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Sample records for armata collembola onychiuridae

  1. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorura armata. For comparison three non-Bt maize varieties, Rivaldo (isogenic to Cascade), Monumental (isogenic to MEB307) and DK242, and two control diets based on baker's yeast (uncontaminated and contaminated with Bt toxin Cry1Ab) were also tested. Due to a lower C:N ratio, individuals reared on yeast performed significantly better in all of the measured endpoints than those reared on maize. P. armata performed equally well when reared on two Bt and three non-Bt maize varieties. Although there were no negative effects of Bt maize in this experiment, we recommend future studies on Bt crops to focus on species interactions in long-term, multi-species experiments. - Protaphorura armata performed equally well when reared on two Bt and three non-Bt maize varieties

  2. Agraphorura calvoi n. sp. from Venezuelan caves (Collembola: Onychiuridae).

    OpenAIRE

    Arbea Javier I.

    2005-01-01

    A new species of Agraphorura (Collembola: Poduromorpha: Onychiuridae) from caves in the Nort-West of Venezuela is described. A.calvoi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: antennal organ III with four papillae, 32/133/33343 dorsal pseudocellar formula, 3/000/0112 ventral pseudocellar, subcoxae each with two pseudocelli, postantennalorgan with 7-9 vesicles, unguiculus with a basal lamella, tibiotarsi I-III with 19,19,18 setae (distal whorl o...

  3. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, L.-H.; Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.;

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorura...

  4. Two new species and one new country record of Protaphorura Absolon, 1901 (Collembola: Onychiuridae) from northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Zhang, Bing; Wu, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Protaphorura Absolon, 1901 is characterized by the postantennal organ with numerous simple vesicles, the number of chaetae in the distal row of tibiotarsi as 11, the absence of chaeta d0 on the head, the furca reduced to a cuticular pocket with 2+2 dental chaetae, the presence of three or four manubrial rows of chaetae and having anal spines set on distinct papillae (Weiner 1996, Pomorski 1998). Among the 127 species of the genus known in the world (Bellinger et al. 1996-2013), only one species, Protaphorura armata (Tullberg, 1869), has been recorded from China till now (Rusek 1971). During our recent sampling in northeast China, one species new to China (Protaphorura bicampata (Gisin, 1956)) and two new species (Protaphorura changbaiensis sp. nov. and Protaphorura minima sp. nov.) were collected and are described below. One species new to China, Protaphorura bicampata (Gisin, 1956), and two new species, Protaphorura changbaiensis sp. nov. and Protaphorur minima sp. nov., are reported from northeast China. P. changbaiensis sp. nov. is similar to P. ajudagi and P. microcellata, but it can be distinguished from them by absence of a-pso on Th. II tergum. Protaphorura minima sp. nov. is chracterized by its male ventral organ on Abd. VI sternum. It can be separated from other species of the genus with the male ventral organ by the position of the male ventral organ and the dorsal pso formula. PMID:26185845

  5. Constituents of Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    A novel long chain fatty ester, pentyl hentriacontanoate 1 and an orange red pigment, caulerpin 2 have been isolated and characterised from a red alga Chondria armata. The pigment caulerpin hitherto known to be a constituent of green algae of genus...

  6. Effects of Afforestation with Pines on Collembola Diversity in the Limestone hills of Szárhalom (West Hungary)

    OpenAIRE

    TÓTH, Viktória; WINKLER, Dániel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the responses of collembolan communities to pine afforestation in an area formerly characterized by a mosaic of autochthonous downy oak woodland and steppe meadows. Study sites were selected in mixed stands of black pine and Scots pine and control samples were taken from downy oak stands and open steppe meadows. A total of 1884 Collembola specimens belonging to 66 species were collected. Three species, namely Protaphorura pannonica (Onychiuridae), Tomocerus mixtus (Tomoceridae...

  7. Effects of Afforestation with Pines on Collembola Diversity in the Limestone hills of Szárhalom (West Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÓTH, Viktória

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the responses of collembolan communities to pine afforestation in an area formerly characterized by a mosaic of autochthonous downy oak woodland and steppe meadows. Study sites were selected in mixed stands of black pine and Scots pine and control samples were taken from downy oak stands and open steppe meadows. A total of 1884 Collembola specimens belonging to 66 species were collected. Three species, namely Protaphorura pannonica (Onychiuridae, Tomocerus mixtus (Tomoceridae and Isotoma caerulea (Isotomidae proved to be new to the Hungarian fauna. There are typical Collembola communities which are specific to different habitat types where species of a given composition can only or predominantly be found in that habitat, as well as some basic common species which occur in every habitat. The highest species richness (41 was found in steppe meadows, considerably lower (34 in downy oak forests, reaching the lowest value (25 in pine plantations. Although several forest species present in the oak woodland were completely missing from the pine forests, there was no significant difference between the Collembola diversities of the two forest habitats. The difference became more prominent in collembolan abundance which resulted in less than half of individuals/m2 in pine plantations compared to the soils of downy oak forests, most likely due to the changed soil conditions, especially of humus characteristics, caused by the pine needle litter. Jaccard similarity measure indicated approximately equal similarity (0.24–0.28 for paired comparison, suggesting that a relatively constant 'basic Collembola community' determined by the soil type typical for the area is present; while dissimilarity in communities between sites are partly provided by spatial heterogeneity of open and forest habitats and by the difference of the vegetation type.

  8. Glycolipids from the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al-Fadhli, A.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    Three distinct fractions containing polar glycolipids (PF1–3) were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of crude methanolic extract of red alga Chondria armata (Kütz.) Okamura on gel chromatography over Sephadex LH20. Their structure...

  9. Free Sterols of the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    The free sterols of the red alga, Chondria armata have been identified by means of NMR, EIMS and GCMS analyses. The mixture contained besides cholesterol, C sub(28) and C sub(29) saturated as well as unsaturated components. The major component...

  10. New bromotriterpene polyethers from the Indian alga Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Scognamiglio, G.; Cimino, G.

    Six new bromotriterpene polyethers, armatol A-F (1-6), with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from the Indian Ocean red alga Chondria armata. The structures were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, in particular 1D- and 2D-NMR...

  11. Fungal food preferences in Collembola

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusek, Josef; Nováková, Alena

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology BC AS CR, 2009. s. 71. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /10./. 21.04.2009-24.04.2009, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Collembola * food preference * microfungi Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Herbicidal and Cytotoxic Constituents from Aralia armata (Wall.) Seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hui; Sun, Yongyan; Yuan, Yunfei; Zhao, Huanhuan; Wu, Jiao; Zhang, Weiyun; Zhou, Lijuan

    2016-04-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 3β-hydroxyoleana-11,13(18)-diene-28,30-dioic acid (1) and 3-oxooleana-11,13(18)-diene-28,30-dioic acid (2), one novel triterpenoid glycoside, 3β-O-(6'-O-methyl-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl)oleana-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid (3) along with six known compounds (4 - 9) were isolated from the stem bark of Aralia armata (Wall.) Seem. Their structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic methods. The herbicidal activities of these compounds against Bidens pilosa L., an invasive weed in P. R. China, were evaluated. Compounds 3, 5, and 6 exhibited more significant herbicidal activities on B. pilosa than the positive-control pendimethalin. Their possible use as herbicidal chemicals or model compounds deserved more attention. The effects of compounds 1 - 9 on Spodoptera litura cultured cell line Sl-1 cell proliferation and its morphology were also evaluated. The results indicated that compounds 1 - 5 affected Sl-1 cell proliferation. Compound 3 showed more obvious proliferation inhibition activities on Sl-1 cell than the positive-control rotenone. With regard to the effect on morphology, compound 2 significantly changed Sl-1 cell, resulting in cell blebbing and vacuole forming. Triterpenoids aremedicinally and agriculturally important, and cytotoxicity of the three new compounds 1 - 3 deserved further studies. PMID:26948515

  13. Studies on the fatty acids of the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    The alga, Chondria armata, collected from Goa Coast, India has been studied for its fatty acid composition. The analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) revealed the presnece of n-tetradecanoic, n...

  14. Ecological distribution of collembola in the litter of Tiantong forest ecosystems, Zhejiang%天童森林生态系统凋落物层跳虫群落的生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳亚丽; 由文辉; 易兰; 王向阳; 王强

    2011-01-01

    为了解浙江天童森林生态系统凋落物层跳虫群落的生态特征,于2009年12月至2010年9月对天童常绿阔叶林演替系列固定样地灌丛、马尾松林、木荷林、栲树林凋落物层的跳虫群落,按新鲜凋落物层、腐叶层和腐殖土层进行了详细的四季调查研究.共获跳虫标本15 108个,分别隶属于4目,14科其中优势类群为等节(眺)科Isotomidae、棘(眺)科Onychiuridae和长角(姚)科Entomobryidae,三者共占总数的78.35%.对调查结果的分析表明:(1)4种林型凋落物层跳虫群落随植物群落的演替而发生明显的变化,个体总数和多样性指数均在演替初期较低,中后期较高;(2)跳虫的类群数和个体数量在凋落物中呈现垂直分布现象,总体表现为向下递增的趋势,大量的跳虫个体集中分布在中间腐叶层和底部腐殖土层,分别占总数的33.94%和55.99%;(3)跳虫数量的季节变化为:秋季>夏季>春季>冬季.%To understand the ecological distribution of collembola in different habitats of Zhejiang Tiantong forest ecosystems, we investigated the collembolan community in different layers of four forest types, from September 2009 until December 2010.Forestlitterlayer can be divided into fresh litter layer (L), fermentation layer (F) and humus layer (H), which represent different litter decomposition stages. We sampled 15 108 Collembolas which belong to 4 Orders and 14 families. The dominant families are Isotomidae . Onychiuridae and Entomobryidae, accounting for 78.35% . The results of the investigation indicated that, ① There were significant difference for cmposition of Collembola community in different forest types. The total number and diversity index of Collembola communitie were both biggest at the climax,and smallest at the primary succession stage. ②There was a distinctive vertical distribution of collembola communities in the forest litter layer. The richness and density of the collembola in the litter

  15. Description of Pristina armata n. sp. (Clitellata: Naididae: Pristininae) from a carnivorous plant (Nepenthes sp.) in Borneo, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenková, Jana; Čermák, Václav

    2013-01-01

    A new clitellate species of Pristininae (Naididae), Pristina armata n. sp., found in the pitcher of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes sp., is reported from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. P. armata n. sp. is a very small clitellate, less than 1 mm long in fixed state, and without proboscis on the prostomium. Signs of reproduction by paratomy were observed, but the generic placement remains preliminary because sexually mature individuals were not found. P. armata n. sp. is characterized by giant hook-like dorsal chaetae at IV. The description of P. armata n. sp. was based on six fixed specimens of different size and stage of development. Noteworthy is the habitat of P. armata n. sp. in Nepenthes pitchers, this being the first clitellate species described from such a habitat. P. armata n. sp. may be a member of the nepenthebionts' community, realizing its life cycle inside the digestive fluid of the Nepenthes pitcher, or it belongs to nepenthephiles, species that commonly occur in this habitat but do not specialize on it. PMID:26473244

  16. Asparagopsis armata and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius as a natural source of antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Monteiro, Hugo; Araújo, Ernesto; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui

    2015-03-01

    Methanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts of twelve marine macro-algae (Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Heterokontophyta divisions) from Peniche coast (Portugal) were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis (gram positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (gram negative bacteria). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a model for the antifungal activity by evaluating the growth inhibitory activity of the extracts. The high antibacterial activity was obtained by the Asparagopsis armata methanolic extract (10 mm-0.1 mg/disc), followed by the Sphaerococcus coronopifolius n-hexane extract (8 mm-0.1 mg/disc), and the Asparagopsis armata dichloromethane extract (12 mm-0.3 mg/disc) against Bacillus subtilis. There were no positive results against Escherichia coli. Sphaerococcus coronopifolius revealed high antifungal potential for n-hexane (IC50 = 40.2 µg/ml), dichloromethane (IC50 = 78.9 µg/ml) and methanolic (IC50 = 55.18 µg/ml) extracts against Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth. The antifungal potency of the Sphaerococcus coronopifolius extracts was similar with the standard amphotericin B. Asparagopsis armata and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius reveal to be interesting sources of natural compounds with antimicrobial properties. PMID:25588525

  17. Collembola as bioindicators of changes in soil and ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusek, Josef

    Rouen : Université de Rouen, 2004. s. 34. [Colloque International sur les Aptérygotes /11./. 05.09.2004-09.09.2004, Rouen] Keywords : Collembola * bioindicators * ecosystems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Typhlocharis vicariantes del Estrecho de Gibraltar. I: Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969 (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Trechidae

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    Pérez González, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This first part about the vicariant Typhlocharis from Gibraltar Strait is dedicated to Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969; a second paper will cover T. silvanoides Dieck, 1869. The studied material was obtained in four field campaigns carried out in the south of Spain and north of Morocco between 1997 and 2001 (Zaballos & Banda, 2000; Zaballos, 2005. In these campaigns abundant specimens of Typhlocharis (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Trechidae were collected in different localities, the majority of them belonging to the species T. armata Coiffait, 1969. Their study and the comparison with the type series of this species allowed its complete redescription and clarification of its status within the genus. Contrary to what has been considered traditionally, the marginal umbilicate series of elytra in T. armata is composed of three, instead of four posterior setae. The taxonomical affinities of this species are established, the morphological weight of the umbilicate group of elytral setae as a lineage and species group defining character is discussed, and the theory of Jeanne (1973 about the relation between shortening of elytra and umbilicate series reduction with a decrease in body size is revised. The dispersal abilities are evaluated and a biogeographical explanation for the new distribution of the species is proposed.Esta primera parte sobre las especies de Typhlocharis vicariantes del Estrecho de Gibraltar está dedicada a Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969; mientras que en un segundo artículo se tratará T. silvanoides Dieck, 1869. El material estudiado procede de cuatro campañas entomológicas realizadas en el sur de España y en el norte de Marruecos entre 1997 y 2001 (Zaballos & Banda, 2000; Zaballos, 2005. En estas campañas se recolectaron, en localidades diferentes, abundantes ejemplares de Typhlocharis (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Trechidae, la mayoría de los cuales han resultado pertenecer a la especie T. armata Coiffait, 1969. Su estudio y

  19. Antiproliferative activity of VLC fractions obtained from Asparagopsis armata associated bacteria

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    João Fonseca Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies are showing the presence of bioactive compounds in marine organisms, such as algae and algae associated bacteria. Cancer is one of the major causes of death in the world, consequently research for new antitumor compounds is continuous and have high importance for the human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of Shewanella sp. associated bacteria from Asparagopsis armata. Crude extract of associated bacteria was obtained with methanol and dichloromethane (1:1 extraction. Then the crude extract was fractioned by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC using cyclohexane with increasing amounts of 25% of ethyl acetate, in order to isolate different compounds obtained five fractions (F1-F5. The cell viability and the cell proliferation studies were performed on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 cells according to MTT method. In cytotoxicity assay (1mg/ml; 24 hours, the highest reduction of MCF-7 viability was induced by F2 and F3 fractions (53.6% and 48.6% respectively. On the other hand in cell proliferation assay (1mg/ml; 24 hours, all fractions showed anti-proliferative activity (1mg/mL, however the highest inhibition of MCF-7 proliferation was exhibited by F3 and F5 fractions, 15% and 17,7%, respectively. These results suggest that the Shewanella sp. associated bacteria from Asparagopsis armata can be an interesting source of new antitumor drugs.

  20. Assessment of Invasiveness of the Orange Keyhole Sponge Mycale Armata in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii Based on Surveys 2004-2005 (NODC Accession 0002602)

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Orange Keyhole Sponge, Mycale armata Thiele, was unknown in Hawaii prior to 1996. First reported in Pearl Harbor, it now occurs in virtually every commercial...

  1. Assessment of invasiveness of the Orange Keyhole Sponge, Mycale Armata, in Kaneohe Bay Oahu, Hawaii, based on surveys 2004-2005 (NODC Accession 0002602)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Orange Keyhole Sponge, Mycale armata Thiele, was unknown in Hawaii prior to 1996. First reported in Pearl Harbor, it now occurs in virtually every commercial...

  2. Soil Collembola attracted by decaying wood; a preliminary study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čuchta, Peter

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology, BC CAS, 2015. s. 18. ISBN ISBN 978-80-86525-29-7. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /13./. 13.04.2015-15.04.2015, České Budějovice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil Collembola * decaying wood Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Galactan polysaccharides extraction from invasive algae Asparagopsis armata (Harvey of the Peniche coast.

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    Marcia Sofia Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine macroalgae are important sources of sulfated polysaccharides with different structure according to each species of algae. These compounds from the seaweeds of the division Rhodophyta are mainly galactans consisting entirely of galactose or modified galactose units. Galactans, like agar and carrageenan have important biotechnological and commercial applications in several industries. The red seaweed Asparagopsis armata (Harvey, originally from the Pacific Ocean, is well established in Peniche beaches (west of Portugal and other European locations and was classified as an invasive species. These red algae show complex hybrid galactans in their composition. The water–soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the gametophyte form of the seaweed, collected in March 2013 from Peniche coast, using a hot water extraction procedure. The yield (% of the extraction and the galactose ratio content (mmol glucose % were calculated. The polysaccharides were characterized by Infrared spectroscopy. The yield of polysaccharides was 16% and the calculated galactose ratio was 0.30 mmol glucose %. No significant statistical differences between the extraction procedures and the yield result were found. The FTIR spectra presented different bands, such as a band at 843.59 cm-1, characteristic of C4-O-S in galactose unit and a band at 764.68 cm-1 of C2-O-S (3.6-anidrogalactose. The complex hybrid galactans extracted from A. armata are easily obtained from simple extraction procedures. Nevertheless, a better molecular characterization is required, in order to determine the potential of these seaweeds as a galactan source, and compare these polysaccharides with other galactans obtained from other Rodophyta species.

  4. Ocorrência de Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert (Crustácea, Anomopoda, Daphniidae no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert (Crustácea, Anomopoda, Daphniidae in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Lourdes M.A. Elmoor-Loureiro

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert, 1983 is registered in São Paulo State. The previously suggested occurrence of this species in Brazil is confirmed.

  5. Collembola effects on plant mass and nitrogen acquisition by ash seedling (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)

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    Lussenhop, John; BassirRad, Hormoz [Illinois Univ., Biological Sciences Dept., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2005-04-01

    We studied the effects of varied collembolan numbers on three compensatory mechanisms of nutrient uptake: fine root mass, endomycorrhizal development, and physiological uptake capacity. We grew ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) with or without the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, with 0, 10 or 50 initial Collembola (Folsomia Candida). After 83 d root NH{sub 4} and NO{sub 3} uptake rates, endomycorrhizal development, and plant biomass were determined. Plant mass increased with Collembola number. Collembola interacted with mycorrhizae in their effects on N uptake and leaf N. Collembola in the absence of mycorrhizal roots were associated with lower N uptake and leaf N at 10 than at 0 or 50 initial Collembola. In contrast, Collembola in the presence of mycorrhizal roots were associated with the highest rate of N uptake and leaf N at 10 versus 0 or 50 initial Collembola. Hence as initial Collembola number increased, the relative importance of root system traits that determined N uptake changed from root physiological uptake capacity, presence of mycorrhizal roots, to fine root biomass. (Author)

  6. Two species of Collembola new for the fauna of Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, D.; Korda, M.; Traser, Gy.

    2011-01-01

    Two Collembola species are recorded as new for the fauna of Hungary. Tetracanthella pericarpatica Kaprus &Tsalan, 2009 (Isotomidae), previously known only from the Transcarpathian Lowland and Roztochchia Hill (Ukraine), wascollected in a oak-ash-elm lowland forest in Western Hungary. Some corrections and additions to the original description aregiven. The xerophilous species Xenylla uniseta Da Gama, 1963 (Hypogastruridae), found mostly in Mediterranean countries, wascollected in meadow steppe...

  7. Responses of soil Collembola to long-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment in a mature temperate forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responses of Collembola to 7 years of CO2 enrichment (550 ppm) in a Swiss free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a forest with 80- to 120-year-old trees were investigated in this study. Contrary to our expectations, increased CO2 caused a significant decrease in Collembola numbers, including a significant decrease in euedaphic Collembola. Increased CO2, however, did not affect community group richness. Collembola biomass was not significantly changed by CO2 enrichment, regardless of whether it was considered in terms of the total community, life-strategy groups, or individual species (with an exception of Mesaphorura krausbaueri). The reason for this is that CO2 enrichment caused a general increase in individual body size, which compensated for reduced abundances. The results are consistent with the idea that the rhizosphere is important for soil fauna, and the combination of reduced fine root growth and increased soil moisture might trigger a reduction in Collembola abundance. - Highlights: ► Increased CO2 caused a significant decrease in Collembola abundance. ► Increased CO2 caused a significant decrease in euedaphic Collembola. ► Collembola body size tended to be larger. ► A decrease in fine roots biomass might trigger the reduction in Collembola. - Seven years of CO2 enrichment caused a significant decrease in Collembola abundance, especially in euedaphic species.

  8. The mysid Siriella armata as a model organism in marine ecotoxicology: comparative acute toxicity sensitivity with Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Siriella armata (Crustacea, Mysidacea) is a component of the coastal zooplankton that lives in swarms in the shallow waters of the European neritic zone, from the North Sea to the Mediterranean. Juveniles of this species were examined as standard test organisms for use in marine acute toxicity tests. The effects of reference toxicants, three trace metals (Copper, Cadmium and Zinc), and one surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied on S. armata neonates (\\24 h) reared in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with filtered sea water on individual chambers (microplate wells for metals or glass vials for SDS) incubated in an isothermal room at 20 degrees C, with 16 h light: 8 h dark photoperiod for 96 h. Each neonate was fed daily with 10-15 nauplii of Artemia salina. Acute (96 h) LC50 values, in increasing order, were 46.9 lg/L for Cu, 99.3 lg/L for Cd, 466.7 lg/L for Zn and 8.5 mg/L for SDS. The LC(10), NOEC and LOEC values were also calculated. Results were compared with Daphnia magna, a freshwater cladoceran widely used as a standard ecotoxicological test organism. Acute (48 h) LC(50) values were 56.2 lg/L for Cu, 571.5 lg/L for Cd, 1.3 mg/L for Zn and 27.3 mg/L for SDS. For all the reference toxicants studied, the marine mysid Siriella armata showed higher sensitivity than the freshwater model organism Daphnia magna, validating the use of Siriella mysids as model organisms in marine acute toxicity tests. PMID:19757032

  9. Two species of Collembola new for the fauna of Hungary

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    Winkler, D.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two Collembola species are recorded as new for the fauna of Hungary. Tetracanthella pericarpatica Kaprus &Tsalan, 2009 (Isotomidae, previously known only from the Transcarpathian Lowland and Roztochchia Hill (Ukraine, wascollected in a oak-ash-elm lowland forest in Western Hungary. Some corrections and additions to the original description aregiven. The xerophilous species Xenylla uniseta Da Gama, 1963 (Hypogastruridae, found mostly in Mediterranean countries, wascollected in meadow steppe habitats near Budapest. An updated description is provided with emphasis on the first instar.

  10. Collembola, Protura and Pauropoda in a riparian forest - mesic forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusek, Josef; Reithofer, D.; Schmid, S.; Truxa, Ch.; Weber, J.; Wilde, U.

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology BC AS CR, 2009, s. 133-139. ISBN 978-80-86525-13-6. [Contributions to Soil Zoology in Central Europe III. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /9./. České Budějovice (CZ), 17.04.2007-20.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA AV ČR KSK3046108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Collembola * Protura * Pauropoda Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. Introduction of some Entomobryidae species (Collembola) from different Caspian regions

    OpenAIRE

    Elliyeh Yahyapoor; Masoumeh Shayanmehr

    2013-01-01

    The family Entomobryidae is a group of Collembola which is also called "slender springtails". They are considered as a group of springtails characterized as having an enlarged fourth abdominal segment and a well-developed furcula. Fourth segmented antenna always is present. The species in this family may be heavily scaled and can be very colorful. They can be found throughout the world in a wide range of habitats but most species live in leaf litter, on the soil surface, under the bark of tre...

  12. An annotated checklist of the springtail fauna of Hungary (Hexapoda: Collembola)

    OpenAIRE

    Dányi, L.; Traser, Gy.

    2008-01-01

    A checklist of the species of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) hitherto recorded from Hungary is presented. Each entry is accompanied by complete references, and remarks where appropriate. The present list contains 414 species.

  13. An annotated checklist of the springtail fauna of Hungary (Hexapoda: Collembola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dányi, L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the species of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola hitherto recorded from Hungary is presented. Each entry is accompanied by complete references, and remarks where appropriate. The present list contains 414 species.

  14. Microarthropod community structures (Oribatei and Collembola) in Tam Dao National Park, Vietnam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quang Manh Vu; Tri Tien Nguyen

    2000-12-01

    A study on the microarthropod community with special reference to species diversity of Oribatid and Collembola communities (Microarthropoda: Oribatei and Collembola) in Tam Dao National Park of Vietnam, a subtropical evergreen broad leaf alpine forest, was undertaken with the aim to explain how they are related to forest decline, and whether they can be used as bioindicators of forest plant succession. The results have shown that microarthropod community structures, particularly species diversity of oribatid and collembolan communities, are related to forest decline. Therefore they can be used as bioindicators of forest plant succession. In Tam Dao National Park, there was an inverse relation between species diversity of the oribatid and collembola communities. The species diversity of the oribatid community gradually decreased with forest decline whereas the species diversity of the collembola community gradually increased.

  15. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alatalo, J.M.; Jägerbrand, A.K.; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, December (2015), s. 18161. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Collembola * alpine subarctic sites * experimental warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  16. Introduction of some Entomobryidae species (Collembola from different Caspian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliyeh Yahyapoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Entomobryidae is a group of Collembola which is also called "slender springtails". They are considered as a group of springtails characterized as having an enlarged fourth abdominal segment and a well-developed furcula. Fourth segmented antenna always is present. The species in this family may be heavily scaled and can be very colorful. They can be found throughout the world in a wide range of habitats but most species live in leaf litter, on the soil surface, under the bark of trees, in the forest canopy or in caves. In order to investigate the fauna of the Entomobryidae, different soil samples were taken from leaf litter in Caspian regions located in Mazandaran province (orchards, agricultural crops and forests. The Collembola specimens were extracted by heat in Berlise funnel during 1388-1390. Furthermore, some specimens were caught by pitfall traps. In general, five genera and five species were collected among which three species (indicated by * were new for Iran. The specimens belonging to the genus Lepidocyrtus (Bourlet, 1839 were not matched with available taxonomic keys. The identified species were as follows: Entomobrya atrocincta *, E. multifasciata*, Seria domestica*, Heteromurus major, Pseudosinella octopunctata.

  17. Chewing up the Wood-Wide Web: Selective Grazing on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi by Collembola

    OpenAIRE

    Clarisse Kanters; Anderson, Ian C.; David Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The mycelia of some symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi form extensive networks—the so called “wood-wide web”—that have key roles in biogeochemical cycling. By interacting with myriad soil organisms such as collembola, the fungi directly affect the functioning of above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions in ecosystems. Here we tested whether the grazing activities of collembola affected the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi in single or mixed species axenic cultures, and their impact on e...

  18. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    OpenAIRE

    Alatalo, Juha M.; Annika K. Jägerbrand; Peter Čuchta

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified....

  19. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Charlene Janion-Scheepers; Chown, Steven L; Grant A. Duffy

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can ...

  20. Effects of understory structure on the abundance, richness and diversity of Collembola (Arthropoda) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Troian, Vera R; Baldissera, Ronei; Hartz, Sandra M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different landscape structures on the understory Collembola community. Four different forest physiognomies were compared: Pinus spp. plantation, Eucalyptus spp. plantation, Araucaria angustifolia plantation, and a remaining native Araucaria forest. Three areas containing two sampling units (25 mx2 m each) were selected in each forest physiognomy. Understory Collembola collection was done with a 1x1 m canvas sheet held horizontally below the vegetation, which was beaten with a 1 m long stick, seasonally from September 2003 to August 2004. We evaluated the influence of forest physiognomies on the abundance, richness and diversity of Collembola communities. It was also verified if the habitat structure of each physiognomy was associated with the composition of the Collembola community. A total number of 4,111 individuals were collected belonging to the families Entomobrydae and Tomocerida (Entomobryomorpha), and Sminthuridae (Symphypleona), and divided in 12 morphospecies. Pinus plantation presented the highest richness, abundance and diversity of Collembola and it was associated to diverse understory vegetation. The abundance of Entomobrydae and Sminthuridae was associated to the presence of bushes, while Tomoceridae abundance was associated to the presence of trees. The habitat structure, measured through understory vegetation density and composition, plays an important role on the determination of the structure and composition of the Collembola community. PMID:19618049

  1. Negative responses of Collembola in a forest soil (Alptal, Switzerland) under experimentally increased N deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of specific groups of organisms, like Collembola to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is still scarcely known. We investigated the Collembola community in a subalpine forest (Alptal, Switzerland) as subjected for 12 years to an experimentally increased N deposition (+25 on top of ambient 12 kg N ha-1 year-1). In the 0-5 cm soil layer, there was a tendency of total Collembola densities to be lower in N-treated than in control plots. The density of Isotomiella minor, the most abundant species, was significantly reduced by the N addition. A tendency of lower Collembola group richness was observed in N-treated plots. The Density-Group index (dDG) showed a significant reduction of community diversity, but the Shannon-Wiener index (H') was not significantly affected by the N addition. The Collembola community can be considered as a bioindicator of N inputs exceeding the biological needs, namely, soil N saturation. - Collembola community, which was significantly affected by a long-term N addition experiment, can be considered as a bioindicator of N saturation.

  2. Assessment of Invasiveness of the Orange Keyhole Sponge Mycale Armata in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii Based on Surveys 2005-2006, Year 2 of Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (NODC Accession 0033380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Orange Keyhole Sponge, Mycale armata Thiele, was unknown in Hawaii prior to 1996. It was first reported in Pearl Harbor and has been reported in low abundance...

  3. Chewing up the Wood-Wide Web: Selective Grazing on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi by Collembola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Kanters

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mycelia of some symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi form extensive networks—the so called “wood-wide web”—that have key roles in biogeochemical cycling. By interacting with myriad soil organisms such as collembola, the fungi directly affect the functioning of above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions in ecosystems. Here we tested whether the grazing activities of collembola affected the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi in single or mixed species axenic cultures, and their impact on ectomycorrhizal diversity in litterbags in the field. We also used 14CO2 pulse-labelling to test the effects of collembola on respiratory losses of recent plant assimilate from external mycelium of ectomycorrhizal fungi in symbiosis with Scots pine or birch. We found that the effects of collembola varied across species, and caused a significant reduction in the amount of 14CO2 released from external mycorrhizal mycelium from three of the eight species combinations but increased it in one. Selective grazing also significantly affected the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Our findings demonstrate the importance of collembola in regulating ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and activity and below-ground pathways of carbon flow.

  4. Soil Warming Elevates the Abundance of Collembola in the Songnen Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumin Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil warming and precipitation control in the context of soil warming on Collembola community was studied in Songnen grassland, China. Treatments included (1 control; (2 soil warming; (3 soil warming with low precipitation; and (4 soil warming with high precipitation. The open top chambers were used to increase the soil temperature, and the low and high precipitation were created by covering 30% of the chamber and artificial addition after rainfall through the three-year long field experiment. Soil samples were taken and collembolans were extracted in the 15th in June, August and October from 2010 to 2012. Abundance of total Collembola and dominant morphospecies Orchesellides sp.1 was significantly increased by soil warming. Total Collembola abundance was not affected by the precipitation. However, the abundance of Mesaphorura sp.1 was significantly increased by warming with low precipitation treatment. Collembola species richness, diversity and evenness were not impacted by any treatment through all the sampling times. These results suggest that more attention should be paid to the Collembola community variation under global warming in the future.

  5. Temporal variations of Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda in the semiarid Caatinga in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aila Soares Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The richness and abundance of Collembola species can be influenced by many biotic and abiotic factors, mainly humidity. The semiarid region of Brazil is dominated by Caatinga dryland vegetation which experiences distinct seasonal alterations of its physiognomy linked to regional rainfall regimes. The present study evaluated the environmental factors affecting populations of Collembola in an area of Caatinga vegetation in Northeastern Brazil during a 12-months period. Specimens were collected by active searching in ten 20 x 20 m plots, with a sampling effort of 1 hour/person/plot. A total of 1231 specimens were collected, comprising 15 morphospecies, 12 genera, and nine families. Both species richness and individual abundances demonstrated oscillations during the year, with the highest values occurring during the rainy season; rainfall was the principal predictive variable for the observed temporal oscillations. Minimum temperatures and precipitation influenced the structural composition of the Collembola. Populations of Collembola demonstrated clustered distribution during the year. The direct and indirect effects of precipitation on the quality of microhabitats and resource availability were apparently responsible for the numerical and compositional alterations of the Collembola fauna observed in the Caatinga site.

  6. Morfoanatomia de folha e caule das espécies Centrolobium Tomentosum Guillemin Ex Benth, (Fabaceae), Genipa Americana L. E Randia Armata (s.W.) DC (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Erbano, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: As espécies Centrolobium tomentosum Guillemin ex Benth., Fabaceae, popularmente conhecida como araribá, Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae, também denominada de jenipapo, e Randia armata (Sw.) DC., Rubiaceae, referida vulgarmente como limoeiro-do-mato, são plantas nativas do Brasil e empregadas na medicina popular brasileira. Com o objetivo de caracterizar morfoanatomicamente a folha adulta e o caule jovem, visando aprofundar o conhecimento da flora brasileira e contribuir para monografia...

  7. A case of an apparent infestation by Proisotoma spp. springtails (Collembola: Isotomidae) in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccati, Massimo; Gallo, Maria G; Chiavassa, Elisa; Peano, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    This case report is presumed to be the first case of infestation of a cat by springtails which are small arthropods closely related to insects. The organisms, found by skin scrapings, were identified as Proisotoma spp. (Collembola: Isotomidae). The cat presented with dermatological lesions (itchy, furfuraceous dermatitis), and we speculate that they were due to this infestation. The pathogenic role of the Collembola was hypothesized because of the large number of organisms, the presence of eggs indicating an active reproduction cycle, the lack of other pathogens (fleas, mites or lice) and the clinical recovery accompanied by the disappearance of Collembola following treatment. The owner seemed to be affected by the infestation, because a few days after having purchased the cat, she developed a pruriginous papular dermatitis on the neck and the arms, which disappeared shortly after treatment of the kitten and a careful washing of all of its toys and other accoutrements. PMID:22049948

  8. Collembola population in revegetated tin-mined lands in Bangka Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDDY NURTJAHYA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Several indicators used to evaluate revegetation programs are survival, plant growth, root growth, cover, litter production, natural recolonisation, habitat improvement, microbes, insects, and birds. To study the prediction of the potency of Collembola as bioindicator of revegetated tin-mined lands, population densities on revegetated tin-mined lands under Acacia mangium stands at 0, 3, 7, 9, 12, and 13¬years old were measured using pitfall trap method. It was recorded four Collembola species i.e. one belongs to family Isotomidae, two to family Entomobryidae, and one to family Sminthuridae. Population density of Collembola spp. in unrevegetated tin-mined land (0-year old was significantly different to those in revegetated tin-mined lands. Although population density was higher in the older revegetated tin-mined lands with the highest density recorded in 13-year old site (4816 ind. m-2, densities among revegetated tin-mined lands were not significantly different. The different population density appears related to organic material, litter either from revegetated plant, or from plant invaders during succession, and soil humidity. This study confirms the prediction of the potency of Collembola population density as bioindicator of revegetated tin-mined lands under Acacia mangium stands.

  9. Microhabitats of Collembola (Insecta: Entognatha) in beech and spruce forests and their influence on biodiversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusek, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 237-244. ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6066702; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Collembola communities * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  10. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Xu

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

  11. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-07-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  12. Collembola feeding habits and niche specialization in agricultural grasslands of different composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sechi, Valentina; D ’ Annibale, Alessandra; Ambus, Per;

    2014-01-01

    quality in general, and soil biota in particular. Recent studies have shown that epedaphic and euedaphic Collembola can have distinct differences in feeding strategy that suggests trophic niche differentiation according to soil habitat. Combining fatty acid (FA) biomarkers with the carbon isotopic ratios...

