habitats pertaining to the area studied.

  18. Paternity analysis in a Hexapod (Orchesella cincta; Collembola) with indirect sperm transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Ernsting, G.; Straalen, van N.M.

    2004-01-01

    In species where males and females interact during mating, the role of females in sexual selection cannot always be demonstrated unambiguously. Here we present a model system to study female choice for mates. Orchesella cinca is a soil-dwelling hexapod with indirect sperm transfer. Females and males

  19. Redescription of Dicranocentrus heloisae Arlé & Mendonça, 1982 (Collembola: Entomobryidae

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    Thiago Xisto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dicranocentrus heloisae Arlé & Mendonça 1982 is redescribed based on specimens collected from its type locality, “Parque Nacional da Tijuca”, Rio de Janeiro municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro. The presence of 6+6 macrochaetae S, 1+1 macrochaeta P, and absence of macrochaetae A1 and Ps dorsally on head, puts Dicranocentrus heloisae in the gracilis-group sensu Mari-Mutt (1979. This species is easily indentified mainly due to general color pattern of pale yellow on body with bluish to blackish pigmentation on head. Taxonomic characteristics not illustrated in the original description are given (dorsal cephalic chaetotaxy, sensory organ of the third antennal segment, eyes, labrum, maxillary palp, outer labial papilla, labial triangle, trochanteral organ, femur, tibiotarsus, unguis, ventral tube and tenaculum. New records from other localities in Brazil are provided. A neotype for Dicranocentrus heloisae is designated.

  20. Collembola and macroarthropod community responses to carbamate, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: direct and indirect effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frampton, G.K.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Non-target effects on terrestrial arthropod communities of the broad-spectrum insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin and the selective insecticide pirimicarb were investigated in winter wheat fields in summer. Effects of chlorpyrifos on arthropod abundance and taxonomic richness were consistentl

  1. First record of Coloburella linnaniemii (Denis, 1926 (Hexapoda: Collembola in Romania

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    Ionut Popa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a new record for the Romanian fauna of the springtail Coloburella linnaniemii (Denis, 1926. Notes on the taxonomic status, morphology and distribution of the species are given.

  2. Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of fifteen North American Entomobrya (Collembola, Entomobryidae), including four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Aron D; Giordano, Rosanna; Soto-Adames, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The chaetotaxy of 15 species of eastern North American Entomobrya is redescribed in order to determine potential characters for the diagnosis of cryptic lineages and evaluate the diagnostic and phylogenetic utility of chaetotaxy. As a result, four new species (Entomobrya citrensis Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n., Entomobrya jubata Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n., Entomobrya neotenica Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n. and Entomobrya unifasciata Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n.) are described, and new diagnoses are provided for Entomobrya assuta Folsom, Entomobrya atrocincta Schött, Entomobrya decemfasciata (Packard), Entomobrya ligata Folsom, Entomobrya multifasciata (Tullberg), and Entomobrya quadrilineata (Bueker). Furthermore, previously undocumented levels of intraspecific variation in macrosetal pattern are reported, tempering the exclusive use of chaetotaxy for species delimitation. Phylogenetic relationships, estimated using both morphological and molecular data, indicate that Entomobrya is likely paraphyletic. The phylogenies also suggest that unreliable character homology, likely fostered by Entomobrya's profusion of macrosetae, may limit the phylogenetic utility of chaetotaxy in groups characterized by an abundance of dorsal macrosetae. PMID:26487816

  3. Two new species of Entomobryidae (Collembola of Taibai Mountain from China

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    XiangQun Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Taibai Mountain is the highest peak of Qinling Mountain Ridge, a climate and geographical demarcation of the southern and northern China. Collembolan species of family Entomobryidae are reported from this region for the first time in this paper. Two new species, Homidia taibaiensis sp. n. and Sinella triseta sp. n. of Entomobryinae are described. Illustrations and differences with similar species are provided.

  4. Endonura Cassagnau in Iran, with a key to species of the genus (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolis, Adrian; Kahrarian, Morteza; Piwnik, Agata; Skarżyński, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Endonura are described from Iran. Endonura dichaeta sp. n. can be recognized by an ogival labrum, head without chaetae O and E, chaeta D connected with tubercle Cl, tubercle Dl with five chaetae on head, absence of tubercles Di on thorax I and tubercle (Di+Di) of thorax V with 2+2 chaetae. Endonura ceratolabralis sp. n. is characterized by large body size, reduction of labral chaetotaxy, ogival labrum, head without chaeta O and fusion of tubercles Di and De on first thoracic segment. Endonura persica sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners by a nonogival labrum, absence of chaeta O, tubercles Dl and (L+So) with five and eight chaetae respectively and claw with inner tooth. The key to all species of the genus is given. PMID:26877671

  5. On the genus Paralobella (Collembola: Neanuridae: Lobellini) with description of a new Chinese species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongzheng; Palacios-Vargas, José G

    2016-01-01

    Remarks on the genus Paralobella Cassagnau & Deharveng, 1984 and a key to world species is provided. P. breviseta sp. nov. is described from Eastern China, it is distinguished from all known members of the genus by its biggest size, digitate body dorsolateral and lateral tubercles and very short setae on dorso-internal tubercles. PMID:27395557

  6. Two new species of Willowsia (Collembola: Entomobryidae) from Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yitong

    2016-01-01

    The genus Willowsia Shoebotham, 1917 belongs to the family Entomobryidae. Within the family it is characterised by having 4-segmented antennae, 8+8 eyes, spines and scales absent from dens, claw with unpaired inner teeth, bidentate mucro and scales on body. Twenty-six species have been described in the genus worldwide including eight species from China. Two new species, Willowsia pseudoshi sp. nov. and W. variabilis sp. nov., from China are described here. The former species has pale yellow antennae except for distal part of Antenna IV which has some blue pigment and 4 macrochaetae are present on Abdomen I. The latter species has the whole antenna pigmented blue and 7-8 macrochaetae present on Abdomen I. A key to Chinese species of Willowsia is given. PMID:27615876

  7. Three new species and one new record of Tullbergiidae (Collembola: Onychiuroidea) from Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbea, Javier I

    2016-01-01

    Three new species, Tullbergia rapoporti sp. nov., Dinaphorura nerudai sp. nov. and Dinaphorura najtae sp. nov., and one new record, Tullbergia meridionalis Cassagnau & Rapoport, 1962 are described based on specimens from Tierra del Fuego. Tullbergia rapoporti sp. nov. is similar to T. crozetensis, but can be distinguished from it by the presence of an empodial appendage and the chaetotaxy of Abd VI. Dinaphorura nerudai sp. nov. is diagnosed by the dorsal pso formula, the seven spiniform processes on Abd VI, an elongate PAO, the absence of vesicle on Ant IV and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Dinaphorura najtae sp. nov. is characterised by the dorsal pso formula, the seven spiniform processes on Abd VI, a triangular PAO, the absence of vesicle on Ant IV and the dorsal chaetotaxy. PMID:27394481

  8. A new species of Lepidocyrtus (Collembola, Entomobryidae) from the Börzsöny Mountains, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The genus Lepidocyrtus was previously represented by 17 species in Hungary, including four species with locus typicus in this country. Opportunistic sampling in mid-mountain grassland and forest habitats resulted in records of several species from the L. lignorum group and allowed to describe the new species L. traseri sp. nov. The L. lignorum group, established and named after the eponymic species, is composed by a total of 11 species. The main characteristics shared by every species in this group are the dorsal body macrochaetotaxy R0R1R2/00/0101+3 and the presence of scales on the antennae and legs. The new species is close to L. lignorum (Fabricius, 1793) and L. violaceus (Geoffroy, 1762) but differs from them by the color pattern, number of interocular scales, type of labral papillae and the number of inner setae on the manubrial plate. An identification key is given for differentiating all species of this group. PMID:27615681

  9. Predation of Notiophilus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on Collembola as a Predator-Prey Teaching Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The carabid beetle (Notiophilus) preys readily on an easily-cultured collembolan in simple experimental conditions. Some features of this predator-prey system are outlined to emphasize its use in biology instruction. Experiments with another potential collembolan are described in the context of developing the method for more advanced studies.…

  10. Synonymy of Katianna coeruleocephala Handschin, 1920 (Collembola: Katiannidae) with Bourletiella viridescens (Bourletiellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    Katianna coeruleocephala was described by Handschin in 1920 from Poespo, Java. It was collected in December, 1896 by Dr. Zehntner with the collecting details given as rotten "Louv" (leaves?) from live orchard. Handschin (1920) labelled his figures of the species (p. 146) as Katianna coerulescephala but the first spelling of the species name (p. 145) has priority. Katianna coeruleocephala has never been recollected. The only mention of the species in the literature since 1920 has been by Suhardjono (1989) in a check list for Indonesia and Suhardjono (2012) who listed it as present on Java and provided the main characteristics of the genus Katianna Börner, 1923. She stated it was a "new" (translate as endemic?) species in Java with a preferred habitat in cold and damp litter but no comment was made on the taxonomic status of the Indonesian species. PMID:27395532

  11. New troglomorphic species of Tomocerus with well-developed postantennal organs (Collembola: Tomoceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Daoyuan; Li, Youbang

    2016-01-01

    Three new troglobitic species of Tomocerus are described from the southwestern karsts of China. All of them have well developed postantennal organs. Tomocerus dong sp. nov. is similar to Tomocerus postantennalis Yu, Zhang & Deharveng and Tomocerus deharvengi sp. nov., but is different from them mainly in the number of prelabral chaetae and the dorsal body chaetotaxy. T. deharvengi sp. nov. is very similar to T. postantennalis but differs from the latter in the cephalic chaetotaxy, the number of manubrial pseudopores and the number of dental spines. T. cthulhu sp. nov. is peculiar for the multi-furcated vesicles of ventral tube, and is different from the three aforementioned species mainly in the dorsal body chaetotaxy. The position of the new species and the relationships between them are discussed. PMID:27615979

  12. A new species of Seira (Collembola: Entomobryidae from the state of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Nerivânia Nunes Godeiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Seira Lubbock, 1869 is described and illustrated. Seiraglabra sp. nov. is the second species described from the municipality of Areia (Caatinga biome and the seventh from the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Compared with other species of the genus, Seira glabra sp. nov. has some remarkable reductions on dorsal chaetotaxy, specially on the methatorax and first abdominal segment. The most similar species to S.glabra sp. nov. is Seira praiana. Both lack macrochaetae on the first abdominal segment.

  13. A new species of Metacoelura (Collembola: Paronellidae) from Australia, and redescription of Metacoelura articulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yitong; Zhao, Chun; Greenslade, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    The genus Metacoelura Salmon, 1951 is unusual as it possesses some characters typical of the family Entomobryidae and others of the Paronellidae. Three species and subspecies have been described, all from Australasian tropical regions. Metacoelura articulata is redescribed and a new species, Metacoelura majeri sp. nov., is described based on material collected in Australia. A key to species of the genus is provided. PMID:27394786

  14. A new genus and a new species of Sminthuridae (Collembola: Symphypleona) from Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Diego Dias; Palacios-Vargas, José G; Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    Sminthuridae comprises approximately 240 species distributed worldwide. In Brazil it is represented only by 11 species and four genera. Herein we describe a new genus and species of subfamily Sminthurinae from Atlantic Forest of Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The new described genus is similar to Gisinurus, Songhaica, Dietersminthurus and Soqotrasminthurus, especially in its unguis shape, with open cavity; but differs from all other genera of Sminthuridae by the presence of a single pretarsal chaeta in anterior side, smooth mucronal edges and a unique head chaetotaxy. PMID:26250241

  15. Lea protein expression during cold-induced dehydration in the Arctic collembola Megaphorura arctica

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    Popović Ž.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg, 1876 employs a strategy known as cryoprotective dehydration to survive winter temperatures as low as -25°C. During cryoprotective dehydration, water is lost from the animal to ice in its surroundings as a result of the difference in vapour pressure between the animal’s supercooled body fluids and ice (Worland et al., 1998; Holmstrup and Somme, 1998. This mechanism ensures that as the habitat temperature falls, the concentration of solutes remains high enough to prevent freezing (Holmstrup et al., 2002. In M. arctica, accumulation of trehalose, a cryo/anhydro protectant, occurs in parallel with dehydration. Recent studies have identified a number of genes and cellular processes involved in cryoprotective dehydration in M. arctica (Clark et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2009; Purać et al., 2011. One of them includes late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins. This study, together with that of Bahrndorff et al. (2008, suggests that LEA proteins may be involved in protective dehydration in this species.

  16. Two new species of Tomocerus ocreatus complex (Collembola, Tomoceridae) from Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Daoyuan; Yao, Jin; Hu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Tomocerus Nicolet, 1842 are described from Nanjing, China. Tomocerus qinae sp. nov. is similar to the Vietnamese species Tomocerus ocreatus, but is different from the latter mainly in the colour pattern, the length of antennae, and the pattern of ungual teeth. Tomocerus qixiaensis sp. nov. is similar to Tomocerus ocreatus and Tomocerus qinae sp. nov., but can be distinguished from them by the short antennae and the blunt prominent macrochaetae on manubrium and dens. DNA barcode sequences of the new species are provided. PMID:27394254

  17. Joint toxic action of binary metal mixtures of copper, manganese and nickel to Paronychiurus kimi (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jino; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Yongeun; Shin, Key-Il; Hyun, Seunghun; Cho, Kijong

    2016-10-01

    The joint toxic effects of binary metal mixtures of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) on reproduction of Paronhchiurus kimi (Lee) was evaluated using a toxic unit (TU) approach by judging additivity across a range of effect levels (10-90%). For all metal mixtures, the joint toxic effects of metal mixtures on reproduction of P. kimi decreased in a TU-dependent manner. The joint toxic effects of metal mixtures also changed from less than additive to more than additive at an effect level lower than or equal to 50%, while a more than additive toxic effects were apparent at higher effect levels. These results indicate that the joint toxicity of metal mixtures is substantially different from that of individual metals based on additivity. Moreover, the close relationship of toxicity to effect level suggests that it is necessary to encompass a whole range of effect levels rather than a specific effect level when judging mixture toxicity. In conclusion, the less than additive toxicity at low effect levels suggests that the additivity assumption is sufficiently conservative to warrant predicting joint toxicity of metal mixtures, which may give an additional margin of safety when setting soil quality standards for ecological risk assessment. PMID:27318557

  18. Pronura bidoup n. sp. (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae, Paleonurini from southern Vietnam

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    Deharveng, L.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pronura Delamare Debouteville, 1953, Pronura bidoup n. sp. is described from the Bi Doup massif in southern Vietnam, where it is largely distributed above 1,350 m. The new species exhibits a combination of characters unusual for the genus: shift of chaeta f towards chaeta e on labium, large central reticulate plate on head, presence of microchaetae on furcal rest, reduced chaetotaxy of legs and abdominal segment VI. It is related to Pronura ornata Deharveng & Bedos, 1993 from high altitude in Thailand.

  19. New species of Lepidocyrtus Bourlet and Entomobrya Rondani (Collembola: Entomobryoidea: Entomobryidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Bruno C; Cipola, Nikolas G; Godeiro, Nerivânia N

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic comprehension of Brazilian entomobryids had several contributions during the last decade, but the absence of detailed chaetotaxic schemes to most of endemic species difficult identifications and probably hides undescribed species in surveys across the country. Herein we describe two new species of the family and provide detailed dorsal chaetotaxy of them, in hope to guide future identifications and descriptions within the genera in Brazil and Neotropical Region. Lepidocyrtus sotoi sp. nov. is possibly more related to L. biphasis due to the lack of antennal and leg scales, but presents a unique dorsal head chaetotaxy among the Neotropical species of the genus. Entomobrya bahiana sp. nov. presents an uncommon color pattern and dorsal chaetotaxy in Th. II-III, Abd. II and IV when compared to other Entomobrya spp. from Neotropical Region. PMID:26624176

  20. A new species and new records of Arrhopalitidae (Collembola: Symphypleona) from the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargovitsh, Robert S; Buşmachiu, Galina

    2015-01-01

    Eight species of the family Arrhopalitidae Stach, 1956 are listed from the Republic of Moldova. A new species, Arrhopalites prutensis sp. nov. is described. It belongs to the diversus group of species with 3, 2, 1, 1 anterior setae on dens, possesses neosminthuroid seta on the furca base region-a character rarely noted for the family. The new species is closely related to A. baccettii Dallai, 1969 and A. antonioi Giuga & Jordana, 2013 described from Sicily. Five species of the family are firstly recorded for the country. PMID:26249876

  1. Ten new species of Troglopedetes Absolon, 1907 from caves of Thailand (Collembola, Paronellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deharveng, L.; Gers, C.

    1993-01-01

    Ten new species of Troglopedetes are described from caves of Thailand. The large variability found in some classical specific characters is discussed, and the interest of the macrochaetotaxic pattern is emphasized. A key to Thai species of the genus is given.

  2. A new genus of Entomobryinae (Collembola, Entomobryidae) from Brazilian Amazon with body scales and dental spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipola, Nikolas Gioia; Morais, José Wellington De; Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    A new monotypic genus of Entomobryinae from Brazilian Amazon is described and illustrated. Amazhomidia gen. nov. is similar to other genera of the subfamily, especially to Sinhomidia Zhang, in presence of apically pointed scales on body dorsally and spines on dens. It differs from all other genera of Entomobryinae by the combination of: bifurcate prelabral chaetae, cephalic groove with scale-like chaetae and two transverse rows macrochaetae present on anterior central region of the abdominal IV segment. Amazhomidia ducke sp. nov., the type species of the new genus is described. An identification key to the genera of Entomobryidae with scales and dental spines is also provided. PMID:27394776

  3. New blind species and new records of Sinella from Nanjing, China (Collembola, Entomobryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Nanjing, China. Sinella quinseta sp. n. from Purple Mountain possesses unique 5+5 central macrochaetae on Abd. II, and can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Sinella qixiaensis sp. n. from Qixia Mountain is characterized by the paddle-like S-chaetae of Ant. III organ and the smooth straight chaetae on the manubrium and base of dens; it differs from two closely related species by the smooth manubrial chaetae, the labial chaetae, the Ant. III organ, and the macrochaetae on Abd. II. Sinella fuyanensis Chen & Christiansen and Sinella quinocula Chen & Christiansen were also newly recorded from Nanjing. PMID:27551205

  4. De springstaart Lepidocyrtus paradoxus nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Hexapoda: Collembola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.; Heijerman, T.

    2002-01-01

    Het voorkomen van de springstaart Lepidocyrtus paradoxus in Nederland werd reeds lang vermoed. In de 19e eeuw werd de soort namelijk in een Nederlandse likeurfles in Helsinki aangetroffen. Het betreft tot op heden de enige vondst in Finland. In 2001 werd L. paradoxus in grote aantallen aangetroffen

  5. Euedaphic and hemiedaphic Collembola suffer larger damages than epedaphic species to nitrogen input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihong; Liu, Jing; Yan, Xiumin; Chang, Liang; Wu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands are commonly limited in available nitrogen. But marshes in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeastern China suffer large amounts of exogenous nitrogen from agriculture fertilization after wetland reclamation. This paper focuses on the ecological effects of a short-term increase of nitrogen input on collembolan communities. Our results show a significant decrease in collembolan abundance and Shannon diversity index, and the abundance of euedaphic and hemiedaphic collembolans decreased faster than epedaphic collembolans. These results indicate that euedaphic or hemiedaphic fauna suffer more biodiversity loss caused by nitrogen deposition than epedaphic fauna and call for more researches on trait-based approaches under environmental stress in the future. PMID:26549750

  6. New species of Isotomiella Bagnall, 1939 from Southeast of Brazil (Collembola, Isotomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cleide Mendonça

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Isotomiella Bagnall, 1939 are described and illustrated, the first: I. macedoi sp. n., based on males and females, from the “Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos” (Teresópolis municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro differs from the other by tibiotarsus III thickened and blunt and two antero-lateral chaetae of labrum strongly thickened. The second species I. uai sp. n. from “Serra da Gandarela”, (Caeté municipality, State of Minas Gerais differs from the other by presence of short sensilla on antennal IV and tergites, two anterolabral chaetae thickened and falcate mucro.

  7. Sublethal toxicity of copper to a soil-dwelling springtail (Folsomia fimetaria) (Collembola: Isotomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Fordsmand, J.J.; Krogh, P.H. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Weeks, J.M. [Natural Environment Research Council, Huntingdon (United Kingdom). Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology

    1997-12-01

    The collembolan Folsomia fimetaria was exposed to a range of elevated copper (Cu) concentrations in a LUFA-Speyer soil for 7, 14, and 21 d, in a microcosm test. The results showed that F. fimetaria was sensitive to copper, with reproduction being a more sensitive parameter of effect than either growth (measured as final body size) or survivorship. A 10% effective concentration (EC10) of 38 mg Cu/kg was calculated for reproduction, and an EC10 between 509 to 845 mg Cu/kg (depending on sex and developmental stage) was calculated for growth. No mortality was observed for soil concentrations up to 1,000 mg Cu/kg. This study has shown that F. fimetaria populations may with time become severely reduced or may even become extinct (in extreme circumstances) as a result of copper exposure. Although survival of the adults was not affected, toxicity was expressed solely through reproductive failure. The present study has also shown that the duration of copper exposure was not an important factor for the determination of effects during short-term tests with F. fimetaria.

  8. New cave species of Sinella Brook, 1882 from China (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Springtails, especially entomobryids, are abundant in Karst faunas. Five new species of Sinella Brook are described here from caves in southern China: S. liuae sp. nov., S. hunanica sp. nov., S. tigris sp. nov., S. minuta sp. nov. and S. tiani sp. nov. A new record of Sinella sineocula Chen & Christiansen, is also recorded. These species differ in claw structure, chaetae on ventral side of the head, and body chaetotaxy. An updated key to cave species of Sinella from China is provided. PMID:27615947

  9. Two new species of Sinella from Guangdong Province, China (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV. PMID:27594797

  10. Taxonomy of the Proisotoma complex. V. Sexually dimorphic Ephemerotoma gen. nov. (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Mikhail; Kahrarian, Morteza; Deharveng, Louis; Shayanmehr, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    A new genus is proposed based on a new species from Iran, Ephemerotoma skarzynskii gen. et sp. nov., and three known species: E. huadongensis (Chen, 1985) comb. nov., E. multituberculata (Martynova, 1971) comb. nov. and E. porcella (Ellis, 1976) comb. nov. The genus shares the characters of Subisotoma Stach and Proctostephanus Börner and is distributed in southern areas of Eurasia (Eastern Mediterranean, Iran, Tajikistan, China). Ephemerotoma gen. nov. belongs to the Proisotoma-complex and is characterized by a simple maxillary palp, only 4 guards on labial papilla E and 2 prelabral chaetae. Four s-chaetae on Abd.V are arranged in two rows, two anterior and two posterior chaetae. All members of Ephemerotoma gen. nov. are redescribed or discussed based on type or fresh material, and a key to species of the genus is given. Scutisotoma potapovi Xie & Chen, 2008 is considered a synonym of E. huadongensis, while Proisotoma anopolitana is moved to the genus Proctostephanus. Sexual dimorphism is described for three species. PMID:26701434

  11. Heteromurus (Verhoeffiella Anagastumensis n. Sp. (Collembola, entomobryidae, a new cave springtail from Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough analysis of a specimen of the collembolan family Entomobryidae from a cave in Montenegro has yielded a species new to science: Heteromurus (Verhoeffiella anagastumensis n. sp. This is the first known cave-dwelling member of the subgenus Verhoeffiella Absolon in Montenegro. Heteromurus (V. anagastumensis n. sp. is described, illustrated, and diagnosed; it is a phenetically close congener of H. (V. longicornis (Absolon from Herzegovina. Some biogeographical and evolutionary characteristics of this new Verhoeffiella species are discussed in the light of the origin of the North Mediterranean fauna.

  12. Endonura Cassagnau in Iran, with a key to species of the genus (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolis, Adrian; Kahrarian, Morteza; Piwnik, Agata; Skarżyński, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Endonura are described from Iran. Endonura dichaeta sp. n. can be recognized by an ogival labrum, head without chaetae O and E, chaeta D connected with tubercle Cl, tubercle Dl with five chaetae on head, absence of tubercles Di on thorax I and tubercle (Di+Di) of thorax V with 2+2 chaetae. Endonura ceratolabralis sp. n. is characterized by large body size, reduction of labral chaetotaxy, ogival labrum, head without chaeta O and fusion of tubercles Di and De on first thoracic segment. Endonura persica sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners by a nonogival labrum, absence of chaeta O, tubercles Dl and (L+So) with five and eight chaetae respectively and claw with inner tooth. The key to all species of the genus is given. PMID:26877671

  13. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (Collembola: Paronellidae from Atlantic Forest, Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Dias da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in DBEZ from Brazil, state of Rio Grande do Norte State, municipality of Bani Formosa, a new springtail from the Atlantic Forest domain, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species is diagnosed by unique coloration pattern, presence of 8+8 eyes, reduced number of setae on metatrochanteral organ, unguiculi truncated and dorsal chaetotaxy. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. is the first species of the genus from Brazil with all eye lenses. All other Brazilian species present 0+0 or 2+2 eyes. It is also the first species of Trogolaphysa described from the Northeast Region of Brazil.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic springtail Cryptopygus antarcticus (Hexapoda: Collembola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Francesco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitogenomics data, i.e. complete mitochondrial genome sequences, are popular molecular markers used for phylogenetic, phylogeographic and ecological studies in different animal lineages. Their comparative analysis has been used to shed light on the evolutionary history of given taxa and on the molecular processes that regulate the evolution of the mitochondrial genome. A considerable literature is available in the fields of invertebrate biochemical and ecophysiological adaptation to extreme environmental conditions, exemplified by those of the Antarctic. Nevertheless, limited molecular data are available from terrestrial Antarctic species, and this study represents the first attempt towards the description of a mitochondrial genome from one of the most widespread and common collembolan species of Antarctica. Results In this study we describe the mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic collembolan Cryptopygus antarcticus Willem, 1901. The genome contains the standard set of 37 genes usually present in animal mtDNAs and a large non-coding fragment putatively corresponding to the region (A+T-rich responsible for the control of replication and transcription. All genes are arranged in the gene order typical of Pancrustacea. Three additional short non-coding regions are present at gene junctions. Two of these are located in positions of abrupt shift of the coding polarity of genes oriented on opposite strands suggesting a role in the attenuation of the polycistronic mRNA transcription(s. In addition, remnants of an additional copy of trnL(uag are present between trnS(uga and nad1. Nucleotide composition is biased towards a high A% and T% (A+T = 70.9%, as typically found in hexapod mtDNAs. There is also a significant strand asymmetry, with the J-strand being more abundant in A and C. Within the A+T-rich region, some short sequence fragments appear to be similar (in position and primary sequence to those involved in the origin of the N-strand replication of the Drosophila mtDNA. Conclusion The mitochondrial genome of C. antarcticus shares several features with other pancrustacean genomes, although the presence of unusual non-coding regions is also suggestive of molecular rearrangements that probably occurred before the differentiation of major collembolan families. Closer examination of gene boundaries also confirms previous observations on the presence of unusual start and stop codons, and suggests a role for tRNA secondary structures as potential cleavage signals involved in the maturation of the primary transcript. Sequences potentially involved in the regulation of replication/transcription are present both in the A+T-rich region and in other areas of the genome. Their position is similar to that observed in a limited number of insect species, suggesting unique replication/transcription mechanisms for basal and derived hexapod lineages. This initial description and characterization of the mitochondrial genome of C. antarcticus will constitute the essential foundation prerequisite for investigations of the evolutionary history of one of the most speciose collembolan genera present in Antarctica and other localities of the Southern Hemisphere.

  15. Lea protein expression during cold-induced dehydration in the Arctic collembola Megaphorura arctica

    OpenAIRE

    Popović Ž.D.; Purać Jelena; Kojić Danijela; Pamer Elvira L.; Worland M.R.; Blagojević D.P.; Grubor-Lajšić Gordana

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg, 1876) employs a strategy known as cryoprotective dehydration to survive winter temperatures as low as -25°C. During cryoprotective dehydration, water is lost from the animal to ice in its surroundings as a result of the difference in vapour pressure between the animal’s supercooled body fluids and ice (Worland et al., 1998; Holmstrup and Somme, 1998). This mechanism ensures that as the habitat temperature falls, the concentration of s...

  16. Impact of metal pools and soil properties on metal accumulation in Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijver, M; Jager, T; Posthuma, L; Peijnenburg, W

    2001-04-01

    Soil-dwelling organisms are exposed to metals in different ways. Evidence exists for predominant pore water uptake of metals by soft-bodied oligochaete species. In the present research, uptake kinetics of metals and the metalloid As by the semi-soft-bodied springtail Folsomia candida were studied, for which uptake via the pore water is less obvious. Springtails were exposed in 16 field soils and in metal-spiked artificial Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Paris, France) soil (OECD soil). Subsequently, accumulation parameters were statistically related to soil metal pools and soil properties. In Cd-spiked OECD soil, internal Cd levels were linearly related to external Cd concentrations, whereas the springtails maintained fixed internal levels of Cu and Zn regardless of spiked concentrations. In the field soils, all body concentrations of the elements As, Cr, and Ni were below detection limit. The essential metals Cu and Zn were presumably regulated, and no influence of soil characteristics could be demonstrated. For Cd and Pb, accumulation patterns were correlated mainly to solid-phase soil characteristics. The presence of these explanatory variables in the multiple correlations suggests that an uptake mechanism that is solely determined by pore water concentrations should not be taken as a universally applicable principle in risk assessments of metals for soil invertebrates. Cadmium in OECD soils was more available for uptake than in the field soils. The difference remained when extractability was taken into account. The results suggest that experiments in OECD soil cannot be used directly in risk assessment for nonessential metals (at least for F. candida), although a reduction of uncertainties in metal risk assessment can be reached by consistent use of body residues rather than external concentrations. PMID:11345445

  17. Implications of interacting microscale habitat heterogeneity and disturbance events on Folsomia candida (Collembola) population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meli, Mattia; Palmqvist, Annemette; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-01-01

    , they are exposed to natural stressors, which might influence the effects of chemicals on populations. We designed simulation experiments that incorporate these 3 factors, and investigated their effects on populations of F. candida, in presence or absence of behavioural avoidance of contaminated habitat. Simulation...... events. The model suggests that a combination of heterogeneous contamination and multiple stressors can lead to unexpected effects of toxicants at the population level. Individual-based models can help to understand these effects and therefore add ecological realism to environmental risk assessment......The authors implemented a fractal algorithm in a spatially explicit individual-based model, in order to generate landscapes with different microscale patterns of habitat fragmentation and disturbance events, and studied their effects on population dynamics of the collembolan Folsomia candida. Among...

  18. New troglomorphic species of Tomocerus with well-developed postantennal organs (Collembola: Tomoceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Daoyuan; Li, Youbang

    2016-09-09

    Three new troglobitic species of Tomocerus are described from the southwestern karsts of China. All of them have well developed postantennal organs. Tomocerus dong sp. nov. is similar to Tomocerus postantennalis Yu, Zhang & Deharveng and Tomocerus deharvengi sp. nov., but is different from them mainly in the number of prelabral chaetae and the dorsal body chaetotaxy. T. deharvengi sp. nov. is very similar to T. postantennalis but differs from the latter in the cephalic chaetotaxy, the number of manubrial pseudopores and the number of dental spines. T. cthulhu sp. nov. is peculiar for the multi-furcated vesicles of ventral tube, and is different from the three aforementioned species mainly in the dorsal body chaetotaxy. The position of the new species and the relationships between them are discussed.

  19. A new species and new records of Arrhopalitidae (Collembola: Symphypleona) from the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargovitsh, Robert S; Buşmachiu, Galina

    2015-01-01

    Eight species of the family Arrhopalitidae Stach, 1956 are listed from the Republic of Moldova. A new species, Arrhopalites prutensis sp. nov. is described. It belongs to the diversus group of species with 3, 2, 1, 1 anterior setae on dens, possesses neosminthuroid seta on the furca base region-a character rarely noted for the family. The new species is closely related to A. baccettii Dallai, 1969 and A. antonioi Giuga & Jordana, 2013 described from Sicily. Five species of the family are firstly recorded for the country.

  20. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenec, Petr; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Soil fungi are important food resources for soil fauna. Here we ask whether the collembolan Folsomia candida shows selectivity in grazing between four saprophytic fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Absidia glauca, and Cladosporium herbarum), whether grazing preference corresponds to effects on collembolan reproduction, and whether the effects of fungi on grazing and reproduction depends on the fungal substrate, which included three kinds of litter (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and one kind of agar (yeast extract). On agar, Cladosporium herbarum and Absidia glauca were the most preferred fungi and supported the highest collembolan reproduction. On fungal-colonized litter, grazing preference was more affected by litter type than by fungal species whereas collembolan reproduction was affected by both litter type and fungal species. On fungal-colonized litter, the litter type that was most preferred for grazing did not support the highest reproduction, i.e., there was an inconsistency between food preference and suitability. Alder and willow were preferred over oak for grazing, but alder supported the least reproduction.

  1. Generic switch-over during ontogenesis in Dimorphacanthella gen. n. (Collembola, Isotomidae) with barcoding evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Potapov; Yun Bu; Cheng-Wang Huang; Yan Gao; Yun-Xia Luan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new genus Dimorphacanthella is established for Tetracanthella anommatos Chen and Yin, 1984 and Dimorphacanthella mediaseta sp. n. from China. The new genus exhibits an unusual metamorphosis: small juveniles, previously called Uzelia anommatos Yue & Yin, 1999 get the second pair of anal spines resulted from moulting and become “Tetracanthella”. Species identity of forms with two and four anal spines is proved by barcoding analysis. The derivation of anal spines is compared among gen...

  2. Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils for Collembola in the field and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jie; Krogh, Paul Henning; Luo, Yongming;

    2008-01-01

    We present a field and laboratory investigation of effects of increasing levels of heavy metal contamination on the biodiversity and performance of collembolans. A 40 year old pollution with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd pollution due to Cu smelting over 40 years was investigated in a paddy field area of Zhe...

  3. Holoblastic early cleavage of Tetrodontophora bielanensis (Collembola) eggs, with special reference to its irregularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klag, J; Jura, C; Krzysztofowicz, A; Kisiel, E

    1999-01-01

    The fertilized eggs of Tetrodontophora bielanensis start to cleave 6 to 8 days after oviposition and initially only karyokineses occur. The cytokinesis begins after two karyokineses, when four nuclei are observed in the ooplasm. Two cleavage furrows, perpendicular to each other, appear simultaneously at the egg poles where polar bodies are located and gradually the furrows encompass the whole egg diameter. The furrow formation is initiated by the bundle of microfilaments that contract and pull superficial fragments of the oolemma into the yolk and subsequently new membranes, separating the daughter cells, start to form. However, they do not grow towards the egg centre but bifurcate, leaving the central part of the ooplasm outside of the newly formed blastomeres. Starting from the fourth or fifth cleavage division, the bifurcations permanently occur and multiple cleavage furrows are formed on the embryo surface. Moreover, fragments of the ooplasm, enclosed within the cell membrane but devoid of cell nucleus are observed. During further development such cell fragments become reincorporated into the embryo. This mode of cleavage leads eventually to the formation of cellular blastoderm on the embryo surface. The results presented in the paper suggest that the control of cleavage in T. bielanensis acts not at the level of cytoplasmic determinants but rather at the level of positional information of blastomeres. PMID:10482251

  4. A new species of Furculanurida (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Ivory Coast, with comments on related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zon, Serge Demeango; Tano, Yao; Deharveng, Louis

    2014-10-29

    A new species of Pseudachorutinae, Furculanurida emucronata sp. nov., is described from Lamto in the Ivory Coast. It differs from all known Pseudachorutinae species by the presence of a strong lateral tooth on the claw of leg I, and from other species of the genus Furculanurida by the absence of a mucro. It is provisionally assigned to the genus Furculanurida which is redefined accordingly. The heterogeneity of the genus is stressed, and its relationships with Arlesiella, Kenyura, Pseudachorutes and Stachorutes are discussed.

  5. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosilda Mara Mussury; Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon; Sandra Verza da Silva; Valdirene Regis Soligo

    2002-01-01

    The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of th...

  6. Effects of high and low temperatures on thermal tolerance in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe; Holmstrup, Martin; Bayley, Mark

    2008-01-01

    on invertebrates, significant increases in thermal resistance have been shown to occur on this short timescale after exposure to environmentally realistic alterations in temperature (e.g. Dahlgaard et al., 1998). In the present study, the thermal shock tolerance of adult F. candida was tested after either exposure......During a single day, topsoil temperature may fluctuate more than 20 °C in the temperate region (Jensen and Jensen, 2001). The euedaphic collembolan, Folsomia candida lives in this top soil and is therefore likely to encounter severe thermal fluctuations on a daily timescale. In previous studies...... to a constant temperature (control) or exposure to a fluctuating temperature for between 4 and 24 h. Both ends of the thermal tolerance scale were tested. Temperature fluctuation between - 1 and 19.8 °C (± 0.1 °C) had no significant effect on the survival of F. candida after a 2-hour cold shock at - 5.4 (100...

  7. Las especies neotropicales de Proisotoma (Collembola: Isotomidae, con descripción de dos especies nuevas cavernícolas de América Neotropical species of Proisotoma (Collembola: Isotomidae, with description of two new cave species from America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Palacios-Vargas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran 2 especies nuevas cavernícolas deProisotoma s. str., P. turikana sp. nov. de Venezuela, y P. santosorum sp. nov. de México. Además, se proporciona una clave para identificar las especies neotropicales de Proisotoma sensulato y géneros cercanos (Ballistura, Folsomides, Guthriella, Isotoma, Mucrotoma, Varisotoma, Scutisotoma.Two new cave species of Proisotoma s. str. are described and illustrated: P. turikana sp. nov. from Venezuela, and P. santosorum sp. nov. from Mexico. A key for the identification of the Neotropical species of Proisotoma sensu lato and some related genera (Ballistura, Folsomides, Guthriella, Isotoma, Mucrotoma, Varisotoma, and Scutisotoma is included.

  8. Colêmbolos (Hexapoda: Collembola) como bioindicadores de qualidade do solo em áreas com Araucaria angustifolia Springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) as soil quality bioindicators in areas with Araucaria angustifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Dilmar Baretta; Cristina Seabra Ferreira; José Paulo Sousa; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Não existem informações sobre a diversidade de colêmbolos associados às florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze no Brasil. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o potencial da diversidade de famílias de colêmbolos como bioindicadores da qualidade do solo e para separar diferentes áreas com araucária, utilizando atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo como variáveis explicativas. O estudo foi realizado em quatro áreas: 1. floresta nativa com predominância de araucária (NF)...

