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Sample records for arm rotated medially

  1. Arm rotated medially with supination – the ARMS variant: description of its surgical correction

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    Melcher Sonya E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients who have suffered obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI have a high incidence of musculoskeletal complications stemming from the initial nerve injury. The presence of muscle imbalances and contractures leads to typical bony changes affecting the shoulder, including the SHEAR (Scapular Hypoplasia, Elevation and Rotation deformity. The SHEAR deformity commonly occurs in conjunction with Medial Rotation Contracture (MRC of the arm. OBPI also causes muscle imbalances at the level of the forearm, that lead to a fixed supination deformity (SD in a small number of patients. Both MRC and SD will cause severe functional limitations without surgical intervention. Methods Fourteen OBPI patients were diagnosed with MRC of the shoulder and SD of the forearm along with SHEAR deformity during a 16 month study period, with eight patients available to long-term follow-up (age range 2.2 – 18 years. Surgical correction of the MRC was performed as a triangle tilt or humeral osteotomy depending on the age of the child, after which, the patients were treated with a radial osteotomy to correct the fixed supination deformity. Function was assessed using the modified Mallet scale, examination of apparent supination and appearance of the extremity at rest. Results Significant functional improvements were observed in patients with surgical reconstruction. Mallet score increased by an average of 5.2 (p Conclusion The simultaneous presence of two opposing deformities in the same limb will visually offset each other at the level of the wrist and hand, giving the false impression of neutral positioning of the limb. In reality, the neutral-appearing position of the hand indicates a fixed supination posture of the forearm in the face of a medial rotation contracture of the shoulder. Both of these deformities require surgical attention, and the presence of concurrent MRC and SD should be monitored for in OBPI patients.

  2. Injerto libre braquial medial Free medial arm graft

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    P. Martos Díaz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Entre las reconstrucciones de defectos titulares de cabeza y cuello, el injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial no ha adquirido mucha popularidad debido a las variaciones anatómicas que se reflejan en la vascularización de éste. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una descripción de la anatomía y técnica quirúrgica, así como una revisión de la literatura describiendo las ventajas y desventajas de este tipo de injerto. Material y método. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con carcinoma epidermoide de mucosa yugal izquierda con afectación ganglionar ipsilateral. Se procedió a su resección con márgenes más disección cervical funcional. La reconstrucción del defecto se llevó a cabo mediante un injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial de brazo izquierdo. Discusión. Pensamos que el injerto libre braquial medial de brazo se trata de una opción más segura a la hora de la reconstrucción de defectos cervicofaciales, aportando una serie de ventajas entre las que destacan: no sacrificio de una arteria terminal, cierre primario de la zona donante, mínimo defecto estético, y poseer una piel fina, elástica y sin vello.Introduction. Free medial microvascularized arm grafts have not become very popular for the reconstruction of head and neck defects due to anatomic variations in their vascularization. Our objective was to describe the anatomy and surgical technique and to review the literature on the advantages and disadvantages of free medial arm grafts. Material and methods. We report the case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the left jugal mucosa with same-side lymph node involvement. The tumor was resected with margins and a functional cervical dissection was performed. The defect was reconstructed using a free medial microvascularized graft from the left arm. Discussion. We believe that free medial arm grafts are a safer option for the reconstruction of cervicofacial defects and that they offer

  3. Injerto libre braquial medial Free medial arm graft

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Introducción. Entre las reconstrucciones de defectos titulares de cabeza y cuello, el injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial no ha adquirido mucha popularidad debido a las variaciones anatómicas que se reflejan en la vascularización de éste. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una descripción de la anatomía y técnica quirúrgica, así como una revisión de la literatura describiendo las ventajas y desventajas de este tipo de injerto. Material y método. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con ...

  4. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

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    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On galaxy spiral arms' nature as revealed by rotation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca-Fabrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio; Figueras, Francesca; Romero-Gomez, Merce; Velazquez, Hector; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Pichardo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred discs present spiral arms nearly corotating with disc particles, strong barred models (bulge

  6. Effects of rotation amplitude on arm movement when rotating a spherical object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Julien; Beurier, Georges; Wang, Xuguang

    2012-01-01

    Arm movements when rotating a spherical object were experimentally investigated. Twelve volunteers participated in the experiment and were asked to rotate a sphere for a large range of amplitude. Results showed that subjects anticipated their posture at the beginning of object manipulation even for low rotation amplitudes. The way of anticipation strongly depended on rotation direction. The end-state comfort hypothesis, effects of joint limits and principle of minimum work were examined for explaining motion control. The anticipation would ensure a better end-state comfort while avoiding joint limits in case of higher amplitude of object rotation. Meanwhile, it should not deteriorate the comfort at the beginning of manipulation too much. High postural variability for low rotation amplitude tasks suggested that there might exist a range of postures of similar level of comfort. These findings will be useful in developing human behaviour-based motion simulations for digital human. Arm movement was investigated when rotating a spherical object with a large range of amplitude. The end-state comfort hypothesis, effects of joint limits and principle of minimum work were examined for explaining motion control. Results will be helpful for a better design of rotary controls and for developing motion simulation algorithms.

  7. Rotational alignment of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty is better at the medial third of tibial tuberosity than at the medial border

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    Günther Klaus-Peter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial component is an important factor for successful TKA. The transepicondylar axis is widely accepted as a reference for the femoral component. There is not a standard reference for the tibial component. CT scans were used in this study to measure which of 2 tibial landmarks most reliably reproduces a correct femoro-tibial rotational alignment in TKA. Methods 80 patients received a cemented, unconstrained, cruciate-retaining TKA with a rotating platform. CT scans were performed 5-7 days postoperatively but before discharge. The rotational mismatch between the femoral and tibial components was measured. Furthermore, the rotational variance between the transepicondylar line, as a reference for the orientation of the femoral component and different tibial landmarks, was measured. Results There was notable rotational mismatch between the femoral and tibial components. The median mismatch was 0° (range: 16.2 degrees relative external to 14.4 degrees relative internal rotation of the femoral component. Using the transepicondylar line as a reference for femoral rotational alignment and the medial third of the tuberosity as a reference for tibial rotational alignment, 67.5% of all TKA had a femoro-tibial variance within ± 5 degrees, 85% within ± 10 degrees and 97.5% within ± 20 degrees. Using the medial border of the tibial tubercle as a reference this variance was greater, only 3.8% had a femoro-tibial variance within ± 5 degrees, 15% within ± 10 degrees and 68.8% within ± 20 degrees. Conclusion Using fixed bone landmarks for rotational alignment leads to a notable variance between femoral and tibial components. Referencing the tibial rotation on a line from the medial third of the tibial tubercle to the center of the tibial tray resulted in a better femoro-tibial rotational alignment than using the medial border of tibial tubercle as a landmark. Surgeons using fixed bearings

  8. Surgical correction of unsuccessful derotational humeral osteotomy in obstetric brachial plexus palsy: Evidence of the significance of scapular deformity in the pathophysiology of the medial rotation contracture

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    Melcher Sonya E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current method of treatment for persistent internal rotation due to the medial rotation contracture in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury is humeral derotational osteotomy. While this procedure places the arm in a more functional position, it does not attend to the abnormal glenohumeral joint. Poor positioning of the humeral head secondary to elevation and rotation of the scapula and elongated acromion impingement causes functional limitations which are not addressed by derotation of the humerus. Progressive dislocation, caused by the abnormal positioning and shape of the scapula and clavicle, needs to be treated more directly. Methods Four patients with Scapular Hypoplasia, Elevation And Rotation (SHEAR deformity who had undergone unsuccessful humeral osteotomies to treat internal rotation underwent acromion and clavicular osteotomy, ostectomy of the superomedial border of the scapula and posterior capsulorrhaphy in order to relieve the torsion developed in the acromio-clavicular triangle by persistent asymmetric muscle action and medial rotation contracture. Results Clinical examination shows significant improvement in the functional movement possible for these four children as assessed by the modified Mallet scoring, definitely improving on what was achieved by humeral osteotomy. Conclusion These results reveal the importance of recognizing the presence of scapular hypoplasia, elevation and rotation deformity before deciding on a treatment plan. The Triangle Tilt procedure aims to relieve the forces acting on the shoulder joint and improve the situation of the humeral head in the glenoid. Improvement in glenohumeral positioning should allow for better functional movements of the shoulder, which was seen in all four patients. These dramatic improvements were only possible once the glenohumeral deformity was directly addressed surgically.

  9. Variation in External Rotation Moment Arms among Subregions of Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, and Teres Minor Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Langenderfer, Joseph E.; Patthanacharoenphon, Cameron; Carpenter, James E.; Hughes, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    A rotator cuff tear causes morphologic changes in rotator cuff muscles and tendons and reduced shoulder strength. The mechanisms by which these changes affect joint strength are not understood. This study’s purpose was to empirically determine rotation moment arms for subregions of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and for teres minor, and to test the hypothesis that subregions of the cuff tendons increase their effective moment arms through connections to other subregions. Tendon excursions were...

  10. Medial rotation deformity of the hip in cerebral palsy: Surgical treatment by transposition of gluteal muscles

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    Čobeljić Goran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Medial rotation deformity of the hip is a problem to patients who are handicapped by cerebral palsy but able to walk, because the knees point inward during gait („kissing patellae" and cause falls and frequent injuries. Knees and ankles are subject to stress and, therefore, they assume compensating positions. Lower legs assume position of valgus and external rotation, whereas feet rotate either inwards or outwards. Secondary deformities make gait more difficult and cause rapid tear of footwear. AIM The purpose of the paper was to retrospectively analyze the effects of transposition of the gluteus medius and minimus muscles, a procedure introduced for the first time in our country in order to correct the deformity. A new method of binding the muscles by wire was described. There had been no previous experience with this method. METHOD This operation was indicated in patients with spastic form of cerebral palsy, who were able to walk, who had difficulties in gait and whose lateral rotation was less than 10° along with the medial rotation of over 70° of the hip on the side of the deformity. Additional prerequisite for the operation was the absence of flexion contracture of more than 15° of either the hip or the knee on the side of deformity, as there is possibility of aggravation of the flexion hip deformity due to transposed gluteal muscles (now in front of the hip joint. Fifteen hips of 10 patients were operated on. Five patients were operated on bilaterally at one time. The average age was 8 (6-12 years. The majority of patients, 8 (80% were aged between 6 and 8. The average follow-up was 5 years (3-8. The assessment of the results was based on the comparison of rotational abilities of both hips before and after the operation (in unilateral and bilateral deformities, as well as on individual complaints before and after the operation. In patients with unilateral deformity, their „healthy" hips were the control hips. The

  11. Three-Dimensional Eye Position Signals Shape Both Peripersonal Space and Arm Movement Activity in the Medial Posterior Parietal Cortex.