  13. The impact of disturbance and ensuing forestry practices on Collembola in spruce forest stands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čuchta, Peter

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology, BC CAS, 2015. s. 19. ISBN ISBN 978-80-86525-29-7. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /13./. 13.04.2015-15.04.2015, České Budějovice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ensuing forestry practices * Collembola * spruce forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Trophic transfer of silver nanoparticles from earthworms disrupts the locomotion of springtails (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jin Il; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how nanomaterials are transferred through food chains and evaluating their resulting toxicity is important. However, limited research has been conducted on the toxic consequences of trophically transferred nanomaterials in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we documented the adverse effects of trophically transferred silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a soil-earthworm (Eisenia andrei)-Collembola (Lobella sokamensis) food chain. We exposed E. andrei to soil with AgNPs at concentrations of 50, 200, and 500μg AgNPs/g soil dry weight and assessed their survival after 7days. Trophic-transfer containers were then prepared and E. andrei that survived the 7days test period were washed, killed in boiling water, and added to the containers with L. sokamensis. We noted negligible effects and low bioaccumulation at the lowest AgNP concentration (50μg AgNPs/g soil dry weight) in earthworms and the L. sokamensis that fed on them. The highest concentration of AgNPs (500μg AgNPs/g soil dry weight) resulted in juvenile earthworm mortality and increased transfer of AgNPs to Collembola, which subsequently inhibited their locomotion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the trophic transfer and adverse effects of AgNPs in a soil-earthworm-Collembola food chain, a common prey-decomposer interaction in soil ecosystems. PMID:27187058

  15. Invertebrate fauna (Coleoptera, Collembola, Diplopoda, Isopoda collected in the karst areas of the Aninei - Locvei Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Giurginca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors identified 132 species of invertebrates (14 Oniscidea, 25 Diplopoda,31 Collembola and 62 Coleoptera recently sampled (2001–2006 from the soil and subterranean (MSS and caves environments from the Banat Mountains. Some new,rare and endemic species are discussed. The seasonal changes of the species diversity in the superficial subterranean environments at 0.5 to 1 m in depth are for the first time presented for the Reşiţa – Moldova Nouă synclinorium. The characteristic and preferential species for the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS, belonging to the analyzed taxa, are identified.

  16. Community composition and cold tolerance of soil Collembola in a collapse karst doline with strong microclimate inversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raschmanová, N.; Miklisová, D.; Kováč, L.; Šustr, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 6 (2015), s. 802-811. ISSN 0006-3088 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 1/0199/14; VEGA(SK) 1/3267/06 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cold tolerance * collapse doline * karst landform * microclimatic gradient * soil Collembola Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  17. First Record of a Neozygites species (Zygomycetes:Entomophthorales) Infecting Springtails (Insecta:Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Eilenberg, J; Bresciani, J.

    1996-01-01

    A fungal pathogen from the Entomophthorales (Zygomycetes) was discovered in populations of the lucerne flea Sminthurus viridis (Collembola) collected from grassland and leguminous crops in Denmark during July to October. The morphology of the fungus was studied in springtails, collected live, which...

  18. The impact of disturbance and ensuing forestry practices on Collembola in spruce forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuchta, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Soil Collembola communities were investigated in spruce forest stands of the High Tatra Mts that had been heavily damaged by a windstorm in November 2004 and subsequently by a wildfire in July 2005. The study focused on the impact of these disturbances and forestry practices on collembolan community distribution and structure four years after the disturbance. Four different treatments were selected for this study: intact forest stands (REF), non-extracted windthrown stands (NEX), clear-cut windthrown stands (EXT) and burnt windthrown stands (FIR). From a total of 7,820 individuals, 72 species were identified. The highest total abundance mean was recorded in FIR stands followed by NEX and EXT stands and, surprisingly, the lowest in REF stands. The highest total species richness was observed in REF stands, followed by NEX stands and FIR stands and the lowest in EXT stands. In REF and NEX stands the most abundant species were Folsomia penicula and Tetracanthella fjellbergi, while in heavily damaged stands the most abundant was Anurophorus laricis. The present study shows the negative impact of windthrow on Collembola communities as reflected in decreased species richness and abundance. However, disturbance by fire caused a considerable increase in collembolan abundance three years after the event. Moreover, we found out that clearing of windthrown spruce forests after a windstorm is less favourable for communities of soil collembolans and slows down the recovery process.

  19. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails) in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariën J; Roelofs D; Timmermans MJTN; Straalen NM van

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of Collembola, suggested that the hexapod body plan evolved at least twice. Here, we re-evaluate the position of Collembola using ribosomal protein gene sequences. Resu...

  20. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nitu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalãu" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous,9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous,125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- andnecrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalãu primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slãtioara,Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles(Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing ofspecies richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  1. Biodiversity of Collembola in urban soils and their use as bioindicators for pollution Biodiversidade de Collembola em solos urbanos e o seu uso como bioindicadores de poluição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fiera

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of pollutants on the abundance and diversity of Collembola in urban soils. The research was carried out in three parks (Cişmigiu, Izvor and Unirea in downtown Bucharest, where the intense car traffic accounts for 70% of the local air pollution. One site in particular (Cişmigiu park was highly contaminated with Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu at about ten times the background levels of Pb. Collembola were sampled in 2006 (July, September, November using the transect method: 2,475 individuals from 34 species of Collembola were collected from 210 samples of soil and litter. Numerical densities differed significantly between the studied sites.The influence of air pollutants on the springtail fauna was visible at the species richness diversity and soil pollution levels. Species richness was lowest in the most contaminated site (Cismigiu, 11 species, which presented an increase in springtails abundances, though. Some species may become resistant to pollution and occur in high numbers of individuals in polluted sites, which makes them a good bioindicator of pollutants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de poluentes na abundância e na diversidade de Collembola em solos urbanos. A pesquisa foi conduzida em três parques (Cişmigiu, Izvor e Unirea no centro de Bucareste, onde o tráfego intenso de carros é responsável por 70% da poluição do ar local. Um local em particular (parque Cişmigiu está altamente contaminado com Pb, Cd, Zn e Cu, com nível de Pb dez vezes superior aos níveis de fundo. Os Collembola foram coletados em 2006 (julho, setembro, novembro, usando o método de transecto: foram coletados 2.475 indivíduos de 34 espécies de Collembola a partir de 210 amostras de solo e serapilheira. As densidades numéricas diferiram significativamente entre os locais estudados. A influência da poluição do ar na fauna de colêmbolos foi visível em termos de riqueza de espécies e do grau

  2. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of the mesofauna organisms was low, especially collembolan families.O impacto de quatro sistemas de cultivo sobre a fauna de solo foram estudados, utilizando-se como bioindicadores os acari Oribatida e Gamasida e os Collembola. A pesquisa foi conduzida em campos experimentais, localizados na EMBRAPA - CPAO no município de Dourados, MS, no período de julho de 1997 à dezembro de 1999. O sistema de pastagem contínua apresentou menor impacto sobre a fauna de solo seguido da rotação agricultura pecuária e do sistema de plantio direto. Nas sucessões do plantio convencional, a densidade populacional dos organismos da mesofauna foi baixa, em especial as famílias de colembolos.

  3. The Influence of Soil Characteristics on the Toxicity of Oil Refinery Waste for the Springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Adriaan J; van Wyk, Mia; Reinecke, Sophie A

    2016-06-01

    We determined the toxicity of oil refinery waste in three soils using the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola) in bioassays. Sublethal exposure to a concentration series of API-sludge presented EC50's for reproduction of 210 mg/kg in site soil; 880 mg/kg in LUFA2.2- and 3260 mg/kg in OECD-soil. The sludge was the least toxic in the OECD-soil with the highest clay and organic matter content, the highest maximum water holding capacity, and the least amount of sand. It was the most toxic in the reference site soil with the lowest organic matter content and highest sand content. The results emphasized the important role of soil characteristics such as texture and organic matter content in influencing toxicity, possibly by affecting bioavailability of toxicants. PMID:27048278

  4. First record of the genus Schoettella and three new records of the family Hypogastruridae (Collembola, Hexapoda for fauna of Iran with an identification key for Mazandaran province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Yoosefi Lafooraki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hypogastruridae family belonging to the class Collembola (Springtails are among the most important and abundant soil arthropods. These animals play important roles in decomposition processes and nutrient cycling. However, their fauna have remained too much unknown in Iran. In order to study of Collembola fauna in the Mazandaran province, some sampling from soil, leaf litters and mosses were made from different regions of the province during 2012-2013 years. Then, the springtails of samples were separated using Berlese funnel and preserved in 75-85 % ethyl alcohol. During the investigation, some samples belonging to Hypogastruridae were collected and identified. The genus Schoettella and the three species S. unungiuculata, Hypogastrura purpurescens and Ceratophysella engadinensis are new records for fauna of Iran and the two species Xenylla maritima and C. stercoraria are recorded for the first time from Mazandaran province. In addition, an identification key for local genera and species of the family Hypogastruridae in Mazandaran is presented here.

  5. Půdní Collembola v povodí Čertova a Plešného jezera na Šumavě (Bodenlebende Springschwänze (Collembola) in Šumava in Einzugsgebieten der Seen Čertovo jezero und Plešné jezero)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čuchta, Peter

    Vimperk: Správa NP a CHKO Šumava, 2015. s. 29-30. [Aktuality šumavského výzkumu (Aktuelle Ergebnisse der Böhmerwaldforschung). 09.09.2015-10.09.2015, Haus zur Wildnis] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil Collembola * Plešné Lake catchment * Čertovo Lake catchment Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Assessing single and joint effects of chemicals on the survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida (Collembola) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemicals are often found in the environment as complex mixtures. There has been a large effort in the last decade to assess the combined effect of chemicals, using the conceptual models of Concentration Addition and Independent Action, but also including synergistic, antagonistic, dose-level and dose–ratio dependent deviations from these models. In the present study, single and mixture toxicity of atrazine, dimethoate, lindane, zinc and cadmium were studied in Folsomia candida, assessing survival and reproduction. Different response patterns were observed for the different endpoints and synergistic patterns were observed when pesticides were present. Compared with the previously tested Enchytraeus albidus and Porcellionides pruinosus, the mixture toxicity pattern for F. candida was species specific. The present study highlights the importance of studying toxicity of chemicals mixtures due to the observed potentiation of effects and confirms that for an adequate ecologically relevant risk assessment different organisms and endpoints should be included. - Highlights: ► Folsomia candida (Collembola) were exposed to binary mixtures of atrazine, dimethoate, lindane, zinc and cadmium. ► Synergistic response patterns were often observed when pesticides were present in the mixtures. ► Response patterns upon mixture exposure differed within endpoints (survival vs. reproduction) in some cases. ► As to single chemical toxicity, response patterns for mixture exposures seem to be also species specific. - Exposure to chemical mixtures in Folsomia candida showed potentiation of effects. Mixture toxicity patterns differ among species and endpoint measured.

  7. Colêmbolos (Hexapoda: Collembola como bioindicadores de qualidade do solo em áreas com Araucaria angustifolia Springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola as soil quality bioindicators in areas with Araucaria angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Não existem informações sobre a diversidade de colêmbolos associados às florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze no Brasil. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o potencial da diversidade de famílias de colêmbolos como bioindicadores da qualidade do solo e para separar diferentes áreas com araucária, utilizando atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo como variáveis explicativas. O estudo foi realizado em quatro áreas: 1. floresta nativa com predominância de araucária (NF; 2. reflorestamento de araucária (R; 3. reflorestamento de araucária submetido a incêndio acidental (RF; e 4. pastagem natural com araucárias nativas e ocorrência de incêndio acidental (NPF. Na captura dos organismos, utilizaram-se dez armadilhas, distribuídas ao acaso em cada área, nos mesmos pontos de coleta dos atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo. O número de colêmbolos de cada família, extraído por armadilhas (abundância, o índice de diversidade de Shannon (H e a riqueza de famílias foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA. A abundância de cada família de Collembola foi submetida à Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Considerando as quatro áreas, foram identificadas oito famílias de colêmbolos (Brachystomellidae, Entomobryidae, Hypogastruridae, Isotomidae, Katiannidae, Paronellidae, Sminthuridae e Tomoceridae. A diversidade de famílias de colêmbolos foi maior nas áreas NF e R, em comparação com as áreas RF e NPF. Os atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo foram eficientes como variáveis explicativas, pois auxiliaram na interpretação das modificações das famílias de colêmbolos. A ACP mostrou que a identificação ao nível de família de Collembola é suficiente para separar as áreas estudadas, além de indicar quais foram as famílias de colêmbolos mais associadas a cada área, o que possibilita sua utilização como bioindicadores de intervenções antrópicas, bem como da

  8. Co-occurrence analyses show that non-random community structure is disrupted by fire in two groups of soil arthropods (Isopoda Oniscidea and Collembola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Monica; Luiselli, Luca; Bologna, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that natural catastrophes may destroy non-random community structure in natural assemblages of organisms. As a study system, we selected fire as the catastrophic event, and two groups of soil arthropods (Collembola and Isopoda Oniscidea) as target organisms. By co-occurrence analyses and Monte Carlo simulations of niche overlap analysis (C-score, with fixed-equiprobable model; RA2 and RA3 algorithms) we evaluated whether the community structure of these two groups were random/non-random at three unburnt sites and at three neighbour burnt sites that were devastated by a large-scale fire in summer 2000. Both taxa experienced a remarkable reduction in the number of species sampled in burnt versus unburnt sites, but the difference among sites was not statistically significant for Oniscidea. We determined that community structure was clearly non-random at the unburnt sites for both Collembola (according to RA3 algorithm) and Isopoda Oniscidea (according to co-occurrence analysis) and that, as predicted by theory, the catastrophic event did deeply alter the community structure by removing the non-random organization of the species interactions. We also observed a shift from segregation to aggregation/randomness in soil arthropods communities affected by fire, a pattern that was similar to that observed in natural communities of organisms perturbed by the introduction of alien species, thus indicating that this pattern may be generalizable when alteration of communities may occur.

  9. Effect of a High Dose of Three Antibiotics on the Reproduction of a Parthenogenetic Strain of Folsomia candida (Isotomidae: Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, R.; Weber, E; Waite, J;

    2010-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem (Isotomidae: Collembola) is an edaphic parthenogenetic species commonly used in ecotoxicity studies. We exposed F. candida to a high dose of three antibiotics, tylosin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline, that target different bacterial groups. Possible toxic effects were...... assessed through egg production, hatching, and body size. All three antibiotics caused toxic effects. Treatment with oxytetracycline proved the most toxic. This group showed the smallest body size and lowest number of eggs laid, likely the result of a combination of antibiotic toxicity and avoidance of the...... antibiotic spiked food. Active toxin avoidance by F. candida in toxicological assays may play a role in minimizing their exposure to toxic compounds. Despite the administration of high doses of oxytetracycline, F. candida individuals remained infected with the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia indicating that...

  10. Metais pesados, agrotóxicos e combustíveis: efeito na população de colêmbolos no solo Heavy metal, pesticides and fuels: effect in the population of collembola in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Inês Antoniolli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de colêmbolos no solo com diferentes níveis de metais pesados, combustíveis e agrotóxicos em condição de laboratório. Os tratamentos foram: Cádmio (1, 10 e 100mg kg-1 de solo; Cobre (50, 500 e 5000mg kg-1 de solo; Zinco (100, 1000 e 10000mg kg-1 de solo; fungicida epoxiconazol + piraclostrobina (1 e 2L ha-1; fungicida epoxiconazol (0,75 e 1,5L ha-1; herbicida glifosato (2 e 4L ha-1; óleo lubrificante queimado (5, 50 e 100mL kg-1 solo e óleo diesel (5, 50 e 100mL kg-1 solo e controle. Na dose de 1mg kg-1 de Cd no solo, houve grande aumento na população de colêmbolos e o pH do solo diminuiu à medida que aumentaram as doses de Cd, Zn e Cu no solo. Na presença de combustíveis, os colêmbolos apresentaram incapacidade de reprodução, independente da dose aplicada no solo. O número de colêmbolos apresentou incremento com o aumento da dosagem de glifosato e epoxiconazol. Os metais pesados Cu e Zn têm ação negativa sobre a população de colêmbolos e somente o Cd (1mg kg-1 solo proporciona aumento na população de colêmbolos no solo. A presença de óleo lubrificante queimado e óleo diesel no solo inibem o desenvolvimento dos colêmbolos no solo. Os agrotóxicos glifosato, epoxiconazol e epoxiconazol + piraclostrobina não influenciam negativamente sobre a população de colêmbolos no solo.The aim of this research was to evaluate the collembola development in soils with different levels of heavy metals, fuels and pesticides, in laboratory conditions. Treatments were: Cadmium - 1, 10 and 100mg kg-1 soil; Copper - 50, 500 and 5000mg kg-1 soil; Zinc - 100, 1000 and 10000 mg kg-1 soil; fungicide epoxiconazol + piraclostrobina - 1 and 2L ha-1; fungicide epoxiconazol - 0,75 and 1,5L ha-1; herbicide glyphosate - 2 and 4L ha-1; burned lubricating oil - 5, 50 and 100mL kg-1 soil and diesel oil - 5, 50 and 100mL kg-1 soil and control. In the 1mg kg-1 dose of Cd there was a great

  11. Short-term biochemical ill effects of insect growth regulator (IGR) pesticides in Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola: Insecta) as potential biomarkers of soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ipsita; Joy, V C

    2016-02-01

    The insect growth regulator (IGR) chemicals are considered as safe alternatives to synthetic organic pesticides, but only scant information are available on their possible impact on non-target and ecologically important soil insect fauna of croplands. Previous studies by the authors showed that recommended agricultural doses of IGRs buprofezin (Applaud 25SC at 250 g a.i. ha(-1)), flubendiamide (Takumi 20WG at 50 g a.i. ha(-1)) and novaluron (Rimon 10EC at 100 g a.i. ha(-1)) produced less mortality of adults of a non-target soil insect Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola) but decreased major life history parameters namely moulting, fecundity and egg hatching success. This detritivorous microarthropod is very sensitive to soil characteristics and is ecologically relevant to the tropical soils. Present microcosm study showed strong biochemical impact of the above doses of IGRs on tissue nutrient levels and digestive enzyme activities in C. javanus within 7 days of exposure to treated sandy loam soil. The levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and free amino acids declined significantly and persistently in the specimens reared in IGR-treated soils than in the specimens of untreated soil. Similarly, α-amylase, cellulase and protease activities declined significantly in the specimens of IGR-treated soil. These nutritional scarcities would reduce metabolism, growth and reproduction in the affected insects. Therefore, the observed biochemical responses, especially the levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates and α-amylase activity in C. javanus are early warning indices and potential biomarkers of soil pollution in croplands. PMID:26780417

  12. Colémbolos (Hexapoda como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México Collembola (Hexapoda as quality bioindicators of the hydrocarburans polluted soils in Southestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Uribe-Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron invertebrados del suelo, en particular los colémbolos, como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México. Se realizaron 2 muestreos en verano-otoño del 2004, en 4 parcelas de 2 hectáreas, denominadas zona 1, 2, 3 y control. De cada unidad se tomaron 8 muestras que fueron procesadas por medio del embudo de Berlese-Tullgren y 4 por el método de flotación. Para colémbolos se determinaron los siguientes índices ecológicos: abundancia, riqueza, índice de Shannon (H', dominancia (λ, equidad(J' e índice de similitud (S. Se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos del suelo: hidrocarburos totales del petróleo (HTP e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP, porosidad, pH, CE, MO, N, P, K, CIC y textura. Los HTP, en las zonas contaminadas, sobrepasan los límites de las normas mexicanas ambientales. En todas las zonas de estudio se observaron colémbolos, ácaros y larvas de dípteros, por lo que su abundancia y diversidad pueden ser utilizadas como bioindicadores del grado de contaminación y calidad del suelo. En las zonas contaminadas se registraron abundancias muy bajas de Crustacea, Formicidae, Araneae, Diptera, Pseudoscorpionida, y Diplopoda. Las familias de los colémbolos más ampliamente distribuidas fueron Sminthurididae e Isotomidae. De acuerdo con el análisis de correlación, su diversidad de colémbolos es afectada por la presencia de HAP (flouranteno, naftaleno, pireno, criseno y fenantrenoWe evaluated invertebrates, with an emphasis on Collembola, as bioindicators of soil quality in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in southeastern Mexico. We carried out 2 sampling periods in summer-fall of 2004 in 4 parcels of 2 hectares each. From each parcel we processed 8 samples using the Berlese-Tullgren funnel technique and 4 using the flotation method. For Collembola we calculated the following ecological indices: abundance, richness, the Shannon index (H', dominance (

  13. Poblaciones de Ácaros, Colémbolos y otra Mesofauna en un Inceptisol bajo Diferentes Manejos / Populations of Mites, Collembola and other Mesofauna in an Inceptisol under Different Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sánchez de Prager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En un suelo Humic dystrudepts sembrado con maíz y ubicado en Palmira (Colombia, se estimaron cambios en poblaciones de mesofauna (con énfasis en ácaros y colémbolos y en algunas de sus propiedades físicas ocasionados por el uso de abonos verdes (AV. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos bajo un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar: Testigo, Fertilización química, AV, Compost, y AV más Compost. El AVfue una mezcla de Canavalia ensiformis L. y Axonopus scoparius Hitchc. La mesofauna se extrajo con un cilindro metálico de 10 cm de diámetro y 5 cm de altura. Los meso invertebrados se separaron por el método Berlesse–Tullgren y se estimó su riqueza en unidades taxonómicas (UT y abundancia en númerode individuos/1000 cm3 de suelo, separando los primeros 10 cm  de profundidad. Los muestreos se realizaron en cuatro etapas: antesdel establecimiento de los AV, durante el periodo de crecimiento de los AV, ocho semanas después de la adición de los AV y en etapa de cosecha del maíz. El análisis estadístico mostró que la mayoría de diferencias significativas ocurrió entre las épocas de muestreo y en menor proporción entre tratamientos. Los ácaros y colémbolos fueron las poblaciones dominantes dentro de la mesofauna del suelo. El corte y adición de los AV y el compostincrementaron sus poblaciones, siendo los ácaros Oribátida y Mesostigmata y los colémbolos Entomobryidae e Isotomidae los más abundantes. La densidad aparente, estabilidad de agregados, ácaros y colémbolos mostraron sensibilidad a los cambios introducidos en el sistema maíz por el uso de los abonosverdes y compost. /  Abstract. In a Humic Dystrudepts soil located in Palmira (Colombia, changes in populations of mesofauna (with emphasis on mites and collembola and some of their physical properties due to the use of green manures (GM were evaluated. Five treatments were established in a randomized complete block design

  14. Soil organisms shape the competition between grassland plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabais, Alexander C W; Eisenhauer, Nico; König, Stephan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Scheu, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Decomposers and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) both determine plant nutrition; however, little is known about their interactive effects on plant communities. We set up a greenhouse experiment to study effects of plant competition (one- and two-species treatments), Collembola (Heteromurus nitidus and Protaphorura armata), and AMF (Glomus intraradices) on the performance (above- and belowground productivity and nutrient uptake) of three grassland plant species (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Plantago lanceolata) belonging to three dominant plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, and herbs). Generally, L. perenne benefited from being released from intraspecific competition in the presence of T. pratense and P. lanceolata. However, the presence of AMF increased the competitive strength of P. lanceolata and T. pratense against L. perenne and also modified the effects of Collembola on plant productivity. The colonization of roots by AMF was reduced in treatments with two plant species suggesting that plant infection by AMF was modified by interspecific plant interactions. Collembola did not affect total colonization of roots by AMF, but increased the number of mycorrhizal vesicles in P. lanceolata. AMF and Collembola both enhanced the amount of N and P in plant shoot tissue, but impacts of Collembola were less pronounced in the presence of AMF. Overall, the results suggest that, by differentially affecting the nutrient acquisition and performance of plant species, AMF and Collembola interactively modify plant competition and shape the composition of grassland plant communities. The results suggest that mechanisms shaping plant community composition can only be understood when complex belowground interactions are considered. PMID:22678109

  15. ИММУНОЦИТОХИМИЧЕСКОЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ СЕРОТОНИНА И НЕЙРОПЕПТИДА В НЕРВНОЙ СИСТЕМЕ ЦЕРКАРИЙ ТРЕМАТОД – METORCHIS BILIS И SA N GUINICOLA ARMATA

    OpenAIRE

    Теренина, Н.; Толстенков, О.

    2013-01-01

    Нейромедиаторы − серотонин и нейропептид FMRFамид определены иммуноцитохимически в нервной системе двух видов церкарий − Metorchis bilis (Opisthorchidae) и Sanguinicola armata (Sanguinicolidae). Исследуемые нейромедиаторы обнаружены в цен-тральных и периферических отделах нервной системы церкарий трематод. Приведен сравнительный анализ полученных результатов и данных литературы о на-личии и распределении исследованных нейромедиато-ров у церкарий трематод разных видов....

  16. EVREII DIN BASARABIA ŞI ARMATA ŢARISTĂ: STUDIU INTRODUCTIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr ROITMAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Destul de frecvent întâlnim opinia (fie empirică, fie cu caracter livresc că evreii nu au făcut serviciul militar şi că sunt străini acestei ocupaţii, motivele aduse pentru acest fapt fiind diverse: de la natura fricoasă a evreului până la lipsa simţului patriotic. Izvoarele documentare aduc un alt punct de vedere la acest subiect. Deşi nu poate fi negată prezenţa literaturii care studiază în speţă acest subiect pentru întreg Imperiul Rus, nu găsim studii care ar cuprinde minimum mi-nimorum aceeaşi tematică dar pentru spaţiul românesc, sau măcar o parte din acest spaţiu. O atenţie deosebită se acordă legislaţiei care a fost instituită pe parcursul secolului XIX, în vederea reglementării unui domeniu vechi al funcţionării statului în condiţiile nou-create. Cazul specific al Basarabiei se manifestă şi în această sferă, populaţia evreiască, de rând cu locuitorii nativi, de mai multe ori fiind exclusă din procesul general de recrutare. Motivele, cauzele şi efectele acestei politici pe larg sunt expuse în cele ce urmează.BESSARABIAN JEWS AND THE TSARIST ARMY: INTRODUCTORY STUDY Within the Russian Empire the compulsory military service for the Jewish population was introduced in 1827. The author of the military reform was Nicholas I, he did truly believe that the reform will integrate better the Jews in Russian society; In some extent he was right. For Bessarabia, the law entered into force in 1877, with all the consequences of the tsarist recruitment “rekrutchina”. Comparing the situation with other empires/countries the striking difference was in the fact that in European countries Jews acquired certain rights together with the obligations of the military service. In other words Jews entering the army in Europe became full-flagged citizens, in the Russian Empire this was not the case. Whereas Jewish soldiers in Europe after completing the military service could enjoy the fully “emancipation”, the Russian Jews had some privileges which contributed only to “partial social insertion” in the Russian society. Legal framework settled for the “military initiative” as in the other fields of Jewish life, determined a dramatic change within the Jews as culture, inner life and mentality.

  17. EVREII DIN BASARABIA ŞI ARMATA ŢARISTĂ: STUDIU INTRODUCTIV

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandr ROITMAN

    2015-01-01

    Destul de frecvent întâlnim opinia (fie empirică, fie cu caracter livresc) că evreii nu au făcut serviciul militar şi că sunt străini acestei ocupaţii, motivele aduse pentru acest fapt fiind diverse: de la natura fricoasă a evreului până la lipsa simţului patriotic. Izvoarele documentare aduc un alt punct de vedere la acest subiect. Deşi nu poate fi negată prezenţa literaturii care studiază în speţă acest subiect pentru întreg Imperiul Rus, nu găsim studii care ar cuprinde minimum mi-nimorum ...

  18. Una società armata è una società libera

    OpenAIRE

    Stagnaro, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Guns are mere objects. Preventing people from owning them, or limiting their availability, is an infringement of the natural right to property. Guns are also a peculiar good, since they are the key for the protection of liberty and property. In this perspective, gun control is not about guns: it is about control. In fact, government growth may be slowed by private gun ownership. A tyranny is unlikely to occur where people are armed. Historical evidence confirms this point: for exa...

  19. Interaction between humus form and herbicide toxicity to Collembola (Hexapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Bandyopadhyaya, Ipsa; Marchetti, Valérie

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted using intact collembolan communities, exposed to Madit D-(R) a phenylurea herbicide (active ingredient isoproturon). Effects were investigated using two distinct humus types, an acid Dysmoder and a neutral Eumull. Within two weeks, no effect of the herbicide was displayed by the Eumull population, while the Dysmoder population was stimulated. When animals were able to escape from the herbicide through a perforated wall separating two compartments filled w...

  20. First record of the littoral family Isotogastruridae (Collembola in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The new species Isotogastrura trichaetosa sp. n. is described from a sand beach of Hainan, South China. It differs from all its congeners by 3+3 axial setae on Abd. IV (vs. 2+2 and by the presence of a pair of tubercles on Abd.VI. The geography of this strictly littoral genus is discussed.

  1. The occurrence of Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae on Pseudocyphellaria granulata (lichenized Ascomycota La presencia de Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae sobre Pseudocyphellaria granulata (Ascomycota liquenizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Messuti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The springtail species Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previously recorded in austral America inhabiting the surfaces of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst. bark, has been collected growing on the epiphytic lichen species Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. This is the first record of an arthropod-lichen association in the cool temperate forest of Argentina.El colémbolo Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previamente registrada en América austral como habitante de la superficie de la corteza de Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst., fue coleccionada sobre la especie liquénica Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. Éste es el primer registro de una asociación artrópodo-líquen en los bosques templado-fríos de la Argentina.

  2. Ecological risk assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in marine environment using Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Siriella armata and Psetta maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Mhadhbi, Lazhar; Rial, Diego; Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are anthropogenic substances classified as persistent bioaccumulative compounds and are found in various environmental compartments throughout the world, from industrialized regions to remote zones far from areas of production. In this study, we assessed the effects of PFOA and PFOS on early life stages of marine test species belonging to three different trophic levels: one microalga (Isochrysis galbana), a primary consume...

  3. A new relictual and highly troglomorphic species of Tomoceridae (Collembola from a deep Croatian cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Lukić

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tritomurus veles sp. n. (Tomoceridae is described from a Croatian cave. It is characterized by troglomorphic features (absence of eyes, reduced pigmentation, slender claw, pointed tibiotarsal tenent hairs that only compare, among Tomoceridae, to the microendemic species T. falcifer from the Pyrénées. Tritomurus veles also shares with T. falcifer the absence of macrochaetae on head, a presumably non-adaptive character that within Tomoceridae is unique to these two species. Both species have no known epigean relatives in their respective distribution areas and can be considered as relictual.

  4. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (Collembola: Paronellidae) from Atlantic Forest, Northeast Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Dias da Silva; Bruno Cavalcante Bellini

    2015-01-01

    Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in DBEZ from Brazil, state of Rio Grande do Norte State, municipality of Bani Formosa), a new springtail from the Atlantic Forest domain, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species is diagnosed by unique coloration pattern, presence of 8+8 eyes, reduced number of setae on metatrochanteral organ, unguiculi truncated and dorsal chaetotaxy. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. is the first species of the genus f...

  5. Collembola, Protura and Pauropoda in a riparian forest - mesic forest ecotone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusek, Josef; Reithofer, D.; Schmid, S.; Truxa, Ch.; Weber, J.; Wilde, U.

    České Budějovice: Biology Centre ASCR , v.v , Institute of Soil Biology, 2007. s. 57. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /9./. 17.04.2007-20.04.2007, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil microorganisms * riparian forest * mesic forest ecotone Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Lea protein expression during cold-induced dehydration in the Arctic collembola Megaphorura arctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ž.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg, 1876 employs a strategy known as cryoprotective dehydration to survive winter temperatures as low as -25°C. During cryoprotective dehydration, water is lost from the animal to ice in its surroundings as a result of the difference in vapour pressure between the animal’s supercooled body fluids and ice (Worland et al., 1998; Holmstrup and Somme, 1998. This mechanism ensures that as the habitat temperature falls, the concentration of solutes remains high enough to prevent freezing (Holmstrup et al., 2002. In M. arctica, accumulation of trehalose, a cryo/anhydro protectant, occurs in parallel with dehydration. Recent studies have identified a number of genes and cellular processes involved in cryoprotective dehydration in M. arctica (Clark et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2009; Purać et al., 2011. One of them includes late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins. This study, together with that of Bahrndorff et al. (2008, suggests that LEA proteins may be involved in protective dehydration in this species.

  7. Collembola and macroarthropod community responses to carbamate, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: direct and indirect effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frampton, G.K.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Non-target effects on terrestrial arthropod communities of the broad-spectrum insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin and the selective insecticide pirimicarb were investigated in winter wheat fields in summer. Effects of chlorpyrifos on arthropod abundance and taxonomic richness were consistentl

  8. Generic switch-over during ontogenesis in Dimorphacanthella gen. n. (Collembola, Isotomidae) with barcoding evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Potapov; Yun Bu; Cheng-Wang Huang; Yan Gao; Yun-Xia Luan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new genus Dimorphacanthella is established for Tetracanthella anommatos Chen and Yin, 1984 and Dimorphacanthella mediaseta sp. n. from China. The new genus exhibits an unusual metamorphosis: small juveniles, previously called Uzelia anommatos Yue & Yin, 1999 get the second pair of anal spines resulted from moulting and become “Tetracanthella”. Species identity of forms with two and four anal spines is proved by barcoding analysis. The derivation of anal spines is compared among gen...

  9. Implications of interacting microscale habitat heterogeneity and disturbance events on Folsomia candida (Collembola) population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meli, Mattia; Palmqvist, Annemette; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-01-01

    human activities that may cause habitat destruction, we focused on agricultural practices. Soil organisms living in a cultivated field are subjected to habitat loss and fragmentation as well as disturbance events generated by the application of agrochemicals and related activities. In addition, they are...... events. The model suggests that a combination of heterogeneous contamination and multiple stressors can lead to unexpected effects of toxicants at the population level. Individual-based models can help to understand these effects and therefore add ecological realism to environmental risk assessment of...

  10. Some Willowsia from Nepal and Vietnam (Collembola: Entomobryidae) and description of one new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Willowsia bartkei Stach, 1965 and W. pseudosocia Stach, 1965 from Vietnam are redescribed based on type material. Willowsia cassagnaui sp. nov. from Nepal is described here and is similar to another Nepalese species, W. ieti Yosii, 1971, but differs from the latter in colour pattern and mouthparts. Additions are given here to the original description of W. ieti.  PMID:25661226

  11. Three new species and one new record of Tullbergiidae (Collembola: Onychiuroidea) from Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbea, Javier I

    2016-01-01

    Three new species, Tullbergia rapoporti sp. nov., Dinaphorura nerudai sp. nov. and Dinaphorura najtae sp. nov., and one new record, Tullbergia meridionalis Cassagnau & Rapoport, 1962 are described based on specimens from Tierra del Fuego. Tullbergia rapoporti sp. nov. is similar to T. crozetensis, but can be distinguished from it by the presence of an empodial appendage and the chaetotaxy of Abd VI. Dinaphorura nerudai sp. nov. is diagnosed by the dorsal pso formula, the seven spiniform processes on Abd VI, an elongate PAO, the absence of vesicle on Ant IV and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Dinaphorura najtae sp. nov. is characterised by the dorsal pso formula, the seven spiniform processes on Abd VI, a triangular PAO, the absence of vesicle on Ant IV and the dorsal chaetotaxy. PMID:27394481

  12. Nutrient allocations and metabolism in two Collembola with contrasting reproduction and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Damgaard, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    turnover of C and N were 13% and 11% day−1, respectively. For P. fimata, the equivalent rates were 5% and 4% d−1, respectively. Protaphorura fimata had the lowest metabolic rate relative to total body mass but the highest metabolic rates relative to reproductive investment. Adult P. fimata retained...... metabolism. As model organisms we used the collembolans, Proisotoma minuta (Tullberg 1871) and Protaphorura fimata (Gisin 1952). 2.  To estimate allocations of C and N in tissue, we changed the isotopic composition of the animal's yeast diets when they became sexually mature and followed isotope turnover in...... approximately 17% of the nutrient reserves acquired while a juvenile and adult P. minuta about 11%. N and P contents of total tissue were significantly higher in P. minuta than in P. fimata, suggesting that tissue turnover was correlated with high protein-N and RNA-P. 4.  Our results suggest that the lower...