  9. Hsp70 expression and metabolite composition in response to short-term thermal changes in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagner, Dorthe; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Malmendal, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    analysed in F. candida using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). A significant metabolomic divergence between pre-treated and control collembolans was evident; partly due to a significantly reduced relative concentration of five free amino acids (arginine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine...

  10. Molluscicide baits impair the life traits of Folsomia candida (Collembola): Possible hazard to the population level and soil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diogo N; Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-08-01

    The application of molluscicides baits on the soil surface is the most common practice to control terrestrial gastropods. There seems to be a gap in the accurate evaluation of molluscicidal baits effects to soil arthropods, since their hazard to non-target organisms has been considered low after mixing baits into soil. In this work the ecotoxicological effects of two molluscicide baits (metaldehyde and methiocarb) to the collembolan Folsomia candida were evaluated using two different approaches: (1) molluscicidal baits were applied to the top soil once and only at the beginning of the exposure and avoidance behaviour and reproduction were evaluated; and (2) baits were replaced by new ones after 14-d of exposure, simulating the recommended application rate recommended by the manufacturer and reproduction was assessed (repeated/pulse exposure). A preference for the side contaminated for methiocarb was observed but the distribution of collembolans in the avoidance test with metaldehyde was random. Exposure to metaldehyde resulted in a significant increase in mortality. For methiocarb, a reduction in the juveniles produced but no acute effects were observed. In the bait pulse test, the toxic effects of each chemical was significantly increased compared with the single exposure test, for all treatments used (both reproduction and mortality). In summary, molluscicides have an adverse effect on F. candida, with severe effects on their behaviour (only for methiocarb), reproduction and survival (for both), which can lead to population collapse with time. PMID:25769136

  11. Illustration of the Structure of Arthropod Assemblages (Collembola and Lepidoptera in Different Forest Types: An Example in the French Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor A. Mariano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the impact of management choices on diversity in Pyrenean forests, we selected two ecological indicators: springtails; indicators of long-term responses to perturbation, and moths; which respond quickly to changes in their environment. Our data show that monoculture has a short-term impact on overall diversity and richness of species but with a relative resilience capacity of the forest ecosystem. More precisely, real impacts are visible on dynamics and abundances of certain species, depending on the vertical distribution of the biota and on the composition of soil and forest floor.

  12. Adaptations and Predispositions of Different Middle European Arthropod Taxa (Collembola, Araneae, Chilopoda, Diplopoda) to Flooding and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Michael Thomas; Guhmann, Patrick; Decker, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Floodplain forests and wetlands are amongst the most diverse and species rich habitats on earth. Arthropods are a key group for the high diversity pattern of these landscapes, due to the fact that the change between flooding and drought causes in different life cycles and in a variety of adaptations in the different taxa. The floodplain forests and wetlands of Central Amazonia are well investigated and over the last 50 years many adaptations of several hexapod, myriapod and arachnid orders were described. In contrast to Amazonia the Middle European floodplains were less investigated concerning the adaptations of arthropods to flood and drought conditions. This review summarizes the adaptations and predispositions of springtails, web spiders, millipedes and centipedes to the changeable flood and drought conditions of Middle European floodplain forests and wetlands. Furthermore the impact of regional climate change predictions like increasing aperiodic summer floods and the decrease of typical winter and spring floods are discussed in this article. PMID:26487164

  13. The dorsal chaetotaxy of Trogolaphysa (Collembola, Paronellidae, with descriptions of two new species from caves in Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Soto-Adames

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Species diagnosis in Trogolaphysa has been based, until now, almost exclusively on number of eyes and shape of claws and mucro. Chaetotaxy, a character system important to diagnose species in other genera of scaled Entomobryoidea, has been described only for a few Trogolaphysa species. Here the complete dorsal chaetotaxy of six species of Trogolaphysa is described using the AMS and Szeptycki’s systems for head and body, respectively. A morphology-based parsimony analysis was performed to evaluate whether chaetotaxic characters overcome the influence of putatively cave adaptive convergent characters to resolve species level relationships, and to evaluate the evolution of the dorsal macrochaetae of the head. Phylogenetic analysis using only putative cave-adaptive characters support clades of unrelated taxa, but the addition of chaetotaxy overcomes the influence of convergent characters. A phylogeny based on all characters supports a trend towards reduced head macrochaetae number. Head macrochaetae are lost beginning with A3 and followed, in order, by S5, S3 and M3. In addition, a checklist of New World Trogolaphysa is provided and two new species, Trogolaphysa giordanoae sp. n. and Trogolaphysa jacobyi sp. n., are described on the basis of material collected in six caves in southern Belize.

  14. A new species of Seira (Collembola: Entomobryidae: Seirini from Northern Brazil, with the addition of new chaetotaxic characters

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    Nikolas Gioia Cipola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Seira caerucinerea sp. nov. , a new species of springtail from the Cerrado domain, state of Tocantins, Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species is mainly characterized by bluish-gray coloration and dorsal chaetotaxy presenting macrochaeta S7 on head, three macrochaetae (a6, m6 and p6 on margin of metathorax and 4+4 macrochaetae (a1, m2, m3 and m4i on abdomen I. Characteristics of maxillary and labial papillae, chaetotaxy of subcoxae, collophore, ventral region of head, ventral and lateral region of abdomen IV and V, which are usually omitted in species descriptions within the genus, are also provided. This is the first species of Seira described from the Cerrado domain, as well as the first record of the genus from the state of Tocantins.

  15. Responses of Folsomia fimetaria (Collembola: Isotomidae) to copper under different soil copper contamination histories in relation to risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Fordsmand, J.J.; Krogh, P.H.; Weeks, J.M.

    2000-05-01

    The collembolan Folsomia fimetaria L. was exposed in the laboratory to a range of elevated soil copper concentrations under two different contamination histories. These results were compared with the in situ abundance of F. fimetaria in a copper-contaminated field site. In the laboratory studies, an EC10 of 337 mg Cu/kg was observed for soil spiked with copper 1 d before the experiment. Using soil from a field site contaminated with copper more than 70 years previously, no effect was observed at concentrations as great as 2,911 mg Cu/kg. Reproduction was threefold more sensitive than mortality or growth. Differences in copper sensitivity between sexes and between juvenile clutches were also indicated. The abundance of F. fimetaria showed no change with soil copper concentrations during the first year (spring sampling) of in situ observations. During the second year (autumn sampling), a reduced number per area was observed with increasing soil copper concentrations. Both the presence and abundance of other euedaphic collembolans generally exhibited distribution patterns similar to those of F. fimetaria. Thus, the contamination history and the toxicological endpoint were very important for interpreting the outcome of the standard laboratory toxicity test. Laboratory studies to some extent reflected the in situ abundance, but this depended on the contamination history and the field sampling time. Laboratory experiments using new copper-spiked soil provided the lowest effect levels.

  16. Supplementary descriptive notes of the Sinella and Coecobrya (Collembola: Entomobryidae) species from North America, Hawaii and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Yan, Qibao; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Many known collembolan species lack sufficient descriptive details so that further taxonomical comparison cannot be achieved. When sorting documents and materials from Prof. Jian-Xiu CHEN, Nanjing University, we found many old but valuable drafts on Sinella and Coecobrya species from North America, Hawaii and Japan. Supplementary descriptions, particularly chaetotaxy, were provided for the following species: S. agna Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980, S. alata Christiansen, 1960, S. baca Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980, S. barri Christiansen, 1960, S. hoffmani Wray, 1952, S. sexoculata (Schött, 1896), S. straminea (Folsom, 1899), S. yosiia Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. akiyoshiana Yosii, 1956, C. borerae Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. ishikawai Yosii, 1956, C. kukae Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. lua Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. nupa Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. tibiotarsalis Yosii, 1964. Sinella cavernarum (Packard, 1888) was redescribed based on topotypes and more additional materials. PMID:27394318

  17. A brief introduction to the new classification of Collembola (Arthropada: Hexapoda)%跳虫分类简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾少波; 岳丽蕊; 陈建秀

    2009-01-01

    简要介绍了目前逐步被国际跳虫分类学界所接受、由Deharveng(2004)提出、Bellinger、Christiansen及Janssens(2009)等共同修改的一个最新跳虫分类系统--"弹尾纲"4目分类系统,供我国相关同行讨论和参考.

  18. Interaction of Cd and Zn toxicity for Folsomia candida Willem (Collembola: Isotomidae) in relation to bioavailability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gestel, C.A.M.; Hensbergen, P.J. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology

    1997-06-01

    The use of toxicity tests in which each chemical is tested separately is inadequate for assessing the potential risk of complex mixtures of chemicals for soil ecosystems. In the present study, the effects of Cd and Zn, alone or in combination, on the survival, growth, and reproduction of the collembolan Folsomia candida were determined after 2, 4, and 6 weeks of exposure in an artificial soil. The water solubility of Cd in the soil was significantly increased by the presence of Zn, whereas Cd did not affect the water solubility of Zn. In spite of this, uptake of Cd or Zn in the animals was not affected by the presence of the other metal, suggesting that water solubility does not determine the uptake of these metals in F. candida. For both Cd and Zn, reproduction was the most sensitive parameter, with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 51 and 683 {micro}g/g dry soil, respectively, after 6 weeks. These values corresponded with internal concentrations of 44 {micro}g Cd/g and 14 {micro}g Zn/g dry soil, respectively. Although a proper comparison of the effects of mixtures of the metals with the effects of the individual metals was sometimes hampered by the nonsimilarity of dose-response relationships, it may be concluded that the effects of the mixture of Cd and Zn on the growth of F. candida are antagonistic (EC50 significantly greater than 1.0 toxic unit), while the effects on reproduction are additive (EC50 = 1.0 toxic unit). Similar conclusions could be drawn for EC50s expressed on the basis of total and water-soluble soil concentrations as well as on the basis of internal concentrations in animals. Analysis of the combined effects of Cd and Zn at the 10% effective concentration level did not change these conclusions.

  19. Stachorutes cabagnerensis n. sp., Collembola (Neanuridae from Central Spain, and a preliminary approach to phylogeny of genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Benito, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available new species of the genus Stachorutes, Stachorutes cabagnerensis n. sp., from central Spain is described. It is characterized by the presence of 6+6 eyes in the head, retinaculum 2+2 teeth, dentes with 5 hairs, and the absence of mucron. A phylogenetic analysis of this genus was attempted. Potential synapomorphies supporting the monophyly of Stachorutes are presented. One member of the genus (the Nearctic S. navajellus appears as a basal form, phylogenetically distant from the remaining (Old World species. There is evidence for a monophyletic infrageneric clade with the species S. dematteisi, S. jizuensis and S. sphagnophilus. However, more information is required for further phylogenetic resolution.

  20. Two new species of Homidia (Collembola, Entomobryidae) and a key to species in the genus from Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Homidia are described from Yandang Mountain, China: H. yandangensis sp. nov. and H. quadrimaculata sp. nov. The new species are diagnosed by their unique colour patterns, the number of macrochaetae on areas A8-10 of abdominal segment IV, the relative position of specialised microchaetae/specialised ordinary chaetae on abdominal segment I and specialised ordinary chaetae/macrochaeta m3 on abdominal segment V. Specimens from two localities of H. yandangensis sp. nov. differ in the macrochaeta a5 on area A9 of abdominal segment IV. Descriptions of the subadult dorsal thoracic and abdominal chaetotaxy of H. yandangensis sp. nov. and a key to species of Homidia from Zhejiang Province are provided here. PMID:26624455

  1. Ecotoxicity of mercury to Folsomia candida and Proisotoma minuta (Collembola: Isotomidae) in tropical soils: Baseline for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2016-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic nonessential trace metal. Despite its natural occurrence in the Earth's Crust, its concentrations have been steadily increasing in the environment due to anthropogenic sources. Recent studies have showed great concern about soil fauna, once the potential adverse effects of mercury concentrations in the environment of these invertebrates are still poorly understood, especially when linked to forest soils and tropical biota. Different collembolan species can show distinct toxicity effects to the contaminants, impairing its developing lifelong and affecting its diversity and abundance in the environment. Laboratory studies were performed to evaluate the ecotoxicity of Hg(II) to collembolan species collected in Brazil, Proisotoma minuta (autochthonous) and Folsomia candida (allochthonous), as a tool to predict effects in ecological risk assessment of tropical regions. Behavioral, acute and chronic tests were carried under temperatures of 20°C and 24°C using two test soils, natural and artificial, spiked with increasing mercury concentrations. F. candida was more sensitive to mercury contamination than P. minuta, presenting the most restrictive values of EC50 and LC50. Reproduction was a considerably more sensitive endpoint than avoidance and mortality. The 28-day lower EC50 values were found in chronic tests for F. candida in natural soil to 24°C (3.32mgHgkg(-1)), while for P. minuta was in tropical artificial soil to 20°C (4.43mgHgkg(-1)). There were similarity for each collembolan species to respond at the Hg(II) effects when exposed at 20°C and 24°C. F. candida can be suitable as a bioindicator species to mercury ecotoxicity tests in tropical forest soils. PMID:26796529

  2. Nueva especie de Pseudosinella Schaeffer, 1897 de la Península Ibérica (Collembola, Entomobryidae

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    Simón Benito, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pseudosinella, P. soriensis sp. n. is described and a new key to worldwide species of the petterseni group, to which the new species belongs, is made.Se describe una nueva especie de Pseudosinella de la Península Ibérica, P. soriensis sp. n., al mismo tiempo que se da una clave de todas las especies del grupo petterseni, al que pertenece la especie.

  3. New diagnosis for species of Plutomurus Yosii (Collembola, Tomoceridae), with descriptions of two new species from Georgian caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjadze, Shalva; Baquero, Enrique; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Giordano, Rosanna; Jordana, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Plutomurus, P. revazi sp. nov. from Prometheus and Satsurblia caves and P. eristoi sp. nov. from Satevzia Cave are described, illustrated and differentiated from other morphologically closely related species. A high variability in the number of teeth in the claw, unguiculus and mucro of P. revazi sp. nov. demonstrate that these characters are not useful for species diagnosis. However, dorsal chaetotaxy was shown to be stable character for this purpose. Analysis of DNA sequences for the COI and 28S genes is congruent with species-level groups delimited by chaetotaxy, and provide additional support for chaetotaxy as the most reliable morphological character system to distinguish species in Plutomurus. A key to species of the genus Plutomurus found in Georgia is provided, which for the first time includes characters of the macrochaetotaxy. PMID:27395573

  4. A new species of the genus Xenylla Tullberg, 1869 (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) from Korea, with a key for East Asian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hypogastruridae from Korea, Xenylla namia sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species is easily distinguished from previously described Xenylla species by a combination of the following characters: labral setae arrangement of 2/5,5,4, labial papilla E with one guard seta (e3), head without c2 seta, thoracic sterna II and III with a pair of medial setae, abdominal sternum III with 1 median seta above the retinaculum, abdominal sternum IV with seta m1. An identification key to East Asian species of Xenylla with detailed differences between East Asian Xenylla species is provided. PMID:27395598

  5. The dorsal chaetotaxy of first instar Trogolaphysa jataca, with description of twelve new species of Neotropical Trogolaphysa (Hexapoda: Collembola: Paronellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N

    2015-01-01

    Adult members of tribe Paronellini are characterized by a substantially reduced idiochaetotaxy and as a result chaeta homology determination is often ambiguous. To evaluate previous hypotheses of chaetae homology in adult Trogolaphysa, a complete description of the dorsal chaetotaxy of first instar Trogolaphysa jataca (Wray, 1953b), supplemented with observations on first instar Trogolaphysa paracarpenteri sp. nov., is presented. It is showed that first instar Trogolaphysa carries an almost complete set of dorsal chaetae and that the reduction in adult idiochaetotaxy is secondary. In addition, the organization of primary chaetae in T. jataca points to a closer relationship with genera in subfamily Entomobryinae than to Orchesellinae. Based on chaetae correspondence between first instar and adult T. jataca it is established that the inner median chaetae on adult head corresponds to M1 instead of S1, the mesothorax p3 complex includes chaetae p1-p4, and on the fourth abdominal segment, anterior macrochaeta on column A corresponds to A3, and the secondary bothriotrix corresponds to D3p. In addition, T. relicta (Palacios-Vargas, Ojeda & Christiansen, 1985) is re-described based on a paratype, and 12 new species are described: from Mexico, T. stannardi sp. nov., T. dimorphica sp. nov., T. laterolineata sp. nov., T. marieloiseae sp. nov., T. clarencei sp. nov., T. ocellata sp. nov., T. paracarpenteri sp. nov., T. palaciosi sp. nov., T. octosetosa sp. nov., and T. trioculata sp. nov.; from Jamaica, T. balteata sp. nov.; and from Argentina, T. entreriosensis sp. nov. PMID:26624337

  6. Diversity of Paranura Axelson, 1902 (Collembola: Neanuridae: Neanurinae) in Pacific Region of Russia and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolis, Adrian; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Eight new species of the genus Paranura are described from temperate zone of Holarctic. Five of them: Paranura reticulata sp. nov., Paranura oregonensis sp. nov., Paranura reducta sp. nov., Paranura cassagnaui sp. nov. and Paranura microchaetosa sp. nov. were found in coniferous forests of Oregon state, USA. Three others: Paranura kedrovayensis sp. nov., Paranura setosa sp. nov. and Paranura conjuncta sp. nov. were collected in mixed woods of Russian Far East. All new species are illustrated in detail and compared with existing taxa. P. reticulata sp. nov. is characterised by having three ocular chaetae, relatively short chaeta F on head, four ordinary chaetae De on th. III and three chaetae Di in abd. V (in s-uenoi two chaetae). The presence of only one ordinary chaeta De on abdomen IV is the most characteristic and recognizable character of P. oregonensis sp. nov. P. reducta sp. nov. is most diagnostically recognized by labral chaetotaxy, with only 4 chaetae. The species is true saproxylic form living inside decayed logs of coniferous trees only. P. cassagnaui sp. nov. is easy to distinguish by the presence of complete chaetotaxy of central area of head, presence of microchaetae on furcal remnant and the fusion of tubercles Di on abd. V. P. microchaetosa sp. nov. and P. kedrovayensis sp. nov. are superficially very similar to each other in dorsal chaetotaxy, and differ in number of ordinary chaetae De on abd. IV, trochanter and labium, and in the presence/absence of microchaetae on furcal remnant. P. setosa sp. nov. can be easily identified by one or two additional chaetae on central area of head, a character unknown in other species of the genus. P. conjuncta sp. nov. is characterised by the fusion of tubercles Di on abdomen V, the presence of microchaetae on furcal remnant and developed tubercle on central area of head. In addition, P. mjohjangensis Deharveng & Weiner, 1984 is newly recorded from Russia. An updated key to all world species of Paranura is also provided. PMID:26624400

  7. Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luís André; Maria, Vera L; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2015-10-01

    The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days) and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 days). The standard species Folsomia candida was used. Measured markers included catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that AgNO₃ was more toxic than AgNPs at the population level: reproduction EC₂₀ and EC₅₀ was ca. 2 and 4 times lower, respectively. At the cellular level Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO₃ and AgNP throughout time. Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag⁺ (MT and GST) and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO). Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses. PMID:26473892

  8. Genus Neelus Folsom, 1896 (Hexapoda, Collembola) reveals its diversity in cave habitats: two new species from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papáč, Vladimír; Lukić, Marko; Kováč, Ľubomír

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Neelus Folsom, 1896, N. cvitanovici sp. nov. and N. lackovici sp. nov., are described from caves of Croatia. N. lackovici sp. nov. exhibit marked troglomorphic features such as extremely elongated ungua and antennae, larger body among others. Descriptions are completed with comparative tables for chaetotaxy of antennae and legs. Diagnostic table for the congeners and identification key to the world species are provided. Distribution records of other Neelus species in Croatian caves are added. Threats of troglobiotic Neelus species in Croatia are discussed. PMID:27394325

  9. Two new species of Coecobrya (Collembola, Entomobryidae from China, with an updated key to the Chinese species of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new Coecobrya species, which were newly collected in 2014, are described from China. Coecobrya sanmingensis sp. n. from southeast China (Fujian is the fourth 1+1 eyed species in the genus; it can be distinguished from other three species by the ciliate chaetae X and X2-4 on the ventral side of head, the abundant chaetae on the trochanteral organ, a large outer tooth on the unguiculus, the absence of smooth manubrial chaetae, and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Coecobrya qinae sp. n. from southwest China (Yunnan is characterized by paddle-like S-chaetae of Ant. III organ, ciliate chaetae X, X2 and X4 posterior to labium, medial macrochaetae on the mesothorax, and 5+5 central and 2+2 lateral macrochaetae on the fourth abdominal segment. An updated key to the Chinese species of Coecobrya is given.

  10. A revision of Pseudoparonella, Plumachaetas, Parachaetoceras and Lawrenceana (Collembola: Paronellidae), with description of three new species from New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The relationship of Pseudoparonella to other paronellid genera is currently unresolved. Authors have proposed different taxonomical systems for which the proposed subgeneric divisions have not been compared. We compared these genera in detail and conclude here that antennal length is a reliable diagnostic character. The antennae of species in the genera Plumachaetas and Parachaetoceras, are longer than body and bear long chaetae but are not longer than body in Pseudoparonella. The subapical chaeta on the maxillary outer lobe is another character potentially discriminant as it is pointed in Pseudoparonella but thick and blunt in Plumachaetas. The subgenus Lawrenceana is synonymised here with Plumachaetas because of long antennae. Three new species, Pseudoparonella seminigra sp. nov., Plumachaetas yoshii sp. nov., and Plumachaetas sunae sp. nov., are described from New Caledonia. Variation in colour patterns of Pseudoparonella griseocoerulea Yoshii is reported. New records of Pseudoparonella tanimbarica Yoshii & Suhardjono and Ps. shibatai Yosii, as well as a key to genera, are also provided. PMID:26701546

  11. A standardized description of European Sminthuridae (Collembola, Symphypleona), 2: review of four species of the genera Allacma and Spatulosminthurus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nayrolles, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    According to our standard of the appendicular chaetotaxy, the following species are redescribed: Allacma fusca (Linné, 1758), Allacma gallica (Carl, 1899), Spatulosminthurus lesnei (Carl, 1899), and Spatulosminthurus betschi Nayrolles, 1990.

  12. Paratullbergia Womersley in China: the description of a new species and a key to the genus (Collembola, Tullbergiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yun; Gao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The genus Paratullbergia Womersley, 1930 is recorded for the first time from China. Paratullbergia changfengensis sp. n. from Shanghai is described and illustrated. It is characterized by the presence of 1+1 pseudocelli on thoracic segment I, with two pairs of pseudocelli on each of thoracic segments II and III, presence of seta px on abdominal segment IV, seta a2 and p4 on abdominal segment V as microsetae, and less differentiated sensory seta p3 on abdominal segment V. Both sexes present. The new species can be easily distinguished from its congeners by the presence of pseudocelli on thoracic segment I. An updated key to the world species of the genus Paratullbergia is provided. PMID:26668547

  13. Isotomidae (Collembola) of Buryat Republic. III. The genera Vertagopus and Agrenia, with a note on 'Claw index'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Mikhail; Gulgenova, Ayuna; Babykina, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Two genera are revised based on material from Buryatia (Russia, East Siberia). Vertagopus ceratus sp. nov. and V. asiaticus sp. nov. are described of which the former species is strictly alpine and is defined by pale colouration, the presence of chaetae on the anterior side of the ventral tube, and abundant sensillar chaetotaxy. V. asiaticus sp. nov. is widely distributed in Asia and is unusual due to only 9 chaetae in apical whorl on tibiotarsi. A key to species of Vertagopus Börner, recorded in the republic is given, and notes on morphology, distribution, and ecology are provided. In the genus Agrenia Börner, a form similar with A. bidenticulata was recorded in mountainous areas. Buryatian populations considerably differ from the diagnosis of the typical arctic A.bidenticulata (Tullberg) by a much longer claw. A conception of A. bidenticulata sensu lato complex is temporarily proposed basing on available materials from Palearctic, including High Arctic, sub-Arctic and South Siberian mountains. The complex consists of several local forms which are different in Claw index and associated Tibiotarsus/Claw ratio, while the dependence of the two indexes on the latitude is shown. PMID:27394328

  14. The genus Drepanura (Collembola: Entomobryidae) in Australia: descriptions of two new species and redescriptions of five known species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yitong; Chun, Zhao; Greenslade, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Seven Australian species of the genus Drepanura are reported. Two of the seven are new and five are redescribed. The new species are: D. liuae sp. nov. and D. polychaeta sp. nov. Redescriptions are given for D. albocoerulea (Schött, 1917), D. cinquilineata Womersley, 1934, D. citricola Womersley, 1934, D. cobaltina (Schött, 1917) and D. coeruleopicta (Schött, 1917). The chaetotaxy is described and a key to the Australian species of the genus is given. PMID:26701533

  15. The ultrastructure of the ejaculatory duct in the springtail Orchesella villosa (Geoffroy) (Hexapoda, Collembola) and the formation of the spermatophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanciulli, Pietro Paolo; Zizzari, Zaira Valentina; Frati, Francesco; Dallai, Romano

    2012-02-01

    The initial part of the ejaculatory duct of Orchesella villosa contains a "valve" and a "sorter" avoiding respectively the reflow and allowing the separation of the secretion for the spermatophore stalk from the sperm fluid. For most of its length, the ejaculatory duct lumen is divided into two parts: in the dorsal part the sperm fluid flows while in the ventral district the secretion for the stalk occurs. Laterally, on both sides of the duct, longitudinal muscle fibers are present. The epithelium of the dorsal region consists of two types of long secretory cells; the most peculiar of them are those provided with extracellular cisterns flowing directly into the duct lumen as it occurs in 1st type of epidermal cells. These cells could be involved in the control of the viscosity of the sperm fluid. The second type of cells produce a secretion probably involved in the formation of the outer coat of the apical sperm droplet. The ventral epithelium consists of short cells contributing to the enrichment of the secretion for the spermatophore stalk and perhaps also to the viscosity of the secretion flowing in the lumen. In the distal part of the ejaculatory duct, the ventral district is provided with a thick layer of muscle fibers and with 3+3 cuticular laminae dividing the lumen into a series of slits through which the secretion of the stalk is squeezed out into filaments. This organization allows the twisting and hardening of these filaments. A drop of sperm fluid is laid on top of the long and rigid spermatophore stalk. PMID:22056322

  16. Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Mendes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 days. The standard species Folsomia candida was used. Measured markers included catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione S-transferase (GST, total glutathione (TG, metallothionein (MT and lipid peroxidation (LPO. Results showed that AgNO3 was more toxic than AgNPs at the population level: reproduction EC20 and EC50 was ca. 2 and 4 times lower, respectively. At the cellular level Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP throughout time. Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag+ (MT and GST and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO. Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses.

  17. Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    OpenAIRE

    Luís André Mendes; Maria, Vera L.; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; Amorim, Mónica J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days) and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6...

  18. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  19. Assessment of potential risks of dietary RNAi to a soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-day old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV and S. curviseta (dsSC, respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS, and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible.

  20. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E.; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  1. Adaptations and Predispositions of Different Middle European Arthropod Taxa (Collembola, Araneae, Chilopoda, Diplopoda to Flooding and Drought Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Guhmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Floodplain forests and wetlands are amongst the most diverse and species rich habitats on earth. Arthropods are a key group for the high diversity pattern of these landscapes, due to the fact that the change between flooding and drought causes in different life cycles and in a variety of adaptations in the different taxa. The floodplain forests and wetlands of Central Amazonia are well investigated and over the last 50 years many adaptations of several hexapod, myriapod and arachnid orders were described. In contrast to Amazonia the Middle European floodplains were less investigated concerning the adaptations of arthropods to flood and drought conditions. This review summarizes the adaptations and predispositions of springtails, web spiders, millipedes and centipedes to the changeable flood and drought conditions of Middle European floodplain forests and wetlands. Furthermore the impact of regional climate change predictions like increasing aperiodic summer floods and the decrease of typical winter and spring floods are discussed in this article.

  2. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn on soil Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida (Collembola), Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acarina) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, X.; Krogh, P. H.

    The effects of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (corn variety Cascade Bt MON810 and DeKalb variety 618 Bt) were studied on survival and reproduction of the soil collembolan Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida, the collembolan predator mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and enchytraeids...

  3. Nuevo método para el aislamiento y la cuantificación de insectos del orden Collembola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanne Fernández

    2000-01-01

    significativamente el tiempo de aislamiento de los individuos (cinco minutos vs cinco días, sino también porque permite cuantificar mayor cantidad de éstos, inclusive vivos y por tanto con mayor calidad biológica

  4. Do gas seepage sites support distinct macrofaunal community ? - An observation in the tropical shelf region of Goa, Arabian Sea, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Nagvenkar, S.S.

    . Such difference is largely due to relatively high organic carbon and clay content in the seep sites. Polychaetes, Heteromastus similis, Pulliella armata and Capitella capitata belonging to family Capitellidae, were found only at all the seep sites and can...

  5. First record of the genus Australonura Cassagnau 1980 (Collembola: Neanuridae) in the New World, with description of a new species from Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Vargas, José G; Deharveng, Louis

    2014-03-13

    The genus Australonura Cassagnau 1980 is newly recorded from South America. The Patagonian species Paleonura limnophila (Cassagnau & Rapoport, 1962) and Paleonura friasica Cassagnau & Oliveira, 1990 are redescribed from type material and recombined in Australonura. A new species, A. paraguayensis sp. nov., is described from Paraguay and assigned to Australonura for its head tubercle arrangement. It differs from other species of the genus by its adjacent but separate dorso-internal tubercles of Abd. V.

  6. New species of springtails in the Proisotoma genus complex from Vermont and New York, USA with descriptive notes on Ballistura alpa Christiansen & Bellinger 1980 (Hexapoda, Collembola, Isotomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Soto-Adames

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of isotomid springtails are described from the Lake Champlain Basin (Vermont and New York, USA, Lake Willoughby and Greater Averril Pond in Vermont. Subisotoma joycei sp. n. and Scutisotoma champi sp. n. were collected in sandy beaches whereas Ballistura rossi sp. n. was found only in a constructed wetland built and managed by the University of Vermont. Scutisotoma champi sp. n. was found in Lakes Champlain and Willoughby, and Greater Averril Pond and is probably present in most lakes and large ponds in the area. Subisotoma joycei sp. n. was found only along the southern and eastern coast of South Hero, and the mainland coast facing eastern South Hero. Ballistura alpa Christiansen & Bellinger is redescribed and transferred to the genus Pachyotoma based on the absence of tibiotarsal seta B4/B5, the presence of secondary cuticular granules, 4 prelabral setae, a full complement of guard setae on labial papilla E and ina bifurcate outer maxillary lobe with 4 sublobal setae.

  7. New species of springtails in the Proisotoma genus complex from Vermont and New York, USA with descriptive notes on Ballistura alpa Christiansen & Bellinger 1980 (Hexapoda, Collembola, Isotomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Giordano, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    Three new species of Isotomidae springtails are described from the Lake Champlain Basin (Vermont and New York, USA), Lake Willoughby and Greater Averril Pond in Vermont. Subisotoma joyceisp. n. and Scutisotoma champisp. n. were collected in sandy beaches whereas Ballistura rossisp. n. was found only in a constructed wetland built and managed by the University of Vermont. Scutisotoma champisp. n. was found in Lakes Champlain and Willoughby, and Greater Averril Pond and is probably present in most lakes and large ponds in the area. Subisotoma joyceisp. n. was found only along the southern and eastern coast of South Hero, and the mainland coast facing eastern South Hero. Ballistura alpa is redescribed and transferred to the genus Pachyotoma based on the absence of tibiotarsal seta B4/B5, the presence of secondary cuticular granules, 4 prelabral setae, a full complement of guard setae on labial papilla E and in having a bifurcate outer maxillary lobe with 4 sublobal setae. PMID:22371662

  8. Effects of ecological flooding on the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae and springtails (Collembola in a polder habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Lessel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder “Ingelheim” to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder “Ingelheim”. These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design.

  9. Nueva especie de Pseudosinella Schäffer, 1897 (Collembola, Entomobryidae de cuevas de la Sierra de Cameros en La Rioja, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana, Rafael

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pseudosinella, P. riojana sp. n., is described from Cameros mountains. Species description and morphological differences with nearest species is given: 2 + 2 eyes, labium basis with setae M1m2rel1l2 (M = ciliated, m = smooth, dorsal macrosetae with R001/0/00/0101+2; chaetotaxy of abdominal segment II: _aBq1q2.Se describe una nueva especie de Pseudosinella, P. riojana sp. n., de las cuevas de la Sierra de Cameros, en la Rioja. Se da la descripción completa de la especie y las diferencias que la separa de las especies cercanas a ella por su morfología: 2+2 ojos, base del labium con M1m2rel1l2 (M = ciliada, m = lisa, fórmula de macrosedas dorsales R001/0/00/0101+2; quetotaxia del segmento abdominal II: _aBq1q2.

  10. Two new species of Dicranocentrus Schött, 1893 (Collembola:Entomobryidae) from Serra do Gandarela, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xisto, Thiago; Mendonça, Maria Cleide De

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Dicranocentrus from Southeastern Brazil are described: D. melinus sp. nov. and D. cuprum sp. nov., both from "Parque Nacional da Serra do Gandarela" (Minas Gerais State), Brazil. These species can be included to gracilis-group due to the absence of chaeta A1, S2, Ps and up to 6+6 chaetae P on dorsal head. A male genital plate is for the first time illustrated for the genus. PMID:27396001

  11. New cave-dwelling species of Tomoceridae from China, with a study on the pattern of mesothoracic bothriotricha in Tomocerinae (Collembola, Entomobryomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Daoyuan; Yan, Qibao; Liu, Manqiang

    2016-01-01

    Two new troglobitic species of Tomoceridae are described from Guizhou and Guangxi provinces, China. Tomocerus tiani sp. n. resembles Tomocerus kinoshitai Yosii, 1954, Tomocerus caecus Yu & Deharveng, 2015 and Tomocerus similis Chen & Ma, 1997 but differs from them mainly in the body colour, the cephalic chaetotaxy and the number of manubrial pseudopores. Monodontocerus cinereus sp. n. is similar to Monodontocerus mulunensis Yu, Deharveng & Zhang, 2014 but is different from the latter in the body colour, the length of antennae, the number of ungual teeth and the chaetotaxy on Abd. III and Abd. IV. Special remarks are made on the mesothoracic bothriotricha in Tomocerinae. PMID:27110179

  12. A new species of Deutonura (Collembola: Neanuridae: Neanurinae) from Algeria, with revised diagnosis of the genus and key to western Palaearctic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deharveng, Louis; Mouloud, Salah Ait; Bedos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Deutonura adriani sp. nov. is described from the region of Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria). The species is morphologically similar to D. deficiens deficiens Deharveng, 1979 from southwestern France, differing by not having De3 chaetae integrated into the dorso-external tubercle on abdominal tergites I and II. The genus Deutonura is re-diagnosed and a key to its Western Palaearctic species is provided. PMID:26623737

  13. Springtails (insects belonging to the class Collembola) and the "jumping insects"%跳虫与"会跳跃的虫类"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾少波; 贾鲁

    2010-01-01

    汉语中"跳虫"一词字面之意似乎指所有"会跳跃的虫类",但在动物学领域则特指节肢动物门"弹尾纲动物".鉴于目前汉语表达中容易把各种会跳跃的虫类混为一谈,本文从生物学角度比较了跳虫和其他各类会跳跃的虫类在生物学特征、跳跃机制及分类学范畴上的差异;从词汇学角度提出了各类会跳跃虫类的中文术语表达建议.

  14. The ecological distribution of soil collembola in Jiuhua Mountain%九华山土壤跳虫的生态分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗英; 朱永恒; 路有成; 聂献忠; 陈建秀; 孟文新; 黄诚

    2001-01-01

    在九华山4种生境中共获土壤跳虫5904个,分隶10科52属.等跳科有14属,数量占各科总数72.09%,其中以符跳属个体数占绝对优势.不同群落组成成分及各项指标差异显著.混交林土层中种、数最丰富,若以土层和Aoo层总和计算,则有高海拔生境群落比低海拔多的趋势.灌丛草甸土壤跳虫群落的H和E值高而且季节变化不大.秋冬季节各群落种、数都有增加,而以山上两个群落Aoo层增加更多,表聚现象十分突出.

  15. Phylogeny of the genus Willemia (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) and biogeography of the W. buddenbrocki-group with description of a new species from Ivory Coast (western Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zon, Serge Déméango; Bedos, Anne; D'Haese, Cyrille A

    2015-01-01

    Willemia tondoh sp. nov. from the Ivory Coast (western Africa) is described and illustrated. The new species is the 14th in the buddenbrocki-group and is defined with two large globular sensilla placed in a cavity and covered in part by tegumental fold on antennal segment IV, 7 chaetae on antennal segment I, postantennal organ with 9 vesicles, s-chaetae subcylindrical and acuminate on abdominal terga and chaetae a1 absent on abdominal sternum IV. A phylogeny for all the 46 species of the genus Willemia is proposed. Based on the phylogentic framework, the biogeography of the buddenbrocki-group is discussed. An identification key for all 46 known species of the genus is provided. PMID:26249949

  16. Redescription of Protanura papillata Cassagnau & Delamare Deboutteville, 1955 (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae), with new records from Middle East, and with supplemented diagnosis and key to the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolis, Adrian; Skarżyński, Dariusz; Kahrarian, Morteza; Kaprus, Ighor J

    2016-01-01

    The poorly known Neanurini genus Protanura is rediagnosed and briefly compared with Lathriopyga. Protanura papillata Cassagnau & Delamare Deboutteville, 1955, known to date only from Lebanon, is redescribed based on the lectotype and new extensive material from Middle East. PMID:27394457

  17. A new species of Campylothorax Schött, 1893 (Collembola, Paronellidae) from Brazilian Amazon, with an identification key to the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipola, Nikolas Gioia; Oliveira, Fábio Gonçalves De Lima

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Campylothorax from Brazilian Amazon is described and illustrated. Campylothorax plagatus sp. nov. resembles another Neotropical species, C. cubanus, by abdomen with two transverse bands and pattern of dorsal chaetotaxy. However, the new species differs by unguis with one unpaired apical tooth, unguiculi III truncate, and abdomen IV with 5+5 posterior central macrochaetae. This is the first species of Campylothorax originally described from Brazilian Amazon. A generic key to the 14 species of Campylothorax is provided. PMID:27394881

  18. Taxonomy of the Proisotoma complex. VI. Mobile forms of Proisotoma s.str. with the description of a new species from East Siberia (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Mikhail; Bogomolov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic dimorphism of four species of the genus Proisotoma s.str. is described. The modified specimens are characterized by protruding corneas of eyes, stronger pigmentation, enlarged and more chitinized furca, and extension of clavate tenent hairs in the distal part of the tibiotarsi. The characteristics of the modified specimens indicate higher mobile activity. Both sexes are affected by the dimorphism, with the "mobile" forms mostly co-occuring during the cold season with normal specimens. Proisotoma dualis sp. nov. is described from Buryat Republic. PMID:27394339

  19. 弹尾虫对食用菌的危害及防治%Damage of Collembola on Edible Fungi and its Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元

    2012-01-01

    弹尾虫是危害食用菌生产的一类小型害虫.近年来,该虫对食用菌危害严重,因体形微小,常被忽视.现详细介绍了弹尾虫的外部形态特征、生物学特性、常见危害种类及其防控方法.