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    Kostas eHadjidimitrakis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted over the last decades has established that the medial part of posterior parietal cortex is crucial for controlling visually guided actions in human and non-human primates. Within this cortical sector there is area V6A, a crucial node of the parietofrontal network involved in arm movement control in both monkeys and humans. However, the encoding of action-in-depth by V6A cells had been not studied till recently. Recent neurophysiological studies show the existence in V6A neurons of signals related to the distance of targets from the eyes. These signals are integrated, often at the level of single cells, with information about the direction of gaze, thus encoding spatial location in 3D space. Moreover, 3D eye position signals seem to be further exploited at two additional levels of neural processing: a in determining whether targets are located in the peripersonal space or not, and b in shaping the spatial tuning of arm movement related activity towards reachable targets. These findings are in line with studies in putative homolog regions in humans and together point to a role of medial posterior parietal cortex in encoding both the vergence angle of the eyes and peripersonal space. Besides this role in spatial encoding also in depth, several findings demonstrate the involvement of this cortical sector in non-spatial processes.

  12. Arm Abduction Provides a Better Reduction of the Bankart Lesion During Immobilization in External Rotation After an Initial Shoulder Dislocation.

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    Itoi, Eiji; Kitamura, Toshio; Hitachi, Shin; Hatta, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Sano, Hirotaka

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder dislocation often recurs, especially in the younger population. Immobilization in external rotation, in which a Bankart lesion is displaced in the anterior, medial, and inferior directions, was introduced as a new method of nonoperative treatment, but its clinical efficiency is controversial. In terms of reducing the lesion, it is reasonable to incorporate not only external rotation, which makes the anterior soft tissues tight to push the lesion posteriorly and laterally, but also abduction, which makes the inferior soft tissues tight to push the lesion superiorly. Abducting the arm during immobilization in external rotation will improve the reduction of a Bankart lesion. Controlled laboratory study. There were 37 patients with initial shoulder dislocation enrolled in this study. After reduction, MRI was taken in 4 positions of the shoulder: adduction and internal rotation (Add-IR), adduction and external rotation (Add-ER), 30° of abduction and 30° of external rotation (Abd-30ER), and 30° of abduction and 60° of external rotation (Abd-60ER). On radial slices, the separation, displacement of the labrum, and opening angle of the capsule were measured. Add-ER improved the reduction of the anterior labrum but not the inferior labrum when compared with Add-IR. Both Abd-30ER and Abd-60ER improved the reduction of the inferior labrum as compared with Add-IR. Furthermore, Abd-60ER improved the reduction more than Add-ER. Among the 4 positions tested, Abd-60ER is the best position in terms of reducing the Bankart lesion. Abducting the shoulder during immobilization in external rotation is demonstrated to improve the reduction of the Bankart lesion. Therefore, this position is expected to reduce the recurrence rate after initial dislocation of the shoulder. Future clinical trials are necessary. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. INVESTIGATION OF STRESSES IN ARM TYPE ROTATING FLYWHEEL

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    S. M. Dhengle

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many causes of flywheel failure. Among them, maximum tensile and bending stresses induced in the rim and tensile stresses induced in the arm under the action of centrifugal forces are the main causes of flywheel failure. Hence in this work evaluation of stresses in the rim and arm are studied using finite element method and results are validated by analytical calculations .The models of flywheel having four, six and eight no. arms are developed for FE analysis. The FE analysis is carried out for different cases of loading applied on the flywheel and the maximum Von mises stresses and deflection in the rim are determined. From this analysis it is found that Maximum stresses induced are in the rim and arm junction. Due to tangential forces, maximum bending stresses occurs near the hub end of the arm. It is also observed that for low angular velocity the effect gravity on stresses and deflection of rim and arm is predominant.

  14. Fast rotating group of stars observed in Gaia TGAS: a signature driven by the Perseus arm?

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Jason A S; Monari, Giacomo; Grand, Robert J J; Famaey, Benoit; Siebert, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    We report on the detection of a small overdensity of stars in velocity space with systematically higher Galactocentric rotation velocity than the Sun by about 20 km s$^{-1}$ in the $Gaia$ Data Release 1 Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution (TGAS) data. We find the fast rotating group of stars more clearly outside of the Solar radius, compared to inside of the Solar radius. In addition, the velocity of the fast rotating group is independent of the Galactocentric distance up to $R-R_{\\odot}\\sim 0.6$ kpc. Comparing with numerical models, we discuss that a possible cause of this feature is the co-rotation resonance of the Perseus spiral arm, where the stars in peri-centre phase in the trailing side of the Perseus spiral arm experience an extended period of acceleration owing to the torque from the Perseus arm.

  15. On the Galactic Spiral Arms Nature as revealed by rotation frequencies

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    Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Figueras, Francesca; Romero-Gómez, Mercè; Velázquez, Hector; Antoja, Teresa; Pichardo, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    High resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred disks present spiral arms nearly corotatingwith disk particles, strong barred models (bulged or bulge-less) quickly develop a bar-spiral structure dominant in density, with a pattern speed almost constant in radius. As the bar strength decreases the arm departs from bar rigid rotation and behaves similar to the unbarred case. In strong barred models we detect in the frequency space other subdominant and slower modes at large radii, in agreement with previous studies, however we also detect them in the configuration space. We propose that the distinctive behaviour of the dominant spiral modes can be exploited in order to constraint the nature of Galactic spiral arms by the astrometric survey GAIA and by 2-D spectroscopic surveys like CALIFA and MANGA in external galaxies.

  16. The effect of hip rotation on shear elastic modulus of the medial and lateral hamstrings during stretching.

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    Umegaki, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nishishita, Satoru; Kobayashi, Takuya; Fujita, Kosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2015-02-01

    Regarding hamstring stretching methods, many studies have investigated the effect of stretching duration or frequency on muscle stiffness. However, the most effective stretching positions for hamstrings are unclear because it is impossible to quantify muscle elongation directly and noninvasively in vivo. Recently, a new ultrasound technology, ultrasonic shear wave elastography, has permitted noninvasive and reliable measurement of muscle shear elastic modulus, which has a strong linear relationship to the amount of muscle elongation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hip internal and external rotation on shear elastic modulus of the lateral and medial hamstrings, respectively, during stretching in vivo using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Twenty-three healthy men (age, 23.0 ± 2.1 years) were recruited for this study. To investigate the effect of hip rotation on the elongation of the medial and lateral hamstrings, shear elastic modulus of the biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) was measured at rest (a supine position with 90° knee flexion, 90° hip flexion, and hip neutral rotation) and in seven stretching positions (with 45° knee flexion and hip internal, external, and neutral rotation) using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. In both BF and ST, the shear elastic modulus in the rest position was significantly lower than that in all stretching positions. However, no significant differences were seen among stretching positions. Our results suggest that adding hip rotation at a stretching position for the hamstrings may not have a significant effect on muscle elongation of the medial and lateral hamstrings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The rotate-plus-shift C-arm trajectory: Complete CT data with less than 180{\\deg} rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Ritschl, Ludwig; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade C-arm-based cone-beam CT became a widely used modality for intraoperative imaging. Typically a C-arm scan is performed using a circle-like trajectory around a region of interest. Therefor an angular range of at least 180{\\deg} plus fan-angle must be covered to ensure a completely sampled data set. This fact defines some constraints on the geometry and technical specifications of a C-arm system, for example a larger C radius or a smaller C opening respectively. These technical modifications are usually not benificial in terms of handling and usability of the C-arm during classical 2D applications like fluoroscopy. The method proposed in this paper relaxes the constraint of 180{\\deg} plus fan-angle rotation to acquire a complete data set. The proposed C-arm trajectory requires a motorization of the orbital axis of the C and of ideally two orthogonal axis in the C plane. The trajectory consists of three parts: A rotation of the C around a defined iso-center and two translational movements para...

  18. Medial grasping sutures significantly improve load to failure of the rotator cuff suture bridge repair.

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    Awwad, George E; Eng, Kevin; Bain, Gregory I; McGuire, Duncan; Jones, Claire F

    2014-05-01

    The suture bridge (SB) transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair reduces re-tear rates compared with single-row or other double-row constructs. However, failure rates continue to be high, especially in large and massive tears. The aim of this study was to assess the biomechanical performance of a new SB repair with use of a medial grasping suture compared with the traditional SB repair. Seven matched pairs of sheep infraspinatus tendons were randomly assigned to either SB or suture bridge with grasping suture (SBGS) repair. Each construct was subjected to cyclic loading and then loaded until failure under displacement control in a materials testing machine. Footprint displacement, ultimate load to failure, and mode of failure were assessed. The rotator cuff footprint displacement was less during tensile loading with the addition of the medial grasping suture. The ultimate load to failure was significantly greater for the SBGS repair group than for the SB repair group (334.0 N vs 79.8 N). The mode of failure was the tendon pulling off the footprint in all cases (type 1 tear). There were no failures in which the tendon tore at the medial row of anchors, leaving part of the tendon still on the footprint (type 2 tear). The addition of a medial grasping suture significantly improved the ultimate load to failure and reduced the footprint displacement of the SB rotator cuff repair in a biomechanical model. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced small-scale Faraday rotation in the Galactic spiral arms

    CERN Document Server

    Haverkorn, M; Brown, J C; Bizunok, N S; McClure-Griffiths, N M; Dickey, J M; Green, A J; Dickey, John M.

    2006-01-01

    We present an analysis of the rotation measures (RMs) of polarized extragalactic point sources in the Southern Galactic Plane Survey. This work demonstrates that the statistics of fluctuations in RM differ for the spiral arms and the interarm regions. Structure functions of RM are flat in the spiral arms, while they increase in the interarms. This indicates that there are no correlated RM fluctuations in the magneto-ionized interstellar medium in the spiral arms on scales larger than ~ 0.5 deg, corresponding to ~ 17 pc in the nearest spiral arm probed. The non-zero slopes in interarm regions imply a much larger scale of RM fluctuations. We conclude that fluctuations in the magneto-ionic medium in the Milky Way spiral arms are not dominated by the mainly supernova-driven turbulent cascade in the global ISM but are probably due to a different source, most likely H II regions.

  20. Loss of passive external rotation at 90 degrees abduction is predictive of a medially healed Bankart lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Allen; Ramsey, Matthew L; Williams, Gerald R

    2006-07-01

    This prospective study correlates passive range of external rotation with arthroscopic findings in patients with anterior instability for the purpose of defining criteria that can be used to detect a medially healed Bankart lesion. External rotation at 90 degrees abduction (ER90) was assessed on examination with the patient under anesthesia in bilateral shoulders of 46 consecutive patients with unidirectional, anterior glenohumeral instability. Arthroscopy was used to identify 22 patients with a detached Bankart lesion (group I) and 24 patients with a medially healed Bankart lesion (group II). Differences in ER90 between symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders for both groups were compared. The t test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test measured significance. In group I, mean ER90 in the symptomatic shoulder was 5 degrees greater than in the asymptomatic shoulder; in group II, mean ER90 in the symptomatic shoulder was 7.4 degrees less than in the asymptomatic shoulder (P Bankart lesion. If a loss of 5 degrees or more of ER90 in the affected shoulder is found on examination under anesthesia, one should have a high degree of suspicion for the presence of a medially healed Bankart lesion. Level II, development of diagnostic criteria on basis of consecutive patients.