  13. Joint toxic action of binary metal mixtures of copper, manganese and nickel to Paronychiurus kimi (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jino; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Yongeun; Shin, Key-Il; Hyun, Seunghun; Cho, Kijong

    2016-10-01

    The joint toxic effects of binary metal mixtures of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) on reproduction of Paronhchiurus kimi (Lee) was evaluated using a toxic unit (TU) approach by judging additivity across a range of effect levels (10-90%). For all metal mixtures, the joint toxic effects of metal mixtures on reproduction of P. kimi decreased in a TU-dependent manner. The joint toxic effects of metal mixtures also changed from less than additive to more than additive at an effect level lower than or equal to 50%, while a more than additive toxic effects were apparent at higher effect levels. These results indicate that the joint toxicity of metal mixtures is substantially different from that of individual metals based on additivity. Moreover, the close relationship of toxicity to effect level suggests that it is necessary to encompass a whole range of effect levels rather than a specific effect level when judging mixture toxicity. In conclusion, the less than additive toxicity at low effect levels suggests that the additivity assumption is sufficiently conservative to warrant predicting joint toxicity of metal mixtures, which may give an additional margin of safety when setting soil quality standards for ecological risk assessment. PMID:27318557

  14. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by .i.Folsomia candida./i. (Isotomidae: Collembola)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heděnec, Petr; Radochová, P.; Nováková, Alena; Kaneda, S.; Frouz, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 55, Mar.-Apr. (2013), s. 66-70. ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1288 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : food preference test * soil microscopic fungi * reproductive test Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.146, year: 2013

  15. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosilda Mara Mussury; Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon; Sandra Verza da Silva; Valdirene Regis Soligo

    2002-01-01

    The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of th...

  16. Euedaphic and hemiedaphic Collembola suffer larger damages than epedaphic species to nitrogen input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihong; Liu, Jing; Yan, Xiumin; Chang, Liang; Wu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands are commonly limited in available nitrogen. But marshes in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeastern China suffer large amounts of exogenous nitrogen from agriculture fertilization after wetland reclamation. This paper focuses on the ecological effects of a short-term increase of nitrogen input on collembolan communities. Our results show a significant decrease in collembolan abundance and Shannon diversity index, and the abundance of euedaphic and hemiedaphic collembolans decreased faster than epedaphic collembolans. These results indicate that euedaphic or hemiedaphic fauna suffer more biodiversity loss caused by nitrogen deposition than epedaphic fauna and call for more researches on trait-based approaches under environmental stress in the future. PMID:26549750

  17. Micro-distribution of Protaphorura-species (Collembola: Onychiurinae) around a beech stem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusek, Josef

    Rouen : Université de Rouen, 2004. s. 33. [Colloque International sur les Aptérygotes /11./. 05.09.2004-09.09.2004, Rouen] Keywords : micro-distribution * Protaphorura-species * beech stem Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils for Collembola in the field and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jie; Krogh, Paul Henning; Luo, Yongming;

    2008-01-01

    We present a field and laboratory investigation of effects of increasing levels of heavy metal contamination on the biodiversity and performance of collembolans. A 40 year old pollution with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd pollution due to Cu smelting over 40 years was investigated in a paddy field area of...... Zhejiang province, Fuyang county. We addressed the questions: 1) how do different collembolan life-forms respond to heavy metals in long-time pollution field site. 2) Are laboratory toxicity testing of field collected polluted soil predictable for the population effects observed in aged heavy metal...... pollutions. Effects of the heavy metals in the soil from the paddy fields were assessed for growth, survival and reproduction under laboratory conditions. For the tests we used two soil arthropod species: the parthenogenetic, Folsomia candida Willem 1902, and the sexually reproducing, Sinella curviseta Brook...

  19. Responses and adaptations of collembolan communities (Hexapoda: Collembola to flooding and hypoxic conditions Respostas e adaptações de comunidades de colêmbolos (Hexapoda: Collembola a condições de inundação e hipoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Thomas Marx

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Standard ecological methods (pitfall traps, trunk eclectors and soil cores were used to evaluate collembolan community responses to different flooding intensities. Three sites of a floodplain habitat near Mainz, Germany, with different flooding regimes were investigated. The structures of collembolan communities are markedly different depending on flooding intensity. Sites more affected by flooding are dominated by hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species, whereas the hardwood floodplain is dominated by mesophilic species. The survival strategies of the hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species include egg diapause and passive drifting. The physiological adaptations to hypoxic conditions of several collembolan species were analyzed using a microcalorimeter. The activities were tested under normoxic and hypoxic/anoxic conditions as well as during post-hypoxic recovery. Lactate was increased after hypoxic intervals in the species studied, suggesting that, in addition to a massive decrease in metabolic rate, a modest glycolytic activity may be involved in the tolerance to hypoxia.Foram utilizados os métodos ecológicos padrão (armadilhas "pitfall", armadilhas de tronco e amostras de solo para avaliar as respostas de comunidade de colêmbolos a diferentes intensidades de inundação. Foram investigados três locais de um habitat de leitos de inundação perto de Mainz, Alemanha, com diferentes regimes de inundação. As estruturas das comunidades de colêmbolos foram nitidamente diferentes conforme a intensidade das inundações. Nos locais mais afetados por inundações, as espécies higrofílicas e higrotolerantes dominaram, ao passo que as espécies mesofílicas foram dominantes nos locais de leitos de inundação com angiospermas. As estratégias de sobrevivência das espécies higrofílicas e higrotolerantes incluem a diapausa dos ovos e o deslocamento passivo. Foi testada a adaptação fisiológica a condições hipóxicas de espécies selecionadas de colêmbolos através de análises por microcalorimetria. A atividade das espécies foi testada em condições normóxicas e hipóxicas/anóxicas e durante a recuperação pós-hipoxia. Verificou-se que o lactato aumentava após condições hipóxicas nas espécies avaliadas, o que sugere que, além de um decréscimo massivo na atividade metabólica, deve haver também certa atividade glicolítica associada à tolerância à hipoxia.

  20. Colêmbolos (Hexapoda: Collembola) como bioindicadores de qualidade do solo em áreas com Araucaria angustifolia Springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) as soil quality bioindicators in areas with Araucaria angustifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Dilmar Baretta; Cristina Seabra Ferreira; José Paulo Sousa; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Não existem informações sobre a diversidade de colêmbolos associados às florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze no Brasil. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o potencial da diversidade de famílias de colêmbolos como bioindicadores da qualidade do solo e para separar diferentes áreas com araucária, utilizando atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo como variáveis explicativas. O estudo foi realizado em quatro áreas: 1. floresta nativa com predominância de araucária (NF)...

  1. Stachorutes cabagnerensis n. sp., Collembola (Neanuridae from Central Spain, and a preliminary approach to phylogeny of genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Benito, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available new species of the genus Stachorutes, Stachorutes cabagnerensis n. sp., from central Spain is described. It is characterized by the presence of 6+6 eyes in the head, retinaculum 2+2 teeth, dentes with 5 hairs, and the absence of mucron. A phylogenetic analysis of this genus was attempted. Potential synapomorphies supporting the monophyly of Stachorutes are presented. One member of the genus (the Nearctic S. navajellus appears as a basal form, phylogenetically distant from the remaining (Old World species. There is evidence for a monophyletic infrageneric clade with the species S. dematteisi, S. jizuensis and S. sphagnophilus. However, more information is required for further phylogenetic resolution.

  2. Molluscicide baits impair the life traits of Folsomia candida (Collembola): Possible hazard to the population level and soil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diogo N; Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-08-01

    The application of molluscicides baits on the soil surface is the most common practice to control terrestrial gastropods. There seems to be a gap in the accurate evaluation of molluscicidal baits effects to soil arthropods, since their hazard to non-target organisms has been considered low after mixing baits into soil. In this work the ecotoxicological effects of two molluscicide baits (metaldehyde and methiocarb) to the collembolan Folsomia candida were evaluated using two different approaches: (1) molluscicidal baits were applied to the top soil once and only at the beginning of the exposure and avoidance behaviour and reproduction were evaluated; and (2) baits were replaced by new ones after 14-d of exposure, simulating the recommended application rate recommended by the manufacturer and reproduction was assessed (repeated/pulse exposure). A preference for the side contaminated for methiocarb was observed but the distribution of collembolans in the avoidance test with metaldehyde was random. Exposure to metaldehyde resulted in a significant increase in mortality. For methiocarb, a reduction in the juveniles produced but no acute effects were observed. In the bait pulse test, the toxic effects of each chemical was significantly increased compared with the single exposure test, for all treatments used (both reproduction and mortality). In summary, molluscicides have an adverse effect on F. candida, with severe effects on their behaviour (only for methiocarb), reproduction and survival (for both), which can lead to population collapse with time. PMID:25769136

  3. Stachorutes cabagnerensis n. sp., Collembola (Neanuridae) from Central Spain, and a preliminary approach to phylogeny of genus

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Benito, J. C.; Espantaleón, D.; García-Barros, E.

    2005-01-01

    new species of the genus Stachorutes, Stachorutes cabagnerensis n. sp., from central Spain is described. It is characterized by the presence of 6+6 eyes in the head, retinaculum 2+2 teeth, dentes with 5 hairs, and the absence of mucron. A phylogenetic analysis of this genus was attempted. Potential synapomorphies supporting the monophyly of Stachorutes are presented. One member of the genus (the Nearctic S. navajellus) appears as a basal form, phylogenetically distant from the remaining (Old ...

  4. Nuevo método para el aislamiento y la cuantificación de insectos del orden Collembola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanne Fernández

    2000-01-01

    significativamente el tiempo de aislamiento de los individuos (cinco minutos vs cinco días, sino también porque permite cuantificar mayor cantidad de éstos, inclusive vivos y por tanto con mayor calidad biológica

  5. Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luís André; Maria, Vera L; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2015-10-01

    The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days) and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 days). The standard species Folsomia candida was used. Measured markers included catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that AgNO₃ was more toxic than AgNPs at the population level: reproduction EC₂₀ and EC₅₀ was ca. 2 and 4 times lower, respectively. At the cellular level Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO₃ and AgNP throughout time. Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag⁺ (MT and GST) and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO). Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses. PMID:26473892

  6. Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Mendes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 days. The standard species Folsomia candida was used. Measured markers included catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione S-transferase (GST, total glutathione (TG, metallothionein (MT and lipid peroxidation (LPO. Results showed that AgNO3 was more toxic than AgNPs at the population level: reproduction EC20 and EC50 was ca. 2 and 4 times lower, respectively. At the cellular level Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP throughout time. Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag+ (MT and GST and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO. Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses.

  7. Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    OpenAIRE

    Luís André Mendes; Maria, Vera L.; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; Amorim, Mónica J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days) and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6...

  8. Ecotoxicity of mercury to Folsomia candida and Proisotoma minuta (Collembola: Isotomidae) in tropical soils: Baseline for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2016-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic nonessential trace metal. Despite its natural occurrence in the Earth's Crust, its concentrations have been steadily increasing in the environment due to anthropogenic sources. Recent studies have showed great concern about soil fauna, once the potential adverse effects of mercury concentrations in the environment of these invertebrates are still poorly understood, especially when linked to forest soils and tropical biota. Different collembolan species can show distinct toxicity effects to the contaminants, impairing its developing lifelong and affecting its diversity and abundance in the environment. Laboratory studies were performed to evaluate the ecotoxicity of Hg(II) to collembolan species collected in Brazil, Proisotoma minuta (autochthonous) and Folsomia candida (allochthonous), as a tool to predict effects in ecological risk assessment of tropical regions. Behavioral, acute and chronic tests were carried under temperatures of 20°C and 24°C using two test soils, natural and artificial, spiked with increasing mercury concentrations. F. candida was more sensitive to mercury contamination than P. minuta, presenting the most restrictive values of EC50 and LC50. Reproduction was a considerably more sensitive endpoint than avoidance and mortality. The 28-day lower EC50 values were found in chronic tests for F. candida in natural soil to 24°C (3.32mgHgkg(-1)), while for P. minuta was in tropical artificial soil to 20°C (4.43mgHgkg(-1)). There were similarity for each collembolan species to respond at the Hg(II) effects when exposed at 20°C and 24°C. F. candida can be suitable as a bioindicator species to mercury ecotoxicity tests in tropical forest soils. PMID:26796529

  9. Does the natural "microcosm" created by Tuber aestivum affect soil microarthropods? A new hypothesis based on Collembola in truffle culture

    OpenAIRE

    Menta, Cristina; Garcia Montero, Luis Gonzaga; Pinto, Stefania; Delia Conti, Federica; Baroni, Giampietro; Maresi, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    microarthropods play an important role in fungi dispersion, but little is still known about the interaction between truffle and soil microarthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the truffle Tuber aestivum to modify soil biogeochemistry (i.e. create a zone of scarce vegetation around the host plant, called a burn or brûlé) and to highlight the effects of the brûlé on the soil fauna community. We compared soil microarthropod communities found in the soil inside versu...

  10. Effects of high and low temperatures on thermal tolerance in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe; Holmstrup, Martin; Bayley, Mark

    2008-01-01

    to a constant temperature (control) or exposure to a fluctuating temperature for between 4 and 24 h. Both ends of the thermal tolerance scale were tested. Temperature fluctuation between - 1 and 19.8 °C (± 0.1 °C) had no significant effect on the survival of F. candida after a 2-hour cold shock at...

  11. Adaptations and Predispositions of Different Middle European Arthropod Taxa (Collembola, Araneae, Chilopoda, Diplopoda) to Flooding and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Michael Thomas; Guhmann, Patrick; Decker, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Floodplain forests and wetlands are amongst the most diverse and species rich habitats on earth. Arthropods are a key group for the high diversity pattern of these landscapes, due to the fact that the change between flooding and drought causes in different life cycles and in a variety of adaptations in the different taxa. The floodplain forests and wetlands of Central Amazonia are well investigated and over the last 50 years many adaptations of several hexapod, myriapod and arachnid orders were described. In contrast to Amazonia the Middle European floodplains were less investigated concerning the adaptations of arthropods to flood and drought conditions. This review summarizes the adaptations and predispositions of springtails, web spiders, millipedes and centipedes to the changeable flood and drought conditions of Middle European floodplain forests and wetlands. Furthermore the impact of regional climate change predictions like increasing aperiodic summer floods and the decrease of typical winter and spring floods are discussed in this article. PMID:26487164

  12. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn on soil Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida (Collembola), Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acarina) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, X.; Krogh, P. H.

    The effects of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (corn variety Cascade Bt MON810 and DeKalb variety 618 Bt) were studied on survival and reproduction of the soil collembolan Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida, the collembolan predator mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and enchytraeids...

  13. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E.; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  14. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  15. The dorsal chaetotaxy of Trogolaphysa (Collembola, Paronellidae, with descriptions of two new species from caves in Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Soto-Adames

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Species diagnosis in Trogolaphysa has been based, until now, almost exclusively on number of eyes and shape of claws and mucro. Chaetotaxy, a character system important to diagnose species in other genera of scaled Entomobryoidea, has been described only for a few Trogolaphysa species. Here the complete dorsal chaetotaxy of six species of Trogolaphysa is described using the AMS and Szeptycki’s systems for head and body, respectively. A morphology-based parsimony analysis was performed to evaluate whether chaetotaxic characters overcome the influence of putatively cave adaptive convergent characters to resolve species level relationships, and to evaluate the evolution of the dorsal macrochaetae of the head. Phylogenetic analysis using only putative cave-adaptive characters support clades of unrelated taxa, but the addition of chaetotaxy overcomes the influence of convergent characters. A phylogeny based on all characters supports a trend towards reduced head macrochaetae number. Head macrochaetae are lost beginning with A3 and followed, in order, by S5, S3 and M3. In addition, a checklist of New World Trogolaphysa is provided and two new species, Trogolaphysa giordanoae sp. n. and Trogolaphysa jacobyi sp. n., are described on the basis of material collected in six caves in southern Belize.

  16. Illustration of the Structure of Arthropod Assemblages (Collembola and Lepidoptera in Different Forest Types: An Example in the French Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor A. Mariano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the impact of management choices on diversity in Pyrenean forests, we selected two ecological indicators: springtails; indicators of long-term responses to perturbation, and moths; which respond quickly to changes in their environment. Our data show that monoculture has a short-term impact on overall diversity and richness of species but with a relative resilience capacity of the forest ecosystem. More precisely, real impacts are visible on dynamics and abundances of certain species, depending on the vertical distribution of the biota and on the composition of soil and forest floor.

  17. Effects of ecological flooding on the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae and springtails (Collembola in a polder habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Lessel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder “Ingelheim” to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder “Ingelheim”. These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design.

  18. The ecological distribution of soil collembola in Jiuhua Mountain%九华山土壤跳虫的生态分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗英; 朱永恒; 路有成; 聂献忠; 陈建秀; 孟文新; 黄诚

    2001-01-01

    在九华山4种生境中共获土壤跳虫5904个,分隶10科52属.等跳科有14属,数量占各科总数72.09%,其中以符跳属个体数占绝对优势.不同群落组成成分及各项指标差异显著.混交林土层中种、数最丰富,若以土层和Aoo层总和计算,则有高海拔生境群落比低海拔多的趋势.灌丛草甸土壤跳虫群落的H和E值高而且季节变化不大.秋冬季节各群落种、数都有增加,而以山上两个群落Aoo层增加更多,表聚现象十分突出.

  19. Nueva especie de Pseudosinella Schäffer, 1897 (Collembola, Entomobryidae de cuevas de la Sierra de Cameros en La Rioja, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana, Rafael

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pseudosinella, P. riojana sp. n., is described from Cameros mountains. Species description and morphological differences with nearest species is given: 2 + 2 eyes, labium basis with setae M1m2rel1l2 (M = ciliated, m = smooth, dorsal macrosetae with R001/0/00/0101+2; chaetotaxy of abdominal segment II: _aBq1q2.Se describe una nueva especie de Pseudosinella, P. riojana sp. n., de las cuevas de la Sierra de Cameros, en la Rioja. Se da la descripción completa de la especie y las diferencias que la separa de las especies cercanas a ella por su morfología: 2+2 ojos, base del labium con M1m2rel1l2 (M = ciliada, m = lisa, fórmula de macrosedas dorsales R001/0/00/0101+2; quetotaxia del segmento abdominal II: _aBq1q2.

  20. Advances on Collembola in Different Ecosystems in China%我国不同生态系统中弹尾虫研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元

    2014-01-01

    Collembolans are the dominant species in soil with nematodes and mites. They are sensitive to environment and can be good bioindicators. In this paper, advance on Collembolans in forest ecosystem, plain ecosystem, urban ecosystem, agri-ecosys-tem and tea ecosystem in China was reviewed. Such basic researches as composition number, community structure, density changes and ecological distribution were hot topics, but little was done on comprehensive research. Prospect on the future study on global change was given.%弹尾虫是土壤中的优势物种之一,与线虫、螨虫共称为土壤动物三大类群。它们对环境变化反应灵敏,是良好的环境指示生物。本文对近年来我国森林生态系统、草原生态系统、城市生态系统、农田生态系统、茶园生态系统中弹尾虫研究进行概括和总结,发现在组成与数量、群落结构、密度变化、生态分布等基础性研究较多,但综合性研究较少。提出该研究领域今后在全球变化等方面的发展前景。

  1. Impact of bark beetle outbreak on epigeic communities of Collembola (Insecta: Entognatha) in climax spruce forests in the Šumava National Park, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusek, Josef; Brůhová, Jindřiška

    České Budějovice : ISB BC AS CR, 2007, s. 121-126. ISBN 978-80-86525-08-2. [Contributions to Soil Zoology in Central Europe II. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /8./. České Budějovice (CZ), 20.04.2005-22.04.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/1416; GA MŽP SM/6/1/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : climax spruce forests * dead forests * clearings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Impact of boric acid on Collembola, Protura and Pauropoda in a mountain elm forest in the Šumava National Park, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusek, Josef

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology AS CR, 2002, s. 157-162. ISBN 80-86525-00-7. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /6./. České Budějovice (CZ), 23.04.2001-25.04.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : boric acid * mountain elm * graphiosis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida. A customized microarray was used to study gene expression in F. candida specimens that were exposed to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. All selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. Eleven transcripts were finally verified, and three of them were annotated. The responses of all eleven transcripts were tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues. -- Highlights: • We examined the effects of Bt proteins on gene expression of Folsomia candida. • Eleven transcripts were up-regulated by Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac). • Only three of the eleven transcripts were annotated. • The responses of 11 transcripts were tested on both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. • These transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues. -- Eleven potential molecular biomarkers of Folsomia candida to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were screened by microarray and qPCR analysis

  4. Hsp70 expression and metabolite composition in response to short-term thermal changes in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagner, Dorthe; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Malmendal, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    regime (8 to 32 °C; pre-treated) or a constant temperature (20 °C; control) over a period of 24 h. Exposure to a temperature increase from 20 to 32 °C (2.4 °C min-1) induced a significantly increased heat tolerance which continued throughout the experiment. Expression of the gene encoding heat shock...... protein Hsp70 was assessed at the mRNA level using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Hsp70 was rapidly induced and significantly increased by the temperature increase. The relative concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites were analysed in F. candida using nuclear magnetic...

  5. New species of springtails in the Proisotoma genus complex from Vermont and New York, USA with descriptive notes on Ballistura alpa Christiansen & Bellinger 1980 (Hexapoda, Collembola, Isotomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Soto-Adames

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of isotomid springtails are described from the Lake Champlain Basin (Vermont and New York, USA, Lake Willoughby and Greater Averril Pond in Vermont. Subisotoma joycei sp. n. and Scutisotoma champi sp. n. were collected in sandy beaches whereas Ballistura rossi sp. n. was found only in a constructed wetland built and managed by the University of Vermont. Scutisotoma champi sp. n. was found in Lakes Champlain and Willoughby, and Greater Averril Pond and is probably present in most lakes and large ponds in the area. Subisotoma joycei sp. n. was found only along the southern and eastern coast of South Hero, and the mainland coast facing eastern South Hero. Ballistura alpa Christiansen & Bellinger is redescribed and transferred to the genus Pachyotoma based on the absence of tibiotarsal seta B4/B5, the presence of secondary cuticular granules, 4 prelabral setae, a full complement of guard setae on labial papilla E and ina bifurcate outer maxillary lobe with 4 sublobal setae.

  6. Chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl2 to Folsomia candida (Collembola) in relation to bioavailability in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chronic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) to Folsomia candida was determined in natural soil. To unravel the contribution of particle size and free zinc to NP toxicity, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl2 were also tested. Zinc concentrations in pore water increased with increasing soil concentrations, with Freundlich sorption constants Kf of 61.7, 106 and 96.4 l/kg (n = 1.50, 1.34 and 0.42) for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl2 respectively. Survival of F. candida was not affected by ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO at concentrations up to 6400 mg Zn/kg d.w. Reproduction was dose-dependently reduced with 28-d EC50s of 1964, 1591 and 298 mg Zn/kg d.w. for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl2, respectively. The difference in EC50s based on measured pore water concentrations was small (7.94-16.8 mg Zn/l). We conclude that zinc ions released from NP determine the observed toxic effects rather than ZnO particle size. - Highlights: → ZnO nanoparticles and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to Folsomia candida in soil. → Pore water from soil spiked with ZnO nanoparticles showed saturation with zinc suggesting aggregation. → Pore water based EC50 values for ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl2 were similar. → ZnO nanoparticle toxicity in soil was most probably due to Zn dissolution from the nanoparticles. - ZnO nanoparticle toxicity to springtails in soil can be explained from Zn dissolution but not from particle size.

  7. A New Species of the Genus Homidia(Collembola: Entomobryidae) from Jiangsu, China%中国南京地区刺齿虫兆属一新种(弹尾目:长角(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松杰; 陈建秀

    2001-01-01

    The present paper deals with the description of a new collembolan species, Homidia fascia, sp. Nov., It shares some characters with H. Tibetensis Chen & Zhong, 1998, however, can be distinguished from the latter by color pattern, labial setae L1 and R2, posterior macrochaetae on Abd. IV and relative position of line connecting macrochaetae Pr & Ed to median furrow on ventral tube.%本文记述刺齿(虫兆)属Homidia 1新种--斑纹刺齿(虫兆)Homidia fascia, sp.nov.(Figs.1~16),该种有些特征可与H. tibetensis Chen & Zhong, 1998 相似,但下唇刚毛L1,第4腹节毛序和腹管毛序可与后者区分.正模♀, 副模13♀♀,江苏南京南唐二陵,1996-Ⅲ-6,存于南京大学生物系.

  8. Chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} to Folsomia candida (Collembola) in relation to bioavailability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kool, Pauline L., E-mail: pauline.kool@falw.vu.nl [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Diez Ortiz, Maria [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pole de Recherche ROVALTAIN en Toxicologie Environnementale et Ecotoxicologie, Batiment Rhovalparc, BP 15173, 26958 Valence Cedex 9 (France); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The chronic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) to Folsomia candida was determined in natural soil. To unravel the contribution of particle size and free zinc to NP toxicity, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} were also tested. Zinc concentrations in pore water increased with increasing soil concentrations, with Freundlich sorption constants K{sub f} of 61.7, 106 and 96.4 l/kg (n = 1.50, 1.34 and 0.42) for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} respectively. Survival of F. candida was not affected by ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO at concentrations up to 6400 mg Zn/kg d.w. Reproduction was dose-dependently reduced with 28-d EC50s of 1964, 1591 and 298 mg Zn/kg d.w. for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2}, respectively. The difference in EC50s based on measured pore water concentrations was small (7.94-16.8 mg Zn/l). We conclude that zinc ions released from NP determine the observed toxic effects rather than ZnO particle size. - Highlights: > ZnO nanoparticles and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to Folsomia candida in soil. > Pore water from soil spiked with ZnO nanoparticles showed saturation with zinc suggesting aggregation. > Pore water based EC50 values for ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl{sub 2} were similar. > ZnO nanoparticle toxicity in soil was most probably due to Zn dissolution from the nanoparticles. - ZnO nanoparticle toxicity to springtails in soil can be explained from Zn dissolution but not from particle size.

  9. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Krogh, Paul Henning; Bai, Xue;

    2014-01-01

    tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues....

  10. Dlouhodobý vliv různého lesního managementu na biodiverzitu půdní mesofauny (Oribatida, Collembola) ve smrkových porostech NP Šumava

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farská, Jitka; Jínová, Kristýna

    Vimperk : Správa NP a CHKO Šumava, 2007, s. 56-58. [Aktuality šumavského výzkumu /3./. Srní (CZ), 04.10.2007-05.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1416; GA MŽP SM/6/1/04; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D2/58/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : forestry management * soil mesofauna * biodiversity in spruce forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. Colémbolos (Hexapoda) como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México Collembola (Hexapoda) as quality bioindicators of the hydrocarburans polluted soils in Southestern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Uribe-Hernández; Carlos H. Juárez-Méndez; Montes de Oca, Marco A.; Palacios-Vargas, José G.; Leopoldo Cutz-Pool; Blanca E. Mejía-Recarmier

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron invertebrados del suelo, en particular los colémbolos, como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México. Se realizaron 2 muestreos en verano-otoño del 2004, en 4 parcelas de 2 hectáreas, denominadas zona 1, 2, 3 y control. De cada unidad se tomaron 8 muestras que fueron procesadas por medio del embudo de Berlese-Tullgren y 4 por el método de flotación. Para colémbolos se determinaron los siguientes índices ecológicos: abundancia, ...

  12. Effects of Persistent Insecticides on Beneficial Soil Arthropod in Conventional Fields Compared to Organic Fields, Puducherry

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy Anbarashan; Poyyamoli Gopalswamy

    2013-01-01

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides...

  13. The Mediterranean Red Alga Asparagopsis: A Source of Compounds against Leishmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Morabito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts and column fractions from the red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis and A. armata from the Strait of Messina (Italy were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds. Extracts from both species revealed remarkable antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania, revealing such algae as a great source of natural antiprotozoal products.

  14. Phylogeny of higher taxa of hexapoda according to 12sRNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship of Hexapoda has been debated for a long time, which will be resolved mainly depending on the settlement of monophyly, affinities and interrelationships among Protura, Collembola and Diplura. Mitochondrial 12sRNA gene about 355 bp fragments from one proturan species, two collembolan species, two dipluran species and one oribatid species were sequenced. The Kimura 2-parameter distances were calculated and a series of molecular phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by using the N-J method, from which the following points were drawn: (ⅰ) Protura and Collembola compose a monophyletic group representing absent-cerci; (ⅱ) Diplura is not a monophyletic group, in which Campodeoid with filiform cerci belongs to a clade and Japygoid with pincer cerci and Ectognatha com-pose another clade, that is, Insecta s. str. stemmed from Japygoid. So it would be suggested that the phylogenetic relationship of Hexapoda is [Parainsecta (Collembola + Pro-tura) +Campodeoid +Insecta (Japygoid + Ectognatha)].

  15. Blue fan palm distribution and seed removal patterns in three desert oases of northern Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Wehncke, Elisabet V.; López-Medellín, Xavier; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2010-01-01

    Information on the current processes controlling the distribution patterns of relict palm populations at the limit of their northwestern distribution in America are poorly known. We explored the importance of post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates, recruitment, and distribution patterns of the blue fan palm, Brahea armata, in the Northern Baja California peninsula, by evaluating (i) the levels of blue fan palm seed removal by vertebrates at two spatial scales and the initial fate of dispe...

  16. A short note on the cephalopods sampled in the Angola Basin during the DIVA I-expedition

    OpenAIRE

    Piatkowski, Uwe; Diekmann, Rabea

    2005-01-01

    Five cephalopods, all belonging to different species, were identified from deep-sea trawl samples conducted during the DIVA 1-expedition of RV “Meteor” in the Angola Basin in July 2000. These were the teuthoid squids Bathyteuthis abyssicola, Brachioteuthis riisei, Mastigoteuthis atlantica, Galiteuthis armata, and the finned deep-sea octopus Grimpoteuthis wuelkeri. The present study contributes information on size, morphometry, biology and distribution of the species form this unique cephalopo...

  17. Domoic Acid Toxicologic Pathology: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido, Olga M.

    2008-01-01

    Domoic acid was identified as the toxin responsible for an outbreak of human poisoning that occurred in Canada in 1987 following consumption of contaminated blue mussels [Mytilus edulis]. The poisoning was characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs. Among the most prominent features described was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Domoic acid is produced by certain marine organisms, such as the red alga Chondria armata and planktoni...

  18. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Talamas; Lubomir Masner; Norman Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead)(Mexico (Tamaulipas) and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state)), Paridris armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela), Paridris convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama), Paridris dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz) south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás)), Paridris gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Un...

  19. Material capturado e utilizado na alimentação de Polybia (Trichothorax) Sericea (Olivier, 1791) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lígia Letízio Machado; Nivar Gobbi; Valter Vieira Alves Junior

    1988-01-01

    As presas utilizadas por Polybia (Trichothorax) sericea compreendem 6 ordens de insetos (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera e Odonata) e 1 ordem de Arachnida (Araneae), com preferência por larvas de Lepidoptera. A média de proteína transportada é de 15,3 mg e o peso diário estimado é de 522,6 mg, o que indica mais de 12000 presas por ano.The prey items utilized by Polybia (Trichothorax) sericea comprise 6 orders of Insecta (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera and Odon...

  20. Food sources of selected terrestrial cave arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Šustr, Vladimír; Lukešová, Alena; Tajovský, Karel; Nováková, Alena; Režňáková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 37-46. ISSN 1768-1448 Grant ostatní: Vega(SK) 1/0139/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * caves * Collembola * Diplopoda * feeding habits * Isopoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. Collembolans feeding on soil affect carbon and nitrogen mineralization by their influence on microbial and nematode activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaneda, Satoshi; Kaneko, N.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2008), s. 435-442. ISSN 0178-2762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Collembola * mineral soil * nitrogen mineralization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.446, year: 2008

  2. Influence of edge on predator prey distribution and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Steven H.

    2004-03-01

    I investigated the effect of spatial configuration on distribution and abundance of invertebrate trophic groups by counting soil arthropods under boxes (21 × 9.5 cm) arranged in six different patterns that varied in the amount of edge (137-305 cm). I predicted fewer individuals from the consumer trophic group (Collembola) in box groups with greater amount of edge. This prediction was based on the assumption that predators (mites, ants, spiders, centipedes) select edge during foraging and thereby reduce abundance of the less mobile consumer group under box patterns with greater edge. Consumer abundance (Collembola) was not correlated with amount of edge. Among the predator groups, mite, ant and centipede abundance related to the amount of edge of box groups. However, in contrast to predictions, abundance of these predators was negatively correlated with amount of edge in box patterns. All Collembola predators, with the exception of ants, were less clumped in distribution than Collembola. The results are inconsistent with the view that predators used box edges to predate the less mobile consumer trophic group. Alternative explanations for the spatial patterns other than predator-prey relations include (1) a negative relationship between edge and moisture, (2) a positive relationship between edge and detritus decomposition (i.e. mycelium as food for the consumer group), and (3) a negative relationship between edge and the interstices between adjacent boxes. Landscape patterns likely affect microclimate, food, and predator-prey relations and, therefore, future experimental designs need to control these factors individually to distinguish among alternative hypotheses.

  3. Light, earthworms, and soil resources as predictors of diversity of 10 soil invertebrate groups across monocultures of 14 tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, KE; Eisenhauer, N; Reich, PB; Hobbie, SE; Chadwick, OA; Chorover, J; Dobies, T; Hale, CM; Jagodziński, AM; Kałucka, I; Kasprowicz, M; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B.; Modrzyński, J; Roz en, A; Skorupski, M

    2016-01-01

    © 2015. Management of biodiversity and ecosystem services requires a better understanding of the factors that influence soil biodiversity. We characterized the species (or genera) richness of 10 taxonomic groups of invertebrate soil animals in replicated monocultures of 14 temperate tree species. The focal invertebrate groups ranged from microfauna to macrofauna: Lumbricidae, Nematoda, Oribatida, Gamasida, Opilionida, Araneida, Collembola, Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae. Measurement...

  4. Análise multivariada da fauna edáfica em diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo Multivariate analysis of soil fauna under different soil tillage and crop management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo sobre a diversidade de animais da fauna edáfica, por meio de técnicas de análise multivariada. Na análise canônica discriminante, os preparos conservacionistas com sucessão de culturas foram separados em relação aos tratamentos com rotação de culturas. Os grupos Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda e Collembola, e o índice de Shannon (H foram os atributos que mais contribuíram para separar os tratamentos. A análise de correspondência mostrou forte associação dos grupos Acarina e Hymenoptera com o tratamento semeadura direta com sucessão de culturas, e do grupo Collembola com o preparo convencional.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage and crop management systems on soil fauna groups, by means of multivariate analysis. In the canonical discriminant analysis the conservation soil management systems with crop succession were discriminated in relation to other treatments with crop rotation. The groups Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, and Collembola, and the Shannon index (H showed the highest contribution for the discrimination between treatments. The correspondence analysis showed a strong association between Acarina and Hymenoptera groups with the treatment no-tillage with crop succession, and between Collembola group with the conventional tillage system.

  5. Terrestrial model food chain and environmental chemicals. I. Transfer of sodium [14C]pentachlorophenate between springtails and carabids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model soil food chain of a ruderal ecosystem has been constructed in order to study the uptake, transfer, and accumulation of [14C]pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na). The model was based on three food levels, viz. baker's yeast, collembola, and carabid beetles, and the contaminant chemical introduced was via initial food. Continuous exposure of the organisms to the test chemical resulted in a significant uptake and transfer of radiocarbon into the food chain elements. Bioaccumulation of radiocarbon in the body tissues of the organisms was low, as large amounts taken up were quickly eliminated through the excrements. The radiocarbon level of prey animals was about 100 times higher than that of their predators, but there was only small difference in concentration between collembolas and yeast. This was probably because of a faster excretion of the chemical by the beetles than by the collembolas. During the test period no conversion of [14C]PCP-Na took place in the yeast, but the collembolas and beetles metabolized 50 and 59%, respectively. Criteria are proposed for successful implementation of food chain models

  6. Savremeno naoružanje i vojna oprema za br. 2-2015 / Modern weapons and military equipment for issue 2-2105 / Современное вооружение и военное оборудование за но. 2-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan M. Vučković

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Azerbejdžan razvija borbeno vozilo ZKDM, Vatromet: Artiljerijski raketni sistemi (ARS dobijaju veći domet i veću preciznost, Iran prikazuje modernizovane rakete Falaq-1 i Falaq-2, TOS-1A valja rusku vatrenu moć, Iran otkriva raketu zemlja-vazduh Bavar-373, Novi top za ruski tenk Armata. / Azerbaijan developing ZKDM combat vehicle, Fire works, ARS seek greater range and accuracy, Iran shows updated Falaq-1 and Falaq-2 rockets, TOS-1A advances Russian firepower, Iran reveals its Bavar-373 SAM, New gun shapes up for Russian MBT.