  20. Towards understanding Lepidocyrtus Bourlet, 1839 (Collembola, Entomobryidae) I: diagnosis of the subgenus Setogaster, new records and redescriptions of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the subgenera of Lepidocyrtus Bourlet is confused. Currently ten subgenera are recognised but their separation, using the existing set of diagnostic characters, is not clear. Collections over the last forty years have shown that species of Setogaster Salmon, originally described as a genus (Trichogaster Handschin) and currently considered a subgenus of Lepidocyrtus, are common and widespread in Australia. The diagnostic characters of Setogaster, as given by Handschin, are: 1) the basal mucronal spine with spinelet; 2) lack of scales on antennae, legs, ventral tube and dorsal region of manubrium; and, for some species, 3) tufts of long filaments laterally on abdomen III. These three diagnostic characters for Setogaster are shared with some other subgenera, making their delimitation unclear. We provide here an array of new characters that are associated with Handschin's characters which separate Setogaster from all European species of the subgenera Lanocyrtus and Lepidocyrtus s. str. On this basis we define subgenus Setogaster more in detail, redescribe some species in the subgenus, corroborate the presence of the subgenus in many Australian localities, and confirm three records of exotic, introduced species in Australia. Lepidocyrtus nigrofasciatus Womersley, Lepidocyrtus praecisus Schött, and the Hawaiian Lepidocyrtus kuakea Christiansen & Bellinger, are placed in Setogaster subgenus; Lepidocyrtus (Trichogaster) pallida Salmon from Singapore is placed in the subgenus Acrocyrtus; Merapicyrtus Yoshii & Suhardjono is considered a synonym of Setogaster. PMID:26624705

  1. Chaetotaxy of Neotropical Cyphoderus caetetus sp. nov. with comments on the taxonomic position of Cyphoderinae within Paronellidae (Collembola, Entomobryoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppelini, Douglas; Oliveira, João V L C

    2016-01-01

    The description of a new species, Cyphoderus caetetus sp. nov., led to comparisons among Paronellidae (Cyphoderinae and Paronellinae), which showed that the chaetotaxy of the first abdominal segment is very similar in Cyphoderus, Troglobius (Cyphoderinae) and Trogolaphysa (Paronellini), and much reduced in relation to that seen in Lepidonella (Paronellinae, Bromacanthini), Pseudosinella and Seira (Entomobryidae). This feature, along with the presence of pseudopores behind the posterior row of setae on the fourth abdominal segment as seen in Troglopedetes, Trogolaphysa and Cyphoderinae (absent in Lepidonella and Entomobryidae), suggests that Cyphoderinae is more closely related to tribe Paronellini than Paronellini is to Bromacanthini and Entomobryidae, and that the subfamily Paronellinae is paraphyletic if Cyphoderinae is excluded. We propose including Cyphoderini as the apical group in Paronellinae together with Paronellini (Trogolaphysa and Troglopedetes). PMID:27394601

  2. 弹尾虫特征特性及其对经济作物的危害%Characteristics of Collembola and its damage to cash crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元

    2012-01-01

    弹尾虫虫体微小、种类丰富、分布广泛.近年来发现该虫对食用菌、天麻、姜、蒜、百合、芋头等多种经济作物为害严重.本文详细介绍了弹尾虫的外部形态特征、生物学特性及其对经济作物的危害.

  3. Advances on Collembola in Different Ecosystems in China%我国不同生态系统中弹尾虫研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元

    2014-01-01

    Collembolans are the dominant species in soil with nematodes and mites. They are sensitive to environment and can be good bioindicators. In this paper, advance on Collembolans in forest ecosystem, plain ecosystem, urban ecosystem, agri-ecosys-tem and tea ecosystem in China was reviewed. Such basic researches as composition number, community structure, density changes and ecological distribution were hot topics, but little was done on comprehensive research. Prospect on the future study on global change was given.%弹尾虫是土壤中的优势物种之一,与线虫、螨虫共称为土壤动物三大类群。它们对环境变化反应灵敏,是良好的环境指示生物。本文对近年来我国森林生态系统、草原生态系统、城市生态系统、农田生态系统、茶园生态系统中弹尾虫研究进行概括和总结,发现在组成与数量、群落结构、密度变化、生态分布等基础性研究较多,但综合性研究较少。提出该研究领域今后在全球变化等方面的发展前景。

  4. A new species of Janusius Bretfeld, 2010 (Collembola, Sminthuridae) from the Korean Peninsula, with a key to the species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dányi, László; Park, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Janusius geumgangensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens from North Korea. The new species is characterised by having 3 spatulate chaetae on all tibiotarsus, 4 chaetae on retinaculum, smooth anal appendage, anterior chaetotaxy of dens 3,3,3,2,2,1,1, colouration with one pair brownish lateral spot and presence of mucronal chaeta. The genus Janusius Bretfeld, 2010 is first mentioned from the Korean Peninsula, although another species described from there as Sminthurus annulatus Kang & Lee, 2005 is recognised here as belonging to this genus (Janusius annulatus (Kang & Lee, 2005) comb. nov.), too. A key including all known species of the genus is presented as well. PMID:27615861

  5. Damage of Collembola on economic crops and its control strategy%弹尾虫对经济作物的危害及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 王贵强

    2012-01-01

    弹尾虫是危害经济作物生产的一类小型害虫.近年来发现该虫对食用菌、天麻、姜、蒜、百合、芋头等多种经济作物危害严重.详细介绍了弹尾虫的特征特性、对经济作物的危害及其防治方法.

  6. New record of the genus Israelimeria Weiner & Kaprus', 2005 (Collembola: Neanuridae: Pseudachorutinae) from Iran, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijani, Masoumeh; Shayanmehr, Masoumeh; Skarżyński, Dariusz; Piwnik, Agata; Smolis, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Israelimeria persica sp. nov. is described from Iran. The genus Israelimeria can be easily identified due to a reduction of the number of eyes and the complete absence of the postantennal organ and the furca. The new taxon, and also the second species of the genus, differs from I. poliakovae Weiner & Kaprus', 2005, known only from Judean Mts. in Israel, in size and shape of mandibles and many chaetotactic characters, especially number of setae in ocular area of the head, ventral tube, subcoxae "1" and microchaetae number in furcal area. PMID:26623613

  7. The puzzling distribution of Heteromurus (Verhoeffiella) absoloni Kseneman, 1938 (Collembola: Entomobryidae: Heteromurinae) resolved: detailed redescription of the nominal species and description of a new species from Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Marko; Porco, David; Bedos, Anne; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The species Heteromurus (Verhoeffiella) absoloni Kseneman, 1938 is redescribed in detail and characterized by its barcode, based on specimens from its type locality in Montenegro. A neotype is designated. Dorsal S-chaetotaxy is given for the first time in the subgenus Verhoeffiella. Chaeta morphology and distribution are thoroughly analyzed, in particular on antennae where 12 chaetal types are recognized. Several morphological features are newly described for the genus and for Heteromurinae. The widely disjunct distribution of the species is approached through morphological and molecular comparison of specimens from the type locality in Montenegro and from the Catalan population. We established that this last record is a new species described here as  Heteromurus (Verhoeffiella) gamae sp. nov. New combination is proposed Heteromurus (Verhoeffiella) constantinellus (Ćurčić & Lučić in Lučić, Ćurčić & Mitić 2007) comb. nov. A table of all species of the subgenus is provided. The taxonomic status of Verhoeffiella and the problems of species discriminations in the subgenus are discussed. PMID:26624478

  8. Effects of ecological flooding on the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and springtails (Collembola) in a polder habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessel, Tanja; Marx, Michael Thomas; Eisenbeis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder "Ingelheim" to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder "Ingelheim". These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design. PMID:21738425

  9. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida. A customized microarray was used to study gene expression in F. candida specimens that were exposed to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. All selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. Eleven transcripts were finally verified, and three of them were annotated. The responses of all eleven transcripts were tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues. -- Highlights: • We examined the effects of Bt proteins on gene expression of Folsomia candida. • Eleven transcripts were up-regulated by Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac). • Only three of the eleven transcripts were annotated. • The responses of 11 transcripts were tested on both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. • These transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues. -- Eleven potential molecular biomarkers of Folsomia candida to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were screened by microarray and qPCR analysis

  10. Phylogeny of the genus Willemia (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) and biogeography of the W. buddenbrocki-group with description of a new species from Ivory Coast (western Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zon, Serge Déméango; Bedos, Anne; D'Haese, Cyrille A

    2015-06-29

    Willemia tondoh sp. nov. from the Ivory Coast (western Africa) is described and illustrated. The new species is the 14th in the buddenbrocki-group and is defined with two large globular sensilla placed in a cavity and covered in part by tegumental fold on antennal segment IV, 7 chaetae on antennal segment I, postantennal organ with 9 vesicles, s-chaetae subcylindrical and acuminate on abdominal terga and chaetae a1 absent on abdominal sternum IV. A phylogeny for all the 46 species of the genus Willemia is proposed. Based on the phylogentic framework, the biogeography of the buddenbrocki-group is discussed. An identification key for all 46 known species of the genus is provided.

  11. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Krogh, Paul Henning; Bai, Xue;

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida...

  12. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Krogh, Paul Henning; Bai, Xue; Roelofs, Dick; Chen, Fajun; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Liang, Yuyong; Sun, Yucheng; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida. A customized microarray was used to study gene expression in F. candida specimens that were exposed to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. All selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. Eleven transcripts were finally verified, and three of them were annotated. The responses of all eleven transcripts were tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues.

  13. A new species of Seira Lubbock (Collembola, Entomobryidae, with a key to the species of Paraíba, Brazil Uma nova espécie de Seira Lubbock (Collembola, Entomobryidae, com chave para as espécies da Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cavalcante Bellini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Entomobryidae of the genus Seira Lubbock, S. paraibensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The type locality of the species is the municipality of Areia, state of Paraíba, Brazil. The species was found inhabiting the Atlantic forest litter and top soil environment. S. paraibensis sp. nov. resembles S. pseudoannulata in many morphological features. This is the sixth species of the genus found and described in Paraiba so far. A key with the 11 species of Seira registered so far in Paraíba is provided. Also a list with all species of the genus from Brazil is presented.Uma nova espécie de Entomobryidae do gênero Seira, S. paraibensis sp. nov. é descrita e ilustrada. A localidade tipo da espécie é o município de Areia, no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. A espécie foi encontrada habitando o folhiço e solo superficial de um remanescente de Mata Atlântica. S. paraibensis sp nov. possui muitas similaridades em sua morfologia com S. pseudoannulata. Esta é a sexta espécie do gênero encontrada e descrita na Paraíba até o momento. Uma chave com as 11 espécies de Seira registradas até o momento na Paraíba é apresentada, juntamente com uma lista com todas as espécies do gênero encontradas no Brasil.

  14. Savremeno naoružanje i vojna oprema za broj 4-2014/Modern weapons and military equipment for issue 4-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan M. Vučković

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Najnovija kineska podmornica klase Yuan; U toku je testiranje ruskog tenka Armata; Indija prikazuje modernizovanu verziju tenka Arjun Mk II; Podmornica klase Andrasta za obalne vode Južne Azije; Indija je uspešno testirala domaću raketu vazduh-vazduh Astra / China's latest Yuan-class sub preparing for sea trials; Russian Armata MBT trials under way; India shows off upgraded Arjun Mk II MBT; DCNS pushes Andrasta for Southeast Asia littorals; India succesfully tests home-grown Astra AAM

  15. The active bioindication method based on the fertility rate of collembola possibility and chance to diagnose soil conditions and the degree of soil burden; Die aktive Bioindikationsmethode mit Collembolen. Moeglichkeit der Diagnose von Bodenzustand und -belastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeszki, H. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Zoologisches Inst.

    1999-07-01

    Fertility, population growth and population dynamics of the collembolan species Folsomia candida and Heteromurus nitidus in exposed microcontainers are the zoological criteria of the active bioindication method discussed in this paper. With these criteria, it is easy to diagnose respective soil conditions and the degree of soil burden with pollutants. The zoological criteria are a direct indication for the degree of pollutant deposition and soil water contamination. The more a soil ecosystem is contaminated by acids, heavy metals, fertilizers or pesticides, the less successful is the breeding of the springtails in the exposed microcontainers. Thus population dynamics and abundance function as a good measure for the pollution stress of soil ecosystems. (orig.) [German] Bei der hier vorgestellten aktiven Bioindikationsmethode sind Fortpflanzungsrate, Populationsgroesse (Jahresmittelwert) und Populationsentwicklung der Collembolenarten Folsomia candida und Heteromurus nitidus in exponierten Mikrocontainern zoologische Kriterien, an Hand derer der Bodenzustand und Ausmass einer moeglichen Bodenbelastung klar diagnostiziert werden koennen. Diese zoologischen Parameter sind unmittelbare Indizien fuer das Ausmass von Schadstoffdepositionen und Bodenwasserkontaminationen mit Schadstoffen. Je staerker ein Bodenoekosystem mit Saeuren, Schwermetallen, Duengern oder Pestiziden verunreinigt ist, umso geringer sind die Zuchterfolge mit den Collembolen in exponierten Mikrocontainern. So werden Populationsdynamik und Abundanz zu Messeinheiten fuer den Belastungsstress von Bodenoekosystemen. (orig.)

  16. A new species of Callyntrura (Collembola: Paronellidae) from Guangdong Province, China%广东丽(虫兆)属一新种(弹尾纲:爪(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马以桐

    2012-01-01

    A new species,Callyntrura (Javaphysa) guangdongensis sp.nov.,from Guangdong Province,China,is described.It is similar to C.(J.)javana Yosii,1992 in labrum and labium,but differs from the latter in color pattern,dental spine,macrochaeta V0 on dorsal head and macrochaetae on Th.Ⅱ.Keys to the subgenera and Chinese species of the genus Callyntrura are provided.%记述广东弹尾纲1新种广东丽(虫兆)Callyntrura (Javaphysa) guangdongensis sp.nov.,该新种与C.(J.)javana Yosii,1992在上唇和下唇上比较相似,但是它们在体色、齿节刚毛、头部V0大毛、胸部第2节毛序有较大的区别.

  17. DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS TOMOCERUS (COLLEMBOLA, TOMOCERIDAE) FROM SHANXI, CHINA%山西鳞(虫兆)属二新种记述(弹尾目,鳞(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 梁爱萍; 黄复生

    2006-01-01

    记述采自山西地区的弹尾目Collembola鳞(虫兆)科Tomoceridae鳞(虫兆)属Tomocerus 2新种:黑鳞(虫兆)Tomocerus(Tomocerus)nigrus sp.nov.(山西:和顺禅堂寺)和霍县鳞(虫兆)Tomocerus(Tomocerus)huoensis sp.nov.(山西:霍县七里峪侧尾).新种模式标本保存在中国科学院动物研究所.%Two new species, Tomocerus (Tomocerus) nigrus sp. nov. and Tomocerus (Tomocerus) huoensis sp. nov. are described and illustrated from Shanxi, China. The type specimens of the new species are kept in the Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (IZCAS).

  18. DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW TIBETAN SPECIES OF TOMOCERUS (S.STR.) NICOLET, 1842 (COLLEMBOLA, TOMOCERIDAE)%西藏鳞(虫兆)亚属二新种记述(弹尾目,鳞(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 梁爱萍; 黄复生

    2006-01-01

    记述采自西藏地区的弹尾目Collembola鳞(虫兆)科Tomoceridae鳞(虫兆)亚属Tomocerus(Tomocerus)2新种:黑带鳞(虫兆)Tomocerus(Tomocerus)nigrofasciatus sp.nov.(西藏:洛扎生格)和背崩鳞(虫兆)Tomocerus(Tomocerus)baibungensis sp.nov.(西藏:墨脱背崩),给出鉴别特征图以及在西藏地区的种检索表.新种模式标本保存在中国科学院动物研究所.%Two new species, Tomocerus (Tomocerus) nigrofasciatus sp.nov.and Tomocerus (Tomocerus) baibungensis sp.nov., are described and illustrated from Tibet, China.A key to the Tibetan species of Tomocerus (s.str.) Nicolet is provided.The type specimens are kept in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (IZCAS).

  19. A NEW SPECIES OF FRIESEA (COLLEMBOLA, NEANURIDAE)FROM CHINA%中国奇刺(虫兆)属一新种及丽江奇刺(虫兆)的新分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳; PALACIOS-VARGAS José G.

    2010-01-01

    记述中国奇刺(虫兆)属具有6臀刺的1新种,卜氏奇刺姚Friesea buyuni sp.nov..文中给出奇刺(虫兆)属中具有2+2小眼种类的检索表;并给出丽江奇刺(虫兆)的新发布记录.模式标本保存在上海昆虫博物馆.

  20. 福建省刺齿(虫兆)属(弹尾纲:长角(虫兆)科)一新种描述%Description of a new species of genus Homidia (Collembola: Entomobryidae) from Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施时迪; 潘志祥

    2012-01-01

    A new species Homidia pseudosinensis sp.nov.from southeast China is described.This new species can be easily identified by posterior Th.Ⅱ with a roughly M-shaped transverse band,labial setae and chaetotaxy of Abd.Ⅳ.Illustrations and a key to species of this genus from Fujian Province are provided.%记述福建省刺齿(虫兆)属1新种:拟中华刺齿(虫兆)Homidia pseudosinensis sp.nov..该新种的鉴定特征有胸部第2节后侧具近似M型的横条带,下唇毛序及腹部第4节毛序.本文提供了该物种的特征图及福建省刺齿(虫兆)属分种检索表.

  1. The Heteromurini Absolon & Ksenemann (Collembola, Entomobryidae): a review of the genera status and diagnoses, keys for species of Alloscopus Börner and Heteromurtrella Mari Mutt and description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipola, Nikolas Gioia; Oliveira, Fabio Gonçalves De Lima; Morais, José Wellington De; Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    The status of Heteromurini Absolon & Ksenemann is analyzed and a new diagnosis is proposed to the tribe. New chaetotaxic characteres were added to distinguish Dicranocentrus Schött and Pseudodicranocentrus Mari Mutt. Alloscopus Börner, Heteromurtrella Mari Mutt and Verhoeffiella Absolon, originally proposed as subgenera of Heteromurus Wankel, are reviewed and a new diagnosis and generic status are proposed. The presence of the postantennal organ becomes the main characteristic to distinguish Alloscopus (present) and Heteromurtrella (absent). Alloscopus yosiius Mari Mutt, anteriorly synonymized with Alloscopus tenuicornis Börner, is revalidated. The absence of S0 macrochaeta on head of Heteromurus is reported now as a characteristic also shared with Heteromurtrella. Heteromurtrella zairensis Tshelnokov comb. nov. is transferred from Heteromurus by the presence of macrochaetae on abdomen I. Heteromurtrella anae sp. nov. from Brazilian Amazon is described and illustrated, including detailed dorsal chaetotaxy. This is the first record of Heteromurtrella in Brazil. Heteromurus now has 17, Alloscopus 10 and Heteromurtrella 20 valid species worldwide. An identification key and diagnosis for the six genera of Heteromurini and species of Alloscopus and Heteromurtrella are provided. PMID:27394258

  2. THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SOIL WATER CONTENT FOR THE NUMBER OF ORIBATIDA AND COLLEMBOLA%土壤温湿度对甲螨和跳虫数量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱军; 傅荣恕

    2004-01-01

    对不同温度和土壤含水量甲螨和跳虫数量的关系进行了实验观察.结果表明,温度和土壤含水量对土壤甲螨和跳虫的数量变动均具有一定的影响.甲螨和跳虫生长的最适温、湿度差异不明显,最适温度约在24℃左右,最适湿度约为16%的含水量.甲螨耐受低温、干旱环境的能力明显大于跳虫.

  3. A NEW SPECIES OF VITRONURA YOSII, 1969 (COLLEMBOLA,NEANURIDAE) FROM NORTHWESTERN CHINA%中国西北地区维特疣(虫兆)属一新种(弹尾纲,疣(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜吉刚; 尹文英

    2011-01-01

    描述了采自中国西北地区的维特疣(虫兆)属Vitronura 1新种--陕西维特疣(虫兆),模式标本保存在中国科学院上海生命科学研究院.新种与属内其它种的区别在于上颚具有7齿,上唇有4根毛,头部背面毛的数量明显少于其它种类,An疣上有2根毛,胸部第2~3节的Di疣上分别有3根毛,腹部第1~4节De疣上分别有3根普通毛和1根感觉毛,腹部第5节的Di疣互相分离.文中同时还编制了该属中国种类检索表.%A new species of the genus Vitronura Yosii, 1969 from Shaanxi Province in the Northwest of China is described and illustrated. The new species, Vitronura .shaanxiensis differs from other Vitronura species in the presence of a seven-teeth mandible and strong reduction of dorsal chaetotaxy on head. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is given as well.

  4. 一个中国新纪录种细齿(虫兆)以及微小(虫兆)的重描述%A NEW RECORD SPECIES FROM CHINA AND REDESCRIPTION OF CERATOPHYSF7LA ADEXILIS STACH,1964(COLLEMBOLA,HYPOGASTRURIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜吉刚; 尹文英

    2010-01-01

    重新描述了广泛分布于中国的微小(虫兆)Ceratophysella adexilu Stach,1964.该种目前分布于北京、南京,河北(新纪录),上海(新纪录),浙江(新纪录),湖南(新纪录)等地.经核对模式标本,尹氏(虫兆)Hypogastrura yinae Yue & Fu,2000是微小姚的新异名.细齿(虫兆)Ceratophysella denticulata(Bagnall,1941)是一个世界广布种,但该种在中国是首次报道.

  5. 湖南鳞(虫兆)属种类记述(弹尾目,鳞(虫兆)科)%THE GENUS TOMOCERUS NICOLET (COLLEMBOLA, TOMOCERIDAE) FROM HUNAN, CHINA WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 梁爱萍; 黄复生

    2007-01-01

    Three species, including two new species, Tomocerus (Tomocerus) hexipunctatus sp. nov. and Tomocerus (Tomocerus)multisetus sp. nov., and a known species T. ( T. ) kinoshitai Yosii, 1954 are described and illustrated from Hunan, China.%记述采自湖南省的弹尾目Collembola鳞(虫兆)科Tomoceridae鳞(虫兆)属Tomocerus 3种,包括2新种:六斑鳞(虫兆)Tomocerus(Tomocerus)hexipunctatus sp. nov.和多毛鳞(虫兆)Tomocerus(Tomocerus)multisetus sp. nov.和1个已知种T.(T.)kinoshitai Yosii,1954.

  6. A NEW RECORD SPECIES OF THE GENUS TOMOCERUS (COLLEMBOLA, TOMOCERIDAE) FROM CHINA%中国鳞姚属一新纪录种记述(弹尾纲,鳞(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 梁爱萍

    2010-01-01

    报道中国鳞(虫兆)属(弹尾纲,鳞(虫兆)科)1新纪录种,即刻点鳞(虫兆)Tomocerus punctam Yosii,1967,并对其进行重新描述.该种已知分布于日本,齿节刺简单,仅最后1个2分叉.观察标本保存于中国科学院动物研究所.

  7. A NEW SPECIES AND A NEW RECORD OF THE GENUS TOMOCERUS NICOLET (COLLEMBOLA, TOMOCERIDAE) FROM CHINA%中国鳞姚属一新种及一新纪录种记述(弹尾目,鳞(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 梁爱萍; 黄复生

    2007-01-01

    A new species and a new record of the genus Tomocerus Nicolet are described from China. The new species, Tomocerus (Tomocerus) maculatus sp. nov. is different from other species in the genus in the arrangement of proximal dental spines and color pattern on antennae, head and body.%记述弹尾目Collembola鳞姚科Tomoceridae鳞姚属Tomocerus 1新种,即斑点鳞姚Tomocerus (Tomocerus) maculatus sp.nov.和1新纪录种,即巴地鳞Tomocerus (Tomocerus) asoka Yosii et Ashraf,1965.新种模式标本保存于中国科学院动物研究所.

  8. Preliminary Observation of the Embryonic Development of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae)%白符(虫兆)胚胎发育的形态观察(弹尾纲:等节(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳; 卜云; 栾云霞; 尹文英

    2006-01-01

    对白符(虫兆)(Folsomia candida)胚胎发育全过程进行显微观察,记述了白符(虫兆)从卵裂、囊胚期、原肠期、组织分化期、孵化前期等不同发育阶段的形态变化和发育过程.其结果表明,白符(虫兆)卵为聚产,形成大小不等的卵块,卵初产时为乳白色,卵壳表面覆盖有细密的颗粒状突起,直径为110-126 μm.随着白符(虫兆)发育的进行,胚膜直径增大到180-185 μm,其卵裂方式为完全均等卵裂,整个胚胎发育历期7-10 d.

  9. Chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} to Folsomia candida (Collembola) in relation to bioavailability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kool, Pauline L., E-mail: pauline.kool@falw.vu.nl [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Diez Ortiz, Maria [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pole de Recherche ROVALTAIN en Toxicologie Environnementale et Ecotoxicologie, Batiment Rhovalparc, BP 15173, 26958 Valence Cedex 9 (France); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The chronic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) to Folsomia candida was determined in natural soil. To unravel the contribution of particle size and free zinc to NP toxicity, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} were also tested. Zinc concentrations in pore water increased with increasing soil concentrations, with Freundlich sorption constants K{sub f} of 61.7, 106 and 96.4 l/kg (n = 1.50, 1.34 and 0.42) for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} respectively. Survival of F. candida was not affected by ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO at concentrations up to 6400 mg Zn/kg d.w. Reproduction was dose-dependently reduced with 28-d EC50s of 1964, 1591 and 298 mg Zn/kg d.w. for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2}, respectively. The difference in EC50s based on measured pore water concentrations was small (7.94-16.8 mg Zn/l). We conclude that zinc ions released from NP determine the observed toxic effects rather than ZnO particle size. - Highlights: > ZnO nanoparticles and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to Folsomia candida in soil. > Pore water from soil spiked with ZnO nanoparticles showed saturation with zinc suggesting aggregation. > Pore water based EC50 values for ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl{sub 2} were similar. > ZnO nanoparticle toxicity in soil was most probably due to Zn dissolution from the nanoparticles. - ZnO nanoparticle toxicity to springtails in soil can be explained from Zn dissolution but not from particle size.

  10. 中国宁夏图虫兆属一新种(弹尾纲,等节姚科)%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS TUVIA GRINBERGS, 1962 FROM NINGXIA PROVINCE, CHINA (COLLEMBOLA, ISOTOMIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄骋望; Mikhail Potapov; 高艳

    2009-01-01

    记述了采自中国西北部宁夏省六盘山自然保护区的图姚属1新种,六盘山图姚Tuvia liupanensis sp.nov..文中给出了图姚属已知种类检索表.模式标本保存于中国科学院上海生命科学研究院植物生理生态研究所昆虫标本馆.%Tuvia liupanensis sp. nov. from Liupan Mountain Nature Reserve, Ningxia Province, Northwest China is described. It can be distinguished from other species of Tuvia by the ventral setae on thoracic segment Ⅱ to Ⅲ and the axial chaetotaxy of thoracic and abdominal segments.

  11. 华球角(虫兆)属Chinogastrura中国一新种(弹尾目:球角(虫兆)科)%A New Species of the Genus Chinogastrura (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾俊丽; 施时迪; 陈建秀

    2005-01-01

    本文讨论了华球角(虫兆)属并描述江苏1新种:五齿华球角(虫兆)Chinogastrura quinidentis, sp. Nov..该种与分布在中国和日本的Ch. Duplicispinosa (Yosii),1954最为接近,如具4个臀刺、相似的角后器和弹器的端节等,但在握弹器、弹器基和齿节以及触角上的毛序等方面有别于后者.正模:♂,江苏南京南京大学校园,1990-Ⅱ-26,采集号8118,Kenneth A. Christiansen采;副模:2♂♂和2♀♀,同正模.模式标本保存在南京大学生物科学与技术系.%The present paper dealed with the genus Chinogastrura and a new species, Chinogastrura quinidentis, sp. nov. from Jiangsu Province, China. New species is similar to the species Ch. duplicispinosa (Yosii), 1954. However, it is separable from the latter by the peculiar tenaculum, dorsal setae on manubrium and other features.

  12. 中国爪(虫兆)亚科一新种和一新记录种(弹尾纲:爪(虫兆)科)%A new species and a newly recorded species of Paronellinae (Collembola: Paronellidae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马以桐

    2013-01-01

    记述采自中国海南的弹尾纲爪(虫兆)亚科1新种:海南丽(虫兆)Callyntrura hainanensis sp.nov.和1新记录种:冲绳盐(虫兆)Salina okinawana Yoshii,1983,该新种与广东丽(虫兆)C.guangdongensis Ma,2012在体色等方面相似,但是在毛序上存在很大的不同.文中还对冲绳盐(虫兆)的一些特征做了补充描记.%A new species,Callyntrura hainanensis sp.nov.,and a newly recorded species,Salina okinawana Yoshii,1983 from Hainan,China are described.The new species is similar to C.guangdongensis Ma,2012 in colour pattern and other characters,but differs from the latter in the chaetotaxy.Salina okinawana Yoshii,1983 is a new record for China and details of some characters are described here.

  13. 浙江省洞头拟裸长角(虫兆)属一新种(长角(虫兆)科:弹尾纲)%A new species of Coecobrya (Entomobryidae: Collembola) from Dongtou Island, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施时迪; 潘志祥

    2015-01-01

    A blind new species of springtail,Coecobrya islandica Shi & Pan sp.nov.,is described fron Dongtou Island.It is identified by eyes absent,"smooth" chaetae present on manubrium and absent on inner tibiotarsus,labial chaetae MREL1L2 smooth,spiny mic X and X4 present,clypeal chaetae,sens on Abd.Ⅱ-Ⅳ and dorsal chaetotaxy of Th.Ⅱ-Abd.V,and is most similar to Coecobr,a brevis Xu et al.,2012.Illustrations and detailed differences between similar species are provided here.%记述浙江省洞头岛拟裸长角(虫兆)属1无眼新种,岛屿拟裸长角(虫兆)Coecobrya islandica Shi&Pan sp.nov..此新种的鉴定特征为无眼,弹器基具“光滑”刚毛,胫胕节内侧无“光滑”刚毛,卜唇MREL1L2为光滑刚毛,X和X4为光滑刺状小刚毛,上唇基刚毛,腹部第Ⅱ-Ⅳ节的感觉毛以及背部毛序.该新种与短毛拟裸长角(虫兆)Coecobrya brevis Xu et al.,2012最相似.本文给出了该新种的特征图及与相似种的详细特征比较.模式标本保存于台州学院生命科学学院和南京农业大学植保学院昆虫系.

  14. 中国水生跳虫新种及新记录种记述(弹尾目)%New records and new species of fresh water springtails from China (Collembola)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳巧云; 傅荣恕

    2000-01-01

    Five species including one new species of the fresh water springtails collected from a pond in Shanghai Botanical Garden have been described: Podura aquatica,Hypogastrura yinae sp.nov,Isotomurus palustris,Sminthurides aquaticus and Pseudobourletiella spinata.Sminthurides aquaticus and Pseudobourletiella spinata are recorded from China for the first time.All the specimens examined are deposited in the Museum of Shanghai Institute of Entomology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences.%自Uchida(1948)从山西东冶县发现中国第1种水生Podura aquatica Lsinnaeus,1785以来,中国弹尾目水生种类再未见报道.该文记述了采自上海植物园水塘静水表面的弹尾目5新种,水生原Podura aquatica,尹氏球角Hypogastrura yinae sp. Nov.,沼生陷等Isotomurus palustris,水生握角圆Sminthurides aquaticus 及刺拟勃氏圆Pseudobourletiella spinata. 其中水生握角圆和刺拟勃氏圆为中国新记录种,尹氏球角为新种.新种的模式标本及观察的其它种的标本存放在中国科学院上海昆虫研究所标本馆.

  15. 中国单齿鳞姚属一新种记述(弹尾目,鳞姚科)%ONE NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS MONODONTOCERUS (COLLEMBOLA,TOMOCERIDAE) FROM CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 粱爱萍

    2009-01-01

    记述弹尾目Collembola鳞姚科Tomoceridae单齿鳞姚属Monodontocerus 1新种.%One new species of the genus Monodontocerus is described from southeastern China.The new species,Monodontocerus leqingensis sp.nov.,is different from other species in this genus in the number of unguis inner teeth but without any unguiculous inner teeth.The type specimens were deposited in the Institute of Zoology,Chinese Aeadeany of ,Sciences,Beijing,China (IZCAS).

  16. Risk assessment of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, LAS, in agricultural soil revisited: Robust chronic toxicity tests for Folsomia candida (Collembola), Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Enchytraeidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Lopez, C. V.; Cassani, G.;

    2007-01-01

    was not affected by concentrations up to 120 mg LAS kg-1 soil. When adding (low contaminated) non-spiked sludge to soil, high stimulation of reproduction was ob-served for E. crypticus and A. caliginosa but not for F. candida. We argue that this difference in stimulative response between the tested species...... is related to the difference in feeding behaviour. Sludge spiked with LAS did not significantly affect the reproduction of F. candida (fertility: num-ber of juvenile offspring) and A. caliginosa (fecundity: number of cocoons) (dose equivalent to 181 g and 91 g LAS kg¬-1 sludge respectively). Significantly...

  17. Colémbolos (Hexapoda) como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México Collembola (Hexapoda) as quality bioindicators of the hydrocarburans polluted soils in Southestern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Uribe-Hernández; Carlos H. Juárez-Méndez; Montes de Oca, Marco A.; Palacios-Vargas, José G.; Leopoldo Cutz-Pool; Blanca E. Mejía-Recarmier

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron invertebrados del suelo, en particular los colémbolos, como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México. Se realizaron 2 muestreos en verano-otoño del 2004, en 4 parcelas de 2 hectáreas, denominadas zona 1, 2, 3 y control. De cada unidad se tomaron 8 muestras que fueron procesadas por medio del embudo de Berlese-Tullgren y 4 por el método de flotación. Para colémbolos se determinaron los siguientes índices ecológicos: abundancia, ...

  18. A New Species of the Genus Homidia(Collembola: Entomobryidae) from Jiangsu, China%中国南京地区刺齿虫兆属一新种(弹尾目:长角(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松杰; 陈建秀

    2001-01-01

    The present paper deals with the description of a new collembolan species, Homidia fascia, sp. Nov., It shares some characters with H. Tibetensis Chen & Zhong, 1998, however, can be distinguished from the latter by color pattern, labial setae L1 and R2, posterior macrochaetae on Abd. IV and relative position of line connecting macrochaetae Pr & Ed to median furrow on ventral tube.%本文记述刺齿(虫兆)属Homidia 1新种--斑纹刺齿(虫兆)Homidia fascia, sp.nov.(Figs.1~16),该种有些特征可与H. tibetensis Chen & Zhong, 1998 相似,但下唇刚毛L1,第4腹节毛序和腹管毛序可与后者区分.正模♀, 副模13♀♀,江苏南京南唐二陵,1996-Ⅲ-6,存于南京大学生物系.

  19. Influence of organic matter on collembolan communities in reedbed habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uteseny, K.; Drapela, T.; Frouz, J.

    2009-04-01

    The combination of the organic matter, micro-climatic environments and plant cover belongs to important factors for the distribution of soil meso-fauna, especially Collembola. There are no studies attending to these factors on collembolan communities in reedbed vegetation. The main goals of our investigation were therefore to compare diversity of Collembola in redbed habitats of Lake Neudsiedl, eastern Austria, and to assess particularly the role of organic matter with regard to the collembolan community structure. Soil samples were taken from April 1997 to October 1997 at fifteen study sites covered with Phragmatis australis of different age. Changes in the structure and composition of the assemblages of Collembola were examined.

  20. Analyzing predation of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Mediterranean lettuce crops using molecular techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoverflies are generalist predators of a great variety of primary pests. Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are two common pests in Mediterranean lettuce crops, where they occur alongside alternative prey (e.g., Collembola). ...

  1. Collembase: a repository for springtail genomics and soil quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, M.J.T.N.; Boer, de M.E.; Nota, B.; Marien, J.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Straalen, van N.M.; Roelofs, D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental quality assessment is traditionally based on responses of reproduction and survival of indicator organisms. For soil assessment the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola) is an accepted standard test organism. We argue that environmental quality assessment using gene expression profi

  2. Toxicity of Pb and of Pb/Cd combination on the springtail Folsomia candida in natural soils: reproduction, growth and bioaccumulation as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bur, T; Crouau, Y; Bianco, A; Gandois, L; Probst, A

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of Pb and Cd+Pb was assessed on the Collembola F. candida in two cultivated soils (SV and AU) with low organic matter (OM) content and circumneutral to basic pH, and an acid forested soil (EPC) with high OM content. Collembola reproduction and growth as well as metal content in Collembola body, in soil, exchangeable fraction and soil solutions, pH and DOC were investigated. Pb and Cd+Pb were the highest in exchangeable fraction and soil solution of the acidic soils. Soil solution pH decreased after metal spiking in every soil due to metal adsorption, which was similar for Cd and the highest in AU for Pb. With increasing Pb and Cd+Pb, the most important reproduction decrease was in EPC soil. The LOEC for reproduction after metal addition was 2400 (Pb) and 200/2400 (Cd/Pb), 1200 and 100/1200, 300 and 100/1200 μg g(-1) for AU, SV and EPC, respectively. The highest and the lowest Pb toxicity was observed for EPC and AU bulk soil, respectively. The metal in Collembola increased with increasing soil concentration, except in AU, but the decreasing BF(solution) with increasing concentrations indicates a limited metal transfer to Collembola or an increased metal removal. Loading high Pb concentrations decreases Cd absorption by the Collembola, but the reverse was not true. The highest Pb toxicity in EPC can be explained by pH and OM content. Because of metal complexation, OM might have a protective role but its ingestion by Collembola lead to higher toxicity. Metal bioavailability in Collembola differs from soil solution indicating that soil solution is not sufficient to evaluate toxicity in soil organisms. The toxicity as a whole decreased when metals were combined, except for Pb in AU, due to adsorption competition between Cd and Pb on clay particles and OM sites in AU and EPC soils, respectively. PMID:22113108

  3. Domoic Acid Toxicologic Pathology: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido, Olga M.

    2008-01-01

    Domoic acid was identified as the toxin responsible for an outbreak of human poisoning that occurred in Canada in 1987 following consumption of contaminated blue mussels [Mytilus edulis]. The poisoning was characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs. Among the most prominent features described was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Domoic acid is produced by certain marine organisms, such as the red alga Chondria armata and planktoni...