  1. Variation in external rotation moment arms among subregions of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer, Joseph E; Patthanacharoenphon, Cameron; Carpenter, James E; Hughes, Richard E

    2006-08-01

    A rotator cuff tear causes morphologic changes in rotator cuff muscles and tendons and reduced shoulder strength. The mechanisms by which these changes affect joint strength are not understood. This study's purpose was to empirically determine rotation moment arms for subregions of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and for teres minor, and to test the hypothesis that subregions of the cuff tendons increase their effective moment arms through connections to other subregions. Tendon excursions were measured for full ranges of rotation on 10 independent glenohumeral specimens with the humerus abducted in the scapular plane at 10 and 60 degrees . Supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons were divided into equal width subregions. Two conditions were tested: tendon divided to the musculotendinous junction, and tendon divided to the insertion on the humerus. Moment arms were determined from tendon excursion via the principle of virtual work. Moment arms for the infraspinatus (p muscle subregions and for tendon division conditions have clinical implications. Interaction between cuff regions could explain why some subjects retain strength after a small cuff tear. This finding helps explain why a partial cuff repair may be beneficial when a complete repair is not possible. Data presented here can help differentiate between cuff tear cases that would benefit from cuff repair and cases for which cuff repair might not be as favorable.

  2. Acute Effects of Foot Rotation in Healthy Adults during Running on Knee Moments and Lateral-Medial Shear Force

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    Kevin A. Valenzuela, Scott K. Lynn, Guillermo J. Noffal, Lee E. Brown

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As runners age, the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis (OA significantly increases as 10% of people 55+ have symptomatic knee OA while 70% of people 65+ have radiographic signs of knee OA. The lateral-medial shear force (LMF and knee adduction moment (KAM during gait have been associated with cartilage loading which can lead to OA. Foot rotation during gait has been shown to alter the LMF and KAM, however it has not been investigated in running. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the KAM and LMF with foot rotation during running. Twenty participants volunteered and performed five running trials in three randomized conditions (normal foot position [NORM], external rotation [EXT], and internal rotation [INT] at a running speed of 3.35m·s-1 on a 20 meter runway. Kinematic and kinetic data were gathered using a 9-camera motion capture system and a force plate, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVAs determined differences between conditions. The KAM and LMF were lower in both EXT and INT conditions compared to the NORM, but there were no differences between EXT and INT conditions. The decreases in KAM and LMF in the EXT condition were expected and concur with past research in other activities. The reductions in the INT condition were unexpected and contradict the literature. This may indicate that participants are making mechanical compensations at other joints to reduce the KAM and LMF in this abnormal internal foot rotation condition.

  3. Faulting and block rotation in the Afar triangle, East Africa: The Danakil "crank-arm" model

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    Souriot, T.; Brun, J.-P.

    1992-10-01

    Several domains of contrasted extensional deformation have been identified in the southern Afar triangle (East Africa) from fault patterns analyzed with panchromatic stereoscopic SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) images. Stretching directions and statistical orientation and offset variations of faults fit with the Danakii "crank-arm" model of Sichler: A 10° sinistral rotation of the Danakil block explains the fault geometry and dextral block rotation in the southern part of the Afar triangle, as well as the oblique extension in the Tadjoura Gulf. Analogue modeling supports this interpretation.

  4. Self-Tuning Vibration Control of a Rotational Flexible Timoshenko Arm Using Neural Networks

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    Minoru Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-tuning vibration control of a rotational flexible arm using neural networks is presented. To the self-tuning control system, the control scheme consists of gain tuning neural networks and a variable-gain feedback controller. The neural networks are trained so as to make the root moment zero. In the process, the neural networks learn the optimal gain of the feedback controller. The feedback controller is designed based on Lyapunov's direct method. The feedback control of the vibration of the flexible system is derived by considering the time rate of change of the total energy of the system. This approach has the advantage over the conventional methods in the respect that it allows one to deal directly with the system's partial differential equations without resorting to approximations. Numerical and experimental results for the vibration control of a rotational flexible arm are discussed. It verifies that the proposed control system is effective at controlling flexible dynamical systems.

  5. Spiral Galaxies - classical description of spiral arms and rotational velocity pattern - toy model

    CERN Document Server

    Lobodzinski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    We propose an explanation of features of spiral galaxies: spiral arms and observed flat rotation curves, without the presence of an exotic form of matter. The formalism is based on Boltzmanns transport equation for the collisional matter and the very-low-velocity post-Newtonian approximation of the general relativity equations expressed in the Maxwell-like form. The Maxwell-like formulation provides the base for the explanation of the above phenomena in the language of dynamically created gravitoelectromagnetic fields by the movement of mass streams in the plane of the galaxy disc. In the model we use radical simplifications expressed as neglect of the gravitational interaction between neighbors and approximation of the incompressible mass flow. In this frame we show that if the galaxy is fuelled constantly by mass from an external gas reservoir, then the amplification of the gravitomagnetic field can be large enough to create the rotational velocity pattern and spiral arms without the necessity of introducin...

  6. Determining the Co-Rotation Radius of Nearby Spiral Galaxies Using Spiral Arm Overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameer Abdeen, Mohamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Shields, Douglas W.; Eufrasio, Rafael; Berlanga Medina, Jazmin; Monson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Density wave theory, originally proposed by C.C. Lin and Frank Shu (Lin & Shu 1964), views the spiral arm structures in spiral galaxies as density waves that propagates through the galactic disk. Resonances within orbits create standing wave patterns of density waves that we observe as spiral arms. The theory predicts the existence of a radius known as the co-rotation radius in which the spiral arm pattern speed matches the velocities of the stars within the disk. We introduce a novel way of determining the co-rotation radius, based on an image overlaying technique, which involves tracing the arms of spiral galaxies on images observed from different wavelengths. For the purpose of this study, 12 nearby galaxies were analyzed from four different wavelengths using pitch angle measurements from a previous study (Hamed et al. 2016). We used optical wavelength images (B-Band,440 nm), two infrared wavelength (Infrared; 3.6 µm and 8 µm) Spitzer Space Telescope images and ultraviolet images from GALEX. The results were verified by checking against results compiled from the literature.

  7. Biomechanical Performance of Medial Row Suture Placement Relative to the Musculotendinous Junction in Transosseous Equivalent Suture Bridge Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mandeep S; Bruce, Benjamin; Hussey, Kristen E; Thomas, Jacqueline M; Luthringer, Tyler A; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Wang, Vincent M; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J

    2017-02-01

    To compare the biomechanical performance of medial row suture placement relative to the musculotendinous junction (MTJ) in a cadaveric transosseous equivalent suture bridge (TOE-SB) double-row (DR) rotator cuff repair (RCR) model. A TOE-SB DR technique was used to reattach experimentally created supraspinatus tendon tears in 9 pairs of human cadaveric shoulders. The medial row sutures were passed either near the MTJ (MTJ group) or 10 mm lateral to the MTJ (rotator cuff tendon [RCT] group). After the supraspinatus repair, the specimens underwent cyclic loading and load to failure tests. The localized displacement of the markers affixed to the tendon surface was measured with an optical tracking system. The MTJ group showed a significantly higher (P = .03) medial row failure (5/9; 3 during cyclic testing and 2 during load to failure testing) compared with the RCT group (0/9). The mean number of cycles completed during cyclic testing was lower in the MTJ group (77) compared with the RCT group (100; P = .07) because 3 specimens failed in the MTJ group during cyclic loading. There were no significant differences between the 2 study groups with respect to biomechanical properties during the load to failure testing. In a cadaveric TOE-SB DR RCR model, medial row sutures through the MTJ results in a significantly higher rate of medial row failure. In rotator cuff tears with tendon tissue loss, passage of medial row sutures through the MTJ should be avoided in a TOE-SB RCR technique because of the risk of medial row failure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Development and Feasibility Assessment of a Rotational Orthosis for Walking with Arm Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Juan; Xie, Qing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Xie, Le

    2017-01-01

    Interlimb neural coupling might underlie human bipedal locomotion, which is reflected in the fact that people swing their arms synchronously with leg movement in normal gait. Therefore, arm swing should be included in gait training to provide coordinated interlimb performance. The present study aimed to develop a Rotational Orthosis for Walking with Arm Swing (ROWAS), and evaluate its feasibility from the perspectives of implementation, acceptability and responsiveness. We developed the mechanical structures of the ROWAS system in SolidWorks, and implemented the concept in a prototype. Normal gait data were used as the reference performance of the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints of the prototype. The ROWAS prototype was tested for function assessment and further evaluated using five able-bodied subjects for user feedback. The ROWAS prototype produced coordinated performance in the upper and lower limbs, with joint profiles similar to those occurring in normal gait. The subjects reported a stronger feeling of walking with arm swing than without. The ROWAS system was deemed feasible according to the formal assessment criteria.

  9. Optimal C-arm angulation during transcatheter aortic valve replacement: Accuracy of a rotational C-arm computed tomography based three dimensional heart model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veulemans, Verena; Mollus, Sabine; Saalbach, Axel; Pietsch, Max; Hellhammer, Katharina; Zeus, Tobias; Westenfeld, Ralf; Weese, Jürgen; Kelm, Malte; Balzer, Jan

    2016-10-26

    To investigate the accuracy of a rotational C-arm CT-based 3D heart model to predict an optimal C-arm configuration during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Rotational C-arm CT (RCT) under rapid ventricular pacing was performed in 57 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis as part of the pre-procedural cardiac catheterization. With prototype software each RCT data set was segmented using a 3D heart model. From that the line of perpendicularity curve was obtained that generates a perpendicular view of the aortic annulus according to the right-cusp rule. To evaluate the accuracy of a model-based overlay we compared model- and expert-derived aortic root diameters. For all 57 patients in the RCT cohort diameter measurements were obtained from two independent operators and were compared to the model-based measurements. The inter-observer variability was measured to be in the range of 0°-12.96° of angular C-arm displacement for two independent operators. The model-to-operator agreement was 0°-13.82°. The model-based and expert measurements of aortic root diameters evaluated at the aortic annulus (r = 0.79, P r = 0.93, P r = 0.92, P < 0.01) correlated on a high level and the Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement. The interobserver measurements did not show a significant bias. Automatic segmentation of the aortic root using an anatomical model can accurately predict an optimal C-arm configuration, potentially simplifying current clinical workflows before and during TAVR.

  10. Development of an automatic rotational orthosis for walking with arm swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Juan; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Xie, Le

    2017-07-01

    Interlimb neural coupling is often observed during normal gait and is postulated to be important for gait restoration. In order to provide a testbed for investigation of interlimb neural coupling, we previously developed a rotational orthosis for walking with arm swing (ROWAS). The present study aimed to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a new system, viz. an automatic ROWAS (aROWAS). We developed the mechanical structures of aROWAS in SolidWorks, and implemented the concept in a prototype. Normal gait data from walking at various speeds were used as reference trajectories of the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints. The aROWAS prototype was tested in three able-bodied subjects. The prototype could automatically adjust to size and height, and automatically produced adaptable coordinated performance in the upper and lower limbs, with joint profiles similar to those occurring in normal gait. The subjects reported better acceptance in aROWAS than in ROWAS. The aROWAS system was deemed feasible among able-bodied subjects.