  7. Savremeno naoružanje i vojna oprema za br. 2-2015 / Modern weapons and military equipment for issue 2-2105 / Современное вооружение и военное оборудование за но. 2-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan M. Vučković

    2015-01-01

    Azerbejdžan razvija borbeno vozilo ZKDM, Vatromet: Artiljerijski raketni sistemi (ARS) dobijaju veći domet i veću preciznost, Iran prikazuje modernizovane rakete Falaq-1 i Falaq-2, TOS-1A valja rusku vatrenu moć, Iran otkriva raketu zemlja-vazduh Bavar-373, Novi top za ruski tenk Armata. / Azerbaijan developing ZKDM combat vehicle, Fire works, ARS seek greater range and accuracy, Iran shows updated Falaq-1 and Falaq-2 rockets, TOS-1A advances Russian firepower, Iran reveals its Bavar-373 SAM...

  8. Acute toxicity of a shoreline cleaner, CytoSol, mixed with oil and ecological risk assessment of its use on the Galician Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Rial, Diego; Beiras, Ricardo; Vázquez, José Antonio; Murado García, Miguel Anxo

    2010-01-01

    The application of embryo-larval bioassay with the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis at 48 hours, and with neonates of the mysid Siriella armata at 96 hours, was used to evaluate the acute toxicities of the following preparations: 1) the shoreline cleaning agent CytoSol; 2) the water accommodated fraction of CytoSol and a light crude oil; and 3) the runoff from a pilot-scale treatment with CytoSol of a rocky coastal substrate impregnated with res...

  9. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACTS OF RHODOPHYCEAE FROM THE ATLANTIC AND THE MEDITERRANEAN COASTS OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhimou Bouhlal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundred eight of organic extracts from eighteen red marine algae of Atlantic-Mediterranean have been tested for the production of antibacterial compounds. These extracts were obtained for two methods, maceration and using soxhlet. This study shows that most of the algal extracts were significantly active. The highest rates of biologically activity were found in five species, Pterosiphonia complanata, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Plocamium cartilagineum, Asparagopsis armata and Boergeseniella thuyoides. Among the methanolic and chloroforme-methanolic extracts showed the greatest biologically active.

  10. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso José Luis; Rangel Churio Jesús Orlando; Patiño Uribe Ruben Dario

    2003-01-01

    El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ari...

  11. Nuevas observaciones sobre la vegetación del Sur del Perú. Del Desierto Pacífico al Altiplano

    OpenAIRE

    Galán de Mera, Antonio; Linares Perea, Eliana; Campos de la Cruz, José; Vicente Orellana, José Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Nuevas observaciones sobre la vegetación del Sur del Perú. Del Desierto Pacífico al Altiplano. En este trabajo, aportamos novedades sobre la vegetación del S del Perú desde el Desierto Pacífico a las cumbres del Altiplano. Como resultado se describen 19 asociaciones distribuidas entre diferentes formaciones vegetales: arbustedas y bosques climácicos de la costa [Echinopsio chalaensis-Randietum armatae (arbustedas espinosas termotropicales semiáridas), Caesalpinio spinosae-Myrcianthetum ferrey...

  12. High cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity of algae extracts on an in vitro model of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Celso; Pinteus, Susete; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer represents a serious threat for human health with high social and economic impacts worldwide. Therefore, the development of new anticancer drugs is of most importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor potential of twelve algae from Portugal coast on an in vitro model of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2 cells).Results: Both extracts of Asparagopsis armata (1000 µg/ml; 24 h) presented high cytotoxicity with 11.22 ± 2.98 and 1.51 ± 0.38 % of Hep...

  13. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that

  14. Effects of long-term warming and fertilisation on microarthropod abundances in three sub-arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjursen, Heidi; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2005-01-01

    Soil microarthropod responses to long-term soil warming and increased fertilisation by addition of NKP or litter were assessed in three subarctic ecosystems. The experiment was carried out at three different field sites, where temperature and fertilisation manipulations had been running for 3......-5 years (glade), 11 years (fellfield), and 12 years (heath) at the time of sampling. In the glade soil, warming led to decreases in Collembola and Gamasida, and increases in Oribatida, although effects were inconsistent between years. Actinedida densities were increased by fertilization, while Acaridida......, there were increased densities of Collembola, Oribatida and Actinedida in the fertilised treatments, but we found no strong effects of warming. We suggest that the responses found in this study comply with the assumption that soil microarthropods are bottom-up controlled, and the observed changes are...

  15. Material capturado e utilizado na alimentação de Polybia (Trichothorax Sericea (Olivier, 1791 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lígia Letízio Machado

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available As presas utilizadas por Polybia (Trichothorax sericea compreendem 6 ordens de insetos (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera e Odonata e 1 ordem de Arachnida (Araneae, com preferência por larvas de Lepidoptera. A média de proteína transportada é de 15,3 mg e o peso diário estimado é de 522,6 mg, o que indica mais de 12000 presas por ano.The prey items utilized by Polybia (Trichothorax sericea comprise 6 orders of Insecta (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera and Odonata and 1 order of Arachnida (Araneae, with a preference for larvae of Lepidoptera. The average protein weight transported was 15.3 mg, and the estimated daily weight was 522.6 mg, which indicates more than 12,000 prey a year.

  16. Management intensity affects traits of soil microarthropod community in montane spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farská, Jitka; Prejzková, Kristýna; Rusek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 75, March (2014), s. 71-79. ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1259; GA ČR GAP504/12/1218; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant ostatní: GAJU(CZ) 143/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * Collembola * spruce forest * trait * management intensity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.644, year: 2014

  17. Direct and indirect effects of ants on a forest-floor food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Laraño, Jordi; Wise, David H

    2007-06-01

    Interactions among predators that prey on each other and are potential competitors for shared prey (intraguild [IG] predators) are widespread in terrestrial ecosystems and have the potential to strongly influence the dynamics of terrestrial food webs. Ants and spiders are abundant and ubiquitous terrestrial IG predators, yet the strength and consequences of interactions between them are largely unknown. In the leaf-litter food web of a deciduous forest in Kentucky (USA), we tested the direct and indirect effects of ants on spiders and a category of shared prey (Collembola) by experimentally subsidizing ants in open plots in two field experiments. In the first experiment, ant activity was increased, and the density of ants in the litter was doubled, by placing carbohydrate and protein baits in the center of each plot. Gnaphosa spiders were almost twice as abundant and Schizocosa spiders were half as abundant in baited plots relative to controls. There were more tomocerid Collembola in baited plots, suggesting possible indirect effects on Collembola caused by ant-spider interactions. The second experiment, in which screening of two mesh sizes selectively excluded large and small worker ants from a sugar bait, revealed that the large ants, primarily Camponotus, could alone induce similar effects on spiders. Gnaphosa biomass density was almost twice as high in the plots where large ants were more active, whereas Schizocosa biomass density was reduced by half in these plots. Although tomocerid densities did not differ between treatments, tomocerid numbers were negatively correlated with the activity of Formica, another large ant species. Path analysis failed to support the hypothesis that the ant Camponotus indirectly affected tomocerid Collembola through effects on densities of spiders. However, path analysis also revealed other indirect effects of Camponotus affecting tomocerids. These results illustrate the complexity of interactions between and within two major IG

  18. Nitrogen acquisition, transport and metabolism in intact ectomycorrhizal associations studied by 15N stable isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this thesis is on the external mycelium and its role in nitrogen uptake, assimilation and translocation. Tree seedlings in association with ectomycorrhizal fungi were grown in observation chambers. The fungal mycelium were fed with 15-N ammonium or 15-N nitrate or a combination of both. The effects of Collembola on the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis were also studied. The results demonstrates an important role of the external mycelium of Paxillus involutus not only in the uptake but also in the assimilation of ammonium into a variety of different amino acids, primarily glutamine but also glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and alanine, immediately after uptake. The results indicate that ammonium is assimilated by GS and GOGAT or GDH in the mycelium at the uptake site. When nitrate was added to the mycelium as the sole nitrogen source nitrate was reduced in the mycelium and the product assimilated into amino acids. When ammonium nitrate was supplied to the fungal mycelium nitrate was taken up the fungus and transferred to the plant, however, apparently no assimilation of nitrate occurred in the external mycelium. Ammonium or an assimilation product, such as glutamine, probably represses nitrate reductase (NR) but not nitrate uptake and transfer in P. involutus. P. involutus nitrogen uptake and transfer to the associated mycorrhizal pine was up to 76% higher when low numbers of the Collembola Onychiurus armatus were present compared to when they were completely absent. This was probably an indirect effect as P. involutus hyphal growth rate and extramatrical biomass increased at a low Collembola density. At high Collembola densities P. involutus hyphal growth rate was retarded. (74 refs.)

  19. Spruce monoculture establishment affects functional traits of soil microarthropod communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farská, Jitka; Prejzková, Kristýna; Rusek, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 3 (2013), s. 479-486. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1259; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant ostatní: SGA BF JU(CZ) 30-0004; GAJU(CZ) 143/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * Collembola * spruce * beech Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2013

  20. Effects of sewage sludge and copper enrichment on both soil mesofauna community and decomposition of oak leaves (Quercus suber) in a mesocosm

    OpenAIRE

    Pernin, C.; Ambrosi, J. P.; Cortet, J.; Joffre, R; Tabone, E.; F. Torre; Krogh, P. H.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory mesocosm experiment was performed to study the effects of copper-enriched sewage sludge application on a mesofauna community. For 12 weeks, characteristics and changes in this defined and artificial mesofauna community structure were monitored as well as the dynamics of leaf litter decomposition. The mesofauna community comprised six species of Collembola (Folsomia fimetaria, Isotomurus prasinus, Lepidocyrtus cyaneus, Mesaphorura macrochaeta, Parisotoma notabilis, Protaphorura ar...

  1. Soil microarthropods in non-intervention montane spruce forest regenerating after bark-beetle outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farská, Jitka; Prejzková, Kristýna; Starý, Josef; Rusek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2014), s. 1087-1096. ISSN 0912-3814 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1259; GA ČR GAP504/12/1218; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant ostatní: GAJU(CZ) 143/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bark beetle * Collembola * disturbance * Oribatida * spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2014

  2. Reaktionen von Collembolen unterschiedlicher Strata auf ausgewählte Pflanzenschutzmittel und ihre Wirkstoffe in Toxizitäts- und Verhaltenstests

    OpenAIRE

    Heupel, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    In this study, side-effects of various pesticides on collembolan species covering different life forms (Isotoma anglicana, Lepidocyrtus violaceus, Folsomia fimetaria, Heteromurus nitidus and Onychiurus armatus) were examined in laboratory and field experiments. The principal aim of the study was to develop choice experiments with Collembola for the quantitative assessment of avoidance behaviour. Avoidance can potentially lead to population declines due to inhibited immigration or escape from ...

  3. Effects of Olive Mill Wastewater on Soil Microarthropods and Soil Chemistry in Two Different Cultivation Scenarios in Israel and Palestinian Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Peter Kurtz; Benjamin Peikert; Carsten Brühl; Arnon Dag; Isaac Zipori; Jawad Hasan Shoqeir; Gabriele Ellen Schaumann

    2015-01-01

    Although olive mill wastewater (OMW) is often applied onto soil and is known to be phytotoxic, its impact on soil fauna is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate how OMW spreading in olive orchards affects Oribatida and Collembola communities, physicochemical soil properties and their interdependency. For this, we treated plots in two study sites (Gilat, Bait Reema) with OMW. Among others, the sites differed in irrigation practice, soil type and climate. We observed tha...

  4. Soil animal communities and their seasonal change in the greening litters of different functional zones in Baoshan Steel Plant, Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfeng Wang; Wenhui You; Lan Yi

    2007-01-01

    To find out the relationship between the abundance and diversity of soil animals and soil characteristics in industrial zones, we investigated soil animals in litters of different functional zones in Baoshan Steel Plant. A total of 52,070 soil animals were collected using Tullgren funnel, belonging to three phyla, 10 classes and 19 orders. The dominant groups were Arcarina and Collembola, accounting for 90.60% of the total in terms of individual numbers. The common groups were Lepidoptera and...

  5. Collembolan Transcriptomes Highlight Molecular Evolution of Hexapods and Provide Clues on the Adaptation to Terrestrial Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faddeeva

    Full Text Available Collembola (springtails represent a soil-living lineage of hexapods in between insects and crustaceans. Consequently, their genomes may hold key information on the early processes leading to evolution of Hexapoda from a crustacean ancestor.We assembled and annotated transcriptomes of the Collembola Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta, and performed comparative analysis with protein-coding gene sequences of three crustaceans and three insects to identify adaptive signatures associated with the evolution of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade.Assembly of the springtail transcriptomes resulted in 37,730 transcripts with predicted open reading frames for F. candida and 32,154 for O. cincta, of which 34.2% were functionally annotated for F. candida and 38.4% for O. cincta. Subsequently, we predicted orthologous clusters among eight species and applied the branch-site test to detect episodic positive selection in the Hexapoda and Collembola lineages. A subset of 250 genes showed significant positive selection along the Hexapoda branch and 57 in the Collembola lineage. Gene Ontology categories enriched in these genes include metabolism, stress response (i.e. DNA repair, immune response, ion transport, ATP metabolism, regulation and development-related processes (i.e. eye development, neurological development.We suggest that the identified gene families represent processes that have played a key role in the divergence of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade that eventually evolved into the most species-rich group of all animals, the hexapods. Furthermore, some adaptive signatures in collembolans may provide valuable clues to understand evolution of hexapods on land.

  6. Entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. Singh; J. Chakravorty; R. Varatharajan

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary revealed the occurrence of 170 species of insects belonging to 39 families under nine orders. The Order Coleoptera was dominant with a maximum of 70 species followed by Thysanoptera and Odonata with 23 species each. Orthoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were respectively 18, 13 and eight species. Seven species were known to the order Diptera and only five species were encountered for Hemiptera. Two species of Dictyoptera viz., Cryptocera ...

  7. Effect and fate of lindane in maize plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate and effect of lindane in maize plant, soil and predators were studied following insecticide application under field conditions. Respectively 84,2% and 93,3% of lindane residues were lost after 2 and 4 months in soil after treatment. About 90% of the insecticide was lost after one month in maize plant. Lindane residues were present in maize grains (0,205ppm). Lindane decreases the density of many predators in soils such as species of collembola, coccinellidae, formicidae, coleoptera

  8. Observatorio microbiológico de cuevas: evaluación y control de comunidades fúngicas en cuevas sometidas al impacto de actividades turísticas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermosin, B.; Nováková, Alena; Jurado, V.; Laiz, L.; Porca, E.; Rogelio, M.A.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    Madrid: Asociación de Cuevas Turísticas Españolas, 2010, s. 513-520. ISBN 978-84-614-4630-8. [CuevaTour 2010. Cuevas: patrimonio, naturaleza, cultura y turismo. Aracena (ES), 04.11.2010-06.11.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : caves * collembola * food chains Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Respuesta fenológica de la vegetación arbórea de las lomas del sur del Perú (Mejía -Arequipa EN relación con el evento "El Niño 1997-98"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Talavera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presentó la evaluación del comportamiento fenológico de la vegetación arbórea con el fin de determinar su probable utilización como indicadores biológicos de la ocurrencia de eventos "El Niño". Los árboles evaluados fueron Caesalpinea spínosa, Duranta armata, Caríca candícans y Citharexylum flexuosum. Los resultados indican una alta variación en las respuestas fenológicas. C. spinosa por ejemplo en 1995 y 1996 inició la floración antes que el brote; en 1997 inicio mucho antes, pero tuvo una corta duración, yen 1998, se ha presentado en forma tardía y breve, mientras que la cubierta foliar se ha mantenido en forma constante. En el caso de D. armata y C. flexuosum la floración se presenta posterior al brote, pero en ambos casos durante la ocurrencia del evento en 1998 no presentaron floración; y C. candícans presenta floración antes que el brote, pero con alta variabilidad en el tamaño de la floración.

  10. Typhlocharis vicariantes del Estrecho de Gibraltar. II: T. silvanoides Dieck, 1869 (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Trechidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez González, S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Typhlocharis silvanoides Dieck, 1869 is the type species of the genus and, until now, was only known from Morocco. New records of this species in Cadiz province (Spain and the study of old material from several museums, allowed us to regularize a type series, non-existent up to now; to increase morphological information of the species with description of the female genitalia and variability of the studied populations; to comment the affinities with other species of the genus and to establish the vicariance of the species in the Gibraltar Strait, a status shared with Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969, which was the aim of the first part of this work.Typhlocharis silvanoides Dieck, 1869 es la especie tipo del género y hasta ahora solo era conocida de Marruecos. Nuevas capturas de esta especie en la provincia de Cádiz (España y el estudio del material antiguo de varios museos, han permitido formalizar una serie típica, inexistente hasta la fecha; ampliar la información morfológica de la especie con la descripción de la genitalia femenina y la variabilidad de las poblaciones estudiadas, comentar sus relaciones con otras especies del género y establecer la vicarianza de la especie en el Estrecho de Gibraltar, circunstancia que comparte con Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969 a la que se dedicó la primera parte de este estudio.

  11. Bioactivity of two Turkish endemic Centaurea species, and their major constituents Bioatividade e os principais constituintes químicos de duas espécies de Centaurea, endêmicas da Turquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity, general toxicity and cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Centaurea urvillei subs. armata and C. mucronifera have been assessed, respectively, by the DPPH assay, the brine shrimp lethality and the MTT cytotoxicity assays. The reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the methanol extracts afforded two bioactive dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans, matairesinoside (1 and arctiin (2. The structures of these lignans were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses as well as by the direct comparison of experimental data with respective literature data.A atividade antioxidante, a toxicidade geral e a citotoxidade dos extratos metanólicos de Centaurea urvillei subs. armata e C. mucronifera foram analisados, respectivamente, pelo ensaio DPPH e pelos ensaios de letalidade de Artemia salina e de citotoxidade MTT. A análise dos extratos metanólicos em CLAE de fase reversa apresentou duas lignanas biotivas do tipo dibenzilbutirolactona, matairesinosídeo (1 e arctiina (2. As estruturas destas lignanas foram elucidadas através de análises espectroscópicas completas bem como por comparação direta dos dados experimentais com os respectivos dados da literatura.

  12. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ► The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ► Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ► Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ► The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ► The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  13. РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ КОЛЛЕМБОЛ (COLLEMBOLA) В ГРАДИЕНТЕ ВЛАЖНОСТИ СРЕДНЕТАЕЖНЫХ СОСНОВЫХ ЛЕСОВ (НА ПРИМЕРЕ ЗАКАЗНИКА «БЕЛЫЙ»)

    OpenAIRE

    Таскаева, А.; Дёгтева, С.; Лаптева, Е.; Лапшина, Е.; Конакова, Т.

    2013-01-01

    Исследованы состав, структура и численность ногохвосток органогенных горизонтов альфегумусовых почв, формирующихся в градиенте влажности среднетаежных сосновых лесов. Показана связь видового разнообразия и численности сообщества коллембол с характером почвенно-растительного покрова и погодными условиями года (температура воздуха, сумма осадков). Выявлены изменения численности доминирующих видов, соотношения различных групп гигропреферендума и жизненных форм ногохвосток в градиенте влажности с...

  14. Discovery of living Potamolepidae (Porifera: Spongillina) from Nearctic freshwater with description of a new genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, John; Pronzato, Roberto; Manconi, Renata

    2015-01-01

    We report here the first record of a living Potamolepidae (Cherokeesia n. gen.) from the Nearctic Region and from the northern hemisphere. The new species Cherokeesia armata from southern Appalachians diverges at generic and specific level from all the other known taxa of the family Potamolepidae in its unique combination of diagnostic traits: gemmular theca armed by gemmuloscleres ranging from small strongyle-like spicules to stout, large oxeas; absence of pneumatic layer; spiny oxeas as main skeleton megascleres; irregular, slender pauci- to uni-spicular skeletal network. The most similar species belong to the genera Potamophloios and Oncosclera. The circumtropical biogeographic pattern of extant Potamolepidae, previously considered of Gondwanian to Gondwanian-like origin, is enlarged to the Nearctic. The present Tennessee discovery confirms a wider range of the family. An updated species inventory of Nearctic Spongillina, a checklist of the family Potamolepidae at the global level together with a key to the genera of Potamolepidae are also provided. PMID:26249051

  15. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NICOLAIDOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.

  16. Efeito da solarização e da adubação sobre artrópodes em solo cultivado com alface Solarization, organic and chemical fertilization combined effects on arthropods community in soil cultivated with lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene G da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da solarização e da adubação química e orgânica na comunidade de artrópodes de solo na cultura da alface, cv. Verônica. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em blocos ao acaso, um com solarização e o outro sem solarização, em casa de vegetação, ambos com cinco tratamentos: adubação orgânica; nitrogênio na forma amoniacal (NH4; adubação com NPK; adubação orgânica + NPK; testemunha (sem adubação. No experimento solarizado, o solo foi coberto durante 132 dias com plástico transparente. Os artrópodes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas tipo alçapão em três épocas (antes da implantação do experimento, após a solarização e após a colheita. Foram utilizados índices faunísticos e de diversidade em cada experimento, tratamento e épocas. Os principais grupos coletados foram: Collembola (82,8%, Acari (7,1%, Hymenoptera (6,1% Coleoptera (1,3% e outros (2,7%. A classe Collembola foi a mais abundante, mesmo na colheita, quando a subordem Acari aumentou substancialmente. As espécies de Collembola predominantes foram: Proisotoma tenella (Reuter (34,3%; Seira atrolutea (Arlé (29%; Folsomides centralis (Denis (7,2%; Isotomurus sp. 161 (2,4% e Sminthurides sp. 98 (1,6%. Observou-se que a diversidade e abundância da comunidade de artrópodes não foi influenciada pela solarização ou adubação.To evaluate the effect of solarization, chemical and organic fertilization on soil arthropods community in lettuce, two blocks plots trials were carried out in Brasília, Brazil. One research was conducted with solarization and the other without solarization in a soil cultivated with lettuce, cv Veronica, under protected cultivation. Each trial consisted of five fertilization treatments: T1= organic fertilization; T2= amoniacal nitrogen (ammonium sulphate; T3= chemical fertilization; T4= organic and chemical fertilization; T5= control (without fertilization. In the solarized trial, the soil was covered for 132

  17. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ariza, Brosimun guianense, Samanea saman, Pachira acuatica, Erythroxylumamazonicum y Aspidosperma spegazzinii. Comprende las asociaciones Ocoteo glomeratae- Spondietum mombinis entrecuyas especies características figuran: Ficus gigantea, Ocotea glomerata, Platymiscium pinnatumy Xylopiagrandifloray Astronio graveolentis- Guazumetum ulmifoliaecon Pseudobombax septenatum, Trichiliaacuminatay Stemmadenia grandiflora. Las especies con mayores valores de IVI (Índice de valor de im-portancia e IPF (Índice de predominio fisiónomico son Anacardium excelsum, Pulsenia armata,Spondias mombin, Ocotea glomerata, Astronium graveolensy Guazuma ulmifolia.En los censos se encon-traron 38 familias y 80 especies entre las cuales se destacan por número de género y especies Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae. Entre los génerosmás diversificados figuran Xylopia(Anonaceae, Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae y Bombax, Cavanillesia,Ciebas, Pseudobombax (Bombacaceae. En general los tipos de vegetación que se encontrarontambién se distribuyen en localidades de la región tropical de los valles del Magdalena y del Caucaconstituyendo una formación vegetal definida por el dominio de especies como Guazuma ulmifolia,Astronium graveolens, Spondias mombin, Anacardium occidentalisy especies de Tabebuia.

  18. Host and Environmental Specificity in Bacterial Communities Associated to Two Highly Invasive Marine Species (Genus Asparagopsis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Tânia; Serrão, Ester A.; Engelen, Aschwin H.

    2016-01-01

    As habitats change due to global and local pressures, population resilience, and adaptive processes depend not only on their gene pools but also on their associated bacteria communities. The hologenome can play a determinant role in adaptive evolution of higher organisms that rely on their bacterial associates for vital processes. In this study, we focus on the associated bacteria of the two most invasive seaweeds in southwest Iberia (coastal mainland) and nearby offshore Atlantic islands, Asparagopsis taxiformis and Asparagopsis armata. Bacterial communities were characterized using 16S rRNA barcoding through 454 next generation sequencing and exploratory shotgun metagenomics to provide functional insights and a backbone for future functional studies. The bacterial community composition was clearly different between the two species A. taxiformis and A. armata and between continental and island habitats. The latter was mainly due to higher abundances of Acidimicrobiales, Sphingomonadales, Xanthomonadales, Myxococcales, and Alteromonadales on the continent. Metabolic assignments for these groups contained a higher number of reads in functions related to oxidative stress and resistance to toxic compounds, more precisely heavy metals. These results are in agreement with their usual association with hydrocarbon degradation and heavy-metals detoxification. In contrast, A. taxiformis from islands contained more bacteria related to oligotrophic environments which might putatively play a role in mineralization of dissolved organic matter. The higher number of functional assignments found in the metagenomes of A. taxiformis collected from Cape Verde Islands suggest a higher contribution of bacteria to compensate nutrient limitation in oligotrophic environments. Our results show that Asparagopsis-associated bacterial communities have host-specificity and are modulated by environmental conditions. Whether this environmental effect reflects the host's selective requirements or

  19. Host and Environmental Specificity in Bacterial Communities Associated to Two Highly Invasive Marine Species (Genus Asparagopsis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Tânia; Serrão, Ester A; Engelen, Aschwin H

    2016-01-01

    As habitats change due to global and local pressures, population resilience, and adaptive processes depend not only on their gene pools but also on their associated bacteria communities. The hologenome can play a determinant role in adaptive evolution of higher organisms that rely on their bacterial associates for vital processes. In this study, we focus on the associated bacteria of the two most invasive seaweeds in southwest Iberia (coastal mainland) and nearby offshore Atlantic islands, Asparagopsis taxiformis and Asparagopsis armata. Bacterial communities were characterized using 16S rRNA barcoding through 454 next generation sequencing and exploratory shotgun metagenomics to provide functional insights and a backbone for future functional studies. The bacterial community composition was clearly different between the two species A. taxiformis and A. armata and between continental and island habitats. The latter was mainly due to higher abundances of Acidimicrobiales, Sphingomonadales, Xanthomonadales, Myxococcales, and Alteromonadales on the continent. Metabolic assignments for these groups contained a higher number of reads in functions related to oxidative stress and resistance to toxic compounds, more precisely heavy metals. These results are in agreement with their usual association with hydrocarbon degradation and heavy-metals detoxification. In contrast, A. taxiformis from islands contained more bacteria related to oligotrophic environments which might putatively play a role in mineralization of dissolved organic matter. The higher number of functional assignments found in the metagenomes of A. taxiformis collected from Cape Verde Islands suggest a higher contribution of bacteria to compensate nutrient limitation in oligotrophic environments. Our results show that Asparagopsis-associated bacterial communities have host-specificity and are modulated by environmental conditions. Whether this environmental effect reflects the host's selective requirements or

  20. Intraguild interactions between spiders and ants and top-down control in a grassland food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Platner, Christian

    2007-01-01

    In most terrestrial ecosystems ants (Formicidae) as eusocial insects and spiders (Araneida) as solitary trappers and hunters are key predators. To study the role of predation by these generalist predators in a dry grassland, we manipulated densities of ants and spiders (natural and low density) in a two-factorial field experiment using fenced plots. The experiment revealed strong intraguild interactions between ants and spiders. Higher densities of ants negatively affected the abundance and biomass of web-building spiders. The density of Linyphiidae was threefold higher in plots without ant colonies. The abundance of Formica cunicularia workers was significantly higher in spider-removal plots. Also, population size of springtails (Collembola) was negatively affected by the presence of wandering spiders. Ants reduced the density of Lepidoptera larvae. In contrast, the abundance of coccids (Ortheziidae) was positively correlated with densities of ants. To gain a better understanding of the position of spiders, ants and other dominant invertebrate groups in the studied food web and important trophic links, we used a stable isotope analysis ((15)N and (13)C). Adult wandering spiders were more enriched in (15)N relative to (14)N than juveniles, indicating a shift to predatory prey groups. Juvenile wandering and web-building spiders showed delta(15)N ratios just one trophic level above those of Collembola, and they had similar delta(13)C values, indicating that Collembola are an important prey group for ground living spiders. The effects of spiders demonstrated in the field experiment support this result. We conclude that the food resource of spiders in our study system is largely based on the detrital food web and that their effects on herbivores are weak. The effects of ants are not clear-cut and include predation as well as mutualism with herbivores. Within this diverse predator guild, intraguild interactions are important structuring forces. PMID:17091284

  1. Epigeal fauna of a degraded soil treated with mineral fertilizer and compound cellulose cultivated of tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giácomo, R. G.; de Arruda, O. G.; Souto Filho, S. N.; Alves, M. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Frigério, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the epigeal fauna in a degraded soil in the recovery process after one year of cultivated with tree species. The experiment was established in February 2010 in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with five treatments and four replications. In the main plots, pure cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis (exotic species - hybrids) and Mabea fistulifera Mart. (native species) and the subplot treatments: Control; D0 - without fertilization; DM - mineral fertilizer according to crop need; DC - with compost manure according to crop need (10 t ha-1); D15 - 15 t ha-1 and D20 - 20 t ha-1 of the compound. In February of the years 2010 and 2011 were installed in the central region of each treatment two traps "pitt fall" which remained for seven days in the field. We calculated Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indices, and richness of wildlife activity groups. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Scott Knott test at 5% significance level. In 2010, the area with M. fistulifera, was captured a total of 2697 organisms distributed mainly in: Hymenoptera with 45.83% of the total collected, Collembola (36.93%), Hemiptera Heteroptera (6.56%). In the area with E. urograndis, 1938 organisms were captured, being 50.67% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 26.83%, 7.59% Hemiptera Heteroptera. It was found that there was no significant difference between treatments and between species for all variables. Collected in 2011 were 4970 organisms in 56.22% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 18.49% and 7.12% beetle in the area of M. fistulifera. In the area of E. urograndis were 4200 organisms, 55.29% (Hymenoptera), 23.79% (Collembola) and 5.86% (Coleoptera). It appears that the activity values and richness of the fauna groups were significantly higher in treatments with organic fertilization in both cultive. It is concluded that after one year there was a variation of the dominant

  2. Effects of of Habitats and Pesticides on Aerobic Capacity and Survival of Soil Fauna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. TRIPATHI; B. M. SHARMA

    2005-01-01

    Objective Faunal health is largely dependent on their soil environment and available litter quality. So the effects of different soil habitats and pesticides on citrate synthase (CS) activity of soil fauna and its population were studied. Methods The soil animals were collected from different pedoecosystems for habitat study. Whereas Vigna radiata based system was selected for pesticidal observations. The field was divided into five equal plots for control and treatment of γ-BHC, quinalphos, carbaryl and cypermethrin. Soil fauna was collected by quadrat method and extracted by Tullgren funnel. Individuals of a species having similar sizes were collected for the estimation of CS activity. They were homogenized and fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The activity of CS was assayed spectrophotometrically. Results Citrate synthase (CS) activity of beetle (Rasphytus fregi), woodlouse (Porcellio laevis) and centipede (Scolopendra morsitans) varied significantly with respect to changes in different soil habitats. Though the CS activity of R. fregi, P. laevis, and S. morsitans differed among themselves but the highest activity of CS in these animals was in V. radiata and lowest in A. nilotica based pedoecosystem. The aerobic capacity of centipede was maximum followed by woodlouse and beetle. The treatment of γ-BHC, quinalphos, carbaryl and cypermethrin significantly reduced the CS activity of these animals. γ-BHC showed maximum reduction in CS activity indicating highly toxic effect of organochlorine on aerobic metabolism of soil fauna. However, minimum reduction was observed in response to carbaryl (in beetle) or cypermethrin (in woodlouse/centipede) leading to impairment of aerobic capacity. The differences in pesticide effects might be assigned to the differences in chemical nature of pesticides and their interactions with below-ground fauna. Treatment of γ-BHC and quinalphos reduced the population of Acari, Coleoptera, Collembola, other

  3. Ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, I C; Rast, C; Veber, A M; Vasseur, P

    2007-06-01

    Soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. The toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox test, Daphnia magna) and chronic (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays and the EC values were expressed as percentage water extract in the test media (v/v). Algal growth (EC50-3d=2.4+/-0.2% of the water extracts) and reproduction of C. dubia (EC50-7d=4.3+/-0.6%) were the most severely affected, compared to bacterial luminescence (EC50-30 min=12+/-3%) and daphnid viability (EC50-48 h=30+/-3%). The Ames and Mutatox tests indicated mutagenicity of water extracts, while no response was found with the umu test. The toxicity of the soil samples was assessed on the survival and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and collembolae (Folsomia candida), and on the germination and growth of higher plants (Lactuca sativa L.: lettuce and Brassica chinensis J.: Chinese cabbage). The EC50 values were expressed as percentage contaminated soil in ISO soil test medium (weight per weight-w/w) and indicated severe effects on reproduction of the collembola F. candida (EC50-28 d=5.7%) and the earthworm E. fetida (EC50-28 d=18% and EC50-56 d=8%, based on cocoon and juvenile production, respectively). Survival of collembolae was already affected at a low concentration of the contaminated soil (EC50-28 d=11%). The viability of juvenile earthworms was inhibited at much lower concentrations of the cokery soil (EC50-14 d=28%) than the viability of adults (EC50-14 d=74%). Only plant growth was inhibited (EC50-17d=26%) while germination was not. Chemical analyses of water extracts allowed

  4. Amostragem de solo e uso de "litterbags" na avaliação populacional de microartrópodos edáficos

    OpenAIRE

    Melo Luiz Antonio Silveira; Ligo Marco Antonio Vieira

    1999-01-01

    A distribuição agregada de microartrópodos edáficos dificulta a obtenção da estimativa de suas populações em agroecossistemas, por amostragem de solo. Buscando uma alternativa, compararam-se coletas realizadas em saquinhos com folhedo ("litterbags") e amostras de solo, em parcelas experimentais de sistemas de produção de tomate orgânico e convencional, em Jaguariúna, SP. Utilizaram-se três parcelas de 20 x 10m de cada sistema, avaliando-se as populações de Acari e Collembola presentes em quat...

  5. Persistence and effect of lindane (gamma HCH) in a maize field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of lindane on the arthropod fauna and its persistence in soil and maize plants under field conditions were studied. Lindane significantly reduced the densities of collembola and spiders but had less significant effects on carabidae and formicidae. It decreased the damage caused by pest insects in maize plants but had no effect on the yield. Lindane dissipated rapidly from both plants and soil. The residues in harvested grains were 0.2 mg.kg-1 (year 1), 0.23 mg.kg-1 (year 2) and 0.05 mg.kg-1 (year 3) and below the recommended acceptable limit for grains. (author). 7 refs, 6 tabs

  6. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L; Murray, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating. PMID:27555863

  7. Temporal and spatial changes in the diet of Hyla pulchella (Anura, Hylidae in southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés da Rosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the diet of a population of the hylid frogHyla pulchella from southeastern Uruguay. We collected the specimens in ponds, where we identified microenvironments defined by the invertebrate assemblage, during one year divided into two seasons (warm and cold. We taxonomically determined 10365 invertebrates belonging to 21 categories in the digestive tracts of frogs. Weestimated the diversity of the diet and alimentary preference according to microenvironments and seasons. We estimated the expected richness of both diet and prey availability using a null model based on the hypergeometric distribution. We performed Discriminant Analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests to detect changes in prey availability among microenvironments and between seasons. The overall diet in terms of frequencies was composed primarily of arthropods (mainly Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera and in terms of volume, by larvae. The most relevantitems to study the microenvironmental and seasonal variation in the available preys were Araneae, Collembola, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and larvae. Based on the null model curves and preference indexes we inferred positive selection by larvae, Isopoda, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, and negative selection by Collembola and Hymenoptera. The diversityof diet and the null model curves indicated that the diet changes among microenvironments and seasons. This frog may be considered as a middle generalist predator, with some selective behavior and a combined search strategy (active and sit-and-wait. We conclude that the knowledge about the availability of preys is a relevant tool for trophic studies.