  4. A short note on the cephalopods sampled in the Angola Basin during the DIVA I-expedition

    OpenAIRE

    Piatkowski, Uwe; Diekmann, Rabea

    2005-01-01

    Five cephalopods, all belonging to different species, were identified from deep-sea trawl samples conducted during the DIVA 1-expedition of RV “Meteor” in the Angola Basin in July 2000. These were the teuthoid squids Bathyteuthis abyssicola, Brachioteuthis riisei, Mastigoteuthis atlantica, Galiteuthis armata, and the finned deep-sea octopus Grimpoteuthis wuelkeri. The present study contributes information on size, morphometry, biology and distribution of the species form this unique cephalopo...

  5. A new species of crinoid-associated Periclimenes from Honduras (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grave, Sammy

    2014-05-02

    A new species of crinoid associated Periclimenes, P. rincewindi sp. nov. is described from the Bay Islands (Honduras) in the Caribbean. The species associates with the swimming crinoid, Analcidometra armata and displays a unique colour pattern. Morphologically, the new species is closely related to the other known crinoid associates in the Caribbean, specifically Periclimenes crinoidalis, from which it can be distinguished by a suite of relatively minor morphological features.

  6. Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ion-trap Mass for the Determination of Domoic Acid in Shellfish%液相色谱-电喷雾离子阱质谱法测定贝类中软骨藻酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫锋; 赵守成; 李大志

    2004-01-01

      记忆缺失性贝类毒素(amnesic shellfish toxin,简称ASP)主要成分软骨藻酸(domoic acid,简称DA)是一种氨基酸类的生理活性物质(图1),因最早从红藻属的树枝软骨藻(chondria armata)分离出来而被命名为软骨藻酸.……

  7. A SURVEY OF THE HOLARCTIC LINYPHIIDAE (ARANEAE), A REVIEW OF THE ERIGONINE GENUS ZORNELLA JACKSON, 1932

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri M.Marusik; Donald J.Buckle; Seppo Koponen

    2007-01-01

    The Holarctic erigonid genus Zornella has been surveyed. Four species are recognized in this genus, two Palaearctic: Z.cultrigera (L. Koch, 11879) & Z. orientalis sp. nov., and two Nearctic: Z. armata (Banks, 1906) & Z. cryptodon Chamberlin,1920. It is demonstrated that neither nearctic species is conspecific with Z. cultrigera as was thought by Holm and other authors. Z.orientalis sp. nov. is described from northeastern Siberia. All of the species are illustrated and their distributions mapped.

  8. Phylogeny of higher taxa of hexapoda according to 12sRNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship of Hexapoda has been debated for a long time, which will be resolved mainly depending on the settlement of monophyly, affinities and interrelationships among Protura, Collembola and Diplura. Mitochondrial 12sRNA gene about 355 bp fragments from one proturan species, two collembolan species, two dipluran species and one oribatid species were sequenced. The Kimura 2-parameter distances were calculated and a series of molecular phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by using the N-J method, from which the following points were drawn: (ⅰ) Protura and Collembola compose a monophyletic group representing absent-cerci; (ⅱ) Diplura is not a monophyletic group, in which Campodeoid with filiform cerci belongs to a clade and Japygoid with pincer cerci and Ectognatha com-pose another clade, that is, Insecta s. str. stemmed from Japygoid. So it would be suggested that the phylogenetic relationship of Hexapoda is [Parainsecta (Collembola + Pro-tura) +Campodeoid +Insecta (Japygoid + Ectognatha)].

  9. Sequence of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase II in Cryptopygus nanjiensis and Phylogeny of Apterygota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (Co II) from four different apterygotens Cryptopygus nanjiensis (Collembola), Neanura latior (Collembola), Gracilentulus maijiawensis (Protura) and Lepidocampa weberi (Diplura) were sequenced. Their A+T content, number of nucleotide substitutions, TV/TV ratio, and Tamura-Nei's distance were calculated. A series of phylogenetic trees were constructed by parsimony and distance methods using a crustacean Artemia franciscana as outgroup. Finally the evolutionary trend A+T content of CO II genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of apterygotan groups were discussed.

  10. Sequence of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase II in Cryptopygus nanjiensis and Phylogeny of Apterygota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵红光; 张亚平; 柯欣; 岳巧云; 尹文英

    2000-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (Co II) from four different apterygotens Cryptopygus nanjiensis (Collembola), Neanura latior (Collembola), Gracilentulus maijiawensis (Protura) and Lepidocampa weberi (Diplura) were sequenced. Their A+T content, number of nucleotide substitutions, TV/TV ratio, and Tamura-Nei’s distance were calculated. A series of phylogenetic trees were constructed by parsimony and distance methods using a crustacean Artemia franciscana as outgroup. Finally the evolutionary trend A+T content of CO II genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of apterygotan groups were discussed.

  11. Sequence of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ in Cryptopygus nanjiensis and Phylogeny of Apterygota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ (Co Ⅱ) from four different apterygotens Cryptopygus nanjiensis (Collembola), Neanura latior (Collembola), Gracilentulus maijiawensis (Protura) and Lepidocampa weberi (Diplura) were sequenced. Their A+T content, number of nucleotide substitutions, TV/TV ratio, and Tamura-Nei's distance were calculated. A series of phylogenetic trees were constructed by parsimony and distance methods using a crustacean Artemia franciscana as outgroup. Finally the evolutionary trend A+T content of CO Ⅱ genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of apterygotan groups were discussed.

  12. Perturbation of the soil microarthropod community with the pesticides benomyl and isofenphos: I. Population changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    The microarthropods (mites and Collembola) at 3 localities were perturbed with a single application of isofenphos, normal dose, and benomyl, 5 times normal dose and sampled for 6 years. Isofenphos strongly reduced all species, the least sensitive were euedaphic and epedaphic Collembola and Acari...... with high reproductive potential. Reductions have been observed during the whole period. Benomyl had indirect effects which resulted in stimulations that lasted for 3-4 years and slight reductions particularly within the first 2 years. Largest pesticide effects were observed in sandy soils. Interactions...

  13. Material capturado e utilizado na alimentação de Polybia (Trichothorax) Sericea (Olivier, 1791) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lígia Letízio Machado; Nivar Gobbi; Valter Vieira Alves Junior

    1988-01-01

    As presas utilizadas por Polybia (Trichothorax) sericea compreendem 6 ordens de insetos (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera e Odonata) e 1 ordem de Arachnida (Araneae), com preferência por larvas de Lepidoptera. A média de proteína transportada é de 15,3 mg e o peso diário estimado é de 522,6 mg, o que indica mais de 12000 presas por ano.The prey items utilized by Polybia (Trichothorax) sericea comprise 6 orders of Insecta (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera and Odon...

  14. BOURLETIELLA, A GENUS NEW TO CHINA, WITH REDESCRIPTION TO BOURLETIELLA ARVALIS(FITCH) (COLLEMBOLA, SYMPHYPLEONA)%钩圆跳属在中国的首次发现及原野钩圆跳再描述(弹尾目,愈腹亚目,钩圆跳科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝晖; 华春; 陈建秀

    2008-01-01

    报道中国弹尾目钩圆跳科1新纪录属和1新纪录种,即钩圆跳属Bourletiella和原野钩圆跳函Bourletiella arvalis(Fitch).共计1头雄性和8头雌性采自新疆伊犁,对其进行了再描述.该虫已知分布于欧洲、北美洲和澳洲,目前仅在中国西部地区发现.%The genus Bourletiella and Bourletiella arvalis (Fitch) are recorded for the first time in China. 8 female and 1 male specimens from Ili, Xinjiang were checked. B. arvalis has a wide distribution in Europe, North America and Australia. This report shows that the species reaches West China.

  15. Savremeno naoružanje i vojna oprema za br. 2-2015 / Modern weapons and military equipment for issue 2-2105 / Современное вооружение и военное оборудование за но. 2-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan M. Vučković

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Azerbejdžan razvija borbeno vozilo ZKDM, Vatromet: Artiljerijski raketni sistemi (ARS dobijaju veći domet i veću preciznost, Iran prikazuje modernizovane rakete Falaq-1 i Falaq-2, TOS-1A valja rusku vatrenu moć, Iran otkriva raketu zemlja-vazduh Bavar-373, Novi top za ruski tenk Armata. / Azerbaijan developing ZKDM combat vehicle, Fire works, ARS seek greater range and accuracy, Iran shows updated Falaq-1 and Falaq-2 rockets, TOS-1A advances Russian firepower, Iran reveals its Bavar-373 SAM, New gun shapes up for Russian MBT.

  16. Savremeno naoružanje i vojna oprema za br. 2-2015 / Modern weapons and military equipment for issue 2-2105 / Современное вооружение и военное оборудование за но. 2-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan M. Vučković

    2015-01-01

    Azerbejdžan razvija borbeno vozilo ZKDM, Vatromet: Artiljerijski raketni sistemi (ARS) dobijaju veći domet i veću preciznost, Iran prikazuje modernizovane rakete Falaq-1 i Falaq-2, TOS-1A valja rusku vatrenu moć, Iran otkriva raketu zemlja-vazduh Bavar-373, Novi top za ruski tenk Armata. / Azerbaijan developing ZKDM combat vehicle, Fire works, ARS seek greater range and accuracy, Iran shows updated Falaq-1 and Falaq-2 rockets, TOS-1A advances Russian firepower, Iran reveals its Bavar-373 SAM...

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACTS OF RHODOPHYCEAE FROM THE ATLANTIC AND THE MEDITERRANEAN COASTS OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhimou Bouhlal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundred eight of organic extracts from eighteen red marine algae of Atlantic-Mediterranean have been tested for the production of antibacterial compounds. These extracts were obtained for two methods, maceration and using soxhlet. This study shows that most of the algal extracts were significantly active. The highest rates of biologically activity were found in five species, Pterosiphonia complanata, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Plocamium cartilagineum, Asparagopsis armata and Boergeseniella thuyoides. Among the methanolic and chloroforme-methanolic extracts showed the greatest biologically active.

  18. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso José Luis; Rangel Churio Jesús Orlando; Patiño Uribe Ruben Dario

    2003-01-01

    El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ari...

  19. Nuevas observaciones sobre la vegetación del Sur del Perú. Del Desierto Pacífico al Altiplano

    OpenAIRE

    Galán de Mera, Antonio; Linares Perea, Eliana; Campos de la Cruz, José; Vicente Orellana, José Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Nuevas observaciones sobre la vegetación del Sur del Perú. Del Desierto Pacífico al Altiplano. En este trabajo, aportamos novedades sobre la vegetación del S del Perú desde el Desierto Pacífico a las cumbres del Altiplano. Como resultado se describen 19 asociaciones distribuidas entre diferentes formaciones vegetales: arbustedas y bosques climácicos de la costa [Echinopsio chalaensis-Randietum armatae (arbustedas espinosas termotropicales semiáridas), Caesalpinio spinosae-Myrcianthetum ferrey...

  20. High cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity of algae extracts on an in vitro model of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Celso; Pinteus, Susete; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer represents a serious threat for human health with high social and economic impacts worldwide. Therefore, the development of new anticancer drugs is of most importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor potential of twelve algae from Portugal coast on an in vitro model of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2 cells).Results: Both extracts of Asparagopsis armata (1000 µg/ml; 24 h) presented high cytotoxicity with 11.22 ± 2.98 and 1.51 ± 0.38 % of Hep...

  1. Terrestrial model food chain and environmental chemicals. I. Transfer of sodium (/sup 14/C)pentachlorophenate between springtails and carabids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruttke, H.; Kratz, W.; Weigmann, G.; Haque, A.

    1988-06-01

    A model soil food chain of a ruderal ecosystem has been constructed in order to study the uptake, transfer, and accumulation of (/sup 14/C)pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na). The model was based on three food levels, viz. baker's yeast, collembola, and carabid beetles, and the contaminant chemical introduced was via initial food. Continuous exposure of the organisms to the test chemical resulted in a significant uptake and transfer of radiocarbon into the food chain elements. Bioaccumulation of radiocarbon in the body tissues of the organisms was low, as large amounts taken up were quickly eliminated through the excrements. The radiocarbon level of prey animals was about 100 times higher than that of their predators, but there was only small difference in concentration between collembolas and yeast. This was probably because of a faster excretion of the chemical by the beetles than by the collembolas. During the test period no conversion of (/sup 14/C)PCP-Na took place in the yeast, but the collembolas and beetles metabolized 50 and 59%, respectively. Criteria are proposed for successful implementation of food chain models.

  2. Current Research on Paleoentomology-A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Dong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Insects,including the phylogenetically basal groups Collembola,Protura,and Diplura are termed the Hexapoda.Hexapods include over one million described species that are more diverse than all other living taxa together.This conservative estimate and the real number is perhaps five to ten million in total(Wilson,1992).

  3. Evaluation of growth and reproduction as indicators of soil metal toxicity to the Collembolan, Sinella curviseta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jie; Ke, Xin; Krogh, Paul Henning;

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory studies evaluated the sensitivity of Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae) to selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn). Survival, reproduction and growth of S. curviseta were determined in a 4-week exposure test in an agricultural soil amended with metals to concentrations...

  4. Análise multivariada da fauna edáfica em diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo Multivariate analysis of soil fauna under different soil tillage and crop management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo sobre a diversidade de animais da fauna edáfica, por meio de técnicas de análise multivariada. Na análise canônica discriminante, os preparos conservacionistas com sucessão de culturas foram separados em relação aos tratamentos com rotação de culturas. Os grupos Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda e Collembola, e o índice de Shannon (H foram os atributos que mais contribuíram para separar os tratamentos. A análise de correspondência mostrou forte associação dos grupos Acarina e Hymenoptera com o tratamento semeadura direta com sucessão de culturas, e do grupo Collembola com o preparo convencional.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage and crop management systems on soil fauna groups, by means of multivariate analysis. In the canonical discriminant analysis the conservation soil management systems with crop succession were discriminated in relation to other treatments with crop rotation. The groups Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, and Collembola, and the Shannon index (H showed the highest contribution for the discrimination between treatments. The correspondence analysis showed a strong association between Acarina and Hymenoptera groups with the treatment no-tillage with crop succession, and between Collembola group with the conventional tillage system.

  5. Effects of freeze-thaw cycles on microarthropods and nutrient availability in a sub-arctic soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjursen, Heidi; Michelsen, Anders; Holmstrup, Martin

    2005-01-01

    . The Collembola were unaffected by the temperature treatments, but increased in abundance over time. The microbial C:N ratio increased after 40 days at -2 °C, indicating a higher degree of fungal dominance and lower tolerance of bacteria to constant freezing, but not to freeze-thaw. The decline in inorganic...

  6. Terrestrial model food chain and environmental chemicals. I. Transfer of sodium [14C]pentachlorophenate between springtails and carabids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model soil food chain of a ruderal ecosystem has been constructed in order to study the uptake, transfer, and accumulation of [14C]pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na). The model was based on three food levels, viz. baker's yeast, collembola, and carabid beetles, and the contaminant chemical introduced was via initial food. Continuous exposure of the organisms to the test chemical resulted in a significant uptake and transfer of radiocarbon into the food chain elements. Bioaccumulation of radiocarbon in the body tissues of the organisms was low, as large amounts taken up were quickly eliminated through the excrements. The radiocarbon level of prey animals was about 100 times higher than that of their predators, but there was only small difference in concentration between collembolas and yeast. This was probably because of a faster excretion of the chemical by the beetles than by the collembolas. During the test period no conversion of [14C]PCP-Na took place in the yeast, but the collembolas and beetles metabolized 50 and 59%, respectively. Criteria are proposed for successful implementation of food chain models

  7. Influence of edge on predator prey distribution and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Steven H.

    2004-03-01

    I investigated the effect of spatial configuration on distribution and abundance of invertebrate trophic groups by counting soil arthropods under boxes (21 × 9.5 cm) arranged in six different patterns that varied in the amount of edge (137-305 cm). I predicted fewer individuals from the consumer trophic group (Collembola) in box groups with greater amount of edge. This prediction was based on the assumption that predators (mites, ants, spiders, centipedes) select edge during foraging and thereby reduce abundance of the less mobile consumer group under box patterns with greater edge. Consumer abundance (Collembola) was not correlated with amount of edge. Among the predator groups, mite, ant and centipede abundance related to the amount of edge of box groups. However, in contrast to predictions, abundance of these predators was negatively correlated with amount of edge in box patterns. All Collembola predators, with the exception of ants, were less clumped in distribution than Collembola. The results are inconsistent with the view that predators used box edges to predate the less mobile consumer trophic group. Alternative explanations for the spatial patterns other than predator-prey relations include (1) a negative relationship between edge and moisture, (2) a positive relationship between edge and detritus decomposition (i.e. mycelium as food for the consumer group), and (3) a negative relationship between edge and the interstices between adjacent boxes. Landscape patterns likely affect microclimate, food, and predator-prey relations and, therefore, future experimental designs need to control these factors individually to distinguish among alternative hypotheses.

  8. Light, earthworms, and soil resources as predictors of diversity of 10 soil invertebrate groups across monocultures of 14 tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, KE; Eisenhauer, N; Reich, PB; Hobbie, SE; Chadwick, OA; Chorover, J; Dobies, T; Hale, CM; Jagodziński, AM; Kałucka, I; Kasprowicz, M; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B.; Modrzyński, J; Roz en, A; Skorupski, M

    2016-01-01

    © 2015. Management of biodiversity and ecosystem services requires a better understanding of the factors that influence soil biodiversity. We characterized the species (or genera) richness of 10 taxonomic groups of invertebrate soil animals in replicated monocultures of 14 temperate tree species. The focal invertebrate groups ranged from microfauna to macrofauna: Lumbricidae, Nematoda, Oribatida, Gamasida, Opilionida, Araneida, Collembola, Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae. Measurement...

  9. Effects of Biosolids at Varying Rates on Earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Springtails (Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Artuso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Land spreading is a major option internationally for the disposal/use of treated sewage sludge (biosolids, but effects of this practice on soil organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of biosolids on two soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Collembola (Folsomia candida, in laboratory tests. Five biosolids from different sewage works were assessed at rates equivalent to 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1. Biosolids applied at 2 and 5 t ha−1 did not cause mortality of adult earthworms but did at 10 and 20 t ha−1. At 5, 10 and 20 t ha−1, all biosolids had significantly fewer juvenile worms relative to controls. Increasing the rates from 2 to 10 t ha−1 did not impact on the number of adult Collembola, but at 20 t ha−1 there were significantly fewer adults. There were significantly fewer juvenile Collembola recorded for biosolids applied at the 2 t ha−1 when compared with controls, and also when biosolids were applied at 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1 relative to 2 t ha−1. Some significant difference between biosolids were observed, but generally, negative effects were not related to heavy metal concentrations in biosolids. It is recommended that possible detrimental mechanisms (e.g., ammonia production, lack of oxygen be investigated in future work. It is concluded that biosolids, applied at legal, low rates (about 2 t ha−1 are unlikely to be detrimental to earthworms or adult Collembola but can be detrimental to Collembola reproduction.

  10. Respuesta fenológica de la vegetación arbórea de las lomas del sur del Perú (Mejía -Arequipa EN relación con el evento "El Niño 1997-98"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Talavera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presentó la evaluación del comportamiento fenológico de la vegetación arbórea con el fin de determinar su probable utilización como indicadores biológicos de la ocurrencia de eventos "El Niño". Los árboles evaluados fueron Caesalpinea spínosa, Duranta armata, Caríca candícans y Citharexylum flexuosum. Los resultados indican una alta variación en las respuestas fenológicas. C. spinosa por ejemplo en 1995 y 1996 inició la floración antes que el brote; en 1997 inicio mucho antes, pero tuvo una corta duración, yen 1998, se ha presentado en forma tardía y breve, mientras que la cubierta foliar se ha mantenido en forma constante. En el caso de D. armata y C. flexuosum la floración se presenta posterior al brote, pero en ambos casos durante la ocurrencia del evento en 1998 no presentaron floración; y C. candícans presenta floración antes que el brote, pero con alta variabilidad en el tamaño de la floración.

  11. Bioactivity of two Turkish endemic Centaurea species, and their major constituents Bioatividade e os principais constituintes químicos de duas espécies de Centaurea, endêmicas da Turquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity, general toxicity and cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Centaurea urvillei subs. armata and C. mucronifera have been assessed, respectively, by the DPPH assay, the brine shrimp lethality and the MTT cytotoxicity assays. The reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the methanol extracts afforded two bioactive dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans, matairesinoside (1 and arctiin (2. The structures of these lignans were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses as well as by the direct comparison of experimental data with respective literature data.A atividade antioxidante, a toxicidade geral e a citotoxidade dos extratos metanólicos de Centaurea urvillei subs. armata e C. mucronifera foram analisados, respectivamente, pelo ensaio DPPH e pelos ensaios de letalidade de Artemia salina e de citotoxidade MTT. A análise dos extratos metanólicos em CLAE de fase reversa apresentou duas lignanas biotivas do tipo dibenzilbutirolactona, matairesinosídeo (1 e arctiina (2. As estruturas destas lignanas foram elucidadas através de análises espectroscópicas completas bem como por comparação direta dos dados experimentais com os respectivos dados da literatura.

  12. Typhlocharis vicariantes del Estrecho de Gibraltar. II: T. silvanoides Dieck, 1869 (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Trechidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez González, S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Typhlocharis silvanoides Dieck, 1869 is the type species of the genus and, until now, was only known from Morocco. New records of this species in Cadiz province (Spain and the study of old material from several museums, allowed us to regularize a type series, non-existent up to now; to increase morphological information of the species with description of the female genitalia and variability of the studied populations; to comment the affinities with other species of the genus and to establish the vicariance of the species in the Gibraltar Strait, a status shared with Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969, which was the aim of the first part of this work.Typhlocharis silvanoides Dieck, 1869 es la especie tipo del género y hasta ahora solo era conocida de Marruecos. Nuevas capturas de esta especie en la provincia de Cádiz (España y el estudio del material antiguo de varios museos, han permitido formalizar una serie típica, inexistente hasta la fecha; ampliar la información morfológica de la especie con la descripción de la genitalia femenina y la variabilidad de las poblaciones estudiadas, comentar sus relaciones con otras especies del género y establecer la vicarianza de la especie en el Estrecho de Gibraltar, circunstancia que comparte con Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969 a la que se dedicó la primera parte de este estudio.

  13. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that

  14. Effects of long-term warming and fertilisation on microarthropod abundances in three sub-arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjursen, Heidi; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2005-01-01

    Soil microarthropod responses to long-term soil warming and increased fertilisation by addition of NKP or litter were assessed in three subarctic ecosystems. The experiment was carried out at three different field sites, where temperature and fertilisation manipulations had been running for 3......-5 years (glade), 11 years (fellfield), and 12 years (heath) at the time of sampling. In the glade soil, warming led to decreases in Collembola and Gamasida, and increases in Oribatida, although effects were inconsistent between years. Actinedida densities were increased by fertilization, while Acaridida...... had higher densities in the treatment with both fertilisation and warming. In the fellfield, we found increased densities of Oribatida, Gamasida and Actinedida in the fertilised treatments, and some increases in Oribatida and decreases in Collembola and Gamasida in warming treatments. In the heath...

  15. Does lipophilicity of toxic compounds determine effects on drought tolerance of the soil collembolan Folsomia candida?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skovlund, Gitte [Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, PO Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Department of Zoophysiology, University of Aarhus, C. F. Moller' s Alle, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Damgaard, Christian [Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, PO Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Bayley, Mark [Department of Zoophysiology, University of Aarhus, C. F. Moller' s Alle, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Holmstrup, Martin [Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, PO Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: martin.holmstrup@dmu.dk

    2006-12-15

    The ability of Collembola to survive drought stress is crucial for their distribution in the terrestrial environment. Previous studies have suggested that several toxic compounds affect the drought tolerance of Folsomia candida in a synergistic manner and that these compounds have the feature in common that they elicit their toxicity by causing membrane damage. We hypothesised that the detrimental effect of toxic chemicals on drought tolerance in F. candida depends on the lipophilicity (log K {sub ow}) of the compound because a higher log K {sub ow} would mean a closer interaction with membranes. In this study the three chemicals 4-nonylphenol, pyrene and p,p'-DDE were tested. Surprisingly, 4-nonylphenol, with the lowest log K {sub ow}, was the most potent with respect to reducing drought tolerance followed by pyrene, suggesting that interactions between drought tolerance and chemical stress do not depend on lipophilicity alone. - Toxic stress may reduce drought tolerance of Collembola.

  16. Material capturado e utilizado na alimentação de Polybia (Trichothorax Sericea (Olivier, 1791 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lígia Letízio Machado

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available As presas utilizadas por Polybia (Trichothorax sericea compreendem 6 ordens de insetos (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera e Odonata e 1 ordem de Arachnida (Araneae, com preferência por larvas de Lepidoptera. A média de proteína transportada é de 15,3 mg e o peso diário estimado é de 522,6 mg, o que indica mais de 12000 presas por ano.The prey items utilized by Polybia (Trichothorax sericea comprise 6 orders of Insecta (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera and Odonata and 1 order of Arachnida (Araneae, with a preference for larvae of Lepidoptera. The average protein weight transported was 15.3 mg, and the estimated daily weight was 522.6 mg, which indicates more than 12,000 prey a year.

  17. Cascading effects of belowground predators on plant communities are density-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Madhav Prakash; Herrmann, Martina; Steinauer, Katja; Rennoch, Saskia; Cesarz, Simone; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-10-01

    Soil food webs comprise a multitude of trophic interactions that can affect the composition and productivity of plant communities. Belowground predators feeding on microbial grazers like Collembola could decelerate nutrient mineralization by reducing microbial turnover in the soil, which in turn could negatively influence plant growth. However, empirical evidences for the ecological significance of belowground predators on nutrient cycling and plant communities are scarce. Here, we manipulated predator density (Hypoaspis aculeifer: predatory mite) with equal densities of three Collembola species as a prey in four functionally dissimilar plant communities in experimental microcosms: grass monoculture (Poa pratensis), herb monoculture (Rumex acetosa), legume monoculture (Trifolium pratense), and all three species as a mixed plant community. Density manipulation of predators allowed us to test for density-mediated effects of belowground predators on Collembola and lower trophic groups. We hypothesized that predator density will reduce Collembola population causing a decrease in nutrient mineralization and hence detrimentally affect plant growth. First, we found a density-dependent population change in predators, that is, an increase in low-density treatments, but a decrease in high-density treatments. Second, prey suppression was lower at high predator density, which caused a shift in the soil microbial community by increasing the fungal: bacterial biomass ratio, and an increase of nitrification rates, particularly in legume monocultures. Despite the increase in nutrient mineralization, legume monocultures performed worse at high predator density. Further, individual grass shoot biomass decreased in monocultures, while it increased in mixed plant communities with increasing predator density, which coincided with elevated soil N uptake by grasses. As a consequence, high predator density significantly increased plant complementarity effects indicating a decrease in

  18. Collembolan Transcriptomes Highlight Molecular Evolution of Hexapods and Provide Clues on the Adaptation to Terrestrial Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faddeeva

    Full Text Available Collembola (springtails represent a soil-living lineage of hexapods in between insects and crustaceans. Consequently, their genomes may hold key information on the early processes leading to evolution of Hexapoda from a crustacean ancestor.We assembled and annotated transcriptomes of the Collembola Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta, and performed comparative analysis with protein-coding gene sequences of three crustaceans and three insects to identify adaptive signatures associated with the evolution of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade.Assembly of the springtail transcriptomes resulted in 37,730 transcripts with predicted open reading frames for F. candida and 32,154 for O. cincta, of which 34.2% were functionally annotated for F. candida and 38.4% for O. cincta. Subsequently, we predicted orthologous clusters among eight species and applied the branch-site test to detect episodic positive selection in the Hexapoda and Collembola lineages. A subset of 250 genes showed significant positive selection along the Hexapoda branch and 57 in the Collembola lineage. Gene Ontology categories enriched in these genes include metabolism, stress response (i.e. DNA repair, immune response, ion transport, ATP metabolism, regulation and development-related processes (i.e. eye development, neurological development.We suggest that the identified gene families represent processes that have played a key role in the divergence of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade that eventually evolved into the most species-rich group of all animals, the hexapods. Furthermore, some adaptive signatures in collembolans may provide valuable clues to understand evolution of hexapods on land.

  19. Reaktionen von Collembolen unterschiedlicher Strata auf ausgewählte Pflanzenschutzmittel und ihre Wirkstoffe in Toxizitäts- und Verhaltenstests

    OpenAIRE

    Heupel, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    In this study, side-effects of various pesticides on collembolan species covering different life forms (Isotoma anglicana, Lepidocyrtus violaceus, Folsomia fimetaria, Heteromurus nitidus and Onychiurus armatus) were examined in laboratory and field experiments. The principal aim of the study was to develop choice experiments with Collembola for the quantitative assessment of avoidance behaviour. Avoidance can potentially lead to population declines due to inhibited immigration or escape from ...

  20. Nitrogen acquisition, transport and metabolism in intact ectomycorrhizal associations studied by 15N stable isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this thesis is on the external mycelium and its role in nitrogen uptake, assimilation and translocation. Tree seedlings in association with ectomycorrhizal fungi were grown in observation chambers. The fungal mycelium were fed with 15-N ammonium or 15-N nitrate or a combination of both. The effects of Collembola on the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis were also studied. The results demonstrates an important role of the external mycelium of Paxillus involutus not only in the uptake but also in the assimilation of ammonium into a variety of different amino acids, primarily glutamine but also glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and alanine, immediately after uptake. The results indicate that ammonium is assimilated by GS and GOGAT or GDH in the mycelium at the uptake site. When nitrate was added to the mycelium as the sole nitrogen source nitrate was reduced in the mycelium and the product assimilated into amino acids. When ammonium nitrate was supplied to the fungal mycelium nitrate was taken up the fungus and transferred to the plant, however, apparently no assimilation of nitrate occurred in the external mycelium. Ammonium or an assimilation product, such as glutamine, probably represses nitrate reductase (NR) but not nitrate uptake and transfer in P. involutus. P. involutus nitrogen uptake and transfer to the associated mycorrhizal pine was up to 76% higher when low numbers of the Collembola Onychiurus armatus were present compared to when they were completely absent. This was probably an indirect effect as P. involutus hyphal growth rate and extramatrical biomass increased at a low Collembola density. At high Collembola densities P. involutus hyphal growth rate was retarded. (74 refs.)

  1. Entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. Singh; J. Chakravorty; R. Varatharajan

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary revealed the occurrence of 170 species of insects belonging to 39 families under nine orders. The Order Coleoptera was dominant with a maximum of 70 species followed by Thysanoptera and Odonata with 23 species each. Orthoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were respectively 18, 13 and eight species. Seven species were known to the order Diptera and only five species were encountered for Hemiptera. Two species of Dictyoptera viz., Cryptocera ...

  2. Soil animal communities and their seasonal change in the greening litters of different functional zones in Baoshan Steel Plant, Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfeng Wang; Wenhui You; Lan Yi

    2007-01-01

    To find out the relationship between the abundance and diversity of soil animals and soil characteristics in industrial zones, we investigated soil animals in litters of different functional zones in Baoshan Steel Plant. A total of 52,070 soil animals were collected using Tullgren funnel, belonging to three phyla, 10 classes and 19 orders. The dominant groups were Arcarina and Collembola, accounting for 90.60% of the total in terms of individual numbers. The common groups were Lepidoptera and...

  3. Effects of persistent insecticides on beneficial soil arthropod in conventional fields compared to organic fields, puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli

    2013-07-15

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  4. Discovery of living Potamolepidae (Porifera: Spongillina) from Nearctic freshwater with description of a new genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, John; Pronzato, Roberto; Manconi, Renata

    2015-01-01

    We report here the first record of a living Potamolepidae (Cherokeesia n. gen.) from the Nearctic Region and from the northern hemisphere. The new species Cherokeesia armata from southern Appalachians diverges at generic and specific level from all the other known taxa of the family Potamolepidae in its unique combination of diagnostic traits: gemmular theca armed by gemmuloscleres ranging from small strongyle-like spicules to stout, large oxeas; absence of pneumatic layer; spiny oxeas as main skeleton megascleres; irregular, slender pauci- to uni-spicular skeletal network. The most similar species belong to the genera Potamophloios and Oncosclera. The circumtropical biogeographic pattern of extant Potamolepidae, previously considered of Gondwanian to Gondwanian-like origin, is enlarged to the Nearctic. The present Tennessee discovery confirms a wider range of the family. An updated species inventory of Nearctic Spongillina, a checklist of the family Potamolepidae at the global level together with a key to the genera of Potamolepidae are also provided. PMID:26249051

  5. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NICOLAIDOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.

  6. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ariza, Brosimun guianense, Samanea saman, Pachira acuatica, Erythroxylumamazonicum y Aspidosperma spegazzinii. Comprende las asociaciones Ocoteo glomeratae- Spondietum mombinis entrecuyas especies características figuran: Ficus gigantea, Ocotea glomerata, Platymiscium pinnatumy Xylopiagrandifloray Astronio graveolentis- Guazumetum ulmifoliaecon Pseudobombax septenatum, Trichiliaacuminatay Stemmadenia grandiflora. Las especies con mayores valores de IVI (Índice de valor de im-portancia e IPF (Índice de predominio fisiónomico son Anacardium excelsum, Pulsenia armata,Spondias mombin, Ocotea glomerata, Astronium graveolensy Guazuma ulmifolia.En los censos se encon-traron 38 familias y 80 especies entre las cuales se destacan por número de género y especies Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae. Entre los génerosmás diversificados figuran Xylopia(Anonaceae, Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae y Bombax, Cavanillesia,Ciebas, Pseudobombax (Bombacaceae. En general los tipos de vegetación que se encontrarontambién se distribuyen en localidades de la región tropical de los valles del Magdalena y del Caucaconstituyendo una formación vegetal definida por el dominio de especies como Guazuma ulmifolia,Astronium graveolens, Spondias mombin, Anacardium occidentalisy especies de Tabebuia.

  7. Distribución vertical de colémbolos muscícolas en un bosque de Abies religiosa del Estado de México, México Vertical distribution of springtails from epiphytic moss from Abies religiosa forest in State of Mexico, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Q. Cutz-Pool

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la distribución de colémbolos asociados a musgos epífitos, considerando 3 diferentes alturas sobre el árbol soporte: 0 m, 1 m y 2 m. El estudio se realizó en la localidad de San Rafael, Estado de México, en un bosque de Abies religiosa. Los ejemplares se recolectaron en noviembre de 2003, y en marzo, junio y agosto de 2004. En total fueron registradas 12 especies; se estimó el índice de diversidad de Shannon, la riqueza de especies, y la densidad y diversidad de colémbolos en 3 comunidades diferentes. La riqueza y densidad disminuyeron conforme la altura sobre los árboles se incrementó. La altura sobre los árboles tuvo un efecto significativamente negativo sobre la diversidad así como en la densidad de 4 especies: Pseudachorutes subcrassus, Entomobrya ca. triangularis, Americabrya arida y Ptenothrix marmorata. Los resultados sugieren que la estratificación vertical de los colémbolos muscícolas está afectada de manera diferencial por los microhábitats que se presentan sobre los árboles soporte a diversas alturas, así como por las características morfológicas de las especies. Estos resultados demuestran la capacidad de los colémbolos para migraciones verticales en busca de alimento y para evitar la depredación.We evaluated the Collembola communities at 3 different heights on epiphytic moss. The study was carried out in an Abies religiosa forest, in the locality of San Rafael in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Collembola inhabiting epiphytic moss were sampled during November 2003, and during March, June and August 2004. The Shannon's diversity index, species richness, as well as their density and diversity were estimated in 3 communities. The total number of Collembola species that was collected was 12, with the species richness and density decreasing as the height of tree increased. The height on trees where moss was sampled had a significant negative effect on species diversity as well as on the densities of

  8. РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ КОЛЛЕМБОЛ (COLLEMBOLA) В ГРАДИЕНТЕ ВЛАЖНОСТИ СРЕДНЕТАЕЖНЫХ СОСНОВЫХ ЛЕСОВ (НА ПРИМЕРЕ ЗАКАЗНИКА «БЕЛЫЙ»)

    OpenAIRE

    Таскаева, А.; Дёгтева, С.; Лаптева, Е.; Лапшина, Е.; Конакова, Т.

    2013-01-01

    Исследованы состав, структура и численность ногохвосток органогенных горизонтов альфегумусовых почв, формирующихся в градиенте влажности среднетаежных сосновых лесов. Показана связь видового разнообразия и численности сообщества коллембол с характером почвенно-растительного покрова и погодными условиями года (температура воздуха, сумма осадков). Выявлены изменения численности доминирующих видов, соотношения различных групп гигропреферендума и жизненных форм ногохвосток в градиенте влажности с...