  11. Effect of elbow flexion, forearm rotation and upper arm abduction on MVC grip and grip endurance time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Mohd; Khan, Abid Ali

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was designed to know the effect of upper limb postural deviations on grip strength and grip endurance time. A full factorial design of experiment, i.e., 3 (0°, 45°, 90° abduction angles of upper arm) × 3 (45°, 90°, 135° angles of elbow flexion) × 3 (0°, -60° prone, +60° supine angles of forearm rotation) was used to find the effect of 27 combinations of postures on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) grip strength and grip endurance time. The results showed that none of the main factors were significant on MVC grip, although there was a change in MVC grip. Grip endurance time significantly decreased with an increase in upper arm abduction. Also, grip endurance significantly increased with the elbow flexion angle and decreased with forearm rotation from neutral. These data will help designers and engineers to improve the workplace and tools to reduce the risk of injuries.

  12. Dynamic Model of a Rotating Flexible Arm-Flexible Root Mechanism Driven by a Shaft Flexible in Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic model of a rotating flexible beam carrying a payload at its tip. The model accounts for the driving shaft and the arm root flexibilities. The finite element method and the Lagrangian dynamics are used in deriving the equations of motion with the small deformation theory assumptions and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The obtained model is a nonlinear-coupled system of differential equations. The model is simulated for different combinations of shaft and root flexibilities and arm properties. The simulation results showed that the root flexibility is an important factor that should be considered in association with the arm and shaft flexibilities, as its dynamics influence the motor motion. Moreover, the effect of system non-linearity on the dynamic behavior is investigated by simulating the equivalent linearized system and it was found to be an important factor that should be considered, particularly when designing a control strategy for practical implementation.

  13. Changes in Shoulder External Rotator Muscle Activity during Shoulder External Rotation in Various Arm Positions in the Sagittal Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jun-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate changes in electromyographic (EMG) activity of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles during shoulder external rotation under different shoulder flexion angles. [Subjects] Thirteen participants were included in this study. [Methods] The participants performed isometric shoulder external rotation at 45°, 90°, and 135° of shoulder flexion. A surface EMG system recorded the EMG activity of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles...

  14. Rotator cuff degeneration of the healthy shoulder in patients with unilateral arm amputation is not worsened by overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumina, S; Candela, V; Mariani, L; Venditto, T; Catalano, C; Castellano, S; Santilli, V; Giannicola, G; Castagna, A

    2017-07-13

    In order to evaluate whether overuse has a significant role in rotator cuff tear (RCT) aetiology, we evaluated both shoulders of patients with old unilateral arm amputation expecting a higher rate of RC degeneration in the healthy side. Nineteen males and six females (mean age: 57.3 ± 10.1) with an old (>20 years) unilateral arm amputation were submitted to an MRI of both shoulders. Tendon status and muscle tropism were evaluated according to Sugaya and Fuchs classifications, respectively; the acromion humeral distance was measured. Statistical analysis was performed to verify the prevalence of Sugaya and Fuchs categories in each sides. A significant prevalence of Sugaya type II in the amputated side (p = 0.02) and of type I in the healthy side (p Rotator cuff was healthy in 28 and 52% of amputated and non-amputated side, respectively. The mean acromio-humeral distances of the amputated and healthy side were 0.8 cm (SD: 0.1) and 0.9 cm (SD: 0.1), respectively, (p = 0.02). A significant prevalence of Fuchs type II category in the healthy side (p Cuff tear prevalence in not amputated shoulders, inevitably submitted to functional overload, was not higher than that of coetaneous subjects with two functional upper limbs. Shoulder non-use is a risk factor for rotator cuff tear. As the prevalence of rotator cuff degeneration/tear is higher in the amputee side, non-use is a more relevant risk factor than overuse. In the daily clinical practice, patients with rotator cuff tear should be encouraged to shoulder movement because rotator cuff tendon status could be worsened by disuse. III.

  15. The influence of induced shoulder muscle pain on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle activity during elevation of the arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Parlevliet, Thierry; Cagnie, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Altered recruitment of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles has been identified in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. To date, however, the cause-consequence relationship between pain and altered muscle recruitment has not been fully unraveled. The effect of experimental shoulder pain induced by injection of hypertonic saline in the supraspinatus on the activity of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, trapezius, and serratus anterior activity was investigated during the performance of an elevation task by use of muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging in 25 healthy individuals. Measurements were taken at 4 levels (C6-C7, T2-T3, T3-T4, and T6-T7) at rest and after the elevation task performed without and with experimental shoulder pain. During arm elevation, experimentally induced pain caused a significant activity reduction, expressed as reduction in T2 shift of the IS (P = .029). No significant changes in T2 shift values were found for the other rotator cuff muscles or the scapulothoracic muscles. This study demonstrates that acute experimental shoulder pain has an inhibitory effect on the activity of the IS during arm elevation. Acute experimental shoulder pain did not seem to influence the scapulothoracic muscle activity significantly. The findings suggest that rotator cuff muscle function (infraspinatus) should be a consideration in the early management of patients with shoulder pain. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 臂内侧平行四边形游离皮瓣修复手指完全套状撕脱伤%Reconstruction of totally degloved fingers with a spiraled parallelogram medial arm free flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池征璘; 杨鹏; 宋达疆

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic results of completely degloved digital injury using a parallelogram free flap from the medial arm in a spiral fashion.Methods From January 2011 to June 2013,13 defects in 13 patients with non-replantable degloved digital injury were treated with a parallelogram free flap from the medial arm in a spiral fashion.The longitudinal axis of the flap was along the line from the axilla to the medial humeral epicondyle.The medial brachial cutaneous nerve of the arm was harvested for sensory restoration.The non-replantable degloved finger was reconstructed with the medial arm flap in a spiral fashion.The digital artery and dorsal veins were prepared as the recipient pedicle,and the medial brachial cutaneous nerve was sutured to the digital nerve stump.All the wounds at the donor sites were closed directly.Results The dimension of the flaps ranged from 5.0 cm × 2.0 cm to 7.5 cm × 4.0 cm.Excetp for one partial flap loss,all the other flaps survived uneventfully with conservative therapy.The static 2-point discrimination test varied from 6 to 13 mm.No linear scar contracture was recorded in these patients.All the patients were satisfied with the overall results.Conclusions Resurfacing the defect in a spiral fashion is a valuable and reliable technique for the reconstruction of complete finger degloved injuries.The medial arm flap is a good option for this procedure,with satisfactory functional recovery and good aesthetic restoration.%目的 介绍带感觉臂内侧平行四边形游离皮瓣螺旋式修复手指完全套状撕脱伤的手术方法和临床效果.方法 2011年1月至2013年6月,收治13例手指完全套状撕脱伤,以不同来源的穿支为蒂切取皮瓣,皮瓣轴线为上臂内侧肌间隔,即背阔肌止点下4 cm处与肱骨内上髁后缘的连线,臂内侧皮神经及其营养血管网一并携带于皮瓣内,将皮瓣螺旋式覆盖手指套状撕脱伤创面,皮瓣血管蒂与指固有动脉或指总动脉

  17. Application of medial upper arm flap in the treatment of large area of scar and black nevus on face%上臂内侧扩张皮瓣修复面部大面积瘢痕和黑痣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于燕; 徐红霞; 邹曰坤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To introduce the application of medial upper arm flap in the treatment of large area of scar and black nevus on face. Methods From December 2009 to July 2011, 16 patients with large area of scar and black nevus on face were performed face reconstruction using medial upper arm flap. Of all the cases, 14 patients were diagnosed as scar on face,2 patients were diagnosed as black nevus on face. 13 patients were male,3 patients were female, ranging in age from 18 to 36. A tissue expander was placed in the medial arm region and serially inflated for approximately 3 months. Second,delaying of skin flap was performed. Then.the pedicle skin flap was transferred to the face. The pedicle was divided 3 weeks later, and the flap was used to resurface the facial defect. Results All the flap were safely transferred. The color of the flap was close to the surrounding skin. The dragging deformity by scar were corrected. With 6 to 12 months' follow-up, the appearance were good. Conclusion Medial upper arm flap was a good option for reconstruction of massive facial defects.%目的:介绍上臂内侧扩张皮瓣修复面部瘢痕、黑痣的方法.方法:2009年12月~2011年7月,共16例面部大面积瘢痕或黑痣患者采用上臂内侧皮瓣进行修复,其中面部瘢痕患者14例,面部黑痣2例,男性13例,女性3例,年龄18 ~ 36岁.手术分三期进行,一期在面部病变同侧上臂植入扩张器,持续注水约3个月,二期行皮瓣延迟术,三期将上臂内侧皮瓣带蒂转移,病变切除.四期断蒂.结果:16例患者皮瓣均成活良好,皮瓣颜色接近面部周围皮肤,局部瘢痕牵拉畸形者亦改善明显,随访6~12个月,修复效果满意.结论:上臂内侧皮瓣为修复面部大面积皮肤病变的良好选择.

  18. Comparison of self-report and interview administration methods based on the Brazilian versions of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire in patients with rotator cuff disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Diniz Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare self-report and interview administration methods using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH in patients with rotator cuff disorders. METHODS: Thirty male and female patients over 18 years of age with rotator cuff disorders (tendinopathy or rotator cuff tear and Brazilian Portuguese as their primary language were recruited for assessment via administration of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire. A randomization method was used to determine whether the questionnaires would be self-reported (n=15 or administered by an interviewer (n=15. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the correlation between the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire in each group. The t-test was used to determine whether the difference in mean questionnaire scores and administration time was statistically significant. For statistical analysis, the level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The mean subject age was 55.07 years, ranging from 27 to 74 years. Most patients had a diagnosis of tendinopathy (n=21. With regard to level of schooling, the majority (n=26 of subjects had completed a college degree or higher. The mean questionnaire scores and administration times did not significantly differ between the two groups (p>0.05. There were statistically significant correlations (p<0.05 between Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire, and strong correlations were found between the questionnaires in both groups. CONCLUSION: There are no differences between the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire administration methods with regard to administration time or correlations between the

  19. Muscle contributions to elbow joint rotational stiffness in preparation for sudden external arm perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W R; Keir, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Understanding joint stiffness and stability is beneficial for assessing injury risk. The purpose of this study was to examine joint rotational stiffness for individual muscles contributing to elbow joint stability. Fifteen male participants maintained combinations of three body orientations (standing, supine, sitting) and three hand preloads (no load, solid tube, fluid filled tube) while a device imposed a sudden elbow extension. Elbow angle and activity from nine muscles were inputs to a biomechanical model to determine relative contributions to elbow joint rotational stiffness, reported as percent of total stiffness. A body orientation by preload interaction was evident for most muscles (Pelbow perturbations, found that forearm muscles contribute marginally and showed that orientation and preload should be considered when evaluating elbow joint stiffness and safety.