  8. Sewage sludge effects on mesofauna and cork oak (Quercus suber L.) leaves decomposition in a Mediterranean forest firebreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernin, Céline; Cortet, Jérôme; Joffre, Richard; Le Petit, Jean; Torre, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Effects of sewage sludge on litter mesofauna communities (Collembola and Acari) and cork oak (Quercus suber L.) leaf litter decomposition have been studied during 18 mo using litterbags in an in situ experimental forest firebreak in southeastern France. The sludge (2.74 t DM ha(-1) yr(-1)) was applied to fertilize and maintain a pasture created on the firebreak. Litterbag colonization had similar dynamics on both the control and fertilized plots and followed a typical Mediterranean pattern showing a greater abundance in spring and autumn and a lower abundance in summer. After 9 mo of litter colonization, Collembola and Acari, but mainly Oribatida, were more abundant on the sludge-fertilized plot. Leaf litter decomposition showed a similar pattern on both plots, but it was faster on the control plot. Furthermore, leaves from the fertilized plot were characterized by greater nitrogen content. Both chemical composition of leaves and sludges and the decomposition state of leaves have significantly affected the mesofauna community composition from each plot. PMID:17071899

  9. Soil mesofauna in disturbed spruce forest stands near Čertovo and Plešné Lakes, the Bohemian Forest: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuchta, Peter; Starý, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    The soil microarthropod communities were studied in disturbed spruce forest stands in the catchments areas of Čertovo (CT) and Plešné (PL) Lakes in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. The study is focused on the impact of the windthrow, bark beetle outbreak damage and consecutive changes in the forest stands including soil environment. Within the soil microarthropods, two main groups, Collembola (Hexapoda) and Oribatida (Acari) are analysed. Four different treatments were selected for the study on both study areas: CT1 and PL1 stands - undamaged control forest stands, CT2 and PL2 stands - "dead" forest stands damaged by bark beetle, CT3 and PL3 stands - slightly managed windthrown forest stands left for the natural succession, and CT4 and PL4 stands - harvested windthrown stands. Soil samples were taken in June (CT1/PL1 - CT3/PL3), July and October (CT1/PL1 - CT4/PL4) 2012 from each treatment. Microarthropods were subsequently extracted in a modified high-gradient apparatus in the laboratory for seven days. Finally, the comparison of the microarthropod assemblages found at different treatment stands was performed. The most abundant groups in both study areas (Čertovo and Plešné Lakes) were Collembola and Oribatida with considerable diferences within particular treatments and in time as well.

  10. Metal toxicity and biodiversity in serpentine soils: application of bioassay tests and microarthropod index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Giovanna; Menta, Cristina; Gardi, Ciro; Conti, Federica Delia

    2013-01-01

    Eco-toxicological or bioassay tests have been intensively discussed as tools for the evaluation of soil quality. Tests using soil organisms, including microarthropods and plants, allow direct estimates to be made of important soil characteristics and functions. In this study we compared the results obtained by two in vitro standard bioassays following ISO or OECD guidelines: (i) the short term-chronic phytotoxicity germination and root elongation test using three different plant species Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Brassicaceae), and Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae) and (ii) the inhibition of reproduction of Folsomia candida (Collembola) by soil pollutants to investigate the toxicity of a serpentine soil present in the Italian Apennines, rich in heavy metals such as Ni, Cr, and Co. In addition, microarthropod communities were characterised to evaluate the effects of metal contents on the soil fauna in natural conditions. Abundances, Acari/Collembola ratio, biodiversity indices and the QBS-ar index were calculated. Our results demonstrate that the two in vitro tests distinguish differences correlated with metal and organic matter contents in four sub-sites within the serpentinite. Soil fauna characterisation, not previously performed on serpentine soils, revealed differences in the most vulnerable and adapted groups of microarthropods to soil among the four sub-sites: the microarthropod community was found to be rich in term of biodiversity in the sub-site characterised by a lower metal content and a higher organic matter content and vegetation. PMID:23107056

  11. Soil cultivation in vineyards alters interactions between soil biota and soil physical and hydrological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Buchholz, Jacob; Querner, Pascal; Winter, Silvia; Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Strauss, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Stiper, Katrin; Potthoff, Martin; Guernion, Muriel; Scimia, Jennifer; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Several ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from interactions between soil organisms and soil parameters. However, to what extent different soil cultivation intensities in vineyards compromise soil organisms and their interactions between soil physical and hydrological properties is not well understood. In this study we examined (i) to what extent different soil management intensities affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (earthworms, Collembola, litter decomposition), and (ii) how soil physical and hydrological properties influence these interactions, or vice versa. Investigating 16 vineyards in Austria, earthworms were assessed by hand sorting, Collembola via pitfall trapping and soil coring, litter decomposition by using the tea bag method. Additionally, soil physical (water infiltration, aggregate stability, porosity, bulk density, soil texture) and chemical (pH, soil carbon content, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorus) parameters were assessed. Results showed complex ecological interactions between soil biota and various soil characteristics altered by management intensity. These investigations are part of the transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project VineDivers and will ultimately lead into management recommendations for various stakeholders.

  12. Amostragem de solo e uso de "litterbags" na avaliação populacional de microartrópodos edáficos

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    Melo Luiz Antonio Silveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição agregada de microartrópodos edáficos dificulta a obtenção da estimativa de suas populações em agroecossistemas, por amostragem de solo. Buscando uma alternativa, compararam-se coletas realizadas em saquinhos com folhedo ("litterbags" e amostras de solo, em parcelas experimentais de sistemas de produção de tomate orgânico e convencional, em Jaguariúna, SP. Utilizaram-se três parcelas de 20 x 10m de cada sistema, avaliando-se as populações de Acari e Collembola presentes em quatro amostras de solo e em dois "litterbags" de cada parcela. Foram identificadas 30 famílias de Acari e quatro de Collembola nos sistemas de produção, 88% estando presentes em orgânico e 70% em convencional avaliados por "litterbags" e 53% em quaisquer dos sistemas avaliados por amostras de solo. Os elementos de ambos os grupos foram mais abundantes em sistema orgânico, somente em avaliação por "litterbags". Foi possível estabelecer o sistema mais impactante à mesofauna apenas através de "litterbags", os quais mostraram-se também viáveis para determinação de bioindicadores.

  13. Food web structure of deep-sea macrozooplankton and micronekton off the Catalan slope: Insight from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.

    2011-07-01

    Food web structure of the macroplankton/micronekton fauna on the continental slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic basin, NW Mediterranean) was investigated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope tracers on a total of 34 taxa. Samples were collected close to Barcelona, Spain, on the middle slope, at a seasonal scale. Mean δ 13C values ranged from - 22.1‰ ( Salpa maxima) to - 16.9‰ (the mysid Eucopia hanseni). Values of δ 15N ranged from 2.5‰ (the hyperiid Vibilia armata) to 9.8‰ (the pelagic polychaete Tomopteris sp.). The stable isotope ratios of this fauna displayed a continuum of values over the δ 15N range of 7‰, confirming a wide spectrum of feeding strategies (from filter feeders to predators). High annual mean δ 15N values were found among carnivorous large zooplankton and micronekton, including species that prey on gelatinous plankton (i.e. salps, siphonophores), euphausiids, natantian decapod crustaceans and fish (i.e. myctophids and stomiiformes). In agreement with the available information on diets of planktonic taxa, the lowest isotope ratios were found for filter feeders ( V. armata, S. maxima, the pteropods Cymbulia peroni and Cavolinia inflexa, ostracods and the thaliacean Pyrosoma atlanticum), all of which feed on particulate organic matter. We found three trophic levels in macroplankton/micronekton food webs based on a 15N-enrichment factor of ~ 2.5‰ per level. The range of δ 13C was particularly wide among carnivores (- 20.7‰ to - 16.6‰), suggesting predation on a variety of prey from gelatinous zooplankton (which displayed more depleted δ 13C signatures) to small fishes and decapods. Correlation between δ 13C-δ 15N was generally weak, likely due to the consumption of different kinds of sinking particles (e.g. marine snow, phytodetritus), some constituted of multiply recycled particulate organic matter (POM). However, higher δ 13C-δ 15N correlations were observed during winter and spring, periods of water column

  14. Community structures of soil fauna in reclaimed copper mine tailings and suburb forest land

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    Yongheng Zhu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna were very important for the ecological reconstruction of mine tailings. We investigated community characteristics of soil fauna at two sites, including reclamated copper-mine-tailings (RCMT and suburb forest land of reclamated copper-mine-tailings (SFL in Tongling City to test and illustrate the value of soil fauna for mitigating the impacts of heavy metal pollution. In the spring of 2011, we established four transects (150 m at the two sites and collected soil samples of macro-, meso- and micro- soil fauna from four depths (0–5 cm, 5–10 cm, 10–15 cm, 15–20 cm at 13 30 cm× 30 cm sampling quadrats. Our results showed that at RCMT, the Acarina, Collembola and Nematoda were dominant groups; the Formicidae, Coleoptera larvae, Oligochaeta, Diptera larvae and Diplura were frequent groups; and the additional 16 groups were less commonly encountered. While at SFL the Collembola and Acarina were dominant groups and the Nematoda and Oligochaeta were frequent groups. Overall abundance of soil fauna at RCMT were significantly less than that of SFL (F=20.65, P<0.01, and number of faunal groups were lower at RCMT (F=5.88, P<0.05. We did not find a significant difference between the density of macro-soil fauna at RCMT and SFL, but found that the density of meso- and micro- soil fauna at RCMT was significantly lower than that of SFL (F=29.99, P<0.01. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H at RCMT was higher than that of SFL (F=24.06, P<0.01, but DG diversity index was lower at RCMT compared to SFL (F=4.75, P<0.05. There was evident surface aggregation of soil fauna at RCMT, especially in the differences between the first layer and the other layers of the soil profile (Find.=17.80, Fgro.=33.33, P<0.01. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil macro-, dry-type, wet-type meso- and micro-fauna at different habitats were differentially affected by various environmental factors. At reclaimed land with higher copper concentrations, we found a higher

  15. Land use effect on soil meso and macro-organisms in Quindio coffee zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meso and macro-organisms communities in different agro-ecosystems were evaluated on the Colombian coffee region (Quindio) during the second semester of 1997. Soil samples were taken at 10 cm of deep and the Berlese funnel apparatus was used for evaluations. The agro-ecosystems were Guadual (Guadua angustifolia), traditional and technical coffee, citrus, and cassava crops, cattle ranching (extensive and intensive systems). A total of twenty taxonomic groups were identified. The most abundant and common specimens were ants, acari, collembola and diplura. The greatest diversity and abundance of organisms were registered on the G. angustifolia and coffee agro-ecosystems. The opposite tendency was observed on the cattle ranching due to physical degradation, associated to soil compacting

  16. Alimentación en Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Fillipelo, Ana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary categories of a population of Melanophryniscus stelzneri are studied cuantitatively and cualitatively utilizing a sample of 57 specimens obtained from "El Trapiche", province of San Luis, Argentine, in order to know the grade of trophic overlap and predation strategies. The main alimentary categories for males and females are: Formicidae, Collembola, Acari, Coleoptera, Isoptera and larvae. Although the diets of both sexes show a high grade of trophic overlap, males and females differ in the amount of each resource used. Adults and juveniles present a low grade of trophic overlap. The juveniles follow the "widely foraging" strategy and the adults follow an intermidiate one, between "sit and wait" and "widely foraging".

  17. Effects of lindane on a maize ecosystem at TPRI, Arusha, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the organochlorine insecticide, lindane, on target and non-target organisms was studied in field plots of maize at Arusha, Tanzania for 4 growing seasons. A single application of 1 kg.ha-1 caused leaf scorch to the crop but two applications of 0.5 kg.ha-1 at an interval of 2 weeks were tolerated. The insecticide reduced damage by the stem borers Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis in all seasons and maize yields were higher on the treated plots although the differences were not always significant (P>0.05). Collembola and sometimes ant and spider numbers were lower in treated plots early in the season but the differences did not persist. Differences in rates of decomposition of buried leaf litter were not significant. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Un nuevo Trechus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechini hipogeo de la Sierra de Parapanda (Andalucía, España: taxonomía, sistemática y biología

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    Ortuño, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new hypogean Trechus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechini from Sierra de Parapanda (Andalucía, España: taxonomy, systematics and biology Sampling of arthropod fauna by pitfall traps in the cavern ‘Sima de San Rafael’ in Íllora (Granada, Spain has revealed a new carabid beetle species, Trechus parapandus n. sp., with remarkable troglobiomorphic characteristics: eyes visible only as scars, depigmentation, and elongation of antennae and legs. In consonance with these characteristics, this new species, Trechus parapandus n. sp. is absent in the upper region of the cave. The species belongs to the Trechus fulvus species group (that has five species in Andalusia according to the characteristics of both male and female genitalia. Study of the fauna in the cave suggests that Collembola might be the prey of this new species since they are the most abundant group and have a coincidental phenology. A key for the 11 Trechus species present in Andalusia is provided.

  19. Introducing of the methods of pollutants detecting and species used as experiment organisms in testing laboratories (ro

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    Romeo T. Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish are vertebrate animals often used in research for wastewaters, environment chemicals, cancer and diabetes drugs due to their speed and ease for handling and obtaining test results. Organisms capacity to detect and avoid contaminated soils reveals soils stressor potential and has an ecological relevance indepted with its direct relationship to soil biodiversity and it’s quality as a habitat for the organism. Soil pollution tests were accomplished on arthropods (Collembola, earthworms, oligochaete worms (Enchytraeidae, this being behavior modification tests, observing which species avoids contaminated soils and if response intensity depends on contamination degree. Using Daphnia sp. for testing it’s possible because of their sensibility to an amount of aquatic pollutants and also for their small sizes involving a use of small volumes of test substance and water for dilution.

  20. 热带次生林火烧前后土壤节肢动物群落组成和分布特征的变化%Change on the Comosition and Distribution of Soil Arthropod Community before and afier Burning in the Secondary Forest of Xishuangbanna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨效东; 唐勇; 唐建纬

    2001-01-01

    The effects of controlled burning of slash-and-burn agriculture on soil arthropod community of a 7-year tropical secondary forest in Xishuangbanna were studied.The results showed that groups of soil arthropod decreased 28.57%,and individuals of soil arthropod reduced 72.7% after burning.The composition of soil arthropod communities changed as well.The proportion of individuals of Acari,Collembola,Protura in the 0~15cm soil layer and Hymenoptera (ant) in burned leftover increased,and became dominant groups of soil arthropod communities after firing.The vertical structure of soil arthropod communities in secondary forest was disordered.There were much more groups and individuals of soil arthropod in soil bottom than those in soil surface after fire.The diversity of soil arthropod communities decreased after fire.

  1. Fate and effects of lindane in a chickpea field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of lindane on non-target organisms and the concentrations of its residues in soil and the chickpea crop were investigated over three years. Lindane had adverse effects on some elements of the ecosystem. Ants (Formicidae), spiders (Aranae) and beetles (Carabidae), to a lesser extent, were more affected than Collembola. Organic matter, buried in non-degradable open-mesh bags in the plots, was slightly more degraded in the control plots than in the sprayed plots suggesting that the soil microflora and microfauna had been inhibited by the lindane. However, it was shown by chemical analyses that lindane was degraded in both soils and plants to one tenth of the original concentrations after application in 2 months and 1 month, respectively. Some concentrations (0.2-1.2 mg kg-1) of lindane were found in the harvested grain of the chickpea plants. (author). 1 ref., 6 tabs

  2. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  3. MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SIRET RIVER FROM HARGHITA, MARAMUREŞ AND VRANCEA MOUNTAINS AND MOLDOVEI PLATEAU

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    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  4. Entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India

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    O.T. Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary revealed the occurrence of 170 species of insects belonging to 39 families under nine orders. The Order Coleoptera was dominant with a maximum of 70 species followed by Thysanoptera and Odonata with 23 species each. Orthoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were respectively 18, 13 and eight species. Seven species were known to the order Diptera and only five species were encountered for Hemiptera. Two species of Dictyoptera viz., Cryptocera sp. and Mantis sp. were also collected. Overall, 39 species of insects hitherto known only from other states, were recorded for the first time from Arunachal Pradesh through the present collection. This study is the first of its kind to collect and document the insects of the Sanctuary.

  5. Ecotoxicological evaluation of in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescent bacteria assay, using soil leachates, was the most sensitive toxicity indicator. - To evaluate the environmental relevance of in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, effective and reliable monitoring approaches are of special importance. The presented study was conducted as part of a research project investigating in situ bioremediation of topsoils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Changes in soil toxicity within different experimental fields at a former ordnance factory were evaluated using a battery of five bioassays (plant growth, Collembola reproduction, soil respiration, luminescent bacteria acute toxicity and mutagenicity test) in combination to chemical contaminant analysis. Resulting data reveal clear differences in sensitivities between methods with the luminescent bacteria assay performed with soil leachates as most sensitive toxicity indicator. Complete test battery results are presented in so-called soil toxicity profiles to visualise and facilitate the interpretation of data. Both biological and chemical monitoring results indicate a reduction of soil toxicity within 17 months of remediation

  6. Production of micro- and nanosilica from soil inhabiting Folsomia candida fed with treated rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murguía, Barbara; Soto-Mercado, Jorge R; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Castaño, Victor M

    2015-08-01

    Rice husk was employed as a source for producing silica micro- and nanoparticles through its digestion by soil fauna. Although many physicochemical methods for producing nanostructures have been studied, the biological processes remain mostly unexplored. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide with continuous control of reaction pH allowed removal of lignin bonds while preserving most of the cell wall and the silica present in the rice husk. The accessibility of lignocellulose was achieved without removing appreciable amounts of lignin, so this agricultural byproduct can be employed as feeding material for microarthropods Folsomia candida (Collembola). When these microarthropods are placed on a substrate of treated rice husk, more than 85% of degraded material is obtained, as compared to the untreated rice husk substrate, while the silica particles obtained show a slight decrease in average size. PMID:26224351

  7. diet composition of the salamander lyciasalamandra luschani basoglui on the greek island of kastellorizo in the southeast aegean sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    the diet composition of the lycian salamander lyciasalamandra luschani basoglui across both age and sex groups was studied.specimens were collected from a small island in the southeast aegean sea.the dominant prey group of juveniles consisted of collembola,while coleoptera dominated the diet of males and females.the number and size of prey items consumed by males and females of l.luschani basoglui were quite similar,while juveniles ate fewer items of much smaller size.the numerical abundance along with the four measures of the size of prey permitted discrimination among males,females and juveniles.although discrimination between adults and juveniles is expected due to dissimilarity in body size,discrimination between males and females remains inexplicable despite their similarity in body size.future studies should be focused on understanding how and why prey choice differs between sexes in l.luschani basoglui.

  8. Artrópodos presentes en nidos de cotorra Myiopsitta monachus monachus (Aves: Psittacidae Arthropods in Monk Parakeet nests (Aves: Psittacidae

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    Rosana Aramburú

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es comunicar una lista de la artropodofauna que se encuentra en los nidos de cotorra (Myiopsitta monachus monachus en distintas localidades de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se colectó un nido y 43 camas de material vegetal fresco que las cotorras depositan en las cámaras de cría. Se extrajeron los artrópodos, que se identificaron bajo lupa binocular y se caracterizaron por su nicho trófico. Se encontraron especies de la clase Arachnida (Acarina, Pseudoescorpionida y Araneae, principalmente depredadoras y hematófagas; mientras que dentro de la clase Insecta se encontraron especies hematófagas, depredadoras, detritívoras, fitófagas, nectarívoras, y xilófagas. Los órdenes más representados fueron Diptera (8 familias y Coleoptera (12 familias. El resto de las especies pertenecieron a los órdenes Collembola, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera y Lepidoptera.The objective of this work is to communicate a list of artropodofauna which is in Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus monachus nests at several localities in Buenos Aires province. One nest and 43 beds of fresh green material that the Monk Parakeets deposited in the breeding chamber were collected. Arthropods were extracted, identified under binocular microscope, and characterized by their diets. Species were found whitin class Arachnida (Acarina, Pseudoescorpionida and Araneae, mainly predators and hematophagous. Within class Insecta, were found blood-sucking species, predators, detritivores, phytophagous, nectarivorous, and xilophagous, among others. The orders most represented were Diptera (8 families and Coleoptera (12 families. The rest of the species belonged to the orders Collembola, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera.

  9. Aquatic insects of New York salt marsh associated with mosquito larval habitat and their potential utility as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonomic survey of salt marsh aquatic insects on Long Island, New York, USA and to evaluate their utility for non-target pesticide impacts and environmental biomonitoring. A total of 18 species from 11 families and five orders were collected repeatedly during the five month study period. Diptera was the most diverse order with nine species from four families, followed by Coleoptera with four species from two families, Heteroptera with three species from three families, then Odonata and the hexapod Collembola with one species each. Water boatmen, Trichocorixa verticalis Fieber (Heteroptera: Corixidae) and a shore fly, Ephydra subopaca Loew (Diptera: Ephydridae), were the two most commonly encountered species. An additional six species; Anurida maritima Guérin-Méneville (Collembola: Neanuridae), Mesovelia mulsanti White (Heteroptera: Mesovelidae), Enochrus hamiltoni Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Tropisternus quadristriatus Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Dasyhelea pseudocincta Waugh and Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and Brachydeutera argentata Walker (Diptera: Ephydridae), were found regularly. Together with the less common Erythrodiplax berenice Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae), these nine species were identified as the most suitable candidates for pesticide and environmental impact monitoring due to abundance, position in the food chain, and extended seasonal occurrence. This study represents a first step towards developing an insect-based index of biological integrity for

  10. Hábitos tróficos de la reineta Brama australis (Pisces: Bramidae durante el periodo estival frente a Chile central

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    Francisco Santa Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La reineta Brama australis es un importante recurso pesquero artesanal en la zona central chilena, incorporado en los programas de seguimiento biológico, pero con escasas evaluaciones de sus aspectos tróficos. Para actualizar el estado del conocimiento, se analizó su dieta durante el verano austral época de mayor disponibilidad de este recurso en la zona central de Chile, mediante el análisis del contenido gástrico de 300 ejemplares capturados entre noviembre 2011 y marzo 2012. Se identificó una dieta dominada por Euphausia mucronata (IIR = 92,33, aunque a escala mensual se identificó una dieta mixta de E. mucronata durante noviembre, diciembre 2011 y marzo 2012, además de Pterygosquilla armata y anfípodos hipéridos durante enero y marzo 2012. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre ambos sexos (P > 0,01. Estos resultados demuestran y corroboran que B. australis es un depredador pelágico con un reducido espectro trófico en el litoral de Chile central.

  11. Review of alien marine macrophytes in Tunisia

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    Y. R. SGHAIER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the list of alien marine macrophytes introduced into Tunisia was updated in the light of available data and new observations. A total of 27 alien marine macrophytes have been recorded so far from Tunisia: 18 Rhodophyta, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Chlorophyta and 1 Magnoliophyta. For each species, the locality (-ies, the year (or period and the source of the first observation in Tunisia are given. The distribution and the status (casual, cryptogenic, established or questionable of species in Tunisia were evaluated and, where appropriate, discussed. Among them, Hypnea cornuta is reported for the first time from Tunisia. Fourteen alien marine macrophytes are established, whereas seven cryptogenic and two casual species require further investigation. Eleven species are considered as invasive or potentially invasive in the Mediterranean Sea: Acrothamnion preissii, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis Indo-Pacific lineage, Hypnea cornuta, Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa chemnitzia, C. cylindracea, C. taxifolia, Codium fragile subsp. fragile and Halophila stipulacea. Finally, the case of four questionable species is also discussed.

  12. Domoic Acid Toxicologic Pathology: A Review

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    Olga M. Pulido

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid was identified as the toxin responsible for an outbreak of human poisoning that occurred in Canada in 1987 following consumption of contaminated blue mussels [Mytilus edulis]. The poisoning was characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs. Among the most prominent features described was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Domoic acid is produced by certain marine organisms, such as the red alga Chondria armata and planktonic diatom of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Since 1987, monitoring programs have been successful in preventing other human incidents of ASP. However, there are documented cases of domoic acid intoxication in wild animals and outbreaks of coastal water contamination in many regions world-wide. Hence domoic acid continues to pose a global risk to the health and safety of humans and wildlife. Several mechanisms have been implicated as mediators for the effects of domoic acid. Of particular importance is the role played by glutamate receptors as mediators of excitatory neurotransmission and the demonstration of a wide distribution of these receptors outside the central nervous system, prompting the attention to other tissues as potential target sites. The aim of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of ASP, DOM induced pathology including ultrastructural changes associated to subchronic oral exposure, and discussion of key proposed mechanisms of cell/tissue injury involved in DOM induced brain pathology and considerations relevant to food safety and human health.

  13. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae

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    Elijah Talamas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae. Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead (Mexico (Tamaulipas and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state, P. armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela, P. convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama, P. dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás, P. gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina, P. gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia, P. invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo, P. isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic, P. lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico, P. minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba, P. nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, P. pallipes (Ashmead (southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo, P. psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela, P. saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica, P. soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela. Paridris brevipennis Fouts, P. laeviceps (Ashmead, and P. nigricornis (Fouts are treated as junior synonyms of P. pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead.

  14. Community structure, life histories and secondary production of stoneflies in two small mountain streams with different degree of forest cover

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    Pavel Beracko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study examines community structure and nymphal biology (life cycles and secondary production of stoneflies in two adjacent mountain streams with different degree of forest cover in the Prosiečanka River Basin (Chočské Vrchy Mts., West Carpathians. One of the streams has non-forested catchment, converted to meadows and pastures, while the other one has catchment with 60% covered by spruce forest. Differences in forest cover and in thermal regime of the streams were reflected by the difference of stonefly communities at their structural and functional level. Species Nemoura cinerea and Leuctra aurita created stonefly assemblage in non-forested stream, whereas Nemoura cinerea also occurred in naturally forested stream together with species Leuctra armata, Leuctra nigra, Leuctra prima, Siphonoperla neglecta and Arcynopteryx dichroa. All examined species had maximally annual life cycle and in eudominant species Nemoura cinerea one month shift was found in nymphal hatching and adult emergence between streams. Total secondary production of stoneflies in undisturbed stream (126.46 mg DW m-2 y-1 was more than two times higher than the production in non-forested stream (47.39 mg DW m-2 y-1. 

  15. Domoic acid toxicologic pathology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Olga M

    2008-01-01

    Domoic acid was identified as the toxin responsible for an outbreak of human poisoning that occurred in Canada in 1987 following consumption of contaminated blue mussels [Mytilus edulis]. The poisoning was characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs. Among the most prominent features described was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Domoic acid is produced by certain marine organisms, such as the red alga Chondria armata and planktonic diatom of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Since 1987, monitoring programs have been successful in preventing other human incidents of ASP. However, there are documented cases of domoic acid intoxication in wild animals and outbreaks of coastal water contamination in many regions world-wide. Hence domoic acid continues to pose a global risk to the health and safety of humans and wildlife. Several mechanisms have been implicated as mediators for the effects of domoic acid. Of particular importance is the role played by glutamate receptors as mediators of excitatory neurotransmission and the demonstration of a wide distribution of these receptors outside the central nervous system, prompting the attention to other tissues as potential target sites. The aim of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of ASP, DOM induced pathology including ultrastructural changes associated to subchronic oral exposure, and discussion of key proposed mechanisms of cell/tissue injury involved in DOM induced brain pathology and considerations relevant to food safety and human health. PMID:18728725

  16. EVALUATION DE L’EFFET DU LIEU DE RECOLTE DES ALGUES MARINES DES COTES ATLANTIQUES MAROCAINES SUR L’ACTIVITE ANTIBACTERIENNE ET ANTI-INFLAMMATOIRE

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    Y. FARID

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of the place of algae’s harvest on the antibacterial activity of both strains Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and Bacillus cereus (CIP 783 and anti-inflammatory anti-phospholipase A 2, 17 species of algae were collected from two sites of the Moroccan Atlantic coast: Oualidia beach and Sidi Bouzid beach. 59% of algae harvested from Oualidia showed activity vis-à-vis S. aureus ATCC 6538, against only 41% of algae collected from Sidi Bouzid. As for strain CIP 783de B. cereus. Extracts musciformis Hypnea, Gelidium sesquipedale and Dictyota dichotoma showed activity vis-à-vis S. aureus in extracts of algae harvested from Oualidia but no activity was observed in these extracts collected from Sidi Bouzid. Moreover, the results of the anti-inflammatory activity of marine algae appear to be related to the harvest site. Indeed, Asparagopsis armata harvested from Oualidia showed inhibitory activity of phospholipase A2 to 100%, but this activity is very low (10% for this species collected from Sidi Bouzid. The three extracts Bifurcata bifurcate, Cystoseira humilis and Cystoseira tamariscifolia, picked up from Oualidia, showed inhibitory activity of phospholipase A2 greater than that collected from Sidi Bouzid. Analysis of variance(ANOVA of the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity showed that there is a significant difference in activity between the two stations of harvest.

  17. Variabilidade diária da zonação da macrofauna bentônica em praias arenosas do litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul Daily zonation variation of sandy beach benthic macrofauna in north coast of the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Frederico Monteiro Neves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a variação diária da zonação da macrofauna bentônica nas praias de Tramandaí, Harmonia e Jardim do Éden, Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas foram feitas ao longo de cinco dias consecutivos, utilizando-se um tubo de PVC de 20 cm de diâmetro. Foram demarcadas três transversais distantes 50 m uma da outra, com 4 estações de coleta e três amostras cada. As estações se estenderam desde 8 m acima do limite superior da zona de varrido (definida a cada dia até 1 m de profundidade. Também foram coletados diariamente dados dos perfis topográficos de cada praia. Os resultados mostraram que a macrofauna bentônica apresenta um padrão de zonação regular ao longo dos dias. O intermareal foi marcado pela presença do isópode Excirolana armata (Dana, 1853 e do poliqueta Euzonus furciferus (Ehlers, 1897. A zona de varrido apresentou grande abundância do caranguejo hipídeo Emerita brasiliensis (Schmitt, 1935, do bivalvo Donax hanleyanus (Philippi, 1842 e do poliqueto Scolelepis gaucha (Orensanz & Gianuca, 1974. As zonas de "surf" e arrebentação interna não apresentaram diferenças na composição de espécies, sendo dominantes os juvenis de D. hanleyanus, Mesodesma mactroides (Deshayes, 1854, o anfípode Phoxocephalopsis zimmeri (Schellenberg, 1931, o poliqueto Hemipodus olivieri (Orensanz & Gianuca, 1974, além do bivalve Donax gemmula (Morrison, 1971. Os resultados indicaram que, apesar do padrão de zonação da macrofauna ter sido regular ao longo do estudo, algumas mudanças na posição vertical das espécies foram observadas, principalmente em função da variação da zona de varrido.This work verified the daily zonation of benthic macrofauna in Tramandaí, Harmonia and Jardim do Éden beaches, north coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, for five consecutive days. Biological data were collected with a PVC core (20 cm diameter along three transects distant 50 m of each other

  18. Soil animal communities at five succession stages in the litter of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lan; You Wenhui; Song Yongchang

    2006-01-01

    Soil animals are abundant in forest litter layer,but little attention has been Paid to the vertical distribution of community structure of soil animals in the layers at different plant community succession stages.The forest litter layer can be divided into fresh litter layer(L),fermentation layer(F)and humus layer(H),which may represent different litter decomposition stages.The aim of the study is to ascertain the vertical distribution features of soil animal communities among the three litter layers and the change in the succession process of the Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest(EBLF)in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province,China.Soil animal communities in the five plant communities at different succession stages were investigated during the 2003 winter.Soil animals,which were collected by using Tullgren funnels,amounted to a total of 13381 individuals falling into 2 phyla,8 classes and 20 orders.The dominant groups were Acarina and Collembola,accounting for 94.24% of the total individuals,with the number of Acarina individuals 7.66 times than that of Collembola.The common group was Diptera.The results indicated that there was a distinctive vertical distribution of the soil animal communities in the forest litter laver,but it differed from that in soil below the litter layer.In contrast to those in the soil,the soil animals in the litter layer generally tended to increase in both group abundance and density from the top fresh litter layer to the bottom humus layer.Altogether 19 groups and 59.03% of total individuals were found in the bottom layer,while only 8 groups and 5.35% of the total individuals in the top.Moreover,there were some variations in the distribution of the soil animals at different plant succession stages.85.19% of Homoptera and 100% of Symphyla were found in the litter layer at the climax succession stage.while 75.61% of Thysanoptera at the intermediate succession stage.Therefore,these groups might be seen as indicative groups.The total numbers of soil animal

  19. Ecological risks of Aluminum production and contaminated area by red mud in Western Hungary (Ajka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Oqil; Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András; Winkler, Dániel

    2016-04-01

    In October 2010, Hungary experienced one of the most severe environmental disasters: the dam wall of a red mud depository of an alumina plant in collapsed and more than 1 million m3 of toxic sludge flooded the surrounding area. Red mud is a strongly alkaline (pH of 9-12.5) by-product due to the high NaOH content. Apart from residual minerals and oxides, its components also include heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ni, Co. As it has already been assessed, red mud had considerable effect on soil properties and thus on soil biodiversity. The aim of our study was to determine the aftereffects of red mud pollution on the soil mesofauna (Collembola). Study plots were selected in the area affected by the toxic flood, in agricultural and grassland habitats, at different distances (0.3 to 12.5 km) from the contamination source. Control plots of each habitat types were selected for comparative analyses. Soil samples were taken during the summer of 2015, five years after the red mud disaster. From each of the selected plots, 5 soil cores of 100 cm3 volume (3.6 cm in diameter and 10 cm in depth) were sampled from which springtails were extracted within 14 days using a modified Tullgren apparatus. Simultaneously with the Collembola sampling, we collected soil samples on each plots in order to determine soil properties (pH, CaCO3, particle size distribution) and the degree of heavy metal pollution. 25 heavy metals were measured (including total Hg) following the method of total (cc. HNO3 + H2O2-soluble) and bioavailable (NH4-acetate + EDTA-soluble) element content using ICP-OES and AMA 254. The studied habitats presented neutral to moderately alkaline soils (pH 7.2-8.1). Total metal content was higher in the plots formerly affected by red mud flood. The Hg concentration ranged from 0.023 to 1.167 mg.kg-1, exceeding the threshold concentration (0.5 mg.kg-1) defined by Hungarian legislation for toxic trace metals in soil. The collected 1442 Collembola specimens belong to 32

  20. Microartrópodos como indicadores de disturbio antrópico en entisoles del área recreativa de Miramar, Argentina Microarthropods as indicators of anthropic disturbance in entisols in a recreational area of Miramar, Argentina

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    Natalia A Fredes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En áreas recreativas el tránsito humano provoca alteraciones en el horizonte superficial del suelo, destruyendo parte o la totalidad de éste, reduciendo la porosidad y modificando el microambiente edáfico. La mesofauna edáfica, por habitar principalmente en los horizontes superficiales del suelo, resulta ser un buen indicador de este impacto antrópico. Se evaluó la distribución de ácaros oribátidos y colémbolos de suelo frente al impacto del tránsito humano en el área recreativa del Vivero Dunícola "Florentino Ameghino" de Miramar, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se consideraron tres zonas de impacto: máximo, medio y mínimo. Se extrajeron los microartrópodos y se determinaron hasta nivel de especie colémbolos y oribátidos. Se calculó riqueza específica, diversidad y paridad por sitio y horizonte. Se realizó un análisis de correspondencia y se elaboró un índice de impacto teniendo en cuenta los diferentes horizontes y la frecuencia de especies. Se hallaron 29 especies de ácaros oribátidos y 19 especies de colémbolos. La diversidad (H´ fue significativamente diferente entre los sitios de máximo y de mínimo impacto. El análisis factorial de correspondencia definió tres grupos de acuerdo al grado de alteración de los horizontes superficiales y las características pedológicas (horizonte orgánico o mineral. El índice de impacto (II M en la zona de mayor tránsito fue II M=9 mientras que en la de mínimo impacto fue II MHuman trampling in recreational areas causes alterations in the soil surface horizon, partially or totally disrupting soil structure, reducing porosity and modifying the edaphic microenvironment. Soil mesofauna, is a good indicator of this human impact since it inhabits mainly soil surface horizons. We evaluated the changes in edaphic oribatid mite (Acari and springtail (Collembola communities sufferering from the impact of human trampling in the recreational area of Vivero Dunícola "Florentino Ameghino

  1. Assessing a quick monitoring method using rocky intertidal communities as a bioindicator: a multivariate approach in Algeciras Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, J M; Maestre, M J; González, A R; García-Gómez, J C

    2006-05-01

    A multivariate approach was used to test the value of intertidal communities as a bioindicator of environmental conditions at Algeciras Bay, southern Spain. The study area is located in the Strait of Gibraltar and it is subjected to a variety of anthropic impacts. Eight localities (5 inside and 3 outside the bay) were selected, and four transects were undertaken in each locality to characterise the fauna and flora. The spatial distribution of the intertidal species reflected the physico-chemical conditions of Algeciras Bay. The stations located outside the bay, characterised by high hydrodynamism and dissolved oxygen and low sedimentation and turbidity, had a higher diversity and species richness than the inner stations. According to the BIO-ENV procedure and CCA, water turbidity was the factor which best correlated with the intertidal assemblages. SIMPER showed that the molluscs Chtamalus stellatus, Mytilus cf edulis, Littorina neritoides and Balanus perforatus, and the algae Gelidium pusillum, Corallina elongata, Asparagopsis armata, Colpomenia sinuosa and Fucus spiralis were the species that most contributed to the dissimilarity between internal and external sites. The present study, based on the spatial distribution of intertidal taxa, yielded similar results to those previously obtained in the area with costly physico-chemical analysis based on complex matrices of subtidal epifaunal communities. Consequently, the intertidal sampling method proposed in this study is presented here as a quick, effective alternative strategy, and can be useful in environmental monitoring programs, since these communities are easily accessible and amenable to sample, and the sessile nature of the majority of the species makes future, long-term monitoring relatively simple. PMID:16779601

  2. Selective habitat utilisation and impact on vegetation by African elephant within a heterogeneous landscape

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    A. Steyn

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, a total of 33 elephants have been reintroduced to a 31 000 ha game-fenced section of the Songimvelo Game Reserve in the Barberton Mountainland, South Africa. The impact from elephant was assessed on the attainment of the primary management objectives which are the conservation of plant community and plant species diversity. A total of 160 semi-quantitative plots were systematically sampled along foraging paths. Vegetation was assessed in terms of dominant species composition and species utilised. Elephant activity is mostly confined to a rugged 1 200 ha portion of the reserve. Forest, thickets and woodlands are positively selected, whereas shrublands and grasslands are little utilised. A total of 73 woody species were recorded within the sample plots. Thirtynine of these species were utilised in the woodlands, 31 in the forest and thickets, and only 18 in the shrublands. Acacia ataxacantha, Dalbergia armata and Acacia caffra are ranked highest in dominance and in utilisation values. In contrast, Cussonia spicata and Pterocarpus angolensis are less common but are much selected. Continued utilisation at present levels could significantly threaten their persistence. These preliminary results indicate that the present low overall density of elephants relative to many other conservation areas already has a marked effect on certain plant species. Absolute elephant density figures are relatively meaningless within a heterogeneous landscape. The specific community and species make-up of the landscape needs to be taken into account for the determination of bounds to elephant numbers in order to ensure the maintenance of present plant species diversity levels.