  9. Efeito da solarização e da adubação sobre artrópodes em solo cultivado com alface Solarization, organic and chemical fertilization combined effects on arthropods community in soil cultivated with lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene G da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da solarização e da adubação química e orgânica na comunidade de artrópodes de solo na cultura da alface, cv. Verônica. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em blocos ao acaso, um com solarização e o outro sem solarização, em casa de vegetação, ambos com cinco tratamentos: adubação orgânica; nitrogênio na forma amoniacal (NH4; adubação com NPK; adubação orgânica + NPK; testemunha (sem adubação. No experimento solarizado, o solo foi coberto durante 132 dias com plástico transparente. Os artrópodes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas tipo alçapão em três épocas (antes da implantação do experimento, após a solarização e após a colheita. Foram utilizados índices faunísticos e de diversidade em cada experimento, tratamento e épocas. Os principais grupos coletados foram: Collembola (82,8%, Acari (7,1%, Hymenoptera (6,1% Coleoptera (1,3% e outros (2,7%. A classe Collembola foi a mais abundante, mesmo na colheita, quando a subordem Acari aumentou substancialmente. As espécies de Collembola predominantes foram: Proisotoma tenella (Reuter (34,3%; Seira atrolutea (Arlé (29%; Folsomides centralis (Denis (7,2%; Isotomurus sp. 161 (2,4% e Sminthurides sp. 98 (1,6%. Observou-se que a diversidade e abundância da comunidade de artrópodes não foi influenciada pela solarização ou adubação.To evaluate the effect of solarization, chemical and organic fertilization on soil arthropods community in lettuce, two blocks plots trials were carried out in Brasília, Brazil. One research was conducted with solarization and the other without solarization in a soil cultivated with lettuce, cv Veronica, under protected cultivation. Each trial consisted of five fertilization treatments: T1= organic fertilization; T2= amoniacal nitrogen (ammonium sulphate; T3= chemical fertilization; T4= organic and chemical fertilization; T5= control (without fertilization. In the solarized trial, the soil was covered for 132

  10. Comparative Study on Flower Trait, Pollinator Visitation Rate and Seed Production of Two Pedicularis Species%多齿马先蒿与刺齿马先蒿花部形态、昆虫访花频率及种子产量比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁一斌; 慕军鹏; 彭幼红; 孙书存

    2011-01-01

    若尔盖高原的马先蒿属植物花部形态多样化,为探讨花冠差异是否与不同的繁殖对策相联系,在该区四川红原县分别对短管无喙的多齿马先蒿(Pedicularis polyodonta)和长管具喙的刺齿马先蒿(P.armata)的花部形态、昆虫访花频率和种子产出进行了比较研究.多齿马先蒿的花冠呈“鸟头”状,多个花的集合与鸟群相似,因此特别检测了这种拟态是否具有规避鸟类和蝗虫或吸引蜂类传粉的功能.研究发现,与刺齿马先蒿相比,多齿马先蒿的花冠较小、数量较少,但花蜜含量较高,因此蜂类访问频率较高,结实率高.两种马先蒿的单花种子产量没有显著差异;多齿马先蒿单个个体的种子数量较多,但种子较小.研究表明,为提高繁殖成功率,多齿马先蒿倾向于依赖花质量(如花蜜含量所指示)和种子数量,而刺齿马先蒿倾向于依赖花数量.蝗虫对两种马先蒿的危害没有显著差异,说明多齿马先蒿的“鸟头”拟态不具有规避蝗虫的功能;在具有“鸟头”花冠的多齿马先蒿的样地,鸟类的拜访频率较刺齿马先蒿显著较少,但蜂类的访问频率显著较高,说明“鸟头”拟态可能与规避鸟类、保护传粉者有关,其拟态功能需要进一步实验验证.%Pedicularis species display high variation in their flower sizes and shapes on alpine meadows. In order to explore whether the flower morphologies are associated with their reproductive strategies among the species, and to test whether the mimicry functioned to avoid birds and/or herbivore visit and attract insect pollinators, flower trait, nectar volume, pollinator visitation rate, and seed output were investigated for a short-tubed, toothed species {Pedicularis polyodonta) and a long-tube, beaked species (P. Armata) on Zoige Plateau, Sichuan, China. In particular, flowers of the former species have bird head-like corollas, making the plants look like a flock of birds

  11. Toxicity of methyl tert butyl ether to soil invertebrates (springtails: Folsomia candida, Proisotoma minuta, and Onychiurus folsomi) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Matthew; Addison, Janet A

    2010-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the toxicity of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE) to three species of Collembola (Proisotoma minuta, Folsomia candida, and Onychiurus folsomi) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) using an artificial Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) soil and field-collected sandy loam and silt loam soil samples. Soil invertebrate tests were carried out in airtight vials to prevent volatilization of MTBE out of the test units and to allow for direct head-space sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for residual MTBE. The use of the airtight vial protocol proved to be very successful, in that the measured MTBE concentrations at the beginning of the experiments were within 95% of nominal concentrations. The test methods used in this study could be used to test the toxicity of other volatile organic compounds to Collembola. The soil invertebrates tested had inhibitory concentration (ICx) and lethal concentration (LCx) values that ranged from 242 to 844 mg MTBE/kg dry soil. When the three test species of Collembola were tested under identical conditions in the artificial OECD soil, O. folsomi was the most sensitive collembolan, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50; reproduction) of 296 mg MTBE/kg dry soil. The most sensitive endpoint for lettuce was an IC50 for root length of 81 mg MTBE/kg dry soil after 5 d of germination in OECD soil. Data on the loss of MTBE from the three test soils over time indicated that MTBE was retained in the silt loam soil longer than in either the sandy loam or the artificial OECD soil. PMID:20821452

  12. Climate change effects on soil microarthropod abundance and community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Reynolds, W. Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Long-term ecosystem responses to climate change strongly depend on how the soil subsystem and its inhabitants respond to these perturbations. Using open-top chambers, we studied the response of soil microarthropods to single and combined effects of ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}], ambient and elevated temperatures and changes in precipitation in constructed old-fields in Tennessee, USA. Microarthropods were assessed five years after treatments were initiated and samples were collected in both November and June. Across treatments, mites and collembola were the most dominant microarthropod groups collected. We did not detect any treatment effects on microarthropod abundance. In November, but not in June, microarthropod richness, however, was affected by the climate change treatments. In November, total microarthropod richness was lower in dry than in wet treatments, and in ambient temperature treatments, richness was higher under elevated [CO{sub 2}] than under ambient [CO{sub 2}]. Differential responses of individual taxa to the climate change treatments resulted in shifts in community composition. In general, the precipitation and warming treatments explained most of the variation in community composition. Across treatments, we found that collembola abundance and richness were positively related to soil moisture content, and that negative relationships between collembola abundance and richness and soil temperature could be explained by temperature-related shifts in soil moisture content. Our data demonstrate how simultaneously acting climate change factors can affect the structure of soil microarthropod communities in old-field ecosystems. Overall, changes in soil moisture content, either as direct effect of changes in precipitation or as indirect effect of warming or elevated [CO{sub 2}], had a larger impact on microarthropod communities than did the direct effects of the warming and elevated [CO{sub 2}] treatments. Moisture-induced shifts in soil

  13. 城市特定生境下土壤动物的生态分布%Ecological Distribution of Soil Animals under Certain City Habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬青; 高峻; 肖烈桂; 韩红霞

    2005-01-01

    通过对2002年9月至2003年3月间上海3种生境类型下土壤动物的调查,共捕获土壤动物3863个,属27个类群,其中绿地中的类群数和个体数多于农田和废弃地.农田中的优势类群为弹尾类(collembola)和蚯蚓类(Oligchaeta);废弃地中的优势类群为线虫类(Nematoda)、双翅类幼虫(Diptera(L))、螨类(Acarina)和弹尾类(Collembola);绿地中的优势类群为线蚓类(Enchytraeidae)和弹尾类(Collembola).绿地中的优势类群为农田和绿地中的Simpson,优势度指数除12月外均高于废弃地,与Pielou均匀性指数相反,但Shannon-Wiener多样性指数规律不明显.土壤动物的数量和种类在10月份最多,随天气转冷而减少,绿地和废弃地中土壤动物个体数于次年3月份逐渐增多,农田中的于次年1月逐渐增多.表聚性显著,Ⅰ层(0~5cm)最多,Ⅱ(5~10cm)、Ⅲ(10~15cm)两层差异不大.

  14. Effects of of Habitats and Pesticides on Aerobic Capacity and Survival of Soil Fauna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. TRIPATHI; B. M. SHARMA

    2005-01-01

    Objective Faunal health is largely dependent on their soil environment and available litter quality. So the effects of different soil habitats and pesticides on citrate synthase (CS) activity of soil fauna and its population were studied. Methods The soil animals were collected from different pedoecosystems for habitat study. Whereas Vigna radiata based system was selected for pesticidal observations. The field was divided into five equal plots for control and treatment of γ-BHC, quinalphos, carbaryl and cypermethrin. Soil fauna was collected by quadrat method and extracted by Tullgren funnel. Individuals of a species having similar sizes were collected for the estimation of CS activity. They were homogenized and fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The activity of CS was assayed spectrophotometrically. Results Citrate synthase (CS) activity of beetle (Rasphytus fregi), woodlouse (Porcellio laevis) and centipede (Scolopendra morsitans) varied significantly with respect to changes in different soil habitats. Though the CS activity of R. fregi, P. laevis, and S. morsitans differed among themselves but the highest activity of CS in these animals was in V. radiata and lowest in A. nilotica based pedoecosystem. The aerobic capacity of centipede was maximum followed by woodlouse and beetle. The treatment of γ-BHC, quinalphos, carbaryl and cypermethrin significantly reduced the CS activity of these animals. γ-BHC showed maximum reduction in CS activity indicating highly toxic effect of organochlorine on aerobic metabolism of soil fauna. However, minimum reduction was observed in response to carbaryl (in beetle) or cypermethrin (in woodlouse/centipede) leading to impairment of aerobic capacity. The differences in pesticide effects might be assigned to the differences in chemical nature of pesticides and their interactions with below-ground fauna. Treatment of γ-BHC and quinalphos reduced the population of Acari, Coleoptera, Collembola, other

  15. Epigeal fauna of a degraded soil treated with mineral fertilizer and compound cellulose cultivated of tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giácomo, R. G.; de Arruda, O. G.; Souto Filho, S. N.; Alves, M. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Frigério, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the epigeal fauna in a degraded soil in the recovery process after one year of cultivated with tree species. The experiment was established in February 2010 in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with five treatments and four replications. In the main plots, pure cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis (exotic species - hybrids) and Mabea fistulifera Mart. (native species) and the subplot treatments: Control; D0 - without fertilization; DM - mineral fertilizer according to crop need; DC - with compost manure according to crop need (10 t ha-1); D15 - 15 t ha-1 and D20 - 20 t ha-1 of the compound. In February of the years 2010 and 2011 were installed in the central region of each treatment two traps "pitt fall" which remained for seven days in the field. We calculated Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indices, and richness of wildlife activity groups. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Scott Knott test at 5% significance level. In 2010, the area with M. fistulifera, was captured a total of 2697 organisms distributed mainly in: Hymenoptera with 45.83% of the total collected, Collembola (36.93%), Hemiptera Heteroptera (6.56%). In the area with E. urograndis, 1938 organisms were captured, being 50.67% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 26.83%, 7.59% Hemiptera Heteroptera. It was found that there was no significant difference between treatments and between species for all variables. Collected in 2011 were 4970 organisms in 56.22% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 18.49% and 7.12% beetle in the area of M. fistulifera. In the area of E. urograndis were 4200 organisms, 55.29% (Hymenoptera), 23.79% (Collembola) and 5.86% (Coleoptera). It appears that the activity values and richness of the fauna groups were significantly higher in treatments with organic fertilization in both cultive. It is concluded that after one year there was a variation of the dominant

  16. 形形色色的跳虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元

    2010-01-01

    @@ 跳虫是一种体型微小的节肢动物,又称为黏管虫、烟灰虫、土跳蚤.它是弹尾虫(Collembola)的俗称,其学名由两部分组成:Colle意为像胶水一样,embolon意为像活塞一样.顾名思义,其名来源于它的腹部第1节腹面中央有一腹管突,功能主要是分泌、保持水分平衡和黏着作用.

  17. Impact of climate change on soil fauna diversity effects of experimental drought, irrigation, soil warming and nutrient addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, N.

    2001-12-01

    To detect possible effects of global climatic change on soil fauna abundance and diversity, two long-term (8-13 years) field experiments in Norway spruce stands were used, one in SW Sweden and one in N Sweden. Soil fauna samples (Oribatida, Mesostigmata, Collembola, macro arthropod predators, Enchytraeidae) taken from field plots experimentally simulating altered precipitation patterns (drought and irrigation) and increased soil temperature were analysed to find shifts in faunal abundance, diversity and dominance. Drought and irrigation both caused shifts in community composition of Oribatida and Collembola, but the effects were more pronounced in drought plots and irrigation only had large effects at one site, including positive abundance responses. Repeated summer drought caused large decreases in abundances and, partly, species diversity of soil fauna. Species dominating in drought plots were probably tolerant to desiccation. Increased soil temperatures applied under a period of 5 years resulted in positive responses in several Oribatida and negative in some Collembola. Community composition was probably affected, but inadequate methodology made this difficult to evaluate. Repeated nutrient fertilisation of forests may be one way to increase tree growth and replace fossil fuels with biofuels, to reduce the greenhouse effect. The impact on soil fauna from such fertilisation, both in solid and liquid form was investigated in plots receiving fertilisation during 13 years. Soil fauna decreased following addition of solid fertiliser, while slight increases were found in plots receiving liquid fertiliser. An interaction effect between fertilisation and irrigation was probably the case. The fertilisation treatments caused shifts in the community composition of Oribatida and Collembola but did not cause changes in species richness, probably because decreases in some species were balanced by increases in other species. In conclusion, global climatic change resulting in

  18. On Research of Arsenic Pollution Influencing Telltale Animals From Soil%土壤中砷污染指示性动物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周焕新

    2011-01-01

    This paper used pot experiment to prove that arsenic influences fauna from the soil to some extent. It also shows that the species and quantity of fauna would decline dramatically due to the different concentra-tion of arsenic pollution. Author proves that the species and quantity of fauna will increase with the change of arsenic pollution which is based on the arsenic pollution index. The dominant species are Acari, Hymenopter-a, Collembola and Homoptera from soil. By controlling arsenic ion concentration on purpose, the number of fauna is decreasing sharply. This indicates that species number and evenness index had a negative correlation with the index of arsenic ion concentration designing by experiment significantly. At last, it concludes that Acari, Hymenoptera, Collembola and Homoptera can used as telltale animals to measure arsenic pollution to the soil.%通过盆栽试验验证土壤中砷对土壤动物群的影响,结果表明,随着砷污染浓度值设定的不同土壤动物的种类、数量呈急剧下降趋势.文章以砷的染指数(Pi)表征砷污染程度,土壤动物的种类、数量都随着污染指数的增加而相应变化.土壤中蜱螨目( Acari)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera)、弹尾目(Collembola)、同翅目(Homoptera)是优势种.随着人为控制砷离子浓度,动物群落中个体数量急剧下降.在对土壤动物群落指标与砷离子浓度相关性分析表明:种类数,均匀度指数等,都与实验设计砷离子浓度的指标呈显著的负相关.据此在衡量砷污染对土壤动物群落影响过程中,土壤中蜱螨目( Acari)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera)、弹尾目(Collembola)、同翅目(Homoptera)可以作为指示性动物.

  19. Amostragem de solo e uso de "litterbags" na avaliação populacional de microartrópodos edáficos

    OpenAIRE

    Melo Luiz Antonio Silveira; Ligo Marco Antonio Vieira

    1999-01-01

    A distribuição agregada de microartrópodos edáficos dificulta a obtenção da estimativa de suas populações em agroecossistemas, por amostragem de solo. Buscando uma alternativa, compararam-se coletas realizadas em saquinhos com folhedo ("litterbags") e amostras de solo, em parcelas experimentais de sistemas de produção de tomate orgânico e convencional, em Jaguariúna, SP. Utilizaram-se três parcelas de 20 x 10m de cada sistema, avaliando-se as populações de Acari e Collembola presentes em quat...

  20. Food web structure of deep-sea macrozooplankton and micronekton off the Catalan slope: Insight from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.

    2011-07-01

    Food web structure of the macroplankton/micronekton fauna on the continental slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic basin, NW Mediterranean) was investigated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope tracers on a total of 34 taxa. Samples were collected close to Barcelona, Spain, on the middle slope, at a seasonal scale. Mean δ 13C values ranged from - 22.1‰ ( Salpa maxima) to - 16.9‰ (the mysid Eucopia hanseni). Values of δ 15N ranged from 2.5‰ (the hyperiid Vibilia armata) to 9.8‰ (the pelagic polychaete Tomopteris sp.). The stable isotope ratios of this fauna displayed a continuum of values over the δ 15N range of 7‰, confirming a wide spectrum of feeding strategies (from filter feeders to predators). High annual mean δ 15N values were found among carnivorous large zooplankton and micronekton, including species that prey on gelatinous plankton (i.e. salps, siphonophores), euphausiids, natantian decapod crustaceans and fish (i.e. myctophids and stomiiformes). In agreement with the available information on diets of planktonic taxa, the lowest isotope ratios were found for filter feeders ( V. armata, S. maxima, the pteropods Cymbulia peroni and Cavolinia inflexa, ostracods and the thaliacean Pyrosoma atlanticum), all of which feed on particulate organic matter. We found three trophic levels in macroplankton/micronekton food webs based on a 15N-enrichment factor of ~ 2.5‰ per level. The range of δ 13C was particularly wide among carnivores (- 20.7‰ to - 16.6‰), suggesting predation on a variety of prey from gelatinous zooplankton (which displayed more depleted δ 13C signatures) to small fishes and decapods. Correlation between δ 13C-δ 15N was generally weak, likely due to the consumption of different kinds of sinking particles (e.g. marine snow, phytodetritus), some constituted of multiply recycled particulate organic matter (POM). However, higher δ 13C-δ 15N correlations were observed during winter and spring, periods of water column

  1. Temporal and spatial changes in the diet of Hyla pulchella (Anura, Hylidae in southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés da Rosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the diet of a population of the hylid frogHyla pulchella from southeastern Uruguay. We collected the specimens in ponds, where we identified microenvironments defined by the invertebrate assemblage, during one year divided into two seasons (warm and cold. We taxonomically determined 10365 invertebrates belonging to 21 categories in the digestive tracts of frogs. Weestimated the diversity of the diet and alimentary preference according to microenvironments and seasons. We estimated the expected richness of both diet and prey availability using a null model based on the hypergeometric distribution. We performed Discriminant Analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests to detect changes in prey availability among microenvironments and between seasons. The overall diet in terms of frequencies was composed primarily of arthropods (mainly Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera and in terms of volume, by larvae. The most relevantitems to study the microenvironmental and seasonal variation in the available preys were Araneae, Collembola, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and larvae. Based on the null model curves and preference indexes we inferred positive selection by larvae, Isopoda, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, and negative selection by Collembola and Hymenoptera. The diversityof diet and the null model curves indicated that the diet changes among microenvironments and seasons. This frog may be considered as a middle generalist predator, with some selective behavior and a combined search strategy (active and sit-and-wait. We conclude that the knowledge about the availability of preys is a relevant tool for trophic studies.

  2. Amostragem de solo e uso de "litterbags" na avaliação populacional de microartrópodos edáficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Luiz Antonio Silveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição agregada de microartrópodos edáficos dificulta a obtenção da estimativa de suas populações em agroecossistemas, por amostragem de solo. Buscando uma alternativa, compararam-se coletas realizadas em saquinhos com folhedo ("litterbags" e amostras de solo, em parcelas experimentais de sistemas de produção de tomate orgânico e convencional, em Jaguariúna, SP. Utilizaram-se três parcelas de 20 x 10m de cada sistema, avaliando-se as populações de Acari e Collembola presentes em quatro amostras de solo e em dois "litterbags" de cada parcela. Foram identificadas 30 famílias de Acari e quatro de Collembola nos sistemas de produção, 88% estando presentes em orgânico e 70% em convencional avaliados por "litterbags" e 53% em quaisquer dos sistemas avaliados por amostras de solo. Os elementos de ambos os grupos foram mais abundantes em sistema orgânico, somente em avaliação por "litterbags". Foi possível estabelecer o sistema mais impactante à mesofauna apenas através de "litterbags", os quais mostraram-se também viáveis para determinação de bioindicadores.

  3. Soil cultivation in vineyards alters interactions between soil biota and soil physical and hydrological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Buchholz, Jacob; Querner, Pascal; Winter, Silvia; Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Strauss, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Stiper, Katrin; Potthoff, Martin; Guernion, Muriel; Scimia, Jennifer; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Several ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from interactions between soil organisms and soil parameters. However, to what extent different soil cultivation intensities in vineyards compromise soil organisms and their interactions between soil physical and hydrological properties is not well understood. In this study we examined (i) to what extent different soil management intensities affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (earthworms, Collembola, litter decomposition), and (ii) how soil physical and hydrological properties influence these interactions, or vice versa. Investigating 16 vineyards in Austria, earthworms were assessed by hand sorting, Collembola via pitfall trapping and soil coring, litter decomposition by using the tea bag method. Additionally, soil physical (water infiltration, aggregate stability, porosity, bulk density, soil texture) and chemical (pH, soil carbon content, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorus) parameters were assessed. Results showed complex ecological interactions between soil biota and various soil characteristics altered by management intensity. These investigations are part of the transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project VineDivers and will ultimately lead into management recommendations for various stakeholders.

  4. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L; Murray, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating. PMID:27555863

  5. The Impact of Lead to Soil Animal Community%重金属铅对土壤动物群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周焕新

    2010-01-01

    通过盆栽试验,研究了重金属铅对土壤动物群落结构、生态指标的影响.结果表明.随着铅污染程度的加大,土壤动物的种类、数量和个体总量急剧下降;以铅污染指数(Pi)来表征铅的污染程度,则土壤动物的多样性、种类数都随着污染指数的增加而减少,呈负相关;土壤中蜱螨目(Acari)、弹尾目(Collembola)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera)是优势种.通过对弹尾目进行分离,发现长跳属和线等跳属为优势种,随着铅浓度的增加,个体数量下降.据此,在衡量重金属污染对土壤动物群落的影响过程中,蜱螨目(Acari)、弹尾目(Collembola)和膜翅目(Hymenoptera)可作为土壤生态指标物种.

  6. Lethal ovitrap deployment for Aedes aegypti control: potential implications for non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharron A; Jacups, Susan P; Ritchie, Scott A

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, dengue control combines source reduction with lethal ovitraps to reduce Aedes aegypti populations during outbreaks. Lethal ovitraps are considered a sustainable and environmentally friendly method of controlling container-inhabiting mosquitoes, however, to-date, this claim has not been quantified. This study assesses the potential impact of lethal ovitraps on non-target organisms when used to control Ae. aegypti in tropical Australia. For retention of specimens, we substituted standard sticky ovitraps for lethal ovitraps. We collected 988 Ae. aegypti and 44,132 non-target specimens over 13 months from 16 sites. Although Ae. aegypti comprised only 2.2% of the total collection, they were were the eighth most dominant taxa collected, on the 93(rd) percentile. Of the non-target organisms, Collembola were the dominant taxa, 44.2%, with 36.8% and 10.5% Diptera and Hymenoptera, respectively. Of the Dipterans, 61% were family Phoridae. Lethal ovitraps were visited by 90 insect or invertebrate families in total. Ovitraps are attractive to Collembola, Phoridae, Sciaridae, Formicidae, and Culicidae, with minimal attraction by Apidae and other commonly monitored non-target organisms. For container-inhabiting mosquitoes, LOs are cost effective operationally, requiring minimal staff resources for placement and retrieval.

  7. Effects of Olive Mill Wastewater on Soil Microarthropods and Soil Chemistry in Two Different Cultivation Scenarios in Israel and Palestinian Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Peter Kurtz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although olive mill wastewater (OMW is often applied onto soil and is known to be phytotoxic, its impact on soil fauna is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate how OMW spreading in olive orchards affects Oribatida and Collembola communities, physicochemical soil properties and their interdependency. For this, we treated plots in two study sites (Gilat, Bait Reema with OMW. Among others, the sites differed in irrigation practice, soil type and climate. We observed that soil acidity and water repellency developed to a lower extent in Gilat than in Bait Reema. This may be explained by irrigation-induced dilution and leaching of OMW compounds in Gilat. In Bait Reema, OMW application suppressed emergence of Oribatida and induced a community shift, but the abundance of Collembola increased in OMW and water-treated plots. In Gilat, Oribatida abundance increased after OMW application. The effects of OMW application on soil biota result from an interaction between stimulation of biological activity and suppression of sensitive species by toxic compounds. Environmental and management conditions are relevant for the degree and persistence of the effects. Moreover, this study underlines the need for detailed research on the ecotoxicological effects of OMW at different application rates.

  8. Sewage sludge effects on mesofauna and cork oak (Quercus suber L.) leaves decomposition in a Mediterranean forest firebreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernin, Céline; Cortet, Jérôme; Joffre, Richard; Le Petit, Jean; Torre, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Effects of sewage sludge on litter mesofauna communities (Collembola and Acari) and cork oak (Quercus suber L.) leaf litter decomposition have been studied during 18 mo using litterbags in an in situ experimental forest firebreak in southeastern France. The sludge (2.74 t DM ha(-1) yr(-1)) was applied to fertilize and maintain a pasture created on the firebreak. Litterbag colonization had similar dynamics on both the control and fertilized plots and followed a typical Mediterranean pattern showing a greater abundance in spring and autumn and a lower abundance in summer. After 9 mo of litter colonization, Collembola and Acari, but mainly Oribatida, were more abundant on the sludge-fertilized plot. Leaf litter decomposition showed a similar pattern on both plots, but it was faster on the control plot. Furthermore, leaves from the fertilized plot were characterized by greater nitrogen content. Both chemical composition of leaves and sludges and the decomposition state of leaves have significantly affected the mesofauna community composition from each plot.

  9. Soil mesofauna in disturbed spruce forest stands near Čertovo and Plešné Lakes, the Bohemian Forest: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuchta, Peter; Starý, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    The soil microarthropod communities were studied in disturbed spruce forest stands in the catchments areas of Čertovo (CT) and Plešné (PL) Lakes in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. The study is focused on the impact of the windthrow, bark beetle outbreak damage and consecutive changes in the forest stands including soil environment. Within the soil microarthropods, two main groups, Collembola (Hexapoda) and Oribatida (Acari) are analysed. Four different treatments were selected for the study on both study areas: CT1 and PL1 stands - undamaged control forest stands, CT2 and PL2 stands - "dead" forest stands damaged by bark beetle, CT3 and PL3 stands - slightly managed windthrown forest stands left for the natural succession, and CT4 and PL4 stands - harvested windthrown stands. Soil samples were taken in June (CT1/PL1 - CT3/PL3), July and October (CT1/PL1 - CT4/PL4) 2012 from each treatment. Microarthropods were subsequently extracted in a modified high-gradient apparatus in the laboratory for seven days. Finally, the comparison of the microarthropod assemblages found at different treatment stands was performed. The most abundant groups in both study areas (Čertovo and Plešné Lakes) were Collembola and Oribatida with considerable diferences within particular treatments and in time as well.

  10. Different speciation for bromine in brown and red algae, revealed by in vivo X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Frithjof C; Leblanc, Catherine; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Potin, Philippe; Feiters, Martin C

    2014-08-01

    Members of various algal lineages are known to be strong producers of atmospherically relevant halogen emissions, that is a consequence of their capability to store and metabolize halogens. This study uses a noninvasive, synchrotron-based technique, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, for addressing in vivo bromine speciation in the brown algae Ectocarpus siliculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, and Fucus serratus, the red algae Gracilaria dura, G. gracilis, Chondrus crispus, Osmundea pinnatifida, Asparagopsis armata, Polysiphonia elongata, and Corallina officinalis, the diatom Thalassiosira rotula, the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and a natural phytoplankton sample. The results highlight a diversity of fundamentally different bromine storage modes: while most of the stramenopile representatives and the dinoflagellate store mostly bromide, there is evidence for Br incorporated in nonaromatic hydrocarbons in Thalassiosira. Red algae operate various organic bromine stores - including a possible precursor (by the haloform reaction) for bromoform in Asparagopsis and aromatically bound Br in Polysiphonia and Corallina. Large fractions of the bromine in the red algae G. dura and C. crispus and the brown alga F. serratus are present as Br(-) defects in solid KCl, similar to what was reported earlier for Laminaria parts. These results are discussed according to different defensive strategies that are used within algal taxa to cope with biotic or abiotic stresses. PMID:26988449

  11. Prospective ecological risk assessment of sediment resuspension in an estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, Diego; Beiras, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    This study assesses potential ecological risk of resuspended sediment in the water column during the construction of a viaduct in the estuary of the Ulla river (Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula), a shellfish production area. Chemical analyses and toxicity bioassays with elutriates were performed with sediments from the area where the three pillars of the viaduct will be located (CT1, CT2 and CT3) and a reference sediment (A2). Acute toxicity of the elutriate was evaluated in five species of three trophic levels (Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Venerupis pullastra and Siriella armata). The sediments of the pillars showed moderate levels of contamination by trace elements (Cu, Cr). Clam and sea urchin embryo-larval toxicity tests showed slightly higher sensitivity than mussel embryo tests, and toxicity was not detected for phytoplankton and mysid bioassays. The predicted no-effect environmental concentration (PNEC) was calculated from the arithmetic mean of the lowest calculated EC(50)s for each sampling site. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was estimated from a simple dilution model and the PEC/PNEC ratio was calculated according to different scenarios of resuspension. Negligible ecological risk in the water column is expected during construction of the pillars.

  12. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Talamas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae. Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead (Mexico (Tamaulipas and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state, P. armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela, P. convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama, P. dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás, P. gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina, P. gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia, P. invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo, P. isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic, P. lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico, P. minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba, P. nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, P. pallipes (Ashmead (southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo, P. psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela, P. saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica, P. soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela. Paridris brevipennis Fouts, P. laeviceps (Ashmead, and P. nigricornis (Fouts are treated as junior synonyms of P. pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead.

  13. Macroalgal assemblages of disturbed coastal detritic bottoms subject to invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Judith C.; Verlaque, Marc

    2009-04-01

    Characteristic flora and fauna that are highly sensitive to disturbances colonize coastal detritic bottoms in the Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, a comparison of the assemblage composition and colonization by invasive macroalgae was made between two coastal detritic macrophyte assemblages, one dominated by rhodoliths (free-living non-geniculate Corallinales) and the other dominated by fleshy algae, in an area that has been exposed to important levels of anthropogenic disturbance, mainly pollution (including changed sedimentation regimes) in the recent past (bay of Marseilles, France). In comparison with less strongly impacted Mediterranean regions, the macrophyte assemblages in the bay of Marseilles were characteristic in terms of species identity and richness of coastal detritic macrophyte assemblages. However, extremely low species abundance (cover) was observed. As far as invasive species were concerned, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea was only abundant in the rhodolith assemblage whereas the two invasive Rhodophyta Asparagopsis armata and Womersleyella setacea were mainly found in the fleshy algae assemblage. The seasonality observed in the Rhodolith assemblage seemed to be related to the development of C. racemosa var. cylindracea and did not follow the typical pattern of other Mediterranean assemblages. This study represents the first study of coastal detritic assemblages invaded by C. racemosa var. cylindracea.

  14. Hábitos tróficos de la reineta Brama australis (Pisces: Bramidae durante el periodo estival frente a Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Santa Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La reineta Brama australis es un importante recurso pesquero artesanal en la zona central chilena, incorporado en los programas de seguimiento biológico, pero con escasas evaluaciones de sus aspectos tróficos. Para actualizar el estado del conocimiento, se analizó su dieta durante el verano austral época de mayor disponibilidad de este recurso en la zona central de Chile, mediante el análisis del contenido gástrico de 300 ejemplares capturados entre noviembre 2011 y marzo 2012. Se identificó una dieta dominada por Euphausia mucronata (IIR = 92,33, aunque a escala mensual se identificó una dieta mixta de E. mucronata durante noviembre, diciembre 2011 y marzo 2012, además de Pterygosquilla armata y anfípodos hipéridos durante enero y marzo 2012. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre ambos sexos (P > 0,01. Estos resultados demuestran y corroboran que B. australis es un depredador pelágico con un reducido espectro trófico en el litoral de Chile central.

  15. The evolvability of growth form in a clonal seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Keyne; Poore, Alistair G B

    2009-12-01

    Although modular construction is considered the key to adaptive growth or growth-form plasticity in sessile taxa (e.g., plants, seaweeds and colonial invertebrates), the serial expression of genes in morphogenesis may compromise its evolutionary potential if growth forms emerge as integrated wholes from module iteration. To explore the evolvability of growth form in the red seaweed, Asparagopsis armata, we estimated genetic variances, covariances, and cross-environment correlations for principal components of growth-form variation in contrasting light environments. We compared variance-covariance matrices across environments to test environmental effects on heritable variation and examined the potential for evolutionary change in the direction of plastic responses to light. Our results suggest that growth form in Asparagopsis may constitute only a single genetic entity whose plasticity affords only limited evolutionary potential. We argue that morphological integration arising from modular construction may constrain the evolvability of growth form in Asparagopsis, emphasizing the critical distinction between genetic and morphological modularity in this and other modular taxa.

  16. Domoic Acid Toxicologic Pathology: A Review

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    Olga M. Pulido

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid was identified as the toxin responsible for an outbreak of human poisoning that occurred in Canada in 1987 following consumption of contaminated blue mussels [Mytilus edulis]. The poisoning was characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs. Among the most prominent features described was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Domoic acid is produced by certain marine organisms, such as the red alga Chondria armata and planktonic diatom of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Since 1987, monitoring programs have been successful in preventing other human incidents of ASP. However, there are documented cases of domoic acid intoxication in wild animals and outbreaks of coastal water contamination in many regions world-wide. Hence domoic acid continues to pose a global risk to the health and safety of humans and wildlife. Several mechanisms have been implicated as mediators for the effects of domoic acid. Of particular importance is the role played by glutamate receptors as mediators of excitatory neurotransmission and the demonstration of a wide distribution of these receptors outside the central nervous system, prompting the attention to other tissues as potential target sites. The aim of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of ASP, DOM induced pathology including ultrastructural changes associated to subchronic oral exposure, and discussion of key proposed mechanisms of cell/tissue injury involved in DOM induced brain pathology and considerations relevant to food safety and human health.

  17. Community structure, life histories and secondary production of stoneflies in two small mountain streams with different degree of forest cover

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    Pavel Beracko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study examines community structure and nymphal biology (life cycles and secondary production of stoneflies in two adjacent mountain streams with different degree of forest cover in the Prosiečanka River Basin (Chočské Vrchy Mts., West Carpathians. One of the streams has non-forested catchment, converted to meadows and pastures, while the other one has catchment with 60% covered by spruce forest. Differences in forest cover and in thermal regime of the streams were reflected by the difference of stonefly communities at their structural and functional level. Species Nemoura cinerea and Leuctra aurita created stonefly assemblage in non-forested stream, whereas Nemoura cinerea also occurred in naturally forested stream together with species Leuctra armata, Leuctra nigra, Leuctra prima, Siphonoperla neglecta and Arcynopteryx dichroa. All examined species had maximally annual life cycle and in eudominant species Nemoura cinerea one month shift was found in nymphal hatching and adult emergence between streams. Total secondary production of stoneflies in undisturbed stream (126.46 mg DW m-2 y-1 was more than two times higher than the production in non-forested stream (47.39 mg DW m-2 y-1. 

  18. Acute toxicity of a shoreline cleaner, CytoSol, mixed with oil and ecological risk assessment of its use on the Galician Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, Diego; Beiras, Ricardo; Vázquez, José A; Murado, Miguel A

    2010-10-01

    The application of embryo-larval bioassay with the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis at 48 hours, and with neonates of the mysid Siriella armata at 96 hours, was used to evaluate the acute toxicities of the following preparations: (1) the shoreline cleaning agent CytoSol; (2) the water-accommodated fraction of CytoSol plus a light crude oil; and (3) the runoff from a pilot-scale treatment with CytoSol of a rocky coastal substrate impregnated with residues from the Prestige oil spill (which occurred on November 19, 2002). The mussel was the most sensitive organism to CytoSol and runoff effects (EC(50) = 8.0 microL/L and 64.3 mL/L, respectively), and the mysid was the least sensitive to the runoff (EC(50) > 200 mL/L). The predicted no-effect environmental concentration (PNEC) was calculated from the no observed-effect concentration of the species most sensitive to the runoff. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was estimated from a simple and reasonable dilution model, and the PEC/PNEC ratio was calculated according to the area treated and the values of the variables considered in the model. Implications for the management of the treatment operations are discussed. PMID:20217060

  19. Review of alien marine macrophytes in Tunisia

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    Y. R. SGHAIER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the list of alien marine macrophytes introduced into Tunisia was updated in the light of available data and new observations. A total of 27 alien marine macrophytes have been recorded so far from Tunisia: 18 Rhodophyta, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Chlorophyta and 1 Magnoliophyta. For each species, the locality (-ies, the year (or period and the source of the first observation in Tunisia are given. The distribution and the status (casual, cryptogenic, established or questionable of species in Tunisia were evaluated and, where appropriate, discussed. Among them, Hypnea cornuta is reported for the first time from Tunisia. Fourteen alien marine macrophytes are established, whereas seven cryptogenic and two casual species require further investigation. Eleven species are considered as invasive or potentially invasive in the Mediterranean Sea: Acrothamnion preissii, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis Indo-Pacific lineage, Hypnea cornuta, Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa chemnitzia, C. cylindracea, C. taxifolia, Codium fragile subsp. fragile and Halophila stipulacea. Finally, the case of four questionable species is also discussed.

  20. Community structures of soil fauna in reclaimed copper mine tailings and suburb forest land

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    Yongheng Zhu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna were very important for the ecological reconstruction of mine tailings. We investigated community characteristics of soil fauna at two sites, including reclamated copper-mine-tailings (RCMT and suburb forest land of reclamated copper-mine-tailings (SFL in Tongling City to test and illustrate the value of soil fauna for mitigating the impacts of heavy metal pollution. In the spring of 2011, we established four transects (150 m at the two sites and collected soil samples of macro-, meso- and micro- soil fauna from four depths (0–5 cm, 5–10 cm, 10–15 cm, 15–20 cm at 13 30 cm× 30 cm sampling quadrats. Our results showed that at RCMT, the Acarina, Collembola and Nematoda were dominant groups; the Formicidae, Coleoptera larvae, Oligochaeta, Diptera larvae and Diplura were frequent groups; and the additional 16 groups were less commonly encountered. While at SFL the Collembola and Acarina were dominant groups and the Nematoda and Oligochaeta were frequent groups. Overall abundance of soil fauna at RCMT were significantly less than that of SFL (F=20.65, P<0.01, and number of faunal groups were lower at RCMT (F=5.88, P<0.05. We did not find a significant difference between the density of macro-soil fauna at RCMT and SFL, but found that the density of meso- and micro- soil fauna at RCMT was significantly lower than that of SFL (F=29.99, P<0.01. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H at RCMT was higher than that of SFL (F=24.06, P<0.01, but DG diversity index was lower at RCMT compared to SFL (F=4.75, P<0.05. There was evident surface aggregation of soil fauna at RCMT, especially in the differences between the first layer and the other layers of the soil profile (Find.=17.80, Fgro.=33.33, P<0.01. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil macro-, dry-type, wet-type meso- and micro-fauna at different habitats were differentially affected by various environmental factors. At reclaimed land with higher copper concentrations, we found a higher

  1. The Impact of Geomorphology and Human Disturbances on the Faunal Distributions in Tiquara and Angico Caves of Campo Formoso, Bahia, Brazil

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    André Vieira de Araujo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of fauna is important for the understanding of communities and ecosystems, enabling the design of actions for conservation. In the present piece of work, we identified total 45 morphospecies belonging to the order Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Dictyoptera, Araneida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Plecoptera, Amphipoda, Zygentoma, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Psocoptera from two distinct types of caves of Campo Formoso, state of Bahia in Brazil. It was made to provide subsidies for conservation studies. The targeted caves were Tiquara Cave suffered for many years from saltpeter extraction and Angico Cave less visited cave having high tourist potential. Though the conservation status is much better in Angico cave, but we found comparatively more morphospecies in Tiquara cave.