  20. Dust Penetrated Arm Classes: Insights from rising and falling rotation curves

    CERN Document Server

    Seigar, M S; Puerari, I; Chorney, N E; James, P A

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade, near-infrared imaging has highlighted the decoupling of gaseous and old stellar disks: the morphologies of optical (Population I) tracers compared to the old stellar disk morphology, can be radically different. Galaxies which appear multi-armed and even flocculent in the optical may show significant Grand-Design spirals in the near-infrared. Furthermore, the optically determined Hubble classification scheme does not provide a sound way of classifying dust-penetrated stellar disks: spiral arm pitch angles (when measured in the near-infrared) do not correlate with Hubble type. The dust--penetrated classification scheme of Block & Puerari provides an alternative classification based on near-infrared morphology, and which is thus more closely linked to the dominant stellar mass component. Here we present near--infrared K band images of 14 galaxies, on which we have performed a Fourier analysis of the spiral structure in order to determine their near-infrared pitch angles and dust--penetrat...

  1. Musculo-nasomucosal unit with complete lateral bony freeing and medial rotation for ideal C-shape restoration and retropositioning of the levator veli palatini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shazly, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    No definitive procedure for cleft repair has been identified yet as the gold standard. Accordingly, this work tried to appraise the hypothesis that if the bony detachment and full retropositioning of the levator veli palatini muscle can ideally present an anatomical C-shape muscular sling restoration and if this is accompanied with pushback palatoplasty, would this present a better result in terms of tissue fistulation and phonetic impairment? A series of 74 different degrees of palatal clefts were operated by pushback palatoplasty combined with a modified approach of the levator vili palatini. This muscle was dissected only from the oral mucosa while kept attached to the nasal one as a musculo-nasomucosal unit. This unit was completely detached from the bony margin of the hard palate and then medially rotated and retropositioned in a typical C-shape mobile sling. Evaluations included suture line assessment and fistula development, and following the child's need for speech therapy. There were no intraoperative complications. Definite anterior fistulae with nasal air and foot leakage were observed in 2 cases. Four cases had postoperative velopharyngeal incompetence with a need for speech therapy. Tension-free closure, lower risk of fistula, good restoration of velopharyngeal functions, ability to be performed on all cleft types, ability to provide a good intraoperative exposure, and being a single stage seem to be the most important advantages of this unpublished technique.

  2. Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Norimasa; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive torque effects, and gain a detailed knowledge about inter-segmental interaction within a multi-joint linked chain. The throwing movements of eight collegiate baseball pitchers were recorded by a motion capture system, and induced-acceleration analysis was used to assess the respective contributions of the muscular (MUS) and interactive torques associated with gyroscopic moment (GYR), and Coriolis (COR) and centrifugal forces (CEN) to maximum angular velocities of IR (MIRV) and PR (MPRV). The results showed that the contribution of MUS account for 98.0% of MIRV, while that contribution to MPRV was indicated as negative (-48.1%). It was shown that MPRV depends primarily on the interactive torques associated with GYR and CEN, but the effects of GYR, COR and CEN on MIRV are negligible. In conclusion, rapid PR motion during pitching is created by passive-effect, and is likely a natural movement which arises from 3D throwing movement. Applying the current analysis to IR and PR motions is helpful in providing the implications for improving performance and considering conditioning methods for pitchers.

  3. Rotational micro-CT using a clinical C-arm angiography gantry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, V.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Ionita, C. N.; Keleshis, C.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S. [Toshiba Stroke Research Center, Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Toshiba Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Physics, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, and Department of Computer Science, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Toshiba Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Toshiba Stroke Research Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Toshiba Stroke Research Center, Department of Radiology, Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Physics, and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Toshiba Stroke Research Center, Department of Radiology, Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, and Department of Electrical Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Rotational angiography (RA) gantries are used routinely to acquire sequences of projection images of patients from which 3D renderings of vascular structures are generated using Feldkamp cone-beam reconstruction algorithms. However, these systems have limited resolution (<4 lp/mm). Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) systems have better resolution (>10 lp/mm) but to date have relied either on rotating object imaging or small bore geometry for small animal imaging, and thus are not used for clinical imaging. The authors report here the development and use of a 3D rotational micro-angiography (RMA) system created by mounting a micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) [35 {mu}m pixel, resolution >10 lp/mm, field of view (FOV)=3.6 cm] on a standard clinical FPD-based RA gantry (Infinix, Model RTP12303J-G9E, Toshiba Medical Systems Corp., Tustin, CA). RA image sequences are obtained using the MAF and reconstructed. To eliminate artifacts due to image truncation, lower-dose (compared to MAF acquisition) full-FOV (FFOV) FPD RA sequences (194 {mu}m pixel, FOV=20 cm) were also obtained to complete the missing data. The RA gantry was calibrated using a helical bead phantom. To ensure high-quality high-resolution reconstruction, the high-resolution images from the MAF were aligned spatially with the lower-dose FPD images, and the pixel values in the FPD image data were scaled to match those of the MAF. Images of a rabbit with a coronary stent placed in an artery in the Circle of Willis were obtained and reconstructed. The MAF images appear well aligned with the FPD images (average correlation coefficient before and after alignment: 0.65 and 0.97, respectively) Greater details without any visible truncation artifacts are seen in 3D RMA (MAF-FPD) images than in those of the FPD alone. The FWHM of line profiles of stent struts (100 {mu}m diameter) are approximately 192{+-}21 and 313{+-}38 {mu}m for the 3D RMA and FPD data, respectively. In addition, for the dual-acquisition 3D RMA

  4. dSPACE real time implementation of fuzzy PID position controller for vertical rotating single link arm robot using four-quadrant BLDC drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Ramasamy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Automation has been growing in recent years for the manufacturing industries to increase productivity. Multiple robotic arms are used to handle materials for lifting in flexible directions. The vertical rotation of a 360 degree single arm is considered in this research on a position servo drive with brushless DC motor. The load torque of an arm varies depending upon the angular displacement due to gravity, so it requires four-quadrant operation of the drive with a robust feedback controller. This paper deals with the design and performance comparison of a conventional PID feedback controller with a fuzzy-based PID controller and suggests the most suitable controller. The design was implemented in real time through the dSPACE DS1104 controller environment to verify the dynamic behaviors of the arm.

  5. The capsular ligaments provide more hip rotational restraint than the acetabular labrum and the ligamentum teres

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral l...

  6. Morphology of large rotator cuff tears and of the rotator cable and long-term shoulder disability in conservatively treated elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A; Miller, Bruce; Brandon, Catherine; Gandikota, Girish; Jacobson, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the morphology of the rotator cuff tendon tears and long-term shoulder disability in conservatively treated elderly patients and determine if an association exists between these factors. Assessment of the rotator cuff tendon tear dimensions and depth, rotator interval involvement, rotator cable morphology and location, and rotator cuff muscle status was carried out on magnetic resonance studies of 24 elderly patients treated nonoperatively for rotator cuff tendon tears. Long-term shoulder function was measured using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index; Disabilities of the Shoulder, Arm, and Hand questionnaire; and the American Shoulder Elbow Self-assessment form, and a correlation between the outcome scores and morphologic magnetic resonance findings was carried out. The majority of large rotator cuff tendon tears are limited to the rotator cuff crescent. Medial rotator interval involvement (isolated or in association with lateral rotator interval involvement) was significantly associated with WORC physical symptoms total (P = 0.01), WORC lifestyle total (P = 0.04), percentage of all WORC domains (P = 0.03), and American Shoulder Elbow Self-assessment total (P = 0.01), with medial rotator interval involvement associated with an inferior outcome. Medial rotator interval tears are associated with long-term inferior outcome scores in conservatively treated elderly patients with large rotator cuff tendon tears.

  7. Cosmetic repair of nasal defects with medial pedicle skin flap of the upper arm%上臂内侧带蒂皮瓣在创伤后鼻缺损美容整形中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲜英; 刘毅; 王刚

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the methods to repair traumatic defects on nose with medial pedicle skin tube ( flap) of the upper arm.Methods Eleven patients with nasal defects were repaired in our department from Nov.2008 to Jan.2015.To repair their defect,all patients were treated with medial pedicle skin tube ( flap) of the upper arm.Among them skin tubes( flap) were formed,transferred and repaired simultaneously in 8 patients;for the rest 3 patients,skin tubes( flap) of upper arms were formed in the first stage,nasal defect was transferred and re-paired in the second stage,and noses were successfully reconstructed with pedicle division in the third stage.Re-sults All the 11 patients achieved good blood circulation in skin flaps and good ventilation in nasal cavity.The fol-low-up of 9 patients showed that during the first 3 months after the operation,the color of skin tube ( flap) was obvi-ously different from the surrounding skin,but gradually similar after 1 year.Besides,bilateral nostrils achieved sym-metry with good appearance.The cosmetic repair was basically achieved.Conclusion The design for medial pedi-cle skin tube ( flap) of the upper arm is not restricted comparatively,but it significantly improves the tissue survival rate by supplying sufficient tissue.It might be a better alternative for those patients who prefer not to leave new scars on their faces.%目的:探讨上臂内侧皮管(瓣)带蒂移植在创伤后鼻缺损美容整形中的应用。方法2008年11月~2015年1月,笔者应用上臂内侧带蒂皮管(瓣)修复创伤后鼻缺损11例(男性9例,女性2例;年龄18~43岁),其中一期皮管(瓣)成形同时转移修复8例,其余3例采用一期上臂形成皮管(瓣)、二期带蒂转移修复鼻缺损、三期皮管断蒂完成鼻再造。结果本组11例患者鼻部转移皮瓣血运良好,鼻腔通气功能良好。随访9例,1~3个月时颜色与周围皮肤相差较大,1年后颜色相近,

  8. Direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray data acquired with a mobile propeller C-arm: accuracy and application in functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kraats, Everine B; Carelsen, Bart; Fokkens, Wytske J; Boon, Sjirk N; Noordhoek, Niels; Niessen, Wiro J; van Walsum, Theo

    2005-12-21

    Recently, three-dimensional (3D) rotational x-ray imaging has been combined with navigation technology, enabling direct 3D navigation for minimally invasive image guided interventions. In this study, phantom experiments are used to determine the accuracy of such a navigation set-up for a mobile C-arm with propeller motion. After calibration of the C-arm system, the accuracy is evaluated by pinpointing divots on a special-purpose phantom with known geometry. This evaluation is performed both with and without C-arm motion in between calibration and registration for navigation. The variation caused by each of the individual transformations in the calibration and registration process is also studied. The feasibility of direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray images for functional endoscopic sinus surgery has been evaluated in a cadaver navigation experiment. Navigation accuracy was approximately 1.0 mm, which is sufficient for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. C-arm motion in between calibration and registration slightly degraded the registration accuracy by approximately 0.3 mm. Standard deviations of each of the transformations were in the range 0.15-0.31 mm. In the cadaver experiment, the navigation images were considered in good correspondence with the endoscopic images by an experienced ENT surgeon. Availability of 3D localization information provided by the navigation system was considered valuable by the ENT surgeon.