  3. Diet and activity pattern of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico: effects of habitat fragmentation and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor

    2007-09-01

    Accelerated deforestation is causing the rapid loss and fragmentation of primary habitat for primates. Although the genus Alouatta is one of the most studied primate taxa under these circumstances, some results are contradictory and responses of howlers to habitat fragmentation are not yet clear. In this paper, we conduct a cross-study of the available researches on mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata) in forest fragments in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, to (1) describe the diet and activity pattern of howlers; (2) analyze the similarity in the diet across studies; and (3) relate both fragment size and howler population density with different characteristics of their diet, home range size, and activity pattern. Howlers consumed 181 plant species belonging to 54 families. Ficus was the most important taxa in the howlers' diet, followed by primary species such as Pterocarpus rohrii, Nectandra ambigens, Poulsenia armata, and Brosimum alicastrum. Secondary and non-secondary light-demanding plant species, which are representatives of disturbed habitat, contributed with a high percentage of their feeding time. Only 23% of the species consumed were the same across all the studies, suggesting that howlers adapt their diet to the food availability of their respective habitats. Population density is the best predictor of howlers' ecological and behavioral changes in response to forest fragmentation, probably owing to its relationship with food availability. Howlers respond to the increase in population densities by increasing the (1) diversity of food species in the diet; (2) consumption of non-tree growth forms; and (3) consumption of new plant items. Home range size is also predicted by population density, but fragment size is a better predictor, probably owing to the fact that howler groups can overlap their home ranges. Our results emphasize the importance of conserving the larger fragments and increasing the size of small and medium-sized ones. PMID:17330311

  4. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

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    Nicholas A Paul

    Full Text Available All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells. To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  5. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    marginalis (Herrich-Schäffer), Serdia concolor Ruckes, Sibaria armata (Dallas) and Taurocerus achilles (Stål). These new records for Colombia are importanst for the understanding of the distributional range of the genera and species involved. PMID:26249877

  6. Seasonal abundance of soil arthropods in relation to meteorological and edaphic factors in the agroecosystems of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Muhammad Mussadiq; Ahmed, Sohail

    2015-05-01

    Soil arthropods are an important component of agroecosystems, contributing significantly to their biodiversity and functioning. However, seasonal patterns, population dynamics, and significant roles of these soil arthropods in improvement of soil structures and functions are influenced by many factors. The objective of the current study was to investigate soil arthropod abundance in relation to a blend of meteorological and edaphic factors and to find out the difference in abundance among various crops (sugarcane, cotton, wheat, alfalfa fodder, and citrus orchards). The arthropod sampling was done by pitfall traps and Tullgren extractions on fortnightly intervals. Soil temperature and relative humidity were noted on the field sites while analysis for soil pH, organic matter, and soil moisture contents were done in the laboratory. The rainfall data was obtained from an observatory. Results showed that significant differences were found in soil arthropod abundance across different sampling months and crops. Out of total 13,673 soil arthropods sampled, 38 % belonged to Collembola, followed by 15 % Hymenoptera, 15 % Acarina, 11 % Myriapods, 6 % Coleoptera, 5 % Orthoptera, and 5 % Araneae. Mean abundance per sample was highest in summer months as compared to winter. Overall abundance per sample was significantly different between all crops ( p < 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed four categories of soil arthropods according to abundance, i.e., highly abundant (Collembola, Acarina, Myripoda, Hymenoptera), moderately abundant (Orthoptera, Aranae, Coleoptera), least abundant (Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Diptera), and rare (Blattaria, Isoptera, Diplura, Lepidoptera). Soil temperature and soil organic matter showed significant positive correlation with abundance, while relative humidity was significantly negatively correlated. Soil moisture and soil pH showed no significant correlations while no correlation was found with total rainfall. PCA analysis revealed that soil surface

  7. Evaluation of different agronomic managements on rice mesofauna: a case study in Piedmont (North Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Barzanti, Gian Paolo; Cito, Annarita; Papini, Rossella; Simoni, Sauro; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    parasites groups. Dry land was more suitable to development of bacterial feeders and predators. On the whole, MI values ranged between 2 and 3, registered in organic farming and conventional management, respectively. The Acari represented the main group of microarthropods (about 43%), then Diptera (33%), Collembola (19%) and the others. The only euedaphic groups are Acari and Collembola. The BSQar value was 48 (sBC II) in IPM rice field, 71 in organic farming (sBC II/III), 95 in conventional management (sBC III). On all situation tested, the analysis of soil quality, by the study of mesofauna, reflects low differentiation in the arthropod communities' structure. In general, the results relative to the soil mesofauna biodiversity indicated a quite high level of disturbance and a low level of biodiversity. Future studies on this subject could help preserve, or even enhance, the biodiversity and soil quality.

  8. Fauna epigeica em sistemas de produção de Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sandra Drescher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O Rio Grande do Sul detém grande relevância na produção de tabaco. Adotam-se três sistemas de manejo: convencional, mínimo e plantio direto. Para analisar o impacto desses sistemas sobre a população da fauna do solo, efetuou-se uma amostragem da fauna epigeica. Foram avaliados preparo convencional (PC, cultivo mínimo (CM e plantio direto (PD, além de área de reconversão da fumicultura para a vitivinicultura (RV e de mata nativa (MN. Na amostragem, foram utilizadas dez armadilhas Provid em cada área. Os atributos avaliados foram: abundância de organismos, riqueza, índice de diversidade (H' e equitabilidade de Shannon (J. Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda foi identificada até o nível de família, devido à sua sensibilidade às modificações do ambiente. Efetuaram-se a análise multivariada de Agrupamento Hierárquico e a Análise de Componentes Principais, e os índices H' e J foram comparados pelo teste t, de Student. O PD apresentou maior número total de organismos, isolando-se das demais áreas pela análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Os valores de riqueza foram muito semelhantes entre as áreas, destacando-se a aproximação entre RV e MN. Os tratamentos PC, PD e RV não diferiram estatisticamente quanto ao H', apresentando valores de 1,58; 1,60; e 1,52, respectivamente. CM apresentou menor valor de H' (1,18 e MN, o valor intermediário (1,33. O comportamento estatístico de J foi muito semelhante ao encontrado em H'. Em relação à Classe Collembola, foram identificadas as famílias Entomobrydae, Sminthuridae, Poduridae e Hipogasturidae. PD apresentou exemplares das quatro famílias identificadas, enquanto nas demais áreas foram identificadas apenas Entomobrydae e Sminthuridae. Pela Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA, as diferenças entre as áreas explicaram 32 % da variabilidade encontrada; desse percentual, 59,3 % foram explicados pelos eixos 1 e 2. A presença ou ausência de revolvimento do solo e a rota

  9. Combined effect of copper and prolonged summer drought on soil Microarthropods in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil microarthropods experience a large range of natural stressors in their natural environment, e.g. variations in temperature and soil moisture, but also anthropogenic stressors such as soil pollutants. In the present study the combined effect of drought stress and copper pollution on microarthropods was investigated in a field study. We hypothesised that microarthropods in copper polluted soil would be more susceptible to drought than animals in control soil. Surprisingly, the abundance of microarthropods in autumn was positively affected by summer drought and copper pollution did not influence the effect of drought in a negative way. The stimulation was mainly seen as an increase of Acari, but also groups of Collembola were positively affected. We suggest that the positive effect of the enforced summer drought could be due to a rapid recovery, which further is accelerated by an increase of food resources (microbes) which have not been utilized during the drought. - Soil contamination with copper does not cause reduced drought tolerance of microarthropods in the field

  10. The effects of heavy metal contamination on the soil arthropod community of a shooting range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliorini, Massimo; Pigino, Gaia; Bianchi, Nicola; Bernini, Fabio; Leonzio, Claudio

    2004-05-01

    Soils in clay pigeon shooting ranges can be seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The pellets contained in ammunition are composed of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu. The total concentrations of these metals in soils, and the effects of their increasing levels on the arthropod community were investigated at seven sampling sites in a clay pigeon shooting range and compared with two controls. Research revealed that the spatial distribution of Pb and Sb contamination in the shot-fall area was strongly correlated with the flight path of the pellets. Ordination obtained through Redundance Analysis showed that Collembola, Protura and Diplura were positively correlated with major detected contaminants (Pb, Sb), while Symphyla showed a negative correlation with these pollutants. Determination of the soluble lead fraction in soil, and of its bioaccumulation in the saprophagous Armadillidium sordidum (Isopoda) and the predator Ocypus olens (Coleoptera), showed that a significant portion of metallic Pb from spent pellets is bioavailable in the soil and can be bioaccumulated by edaphic organisms, entering the soil trophic network, but without biomagnification. - Significant relationships were found between lead accumulation in soil from a shooting range and inhabiting arthropod communities.

  11. Soil arthropods as test organisms for ecotoxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglisch, I.

    1981-02-01

    The importance of arthropods - organisms which usually grow in masses - for soil biology depends on their capacity to participate in the continuous transformation of organic substances within the relevant biocenosis and thus to take part in the maintenance of the ecological balance. In ecotoxicology, i.e. the science of substances having a detrimental effect on the natural balance of ecosystems, we try to find ways to evaluate risk of substances hazardous to the environment. In principle, biocenoses would offer themselves in their entirety as appropriate test objects for ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals. Since it will not yet be possible in the near future to carry out this kind of studies, individual organisms proved as representatives of terrestial biotopes have to be chosen for these purposes. Primarily, Collembola, Coleoptera, and Diptera (larvae) are part of the meso- and macrofauna of soil arthropods or soil insects according to the experience made up to now in respect of their importance for soil biology. Representatives of such organisms should be used to develop test procedures to indicate damage even of a subacute, chronic nature or the impairment of their functional performance the maintance of which is a prerequisite for the ecological balance.

  12. Dynamics and distribution of macrozoobenthos in the Toplica river, a tributary of the Kolubara

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    Živić Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrobiological investigations of the macrozoobenthos were carried out at eight localities in the Toplica river (a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara river from April 2000 to January 2001. The bottom fauna was composed of 19 groups of macroinvertebrates with 85 determined taxa (61 identified to the species level, 24 to the generic level. The most varying groups were the insect orders Trichoptera (20 taxa, Ephemeroptera (15, and Diptera (13, while Isopoda, Decapoda, and insects belonging to orders Collembola, Heteroptera, Megaloptera, and Planipennia were the most uniform. The species Gammarus pulex fossarum Koch and Dugesia gonocephala Duges were the most abundant forms at the river source, and representatives of Ephemeroptera and Gammaridae were the most numerous in its upper course (at the second, third, and fourth locality. The Mollusca and Chironomidae larvae were the most abundant forms at the fifth locality (in the middle course, but no constant dominance of any animal group was recorded at the sixth one, where the dominance alternated among Chironomidae larvae (April, July 2000, Oligochaeta (October 2000 and Mollusca (January 2001. The lower course of the river (the seventh and eighth locality was characterized by the dominance of the species of the phylum Mollusca (Amphimelania holandri Ferussac, Fagotia esperi Ferussac and Theodoxus transversalis Pfeiffer.

  13. A preliminary study of freshwater meiofaunal communities at Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soraya J. Silva; Minerva Cordovés; Nory González; Leinny González

    2015-01-01

    Meiofaunal communities of three small, shallow freshwater habitats sampled during the austral summer of 2013 in Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, are reported. Communities are dominated by tardigrades (85%), nematodes (11%), and rotifers (3%). Collembola, Oligochaeta, crustacean larvae (nauplii) and unidentified organisms account for 0.3%. Total meiofaunal densities reach 11 770 ind∙cm-2, with mean densities (ind∙cm−2) of 1 365.83 ± 2 716.65 (Zone A), 523.67 ± 1 166.48 (Zone B) and 72.17 ± 110.78 (Zone C). Given the age of freshwater habitats, and the general lack of higher-trophic level predatory taxa, those species we report are likely early stage colonizers, and these communities are at an early stage of ecological succession. Non-parametrical analysis revealed the main variables influencing meiofaunal density and distribution are related to granulometric characteristics of sediments and microphytobenthic biomass. There were close relationships between meiofaunal abundance and microphytobenthic biomass, which indicates that benthic microalgae significantly influence meiofaunal distribution. A strong correlation between nematode abundance and the percentage of silt, clay and carbon in the sediment was also shown by canonical correspondence analysis and Spearman rank correlation.

  14. Gene Family Evolution Reflects Adaptation to Soil Environmental Stressors in the Genome of the Collembolan Orchesella cincta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Anna; Derks, Martijn F L; Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Agamennone, Valeria; Suring, Wouter; Smit, Sandra; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Collembola (springtails) are detritivorous hexapods that inhabit the soil and its litter layer. The ecology of the springtail Orchesella cincta is extensively studied in the context of adaptation to anthropogenically disturbed areas. Here, we present a draft genome of an O. cincta reference strain with an estimated size of 286.8 Mbp, containing 20,249 genes. In total, 446 gene families are expanded and 1,169 gene families evolved specific to this lineage. Besides these gene families involved in general biological processes, we observe gene clusters participating in xenobiotic biotransformation. Furthermore, we identified 253 cases of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Although the largest percentage of them originated from bacteria (37.5%), we observe an unusually high percentage (30.4%) of such genes of fungal origin. The majority of foreign genes are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cellulose degradation. Moreover, some foreign genes (e.g., bacillopeptidases) expanded after HGT. We hypothesize that horizontally transferred genes could be advantageous for food processing in a soil environment that is full of decaying organic material. Finally, we identified several lineage-specific genes, expanded gene families, and horizontally transferred genes, associated with altered gene expression as a consequence of genetic adaptation to metal stress. This suggests that these genome features may be preadaptations allowing natural selection to act on. In conclusion, this genome study provides a solid foundation for further analysis of evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation to environmental stressors. PMID:27289101

  15. Impacts of the Replacement of Native Woodland with Exotic Pine Plantations on Leaf-Litter Invertebrate Assemblages: A Test of a Novel Framework

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    Brad R. Murray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical comparison of invertebrate community structure between areas of undisturbed native eucalypt woodland and areas that have been cleared and replaced with plantations of exotic radiata pine (Pinus radiata. Implementation of a novel conceptual framework revealed that both insect (in autumn and arachnid (in winter assemblages demonstrated inhibition in response to the pine plantations. Species richness declines occurred in several taxonomic Orders (e.g., Hymenoptera, Blattodea, Acari without compensated increases in other Orders in plantations. This was, however, a seasonal response, with shifts between inhibition and equivalency observed in both insects and arachnids across autumn and winter sampling periods. Equivalency responses were characterized by relatively similar levels of species richness in plantation and native habitats for several Orders (e.g., Coleoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Araneae. We propose testable hypotheses for the observed seasonal shifts between inhibition and equivalency that focus on diminished resource availability and the damp, moist conditions found in the plantations. Given the compelling evidence for seasonal shifts between categories, we recommend that seasonal patterns should be considered a critical component of further assemblage-level investigations of this novel framework for invasion ecology.

  16. Adverse effects on flora and fauna from the use of organochlorine pesticides on the African continent: The Nigerian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindane was found to reduce stem borer damage significantly in both rice and maize plots in most years. However, a significant difference in yield was recorded only for maize in 1993 and 1995. There was a slight but steady decrease in the yield of maize over the years in the lindane treated plots although yields in these plots remained higher than in the control plots. Significant differences in the mean dry weight of retrieved leaf discs were recorded in the maize plots in 1994 and 1995. Neither insects nor spiders, were caught from plants in the treatment plots 1 day after lindane application, although almost equal numbers of insects and spiders were recovered from D-vac groun samples of treatment and control plots on the same day. Data from pitfall traps showed that lindane significantly affected the population of Aranae, Formicidae, Collembola and Acarina for up to 6 weeks after application. Its effect on Carabidae was inconsistent. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  17. Comparison of Soil Biota Between Organic and Conventional Agroecosystems in Oregon, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shan-Mei; HU Dun-Xiao; E. R. INGHAM

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples at 0-10 cm in depth were collected periodically at paired fields in Corvallis, Oregon, USA to compare differences in soil microbial and faunal populations between organic and conventional agroecosystems. Results showed that the organic soil ecosystem had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) average number or biomass of soil bacteria; densities of flagellates, amoebae of protozoa; some nematodes, such as microbivorous and predaceous nematodes and plant-parasitic nematodes; as well as Collembola. Greater numbers of Rhabditida (such as Rhabditis spp.), were present in the organic soil ecosystem while Panagrolaimus spp. were predominant in the conventional soil ecosystem. The omnivores and predators of Acarina in the Mesostigmata (such as Digamasellidae and Laelapid), and Prostigmata (such as Alicorhaiidae and Rhagidiidae), were also more abundant in the organic soil ecosystem. However, fungivorous Prostigmata (such as Terpnacaridae and Nanorchestidae) and Astigmata (such as Acarida) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the conventional soil ecosystem, which supported the finding that total fungal biomass was greater in the conventional soil ecosystem. Seansonal variations of the population depended mostly on soil moisture condition and food web relationship.The population declined from May to October for both agroecosystems. However, higher diversities and densities of soil biota survived occurred in the organic soil ecosystem in the dry season.

  18. Composition and Diversity of Soil Arthropods of Rajegwesi Meru Betiri National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Zayadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Meru Betiri National Park (MBNP is one of the nature conservation area that has the potential of flora, fauna, and ecosystems that could develop as a nature-based tourism attraction. The existence of certain indicator species was related to estimation of stress level and disturbance on ecosystem stability for making strategic decisions about the restoration in this area. One of the important indicator species at forest ecosystem were soil arthropods. Aim this research were analyzed composition and diversity of soil arthropods at Rajegwesi, MBNP areas. The methods in this research used pitfall trap, measurement of distribution structure and soil arthropods composition based on the Shannon - Wiener index, Morisita similarity index and Importance Value Index (IVI. The number of families and individuals of soil arthropods found in the coastal area of Rajegwesi consists of 10 order with 21 families (702 individual. The number of individuals of the order Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Collembola and Araneida was more widely found. Soil arthropods diversity index on each land use indicated that soil arthropod diversity in these areas were moderate. Soil arthropod community of orchards and forest had a similarity of species composition, whereas soil arthropod community of savanna had a similarity of species composition with paddy fields.

  19. Effect of brushwood transposition on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a cerrado area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Benetton Vergílio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of ecological restoration techniques can be monitored through biological indicators of soil quality such as the leaf litter arthropod fauna. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of brushwood transposition transferred from an area of native vegetation to a disturbed area, on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a degraded cerrado area. The arthropod fauna of four areas was compared: a degraded area with signal grass, two experimental brushwood transposition areas, with and without castor oil plants, and an area of native cerrado. In total, 7,660 individuals belonging to 23 taxa were sampled. Acari and Collembola were the most abundant taxa in all studied areas, followed by Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Symphyla. The brushwood transposition area without castor oil plants had the lowest abundance and dominance and the highest diversity of all areas, providing evidence of changes in the soil community. Conversely, the results showed that the presence of castor oil plants hampered early succession, negatively affecting ecological restoration in this area.

  20. The springtail cuticle as a blueprint for omniphobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, René; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2016-01-21

    Omniphobic surfaces found in nature have great potential for enabling novel and emerging products and technologies to facilitate the daily life of human societies. One example is the water and even oil-repellent cuticle of springtails (Collembola). The wingless arthropods evolved a highly textured, hierarchically arranged surface pattern that affords mechanical robustness and wetting resistance even at elevated hydrostatic pressures. Springtail cuticle-derived surfaces therefore promise to overcome limitations of lotus-inspired surfaces (low durability, insufficient repellence of low surface tension liquids). In this review, we report on the liquid-repellent natural surfaces of arthropods living in aqueous or temporarily flooded habitats including water-walking insects or water spiders. In particular, we focus on springtails presenting an overview on the cuticular morphology and chemistry and their biological relevance. Based on the obtained liquid repellence of a variety of liquids with remarkable efficiency, the review provides general design criteria for robust omniphobic surfaces. In particular, the resistance against complete wetting and the mechanical stability strongly both depend on the topographical features of the nano- and micropatterned surface. The current understanding of the underlying principles and approaches to their technological implementation are summarized and discussed. PMID:26239626

  1. Effects of inter-row management intensity on wild bee, plant and soil biota diversity in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.; Buchholz, Jacob; Querner, Pascal; Strauß, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Stiper, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Vineyards may provide a range of essential ecosystem services, which interact with a diverse community of above- and belowground organisms. Intensive soil management like frequent tilling has resulted in the degradation of habitat quality with consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study is part of the European BiodivERsA project "VineDivers - Biodiversity-based ecosystem services in vineyards". We study the effects of different soil management intensities on above- and below-ground biodiversity (plants, insect pollinators, and soil biota), their interactions and the consequences for ecosystem services. We investigated 16 vineyards in Austria assessing the diversity of (1) wild bees using a semi-quantitative transect method, (2) earthworms by hand sorting, (3) Collembola (springtails) via pitfall trapping and soil coring, (4) plants by relevés and (5) litter decomposition (tea bag method). Management intensity differed in tillage frequency from intermediate intensity resulting in temporary vegetation cover to no tillage in permanent vegetation cover systems. First results show opposed relationships between the biodiversity of selected species groups and management intensity. We will discuss possible explanations and evaluate ecological interactions between wild bee, plant and soil biota diversity.

  2. Abundance and diversity of soil arthropods in the olive grove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night. PMID:22943295

  3. The effects of heavy metal contamination on the soil arthropod community of a shooting range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils in clay pigeon shooting ranges can be seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The pellets contained in ammunition are composed of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu. The total concentrations of these metals in soils, and the effects of their increasing levels on the arthropod community were investigated at seven sampling sites in a clay pigeon shooting range and compared with two controls. Research revealed that the spatial distribution of Pb and Sb contamination in the shot-fall area was strongly correlated with the flight path of the pellets. Ordination obtained through Redundance Analysis showed that Collembola, Protura and Diplura were positively correlated with major detected contaminants (Pb, Sb), while Symphyla showed a negative correlation with these pollutants. Determination of the soluble lead fraction in soil, and of its bioaccumulation in the saprophagous Armadillidium sordidum (Isopoda) and the predator Ocypus olens (Coleoptera), showed that a significant portion of metallic Pb from spent pellets is bioavailable in the soil and can be bioaccumulated by edaphic organisms, entering the soil trophic network, but without biomagnification. - Significant relationships were found between lead accumulation in soil from a shooting range and inhabiting arthropod communities

  4. Is ornithogenic fertilization important for collembolan communities in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zmudczyńska-Skarbek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Arctic, areas close to seabird colonies are often characterized by exceptionally rich vegetation communities linked with the high nutrient subsidies transported by seabirds from the marine environment to the land. These areas also support soil invertebrate communities of which springtails (Collembola often represent the most abundant and diverse group. Our study focused on springtail community composition in the vicinity of seabird (little auk, great skua and glaucous gull nesting areas in different parts of Svalbard (Magdalenefjorden, Isfjorden and Bjørnøya, and on their comparison with adjacent areas not impacted by seabirds. Out of a total of 35 springtail species recorded, seven were found only within the ornithogenically influenced sites. Although geographical location was the strongest factor differentiating these springtail communities, ornithogenic influence was also significant regardless of the location. When each location was considered separately, seabirds were responsible for a relatively small but strongly significant proportion (8.6, 5.2 and 3.9%, respectively, for each site of total springtail community variability. Species whose occurrence was positively correlated with seabird presence were Folsomia coeruleogrisea, Friesea quinquespinosa, Lepidocyrtus lignorum and Oligaphorura groenlandica near Magdalenefjorden, Arrhopalites principalis, Folsomia bisetosella and Protaphorura macfadyeni in Isfjorden, and Folsomia quadrioculata on Bjørnøya.

  5. Bacterial and eukaryotic biodiversity patterns in terrestrial and aquatic habitats in the Sør Rondane Mountains, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbels, Dagmar; Verleyen, Elie; Mano, Marie-José; Namsaraev, Zorigto; Sweetlove, Maxime; Tytgat, Bjorn; Fernandez-Carazo, Rafael; De Wever, Aaike; D'hondt, Sofie; Ertz, Damien; Elster, Josef; Sabbe, Koen; Willems, Anne; Wilmotte, Annick; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-06-01

    The bacterial and microeukaryotic biodiversity were studied using pyrosequencing analysis on a 454 GS FLX+ platform of partial SSU rRNA genes in terrestrial and aquatic habitats of the Sør Rondane Mountains, including soils, on mosses, endolithic communities, cryoconite holes and supraglacial and subglacial meltwater lenses. This inventory was complemented with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis targeting Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. OTUs belonging to the Rotifera, Chlorophyta, Tardigrada, Ciliophora, Cercozoa, Fungi, Bryophyta, Bacillariophyta, Collembola and Nematoda were present with a relative abundance of at least 0.1% in the eukaryotic communities. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, FBP and Actinobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla. Multivariate analyses of the pyrosequencing data revealed a general lack of differentiation of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes according to habitat type. However, the bacterial community structure in the aquatic habitats was dominated by the filamentous cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya and appeared to be significantly different compared with those in dry soils, on mosses, and in endolithic habitats. A striking feature in all datasets was the detection of a relatively large amount of sequences new to science, which underscores the need for additional biodiversity assessments in Antarctic inland locations. PMID:26936447

  6. Establishment and use of a combined test system for assessing the toxicity of environmentally relevant pollutants in soil.- Optimization of keeping conditions in the laboratory and bionomic investigations. Final report; Etablierung und Anwendung eines kombinierten Testsystems zur Beurteilung der Toxizitaet umweltrelevanter Schadstoffe in Boeden. Optimierung der Laborhaltung und bionomische Untersuchungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunger, W.; Mattern, D.; Reise, H.; Schulz, H.J.; Barth, V.; Roemer, M.; Voigtlaender, K.; Zimdars, B.

    1997-12-31

    In order to establish how organisms can be kept with low stress or free of stress in the laboratory, test species from the Oberlausitz region were chosen. The species belong to the groups of soil-living organisms Collembola, Isopoda, and Gastropoda. Keeping results may be considered as confirmed and as suitable for stress investigations. Successful optimization of keeping is only possible for a single species in each case (generalists excepted).- As applicable vital parameters both to confirm keeping success and to assess the impact of sublethal doses of stressors (heavy metals, insecticides), the following were established (in this order of sequence): reproductive success, growth (change of biomass, sloughing), mortality and, with restrictions, activity (running and foraging activity).- As expected, the effect of the heavy metals used was found to depend on their concentration. Increased mortality as a rule was only found in the wake of cadmium contaminations; reduced growth and, especially, reduced reproduction was triggered also by lead and zinc contaminations. With this regard, subtle differentiations were established. Use of Lindan in the specified dosage proved to have almost no impact during the (short) test period. (orig./MG)

  7. Soil organisms in organic and conventional cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettiol Wagner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent interest in organic agriculture, little research has been carried out in this area. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, in a dystrophic Ultisol, the effects of organic and conventional agricultures on soil organism populations, for the tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum and corn (Zea mays crops. In general, it was found that fungus, bacterium and actinomycet populations counted by the number of colonies in the media, were similar for the two cropping systems. CO2 evolution during the cropping season was higher, up to the double for the organic agriculture system as compared to the conventional. The number of earthworms was about ten times higher in the organic system. There was no difference in the decomposition rate of organic matter of the two systems. In general, the number of microartropods was always higher in the organic plots in relation to the conventional ones, reflectining on the Shannon index diversity. The higher insect population belonged to the Collembola order, and in the case of mites, to the superfamily Oribatuloidea. Individuals of the groups Aranae, Chilopoda, Dyplopoda, Pauropoda, Protura and Symphyla were occasionally collected in similar number in both cropping systems.

  8. Springtail diversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Chown

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.

  9. Using a toxicokinetics approach to explain the effect of soil pH on cadmium bioavailability to Folsomia candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of metal bioavailability in soil by linking the biotic ligand approach with toxicokinetics modelling. We determined cadmium bioaccumulation kinetics in Folsomia candida (Collembola) as a function of soil pH. Animals were exposed for 21 days to LUFA 2.2 soil at 5 or 20 μg Cd g−1 dry soil followed by 21 days elimination in clean soil. Internal cadmium concentrations were modelled using a first-order one-compartment model, relating uptake rate constants (k1) to total soil, water or 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable and porewater concentrations. Based on total soil concentrations, k1 was independent of soil pH while it strongly increased with increasing pH based on porewater concentrations explaining the reduced competition of H+ ions making cadmium more bioavailable in pore water at high pH. This shows that the principles of biotic ligand modelling are applicable to predict cadmium accumulation kinetics in soil-living invertebrates. -- Highlights: •Cadmium uptake and elimination in Folsomia candida were investigated. •Animals were exposed to LUFA 2.2 soil at different pH levels. •Langmuir isotherms were used to describe interaction of Ca and protons with Cd. •pH was the main factor affecting Cd toxicokinetics when pore water was considered. -- Integrating bioaccumulation kinetics with a BLM approach provides novel insights into the bioavailability of cadmium to springtails in soil

  10. A comparative study of the chemical and integrated treatments impact against the defoliating insects on the structure and dynamics of the edaphic mesofauna in two oak forests from North-Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Cãlugãr

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The author presents in this paper some aspects about the edaphicmicroarthropods from the organic horizon of two forest soils belonging to the Ciurea Forest District, Iasi County: ªanta (mixed stands mainly with oak, chemically treated against defoliating insects and Poieni - Tomesti (Quercus robur and Quercuspetraea stands with integrated treatments. The study of edaphic microarthropods was performed both from qualitative and quantitative point of view. It considered the average of the total density of the microarthropod populations and by each taxonomic group, according to stations and subhorizons, as well as the ratio between thetaxonomical and trophic groups. The investigations concerning edaphic mesofauna consist in inventory and analysis of the mites belonging to Oribatida, Gamasida, Actinedida and Acaridida orders, of the Collembola, as well as other insects; other groups of microarthropods were taken into consideration too (pseudoscorpiones,myriapods etc. The consequences of the treatments against the defoliators on theedaphic mesofauna were performed at four different moments. Generally, lower densities were observed in the case of the chemically treated stands. The communities of the edaphic mesofauna from the integrated management treated stands are more stableduring the time. In the chemically treated stands, the densities of the microartropods vary between large limits; this instability could be assigned to this kind of treatment. The vertical distribution of the mesofauna depends on the textural characteristics of the soil, being at the same time a dynamic parameter that is modifyed according to the variation of the climatic factors.

  11. Is Sandy Beach Macrofauna Only Physically Controlled? Role of Substrate and Competition in Isopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, O.; Brazeiro, A.; de Alava, A.; Riestra, G.