  2. Diversity of springtails (Hexapoda according to a altitudinal gradient Diversidade de colêmbolos (Hexapoda de acordo com o gradiente de altitude

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    Arturo García-Gómez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to elevate gradient effect on diversity of Collembola, in a temperate forest on the northeast slope of Iztaccíhuatl Volcano, Mexico. Four expeditions were organized from November 2003 to August 2004, at four altitudes (2,753, 3,015, 3,250 and 3,687 m a.s.l.. In each site, air temperature, CO2 concentration, humidity, and terrain inclination were measured. The influence of abiotic factors on faunal composition was evaluated, at the four collecting sites, with canonical correspondence analyses (CCA. A total of 24,028 specimens were obtained, representing 12 families, 44 genera and 76 species. Mesaphorura phlorae, Proisotoma ca. tenella and Parisotoma ca. notabilis were the most abundant species. The highest diversity and evenness were recorded at 3,250 m (H' = 2.85; J' = 0.73. Canonical analyses axes 1 and 2 of the CCA explained 67.4% of the variance in species composition, with CO2 and altitude best explaining axis 1, while slope and humidity were better correlated to axis 2. The results showed that CO2 is an important factor to explain Collembola species assemblage, together with slope and humidity.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do gradiente de elevação na diversidade de Collembola, em uma floresta temperada no Vulcão Iztaccíhuatl, México. Quatro expedições foram organizadas de novembro 2003 a agosto 2004, em quatro altitudes (2.753, 3.015, 3.250 e 3.687 m. Em cada local foram medidas a temperatura, a concentração de CO2 e a umidade do ar, além da inclinação do terreno. A influência de fatores abióticos na composição da fauna foi avaliada nos quatro locais de coleta, por meio da análise de correspondência canônica. Coletaram-se 24.028 espécimes, distribuídos em 12 famílias, 44 gêneros e 76 espécies. Mesaphorura phlorae, Proisotoma ca. tenella e Parisotoma ca. notabilis foram as espécies mais abundantes. A diversidade e a equitabilidade mais elevadas foram registradas a 3

  3. Relationship of Mesofauna Bioiversity and Undergrowth Vegetations in Jobolarangan Forest

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    MARTINUS PUJO

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil mesofauna is one group of soil biodiversity, which take main role of decomposition processes of organic matter. The objective of this research was to investigate the composition and diversity of soil mesofauna at Jobolarangan forest. Soil samples were collected from 8 sampling points which different vegetation types. Soil mesofaunas extracted by modified Barless-Tullgren extractor apparatus for 4 days. The results showed that in the north side of Jobolarangan forest were identified 6 groups of microarthropods, i.e.: Mesostigma and Astigma (Ordo: Acarina, Isotomidae (Ordo: Collembola, Rhinotermitidae (Ordo: Hymenoptera, Staphyllinidae and Carabidae (Ordo: Coleoptera. The group with highest density and wide distribution was Astigma. There were high diversities of soil mesofauna community structure at Jobolarangan forest.

  4. Ecotoxicological evaluation of in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frische, Tobias

    2003-01-01

    The luminescent bacteria assay, using soil leachates, was the most sensitive toxicity indicator. - To evaluate the environmental relevance of in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, effective and reliable monitoring approaches are of special importance. The presented study was conducted as part of a research project investigating in situ bioremediation of topsoils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Changes in soil toxicity within different experimental fields at a former ordnance factory were evaluated using a battery of five bioassays (plant growth, Collembola reproduction, soil respiration, luminescent bacteria acute toxicity and mutagenicity test) in combination to chemical contaminant analysis. Resulting data reveal clear differences in sensitivities between methods with the luminescent bacteria assay performed with soil leachates as most sensitive toxicity indicator. Complete test battery results are presented in so-called soil toxicity profiles to visualise and facilitate the interpretation of data. Both biological and chemical monitoring results indicate a reduction of soil toxicity within 17 months of remediation.

  5. Is evenness altered by fire in natural assemblages of soil arthropods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Monica; Bologna, Marco A.; Luiselli, Luca

    2013-05-01

    We studied evenness and species richness in two assemblages of soil arthropods at six contiguous study plots in Mediterranean ecosystems of central Italy, three of these plots being burnt and three unburnt. We analysed these aspects of community structure by diversity-dominance diagrams comparisons made through analysis of covariance on respective slopes and ordinate intercepts. We observed consistent patterns in both Collembola and Oniscidea assemblages, either in burnt and unburnt plots. Evenness did not change among study plots and across habitats, either before or after fire, whereas species' composition was significantly altered by fire. Results from our study implied that evenness and species diversity are clearly affected in a different and independent way by fire. Hence, it is not acceptable to focus on only the evenness when looking at the effects of controlled fires for environmental management reasons.

  6. The terrestrial bioluminescent animals of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Branham, Marc A; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-11-01

    Light production by organisms, or bioluminescence, has fascinated not only scientists but also ordinary people all over the world, and it has been especially so in Japan. Here we review the biological information available to date for all luminous terrestrial animals known from Japan, particularly focusing on their diversity and systematics, their biology and ecology in Japan, and putative function and biochemistry of their luminescence. In total 58 luminous terrestrial animals have been described from Japan, which consist of 50 fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), one glowworm beetle (Coleoptera: Phengodidae), two fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae), one springtail (Collembola), one millipede (Diplopoda), one centipede (Chilopoda) and two earthworms (Oligochaeta). For all except some firefly species, the DNA "barcode" sequences of a cytochrome oxidase subunit I region are provided. We also introduce how intricately the seasonal appearance and glimmering of luminous insects, in particular those of fireflies, have been interwoven into the culture, art, literature and mentality of Japanese people. PMID:22035300

  7. A 9 kDa antifreeze protein from the Antarctic springtail, Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, T C; Marshall, C J; Wharton, D A

    2014-08-01

    A 9 kDA antifreeze protein (AFP) was isolated and purified from the Antarctic springtail, Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni. By combining selective sampling procedures and a modified ice affinity purification protocol it was possible to directly isolate a single AFP protein without recourse to chromatographic separation techniques. Mass spectrometry identified a single 9 kDa component in the purified ice fraction. Intramolecular disulphide bonding was suggested by the presence of 12 cysteine residues. The specific amino acid composition is unique, particularly with regard to the presence of histidine (11.5%). But it also shows noticeable commonalities with insect AFPs in the abundance of cysteine (13.8%), while simultaneously hinting, through the presence of glycine (11.5%), that the metabolic building blocks of AFPs in Collembola may have a phylogenetically-determined component. PMID:25025820

  8. Predatory behaviour of some Central European pselaphine beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) with descriptions of relevant morphological features of their heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria; Afflerbach, Kerstin; Betz, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The Pselaphinae is a large subfamily of staphylinid beetles with a characteristic habitus and small body size. Detailed morphological and behavioural studies on these beetles are scarce. In this study, specimens of Bryaxis puncticollis (Denny, 1825), Bryaxis bulbifer (Reichenbach, 1816), Bythinus...... of capturing prey. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed sex-specific differences in the numbers of ommatidia in Bryaxis puncticollis. A multitude of different sensilla on the antennae and great differences in the shape of the mouthparts were observed and peculiarities of the antennae and maxillary...... palps (e.g., the segment-like appendage) were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The prey-capture behaviour of these species is described in detail for the first time based on laboratory experiments using Heteromurus nitidus (Templeton, 1835) (Collembola) as prey...

  9. Introducing of the methods of pollutants detecting and species used as experiment organisms in testing laboratories (ro

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    Romeo T. Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish are vertebrate animals often used in research for wastewaters, environment chemicals, cancer and diabetes drugs due to their speed and ease for handling and obtaining test results. Organisms capacity to detect and avoid contaminated soils reveals soils stressor potential and has an ecological relevance indepted with its direct relationship to soil biodiversity and it’s quality as a habitat for the organism. Soil pollution tests were accomplished on arthropods (Collembola, earthworms, oligochaete worms (Enchytraeidae, this being behavior modification tests, observing which species avoids contaminated soils and if response intensity depends on contamination degree. Using Daphnia sp. for testing it’s possible because of their sensibility to an amount of aquatic pollutants and also for their small sizes involving a use of small volumes of test substance and water for dilution.

  10. 热带次生林火烧前后土壤节肢动物群落组成和分布特征的变化%Change on the Comosition and Distribution of Soil Arthropod Community before and afier Burning in the Secondary Forest of Xishuangbanna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨效东; 唐勇; 唐建纬

    2001-01-01

    The effects of controlled burning of slash-and-burn agriculture on soil arthropod community of a 7-year tropical secondary forest in Xishuangbanna were studied.The results showed that groups of soil arthropod decreased 28.57%,and individuals of soil arthropod reduced 72.7% after burning.The composition of soil arthropod communities changed as well.The proportion of individuals of Acari,Collembola,Protura in the 0~15cm soil layer and Hymenoptera (ant) in burned leftover increased,and became dominant groups of soil arthropod communities after firing.The vertical structure of soil arthropod communities in secondary forest was disordered.There were much more groups and individuals of soil arthropod in soil bottom than those in soil surface after fire.The diversity of soil arthropod communities decreased after fire.

  11. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

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    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  12. Long-term multifactorial climate change impacts on mesofaunal biomass and nitrogen content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård, Mette; Dyrnum, Kristine; Michelsen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration accompanied by temperature increases and altered precipitation patterns calls for assessment of long-term effects of these climatic changes on soil organisms that are essential for ecosystem functioning. In a long-term, full-factorial climate change...... microbial N content and enchytraeid biomass. The biomass of all mesofaunal groups was reduced by spring drought, especially when combined with warming. Enchytraeid and especially collembolan biomass suffered greater drought declines than mite biomasses. We conclude that under long-term elevated CO2 exposure...... field experiment, with factors elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, warming and prolonged summer drought, we assessed the responses of Collembola, oribatid and mesostigmatic mites and enchytraeid worms after 8 years of treatment. Both the biomasses and N content of oribatid and mesostigmatic mites...

  13. Land use effect on soil meso and macro-organisms in Quindio coffee zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meso and macro-organisms communities in different agro-ecosystems were evaluated on the Colombian coffee region (Quindio) during the second semester of 1997. Soil samples were taken at 10 cm of deep and the Berlese funnel apparatus was used for evaluations. The agro-ecosystems were Guadual (Guadua angustifolia), traditional and technical coffee, citrus, and cassava crops, cattle ranching (extensive and intensive systems). A total of twenty taxonomic groups were identified. The most abundant and common specimens were ants, acari, collembola and diplura. The greatest diversity and abundance of organisms were registered on the G. angustifolia and coffee agro-ecosystems. The opposite tendency was observed on the cattle ranching due to physical degradation, associated to soil compacting

  14. Alimentación en Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Fillipelo, Ana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary categories of a population of Melanophryniscus stelzneri are studied cuantitatively and cualitatively utilizing a sample of 57 specimens obtained from "El Trapiche", province of San Luis, Argentine, in order to know the grade of trophic overlap and predation strategies. The main alimentary categories for males and females are: Formicidae, Collembola, Acari, Coleoptera, Isoptera and larvae. Although the diets of both sexes show a high grade of trophic overlap, males and females differ in the amount of each resource used. Adults and juveniles present a low grade of trophic overlap. The juveniles follow the "widely foraging" strategy and the adults follow an intermidiate one, between "sit and wait" and "widely foraging".

  15. diet composition of the salamander lyciasalamandra luschani basoglui on the greek island of kastellorizo in the southeast aegean sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    the diet composition of the lycian salamander lyciasalamandra luschani basoglui across both age and sex groups was studied.specimens were collected from a small island in the southeast aegean sea.the dominant prey group of juveniles consisted of collembola,while coleoptera dominated the diet of males and females.the number and size of prey items consumed by males and females of l.luschani basoglui were quite similar,while juveniles ate fewer items of much smaller size.the numerical abundance along with the four measures of the size of prey permitted discrimination among males,females and juveniles.although discrimination between adults and juveniles is expected due to dissimilarity in body size,discrimination between males and females remains inexplicable despite their similarity in body size.future studies should be focused on understanding how and why prey choice differs between sexes in l.luschani basoglui.

  16. 根结线虫生防资源概况及进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝明亮; 李天飞; 张克勤; 夏振远

    2004-01-01

    根结线虫(Meloidogyne spp.)作为农业生产上的一类重要病原物,其生物防治受到了人们的日益重视.根结线虫生防天敌资源包括食线虫菌物(Nematophagous fungi)、专性寄生细菌(0bligate endoparasidc bacteria)、根际细菌(Rhizobacteria)、放线菌(Actinomycetes)、病毒(Viruses)、立克次氏体(Rickettsia)、原生动物(Protozoa)、水熊(Tardigrade)、扁虫(Turbellarians)、螨类(Mites)、跳虫(Collembola)、Enchytraids以及捕食性线虫(Predaciousnematodes)等,对它们进行了简要概述.

  17. MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SIRET RIVER FROM HARGHITA, MARAMUREŞ AND VRANCEA MOUNTAINS AND MOLDOVEI PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  18. Fate and effects of lindane in a chickpea field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of lindane on non-target organisms and the concentrations of its residues in soil and the chickpea crop were investigated over three years. Lindane had adverse effects on some elements of the ecosystem. Ants (Formicidae), spiders (Aranae) and beetles (Carabidae), to a lesser extent, were more affected than Collembola. Organic matter, buried in non-degradable open-mesh bags in the plots, was slightly more degraded in the control plots than in the sprayed plots suggesting that the soil microflora and microfauna had been inhibited by the lindane. However, it was shown by chemical analyses that lindane was degraded in both soils and plants to one tenth of the original concentrations after application in 2 months and 1 month, respectively. Some concentrations (0.2-1.2 mg kg-1) of lindane were found in the harvested grain of the chickpea plants. (author). 1 ref., 6 tabs

  19. Un nuevo Trechus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechini hipogeo de la Sierra de Parapanda (Andalucía, España: taxonomía, sistemática y biología

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    Ortuño, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new hypogean Trechus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechini from Sierra de Parapanda (Andalucía, España: taxonomy, systematics and biology Sampling of arthropod fauna by pitfall traps in the cavern ‘Sima de San Rafael’ in Íllora (Granada, Spain has revealed a new carabid beetle species, Trechus parapandus n. sp., with remarkable troglobiomorphic characteristics: eyes visible only as scars, depigmentation, and elongation of antennae and legs. In consonance with these characteristics, this new species, Trechus parapandus n. sp. is absent in the upper region of the cave. The species belongs to the Trechus fulvus species group (that has five species in Andalusia according to the characteristics of both male and female genitalia. Study of the fauna in the cave suggests that Collembola might be the prey of this new species since they are the most abundant group and have a coincidental phenology. A key for the 11 Trechus species present in Andalusia is provided.

  20. Entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India

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    O.T. Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary revealed the occurrence of 170 species of insects belonging to 39 families under nine orders. The Order Coleoptera was dominant with a maximum of 70 species followed by Thysanoptera and Odonata with 23 species each. Orthoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were respectively 18, 13 and eight species. Seven species were known to the order Diptera and only five species were encountered for Hemiptera. Two species of Dictyoptera viz., Cryptocera sp. and Mantis sp. were also collected. Overall, 39 species of insects hitherto known only from other states, were recorded for the first time from Arunachal Pradesh through the present collection. This study is the first of its kind to collect and document the insects of the Sanctuary.

  1. Terrestrial cave invertebrates of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains

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    PETAR BERON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biospeleological research in Bulgaria started in 1921 in the Ledenika Cave. From 65 caves of “Vrachanski Balkan” Nature Park and its surroundings have been recorded a total of 218 species of terrestrial invertebrates, including 32 species of troglobionts, most of them endemic to Vrachanska Planina Mts. (including the caves near Lakatnik: Isopoda Oniscoidea – 4, Chilopoda – 1, Diplopoda – 5, Opiliones – 2, Pseudoscorpiones – 3, Araneae – 3, Collembola – 2, Diplura – 2, Coleoptera, Carabidae – 7, Coleoptera, Leiodidae – 3. Troglobites are known from 51 caves, the richest being the caves near Lakatnik (Temnata dupka - 10, Zidanka - 7, Razhishkata dupka - 5, Svinskata dupka - 6, Kozarskata peshtera - 5, near Vratsa (Ledenika - 11, Barkite 8 - 5, Belyar - 6, Toshova dupka near Glavatsi - 6 and others.

  2. Research Advances on Phylogeny of Hexapoda with a New Classification System%六足总纲系统发育研究进展与新分类系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁锋; 袁向群

    2006-01-01

    简要综述了昆虫分纲、分目的历史变化,包括昆虫分目多少的变化,昆虫是纲级还是总纲级阶元的变化,昆虫各目分类地位系统排列的变化以及六足总纲系统发育研究进展.根据近10年来形态特征与分子测序数据相结合的系统发育研究,整理出六足总纲与系统发育支序分析相一致的分类系统,对昆虫35目的分类运用了10个分类阶元.在此基础上,删减次要分类阶元,提出简明分类系统,既反映每个高级分类单元的单系性,明晰各目的共祖近度,又减少了分类阶元层次,方便各分类单元的识别与鉴定.六足总纲Hexapoda分为4纲: 原尾纲Protura(包括蚖目Acerentomata、华蚖目Sinentomata、古蚖目Eosentomata),弹尾纲Collembola (包括弹尾目Collembola),双尾纲Diplura (包括双尾目Diplura),昆虫纲Insecta.昆虫纲分为单髁亚纲Subclass Monocondylia(包括石蛃目Archaeognatha)与双髁亚纲Subclass Dicondylia.双髁亚纲分为衣鱼部Division Zygentoma (包括衣鱼目Zygentoma)与有翅部Division Pterygota.有翅部分为10个总目、27目.

  3. Characterization of soil microarthropod communities in Italian beech forest

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    Conti, F. D.; Menta, C.; Piovesan, G.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of soil organisms to ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient recycling and the maintenance of physico-chemical properties is well recognised, as is the fact that soil fauna plays an important role in the formation and stabilisation of soil structure. The diversity of soil fauna includes a quarter of described living species, the majority of which are insects and arachnids. Soil fauna plays an essential role in forests and agro-ecosystems by maintaining their functionality and productivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiversity of soil microarthropods communities in different Italian beech forest. Particular attention is paid to the role of fossorial microarthropods in the maintenance of soil structure and in the organic matter movements. Three beech forests are studied, two located in the North and one in the Centre of Italy. Microarthropods are extracted from litter and soil with a Berlese-Tullgren funnel, identified to order level (class level for myriapods) and counted using a microscope. Relative order abundance and biodiversity are expressed using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H) and evenness index (J). Soil biological quality is expressed using the QBS-ar index and Acari/Collembola ratio. The results show a richness of microarthropods: several orders, till 19 different groups, are determined and identified. Acari and collembola are the main represented taxa and, especially in litter samples, pseudoscorpions, different specimens of diplopods (or millipedes) and chilopods (centipedes) are found. Thus the presence in particular of diplopods offers the possibility of studying fossorial microarthropods functions in detail. Furthermore, both in soil and in litter samples, adapted groups are recognized, such as pauropods, symphyla, proturans and diplurans, with specific morphological characteristics that these species suited to soil habitat. Therefore they attest a good level of soil quality and high natural value

  4. Artrópodos presentes en nidos de cotorra Myiopsitta monachus monachus (Aves: Psittacidae Arthropods in Monk Parakeet nests (Aves: Psittacidae

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    Rosana Aramburú

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es comunicar una lista de la artropodofauna que se encuentra en los nidos de cotorra (Myiopsitta monachus monachus en distintas localidades de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se colectó un nido y 43 camas de material vegetal fresco que las cotorras depositan en las cámaras de cría. Se extrajeron los artrópodos, que se identificaron bajo lupa binocular y se caracterizaron por su nicho trófico. Se encontraron especies de la clase Arachnida (Acarina, Pseudoescorpionida y Araneae, principalmente depredadoras y hematófagas; mientras que dentro de la clase Insecta se encontraron especies hematófagas, depredadoras, detritívoras, fitófagas, nectarívoras, y xilófagas. Los órdenes más representados fueron Diptera (8 familias y Coleoptera (12 familias. El resto de las especies pertenecieron a los órdenes Collembola, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera y Lepidoptera.The objective of this work is to communicate a list of artropodofauna which is in Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus monachus nests at several localities in Buenos Aires province. One nest and 43 beds of fresh green material that the Monk Parakeets deposited in the breeding chamber were collected. Arthropods were extracted, identified under binocular microscope, and characterized by their diets. Species were found whitin class Arachnida (Acarina, Pseudoescorpionida and Araneae, mainly predators and hematophagous. Within class Insecta, were found blood-sucking species, predators, detritivores, phytophagous, nectarivorous, and xilophagous, among others. The orders most represented were Diptera (8 families and Coleoptera (12 families. The rest of the species belonged to the orders Collembola, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera.

  5. Aquatic insects of New York salt marsh associated with mosquito larval habitat and their potential utility as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonomic survey of salt marsh aquatic insects on Long Island, New York, USA and to evaluate their utility for non-target pesticide impacts and environmental biomonitoring. A total of 18 species from 11 families and five orders were collected repeatedly during the five month study period. Diptera was the most diverse order with nine species from four families, followed by Coleoptera with four species from two families, Heteroptera with three species from three families, then Odonata and the hexapod Collembola with one species each. Water boatmen, Trichocorixa verticalis Fieber (Heteroptera: Corixidae) and a shore fly, Ephydra subopaca Loew (Diptera: Ephydridae), were the two most commonly encountered species. An additional six species; Anurida maritima Guérin-Méneville (Collembola: Neanuridae), Mesovelia mulsanti White (Heteroptera: Mesovelidae), Enochrus hamiltoni Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Tropisternus quadristriatus Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Dasyhelea pseudocincta Waugh and Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and Brachydeutera argentata Walker (Diptera: Ephydridae), were found regularly. Together with the less common Erythrodiplax berenice Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae), these nine species were identified as the most suitable candidates for pesticide and environmental impact monitoring due to abundance, position in the food chain, and extended seasonal occurrence. This study represents a first step towards developing an insect-based index of biological integrity for

  6. Variabilidade diária da zonação da macrofauna bentônica em praias arenosas do litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul Daily zonation variation of sandy beach benthic macrofauna in north coast of the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Frederico Monteiro Neves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a variação diária da zonação da macrofauna bentônica nas praias de Tramandaí, Harmonia e Jardim do Éden, Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas foram feitas ao longo de cinco dias consecutivos, utilizando-se um tubo de PVC de 20 cm de diâmetro. Foram demarcadas três transversais distantes 50 m uma da outra, com 4 estações de coleta e três amostras cada. As estações se estenderam desde 8 m acima do limite superior da zona de varrido (definida a cada dia até 1 m de profundidade. Também foram coletados diariamente dados dos perfis topográficos de cada praia. Os resultados mostraram que a macrofauna bentônica apresenta um padrão de zonação regular ao longo dos dias. O intermareal foi marcado pela presença do isópode Excirolana armata (Dana, 1853 e do poliqueta Euzonus furciferus (Ehlers, 1897. A zona de varrido apresentou grande abundância do caranguejo hipídeo Emerita brasiliensis (Schmitt, 1935, do bivalvo Donax hanleyanus (Philippi, 1842 e do poliqueto Scolelepis gaucha (Orensanz & Gianuca, 1974. As zonas de "surf" e arrebentação interna não apresentaram diferenças na composição de espécies, sendo dominantes os juvenis de D. hanleyanus, Mesodesma mactroides (Deshayes, 1854, o anfípode Phoxocephalopsis zimmeri (Schellenberg, 1931, o poliqueto Hemipodus olivieri (Orensanz & Gianuca, 1974, além do bivalve Donax gemmula (Morrison, 1971. Os resultados indicaram que, apesar do padrão de zonação da macrofauna ter sido regular ao longo do estudo, algumas mudanças na posição vertical das espécies foram observadas, principalmente em função da variação da zona de varrido.This work verified the daily zonation of benthic macrofauna in Tramandaí, Harmonia and Jardim do Éden beaches, north coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, for five consecutive days. Biological data were collected with a PVC core (20 cm diameter along three transects distant 50 m of each other

  7. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

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    Nicholas A Paul

    Full Text Available All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells. To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  8. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    marginalis (Herrich-Schäffer), Serdia concolor Ruckes, Sibaria armata (Dallas) and Taurocerus achilles (Stål). These new records for Colombia are importanst for the understanding of the distributional range of the genera and species involved. PMID:26249877

  9. The Ottoman Capture of Otranto of 1480 in the Italian and Spanish Historiography

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    Roberto MONDOLA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on the analysis of the historiographical debate developed in Italy and Spain during the XVI-XVII centuries about the ottoman invasion of the city of otranto in 1480, then part of the Kingdom of Naples. The aim is to deepen the knowledge of the reasons and consequences of the ottoman conquest through the analysis of relevant works about the topic. The arrival of the troops of Gedik Ahmed Pasha in the summer of 1480 provoked a great impression in the Christian world and proved the profound crisis of Fernando of Aragon’s Kingdom. The invasion was a consequence of the ambitious expansion policy of Mehmet II in the West. Despite the early victories, the ottomans failed to stay in southern Italy, therefore the conquest of otranto was one of the least durable of Mehmet II. This study consists of the analysis of the «otrantinas» works and especially the portraits of the most prominent characters as Alfonso and Fernando of Aragon and Gedik Ahmed of ottoman Realm. The starting point is founded on the first literary evidences as the Liber de situ Iapygiae by Galateo and De bello hydruntino by Giovanni Albino until the Crónica de los turcos by Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas, the Historia pontifical by Gonzalo de Illescas, the Successi dell’armata turchesca by Giovanni Michele Marziano, the Historia de los mártires de la ciudad de otranto by Francisco de Araujo. This work represents the peak of the «otrantina» literature, it was published in Naples in 1631 and it is the only monograph on the subject written in Spanish. It is not just an historical report, but also an apology of the martyrs killed by Turkish for refusing to renounce their Catholic faith.

  10. Assessing a quick monitoring method using rocky intertidal communities as a bioindicator: a multivariate approach in Algeciras Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, J M; Maestre, M J; González, A R; García-Gómez, J C

    2006-05-01

    A multivariate approach was used to test the value of intertidal communities as a bioindicator of environmental conditions at Algeciras Bay, southern Spain. The study area is located in the Strait of Gibraltar and it is subjected to a variety of anthropic impacts. Eight localities (5 inside and 3 outside the bay) were selected, and four transects were undertaken in each locality to characterise the fauna and flora. The spatial distribution of the intertidal species reflected the physico-chemical conditions of Algeciras Bay. The stations located outside the bay, characterised by high hydrodynamism and dissolved oxygen and low sedimentation and turbidity, had a higher diversity and species richness than the inner stations. According to the BIO-ENV procedure and CCA, water turbidity was the factor which best correlated with the intertidal assemblages. SIMPER showed that the molluscs Chtamalus stellatus, Mytilus cf edulis, Littorina neritoides and Balanus perforatus, and the algae Gelidium pusillum, Corallina elongata, Asparagopsis armata, Colpomenia sinuosa and Fucus spiralis were the species that most contributed to the dissimilarity between internal and external sites. The present study, based on the spatial distribution of intertidal taxa, yielded similar results to those previously obtained in the area with costly physico-chemical analysis based on complex matrices of subtidal epifaunal communities. Consequently, the intertidal sampling method proposed in this study is presented here as a quick, effective alternative strategy, and can be useful in environmental monitoring programs, since these communities are easily accessible and amenable to sample, and the sessile nature of the majority of the species makes future, long-term monitoring relatively simple. PMID:16779601

  11. Selective habitat utilisation and impact on vegetation by African elephant within a heterogeneous landscape

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    A. Steyn

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, a total of 33 elephants have been reintroduced to a 31 000 ha game-fenced section of the Songimvelo Game Reserve in the Barberton Mountainland, South Africa. The impact from elephant was assessed on the attainment of the primary management objectives which are the conservation of plant community and plant species diversity. A total of 160 semi-quantitative plots were systematically sampled along foraging paths. Vegetation was assessed in terms of dominant species composition and species utilised. Elephant activity is mostly confined to a rugged 1 200 ha portion of the reserve. Forest, thickets and woodlands are positively selected, whereas shrublands and grasslands are little utilised. A total of 73 woody species were recorded within the sample plots. Thirtynine of these species were utilised in the woodlands, 31 in the forest and thickets, and only 18 in the shrublands. Acacia ataxacantha, Dalbergia armata and Acacia caffra are ranked highest in dominance and in utilisation values. In contrast, Cussonia spicata and Pterocarpus angolensis are less common but are much selected. Continued utilisation at present levels could significantly threaten their persistence. These preliminary results indicate that the present low overall density of elephants relative to many other conservation areas already has a marked effect on certain plant species. Absolute elephant density figures are relatively meaningless within a heterogeneous landscape. The specific community and species make-up of the landscape needs to be taken into account for the determination of bounds to elephant numbers in order to ensure the maintenance of present plant species diversity levels.

  12. Diet and activity pattern of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico: effects of habitat fragmentation and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor

    2007-09-01

    Accelerated deforestation is causing the rapid loss and fragmentation of primary habitat for primates. Although the genus Alouatta is one of the most studied primate taxa under these circumstances, some results are contradictory and responses of howlers to habitat fragmentation are not yet clear. In this paper, we conduct a cross-study of the available researches on mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata) in forest fragments in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, to (1) describe the diet and activity pattern of howlers; (2) analyze the similarity in the diet across studies; and (3) relate both fragment size and howler population density with different characteristics of their diet, home range size, and activity pattern. Howlers consumed 181 plant species belonging to 54 families. Ficus was the most important taxa in the howlers' diet, followed by primary species such as Pterocarpus rohrii, Nectandra ambigens, Poulsenia armata, and Brosimum alicastrum. Secondary and non-secondary light-demanding plant species, which are representatives of disturbed habitat, contributed with a high percentage of their feeding time. Only 23% of the species consumed were the same across all the studies, suggesting that howlers adapt their diet to the food availability of their respective habitats. Population density is the best predictor of howlers' ecological and behavioral changes in response to forest fragmentation, probably owing to its relationship with food availability. Howlers respond to the increase in population densities by increasing the (1) diversity of food species in the diet; (2) consumption of non-tree growth forms; and (3) consumption of new plant items. Home range size is also predicted by population density, but fragment size is a better predictor, probably owing to the fact that howler groups can overlap their home ranges. Our results emphasize the importance of conserving the larger fragments and increasing the size of small and medium-sized ones.

  13. Ecological risks of Aluminum production and contaminated area by red mud in Western Hungary (Ajka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Oqil; Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András; Winkler, Dániel

    2016-04-01

    In October 2010, Hungary experienced one of the most severe environmental disasters: the dam wall of a red mud depository of an alumina plant in collapsed and more than 1 million m3 of toxic sludge flooded the surrounding area. Red mud is a strongly alkaline (pH of 9-12.5) by-product due to the high NaOH content. Apart from residual minerals and oxides, its components also include heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ni, Co. As it has already been assessed, red mud had considerable effect on soil properties and thus on soil biodiversity. The aim of our study was to determine the aftereffects of red mud pollution on the soil mesofauna (Collembola). Study plots were selected in the area affected by the toxic flood, in agricultural and grassland habitats, at different distances (0.3 to 12.5 km) from the contamination source. Control plots of each habitat types were selected for comparative analyses. Soil samples were taken during the summer of 2015, five years after the red mud disaster. From each of the selected plots, 5 soil cores of 100 cm3 volume (3.6 cm in diameter and 10 cm in depth) were sampled from which springtails were extracted within 14 days using a modified Tullgren apparatus. Simultaneously with the Collembola sampling, we collected soil samples on each plots in order to determine soil properties (pH, CaCO3, particle size distribution) and the degree of heavy metal pollution. 25 heavy metals were measured (including total Hg) following the method of total (cc. HNO3 + H2O2-soluble) and bioavailable (NH4-acetate + EDTA-soluble) element content using ICP-OES and AMA 254. The studied habitats presented neutral to moderately alkaline soils (pH 7.2-8.1). Total metal content was higher in the plots formerly affected by red mud flood. The Hg concentration ranged from 0.023 to 1.167 mg.kg-1, exceeding the threshold concentration (0.5 mg.kg-1) defined by Hungarian legislation for toxic trace metals in soil. The collected 1442 Collembola specimens belong to 32

  14. Microartrópodos como indicadores de disturbio antrópico en entisoles del área recreativa de Miramar, Argentina Microarthropods as indicators of anthropic disturbance in entisols in a recreational area of Miramar, Argentina

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    Natalia A Fredes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En áreas recreativas el tránsito humano provoca alteraciones en el horizonte superficial del suelo, destruyendo parte o la totalidad de éste, reduciendo la porosidad y modificando el microambiente edáfico. La mesofauna edáfica, por habitar principalmente en los horizontes superficiales del suelo, resulta ser un buen indicador de este impacto antrópico. Se evaluó la distribución de ácaros oribátidos y colémbolos de suelo frente al impacto del tránsito humano en el área recreativa del Vivero Dunícola "Florentino Ameghino" de Miramar, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se consideraron tres zonas de impacto: máximo, medio y mínimo. Se extrajeron los microartrópodos y se determinaron hasta nivel de especie colémbolos y oribátidos. Se calculó riqueza específica, diversidad y paridad por sitio y horizonte. Se realizó un análisis de correspondencia y se elaboró un índice de impacto teniendo en cuenta los diferentes horizontes y la frecuencia de especies. Se hallaron 29 especies de ácaros oribátidos y 19 especies de colémbolos. La diversidad (H´ fue significativamente diferente entre los sitios de máximo y de mínimo impacto. El análisis factorial de correspondencia definió tres grupos de acuerdo al grado de alteración de los horizontes superficiales y las características pedológicas (horizonte orgánico o mineral. El índice de impacto (II M en la zona de mayor tránsito fue II M=9 mientras que en la de mínimo impacto fue II MHuman trampling in recreational areas causes alterations in the soil surface horizon, partially or totally disrupting soil structure, reducing porosity and modifying the edaphic microenvironment. Soil mesofauna, is a good indicator of this human impact since it inhabits mainly soil surface horizons. We evaluated the changes in edaphic oribatid mite (Acari and springtail (Collembola communities sufferering from the impact of human trampling in the recreational area of Vivero Dunícola "Florentino Ameghino

  15. Soil animal communities at five succession stages in the litter of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lan; You Wenhui; Song Yongchang

    2006-01-01

    Soil animals are abundant in forest litter layer,but little attention has been Paid to the vertical distribution of community structure of soil animals in the layers at different plant community succession stages.The forest litter layer can be divided into fresh litter layer(L),fermentation layer(F)and humus layer(H),which may represent different litter decomposition stages.The aim of the study is to ascertain the vertical distribution features of soil animal communities among the three litter layers and the change in the succession process of the Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest(EBLF)in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province,China.Soil animal communities in the five plant communities at different succession stages were investigated during the 2003 winter.Soil animals,which were collected by using Tullgren funnels,amounted to a total of 13381 individuals falling into 2 phyla,8 classes and 20 orders.The dominant groups were Acarina and Collembola,accounting for 94.24% of the total individuals,with the number of Acarina individuals 7.66 times than that of Collembola.The common group was Diptera.The results indicated that there was a distinctive vertical distribution of the soil animal communities in the forest litter laver,but it differed from that in soil below the litter layer.In contrast to those in the soil,the soil animals in the litter layer generally tended to increase in both group abundance and density from the top fresh litter layer to the bottom humus layer.Altogether 19 groups and 59.03% of total individuals were found in the bottom layer,while only 8 groups and 5.35% of the total individuals in the top.Moreover,there were some variations in the distribution of the soil animals at different plant succession stages.85.19% of Homoptera and 100% of Symphyla were found in the litter layer at the climax succession stage.while 75.61% of Thysanoptera at the intermediate succession stage.Therefore,these groups might be seen as indicative groups.The total numbers of soil animal

  16. Seasonal abundance of soil arthropods in relation to meteorological and edaphic factors in the agroecosystems of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Muhammad Mussadiq; Ahmed, Sohail

    2015-05-01

    Soil arthropods are an important component of agroecosystems, contributing significantly to their biodiversity and functioning. However, seasonal patterns, population dynamics, and significant roles of these soil arthropods in improvement of soil structures and functions are influenced by many factors. The objective of the current study was to investigate soil arthropod abundance in relation to a blend of meteorological and edaphic factors and to find out the difference in abundance among various crops (sugarcane, cotton, wheat, alfalfa fodder, and citrus orchards). The arthropod sampling was done by pitfall traps and Tullgren extractions on fortnightly intervals. Soil temperature and relative humidity were noted on the field sites while analysis for soil pH, organic matter, and soil moisture contents were done in the laboratory. The rainfall data was obtained from an observatory. Results showed that significant differences were found in soil arthropod abundance across different sampling months and crops. Out of total 13,673 soil arthropods sampled, 38 % belonged to Collembola, followed by 15 % Hymenoptera, 15 % Acarina, 11 % Myriapods, 6 % Coleoptera, 5 % Orthoptera, and 5 % Araneae. Mean abundance per sample was highest in summer months as compared to winter. Overall abundance per sample was significantly different between all crops ( p < 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed four categories of soil arthropods according to abundance, i.e., highly abundant (Collembola, Acarina, Myripoda, Hymenoptera), moderately abundant (Orthoptera, Aranae, Coleoptera), least abundant (Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Diptera), and rare (Blattaria, Isoptera, Diplura, Lepidoptera). Soil temperature and soil organic matter showed significant positive correlation with abundance, while relative humidity was significantly negatively correlated. Soil moisture and soil pH showed no significant correlations while no correlation was found with total rainfall. PCA analysis revealed that soil surface

  17. Seasonality of insects in the semi-arid Caatinga of northeastern Brazil Sazonalidade de insetos na Caatinga do Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Vasconcellos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are essential to tropical ecosystems functioning. In semi-arid regions, the increase in abundance and/or activity (e.g. reproduction and foraging behavior of insects is usually associated with climatic variables. The present study investigates which climatic variables are best predictors of insect abundance in an area of Caatinga in northeastern Brazil. Individuals were sampled for 24 months using Malaise and pitfall traps, and beating trays. A total of 58925 individuals belonging to 20 insect orders were collected. The most abundant orders were Hymenoptera, Diptera, Collembola and Coleoptera. Most orders studied showed a clear maximum abundance in the rainy season. Rainfall and humidity were the best predictors of insect abundance in the Caatinga. However, no climatic variable could explain Psocoptera and Blattodea variance in abundance/activity. Our results suggest that climatic changes associated with rainfall patterns in the Caatinga may affect ecosystem processes and services that depend direct or indirectly on insect abundance/activity.Os insetos são abundantes e essenciais para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas terrestres tropicais. No entanto, a abundância e/ou atividade (e.g. reprodução ou forrageio destes organismos podem ser fortemente influenciadas pelas variáveis climáticas. Este estudo examina quais as variáveis climáticas podem atuar como preditoras da abundância e/ou atividade dos insetos em uma área de Caatinga do Nordeste brasileiro. Ao longo de 24 meses, os insetos foram coletados mensalmente utilizando armadilhas Malaise, armadilhas tipo "pitfall" e guarda-chuva entomológico. Um total de 58925 indivíduos de 20 ordens foi coletado. As ordens mais abundantes foram Hymenoptera, Diptera, Collembola e Coleoptera. Entre as doze ordens mais abundantes, dez apresentaram os seus maiores picos durante a estação chuvosa. A precipitação e a umidade relativa foram os principais preditores dos padrões de abund

  18. Fauna epigeica em sistemas de produção de Nicotiana tabacum L.

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    Marta Sandra Drescher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O Rio Grande do Sul detém grande relevância na produção de tabaco. Adotam-se três sistemas de manejo: convencional, mínimo e plantio direto. Para analisar o impacto desses sistemas sobre a população da fauna do solo, efetuou-se uma amostragem da fauna epigeica. Foram avaliados preparo convencional (PC, cultivo mínimo (CM e plantio direto (PD, além de área de reconversão da fumicultura para a vitivinicultura (RV e de mata nativa (MN. Na amostragem, foram utilizadas dez armadilhas Provid em cada área. Os atributos avaliados foram: abundância de organismos, riqueza, índice de diversidade (H' e equitabilidade de Shannon (J. Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda foi identificada até o nível de família, devido à sua sensibilidade às modificações do ambiente. Efetuaram-se a análise multivariada de Agrupamento Hierárquico e a Análise de Componentes Principais, e os índices H' e J foram comparados pelo teste t, de Student. O PD apresentou maior número total de organismos, isolando-se das demais áreas pela análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Os valores de riqueza foram muito semelhantes entre as áreas, destacando-se a aproximação entre RV e MN. Os tratamentos PC, PD e RV não diferiram estatisticamente quanto ao H', apresentando valores de 1,58; 1,60; e 1,52, respectivamente. CM apresentou menor valor de H' (1,18 e MN, o valor intermediário (1,33. O comportamento estatístico de J foi muito semelhante ao encontrado em H'. Em relação à Classe Collembola, foram identificadas as famílias Entomobrydae, Sminthuridae, Poduridae e Hipogasturidae. PD apresentou exemplares das quatro famílias identificadas, enquanto nas demais áreas foram identificadas apenas Entomobrydae e Sminthuridae. Pela Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA, as diferenças entre as áreas explicaram 32 % da variabilidade encontrada; desse percentual, 59,3 % foram explicados pelos eixos 1 e 2. A presença ou ausência de revolvimento do solo e a rota

  19. 黄河三角洲土壤动物群落结构特征%STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL ANIMAL COMMUNITY IN THE YELLOW RIVER DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付荣恕; 许士国

    2012-01-01

    本文对黄河三角洲土壤动物群落结构特征进行系统分析,探讨各年代、植被类型土壤动物群落特点及演替过程.研究结果表明,黄河三角洲土壤环境条件恶劣,土壤动物无论从数量上还是从种类上均较贫乏,全区平均密度不足1万,在纲或目分类水平上仅17类群.螨类和跳虫在11个样点中均为优势类群,且每个样点中均只有这两个优势类群.A/C值全区全年平均为2.04,明显大于1.4个季度中,冬季和夏季的A/C值较大,说明螨类对低温或干旱等不利环境适应力和抵抗力强于跳虫.随成土年限或植物群落演替,土壤动物群落均未能表现出明显的演替过程,有必要对土壤动物的分类进一步细化.%Structure characteristics of soil animal community in the Yellow River Delta was studied intensively and systematically, and its structure characteristics and succession process were discussed from each decade and different vegetation type as well. Results show that, the geographical environment of the Yellow River Delta is simple, both species number and quantity of the soil animals are poor, average density of animal is less than 10 thousand individuals in the entire region, and only 17 classes or orders of the soil animals are obtained. Mites and Collembola are the dominant groups in all the 11 sampling sites, and they are the only two dominant groups at each site. The annual average A / C value of the whole area is 2.04, significantly greater than 1. A / C values in winter and summer are comparatively larger in the four quarters of the year, indicating that adaption and resistance of mites to low temperature or drought is stronger than that of Collembola. Succession of the soil animal community failed to show obviously along with the pedogenesis years and succession of plant community , and it is necessary to further refine the classification of soil animals.