  9. Direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray data acquired with a mobile propeller C-arm: accuracy and application in functional endoscopic sinus surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kraats, Everine B.; Carelsen, Bart; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Boon, Sjirk N.; Noordhoek, Niels; Niessen, Wiro J.; van Walsum, Theo

    2005-12-01

    Recently, three-dimensional (3D) rotational x-ray imaging has been combined with navigation technology, enabling direct 3D navigation for minimally invasive image guided interventions. In this study, phantom experiments are used to determine the accuracy of such a navigation set-up for a mobile C-arm with propeller motion. After calibration of the C-arm system, the accuracy is evaluated by pinpointing divots on a special-purpose phantom with known geometry. This evaluation is performed both with and without C-arm motion in between calibration and registration for navigation. The variation caused by each of the individual transformations in the calibration and registration process is also studied. The feasibility of direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray images for functional endoscopic sinus surgery has been evaluated in a cadaver navigation experiment. Navigation accuracy was approximately 1.0 mm, which is sufficient for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. C-arm motion in between calibration and registration slightly degraded the registration accuracy by approximately 0.3 mm. Standard deviations of each of the transformations were in the range 0.15-0.31 mm. In the cadaver experiment, the navigation images were considered in good correspondence with the endoscopic images by an experienced ENT surgeon. Availability of 3D localization information provided by the navigation system was considered valuable by the ENT surgeon.

  10. Direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray data acquired with a mobile propeller C-arm: accuracy and application in functional endoscopic sinus surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraats, Everine B van de [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Carelsen, Bart [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Medical Physics Department (Netherlands); Fokkens, Wytske J [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Otorhinolaryngology (Netherlands); Boon, Sjirk N [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Noordhoek, Niels [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Walsum, Theo van [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-12-21

    Recently, three-dimensional (3D) rotational x-ray imaging has been combined with navigation technology, enabling direct 3D navigation for minimally invasive image guided interventions. In this study, phantom experiments are used to determine the accuracy of such a navigation set-up for a mobile C-arm with propeller motion. After calibration of the C-arm system, the accuracy is evaluated by pinpointing divots on a special-purpose phantom with known geometry. This evaluation is performed both with and without C-arm motion in between calibration and registration for navigation. The variation caused by each of the individual transformations in the calibration and registration process is also studied. The feasibility of direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray images for functional endoscopic sinus surgery has been evaluated in a cadaver navigation experiment. Navigation accuracy was approximately 1.0 mm, which is sufficient for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. C-arm motion in between calibration and registration slightly degraded the registration accuracy by approximately 0.3 mm. Standard deviations of each of the transformations were in the range 0.15-0.31 mm. In the cadaver experiment, the navigation images were considered in good correspondence with the endoscopic images by an experienced ENT surgeon. Availability of 3D localization information provided by the navigation system was considered valuable by the ENT surgeon.

  11. Clinical application of the medial upper arm free flap for repair of skin defect of the hand%上臂内侧游离皮瓣修复手部皮肤缺损的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄加川; 李敏姣; 陈乐锋; 陈国荣; 叶学浪; 张振伟

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨应用上臂内侧游离皮瓣修复手部皮肤缺损的临床效果.方法 自2010年4月至2013年3月对10例手部皮肤缺损患者采用上臂内侧皮瓣游离移植修复,行尺侧上副动脉-手部受区动脉、伴行静脉或皮下静脉-手背静脉吻合重建皮瓣血液循环,上臂供区直接缝合闭合创面.结果 10例上臂内侧游离皮瓣全部存活;1例术后出现血管危象,手术探查发现动脉吻合口内有血栓形成,取出血栓后重新吻合血管后皮瓣存活.2例术后3个月行皮瓣整形术.8例患者术后随访2个月至2年,平均11个月,手部皮瓣外观满意,质地好,未见明显萎缩.手指屈伸活动功能恢复良好,屈曲75°~ 90°,伸直-5°~0°.上臂内侧供区创面仅留线性瘢痕.结论 上臂内侧游离皮瓣修复手部皮肤缺损是一种较理想的方法.%Objective To evaluate the clinical results of medial upper arm free flap transfer in the treatment of skin defects of the hand.Methods From April 2010 to March 2013,a total of 10 cases of skin defects of the hand were treated with medial upper arm flap transfer.Flap circulation was re-established by anastomosing the superior ulnar collateral artery to the recipient artery of the hand,and the concomitant vein or subcutaneous vein to the dorsal veins of the hand.The donor site wound was directly closed.Results All 10 flaps survived completely.Vascular crisis occurred in 1 case.Surgical exploration revealed a thrombus at the artery anastomosis site.The flap survived after removal of the thrombus and re-anastomosis of the arteries.Two cases underwent flap de-bulking procedures 3 months postoperatively.Eight of the 10 cases had postoperative follow-up ranging from 2 months to 2 years with an average of 11 months.The appearance of the flaps at the hand was satisfactory.Flap texture was good with no obvious atrophy.Range of motion of the fingers recovered well.Finger flexion achieved 75° to 90°while finger extension-5

  12. Comparison of muscle sizes and moment arms of two rotator cuff muscles measured by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B.; Bojsen-Møller, Finn; Holst, E.

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy, biomechanics, cross-section, magnetic resonance imaging, method comparison, rotator cuff muscles, ultrasound......Anatomy, biomechanics, cross-section, magnetic resonance imaging, method comparison, rotator cuff muscles, ultrasound...

  13. Modifying the shoulder joint position during shrugging and retraction exercises alters the activation of the medial scapular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Parlevliet, Thierry; Cagnie, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    In patients with shoulder or neck pain, often an imbalance of the activation in the scapular upward and downward rotators is present which can cause abnormalities in coordinated scapular rotation. Shrug exercises are often recommended to activate muscles that produce upward rotation, but little information is available on the activity of the downward rotators during shrugging exercises. The position used for the shrug exercise may affect the relative participation of the medial scapular rotators. To compare muscle activity, using both surface and fine-wire electrodes, of the medial scapular muscles during different shoulder joint positions while performing shrug and retraction exercises. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-six subjects performed 3 different exercises: shrug with the arms at the side while holding a weight ("Shrug"), shrug with arms overhead and retraction with arms overhead. EMG data with surface and fine wire electrodes was collected from the Upper Trapezius (UT), Levator Scapulae (LS), Middle Trapezius (MT), Rhomboid Major (RM) and Lower Trapezius (LT). The results showed that activity levels of the main medial scapular muscles depend upon the specific shoulder joint position when performing shrug and retraction exercises. High UT activity was found across all exercises, with no significant differences in UT activity between the exercises. The LS and RM activity was significantly lower during "ShrugOverhead" and the RM, MT and LT activity was significantly higher during "RetractionOverhead". This study has identified that all three exercises elicited similar UT activity. LS and RM activity is decreased with the "ShrugOverhead" exercise. The "RetractionOverhead" was the most effective exercise in activating the medial scapular muscles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quadratic Sagnac effect — the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921 - 1926)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that when an equal-arm Michelson interferometer is involved in rotation (for example, Earth's rotation around its axis or around the Sun) and its arms are oriented differently with respect to the plane of rotation, a phase difference arises between the light rays that pass through different arms. This phase difference is due to the fact that the arms experience variously the Newtonian (nonrelativistic) scalar gravitational potential of the Coriolis forces. It is shown that the phase difference is proportional to the length of the interferometer arm, the square of the angular velocity of the rotation, and the square of the distance from the center of rotation — hence, the proposal to call this phenomenon the quadratic Sagnac effect. In the present paper, we consider, as an illustrative example, the results of the once well-known experiments of D C Miller, who claimed to observe the translational motion of Earth relative to the hypothetical ‘luminiferous ether’. It is shown that this claim can actually be explained by the fact that, because of the orbital revolution of Earth, the time dilations in the orthogonal arms of the Michelson interferometer are influenced differently by the scalar gravitational potential of the Coriolis forces.

  15. Periacetabular rotational osteotomy through the medial wall of ilium for the treatment of acetabu-lar dysplasia%经髂骨内侧壁髋臼周围旋转截骨治疗髋臼发育不良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛源; 冯香; 高化富; 张印峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of periacetabular rotational osteotomy through the medial wall of ilium on acetabular dysplasia. Methods Thirty-six patients with acetabular dysplasia were operated with periacetabular rotational osteotomy through medial wall of ilium. Firstly,the dissec-tion was performed in the subperiosteal plane of the medial ilium via the ilioinguinal incision to expose the medial wall of the bottom of acetabulum. Secondly,without dissecting the internal iliac vasculoneural sheaths,osteotome was used to complete the osteotomy around the acetabulum within 1. 5 cm. The supe-rior portion was greater sciatic notch and the inferior portion was pecten pubis and body of ischium. In or-der to isolate the acetabulum,the two layer cortical bone was cut through and without damaging the later-al periosteum. Thirdly,with the help of biofix rods,the acetabulum was rotated anterolaterally and inferi-orly to correct the Sharp angle to 35° and to restore the coverage rate of femoral head to 75% . Two stein-mann pins were used to put pressure on the medial wall of the bottom of acetabulum through anterior su-perior spine. Postoperatively,none of the operated patients was immobilized. Results Thirty-one of the total 36 patients had 7 to 82 months(average 22 months)of follow up. According to Mckay criteria,the effect was excellent in 21 cases and good in 8 cases. Conclusions Periacetabular rotational osteotomy through the medial wall of ilium for the treatment of acetabular dysplasia is an effective,simple method. It has the advantages of little influence on the stability of pelvis,reliable fixation without external fixa-tion,and can avoide the risk of complications. This method can not only alleviate the patients’pain in the injured hip,but also avoid or delay the development of osteoarthritis.%目的:探讨经髂骨内侧壁髋臼周围旋转截骨术治疗髋臼发育不良的疗效。方法应用经髂骨内侧壁髋臼周围旋转截骨术

  16. Simulation for submarine rotating-arm tests%潜艇旋臂回转试验数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖昌润; 刘瑞杰; 许可; 刘洋; 徐亚运

    2014-01-01

    为模拟潜艇回转运动,文中以结构化网格为基础,分别选取了基于固定坐标系的Mesh Motion方法和基于运动坐标系的添加动量源项方法对旋转导数进行预报,对全附体SUBOFF模型进行回转运动仿真,并与试验结果进行对比。结果表明:Mesh Motion方法和添加动量源项方法均满足工程要求,添加动量源项方法计算时,网格数目少,有效降低了计算耗时。最后,根据Y+的不同分布,文中分析了回转运动中RNG k-ε湍流模型和SST k-ω湍流模型的计算精度和计算时间。%In order to simulate submarine′s rotation movement , the mesh motion method fixed on the earth fixed coordinate system and the added momentum source method fixed on the submarine′s coordinate system are select-ed to predict the rotation derivatives .We calculated all-possessed SUBOFF model and compared it with experi-mental results.Both the mesh motion method and the added momentum source method meet the engineering re-quirements.The added momentum source uses less grids , so it can effectively reduce the computational time . Based on the different distributions of Y+, we analyze the accuracy and computation time of RNG k-ε turbu-lence model and SST k-ωturbulence model .