    1997-10-01

    Exposed sandy beaches have been defined as physically stressful environments, so that benthic populations living there are thought to be regulated mainly by physical factors, biological interactions being minimal. However, recent long-term studies indicate that potential intra- and interspecific interactions should also play a role in structuring populations and communities. This paper evaluates the role of sediment characteristics and potential interactions in determining the abundance and distribution patterns of the cirolanid isopods Excirolana armataand Excirolana braziliensisin sandy beaches of Uruguay. Results from concurrent field sampling and laboratory experiments showed that: (1) at a macroscale (between beaches), E. armataoccurred only in beaches with fine sands, whereas E. braziliensiswas observed in both fine and coarse sand beaches, reaching its highest density in the latter; (2) at a mesoscale (within beaches) and in sympatry (fine sands), both cirolanids showed maximum densities at different tidal heights, with E. braziliensisrestricted to the upper beach levels; (3) both isopods showed a clear preference for fine sands, when tested in isolation or combined; (4) survivorship of E. armatawas higher when tested in the preferred sediment under co-occurrence with E. braziliensis, which in turn presented higher survivorship in coarse sand, either in isolation or combined with E. armata; and (5) individual mean length of both species was consistently higher in allopatry, and similar body lengths were observed in sympatric populations. A geographical analysis of the abundance of E. braziliensisalong Pan-American beaches showed that this isopod is most abundant in fine sands; this overall pattern supports conclusions derived from sediment preference experiments, implicating a greater niche breadth than that observed in Uruguayan beaches. It was concluded that E. armatacould be defined as a high substrate-specific species in which intraspecific interactions

  12. 内蒙古高原东南缘森林草原交错带土壤动物群落特征%Characteristics of soil fauna community structure in forest-steppe ecotone on Southeastern Inner Mongolia Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立杰; 侯建华; 安哲; 高宝嘉

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of soil fauna community structure in forest-steppe ecotone on Southeastern Inner Mongolia Plateau,the soil fauna communities from 4 different vegetation zones were investigated.A total of 53 722 soil fauna were collected and classified into 6 phyla,11 classes,and 27 orders,respectively.The dominant groups were Coleoptera,Stylommatophora,Microdrile oligochaetes,Collembola and Hymenoptera among macro-soil-fauna; whereas the dominant groups were Collembola and Acarina among soil meso-and micro-fauna; and the dominant group was Rhabditidia among soil animals of wet type.The individual numbers and the group numbers were declining with the transition from the forest zone to the steppe zone,among which forest zone and forest-meadow area had the highest number of groups as well as the meadowsteppe area in the ecotone and forest zone had the highest number of individuals.Besides,there are differences in numbers and compositions of the dominant groups of soil animal in different vegetation zones and significant difference especially in density-group index (DG),Pielou evenness index (J) and Simpson dominance index (C).The individual numbers and group numbers of soil animals in different vegetation zones showed clear surface assembly.The maximum of the group numbers appeared in summer in all the vegetation zones,but the maximum of the individual numbers in forest-meadow zone and forest zone appeared in autumn.There were not only significant seasonal differences in density-group index in different vegetation zones (except in forest zone) but also differences in the composition and abundance of the dominant groups of soil animals in different seasons.%为了解内蒙古高原东南缘森林草原交错带土壤动物群落特征,对这一地区不同植被地带中的土壤动物进行了调查.共捕获土壤动物53 722只,隶属于6门11纲27目(类).大型土壤动物优势类群为鞘翅目、柄眼目、小蚓类、弹尾目和膜翅目,

  13. Impact of Flaveria bidentis Litter on Communities of Invertebrates in Soil in Different Habitats%黄顶菊(Flaveria bidentis)凋落物对土壤无脊椎动物群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏静; 张瑞海; 宋振; 张国良; 刘玉升; 付卫东

    2016-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the impacts of Flaveria bidentis litter on the communities of invertebrates in soil in three different habitats including forestland, wasteland, and ditches. A total of 54 315 individuals were captured in three habitats on October 23rd by cutting ring(diameter is 20 cm, height is 10 cm), which is divided into three sampling layers in this study. All of the individuals belong to 2 phyla 10 classes 17 orders, among which Arachnoidea and Collembola were the dominant orders in three habitats, and the relative abundance of other species were smaller. F. bidentis litter could provide the better habitats and food sources for invertebrates in soil, such as Arachnoidea, Collembola, Psocoptera and so on, thereby affecting their structure and diversity of community of invertebrates in soil which mainly related to growth conditions of F. bidentis community, which is characterized by its weaker growth conditions in forestland but stronger growth in wasteland land and ditches. In summary, F. bidentis plants and their litter provided habitat and concealment for the dominant species, and significantly changed content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter in surface humus soil after the invasion of F. bidentis in three habitats, which cause the increasing of diversity of invertebrates in soil and also it trends to increase for the diversity of invertebrates in liter from top to bottom. Thus it laid a foundation for the influence of decomposition rate in F. bidentis litter on the diversity of invertebrate communities in soil.%以黄顶菊(Flaveria bidentis)入侵的林地、荒地和沟渠作为调查样地,探讨黄顶菊凋落物对土壤无脊椎动物群落的影响。利用环刀进行取样,3种生境共捕获土壤无脊椎动物54315头,隶属2门10纲17目。3种生境的优势类群皆为蜱螨目和弹尾目,其余类群的相对多度较小。黄顶菊凋落物能够为土壤无脊椎动物提供栖

  14. 净月潭国家森林公园凋落物层土壤动物群落多样性%Community Diversity of Litter Invertebrates in Jingyuetan National Forest Park of Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子健; 刘佳; 王尚; 杨巽; 席景会; 王军

    2012-01-01

    为了解中温带地区城市森林凋落物层土壤动物群落结构及大面积针叶人工林对凋落物层土壤动物群落多样性的影响,对长春净月潭国家森林公园凋落物层土壤动物进行调查,共采获土壤动物8 630头,隶属于3门6纲18个类群,其中弹尾目、蜱螨目、膜翅目、鞘翅目、鳞翅目幼虫、蜘蛛目、双翅目幼虫和石蜈蚣目是该地区森林生态系统凋落物层土壤动物的主要类群,其个体数占土壤动物个体总数的97.91%.天然次生林与针叶人工林间凋落物土壤动物的类群数、密度、多样性指数、均匀度指数、Simpson优势度指数和密度-类群指数均无显著差异(P>0.05),而2种林分间伪蝎目、石蜈蚣目、缨翅目和鳞翅目幼虫的密度及蜱螨目和弹尾目个体数之比差异明显.2种林分Jaccard相似性系数为0.67.%To understand community structure of the litter invertebrates in urban forests in the Central Temperate Zone and effects of large-area artificial coniferous forests on community diversity of the litter invertebrates, investigation of litter invertebrates was carried out in the Jingyuetan National Forest Park, with a total of 8 630 invertebrate individuals collected, belonging to 18 orders in 6 classes under 3 phyla. Results show that Collembola, Acarina, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, Araneae, Diptera larvae, and Lithobiomorpha were the dominant groups, which accounted for 97. 91% of the total individuals collected. No significant differences were found between the litter invertebrate communities in natural secondary forests and in artificial coniferous forests in number of groups, density, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index, Simpson dominance index, and density-group index, whereas big differences were between the two kinds of forests in density of larvae of Pseudoscorpionida, Lithobiomorpha, Thysanoptera and Lepidoptera, and in ratio of Acarina to Collembola in number

  15. The complete mitochondrial sequence of the"living fossil" Tricholepidion gertschi: structure, phylogenetic implications, and the description of a novel A/T asymmetrical bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardi, F.; Frati, F.; Carapelli, A.; Dallai, R.; Boore, J.

    2002-06-23

    Traditionally, the 'Apterygota' has been thought to consist of five orders of wingless hexapods (Protura, Collembola, Diplura, Microcoryphia and Zygentoma) believed to be collectively basal to insects (i.e., the Pterygota). However, some studies have questioned this affinity with insects (Dallai, Abele, Spears, Nardi). Further, within these groups are hotly debated issues, including the monophyly of Entognata (Koch, 1997; Kukalova Peck, 1987), the monophyly of Diplura (Bilinski, 1993; Stys and Bilinski, 1990), the affinity between Collembola and Protura (Dallai, 1994; Kristensen, 1981) and the position of Lepidotrichidae (below). In fact, these relationships constitute one of the most debated issues in hexapod phylogeny. The family Lepidotrichidae was first described by (Silvestri, 1912) (1912: 'Lepidothricinae') from a Baltic Amber fossil (Lepidothrix pilifera Menge). The only living representative of this family is Tricholepidion gertschi Wygodzinski. Since this species was first described (Wygodzinsky, 1961) its phylogenetic position has been difficult to establish, due to an 'array of unique characters' that are difficult to interpret in a phylogenetic framework. Tricholepidion (and therefore the whole family Lepidotrichidae) has been considered either as belonging to the order Zygentoma (Kristensen, 1997; Wygodzinsky, 1961), or basal to the rest of the Zygentoma plus the Pterygota (Beutel, 2001; Bitsch and Bitsch, 2000; Staniczek, 2000), although the significance of some of the morphological characters on which these analyses are based have been questioned (Dallai et al., 2001; Kristensen, 1997). If the latter hypothesis proved to be true, the family Lepidotrichidae, would better deserve the ordinal rank. Since studies based on morphological characters have failed to give a satisfactory answer, a broad scale molecular study is under way ((Nardi et al., 2001), Frati et al, submitted, il Gomphiocephalus) in order to use

  16. How does litter cover, litter diversity and fauna affect sediment discharge and runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebes, Philipp; Seitz, Steffen; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Litter cover plays a major role in soil erosion processes. It is known that litter cover reduces erosivity of raindrops, decreases sediment discharge and lowers runoff volume compared to bare ground. However, in the context of biodiversity, the composition of litter cover, its effect on sediment discharge and runoff volume and their influence on soil erosion have not yet been analyzed in detail. Focusing on initial soil erosion (splash), our experimental design is designated to get a better understanding of these mechanisms. The experiments were carried out within the DFG research unit "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning (BEF)-China" in subtropical China. The "New Integrated Litter Experiment (NILEx)" used as platform combining different subprojects of BEF-China dealing with "decomposition and nutrient cycling", "mechanisms of soil erosion" and "functional effects of herbivores, predators and saproxylics" in one experiment. In NILEx, 96 40cm x 40cm runoff plots on two hill slopes inside a castanea molissima forest plantation have been installed and filled with seven different types of litter cover. 16 one-species plots, 24 two-species plots, 4 four-species plots and 4 bare ground plots have been set up, each replicated once. We prepared 48 Plots with traps (Renner solution) for soil macrofauna (diplopods and collembola), so half of the plots were kept free from fauna while the other half was accessible for fauna. Rainfall was generated artificially by using a rainfall simulator with a continuous and stable intensity of 60 mm/h. Our experiments included two runs of 20 minutes duration each, both conducted at two different time steps (summer 2012 and autumn 2012). Runoff volume and sediment discharge were measured every 5 minutes during one rainfall run. Litter coverage and litter mass were recorded at the beginning (summer 2012) and at the end of the experiment (autumn 2012). Our results show that sediment discharge as well as runoff volume decreases

  17. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em sistemas de manejo para produção de forragens no Estado do Piauí Characterization of edaphic fauna in management systems for forage production in the State of Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da fauna em função da umidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo para a produção de forragens com capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, capim-Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. R. de Wit. tendo como controle uma Mata dos Cocais. A coleta da fauna foi feita utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo Pitfall em duas épocas do ano: setembro de 2007 e março de 2008, período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente. Os sistemas com capim-Tifton, capim-Tanzânia e Leucena mostraram maior número de indivíduos nos dois períodos avaliados. A queimada ocorrida no capim-Andropogon antes da primeira coleta resultou em uma redução na abundância e diversidade da fauna edáfica. Os maiores valores em riqueza, diversidade e uniformidade de fauna foram obtidos na amostragem realizada no período úmido. A mata mostrou maior diversidade e equitabilidade nos dois períodos avaliados. Em situação de estresse hídrico alguns grupos como Formicidae e Collembola predominaram nos sistemas de manejo diminuindo a uniformidade, enquanto no período úmido vários grupos mostraram boa representatividade o que favoreceu a uniformidade. A análise multivariada de componentes principais evidenciou que os sistemas com mata, capim-Tifton e capim-Tanzania e Leucena mostraram associação com vários grupos da fauna edáfica nos dois períodos avaliados enquanto que o sistema com capim-Andropogon, que sofreu queimada, apresentou afinidade apenas com o grupo Heteroptera, no período seco.The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of fauna as a function of soil moisture in different fodder-production management systems of Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, Andropogon Grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth and

  18. Soil invertebrate community change over fuel-contaminated sites on a subantarctic island: An ecological field-based line of evidence for site risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, Jane; Mooney, Thomas J; King, Catherine K

    2016-04-01

    A number of fuel spills, of both recent and historic origins, have occurred on World Heritage-listed subantarctic Macquarie Island. Sites contaminated by mainly diesel fuels are undergoing remediation by the Australian Antarctic Division. The risks posed by these sites are being managed using a "weight of evidence" approach, for which this study provides a preliminary line of evidence for the ecological assessment component of this site management decision framework. This knowledge is pertinent, given the absence of environmental guidelines for fuel contaminants in subantarctic ecosystems. We provide a field-based, site-specific ecological risk assessment for soil invertebrate communities across the fuel spill sites, before the commencement of in situ remediation activities. Springtails (Collembola) were the most abundant taxa. Springtail community patterns showed only limited correlations with the level of fuel contamination at the soil surface, even when elevated levels occurred in the substratum layers. Of the environmental variables measured, community patterns were most strongly correlated with vegetation cover. We identify a suite of 6 species that contribute most to the community dynamics across these sites. A subset of these we propose as useful candidates for future development of single-species toxicity tests: Folsomotoma punctata, Cryptopygus caecus, Cryptopygus antarcticus and Parisotoma insularis. Findings from this study advance our understanding of soil invertebrate community dynamics within these contaminated sites, directly contributing to the improved management and restoration of the sites. Not only does this study provide an important line of evidence for the island's ecological risk assessment for fuel contaminants, it also enhances our understanding of the potential impact of fuels at other subantarctic islands. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:306-314. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26202610

  19. [Community traits of soil fauna in forestlands converted from cultivated lands in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Yuan-Qiug; Guo, Sheng-Mao; Ke, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Zhao; Xiao, Xu-Bao; Liu, Wu

    2012-04-01

    This paper studied the variations of the community composition and individuals' number of soil fauna in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province after six years of converting cultivated lands into forestlands. Three converted forestlands, including the lands of mixed multiple-species forest, bamboo-broadleaved forest, and tree-seedling integration, were selected as test objects, with cultivated lands as the comparison. A total of 34 orders, 17 classes, and 6 phyla of soil fauna were observed in the converted forestlands. The dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 86.7% of the total, whereas Acarina, Enchytraeidae, and Collembola were the common groups. In the cultivated lands, soil fauna had 21 orders, 10 classes, and 5 phyla. The dominant group was also Nematoda, accounting 86.7% of the total, and Acarina and Enchytraeidae were the common groups. In the converted forestlands, the group number of rare species was greater than that in the cultivated lands (30 vs. 18), and, except in winter, the group number and average density were significantly higher than those in the cultivated lands (P soil fauna in the soil profiles showed an obvious surface accumulation, which was more apparent in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and the individuals' number had significant differences between the surface (0-5 cm) layer and the 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm layers (P soil fauna in the converted forestlands had a seasonal variation ranked in the order of summer > autumn > spring > winter, and there was a significant difference between summer-autumn and spring-winter. The average density of the soil fauna also had a seasonal variation but ranked as autumn > summer > spring > winter, and the differences among the seasons were significant (P soil fauna was significantly higher in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and was the highest in mixed multiple-species forestland and the least in tree-seedling integration land. PMID:22803453

  20. Impact of agricultural practices on selected soil decomposers fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil decomposers fauna i.e. collembolan, mites and nematodes were studied and compared between and within sites in relation to site, treatment and time of collection in Shambat arable and El Rwakeeb dry land. Comparison of results between sites showed that population density/volume of decomposers fauna sampled from Shambat site exceeded their assemblages sampled from El Rawakeeb site. Treatment application in form of cattle manure and neem leaves powder were observed to induce insignificant changes in the three faunal groups between the two sites. Temporal variations showed significant annual variations and insignificant seasonal variations between the two sites. Within each site, population density/volume of each of collembolan, mites and nematodes increased in response to cattle manure application in both sites. Whereas, neem leaves powder application induced a significant decrease in population density/volume of collembola in both sites. These results are generally attributed to variability of soil properties which may add to the suitability of Shambat soil to El Rawakeeb one for the survival of decomposers fauna. Within each site, increase in population density/volume of these fauna upon cattle manure application was attributed to ability of cattle manure to improve soil properties and to provide food. The negative effect of neem leaves powder on mites and nematodes was attributed to neem toxicity, whereas, its positive effects on collembolan was attributed to the ability of collembolan to withstand neem toxicity, collembolan probably physiologically resistant and the neem powder provided food, thus increasing its numbers compared to the central treatment.(Author)

  1. Collembase: a repository for springtail genomics and soil quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein-Lankhorst Rene M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental quality assessment is traditionally based on responses of reproduction and survival of indicator organisms. For soil assessment the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola is an accepted standard test organism. We argue that environmental quality assessment using gene expression profiles of indicator organisms exposed to test substrates is more sensitive, more toxicant specific and significantly faster than current risk assessment methods. To apply this species as a genomic model for soil quality testing we conducted an EST sequencing project and developed an online database. Description Collembase is a web-accessible database comprising springtail (F. candida genomic data. Presently, the database contains information on 8686 ESTs that are assembled into 5952 unique gene objects. Of those gene objects ~40% showed homology to other protein sequences available in GenBank (blastx analysis; non-redundant (nr database; expect-value -5. Software was applied to infer protein sequences. The putative peptides, which had an average length of 115 amino-acids (ranging between 23 and 440 were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO terms. In total 1025 peptides (~17% of the gene objects were assigned at least one GO term (expect-value -25. Within Collembase searches can be conducted based on BLAST and GO annotation, cluster name or using a BLAST server. The system furthermore enables easy sequence retrieval for functional genomic and Quantitative-PCR experiments. Sequences are submitted to GenBank (Accession numbers: EV473060 – EV481745. Conclusion Collembase http://www.collembase.org is a resource of sequence data on the springtail F. candida. The information within the database will be linked to a custom made microarray, based on the Agilent platform, which can be applied for soil quality testing. In addition, Collembase supplies information that is valuable for related scientific disciplines such as molecular ecology

  2. Dynamics of the leaf-litter arthropod fauna following fire in a neotropical woodland savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Pacheco, Renata; Silva, Raphael C; Vasconcelos, Pedro B; Lopes, Cauê T; Costa, Alan N; Bruna, Emilio M

    2009-01-01

    Fire is an important agent of disturbance in tropical savannas, but relatively few studies have analyzed how soil-and-litter dwelling arthropods respond to fire disturbance despite the critical role these organisms play in nutrient cycling and other biogeochemical processes. Following the incursion of a fire into a woodland savanna ecological reserve in Central Brazil, we monitored the dynamics of litter-arthropod populations for nearly two years in one burned and one unburned area of the reserve. We also performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to determine the effects of fire and litter type on the dynamics of litter colonization by arthropods. Overall arthropod abundance, the abundance of individual taxa, the richness of taxonomic groups, and the species richness of individual taxa (Formiciade) were lower in the burned site. However, both the ordinal-level composition of the litter arthropod fauna and the species-level composition of the litter ant fauna were not dramatically different in the burned and unburned sites. There is evidence that seasonality of rainfall interacts with fire, as differences in arthropod abundance and diversity were more pronounced in the dry than in the wet season. For many taxa the differences in abundance between burned and unburned sites were maintained even when controlling for litter availability and quality. In contrast, differences in abundance for Collembola, Formicidae, and Thysanoptera were only detected in the unmanipulated samples, which had a lower amount of litter in the burned than in the unburned site throughout most of our study period. Together these results suggest that arthropod density declines in fire-disturbed areas as a result of direct mortality, diminished resources (i.e., reduced litter cover) and less favorable microclimate (i.e., increased litter desiccation due to reduction in tree cover). Although these effects were transitory, there is evidence that the increasingly prevalent fire return interval of

  3. General Relationships between Abiotic Soil Properties and Soil Biota across Spatial Scales and Different Land-Use Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Schöning, Ingo; Alt, Fabian; Herold, Nadine; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Marhan, Sven; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wubet, Tesfaye; Yurkov, Andrey; Begerow, Dominik; Berner, Doreen; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf; Diekötter, Tim; Ehnes, Roswitha B.; Erdmann, Georgia; Fischer, Christiane; Foesel, Bärbel; Groh, Janine; Gutknecht, Jessica; Kandeler, Ellen; Lang, Christa; Lohaus, Gertrud; Meyer, Annabel; Nacke, Heiko; Näther, Astrid; Overmann, Jörg; Polle, Andrea; Pollierer, Melanie M.; Scheu, Stefan; Schloter, Michael; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Schulze, Waltraud; Weinert, Jan; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Wolters, Volkmar; Schrumpf, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Very few principles have been unraveled that explain the relationship between soil properties and soil biota across large spatial scales and different land-use types. Here, we seek these general relationships using data from 52 differently managed grassland and forest soils in three study regions spanning a latitudinal gradient in Germany. We hypothesize that, after extraction of variation that is explained by location and land-use type, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in the abundance and diversity of soil biota. If the relationships between predictors and soil organisms were analyzed individually for each predictor group, soil properties explained the highest amount of variation in soil biota abundance and diversity, followed by land-use type and sampling location. After extraction of variation that originated from location or land-use, abiotic soil properties explained significant amounts of variation in fungal, meso- and macrofauna, but not in yeast or bacterial biomass or diversity. Nitrate or nitrogen concentration and fungal biomass were positively related, but nitrate concentration was negatively related to the abundances of Collembola and mites and to the myriapod species richness across a range of forest and grassland soils. The species richness of earthworms was positively correlated with clay content of soils independent of sample location and land-use type. Our study indicates that after accounting for heterogeneity resulting from large scale differences among sampling locations and land-use types, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in fungal and soil fauna abundance or diversity. However, soil biota was also related to processes that act at larger spatial scales and bacteria or soil yeasts only showed weak relationships to soil properties. We therefore argue that more general relationships between soil properties and soil biota can only be derived from future studies that consider

  4. General relationships between abiotic soil properties and soil biota across spatial scales and different land-use types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Birkhofer

    Full Text Available Very few principles have been unraveled that explain the relationship between soil properties and soil biota across large spatial scales and different land-use types. Here, we seek these general relationships using data from 52 differently managed grassland and forest soils in three study regions spanning a latitudinal gradient in Germany. We hypothesize that, after extraction of variation that is explained by location and land-use type, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in the abundance and diversity of soil biota. If the relationships between predictors and soil organisms were analyzed individually for each predictor group, soil properties explained the highest amount of variation in soil biota abundance and diversity, followed by land-use type and sampling location. After extraction of variation that originated from location or land-use, abiotic soil properties explained significant amounts of variation in fungal, meso- and macrofauna, but not in yeast or bacterial biomass or diversity. Nitrate or nitrogen concentration and fungal biomass were positively related, but nitrate concentration was negatively related to the abundances of Collembola and mites and to the myriapod species richness across a range of forest and grassland soils. The species richness of earthworms was positively correlated with clay content of soils independent of sample location and land-use type. Our study indicates that after accounting for heterogeneity resulting from large scale differences among sampling locations and land-use types, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in fungal and soil fauna abundance or diversity. However, soil biota was also related to processes that act at larger spatial scales and bacteria or soil yeasts only showed weak relationships to soil properties. We therefore argue that more general relationships between soil properties and soil biota can only be derived from future

  5. Effect of a botanical acaricide on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and nontarget arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Susan P; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Rand, Peter W; Staples, Joseph K; St Amand, Theodore W; Stubbs, Constance S; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Smith, Leticia B; Smith, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    We tested the effectiveness of the rosemary oil-based insecticide, Eco-Exempt IC2, to control all stages of Ixodes scapularis (Say) in southern Maine. We selected plots in oak-pine forest where I. scapularis is endemic and recorded the abundance of ticks and nontarget arthropods before and after applications of IC2, bifenthrin (a synthetic pyrethroid), and water (reference treatment). Licensed applicators applied high-pressure spray treatments during the summer nymphal and fall adult seasonal peaks. Both acaricides sprayed during the summer nymphal season reduced nymphal I. scapularis/hour to zero. IC2 was as effective as bifenthrin in controlling nymphs through the rest of the nymphal season and also controlled adult ticks 9 mo postspray compared with 16 mo for bifenthrin, and both acaricides reduced larvae through 14 mo postspray. Both acaricides sprayed during the fall adult season reduced adult I. scapularis/hour to zero; IC2 controlled adult ticks 6 mo postspray compared with 1 yr for bifenthrin. Both fall-applied acaricides controlled nymphs 9 mo postspray and reduced larvae up to 10 mo postspray. Impacts on some nontarget arthropods was assessed. Colleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Collembola declined 1 wk postspray in acaricide-treated plots, and in IC2 plots all numbers rebounded by 20 d postspray. For bees and other flower-visiting insects there were no detectable reductions in nests produced, number emerged from nests, or number of foraging visits to flowering plants in IC2 or bifenthrin plots. IC2 was phytotoxic to the leafy portions of select understory plants that appeared to recover by the next growing season. PMID:23427661

  6. Artrópodos associados à copa de Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae, na região do Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil Arthropods associated with the canopy of the palm Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae, in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Brizzola dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Six individuals of the palm A. phalerata, in Poconé floodplains of Mato Grosso, were sprayed with a synthetic pyrethroid (0.25% concentration in order to study the biomass, diversity, and richness of the canopy arthropods. A total of 17,188 (238.7±80.6 ind./m² arthropods belonging to 22 Orders, was collected in a 72 m² funnel area. Two hours after spraying, 58.9% of the total number fell into the funnels, 37.6% was obtained by shaking the trees, and finally, 3.5% after cutting and washing all the palm leaves. The Coleoptera (27.4%, Hymenoptera-Formicidae (19.0%, Collembola (13.6%, Psocoptera (10.7%, Diptera (9.0% and Araneae (6.4% were the predominant. The total biomass was 15.1 g dry weight (0.4mg/m²; 0.13+0.04/tree. A total of 4,715 beetles representing 48 families and 326 morphospecies were obtained. Tenebrionidae (22.9%, Curculionidae (22.0%, Carabidae (10.9% and Staphylinidae (7.9% were the most abundant, while Curculionidae (44 spp., Staphylinidae (40 spp. and Chrysomelidae (34 spp. presented the largest number of morphospecies. Herbivores (37.5% were the dominant in the trophic guilds of adult Coleoptera, followed by predators (35.4%, fungivores (14.6%, and saprophages (12.5%. Although most arthropod Orders were represented in all the palms sampled, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in their composition, however there was a significant difference in their frequency of occurrence.

  7. Soil Insect Community Diversity of Seasonal Wet Meadow in Zhalong Wetland%扎龙湿地季节性湿草甸土壤昆虫群落多样性1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      为更好地开展国际重要湿地———扎龙湿地的保护工作,以扎龙湿地季节性湿草甸为试验对象,系统调查了扎龙湿地湿草甸土壤昆虫群落,共采集到土壤昆虫12目47科67种,种类和数量以双翅目、弹尾目和鞘翅目居多;土壤昆虫群落季节分布差异显著,以7月份为活跃高峰期;多样性指数、均匀度指数和丰富度指数季节动态均相一致;种—多度关系符合对数正态分布模型。%An investigation was conducted to protect Zhalong wetland of international importance, with the observation data of Zhalong wetland ecological system and investigate systematically soil insect community in seasonal wet meadow in Zhalong wetland.We collected the soil insects of 12 orders, 47 families, 67 species.The major species and quantity were Diptera, Collembola and Coleoptera.The seasonal distribution of soil insect community is significantly different, and July was the active peak season.The seasonal dynamics of the diversity index, evenness index and richness index are consistent.The species-abundance relationship conforms to logarithm normal distribution model.

  8. Utilization of prey from the decomposer system by generalist predators of grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelbermann, Katja; Langel, Reinhard; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the linkage between the detrital subsystem and generalist predators of meadow ecosystems by manipulating prey availability in two different ways: we increased resource availability for the decomposer subsystem and thereby decomposer prey by adding mulch materials (detritus enhancement), and we added fruitflies (Drosophila melanogaster, Diptera; prey enhancement) to fenced plots. Both supplemented materials significantly differed in their (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N ratios from those of the natural litter. We measured density responses of detritivorous, herbivorous and predaceous arthropods to the increased resource supply. We used ratios of natural stable isotopes of N and C in arthropod tissues to trace the flux from the added resources to consumers and to relate density responses of consumers to changes in resource supply. Effects of resource enhancement propagated through at least two trophic levels, resulting in higher densities of major decomposer and predator taxa. Effects of detritus enhancement were much stronger than those of prey enhancement. Signatures of delta(13)C proved density responses of Collembola taxa to be related to the added mulch materials. Among generalist predators, densities of juvenile wolf spiders (Lycosidae) responded more to detritus-enhancement than to prey-enhancement treatments. In contrast, the density of the web-building linyphiid and the non-web gnaphosid spiders remained unaffected. Each spider taxon, including those which did not respond numerically, was significantly enriched in (13)C in detritus-enhancement treatments, suggesting that they gain energy from the decomposer system. Numbers of herbivores-cicadellids and aphids-were similar in each of the treatments, indicating that they were unaffected by changes in predator density. Our results indicate that the lack of a numerical response to resource supplementation is not necessarily due to the absence of a trophic linkage, but may be caused by compensatory

  9. Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of biosolids by microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Vitor Avelar; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana; da Silva, Eduardo Mendes; Niemeyer, Júlia Carina

    2016-10-01

    Biosolids have been applied as soil amendments to improve and maintain the soil fertility and faster plant growth. In spite of its beneficial use, the potential risks of land disposal should be analyzed, considering potential ecological receptors in soil and water. This work describes the use of an early warning laboratory microcosm system to evaluate the integrated ecotoxicological potential of two biosolids: BIO-1 and BIO-2 (18 and 28 months after landfarming, respectively), from an effluent treatment station in a petrochemical and industrial district. The endpoints related to habitat function were: a) germination, growth and biomass of Phaseolus vulgaris; b) survival, biomass and number of cocoons of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta) and; c) reproduction of Folsomia candida (Collembola). The retention function was evaluated by testing the leachates using the tropical cladoceran Latonopsis australis (Cladocera) in a 48-h acute toxicity test, and growth of the aquatic plant Lemna minor in a 7-d chronic test. Tropical artificial soil (TAS) and a natural soil (NS) from the region were used as control soils. Results showed no chronic toxicity of BIO-1 and BIO-2 to the soil organisms tested, but acute toxicity of BIO-1 in the leachate for 50% of L. australis, and chronic toxicity of both biosolid leachates to L. minor (inhibition of growth rate), indicating potential risks to aquatic ecosystems. The results confirmed the ability of this microcosm system as a rapid tool to assess biosolid toxicity over time and its potential for hazardous waste characterization in environmental risk assessment, in a screening phase. PMID:27448314

  11. BiodivERsA project VineDivers: Analysing interlinkages between soil biota and biodiversity-based ecosystem services in vineyards across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Winter, Silvia; Strauss, Peter; Querner, Pascal; Kriechbaum, Monika; Pachinger, Bärbel; Gómez, José A.; Campos, Mercedes; Landa, Blanca; Popescu, Daniela; Comsa, Maria; Iliescu, Maria; Tomoiaga, Liliana; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Hoble, Adela; Marghitas, Liviu; Rusu, Teodor; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Bergmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Essential ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from diverse communities of above- and belowground organisms and their interactions. For centuries traditional viticulture was part of a multifunctional agricultural system including low-input grasslands and fruit trees resulting in a high functional biodiversity. However, in the last decades intensification and mechanisation of vineyard management caused a separation of production and conservation areas. As a result of management intensification including frequent tilling and/or use of pesticides several ecosystem services are affected leading to high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and high levels of agricultural inputs. In this transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project we will examine to what extent differently intensive managed vineyards affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (e.g. earthworms, collembola, soil microorganisms) and how this feed back on aboveground biodiversity (e.g. weeds, pollinators). We will also investigate ecosystem services associated with soil faunal activity and biodiversity such as soil structure, the formation of stable soil aggregates, water infiltration, soil erosion as well as grape quality. These effects will become increasingly important as more extreme precipitation events are predicted with climate change. The socio-economic part of the project will investigate the role of diversely structured, species-rich viticultural landscapes as a cultural heritage providing aesthetic values for human well-being and recreation. The project objectives will be analysed at plot, field (vineyard) and landscape scales in vineyards located in Spain, France, Romania and Austria. A detailed engagement and dissemination plan for stakeholder at the different governance levels will accompany scientific research and will contribute to the implementation of best-practice recommendations for policy and farmers.

  12. Density and community structure of soil- and bark-dwelling microarthropods along an altitudinal gradient in a tropical montane rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illig, Jens; Norton, Roy A; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Microarthropod communities in the soil and on the bark of trees were investigated along an elevation gradient (1,850, 2,000, 2,150, 2,300 m) in a tropical montane rain forest in southern Ecuador. We hypothesised that the density of microarthropods declines with depth in soil and increases with increasing altitude mainly due to the availability of resources, i.e. organic matter. In addition, we expected bark and soil communities to differ strongly, since the bark of trees is more exposed to harsher factors. In contrast to our hypothesis, the density of major microarthropod groups (Collembola, Oribatida, Gamasina, Uropodina) was generally low and decreased with altitude. However, as we predicted the density of each of the groups decreased with soil depth. Density of microarthropods on tree bark was lower than in soil. Overall, 43 species of oribatid mites were found, with the most abundant higher taxa being Poronota, pycnonotic Apheredermata, Mixonomata and Eupheredermata. The oribatid mite community on bark did not differ significantly from that in soil. The number of oribatid mite species declined with altitude (24, 23, 17 and 13 species at 1,850, 2,000, 2,150 and 2,300 m, respectively). Rarefaction curves indicate that overall about 50 oribatid mite species are to be expected along the studied altitudinal gradient. Results of this study indicate (1) that microarthropods may be limited by the quality of resources at high altitudes and by the amount of resources at deeper soil layers, and (2) that the bark of trees and the soil are habitats of similar quality for oribatid mites. PMID:20229099

  13. Evaluating the Applicability of Phi Coefficient in Indicating Habitat Preferences of Forest Soil Fauna Based on a Single Field Study in Subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cui

    Full Text Available Phi coefficient directly depends on the frequencies of occurrence of organisms and has been widely used in vegetation ecology to analyse the associations of organisms with site groups, providing a characterization of ecological preference, but its application in soil ecology remains rare. Based on a single field experiment, this study assessed the applicability of phi coefficient in indicating the habitat preferences of soil fauna, through comparing phi coefficient-induced results with those of ordination methods in charactering soil fauna-habitat(factors relationships. Eight different habitats of soil fauna were implemented by reciprocal transfer of defaunated soil cores between two types of subtropical forests. Canonical correlation analysis (CCorA showed that ecological patterns of fauna-habitat relationships and inter-fauna taxa relationships expressed, respectively, by phi coefficients and predicted abundances calculated from partial redundancy analysis (RDA, were extremely similar, and a highly significant relationship between the two datasets was observed (Pillai's trace statistic = 1.998, P = 0.007. In addition, highly positive correlations between phi coefficients and predicted abundances for Acari, Collembola, Nematode and Hemiptera were observed using linear regression analysis. Quantitative relationships between habitat preferences and soil chemical variables were also obtained by linear regression, which were analogous to the results displayed in a partial RDA biplot. Our results suggest that phi coefficient could be applicable on a local scale in evaluating habitat preferences of soil fauna at coarse taxonomic levels, and that the phi coefficient-induced information, such as ecological preferences and the associated quantitative relationships with habitat factors, will be largely complementary to the results of ordination methods. The application of phi coefficient in soil ecology may extend our knowledge about habitat preferences

  14. Assessing environmental conditions of Antarctic footpaths to support management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedo, Pablo; Benayas, Javier; Cajiao, Daniela; Albertos, Belén; Lara, Francisco; Pertierra, Luis R; Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo; Luciáñez, Maria José; Enríquez, Natalia; Justel, Ana; Reck, Günther K

    2016-07-15

    Thousands of tourists visit certain Antarctic sites each year, generating a wide variety of environmental impacts. Scientific knowledge of human activities and their impacts can help in the effective design of management measures and impact mitigation. We present a case study from Barrientos Island in which a management measure was originally put in place with the goal of minimizing environmental impacts but resulted in new undesired impacts. Two alternative footpaths used by tourist groups were compared. Both affected extensive moss carpets that cover the middle part of the island and that are very vulnerable to trampling. The first path has been used by tourists and scientists since over a decade and is a marked route that is clearly visible. The second one was created more recently. Several physical and biological indicators were measured in order to assess the environmental conditions for both paths. Some physical variables related to human impact were lower for the first path (e.g. soil penetration resistance and secondary treads), while other biochemical and microbiological variables were higher for the second path (e.g. β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, soil respiration). Moss communities located along the new path were also more diverse and sensitive to trampling. Soil biota (Collembola) was also more abundant and richer. These data indicate that the decision to adopt the second path did not lead to the reduction of environmental impacts as this path runs over a more vulnerable area with more outstanding biological features (e.g. microbiota activity, flora and soil fauna diversity). In addition, the adoption of a new route effectively doubles the human footprint on the island. We propose using only the original path that is less vulnerable to the impacts of trampling. Finally from this process, we identify several key issues that may be taken into account when carrying out impact assessment and environmental management decision-making in the

  15. Comparative assessment of fungal augmentation treatments of a fine-textured and historically oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Stefano; Stella, Tatiana; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthaml, Tomas; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    The removal of aged hydrophobic contaminants from fine-textured soils is a challenging issue in remediation. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of augmentation treatments to that of biostimulation in terms of total aliphatic hydrocarbon (TAH) and toxicity removal from a historically contaminated clay soil and to assess their impact on the resident microbial community. To this aim, Pleurotus ostreatus, Botryosphaeria rhodina and a combination of both were used as the inoculants while the addition of a sterilized lignocellulose mixture to soil (1:5, w/w) was used as a biostimulation approach. As opposed to the non-amended control soil, where no changes in TAH concentration and residual toxicity were observed after 60days, the activation of specialized bacteria was found in the biostimulated microcosms resulting in significant TAH removal (79.8%). The bacterial community structure in B. rhodina-augmented microcosms did not differ from the biostimulated microcosms due to the inability of the fungus to be retained within the resident microbiota. Best TAH removals were observed in microcosms inoculated with P. ostreatus alone (Po) and in binary consortium with B. rhodina (BC) (86.8 and 88.2%, respectively). In these microcosms, contaminant degradation exceeded their bioavailability thresholds determined by sequential supercritical CO2 extraction. Illumina metabarcoding of 16S rRNA gene showed that the augmentation with Po and BC led to lower relative abundances of Gram(+) taxa, Actinobacteria in particular, than those in biostimulated microcosms. Best detoxification, with respect to the non-amended incubation control, was found in Po microcosms where a drop in collembola mortality (from 90 to 22%) occurred. At the end of incubation, in both Po and BC, the relative abundances of P. ostreatus sequences were higher than 60% thus showing the suitability of this fungus in bioaugmentation-based remediation applications. PMID:27220102

  16. Evaluating the Applicability of Phi Coefficient in Indicating Habitat Preferences of Forest Soil Fauna Based on a Single Field Study in Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Wang, Silong; Yan, Shaokui

    2016-01-01

    Phi coefficient directly depends on the frequencies of occurrence of organisms and has been widely used in vegetation ecology to analyse the associations of organisms with site groups, providing a characterization of ecological preference, but its application in soil ecology remains rare. Based on a single field experiment, this study assessed the applicability of phi coefficient in indicating the habitat preferences of soil fauna, through comparing phi coefficient-induced results with those of ordination methods in charactering soil fauna-habitat(factors) relationships. Eight different habitats of soil fauna were implemented by reciprocal transfer of defaunated soil cores between two types of subtropical forests. Canonical correlation analysis (CCorA) showed that ecological patterns of fauna-habitat relationships and inter-fauna taxa relationships expressed, respectively, by phi coefficients and predicted abundances calculated from partial redundancy analysis (RDA), were extremely similar, and a highly significant relationship between the two datasets was observed (Pillai's trace statistic = 1.998, P = 0.007). In addition, highly positive correlations between phi coefficients and predicted abundances for Acari, Collembola, Nematode and Hemiptera were observed using linear regression analysis. Quantitative relationships between habitat preferences and soil chemical variables were also obtained by linear regression, which were analogous to the results displayed in a partial RDA biplot. Our results suggest that phi coefficient could be applicable on a local scale in evaluating habitat preferences of soil fauna at coarse taxonomic levels, and that the phi coefficient-induced information, such as ecological preferences and the associated quantitative relationships with habitat factors, will be largely complementary to the results of ordination methods. The application of phi coefficient in soil ecology may extend our knowledge about habitat preferences and distribution

  17. Ecology of beach wrack in northern New England with special reference to Orchestia platensis*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbehani, Manaf I.; Croker, Robert A.