  20. Soil invertebrates in southern Brazilian Araucaria forest - grassland mosaic: differences between disturbed and undisturbed areas Invertebrados de solo no mosaico floresta com Araucaria - campos no sul do Brasil: diferenças entre áreas impactadas e não impactadas

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    André Frainer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil invertebrate distribution in Araucaria forest, grassland and edge habitats was studied in both disturbed and undisturbed areas in southern Brazil. Mean-density and taxa compositions were verified. Invertebrate densities differed between grassland and the other two habitats in the undisturbed area but not across the disturbed one. At the disturbed area taxa differed between the grassland and the other two habitats. The undisturbed area, on the other hand, presented taxa differences only between the grassland and the forest habitats. Acari, Arachnida and Collembola were the most sensitive taxa for detecting differences across habitats in both areas. At the disturbed area, these taxa presented densities lowering from the forest to the grassland. At the undisturbed area the same taxa increased from the forest to the grassland. Coleoptera and Formicidae (Insecta presented no difference between habitats at the studied taxonomic level.A distribuição dos invertebrados de solo entre os em ambientes de floresta com Araucaria, borda-de-mata e campo, foi analisada em duas áreas no sul do Brasil: uma reserva ecológica e uma propriedade agrícola. A densidade média e a composição dos principais taxa foram verificadas. A densidade total de invertebrados diferiu entre o campo e os outros dois hábitats na área protegida, mas não na fazenda. A composição dos taxa diferiu entre o hábitat de campo e os outros dois habitats na fazenda, e entre o campo e a mata com Araucaria na área protegida. Acari, Arachnida e Collembola foram os grupos que mais apresentaram diferenças entre os diferentes habitats. Na área alterada (fazenda, esses grupos apresentaram diminuição na densidade na direção da floresta com Araucária para o campo, enquanto que na área protegida suas densidades foram maiores no campo do que na floresta com Araucária. Coleoptera e Formicidae (Insecta não apresentaram diferenças significativas no nível taxonômico estudado.

  1. Evaluation of different agronomic managements on rice mesofauna: a case study in Piedmont (North Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Barzanti, Gian Paolo; Cito, Annarita; Papini, Rossella; Simoni, Sauro; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    parasites groups. Dry land was more suitable to development of bacterial feeders and predators. On the whole, MI values ranged between 2 and 3, registered in organic farming and conventional management, respectively. The Acari represented the main group of microarthropods (about 43%), then Diptera (33%), Collembola (19%) and the others. The only euedaphic groups are Acari and Collembola. The BSQar value was 48 (sBC II) in IPM rice field, 71 in organic farming (sBC II/III), 95 in conventional management (sBC III). On all situation tested, the analysis of soil quality, by the study of mesofauna, reflects low differentiation in the arthropod communities' structure. In general, the results relative to the soil mesofauna biodiversity indicated a quite high level of disturbance and a low level of biodiversity. Future studies on this subject could help preserve, or even enhance, the biodiversity and soil quality.

  2. Combined effect of copper and prolonged summer drought on soil Microarthropods in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil microarthropods experience a large range of natural stressors in their natural environment, e.g. variations in temperature and soil moisture, but also anthropogenic stressors such as soil pollutants. In the present study the combined effect of drought stress and copper pollution on microarthropods was investigated in a field study. We hypothesised that microarthropods in copper polluted soil would be more susceptible to drought than animals in control soil. Surprisingly, the abundance of microarthropods in autumn was positively affected by summer drought and copper pollution did not influence the effect of drought in a negative way. The stimulation was mainly seen as an increase of Acari, but also groups of Collembola were positively affected. We suggest that the positive effect of the enforced summer drought could be due to a rapid recovery, which further is accelerated by an increase of food resources (microbes) which have not been utilized during the drought. - Soil contamination with copper does not cause reduced drought tolerance of microarthropods in the field

  3. The effect of latitudinal gradient on the species diversity of Chinese litter-dwelling thrips

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    Jun Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the global distribution patterns of litter-dwelling thrips, a total 150 leaf litter samples were collected from 6 natural reserves located in three climatic regions, temperate, subtropical and tropical. The results showed the relative abundance of Thysanoptera was over 3.0% in 4 natural reserves from subtropical and tropical zone, and reached 5.9% in one tropical reserve, only less than Acarina and Collembola. In contrast it was only 0.3% in the warm temperate natural reserves, and no thrips were collected in a mid temperate reserve. The order on the average species numbers per plot of litter thrips was tropic > subtropics > temperate (n=25, p<0.05. Mean density of litter thrips per plots in the tropics and subtropics was significantly higher than that in the temperate region (n=25, p<0.05, but the average density was not significantly different between tropical and subtropical zones (n=25, p>0.05. The diversity of litter thrips in the tropics and subtropics was much higher than that in the temperate area based on comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H΄, Pielou eveness index (J, and Simpson dominance index (D. All of these results indicated that litter-dwelling thrips lived mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; meanwhile, species number and relative abundance increased with decreasing latitude.

  4. Gene Family Evolution Reflects Adaptation to Soil Environmental Stressors in the Genome of the Collembolan Orchesella cincta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Anna; Derks, Martijn F L; Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Agamennone, Valeria; Suring, Wouter; Smit, Sandra; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Collembola (springtails) are detritivorous hexapods that inhabit the soil and its litter layer. The ecology of the springtail Orchesella cincta is extensively studied in the context of adaptation to anthropogenically disturbed areas. Here, we present a draft genome of an O. cincta reference strain with an estimated size of 286.8 Mbp, containing 20,249 genes. In total, 446 gene families are expanded and 1,169 gene families evolved specific to this lineage. Besides these gene families involved in general biological processes, we observe gene clusters participating in xenobiotic biotransformation. Furthermore, we identified 253 cases of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Although the largest percentage of them originated from bacteria (37.5%), we observe an unusually high percentage (30.4%) of such genes of fungal origin. The majority of foreign genes are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cellulose degradation. Moreover, some foreign genes (e.g., bacillopeptidases) expanded after HGT. We hypothesize that horizontally transferred genes could be advantageous for food processing in a soil environment that is full of decaying organic material. Finally, we identified several lineage-specific genes, expanded gene families, and horizontally transferred genes, associated with altered gene expression as a consequence of genetic adaptation to metal stress. This suggests that these genome features may be preadaptations allowing natural selection to act on. In conclusion, this genome study provides a solid foundation for further analysis of evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation to environmental stressors. PMID:27289101

  5. Plant and invertebrate assemblages on waste rock at Wangaloa coal mine, Otago, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufaut, C.G.; Hammit, S.; Craw, D.; Clearwater, S.G. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    2006-07-01

    Natural regeneration on waste rock was investigated at the old Wangaloa coal mine, south-east Otago. A 450-m long waste rock stack had been created 40-50 years ago, and has had little anthropogenic intervention since. The stack is made up of a gradient of three main waste rock types, defined as 'silt-rich', 'mixed', and I quartz-rich, which reflect different proportions of loess siltstone and quartz gravel conglomerate. Plant species assemblages were quantified in four 5-m{sup 2} quadrats in each waste rock type. Invertebrates were heat extracted from substrate cores (7 cm diameter; depth 5 cm) collected from quadrats over an eight-week period in spring 2003. Ordination analysis showed statistically distinct plant and invertebrate assemblages had arisen on each waste rock type. Revegetation patterns were dominated by native, woody individuals on all waste rock types, particularly manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and kanuka (Kunzea ericoides). Plant cover on 'silt-rich' waste rock was four-fold that on 'quartz-rich' waste rock. Total numbers of invertebrates were highest on 'quartz-rich' waste rock, but richness greatest on 'silt-rich' waste rock. Collembola dominated the fauna but their numbers were proportionally greatest in poorly vegetated areas. Further work is required to explain the absence of plants and invertebrates from local areas of waste rock.

  6. Soil arthropods as test organisms for ecotoxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglisch, I.

    1981-02-01

    The importance of arthropods - organisms which usually grow in masses - for soil biology depends on their capacity to participate in the continuous transformation of organic substances within the relevant biocenosis and thus to take part in the maintenance of the ecological balance. In ecotoxicology, i.e. the science of substances having a detrimental effect on the natural balance of ecosystems, we try to find ways to evaluate risk of substances hazardous to the environment. In principle, biocenoses would offer themselves in their entirety as appropriate test objects for ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals. Since it will not yet be possible in the near future to carry out this kind of studies, individual organisms proved as representatives of terrestial biotopes have to be chosen for these purposes. Primarily, Collembola, Coleoptera, and Diptera (larvae) are part of the meso- and macrofauna of soil arthropods or soil insects according to the experience made up to now in respect of their importance for soil biology. Representatives of such organisms should be used to develop test procedures to indicate damage even of a subacute, chronic nature or the impairment of their functional performance the maintance of which is a prerequisite for the ecological balance.

  7. An automated image analysis system to measure and count organisms in laboratory microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, François; Le Bourlot, Vincent; Tully, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    1. Because of recent technological improvements in the way computer and digital camera perform, the potential use of imaging for contributing to the study of communities, populations or individuals in laboratory microcosms has risen enormously. However its limited use is due to difficulties in the automation of image analysis. 2. We present an accurate and flexible method of image analysis for detecting, counting and measuring moving particles on a fixed but heterogeneous substrate. This method has been specifically designed to follow individuals, or entire populations, in experimental laboratory microcosms. It can be used in other applications. 3. The method consists in comparing multiple pictures of the same experimental microcosm in order to generate an image of the fixed background. This background is then used to extract, measure and count the moving organisms, leaving out the fixed background and the motionless or dead individuals. 4. We provide different examples (springtails, ants, nematodes, daphnia) to show that this non intrusive method is efficient at detecting organisms under a wide variety of conditions even on faintly contrasted and heterogeneous substrates. 5. The repeatability and reliability of this method has been assessed using experimental populations of the Collembola Folsomia candida. 6. We present an ImageJ plugin to automate the analysis of digital pictures of laboratory microcosms. The plugin automates the successive steps of the analysis and recursively analyses multiple sets of images, rapidly producing measurements from a large number of replicated microcosms. PMID:23734199

  8. Population fluctuation in soil meso- and macrofauna by the successive application of pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pig farming has increased in recent years, resulting in the production of a large quantity of liquid manure, which can be used as a source of organic fertiliser. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of pig slurry on the community of soil fauna in a system of direct seeding. The study was carried out in an experimental area in the town of Taquaruçu do Sul, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a (4 + 1 x 4 factorial scheme, comprising five fertilisation treatments, 0 (no fertiliser, 20, 40 and 80 m3 of pig slurry ha-1 and one additional treatment (mineral fertiliser, with four evaluations corresponding to the number of slurry application (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th application, and four replications. The soil fauna was sampled using PROVID traps. The following were evaluated: the relative frequency of the groups of soil fauna, the populations of springtails and mites, density, richness, Simpson's dominance index and the Shannon diversity index. The populations of mites and springtails, and indices of diversity, richness and dominance are influenced by the successive application of pig slurry. Successive applications of pig slurry increase the diversity of the soil fauna by reducing the population of organisms of the Order Collembola. Canonical correlation analysis showed an association between the number of springtails and 80 m3 of pig slurry ha-1 after the third application.

  9. Invertebrates associated with a horizontal-flow, subsurface constructed wetland in a northern climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Rosanna; Weber, Everett; Darby, Brian J; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Murray, Robert E; Drizo, Aleksandra

    2014-04-01

    Wetlands function as buffers between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, filtering pollutants generated by human activity. Constructed wetlands were developed to mimic the physical and biological filtering functions of natural systems for the treatment of human and animal waste under controlled conditions. Previous studies on the effect of constructed wetlands on native invertebrate populations have concentrated almost exclusively on mosquitoes. Here, we present the first study investigating the relationship between vegetation cover and aeration regime, and the diversity and abundance of nematodes and springtails (Collembola) in a constructed wetland designed to treat dairy farm wastewater in northwestern Vermont. We investigated four treatment cells differing in aeration regime and vegetation cover, but equally overlaid by a layer of compost to provide insulation. Analysis showed that nematodes were most abundant in the nonplanted and nonaerated cells, and that bacterivorous nematodes dominated the community in all cells. Springtails were found to be most numerous in the planted and nonaerated cells. We hypothesize that the vegetation provided differing environmental niches that supported a more diverse system of bacteria and fungi, as well as offering protection from predators and inclement weather. Nematodes were likely imported with the original compost material, while springtails migrated into the cells either via air, water, or direct locomotion. PMID:24534015

  10. Seed dressing pesticides on springtails in two ecotoxicological laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Paulo Roger L; Cardoso, Elke J B N; Martines, Alexandre M; Sousa, José Paulo; Pasini, Amarildo

    2014-07-01

    Terrestrial ecotoxicological tests are powerful tools for assessing the ecological risks that pesticides pose to soil invertebrates, but they are rarely used to evaluate seed dressing pesticides. This study investigated the effects of seed dressing pesticides on survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida (Collembola), using standardized ecotoxicological tests (after ISO guidelines with few adaptations for tropical conditions). Commercial formulations of five seed dressing pesticides were tested individually in Tropical Artificial Soil (TAS): the insecticides imidacloprid, fipronil, thiametoxam, and the fungicides captan and carboxin+thiram. Thiametoxam, captan, and carboxin+thiram were only lethal to F. candida at the highest concentration tested (1000mg of active ingredient kg(-1) of dry soil). Imidacloprid and fipronil were lethal at lower concentrations (100 and 10mg a.i. kg(-1) soil d.w, respectively), however, these concentrations were much higher than those predicted (PEC) for soil. Imidacloprid and fipronil were the most toxic pesticides in both tests, reducing significantly collembolan reproduction (EC20=0.02 and 0.12mga.i.kg(-1) soil d.w, respectively). Further studies under more realistic conditions are needed, since imidacloprid and fipronil reduced collembolan reproduction at concentrations below or close to their respective PECs. PMID:24785712

  11. Abundance of epigaeic arthropods in a Brazilian savanna under different fire frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Uehara-Prado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a major determinant of structure and dynamics in savannas, and the rapid increase of human activities in this biome has changed the natural burning regime. The effects of fire on the fauna of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna are still poorly understood, and studies comparing sites frequently and infrequently burned are scarce. In this study, the abundance of epigaeic arthropod orders and trophic guilds was assessed in cerrado sites located in the Brazilian Central Plateau that were subjected to three burning frequencies: frequent (HighFi, intermediary (MidFi, and infrequent (LowFi. In general, we found a positive relationship between the abundance of epigaeic arthropods and fire frequency. When arthropods were analyzed by orders, the abundance of Collembola and Orthoptera was lower in the LowFi site, while for Hemiptera, it was higher in the MidFi site. No significant differences were found for Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Araneae. The abundance of detritivores and herbivores decreased from HighFi to LowFi, but did not change significantly for omnivores and predators. These results indicate that some arthropod groups may not only be resilient to fire effects, but actually might benefit from fire effects in the cerrado. Characterizing arthropod responses to burning frequency at high taxonomic or functional levels is important for applied studies. Based on the results of the current study, springtails and ants seem to be particularly appropriate focal groups for further exploratory studies on the effects of fire at the species level.

  12. Wetting resistance at its topographical limit: the benefit of mushroom and serif T structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, René; Helbig, Ralf; Aland, Sebastian; Braun, Hans-Georg; Voigt, Axel; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2013-01-29

    Springtails (Collembola) are wingless arthropods adapted to cutaneous respiration in temporarily rain-flooded habitats. They immediately form a plastron, protecting them against suffocation upon immersion into water and even low-surface-tension liquids such as alkanes. Recent experimental studies revealed a high-pressure resistance of such plastrons against collapse. In this work, skin sections of Orthonychiurus stachianus are studied by transmission electron microscopy. The micrographs reveal cavity side-wall profiles with characteristic overhangs. These were fitted by polynomials to allow access for analytical and numerical calculations of the breakthrough pressure, that is, the barrier against plastron collapse. Furthermore, model profiles with well-defined geometries were used to set the obtained results into context and to develop a general design principle for the most robust surface structures. Our results indicate the decisive role of the sectional profile of overhanging structures to form a robust heterogeneous wetting state for low-surface-tension liquids that enables the omniphobicity. Furthermore, the design principles of mushroom and serif T structures pave the way for omniphobic surfaces with a high-pressure resistance irrespective of solid surface chemistry. PMID:23278566

  13. An automated image analysis system to measure and count organisms in laboratory microcosms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mallard

    Full Text Available 1. Because of recent technological improvements in the way computer and digital camera perform, the potential use of imaging for contributing to the study of communities, populations or individuals in laboratory microcosms has risen enormously. However its limited use is due to difficulties in the automation of image analysis. 2. We present an accurate and flexible method of image analysis for detecting, counting and measuring moving particles on a fixed but heterogeneous substrate. This method has been specifically designed to follow individuals, or entire populations, in experimental laboratory microcosms. It can be used in other applications. 3. The method consists in comparing multiple pictures of the same experimental microcosm in order to generate an image of the fixed background. This background is then used to extract, measure and count the moving organisms, leaving out the fixed background and the motionless or dead individuals. 4. We provide different examples (springtails, ants, nematodes, daphnia to show that this non intrusive method is efficient at detecting organisms under a wide variety of conditions even on faintly contrasted and heterogeneous substrates. 5. The repeatability and reliability of this method has been assessed using experimental populations of the Collembola Folsomia candida. 6. We present an ImageJ plugin to automate the analysis of digital pictures of laboratory microcosms. The plugin automates the successive steps of the analysis and recursively analyses multiple sets of images, rapidly producing measurements from a large number of replicated microcosms.

  14. The effects of heavy metal contamination on the soil arthropod community of a shooting range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliorini, Massimo; Pigino, Gaia; Bianchi, Nicola; Bernini, Fabio; Leonzio, Claudio

    2004-05-01

    Soils in clay pigeon shooting ranges can be seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The pellets contained in ammunition are composed of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu. The total concentrations of these metals in soils, and the effects of their increasing levels on the arthropod community were investigated at seven sampling sites in a clay pigeon shooting range and compared with two controls. Research revealed that the spatial distribution of Pb and Sb contamination in the shot-fall area was strongly correlated with the flight path of the pellets. Ordination obtained through Redundance Analysis showed that Collembola, Protura and Diplura were positively correlated with major detected contaminants (Pb, Sb), while Symphyla showed a negative correlation with these pollutants. Determination of the soluble lead fraction in soil, and of its bioaccumulation in the saprophagous Armadillidium sordidum (Isopoda) and the predator Ocypus olens (Coleoptera), showed that a significant portion of metallic Pb from spent pellets is bioavailable in the soil and can be bioaccumulated by edaphic organisms, entering the soil trophic network, but without biomagnification. - Significant relationships were found between lead accumulation in soil from a shooting range and inhabiting arthropod communities.

  15. Effects of inter-row management intensity on wild bee, plant and soil biota diversity in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.; Buchholz, Jacob; Querner, Pascal; Strauß, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Stiper, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Vineyards may provide a range of essential ecosystem services, which interact with a diverse community of above- and belowground organisms. Intensive soil management like frequent tilling has resulted in the degradation of habitat quality with consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study is part of the European BiodivERsA project "VineDivers - Biodiversity-based ecosystem services in vineyards". We study the effects of different soil management intensities on above- and below-ground biodiversity (plants, insect pollinators, and soil biota), their interactions and the consequences for ecosystem services. We investigated 16 vineyards in Austria assessing the diversity of (1) wild bees using a semi-quantitative transect method, (2) earthworms by hand sorting, (3) Collembola (springtails) via pitfall trapping and soil coring, (4) plants by relevés and (5) litter decomposition (tea bag method). Management intensity differed in tillage frequency from intermediate intensity resulting in temporary vegetation cover to no tillage in permanent vegetation cover systems. First results show opposed relationships between the biodiversity of selected species groups and management intensity. We will discuss possible explanations and evaluate ecological interactions between wild bee, plant and soil biota diversity.

  16. Combined effect of copper and prolonged summer drought on soil Microarthropods in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrup, Martin [Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: martin.holmstrup@dmu.dk; Maraldo, Kristine [Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Krogh, Paul Henning [Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)

    2007-03-15

    Soil microarthropods experience a large range of natural stressors in their natural environment, e.g. variations in temperature and soil moisture, but also anthropogenic stressors such as soil pollutants. In the present study the combined effect of drought stress and copper pollution on microarthropods was investigated in a field study. We hypothesised that microarthropods in copper polluted soil would be more susceptible to drought than animals in control soil. Surprisingly, the abundance of microarthropods in autumn was positively affected by summer drought and copper pollution did not influence the effect of drought in a negative way. The stimulation was mainly seen as an increase of Acari, but also groups of Collembola were positively affected. We suggest that the positive effect of the enforced summer drought could be due to a rapid recovery, which further is accelerated by an increase of food resources (microbes) which have not been utilized during the drought. - Soil contamination with copper does not cause reduced drought tolerance of microarthropods in the field.

  17. The effects of PAH contamination on soil invertebrate communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow-Ashbrook, J.L.; Erstfeld, K.M. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Soils were collected from an abandoned industrial site to study the effects of historic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on soil invertebrate communities. Nematode abundance and diversity, microarthropod abundance (orders Collembola and Acarina) and earthworm growth were evaluated. Physical and chemical characteristics of soils may affect both invertebrate community structure and the mobility/bioavailability of pollutants in soils. Soil characteristics were measured and included with PAH data in multiple regression analyses to identify factors which influences the responses observed in the soil invertebrate community. Positive associations were observed between eight invertebrate community endpoints and soil PAH content. For all of these endpoints but one, a higher degree of variability was explained when both PAH content and soil characteristics were considered. It is theorized that the positive response to soil PAH content may be the result of an increased abundance of PAH-degrading soil microbes. Increased microbial abundance could stimulate invertebrate communities by providing a direct food source or increasing the abundance of microbially-produced nutrients. These results suggest that both PAH content and soil characteristics significantly influenced the soil invertebrate community. It is not clear whether these factors influenced the invertebrate community independently, or whether differences in soil characteristics affected the community response by influencing the mobility or bioavailability of PAHs.

  18. Modifications in the edaphic fauna during the decomposition of black oat and ray straw in a no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Berenice Nicoloso Denardin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the aim of monitoring the edaphic fauna modifications during the decomposition of cover crops straw. The experiment was carried out in the 2005/2006 spring-summer season in Chapecó/SC, Brazil. The treatments were: 1 Straw of black oat (Avena strigosa Scrheb.; 2 Straw of black oat cultivated with addition of 50kg.ha-1 of nitrogen; 3 Straw of rye (Secale cereale L.; 4 Straw of rye cultivated with addition of 50kg.ha-1 of nitrogen; 5 Uncovered soil. The cover crops were cultivated until flowering, when they were handled with a roll-knife. Ten evaluations of the edaphic fauna were made during the straw decomposition process (from 23/09/2005 to 03/02/2006 using pitfall traps. The first sampling was taken six days before the handling of cover crops, and the others were taken at 4, 18, 32, 46, 67, 83, 98, 112 and 127 days after handling. The results showed that the evaluated edaphic fauna groups were sensitive to the remaining amount of straw covering the soil under no tillage, and that the straw decomposition induced a decrease in fauna diversity because of the relative increase of the Collembola group.

  19. Springtail diversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Chown

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.

  20. Feeding niche characteristics of a Bombina bombina population from Livada Plain (Satu-Mare County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina SZEPLAKI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Along our study we analyzed the food of 87 individuals of Bombina bombina. The reduced number of empty stomachs indicates that there were optimal feeding conditions. In the obtained stomach contents we identified vegetal remains (χ23=0.97, p=0.002, shad-skins fragments (χ2=11.21, p=0.1 and animal type food. We identified a total number of 1498 preys belonging to 37 categories. Most of the identified preys proceed from terrestrial environment (Amean=72.97 %, DSA=45.46. The most important preys items from the diet of the studied fire-bellied toads are: Collembola (Amean=28.98%; Fmean=31.59%, χ23=23.35, p=0.13, Coleoptera’s adults (Amean=34.25%; Fmean=67.74%, χ23=1.53, p=0.004 and Hymenopera Formicidae (Amean=15.02%; Fmean=33.93%, χ23=23.35, p=0.09. There was noticed an important seasonal variation at the consumed preys’ level. Diet diversity presents seasonal changes (Hmean=1.7, SDH=0.62. The trophic niche overlap, according to Pianka’s index, presents the highest values between May and June (Q=0.87 and April-June (Q=0.967.

  1. Degradation Kinetics and Ecotoxicity of 3,4-Dichloroaniline in Soils%土壤中3,4-二氯苯胺降解动力学及其生态毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋新; 周建民; P.Müller

    2000-01-01

    敌草隆(diuron)是一种广泛被应用的取代脲类除草剂,其主要降解产物为3,4-二氯苯胺[1].研究3,4-二氯苯胺在不同土壤中的降解动力学规律,并用土壤环境指示动物弹尾目(Collembola)跳虫(Folsomia candida)跟踪指示该化合物在进一步降解过程中的毒性.结果表明:3,4-二氯苯胺在土壤中的降解行为可用一级反应动力学方程来较好地描述,其生态毒性明显高于母体化合物敌草隆,该化合物在粘土中的残留量低于砂土,但毒性却明显大于砂土,指出应注重同步研究农药降解产物的环境化学及生态毒性行为.

  2. Development of Metrics to Assess Effectiveness of Stream Restoration in Second-Growth Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, E.; Johnson, A. C.; Edwards, R.

    2010-12-01

    This project was designed to develop and test metrics to assess whether stream restoration work in second growth riparian areas produces measurable changes in ecosystem function. Proposed metrics evaluate anadramadous fish and the trophic basis for their production. These metrics consist of: measuring benthic chlorophyll a and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to detect changes in primary production, computing invertebrate litterfall as allochthonous food inputs into the streams, evaluating transient storage, counting the number and depth of pools, counting the number of pieces of large wood, and determining the substrate size of the stream to detect changes in channel retentiveness and habitat availability. Data were collected prior to restoration treatment. Restoration work is expected to increase growth and survival of anadramous fish by increasing availability of high quality habitat and food. Although there is large variation in the data collected, preliminary results show a positive correlation between the number of invertebrates, especially of the subclass collembola, collected in the litterfall and the percent of PAR reaching the stream. There is also a correlation between an increase in the percent of PAR reaching the stream and an increase in the amount of alder in the riparian area. This suggests that riparian areas with a majority of alder trees could provide more invertebrate food for fish in the streams.

  3. FAUNA DO SOLO AO LONGO DO PROCESSO DE SUCESSÃO ECOLÓGICA EM VOÇOROCA REVEGETADA NO MUNICÍPIO DE PINHEIRAL – RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil de Menezes Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity, richness and composition of the soil epigeous fauna community were evaluated in a re- vegetated gully at the Instituto Federal de Educação (IFRJ campus Nilo Peçanha, in the municipality of Pinheiral, Rio de Janeiro state. Revegetation was performed in 2000, and consisted of four different strategies involving N-fixing trees: planting Acacia mangium Willd. (PA; planting Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth . (PM; on the outer edges of the gully head (PTS; and planting a mix of legume tree species into the gully (IVR2000. Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia were planted above the gully head. A nearby 20-year secondary forest remnant was used as a reference site. Ten pitfall traps were used for the sampling of epigeous fauna at each one of the five areas (MOLDENKE , 1994. Sampling was performe in May 2000, June 2006, and April 2008. Six years after revegetation has started, fauna group richness and diversity increased both into the gully and in Mimosa caesalpiniifolia plantation. For the 2000 and 2006 samplings a PCA showed that groups were mostly associated to 2006, and completely opposite to 2000. Acacia mangium plantation had the lowest group richness. In the 2008 sampling, pasture showed the lowest group richness, and according to the PCA groups into the gully were associated to 2008, and completely opposite to 2000 and 2006. Formicidae and Collembola (Entomobryomorpha were dominant in all sampled areas, both in 2000 and 2008, and into the gully in 2006 as well.

  4. DEGRADATION KINETICS AND ECOTOXICITY OF 4-BROMANILINE IN SOILS%土壤中4-溴苯胺降解动力学及其生态毒性追踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    秀谷隆(Metobromuron)是一种被广泛应用的取代脲类除草剂,其主要降解产物为4 -溴苯胺(4-BA).研究4-溴苯胺在不同土壤中的降解动力学规律,并用土壤环境指示动物弹尾目跳虫Collembola(Folsomia candida)跟踪指示该化合物在进一步降解过程中的毒性,结果表明:4-溴苯胺在土壤中的降解行为可用一级反应动力学方程来较好地描述,其生态毒性明显高于母体化合物秀谷隆,该化合物在粘土中的残留量低于砂土,但毒性却明显大于砂土.

  5. Bacterial and eukaryotic biodiversity patterns in terrestrial and aquatic habitats in the Sør Rondane Mountains, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbels, Dagmar; Verleyen, Elie; Mano, Marie-José; Namsaraev, Zorigto; Sweetlove, Maxime; Tytgat, Bjorn; Fernandez-Carazo, Rafael; De Wever, Aaike; D'hondt, Sofie; Ertz, Damien; Elster, Josef; Sabbe, Koen; Willems, Anne; Wilmotte, Annick; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-06-01

    The bacterial and microeukaryotic biodiversity were studied using pyrosequencing analysis on a 454 GS FLX+ platform of partial SSU rRNA genes in terrestrial and aquatic habitats of the Sør Rondane Mountains, including soils, on mosses, endolithic communities, cryoconite holes and supraglacial and subglacial meltwater lenses. This inventory was complemented with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis targeting Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. OTUs belonging to the Rotifera, Chlorophyta, Tardigrada, Ciliophora, Cercozoa, Fungi, Bryophyta, Bacillariophyta, Collembola and Nematoda were present with a relative abundance of at least 0.1% in the eukaryotic communities. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, FBP and Actinobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla. Multivariate analyses of the pyrosequencing data revealed a general lack of differentiation of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes according to habitat type. However, the bacterial community structure in the aquatic habitats was dominated by the filamentous cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya and appeared to be significantly different compared with those in dry soils, on mosses, and in endolithic habitats. A striking feature in all datasets was the detection of a relatively large amount of sequences new to science, which underscores the need for additional biodiversity assessments in Antarctic inland locations. PMID:26936447

  6. Effects of intensive silviculture on the soil diversity and carbon retention. Final report; Effekter av intensiv skogsodling paa markens biologiska maangfald och retention av kol. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tryggve; Lindberg, Niklas [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    2002-11-01

    Soil samples were taken in the forest fertilisation experiments Skogaby (SW Sweden), Asa (S Sweden), Straasan (C Sweden) and Flakaliden (N Sweden), all with replicated plots, to evaluate effects of intensive production of Norway spruce trees by repeated fertiliser application, on soil fauna diversity. The species-rich groups of Oribatida, Mesostigmata and Collembola were studied at all sites. Repeated additions of solid fertilisers mostly reduced the total number of individuals of soil fauna, whereas addition of liquid fertiliser did not result in any marked effects on totals densities. Forest fertilisation had small or insignificant effects on species numbers or diversity indices, but resulted in large changes in the composition of individual species. Generally, the most common oribatid species decreased in numbers, whereas less common species did not seem to decrease. Thus, intensive forest fertilisation did not seem to reduce the number of species but had a great effect on the community level by reducing some of the commonest species and favouring some sparsely occurring species. This indicates that forest fertilisation, if performed in a patchy manner, can increase the soil fauna diversity in the forest landscape as a whole.

  7. Role of the reactor configuration in the biological detoxification of a dump site-polychlorobiphenyl-contaminated soil in lab-scale slurry phase conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fava, F.; Di Gioia, D.; Marchetti, L. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Applicata e Scienza dei Materiali

    2000-07-01

    The biotreatability of a xenobiotic contaminated soil is frequently determined through a bioslurry treatment usually performed in lab-scale shaken baffled flasks. In this study, a 3-1 unconventional stirred tank reactor was developed and tested in the slurry-phase treatment of a soil heavily contaminated by polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) derived from an Italian dump site, in the absence and in the presence of biphenyl and of the exogenous PCB aerobically dechlorinating co-culture ECO3. The data obtained were compared with those obtained on the same soil in experiments performed in parallel in 3-l baffled shaken flask reactors. Considerably higher PCB removal and soil detoxification yields (determined through the Lepidium sativum germination test and the Collembola mortality test) were attained in the stirred tank reactors, which generally displayed a higher slurry-phase homogeneity and a higher availability of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoic acid-degarding bacteria compared to the corresponding shaken flask reactors. Moreover, enhanced soil PCB biodegradation and detoxification yields were observed when the developed reactor was supplemented with biphenyl and the exogenous ECO3 bacteria. In conclusion, the results of the soil biotreatability experiments commonly performed in bioslurry lab-scale reactors are significantly influenced by the reactor configuration; the use of the unconventional stirred tank reactor system developed in this work is recommended. (orig.)

  8. Impacts of the Replacement of Native Woodland with Exotic Pine Plantations on Leaf-Litter Invertebrate Assemblages: A Test of a Novel Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Murray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical comparison of invertebrate community structure between areas of undisturbed native eucalypt woodland and areas that have been cleared and replaced with plantations of exotic radiata pine (Pinus radiata. Implementation of a novel conceptual framework revealed that both insect (in autumn and arachnid (in winter assemblages demonstrated inhibition in response to the pine plantations. Species richness declines occurred in several taxonomic Orders (e.g., Hymenoptera, Blattodea, Acari without compensated increases in other Orders in plantations. This was, however, a seasonal response, with shifts between inhibition and equivalency observed in both insects and arachnids across autumn and winter sampling periods. Equivalency responses were characterized by relatively similar levels of species richness in plantation and native habitats for several Orders (e.g., Coleoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Araneae. We propose testable hypotheses for the observed seasonal shifts between inhibition and equivalency that focus on diminished resource availability and the damp, moist conditions found in the plantations. Given the compelling evidence for seasonal shifts between categories, we recommend that seasonal patterns should be considered a critical component of further assemblage-level investigations of this novel framework for invasion ecology.