  17. Automatic 3D motion estimation of left ventricle from C-arm rotational angiocardiography using a prior motion model and learning based boundary detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingqing; Zheng, Yefeng; Wang, Yang; Mueller, Kerstin; Lauritsch, Guenter

    2013-01-01

    Compared to pre-operative imaging modalities, it is more convenient to estimate the current cardiac physiological status from C-arm angiocardiography since C-arm is a widely used intra-operative imaging modality to guide many cardiac interventions. The 3D shape and motion of the left ventricle (LV) estimated from rotational angiocardiography provide important cardiac function measurements, e.g., ejection fraction and myocardium motion dyssynchrony. However, automatic estimation of the 3D LV motion is difficult since all anatomical structures overlap on the 2D X-ray projections and the nearby confounding strong image boundaries (e.g., pericardium) often cause ambiguities to LV endocardium boundary detection. In this paper, a new framework is proposed to overcome the aforementioned difficulties: (1) A new learning-based boundary detector is developed by training a boosting boundary classifier combined with the principal component analysis of a local image patch; (2) The prior LV motion model is learned from a set of dynamic cardiac computed tomography (CT) sequences to provide a good initial estimate of the 3D LV shape of different cardiac phases; (3) The 3D motion trajectory is learned for each mesh point; (4) All these components are integrated into a multi-surface graph optimization method to extract the globally coherent motion. The method is tested on seven patient scans, showing significant improvement on the ambiguous boundary cases with a detection accuracy of 2.87 +/- 1.00 mm on LV endocardium boundary delineation in the 2D projections.

  18. Scapular and rotator cuff muscle activity during arm elevation: a review of normal function and alterations with shoulder impingement Atividade dos músculos escapulares e do manguito rotator durante a elevação do braço: uma revisão da função normal e das alterações na síndrome do impacto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Phadke

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this manuscript is to review current knowledge of how muscle activation and force production contribute to shoulder kinematics in healthy subjects and persons with shoulder impingement. RESULTS: The middle and lower serratus anterior muscles produce scapular upward rotation, posterior tilting, and external rotation. Upper trapezius produces clavicular elevation and retraction. The middle trapezius is primarily a medial stabilizer of the scapula. The lower trapezius assists in medial stabilization and upward rotation of the scapula. The pectoralis minor is aligned to resist normal rotations of the scapula during arm elevation. The rotator cuff is critical to stabilization and prevention of excess superior translation of the humeral head, as well as production of glenohumeral external rotation during arm elevation. Alterations in activation amplitude or timing have been identified across various investigations of subjects with shoulder impingement as compared to healthy controls. These include decreased activation of the middle or lower serratus anterior and rotator cuff, delayed activation of middle and lower trapezius, and increased activation of the upper trapezius and middle deltoid in impingement subjects. In addition, subjects with a short resting length of the pectoralis minor exhibit altered scapular kinematic patterns similar to those found in persons with shoulder impingement. CONCLUSION: These normal muscle functional capabilities and alterations in patient populations should be considered when planning exercise approaches for the rehabilitation of these patients.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste manuscrito é revisar o conhecimento atual sobre como a ativação muscular e a produção de força contribuem para a cinemática do ombro em indivíduos saudáveis e em pessoas com síndrome do impacto. RESULTADOS: As porções média e inferior do músculo serrátil anterior produzem rotação para cima, inclina

  19. ARM-Cortex M3-Based Two-Wheel Robot for Assessing Grid Cell Model of Medial Entorhinal Cortex: Progress towards Building Robots with Biologically Inspired Navigation-Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cuneo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the implementation and use of a two-wheel autonomous robot and its effectiveness as a tool for studying the recently discovered use of grid cells as part of mammalian’s brains space-mapping circuitry (specifically the medial entorhinal cortex. A proposed discrete-time algorithm that emulates the medial entorhinal cortex is programed into the robot. The robot freely explores a limited laboratory area in the manner of a rat or mouse and reports information to a PC, thus enabling research without the use of live individuals. Position coordinate neural maps are achieved as mathematically predicted although for a reduced number of implemented neurons (i.e., 200 neurons. However, this type of computational embedded system (robot’s microcontroller is found to be insufficient for simulating huge numbers of neurons in real time (as in the medial entorhinal cortex. It is considered that the results of this work provide an insight into achieving an enhanced embedded systems design for emulating and understanding mathematical neural network models to be used as biologically inspired navigation system for robots.

  20. Shoulder kinematic features using arm elevation and rotation tests for classifying patients with frozen shoulder syndrome who respond to physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-lan; Chang, Chein-wei; Chen, Shiau-yee; Lin, Jiu-jenq

    2008-12-01

    Physical therapy is an intervention commonly used in the treatment of subjects with frozen shoulder symptoms, with limited proven effect. The purpose of this study was to identify the kinematic features of patients with frozen shoulder who are more likely to respond to physical therapy. Thirty-four subjects presenting frozen shoulder syndrome were studied to determine altered shoulder kinematics and functional disability. Subjects received the same standardized treatment with passive mobilization/stretching techniques, physical modalities (i.e. ultrasound, shortwave diathermy and/or electrotherapy) and active exercises twice a week for 3 months. Initially, subjects were asked to perform full active motion in 3 tests: abduction in the scapular plane, hand-to-neck and hand-to-scapula. During the test, shoulder kinematics were measured using a 3-D electromagnetic motion-capturing system. In the initial and follow-up sessions, the self-reported Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function (FLEX-SF) was used to determine functional disability from symptoms. Improvement with treatment was determined using percent change in FLEX-SF scores over three months of treatment [(final score-initial score)/initial score x 100, >20% improvement and scapular tipping >8.4 degrees during arm elevation, and external rotation >38.9 degrees during hand to neck) were identified. The presence of these two variables (positive likelihood ratio=15.71) increased the probability of improvement with treatment from 41% to 92%. It appears that shoulder kinematics may predict improvement in subjects with frozen shoulder syndrome. Prospective validation of the proposed prediction method is warranted.

  1. Cervical helical axis characteristics and its center of rotation during active head and upper arm movements-comparisons of whiplash-associated disorders, non-specific neck pain and asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Helena; Sundelin, Gunnevi; Gerdle, Björn; Stefan Karlsson, J

    2008-09-18

    The helical axis model can be used to describe translation and rotation of spine segments. The aim of this study was to investigate the cervical helical axis and its center of rotation during fast head movements (side rotation and flexion/extension) and ball catching in patients with non-specific neck pain or pain due to whiplash injury as compared with matched controls. The aim was also to investigate correlations with neck pain intensity. A finite helical axis model with a time-varying window was used. The intersection point of the axis during different movement conditions was calculated. A repeated-measures ANOVA model was used to investigate the cervical helical axis and its rotation center for consecutive levels of 15 degrees during head movement. Irregularities in axis movement were derived using a zero-crossing approach. In addition, head, arm and upper body range of motion and velocity were observed. A general increase of axis irregularity that correlated to pain intensity was observed in the whiplash group. The rotation center was superiorly displaced in the non-specific neck pain group during side rotation, with the same tendency for the whiplash group. During ball catching, an anterior displacement (and a tendency to an inferior displacement) of the center of rotation and slower and more restricted upper body movements implied a changed movement strategy in neck pain patients, possibly as an attempt to stabilize the cervical spine during head movement.

  2. Star Formation in Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The origin and types of spiral arms are reviewed with an emphasis on the connections between these arms and star formation. Flocculent spiral arms are most likely the result of transient instabilities in the gas that promote dense cloud formation, star formation, and generate turbulence. Long irregular spiral arms are usually initiated by gravitational instabilities in the stars, with the gas contributing to and following these instabilities, and star formation in the gas. Global spiral arms triggered by global perturbations, such as a galaxy interaction, can be wavemodes with wave reflection in the inner regions. They might grow and dominate the disk for several rotations before degenerating into higher-order modes by non-linear effects. Interstellar gas flows through these global arms, and through the more transient stellar spiral arms as well, where it can reach a high density and low shear, thereby promoting self-gravitational instabilities. The result is the formation of giant spiral arm cloud complexes,...

  3. Análise da variação dos valores da rotação medial conforme a posição da diáfise do úmero Analysis on the variation of medial rotation values according to the position of the humeral diaphysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a validade da medida de rotação medial (RM do ombro pelos níveis vertebrais conforme a variação da posição da diáfise do úmero, testando o bigoniômetro como novo instrumental de aferição. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, prospectivamente, 140 ombros (70 pacientes que tinham limitação da RM do ombro unilateral. Avaliou-se, por meio da escala visual, o nível vertebral e correlacionou-se com o ângulo obtido conforme a posição da diáfise do úmero utilizando o bigoniômetro desenvolvido com a Engenharia Mecânica do Mackenzie. RESULTADOS: O nível vertebral máximo alcançado na RM do lado não acometido variou de T3 a T12, e para o lado acometido variou de T6 a trocânter. Já quando o membro acometido foi reposicionado em RM de acordo com os valores angulares do lado normal, 57,13% dos pacientes alcançaram níveis mais baixos entre sacro, glúteo e trocânter. Analisando o nível vertebral máximo alcançado e a variação entre o ângulo x (plano frontal: abdução e RM do ombro acometido e o ângulo x não acometido em RM, verificamos que quanto maior a angulação do eixo da diáfise menor a variação do nível vertebral alcançado. Avaliando a correlação linear entre as variáveis diferença do nível vertebral máximo alcançado e a variação do ângulo y (extensão e adução do ombro acometido e ângulo y não acometido em RM, verificamos que não há uma relação linear bem estabelecida entre estas variáveis. CONCLUSÃO: A medida da RM pelos níveis vertebrais não corresponde aos valores reais, pois varia conforme o posicionamento da diáfise do úmero.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the validity of measurements of shoulder medial rotation (MR of the shoulder, using vertebral levels, according to the variation in the position of the humeral diaphysis, and to test the bi-goniometer as a new measuring instrument. METHODS: 140 shoulders (70 patients were prospectively evaluated in cases presenting unilateral

  4. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  5. Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Koontz, Annette S.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Barnard, James C.