    1982-12-01

    The northern New England beach wrack community with special reference to the cosmopolitan amphipod crustacean, Orchestia platensis, was examined at estuarine and open coastal habitats. Beach wrack was dominated by the plant genera Ascophyllum, Zostera, Spartina and Chondrus, and was most abundant during spring and late summer. Animal community numbers, biomass and frequency in fresh to moderately decomposed wrack were dominated by O. platensis throughout the year at all habitats; oligochaetes and Collembola were also important. The abundance of O. platensis showed high spatial and temporal variability, with low abundance generally associated with decreased amounts of wrack during colder months. An exception was the winter presence of the species at one estuarine habitat, in patchy aggregations within gravel-cobble refuges. The abundance of O. platensis averaged 1280 (0.04 m 2) -1, with a maximum of 7040 (0.04 m 2) -1. The life cycle of O. platensis is bivoltine, with summer-hatched young reaching maturity within 1 month. Laboratory studies indicate females with up to 4 broods (30 days) -1, averaging 18 eggs brood -1. Orchestia platensis is omnivorous, eating fresh plant tissue, live oligochaetes, Limulus eggs and diatom 'fuzz'. The rate of laboratory consumption of algae and Zostera was 0.05 mg plant mg -1 wet body weight day -1. Presumptive predators of O. platensis are juvenile green crab, Carcinus maenus, and the earwig. Anisolabis maritima. The mobility, aggregation and aggressiveness of O. platensis assist the species in establishing and maintaining populations in the rigorous wrack habitat. The general competitive superiority of O. platensis over its congener, O. gammarella, and the co-occurrence of these species on both eastern and western Atlantic shores is discussed.

  18. Feeding ecology of the pygmy gecko Coleodactylus natalensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. C. A. Lisboa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the feeding ecology of a population of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999, an endemic gecko of Atlantic Forest fragments in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Lizards (N = 49 were collected manually through active search in the four habitats of Parque Estadual Dunas de Natal, type locality of the species. In the laboratory, we measured the lizards and registered the number of consumed prey items identified to Order, its dimensions and frequencies. We also collected samples of leaf litter in each habitat to determine prey availability. Females were significantly larger than males, but head size did not differ between the sexes. The most important prey categories in the diet of C. natalensis based on number, volume and frequency were Isopoda and Araneae. Prey categories with highest importance indices in the diet were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Gryllidae. The diets of adult males and females were similar with respect to prey size, but differed qualitatively, mainly due to the larger trophic spectrum of females. We found some variations on trophic niche breadths and food preferences of lizards between habitats, but in general niche breadths were intermediate, and the most elected prey categories were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Thysanoptera. High electivities for Isoptera and Gryllidae occurred only in the open habitats (restinga and dunes, and for Mantodea in the forested habitats (high and low forest. Collembola was consumed in the same proportion of the environment, and Acarina and Formicidae had negative values of electivity, indicating rejection. We conclude that the population studied seems to have a selective diet, preferring relatively large prey items that are less abundant in the leaf litter, and possibly avoiding potentially toxic prey.

  19. Kan die gevoeligheid van grondlewende organismes bydra om die volhoubaarheid van landbewerking van olieraffinadery afval te beoordeel?

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    Adriaan J. Reinecke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voordelige grondlewende organismes lewer ekostelseldienste in gesonde grondtipes. Olieraffinaderye genereer groot hoeveelhede soliede afval wat verskeie tipes koolwaterstowwe en metale bevat wat in die grond geploeg word tydens landbewerking van die afval. Die bedoeling is om die afval deur die grond-ekostelsel te laat degradeer. Die kontaminante mag egter giftig wees vir die diverse verskeidenheid van grondorganismes. Vir die volhoubaarheid van dié praktyk is dit nodig om te weet of remediёring van die landbewerkte grond voldoende was vir die beoogde, voortgesette gebruik daarvan. Indikatore is nodig om die graad van herstel van sodanige grondtipes te bepaal. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die grond van ’n landbewerkte gebied chemies te ontleed en die toksisiteit en herstel te bepaal deur van gestandardiseerde bioassesserings met die komposteringswurm Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta en die springstert Folsomia candida (Collembola gebruik te maak. Die organismes is blootgestel aan die gekontamineerde en kontrolegrond en hulle oorlewing, groei, voortplantingsukses en vermydingsgedrag is nagegaan. Die resultate het getoon dat die grond van die landbewerkte perseel steeds verskeie gevaarlike chemikalieё bevat, soos die dieselreeks organiese verbindings, maar dat die grond nie akuut toksies vir die organismes was nie. Dit het wel die groei en voortplanting van die erdwurms, asook die voortplanting van die springsterte nadelig beïnvloed. Die perseel benodig steeds remediёring alvorens grondbewerking van olieslik voortgesit word. Bioasessering het, aanvullend tot die chemiese analises, ’n meer volledige en meer ekologies relevante beeld van die remediëringstatus en toksisiteit van die grond verskaf. Die bevinding ondersteun die gebruik van bioassesserings as ’n eko-toksikologiese metode om landbewerkingsgrond te evalueer.

  20. Arthropod community structure on bark of koa (Acacia koa) and ʻōhiʻā (Metrosideros polymorpha) at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʻi Island, Hawaiʻi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.; Stelmach, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The arthropod community associated with tree bark contains a wide variety of taxa but is poorly described, particularly in Hawaiʽi. Our overall goals were to evaluate the abundance of arthropods available to foraging birds and how variation in bark substrates may contribute to arthropod distributions in native forests. Our study aimed to identify this fauna on the dominant canopy-forming trees koa (Acacia koa) and ʽōhiʽa (Metrosideros polymorpha) within wet montane forest at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʽi Island. At two sites roughly similar in elevation and habitat structure, we deployed three trap types designed to intercept arthropods moving along bark within tree canopies: a bole trap based on a pre-existing design and two traps specially designed for this study. Bole traps were placed on koa and ʽōhiʽa while branch traps were established on large and small branches of ʽōhiʽa. In total, 15 arthropod orders were identified, with Collembola most abundant (number/trap-day) generally followed by Isopoda and Araneae. Differences in abundance were found in some instances, but overall, few differences were detected between tree species or sites. Relative abundances of arthropod groups were also generally similar between trees and sites and among different parts of ʽōhiʽa. These results indicate that bark-dwelling arthropod communities are similar on koa and ʽōhiʽa, and birds should not develop strong preferences for gleaning arthropods from the bark of either species of tree based on prey availability.

  1. An evolutionary analysis of flightin reveals a conserved motif unique and widespread in Pancrustacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2014-01-01

    Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more

  2. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    ., T. corcula sp. nov., T. hamulata sp. nov., T. histria sp. nov., T. inornata sp. nov., T. laticornis sp. nov., T. melantha sp. nov., T. pogonia sp. nov., T. rideri sp. nov., and T. taura sp. nov. A key to the species groups and unplaced species is provided for Tolania males. The following species, previously placed in Tolania, are considered species incertae sedis: Cicada armata Stoll; Centrotus felinus Germar; Centrotus obscurus Germar; Centrotus fasciatus Walker. One new synonymy is proposed: Tolania humilis (Walker, 1858 = Tolania scutata Stål, 1862 syn. nov. Tolania cristata Lethierry sp. rev., is reinstated from synonymy with T. femoralis. Lectotypes are designated for T. cristata, T. femoralis, T. fraterna, and T. scutata.O gênero de soldadinhos Tolania Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Nicomiinae, Nicomiini e 69 espécies válidas (59 novas espécies são descritos e ilustrados baseado na morfologia de adultos. Dez grupos informais de espécies são reconhecidos baseados em uma análise filogenética previamente publicada: (1 o grupo de espécies dira inclui T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov. e T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 grupo fasciata inclui T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov. e T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 grupo femoralis inclui T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål e T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 grupo furcata inclui T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov. e T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 grupo hispida inclui T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov. e T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 grupo malefica inclui T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker e T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 grupo obtusa inclui T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov. e T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 grupo opponens inclui T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens

  3. Abrupt vegetation transitions characterise long-term Amazonian peatland development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucoux, K. H.; Baker, T. R.; Gosling, W. D.; Honorio Coronado, E.; Jones, T. D.; Lahteenoja, O.; Lawson, I. T.

    2012-04-01

    Recent investigations of wetlands in western Amazonia have revealed the presence of extensive peatlands with peat deposits of up to 8 m-thick developing under a variety of vegetation types (Lähteenoja et al. 2012). Estimated to cover 150,000 km2 (Schulman et al. 1999), these peatlands make a valuable contribution to landscape and biological diversity and represent globally important carbon stores. In order to understand the processes leading to peat formation, and the sensitivity of these environments to future climatic change, it is necessary to understand their long-term history. The extent to which peatland vegetation changes over time, the stability of particular communities, the controls on transitions between vegetation types and how these factors relate to the accumulation of organic matter are not yet known. We report the first attempt to establish the long-term (millennial scale) vegetation history of a recently-described peatland site: Quistococha, a palm swamp, or aguajal, close to Iquitos in northern Peru. The vegetation is dominated by Mauritia flexuosa and Mauritiella armata and occupies a basin which is thought to be an abandoned channel of the River Amazon. We obtained a 4 m-long peat sequence from the deepest part of the basin. AMS-radiocarbon dating yielded a maximum age of 2,212 cal yr BP for the base of the peat, giving an average accumulation rate of 18 cm per century. Below the peat are 2 m of uniform, largely inorganic pale grey clays of lacustrine origin, which are underlain by an unknown thickness of inorganic sandy-silty clay of fluvial origin. Pollen analysis, carried out at c. 88-year intervals, shows the last 2,212 years to be characterised by the development of at least four distinct vegetation communities, with peat accumulating throughout. The main phases were: (1) Formation of Cyperaceae (sedge) fen coincident with peat initiation; (2) A short-lived phase of local Mauritia/Mauritiella development; (3) Development of mixed wet

  4. THE COMPOST – A METHOD TO RESTORE THE ORGANIC WASTE PRODUCTS IN THE NATURAL CIRCUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Nicoleta VIERU

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Half of the quantity of waste products produced by the households is made of foodremainders, vegetable and garden remainders and more of 50% of waste products are organicand they arrive in waste products storehouses, in cesspools or are burned, causing animportant pollution. As an alternative to those, we can transform the organic material througha set of microbial, biochemical, chemical and physical processes into a valuable material witha humus appearance, named compost. To obtain a quality compost we need to lead thecompost process, in accordance with the dimension, the humidity, the structure and thecomposition of residual materials, that these to be fast and efficient available to the microorganisms,making up an ideal substratum rich in nutrients for their development. Thedecomposition agents (bacterium, fungous, mites, Collembola, wooden lice, worms,diplopoda need the azote to build the cells and some food remainders, ripped grass and greenleaves. The chips of wood, the dry leaves and the sawdust are rich in carbon and theyconstitute another energy source for the decomposition agents. The azote sources aredesignated as the „green” elements, and the carbon sources are the „brown” ones. In a pile ofcompost is efficient to maintain a balance between the „brown” elements (carbon and the„green” ones (azote – in percent of 30:1 to offer the decomposition agents a balancednourishment and this thing can be acquired through the alternation of layers of brown andgreen elements. The production of compost in schools can be a way to determine the entireschool community to work together for helping the environment. This means the naturalrecirculation of resources, community education over the benefits of the compost, the changeof the cultural attitude over the garbage in a way that brings benefits to the society, thereduction of the alimentary remainders quantity from the school canteen, the implication ofthe students in extra

  5. Wood source and pyrolysis temperature interact to control PyOM degradation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. A.; Hatton, P. J.; Filley, T. R.; Chatterjee, S.; Auclerc, A.; Gormley, M.; Dastmalchi, K.; Stark, R. E.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surprisingly little is known about how shifts in tree species composition and increased forest fire frequency and intensity will affect one of the most stable pools of soil organic matter, i.e. the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or char). In a previous study, we showed that wood source and pyrolysis temperature interact to control PyOM structure and potential reactivity for two tree species common in high-latitude forests, jack pine (JP) and red maple (RM). Here, we investigate whether these differences affect PyOM turnover by examining the fates of 13C/15N-enriched JP wood and PyOM pyrolyzed at 300 (JP300) and 450 °C (JP450) and RM pyrolyzed at 450 °C (RM450). The substrates were applied 1-3 cm below the O/A interface of a well-drained Spodosol in a long-term forest fire study located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Pellston, MI, USA). 13C-CO2effluxes from the first 996 days of decay showed a significant wood source by pyrolysis temperature interaction on PyOM field mineralisation rates, with RM450 mineralising twice faster than JP450 during the first 90 days. Increasing pyrolysis temperature substantially decreased field mineralization rates during the first 996 days, with mineralisation rates 24 and 80 times slower for JP300 and JP450 compared with JP wood. After 1 year, (i) bacterial groups were large sinks for PyOM-derived C as pyrolysis temperature increased and as substrate use efficiency decreased; (ii) potential phenol oxidase and net peroxidase activities were unaffected by the PyOM addition, although net peroxidase activities measured tended to lesser for soils amended with JP450 and RM450; and (iii) Collembola detritivores appeared less likely to be found for soils amended with JP450 and RM450. PyOM-derived C and N recoveries did not differ after 1 year; we will present 3-y recovery data. Our results suggest that the composition of angiosperms (e.g. RM) and gymnosperms (e.g. JP) in high-latitude forests is an underappreciated but

  6. Insect-resistant transgenic plants in a multi-trophic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Astrid T; Dicke, Marcel

    2002-08-01

    So far, genetic engineering of plants in the context of insect pest control has involved insertion of genes that code for toxins, and may be characterized as the incorporation of biopesticides into classical plant breeding. In the context of pesticide usage in pest control, natural enemies of herbivores have received increasing attention, because carnivorous arthropods are an important component of insect pest control. However, in plant breeding programmes, natural enemies of herbivores have largely been ignored, although there are many examples that show that plant breeding affects the effectiveness of biological control. Negative influences of modified plant characteristics on carnivorous arthropods may induce population growth of new, even more harmful pest species that had no pest status prior to the pesticide treatment. Sustainable pest management will only be possible when negative effects on non-target, beneficial arthropods are minimized. In this review, we summarize the effects of insect-resistant crops and insect-resistant transgenic crops, especially Bt crops, from a food web perspective. As food web components, we distinguish target herbivores, non-target herbivores, pollinators, parasitoids and predators. Below-ground organisms such as Collembola, nematodes and earthworms should also be included in risk assessment studies, but have received little attention. The toxins produced in Bt plants retain their toxicity when bound to the soil, so accumulation of these toxins is likely to occur. Earthworms ingest the bound toxins but are not affected by them. However, earthworms may function as intermediaries through which the toxins are passed on to other trophic levels. In studies where effects of insect-resistant (Bt) plants on natural enemies were considered, positive, negative and no effects have been found. So far, most studies have concentrated on natural enemies of target herbivores. However, Bt toxins are structurally rearranged when they bind to

  7. Efeito de restos da cultura do abacaxizeiro e de agrobio na fauna do solo Effect of residues of pineaplle plant and agrobio in the soil fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecsandra de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de restos culturais de abacaxizeiro (Ananas comosus L. 'Smooth Cayenne' na fauna de artrópodes,em cultivos em campo. As mudas, do tipo filhote, foram plantadas no mês de junho, em um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, que recebeu 0, 30 e 60t/ha de restos de abacaxizeiro, aplicados superficialmente e incorporados a 10cm de profundidade, com e sem a adição do biofertilizante-Agrobio10% (v/v. Foram coletadas amostras a 05 cm de profundidade aos 90, 210, 330 e 450 dias após a aplicação dos resíduos. Identificou-se, durante os 15 meses de avaliações, o predomínio de Acari e Collembola. A maior densidade de animais foi observada na primeira amostragem, aos 90 dias após a adição dos restos. No entanto, diferenças na abundância da fauna de solo só foram observadas, 330 dias após a adição dos resíduos.This study was conducted under field conditions, in order to determine the effect of pineapple crop (Ananas comosus L. residues on the edaphic arthropod fauna. Slips were planted in June, in Red-Yellow Latossol , with crop residues in amounts of 0, 30 and 60 t/ha, placed on the surface or tilled under 10cm, with and without 10% (v/v Agrobio biofertilizer applied along with the residues and sprayed monthly at 3% (v/v two months after planting. Soil samples were collected from the top 5.0 cm of soil at 90, 210, 330 and 450 days after the application of residues. Over 15 months, the predominance of Acari and Collembolan was observed. The highest density of animals was observed in the first sample, at 90 days after the addition of residues. Nevertheless, differences in soil fauna abundance between treatments were not detected until 330 days after soil management with crop residues.

  8. Biochar and biological carbon cycling in temperate soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, S. A.; Vanbergen, A. J.; Bardgett, R. D.; Hopkins, D. W.; Ostle, N.

    2012-04-01

    Production of biochar, the recalcitrant residue formed by pyrolysis of plant matter, is suggested as a means of increasing storage of stable carbon (C) in the soil (1). Biochar has also been shown to act as a soil conditioner, increasing the productivity of certain crops by reducing nutrient leaching and improving soil water-holding capacity. However, the response of soil carbon pools to biochar addition is not yet well understood. Studies have shown that biochar has highly variable effects on microbial C cycling and thus on soil C storage (2,3,4). This discrepancy may be partially explained by the response of soil invertebrates, which occupy higher trophic levels and regulate microbial activity. This research aims to understand the role of soil invertebrates (i.e. Collembola and nematode worms) in biochar-mediated changes to soil C dynamics across a range of plant-soil communities. An open-air, pot-based mesocosm experiment was established in May, 2011 at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh. Three treatments were included in a fully-factorial design: biochar (presence [2 % w/w] or absence), soil type (arable sandy, arable sandy loam, grassland sandy loam), and vegetation type (Hordeum vulgare, Lolium perenne, unvegetated). Monitored parameters include: invertebrate and microbial species composition, soil C fluxes (CO2 and trace gas evolution, leachate C content, primary productivity and soil C content), and soil conditions (pH, moisture content and water-holding capacity). Preliminary results indicate that biochar-induced changes to soil invertebrate communities and processes are affected by pre-existing soil characteristics, and that soil texture in particular may be an important determinant of soil response to biochar addition. 1. Lehmann, 2007. A handful of carbon. Nature 447, 143-144. 2. Liang et al., 2010. Black carbon affects the cycling of non-black carbon in soil. Organic Geochemistry 41, 206-213. 3. Van Zwieten et al., 2010. Influence of

  9. 黄山森林生态系统土壤动物群落结构特征及其多样性%Structural Characteristics and Biodiversity of Soil Animal Community in Huangshan Forest Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振中; 张友梅; 李忠武

    2009-01-01

    @@ 黄山是我国中亚热带北缘的植物宝库和天然植物园,仅自然分布的植物种类就有1 450余种,是我国南北植物区系交替过渡地带,具有独特的自然地理环境,生物资源丰富,于1990年12月被联合国世界遗产委员会列为"世界文化和自然遗产"单位.然而,对黄山森林土壤动物群落的研究报道尚属少见.%A preliminary investigation on the characteristics of animals in the soil of Huangshan forests was conducted. Invertebrates included 33 genera in 11 classes and 5 phyla, among which Acarina, Collembola and Nematoda were dominant groups, occupied 88.21% of the total samples, and formed the main body of the forest soil animal community. The others included common groups and rare groups, respectively accounting for 5.85 % and 5.98 % . It is warm and humid in the mid-subtropical region of China, covered with lush vegetation has and with an abundant resource of animals in the soil underneath. Soil animal abundance was affected by a number of factors, among which vegetation and soil types are the main limiting factors. Based on data collected from 4 sample sites the evergreen broad-leaved forest and the conifer-broad leaved mixed forest had the highest average density of soil animals, rearching up to 68.80 and 66.53 10~4·m~(-3) , respectively, while the artificial coniferous forest had the lowest density, with only 36.43 10~4·m~(-3).The vertical distribution of animals in the soil was closely related with the surface accumulation of organic matter and the vertical variation of soil physiochemical characteistics. The results showed the soil animals were mainly distributed in litter and humus layers, and obviously accumulated on of the soil surface and sharply decreased downward.

  10. Composición y abundancia de artrópodos epígeos del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe: impactos del ENOS de 1997 y efectos del hábitat pedológico Abundance and composition of epigean arthropods from Llanos de Challe National Park: impacts of ENSO-1997 and effects of the pedological habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE CEPEDA-PIZARRO

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de trampas de intercepción, se estudió el efecto de la precipitación y el tipo de hábitat sobre la denso-actividad del ensamble de artrópodos epígeos _en particular Tenebrionidae_ del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe. Este parque está ubicado en el desierto costero transicional de Chile, en la III Región de Atacama. Los muestreos se realizaron durante tres días por mes (septiembre, octubre y diciembre en el período de máxima actividad biológica del sistema y en los años 1989 (año no-ENOS seco, 1997 (año ENOS intenso y 2000 (año no-ENOS húmedo. En las comparaciones se utilizaron dos sitios pedológicamente contrastantes: un hábitat dunario costero y un hábitat pedregoso interior. Se registró la presencia de 15 órdenes de Arthropoda. Los hexápodos constituyeron > 95 % del total de los especímenes capturados (9.065 individuos, siendo Collembola (36,1 % y Coleoptera (29,8 % los órdenes con mayor representatividad numérica. El número de órdenes con representantes activos varió ligeramente entre años: 13 órdenes se registraron en 1989 (44 % de precipitación bajo el promedio, 15 en 1997 (443 % sobre el promedio y 11 en 2000 (52 % sobre el promedio. El efecto del evento ENOS se reflejó claramente en la contribución numérica en la mayoría de los taxa registrados. Aunque más sutilmente, este efecto también se reflejó en la composición del ensamble de taxa dominantes y entre hábitat pedológicos, particularmente con Tenebrionidae y Formicidae. Especialmente en las dunas costeras, Tenebrionidae dominó claramente el ensamble de artrópodos epígeos, siendo Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville el género más diverso y abundante. La dominancia de Gyriosomus plantea un conjunto de interrogantes respecto de su nivel de endemismo, diversidad y distribución de sus especies, y el papel funcional de estas en el ecosistema estudiadoBy using pitfall traps, the effects of rainfall and habitat type on the denso

  11. Diversity of Soil Invertebrate Communities at Bayberry Park in Yushan in Changshu City%常熟虞山杨梅园土壤动物群落结构及其多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾影波; 高方清; 苏永春

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study on the diversity of soil invertebrate communities was conducted at Bayberry Park. A total of 1405 samples of soil animal was obtained, belonging to 4 phylums, 7 classes and 22 taxa. The dominant groups were Acarina and Collembola, which amounted to 90. 72% of total individuals and composed the main component of soil animal cluster in the region; Common groups were the Nematoda sorts, amounting to 4.76% of the total. Other types were rare groups. Three kinds of ecological environment of soil animal community structure analysis showed; the density order was artificial plot3 > plot2 > plot1; Number of groups and diversity(H') were artificial plot1 > plot2 > plotl3; Evenness (J) were plot3 > plot2 > plot1; Dominance (C) were plot3 > plot2 > plot1. The analysis of the similarity (q) of different group suggested that the similarity (q) of soil invertebratesthe plotl and plot2, plot1 and plot3, plot2 and plot3 were moderate similar (0.75 > q >0.50). Vertical distribution of soil invertebrate was concentrated in the surface.%对常熟市虞山林场杨梅园土壤动物群落的构成进行了调查,共获得土壤动物样本1 405个,隶属于4门、7纲、22类.优势类群为蜱螨目和弹尾目2类,占个体总数的90.72%,构成了该地区土壤动物群落组成的主体;常见类群为线虫,占全部土壤动物个体数量的4.76%;其他为稀有类群.3样地环境中土壤动物群落结构分析表明,个体密度为样地3>样地2>样地1;类群数和土壤动物多样性指数(H’)为样地1>样地2>样地3;均匀度指数(J)为样地3>样地2>样地1;优势度指数(C)为样地3>样地2>样地1.不同群落的相似性(q)分析表明,样地1与样地2、样地1与样地3、样地2与样地3的q值均大于0.5且小于0.75,表现为中等相似.土壤动物垂直分布有明显的表聚现象.

  12. 昆明树木园枯枝落叶层无脊椎动物群落多样性%Diversity of invertebrate community in leaf litters of Kunming Arboretum, Yunnan Province of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧; 聂晶; 张立敏; 谢永辉; 李正跃; 张宏瑞

    2012-01-01

    为了解昆明树木园枯枝落叶层无脊椎动物群落结构及特征,于2010年5月-2011年9对昆明树木园中香樟(Cinnamomum camphora)、圆柏(Sabina chinensis)、玉兰(Magnolia denudata)、云南松(Pinus yunnanensis)、红枫(Acer palmatum cv.Atropuceum)共5个树种的枯枝落叶层无脊椎动物进行采样调查.共采获无脊椎动物25237头,隶属于2门5纲18目15科,其中蜱螨目和弹尾目为优势类群;缨翅目、伪蝎目、半翅目和革翅目为常见类群.采用Shannon多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数和Simpson优势度指数来衡量5个树种的枯枝落叶层无脊椎动物多样性,结果表明:5个树种的枯枝落叶层中无脊椎动物群落物种组成相似,群落中时空异质性较低;5个树种的枯枝落叶层中共采集菌食性蓟马375头,隶属l科、3属、4种,其中,奇管蓟马属(Allothrips)为云南新纪录属,同时也是昆明树木园菌食性蓟马群落中的绝对优势类群.%An investigation was conducted on the invertebrates in leaf litters under five tree spe-cies ( Cinnamomum camphora, Sabina chinensis, Magnolia denudata, Pinus yunnanensis, and Acer palmatum cv. Atropuceum) in Kunming Arboretum from May 2010 to September 2011, aimed to understand the community structure and characteristics of the invertebrate assemblages in the leaf litters of the five tree species. A total of 25237 invertebrate individuals belonging to 15 families of 18 orders in 5 classes under 2 phyla were collected, among which, Acarina and Col-lembola were the dominant groups, while Thysanoptera, Pseudoscorpionidea, Hemiptera, and Dermaptera were the common groups. Shannon diversity index, Pielou evenness index, and Simpson dominance index were used to compare the diversity of the invertebrate assemblages. A similar species composition of the invertebrate assemblages was observed in the leaf litters of the five tree species, and the spatioternporal heterogeneity of the assemblages was small. In the leaf

  13. Diversity of Soil Invertebrate Communities at Tea Park Yushan Hill of Changshu%常熟虞山茶园土壤动物群落结构的多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾影波; 高方清; 冯婷婷; 吴琼; 苏永春

    2012-01-01

    为研究25~35年茶树种植区域土壤动物组成结构及多样性特征.对常熟市虞山林场茶园土壤环境进行了调查,共获得土壤动物样本1095个,隶属于4门7纲27类.优势类群为线虫、蜱螨目和弹尾目3类,占个体总数的88.18%,构成了该地区土壤动物群落组成的主体;常见类群为蜘蛛目、原尾目、膜翅目幼虫和鳞翅目幼虫4类;其他为稀有类群.三样地环境中土壤动物群落结构分析表明:个体密度依次为茶园2>茶园1>茶园3;类群数依次为茶园1>茶园3>茶园2;多样性指数(H’)依次为茶园3>茶园1>茶园2;均匀度指数(J)依次为茶园3>茶园2>茶园1;土壤动物优势度指数(C)依次为茶园1>茶园2>茶园3.茶园中三样地不同群落的相似性(q)分析表明:茶园l与茶园2、茶园1与茶园3、茶园2与茶园3的q值均在0.5< q<0.75之间,均表明相似水平为中等.茶园中土壤动物垂直分布特征表现为具有明显的表聚现象.%In order to study Diversity of soil invertebrate communities of 25-30 years of tea planting area. A preliminary study was conducted at Tea Park Yushan Hill, a total of 1095 soil animal belonging to 4 phylums, 7 classes and 27 taxa. Among them, the dominant groups werer Nematoda, Acarina and Collembola, which amounted to 88.18% of total individuals; Common groups werer the Araneae, Protura, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera sorts, amounting to 7.31% of total, other was rare groups. Three kinds of ecological environment of soil animal community structure analysis showed: the density were Tea Park 2>Tea Park l>Tea Park 3; Number of groups were Tea Park 1 >Tea Park 3>Tea Park 2; diversity (H) were Tea Park 3>Tea Park 1 > Tea Park 2; Evenness (J) were Tea Park 3>Tea Park 2>Tea Park 1; Dominance (C) were Tea Park l>Tea Park 2>Tea Park 3. The results also showed that similarity (q) of soil invertebrates The Tea Parkl and Tea Park 2 , Tea Park 1 and Tea Park 3, Tea Park 2

  14. Organismos edáficos como bioindicadores da recuperação de solos degradados por arenização no Bioma Pampa Edaphic organisms as bioindicators of restoration of degraded soils by arenização on the Bioma Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Moreira Rovedder

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os organismos edáficos, por sua sensibilidade a alterações no meio, têm sido utilizados como indicadores de modificações nos níveis de qualidade do solo, as quais podem ser promovidas por degradação ou agradação. Em Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, foram caracterizadas populações de organismos edáficos como bioindicadores dos efeitos da degradação por arenização e da recuperação por revegetação com Lupinus albescens Hook. & Arn., fabácea natural do Bioma Pampa. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de solo com cobertura natural de Lupinus albescens (TN, área arenizada que recebeu revegetação com Lupinus albescens há um ano (T1, área arenizada que recebeu revegetação com Lupinus albescens há três anos (T3, solo arenizado (SA e campo nativo (CN. As coletas foram feitas em fevereiro e maio de 2006, com armadilhas PROVID. Foram determinados os parâmetros: abundância de organismos em nível de Ordem, riqueza de organismos e índices de diversidade e igualdade de Shannon. A arenização reduziu o desenvolvimento das populações edáficas, enquanto a estratégia de revegetação mostrou efeitos positivos na recolonização da área. O grupo Collembola destacou-se como bioindicador dos efeitos dos processos de degradação e recuperação. O índice de diversidade de Shannon não foi adequado para a avaliação dos efeitos da arenização quando analisado isoladamente.Edaphic organisms are sensible to environment alterations and have been used as indicators of soil quality changes. These modifications can be promoted by degradation or agradation events. The study area is located in Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul. It was analyzed the role of epigeic soil fauna as bioindicator of soil degradation by arenização and its restoration by revegetation with Lupinus albescens Hook. & Arn., a native fabaceous of Bioma Pampa. The treatments were constituted of soil under natural covering with Lupinus albescens, degraded area recovered with

  15. Revisão de Anyphaeninae Bertkau a nível de gêneros na Região Neotropical (Araneae, Anyphaenidae Revision of Anyphaeninae Bertkau at genera level in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Anyphaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Domingos Brescovit

    1996-12-01

    Teudis leucochlorus Mello-Leitão with Umuara fasciata (Blackwall; Aysha fulviceps Keyserling with Xiruana gracilipes (Keyserling; Aysha mandibularis (Keyserling with Aljassa subpallida (L. Koch. Seventy new combinations are presented: Wulfilopsis frenata (Keyserling; W. pygmaea (Keyserling; W. tenuipes (Keyserling; W. tripunctata (Mello-Leitão; Patrera apora (Chamberlin; P.armata (Chickering; P.auricoma (L. Koch; P. cita (Keyserling; P. lauta (Chickering; P. longipes (Keyserling; P. procera (Keyserling; P. puta (O.P.-Cambridge; P. ruber (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. stylifer (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. virgata (Keyserling; Teudis bicornutus (Tullgren; T. buelowae (Mello-Leitão; T. comstocki (Soares & Camargo; T. morenus (Mello-Leitão; Jessica campesina (Bauab-Vianna; J. glabra (Keyserling; J. goodnight (Soares & Camargo; J. osoriana (Mello-Leitão; J. erythrostoma (Mello- Leitão; J. rubricephala (Mello-Leitão; Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Katissa delicatula (Banks; K. elegans (Banks; K. lycosoides (Chickering; K. simplicipalpis (Simon; K. zimarae (Reimoser; Otoniella quadrivittata (Simon; Lupettiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; L. parvula (Banks; L. perpusilla (Banks; L. spinosa (Bryant; Timbuka bogotensis (L. Koch; T. granadensis (Keyserling; T. larvata (O.P.-Cambridge, T. masseneti (Berland; T.meridiana (L. Koch; Tafana quelchii (pocock; T. silhavyi (Caporiacco; T. straminea (L. Koch; Umuara fascia J(Blackwall; Aysha basilisca (Mello-Leitâo; A. diversicolor (Keyserling; A. heraldica (Mello-Leitão; A. gentilis (Keyserling; A. helvola (Keyserling; A. robusta (Keyserling; A. rubro- maculata (Keyserling; A. striolata (Keyserling; A. subruba (Keyserling; Xiruana affinis (Mello-Leitão; X. gracilipes (Keyserling; X. hirsuta (Mello-Leitão; X. tetraseta (Mello-Leitão; Aljassa annulipes (Caporiacco; A. notata (Keyserling; A. poicila (Chamberlin; A. subpallida(L. Koch; A. venezuelica (Caporiacco; Pippuhana calcar (Bryant; H. donaldi (Chickering; P. unicolor (Keyserling; Hatitia