  9. Dynamics and distribution of macrozoobenthos in the Toplica river, a tributary of the Kolubara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrobiological investigations of the macrozoobenthos were carried out at eight localities in the Toplica river (a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara river from April 2000 to January 2001. The bottom fauna was composed of 19 groups of macroinvertebrates with 85 determined taxa (61 identified to the species level, 24 to the generic level. The most varying groups were the insect orders Trichoptera (20 taxa, Ephemeroptera (15, and Diptera (13, while Isopoda, Decapoda, and insects belonging to orders Collembola, Heteroptera, Megaloptera, and Planipennia were the most uniform. The species Gammarus pulex fossarum Koch and Dugesia gonocephala Duges were the most abundant forms at the river source, and representatives of Ephemeroptera and Gammaridae were the most numerous in its upper course (at the second, third, and fourth locality. The Mollusca and Chironomidae larvae were the most abundant forms at the fifth locality (in the middle course, but no constant dominance of any animal group was recorded at the sixth one, where the dominance alternated among Chironomidae larvae (April, July 2000, Oligochaeta (October 2000 and Mollusca (January 2001. The lower course of the river (the seventh and eighth locality was characterized by the dominance of the species of the phylum Mollusca (Amphimelania holandri Ferussac, Fagotia esperi Ferussac and Theodoxus transversalis Pfeiffer.

  10. Effects of sulphur pollution on forest floor invertebrates (community structure, structural heterogeneity, edge effects, decomposition, Callioplus euoplus, Pterostichus adstrictus, Scaphinotus marginatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcamo, H. A.

    1997-12-31

    The distribution of insects and other invertebrates was studied in forests under varying regimes of exposure to sulfur compounds in the vicinity of two sour gas plants and at sharp acidification gradients in pine and aspen forests located near a sulfur block. Results showed no effect on most invertebrates at moderate levels of sulfur deposition. At this level, structural heterogeneity of the forest floor was more influential than sulfur levels in determining the macroarthropoid community structure. By contrast, high sulphur contamination and subsequent acidification had a clear negative effect on earthworms, and various species of spiders. Ground beetles and certain epigeic spiders along the sharp acidification gradient at the pine forest were considered vulnerable but resistant and favoured. These results suggested that ecological specialists were most vulnerable to acidification effects, while ecological generalists have been more successful in resisting the effects of acidification. It was also shown that indirect effects at the landscape, habitat or forest type, and microhabitat level, were more important in the case of most of the arthropods than the direct effects. Only earthworms, snails and some Collembola were negatively affected through direct acidity effects.

  11. Effects of water addition on soil arthropods and soil characteristics in a precipitation-limited environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikoski, Jennifer M.; Ferguson, Steven H.; Meyer, Lense

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the effect of water addition and season on soil arthropod abundance and soil characteristics (%C, %N, C:N, moisture, pH). The experimental design consisted of 24 groups of five boxes distributed within a small aspen stand in Saskatchewan, Canada. The boxes depressed the soil to create a habitat with suitable microclimate for soil arthropods, and by overturning boxes we counted soil arthropods during weekly surveys from April to September 1999. Soil samples were collected at two-month intervals and water was added once per week to half of the plots. Of the eleven recognizable taxonomic units identified, only mites (Acari) and springtails (Collembola) responded to water addition by increasing abundance, whereas ants decreased in abundance with water addition. During summer, springtail numbers increased with water addition, whereas pH was a stronger determinant of mite abundance. In autumn, springtails were positively correlated with water and negatively correlated with mites, whereas mite abundance was negatively correlated with increasing C:N ratio, positively correlated to water addition, and negatively correlated with springtail abundance. Although both mite and springtail numbers decreased in autumn with a decrease in soil moisture, mites became more abundant than springtails suggesting a predator-prey (mite-springtail) relationship. Water had a significant effect on both springtails and mites in summer and autumn supporting the assertion that prairie soil communities are water limited.

  12. The springtail cuticle as a blueprint for omniphobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, René; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2016-01-21

    Omniphobic surfaces found in nature have great potential for enabling novel and emerging products and technologies to facilitate the daily life of human societies. One example is the water and even oil-repellent cuticle of springtails (Collembola). The wingless arthropods evolved a highly textured, hierarchically arranged surface pattern that affords mechanical robustness and wetting resistance even at elevated hydrostatic pressures. Springtail cuticle-derived surfaces therefore promise to overcome limitations of lotus-inspired surfaces (low durability, insufficient repellence of low surface tension liquids). In this review, we report on the liquid-repellent natural surfaces of arthropods living in aqueous or temporarily flooded habitats including water-walking insects or water spiders. In particular, we focus on springtails presenting an overview on the cuticular morphology and chemistry and their biological relevance. Based on the obtained liquid repellence of a variety of liquids with remarkable efficiency, the review provides general design criteria for robust omniphobic surfaces. In particular, the resistance against complete wetting and the mechanical stability strongly both depend on the topographical features of the nano- and micropatterned surface. The current understanding of the underlying principles and approaches to their technological implementation are summarized and discussed. PMID:26239626

  13. Effects of mercury on reproduction, avoidance, and heat shock protein gene expression of the soil springtail Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Li-Mei; Luan, Yun-Xia; He, Ji-Zheng

    2010-03-01

    Based on the Cambisols of Beijing (used as agricultural soils), toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the effects of mercury (Hg) on reproduction and avoidance of Folsomia candida (Hexapoda: Collembola), as well as the transcriptional responses of the hsp70 gene, under different Hg concentrations and at different exposure times. Results showed that the hsp70 gene of the springtail was the most sensitive parameter to soil Hg stress, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 0.42 mg/kg. The EC50 values based on reproduction and avoidance tests were 9.29 and 3.88 mg/kg, respectively. The expression level of the hsp70 gene was significantly up-regulated when soil Hg concentration was over 0.25 mg/kg (lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC]). In addition, responses of this gene expression were strongly induced after 48 h exposure under 1 mg/kg soil Hg, which probably was due to the fast and sensitive response of the gene transcription to Hg stress. Thus, the results suggested that the responses of the hsp70 gene and individual-level effects (reproduction and avoidance) could be integrated to provide helpful information for environmental monitoring and assessment of contaminated soils. PMID:20821491

  14. Cryoprotective dehydration is widespread in Arctic springtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Holmstrup, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Cryoprotective dehydration (CPD) is a cold tolerance strategy employed by small invertebrates that readily lose water by evaporation when subjected to sub-zero temperatures in the presence of ice. Until now, relatively few species have been investigated using methods by which CPD can be shown. In the present study we investigated the cold tolerance strategy of seven soil arthropod species from the high Arctic Spitzbergen, and compared water content and water loss, body fluid melting points (MP) and survival under cold and desiccating conditions. We tested the hypothesis that CPD is a commonly occurring cold hardiness strategy among soil arthropods. We found that four springtail species (Hypogastrura viatica, Folsomia quadrioculata, Oligaphorura groenlandica and Megaphorura arctica; Collembola) went through severe dehydration and MP equilibration with ambient temperature, and thus overwinter by employing CPD, whereas a beetle (Atheta graminicola) and one of the springtails (Isotoma anglicana) were typical freeze avoiding species over-wintering by supercooling. Desiccation tolerance of the red velvet mite (Neomolgus littoralis) was also investigated; very low water loss rates of this species indicated that it does not survive winter by use of CPD. All in all, the results of the present study confirm the hypothesis that CPD is an effective over-wintering strategy which is widespread within soil arthropods. PMID:21396373

  15. Transcriptional profiling of the soil invertebrate Folsomia candida in pentachlorophenol-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Min; Wang, Guang-Peng; Zhang, Cai; Roelofs, Dick; van Straalen, Nico M; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-06-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a widely used pesticide, is considered to be an endocrine disruptor. The molecular effects of chemicals with endocrine-disrupting potential on soil invertebrates are largely unknown. In the present study, the authors explored the transcriptional expression changes of collembola (Folsomia candida) in response to PCP contamination. A total of 92 genes were significantly differentially expressed at all exposure times, and the majority of them were found to be downregulated. In addition to the transcripts encoding cytochrome P450s and transferase enzymes, chitin-binding protein was also identified in the list of common differentially expressed genes. Analyses of gene ontology annotation and enrichment revealed that cell cycle-related transcripts were significantly induced by PCP, indicating that PCP can stimulate cell proliferation in springtail, as has been reported in human breast cancer cells. Enrichment of functional terms related to steroid receptors was observed, particularly in 20 significant differentially expressed genes involved in chitin metabolism in response to PCP exposure. Combined with confirmation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the results indicate that the adverse effects on reproduction of springtails after exposure to PCP can be attributed to a chemical-induced delay in the molting cycle and that molting-associated genes may serve as possible biomarkers for assessing toxicological effects. PMID:25703271

  16. Biogeography of circum-Antarctic springtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughran, Angela; Stevens, Mark I; Holland, Barbara R

    2010-10-01

    We examine the effects of isolation over both ancient and contemporary timescales on evolutionary diversification and speciation patterns of springtail species in circum-Antarctica, with special focus on members of the genus Cryptopygus (Collembola, Isotomidae). We employ phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (cox1), and ribosomal DNA (18S and 28S) genes in the programmes MrBayes and RAxML. Our aims are twofold: (1) we evaluate existing taxonomy in light of previous work which found dubious taxonomic classification in several taxa based on cox1 analysis; (2) we evaluate the biogeographic origin of our chosen suite of springtail species based on dispersal/vicariance scenarios, the magnitude of genetic divergence among lineages and the age and accessibility of potential habitat. The dubious taxonomic characterisation of Cryptopygus species highlighted previously is confirmed by our multi-gene phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, according to the current taxonomy, Cryptopygus antarcticus subspecies are not completely monophyletic and neither are Cryptopygus species in general. We show that distribution patterns among species/lineages are both dispersal- and vicariance-driven. Episodes of colonisation appear to have occurred frequently, the routes of which may have followed currents in the Southern Ocean. In several cases, the estimated divergence dates among species correspond well with the timing of terrestrial habitat availability. We conclude that these isotomid springtails have a varied and diverse evolutionary history in the circum-Antarctic that consists of both ancient and recent elements and is reflected in a dynamic contemporary fauna. PMID:20558307

  17. Can cyanobacterial biomass applied to soil affect survival and reproduction of springtail Folsomia candida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lána, Jan; Hofman, Jakub; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-05-01

    Biomass of cyanobacterial water blooms including cyanobacterial toxins may enter soils, for example, when harvested water bloom is directly applied as an organic fertilizer or when water with massive cyanobacterial biomass is used for irrigation. In spite of this, no information is available about the potential effects on soil arthropods. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of water bloom biomass sampled in five different fresh water lakes on the soil dwelling arthropod, springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola). These samples contained different dominant species of cyanobacteria and varied significantly in microcystin content (21-3662 μg/g dw biomass). No adverse effects on survival or reproduction were observed for any tested sample at concentration up to 4 g dw biomass/kg dw soil. Despite the known hazardous properties of water blooms in aquatic ecosystems, our pilot results suggest that cyanobacterial biomass might have no significant impact on arthropods in soil. It remains a question, if this is due to low bioavailability of cyanobacterial toxins in soil. PMID:21176962

  18. Is ornithogenic fertilization important for collembolan communities in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems?

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    Katarzyna Zmudczyńska-Skarbek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Arctic, areas close to seabird colonies are often characterized by exceptionally rich vegetation communities linked with the high nutrient subsidies transported by seabirds from the marine environment to the land. These areas also support soil invertebrate communities of which springtails (Collembola often represent the most abundant and diverse group. Our study focused on springtail community composition in the vicinity of seabird (little auk, great skua and glaucous gull nesting areas in different parts of Svalbard (Magdalenefjorden, Isfjorden and Bjørnøya, and on their comparison with adjacent areas not impacted by seabirds. Out of a total of 35 springtail species recorded, seven were found only within the ornithogenically influenced sites. Although geographical location was the strongest factor differentiating these springtail communities, ornithogenic influence was also significant regardless of the location. When each location was considered separately, seabirds were responsible for a relatively small but strongly significant proportion (8.6, 5.2 and 3.9%, respectively, for each site of total springtail community variability. Species whose occurrence was positively correlated with seabird presence were Folsomia coeruleogrisea, Friesea quinquespinosa, Lepidocyrtus lignorum and Oligaphorura groenlandica near Magdalenefjorden, Arrhopalites principalis, Folsomia bisetosella and Protaphorura macfadyeni in Isfjorden, and Folsomia quadrioculata on Bjørnøya.

  19. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-10-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition. PMID:19557745

  20. Gene Family Evolution Reflects Adaptation to Soil Environmental Stressors in the Genome of the Collembolan Orchesella cincta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Anna; Derks, Martijn F. L.; Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Agamennone, Valeria; Suring, Wouter; Smit, Sandra; van Straalen, Nico M.; Roelofs, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Collembola (springtails) are detritivorous hexapods that inhabit the soil and its litter layer. The ecology of the springtail Orchesella cincta is extensively studied in the context of adaptation to anthropogenically disturbed areas. Here, we present a draft genome of an O. cincta reference strain with an estimated size of 286.8 Mbp, containing 20,249 genes. In total, 446 gene families are expanded and 1,169 gene families evolved specific to this lineage. Besides these gene families involved in general biological processes, we observe gene clusters participating in xenobiotic biotransformation. Furthermore, we identified 253 cases of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Although the largest percentage of them originated from bacteria (37.5%), we observe an unusually high percentage (30.4%) of such genes of fungal origin. The majority of foreign genes are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cellulose degradation. Moreover, some foreign genes (e.g., bacillopeptidases) expanded after HGT. We hypothesize that horizontally transferred genes could be advantageous for food processing in a soil environment that is full of decaying organic material. Finally, we identified several lineage-specific genes, expanded gene families, and horizontally transferred genes, associated with altered gene expression as a consequence of genetic adaptation to metal stress. This suggests that these genome features may be preadaptations allowing natural selection to act on. In conclusion, this genome study provides a solid foundation for further analysis of evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation to environmental stressors. PMID:27289101

  1. Effect of brushwood transposition on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a cerrado area

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    Paula Cristina Benetton Vergílio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of ecological restoration techniques can be monitored through biological indicators of soil quality such as the leaf litter arthropod fauna. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of brushwood transposition transferred from an area of native vegetation to a disturbed area, on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a degraded cerrado area. The arthropod fauna of four areas was compared: a degraded area with signal grass, two experimental brushwood transposition areas, with and without castor oil plants, and an area of native cerrado. In total, 7,660 individuals belonging to 23 taxa were sampled. Acari and Collembola were the most abundant taxa in all studied areas, followed by Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Symphyla. The brushwood transposition area without castor oil plants had the lowest abundance and dominance and the highest diversity of all areas, providing evidence of changes in the soil community. Conversely, the results showed that the presence of castor oil plants hampered early succession, negatively affecting ecological restoration in this area.

  2. Establishment and use of a combined test system for assessing the toxicity of environmentally relevant pollutants in soil.- Optimization of keeping conditions in the laboratory and bionomic investigations. Final report; Etablierung und Anwendung eines kombinierten Testsystems zur Beurteilung der Toxizitaet umweltrelevanter Schadstoffe in Boeden. Optimierung der Laborhaltung und bionomische Untersuchungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunger, W.; Mattern, D.; Reise, H.; Schulz, H.J.; Barth, V.; Roemer, M.; Voigtlaender, K.; Zimdars, B.

    1997-12-31

    In order to establish how organisms can be kept with low stress or free of stress in the laboratory, test species from the Oberlausitz region were chosen. The species belong to the groups of soil-living organisms Collembola, Isopoda, and Gastropoda. Keeping results may be considered as confirmed and as suitable for stress investigations. Successful optimization of keeping is only possible for a single species in each case (generalists excepted).- As applicable vital parameters both to confirm keeping success and to assess the impact of sublethal doses of stressors (heavy metals, insecticides), the following were established (in this order of sequence): reproductive success, growth (change of biomass, sloughing), mortality and, with restrictions, activity (running and foraging activity).- As expected, the effect of the heavy metals used was found to depend on their concentration. Increased mortality as a rule was only found in the wake of cadmium contaminations; reduced growth and, especially, reduced reproduction was triggered also by lead and zinc contaminations. With this regard, subtle differentiations were established. Use of Lindan in the specified dosage proved to have almost no impact during the (short) test period. (orig./MG)

  3. Comparison of Soil Biota Between Organic and Conventional Agroecosystems in Oregon, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shan-Mei; HU Dun-Xiao; E. R. INGHAM

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples at 0-10 cm in depth were collected periodically at paired fields in Corvallis, Oregon, USA to compare differences in soil microbial and faunal populations between organic and conventional agroecosystems. Results showed that the organic soil ecosystem had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) average number or biomass of soil bacteria; densities of flagellates, amoebae of protozoa; some nematodes, such as microbivorous and predaceous nematodes and plant-parasitic nematodes; as well as Collembola. Greater numbers of Rhabditida (such as Rhabditis spp.), were present in the organic soil ecosystem while Panagrolaimus spp. were predominant in the conventional soil ecosystem. The omnivores and predators of Acarina in the Mesostigmata (such as Digamasellidae and Laelapid), and Prostigmata (such as Alicorhaiidae and Rhagidiidae), were also more abundant in the organic soil ecosystem. However, fungivorous Prostigmata (such as Terpnacaridae and Nanorchestidae) and Astigmata (such as Acarida) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the conventional soil ecosystem, which supported the finding that total fungal biomass was greater in the conventional soil ecosystem. Seansonal variations of the population depended mostly on soil moisture condition and food web relationship.The population declined from May to October for both agroecosystems. However, higher diversities and densities of soil biota survived occurred in the organic soil ecosystem in the dry season.

  4. Evaluation of the composition of terrestrial invertebrates in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Luciane Fischer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial invertebrates participate actively in the formation of the soil, and can be utilized as bioindicators of environmental disturbance. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the fauna composition of terrestrial invertebrates, in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul. The collection was carried out in a single fragment of Araucaria Forest, with structurally differentiated two-point samplings, through pitfall traps. A total of 1,776 invertebrates was captured, pertaining to Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca and Plathyhelminthes phyla, of which Arthropoda and Hexapoda were the most representative groups. In Hexapoda, eleven orders were registered, and of those, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola and Diptera were the most abundant. Although the studied fragment had been under recuperation for about 10 years after approximately 40 years of antropic interference, and was therefore surrounded by areas utilized for farming, agriculture and highways, it contained different groups of terrestrial invertebrates on wide-ranging thropic levels, which were important for the spatial structure and the composition of litterfall of the fragment.

  5. Soil organisms in organic and conventional cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettiol Wagner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent interest in organic agriculture, little research has been carried out in this area. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, in a dystrophic Ultisol, the effects of organic and conventional agricultures on soil organism populations, for the tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum and corn (Zea mays crops. In general, it was found that fungus, bacterium and actinomycet populations counted by the number of colonies in the media, were similar for the two cropping systems. CO2 evolution during the cropping season was higher, up to the double for the organic agriculture system as compared to the conventional. The number of earthworms was about ten times higher in the organic system. There was no difference in the decomposition rate of organic matter of the two systems. In general, the number of microartropods was always higher in the organic plots in relation to the conventional ones, reflectining on the Shannon index diversity. The higher insect population belonged to the Collembola order, and in the case of mites, to the superfamily Oribatuloidea. Individuals of the groups Aranae, Chilopoda, Dyplopoda, Pauropoda, Protura and Symphyla were occasionally collected in similar number in both cropping systems.

  6. Structural mouthpart interaction evolved already in the earliest lineages of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Alexander; Rühr, Peter T; Mokso, Rajmund; Villanueva, Pablo; Wilde, Fabian; Stampanoni, Marco; Uesugi, Kentaro; Machida, Ryuichiro; Misof, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    In butterflies, bees, flies and true bugs specific mouthparts are in close contact or even fused to enable piercing, sucking or sponging of particular food sources. The common phenomenon behind these mouthpart types is a complex composed of several consecutive mouthparts which structurally interact during food uptake. The single mouthparts are thus only functional in conjunction with other adjacent mouthparts, which is fundamentally different to biting-chewing. It is, however, unclear when structural mouthpart interaction (SMI) evolved since this principle obviously occurred multiple times independently in several extant and extinct winged insect groups. Here, we report a new type of SMI in two of the earliest wingless hexapod lineages--Diplura and Collembola. We found that the mandible and maxilla interact with each other via an articulatory stud at the dorsal side of the maxillary stipes, and they are furthermore supported by structures of the hypopharynx and head capsule. These interactions are crucial stabilizing elements during food uptake. The presence of SMI in these ancestrally wingless insects, and its absence in those crustacean groups probably ancestral to insects, indicates that SMI is a groundplan apomorphy of insects. Our results thus contradict the currently established view of insect mouthpart evolution that biting-chewing mouthparts without any form of SMI are the ancestral configuration. Furthermore, SMIs occur in the earliest insects in a high anatomical variety. SMIs in stemgroup representatives of insects may have triggered efficient exploitation and fast adaptation to new terrestrial food sources much earlier than previously supposed.

  7. Effects of copper,lead and zinc in soil on egg development and hatching of Folsomia candida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Xu; Yin Wang; Yong-Ming Luo; Jing Song; Xin Ke

    2009-01-01

    Effects of CaCl2,CuCl2,ZnCl2 and PbCl2 on development and hatching Success of eggs of Folsomia candida(Collembola)were studied under laboratory conditions.Thousands of healthy eggs from synchronized cultures were incubated in soils treated with different concentrations of the metals.Compared with the water control.egg hatch signifi-cantly decreased when concentrations of Cu,Pb and Zn reached 400,1 600 and 800 mg/kg dry soil,respectively.Values of EC50(hatching),calculated according to the exponential model (with 95%confidence limits in brackets),were 625(407-875),2361 (2064-2687)and 1763(1548-2000)mg/kg dry soils for Cu,Pb and Zn,respectively.When Cu concentration reachedl 600mg/kg dry soil,eggs became green and the percentage of green eggs changed from 5%-20%after incubadon for 2 daysto 15%-30%after incubafion for 4 days.At3200mg Cu/kg dry soil,tissues inside eggs were black and shrunken.

  8. Evaluation of growth and reproduction as indicators of soil metal toxicity to the Collembolan,Sinella curviseta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Xu; Xin Ke; Paul Henning Krogh; Yin Wang; Yong-Ming Luo; Jing Song

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory studies evaluated the sensitivity of Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola:Entomobryidae)to selected heavy metals(Cu,Pb and Zn).Survival,reproduction andgrowth of S curviseta were determined in a 4-week exposure test in an agricultural soil amended with metals to concentrations of 100.200,400,800,1600and 3200mg/kg.Resuits showed reduction in adult survival and reproductive failure at the highest concentrations (3 200meJkg)of Cuand Zn.EC50reproduction values for Cu and Zn were approximately 442 and 2 760 mg/kg,respectively.Application of Pb at all levels resulted in large numbers of progeny and no significant mortality compared to controls.Adult growth rate decreased for ail metal treatments compared to the controls.suggesting that metals affect S.curviseta metabolism and result in slower growth.We showed that reproduction is a slightly more sensitive parameter than growth.Since a growth test needs fewer juveniles and takes ICSS time than a reproduction test,we conclude that the two parametes are complementary and could be used for a better ecotoxicologjcal evaluation of contaminant levels.However,relative growth and reproduction sensitivities should be tested with more chemicals bef.Ore a growth test is accepted as a faster sublethal test than a reproduction test.

  9. Temporal variation of soil entomofauna from an urban forest fragment in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Custodio Lopes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are important environmental bioindicators, due to the species diversity and wide range of habitats occupied. The present study evaluated the temporal variation in composition and abundance of soil insects in an urban forest fragment in the municipality of Toledo, in the state of Paraná, by analyzing their abundance and seasonality. Monthly samplings were conducted between August 2011 and July 2012 at four sampling sites within the fragment. At each site, three pitfall traps remained exposed for 48 hours. Captured insects were fixed in alcohol, sorted and identified. Throughout the study period, we captured 11,568 insects from 11 orders and 35 families. Coleoptera was the richest order (12 families, followed by Diptera and Hemiptera (5, Hymenoptera and Orthoptera (3. The order Hymenoptera was the most abundant (4,789 individuals, followed by Coleoptera (4,630 and Diptera (1,985. Coleoptera was represented mainly by the families Staphylinidae and Silphidae. Formicidae (Hymenoptera was the least abundant in colder months. Collembola was positively correlated with soil moisture. In general, the insect fauna in the forest fragment exhibited characteristics of the fauna from impacted habitats, that is, low diversity of families and dominance of generalist groups.

  10. Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil: Galling insects in Rio de Janeiro state are known by their great diversity, despite most of the surveys have been done in restinga. This paper investigated the insect galls from a remnant of Atlantic Forest located in São Francisco de Itabapoana municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The galling insect fauna was surveyed from March, 2013 to April, 2014 at the Estação Ecológica Estadual de Guaxindiba. 143 gall morphotypes were found in 31 plant families, 60 genera and 82 species. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae were the main host families, being Trichilia, Tontelea and Eugenia the main host genera. Most galls occured on leaves, with globose shape, green and glabrous. Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, Hemiptera, and Lepidoptera were the inducing orders and the associated fauna comprised parasitoids (Hymenoptera, inquilines (Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera: Coccoidea, successors (Psocoptera, Collembola and Acari, and predators (Pseudoscorpiones. Three plant genera and nine plant species are recorded for the first time as host of galls in Brazil. All the records are new to the municipality, and the distribution of 15 galling species is extended to the North of the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  11. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-10-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition.

  12. The monitoring of insects to maintain biodiversity in Ogawa Fores Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, S; Goto, H; Inoue, T; Sueyoshi, M; Okabe, K; Hasegawa, M; Hamaguchi, K; Ctanaka, H; Okochi, I

    2006-09-01

    The results of a biodiversity monitoring program conducted in the Ogawa Forest Reserve and its vicinity, situated in a cool temperate region of Japan, identified three different patterns for species richness. Forests of the region are characterized by a mosaic of secondary deciduous stands of various ages scattered among plantations of conifers. The three different types of change in species richness observed in response to the stand age are as follows: Type I (butterflies, tube-renting bees and wasps, hoverflies, fruit flies, and longicorn beetles), the species diversity was highest in open areas, just after clear-cutting, decreasing with the stand age; Type II (mushrooms and mites associated with them), older stands showed greater diversity than younger stands; and, Type III (moths, oribatid mites, collembolas, carabid beetles, and ants), the number of species did not change greatly with the stand age, though ordination analysis revealed that there was variation in species compositions. These results indicate that combinations of stands of different ages, or heterogeneously arranged stands, can contribute to the maintenance of insect biodiversity at the landscape level.

  13. A comparative study of the chemical and integrated treatments impact against the defoliating insects on the structure and dynamics of the edaphic mesofauna in two oak forests from North-Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Cãlugãr

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The author presents in this paper some aspects about the edaphicmicroarthropods from the organic horizon of two forest soils belonging to the Ciurea Forest District, Iasi County: ªanta (mixed stands mainly with oak, chemically treated against defoliating insects and Poieni - Tomesti (Quercus robur and Quercuspetraea stands with integrated treatments. The study of edaphic microarthropods was performed both from qualitative and quantitative point of view. It considered the average of the total density of the microarthropod populations and by each taxonomic group, according to stations and subhorizons, as well as the ratio between thetaxonomical and trophic groups. The investigations concerning edaphic mesofauna consist in inventory and analysis of the mites belonging to Oribatida, Gamasida, Actinedida and Acaridida orders, of the Collembola, as well as other insects; other groups of microarthropods were taken into consideration too (pseudoscorpiones,myriapods etc. The consequences of the treatments against the defoliators on theedaphic mesofauna were performed at four different moments. Generally, lower densities were observed in the case of the chemically treated stands. The communities of the edaphic mesofauna from the integrated management treated stands are more stableduring the time. In the chemically treated stands, the densities of the microartropods vary between large limits; this instability could be assigned to this kind of treatment. The vertical distribution of the mesofauna depends on the textural characteristics of the soil, being at the same time a dynamic parameter that is modifyed according to the variation of the climatic factors.

  14. A preliminary study of freshwater meiofaunal communities at Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soraya J. Silva; Minerva Cordovés; Nory González; Leinny González

    2015-01-01

    Meiofaunal communities of three small, shallow freshwater habitats sampled during the austral summer of 2013 in Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, are reported. Communities are dominated by tardigrades (85%), nematodes (11%), and rotifers (3%). Collembola, Oligochaeta, crustacean larvae (nauplii) and unidentified organisms account for 0.3%. Total meiofaunal densities reach 11 770 ind∙cm-2, with mean densities (ind∙cm−2) of 1 365.83 ± 2 716.65 (Zone A), 523.67 ± 1 166.48 (Zone B) and 72.17 ± 110.78 (Zone C). Given the age of freshwater habitats, and the general lack of higher-trophic level predatory taxa, those species we report are likely early stage colonizers, and these communities are at an early stage of ecological succession. Non-parametrical analysis revealed the main variables influencing meiofaunal density and distribution are related to granulometric characteristics of sediments and microphytobenthic biomass. There were close relationships between meiofaunal abundance and microphytobenthic biomass, which indicates that benthic microalgae significantly influence meiofaunal distribution. A strong correlation between nematode abundance and the percentage of silt, clay and carbon in the sediment was also shown by canonical correspondence analysis and Spearman rank correlation.

  15. Seed dressing pesticides on springtails in two ecotoxicological laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Paulo Roger L; Cardoso, Elke J B N; Martines, Alexandre M; Sousa, José Paulo; Pasini, Amarildo

    2014-07-01

    Terrestrial ecotoxicological tests are powerful tools for assessing the ecological risks that pesticides pose to soil invertebrates, but they are rarely used to evaluate seed dressing pesticides. This study investigated the effects of seed dressing pesticides on survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida (Collembola), using standardized ecotoxicological tests (after ISO guidelines with few adaptations for tropical conditions). Commercial formulations of five seed dressing pesticides were tested individually in Tropical Artificial Soil (TAS): the insecticides imidacloprid, fipronil, thiametoxam, and the fungicides captan and carboxin+thiram. Thiametoxam, captan, and carboxin+thiram were only lethal to F. candida at the highest concentration tested (1000mg of active ingredient kg(-1) of dry soil). Imidacloprid and fipronil were lethal at lower concentrations (100 and 10mg a.i. kg(-1) soil d.w, respectively), however, these concentrations were much higher than those predicted (PEC) for soil. Imidacloprid and fipronil were the most toxic pesticides in both tests, reducing significantly collembolan reproduction (EC20=0.02 and 0.12mga.i.kg(-1) soil d.w, respectively). Further studies under more realistic conditions are needed, since imidacloprid and fipronil reduced collembolan reproduction at concentrations below or close to their respective PECs.

  16. Preliminary Study on Biological Characteristics of Degraded Soil Ecosystems in Dry Hot Valley of the Jinsha River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Distribution characteristics of soil animals, microorganisms and enzymatic activity were studied in thedry red soil and Vertisol ecosystems with different degradation degrees in the Yuanmou dry hot valley of theJinsha River, China. Results showed that Hymenoptera, Araneae and Collembola were the dominant groupsof soil animals in the plots studied. The numbers of groups and individuals and density of soil animals in thedry red soil series were higher than those in the Vertisol series, and the numbers of individuals and density ofsoil animals decreased with the degree of soil degradation. Bacteria dominated microbiocoenosis not only inthe dry red soils but also in the Vertisols. Microbial numbers of the dry red soil series were higher than thoseof Vertisol series, and decreased with the degree of soil degradation. The activities of catalase, invertase,urease and alkaline phosphatase declined with the degradation degree and showed a significant decline withdepth in the profiles of both the dry red soils and the Vertisols, but activities of polyphenol oxidase andacid and neutral phosphatase showed the same tendencies only in the Vertisols. It was concluded that thecharacteristics of soil animals, microorganisms and enzymatic activity could be used as the bio-indicators toshow the degradation degree of the dry red soils and Vertisols. Correlation among these soil bio-indicatorswas highly significant.

  17. Composition and Diversity of Soil Arthropods of Rajegwesi Meru Betiri National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Zayadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Meru Betiri National Park (MBNP is one of the nature conservation area that has the potential of flora, fauna, and ecosystems that could develop as a nature-based tourism attraction. The existence of certain indicator species was related to estimation of stress level and disturbance on ecosystem stability for making strategic decisions about the restoration in this area. One of the important indicator species at forest ecosystem were soil arthropods. Aim this research were analyzed composition and diversity of soil arthropods at Rajegwesi, MBNP areas. The methods in this research used pitfall trap, measurement of distribution structure and soil arthropods composition based on the Shannon - Wiener index, Morisita similarity index and Importance Value Index (IVI. The number of families and individuals of soil arthropods found in the coastal area of Rajegwesi consists of 10 order with 21 families (702 individual. The number of individuals of the order Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Collembola and Araneida was more widely found. Soil arthropods diversity index on each land use indicated that soil arthropod diversity in these areas were moderate. Soil arthropod community of orchards and forest had a similarity of species composition, whereas soil arthropod community of savanna had a similarity of species composition with paddy fields.

  18. Humus characteristics and seasonal changes of soil arthropod communities in a natural sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Meric; Makineci, Ender

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the effects of conversion of natural stands into plantations, soil invertebrate micro- and macroarthropod communities were evaluated for their abundance and richness in a sessile oak (SO; Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (AP; Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation. Sites were sampled four times a year in 3-month intervals from May 2009 to February 2010. Humus characteristics such as total mass; carbon, lignin, and cellulose contents; and C/N ratio were significantly different between SO and AP. Statistically significant differences were detected on soil pH, carbon and nitrogen contents, and electrical conductivity between the two sites. The number of microarthropods was higher in AP than in the SO site. The annual mean abundance values of microarthropods in a square meter were 67,763 in AP and 50,542 in SO, and the annual mean abundance values of macroarthropods were 921 m(-2) in AP and 427 m(-2) in SO. Among the soil microarthropods, Acari and Collembola were the dominant groups. Shannon's diversity index was more affected by evenness than species number despite the species diversity (H') of soil arthropods being generally higher in the SO stand. The abundance of microarthropods showed clear seasonal trends depending upon the humidity of the soil.

  19. 净月潭国家森林公园凋落物层土壤动物群落多样性%Community Diversity of Litter Invertebrates in Jingyuetan National Forest Park of Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子健; 刘佳; 王尚; 杨巽; 席景会; 王军

    2012-01-01

    为了解中温带地区城市森林凋落物层土壤动物群落结构及大面积针叶人工林对凋落物层土壤动物群落多样性的影响,对长春净月潭国家森林公园凋落物层土壤动物进行调查,共采获土壤动物8 630头,隶属于3门6纲18个类群,其中弹尾目、蜱螨目、膜翅目、鞘翅目、鳞翅目幼虫、蜘蛛目、双翅目幼虫和石蜈蚣目是该地区森林生态系统凋落物层土壤动物的主要类群,其个体数占土壤动物个体总数的97.91%.天然次生林与针叶人工林间凋落物土壤动物的类群数、密度、多样性指数、均匀度指数、Simpson优势度指数和密度-类群指数均无显著差异(P>0.05),而2种林分间伪蝎目、石蜈蚣目、缨翅目和鳞翅目幼虫的密度及蜱螨目和弹尾目个体数之比差异明显.2种林分Jaccard相似性系数为0.67.%To understand community structure of the litter invertebrates in urban forests in the Central Temperate Zone and effects of large-area artificial coniferous forests on community diversity of the litter invertebrates, investigation of litter invertebrates was carried out in the Jingyuetan National Forest Park, with a total of 8 630 invertebrate individuals collected, belonging to 18 orders in 6 classes under 3 phyla. Results show that Collembola, Acarina, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, Araneae, Diptera larvae, and Lithobiomorpha were the dominant groups, which accounted for 97. 91% of the total individuals collected. No significant differences were found between the litter invertebrate communities in natural secondary forests and in artificial coniferous forests in number of groups, density, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index, Simpson dominance index, and density-group index, whereas big differences were between the two kinds of forests in density of larvae of Pseudoscorpionida, Lithobiomorpha, Thysanoptera and Lepidoptera, and in ratio of Acarina to Collembola in number

  20. 上海临港新城土壤动物群落结构时空格局研究%Study on Temporal and Spatial Variation of Soil Fauna Community in Different Natural Vegetations of Lingang New City, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶水送; 夏灵丹; 方燕; 李恺

    2011-01-01

    To understand the temporal and spatial variation of soil animals under different disturbance strength in Lingang New City, The soil animals there were investigated from December 2009 to September 2010. Five typical habitats in this area were chosen, such as planted forest, wasteland, grassland, secondary forest and farmland. The soil animals were investigated in four different seasons. A total number of 1663 soil animals belonging to 25 groups, 7 classes, 2 phylums were got. The dominant groups were Acarina and Collembola, respectively, accounting for the total number 41. 19% and 19. 00%, so the ratio of Acarina to Collembola was 2. 16. The widespread groups were Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Protura, Diplura and Isopoda. The index of Shannon-Wiener showed that man-made forest (1. 990)>farm land (1. 950)>secondary forest (1. 840)> grassland (1. 690)>wasteland (1. 400); according to different seasons, the diversity index of soil animal in spring and winter was approximate, obviously higher than the other seasons. So the diversity of soil animals was quite influenced by the pattern of temporal and spatial. The total number and species were rare in the artificial vegetation, it meant that the activity of urban landscaping impacted negatively to the diversity of soil animals.%为掌握上海临港新城地区不同干扰强度下土壤动物群落的时空动态特征,2009年12月至2010年9月对临港新城土壤动物按不同季节进行了调查,分为人工林、荒地、草地、次生林和农田5种生境.共获得土壤动物1 663只,隶属于2门7纲25个大类;其中优势类群为蜱螨目(Acarina)和弹尾目(Collemboh),分别占总数的41.19%和19.00%,A/C值为2.16;常见类群有啮目(Psocoptera)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera)、鞘翅目(C01eoptera),双翅目(Diptera)、原尾目(Protura)、双尾目(Diplura)和等足目(Isopoa).从Shannon-Wiener指数看:人工林(1.990)>农田(1.950)>次生林(1.840)>草地(1