    2013-09-11

    Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD) from AOD measurements, have shown great performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around the world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon) or when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999-2012) aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent) is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

  6. Fatty replacement of rotator cuff in brain-injured patients is associated with hemiplegic arm function, but not with tendon tear: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom, Jaewon; Jang, Hye Jin; Han, Tai Ryoon; Oh, Byung-Mo; Paik, Nam-Jong; Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2015-01-01

    The association between fatty replacement of rotator cuff and hemiplegic upper extremity function has not been defined yet. Moreover, the relationships among rotator cuff tears, shoulder pain, spasticity, and fatty replacement were not clearly studied. We investigated the association of fatty replacement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles with tendon tear in stroke or brain-injured patients. A total of 72 hemiplegic patients were enrolled in 3 hospitals, and ultrasonography of both shoulders was performed once. Fatty replacement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus was graded by the visibility of outer contours, pennate pattern, central tendon, and echogenicity. Fatty replacement was observed in 22 (30.6%) out of the 72 patients (in 18 supraspinatus muscles and 12 infraspinatus). Inter-rater agreement (kappa value) between the 2 physiatrists was 0.530 for the supraspinatus, and 0.411 for the infraspinatus. The Fugl-Meyer assessment score, Brunnstrom stage, and modified Barthel index were significantly lower in patients with fatty replacement of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus (group 1) than in those without (group 2). The motor power of both shoulders, the pain-free range of motion, spasticity, and hemiplegic shoulder pain were comparable between the two groups. The tear rate of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, or subscapularis tendon at the hemiplegic side was higher than that at the contralesional side in each group, although there was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2. Disuse leading to muscle atrophy rather than rotator cuff tear might be the cause of fatty replacement of these muscles, which may be associated with decreased function of the hemiplegic upper extremities.

  7. Exploiting arm posture synergies in activities of daily living to control the wrist rotation in upper limb prostheses: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnani, Federico; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Although significant technological advances have been made in the last forty years, natural and effortless control of upper limb prostheses is still an open issue. Commercially available myoelectric prostheses present limited Degrees of Freedom (DoF) mainly because of the lack of available and reliable independent control signals from the human body. Thus, despite the crucial role that an actuated wrist could play in a transradial prosthesis in terms of avoiding compensatory movements, commercial hand prostheses present only manually adjustable passive wrists or actuated rotators controlled by (unnatural) sequential control strategies. In the present study we investigated the synergies between the humeral orientation with respect to the trunk and the forearm pronation/supination angles during the execution of a wide range of activities of daily living, in healthy subjects. Our results showed consistent postural synergies between the two selected body segments for almost the totality of the activities of daily living under investigation. This is a promising result because these postural synergies could be exploited to automatically control the wrist rotator unit in transradial prostheses improving the fluency and the dexterity of the amputee.

  8. Medial canthus retiform hemangioendothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser H Al-Faky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retiform hemangioendothelioma (RH is a distinct entity in the spectrum of vascular tumors with a high local recurrence rate. It is considered a low-grade, well-differentiated cutaneous angiosarcoma with low metastatic potential. We report here for the first time a case of medial canthus recurrent RH. It may be helpful in our practice to include RH as a differential diagnosis of eyelid lesions. It is noteworthy that the progressive course and recurrence tendency of RH might be misdiagnosed as angiosarcoma or basal cell carcinoma (BCC, if not expected and carefully evaluated by the pathologist.

  9. The capsular ligaments provide more hip rotational restraint than the acetabular labrum and the ligamentum teres : an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Arkel, R J; Amis, A A; Cobb, J P; Jeffers, J R T

    2015-04-01

    In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments and the ligamentum teres to rotational restraint was determined by resecting a ligament and measuring the reduced torque required to achieve the same angular position as before resection. The contribution from the acetabular labrum was also measured. Each of the capsular ligaments acted as the primary hip rotation restraint somewhere within the complete ROM, and the ligamentum teres acted as a secondary restraint in high flexion, adduction and external rotation. The iliofemoral lateral arm and the ischiofemoral ligaments were primary restraints in two-thirds of the positions tested. Appreciation of the importance of these structures in preventing excessive hip rotation and subsequent impingement/instability may be relevant for surgeons undertaking both hip joint preserving surgery and hip arthroplasty.

  10. The Effect of Hip Bracing on Gait in Patients with Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    David Wallace; Christa Barr

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Impaired hip motion has been associated with heightened medial knee joint loading in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). A hip external rotation strap designed to pull the femur into external rotation and abduction may serve as one protective mechanism. The primary aim of our study is to determine if the strap decreases medial knee joint loading during level walking in people with knee OA. Design. This study is a single-day repeated measures design. Methods. 15 volunteers with ...

  11. Formation of median nerve without the medial root of medial cord and associated variations of the brachial plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu SP

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical variations in the formation, course and termination of brachial plexus are well documented and have clinical significance to surgeons, neurologists and anatomists. The present case report describes the unusual origin of median nerve, arising directly from the lateral cord without the union of lateral and medial roots of brachial plexus. A communicating branch existed between the ulnar nerve and anterior division of middle trunk. The lateral pectoral nerve was arising from anterior divisions of upper and middle trunks as two separate branches instead from lateral cord. The branches then joined together to form the lateral pectoral nerve. The medial cord instead of its five terminal branches, had only three branches, the ulnar nerve, medial pectoral nerve and a single trunk for the medial cutaneous nerve of arm and forearm which got separated at the middle of the arm. The variations of the lateral cord and its branches make it a complicated clinical and surgical approach which is discussed with the developmental background.

  12. Arthroscopic decompressive medial release of the varus arthritic knee: Expanding the functional envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, H O; Blanco, C E; Guthrie, T B

    2001-05-01

    We present the rationale and technique for treating medial knee osteoarthritis by dynamically unloading the medial compartment of the knee. Recent advances in kinematic studies indicate a dynamic linkage between differing degrees of freedom in the knee joint. Both the adduction moment and the foot progression angle are important determinants of medial compartment loading. The medially osteoarthritic knee has progressive compromise of free motion in more than 1 plane. Arthroscopic decompressive medial release unloads the medial compartment by release of the medial capsule and medial collateral ligament in the presence of intact cruciate ligaments, which may allow a decreased adduction moment and decrease of the external rotation restraint in extension found in more severely osteoarthritic knees. A case series of 38 patients with medial gonarthrosis was treated by this technique at the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital in Havana, Cuba. All patients had good results without postoperative valgus instability or significant complications. We feel that this technique warrants further clinical and biomechanical study for its use in isolation or in combination with high tibial osteotomy or minimally invasive selective osteotomy for the treatment of medial gonarthrosis of the knee. A minimally invasive, selective approach to biomechanical factors in osteoarthritis may be combined with other modulating techniques in efforts to forestall or prevent the need for total joint replacement.

  13. Inconsistencies in the work of P Maraner (reply to comment [Usp. Fiz. Nauk 186 795 (2016)] on the paper "Quadratic Sagnac effect - the influence of gravitational potential of Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921-1926)" (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 185 431 (2015) [Phys. Usp. 58 398 (2015)])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the distributions of the scalar gravitational potential of Coriolis forces in different parts of the shoulder of a rotating equal-arms Michelson interferometer. It results in a view of the very small difference between the phases of light in the shoulders of the Michelson interferometer, in comparison with the phase difference due to the quadratic Sagnac effect. It has been shown that there is an effect, discussed earlier by P Maraner, which is a higher approximation to quadratic Sagnac effect.

  14. Dynamics of Non-Steady Spiral Arms in Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Junichi; Wada, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional $N$-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms are originated in the continual repetition of this non-linear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the co-rotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, ...

  15. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  16. Medial temporal lobe and topographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2017-08-08

    There has been interest in the idea that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures might be especially important for spatial processing and spatial memory. We tested the proposal that the MTL has a specific role in topographical memory as assessed in tasks of scene memory where the viewpoint shifts from study to test. Building on materials used previously for such studies, we administered three different tasks in a total of nine conditions. Participants studied a scene depicting four hills of different shapes and sizes and made a choice among four test images. In the Rotation task, the correct choice depicted the study scene from a shifted perspective. MTL patients succeeded when the study and test images were presented together but failed the moment the study scene was removed (even at a 0-s delay). In the No-Rotation task, the correct choice was a duplicate of the study scene. Patients were impaired to the same extent in the No-Rotation and Rotation tasks after matching for difficulty. Thus, an inability to accommodate changes in viewpoint does not account for patient impairment. In the Nonspatial-Perceptual task, the correct choice depicted the same overall coloring as the study scene. Patients were intact at a 2-s delay but failed at longer, distraction-filled delays. The different results for the spatial and nonspatial tasks are discussed in terms of differences in demand on working memory. We suggest that the difficulty of the spatial tasks rests on the neocortex and on the limitations of working memory, not on the MTL.

  17. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids.

  18. Consenso SECOT artrosis femorotibial medial.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Moreno; Silvestre Muñoz, Antonio; Carpintero, P.

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta un consenso elaborado por SECOT sobre la actuación en la artrosis del compartimento medial de la rodilla para establecer criterios y recomendaciones clínicas orientadas a unificar criterios en su manejo, abordando los factores implicados en la patogenia de la artrosis femorotibial medial de rodilla, la utilidad de las técnicas diagnósticas por la imagen y la utilidad de la artroscopia. También se analizarán los tratamientos conservadores y el tratamiento quirúrgico. Los expertos c...

  19. The Surgical Strategy to Correct the Rotational Imbalance of the Glenohumeral Joint after Brachial Plexus Birth Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahm, J

    2016-01-01

    In upper brachial plexus birth injury, rotational balance of the glenohumeral joint is frequently affected and contracture in medial rotation of the arm develops, due to a severe palsy or insufficient recovery of the lateral rotators. Some of these children present with a severe glenohumeral joint contracture in the first months, although regular physiotherapy has been provided, a condition associated with a posteriorly subdislocated or dislocated humeral head. These conditions should be screened early by a pediatrician or specialized physiotherapist. Both aspects of muscular weakness affecting the lateral rotators and the initial or progressive glenohumeral deformity and/or subdislocation must be identified and treated accordingly, focusing on the reestablishment of joint congruence and strengthening of the lateral rotators to improve rotational balance, thus working against joint dysplasia and loss of motor function of the shoulder in a growing child. Our treatment strategy adapted over the last 20 years to results from retrospective studies, including biomechanical aspects on muscular imbalance and tendon transfers. With this review, we confront our actual concept to recent literature.

  20. A Global Obstacle-avoidance Map for Anthropomorphic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more humanoid robots are used in human society, and they face a wide variety of complicated manipulation tasks, which are mainly to be achieved by their anthropomorphic arms. Obstacle avoidance for the anthropomorphic arm must be a fundamental consideration to guarantee the successful implementation of these tasks. Different from traditional methods searching for feasible or optimal collision-free solutions for the anthropomorphic arm, a global obstacle- avoidance map for the whole arm is proposed to indicate the complete set of feasible solutions. In this map, the motion of the arm can be appropriately planned to intuitively control the configuration of the arm in motion. First, the cubic spline function is adopted to interpolate some well-chosen path points to generate a smooth collision-free path for the wrist of the anthropomorphic arm. Second, based on the path function of the wrist, the time and the self-rotation angle of the arm about the “shoulder-wrist” axis are used to parameterize all possible configurations of the arm so that a global two- dimensional map considering the obstacle avoidance can be established. Subsequently, a collision-free self-rotation angle profile of the arm can be well planned. Finally, the joint trajectories of a specific anthropomorphic arm, which correspond to the planned path of the wrist and self-rotation angle profile of the arm, can be solved on the basis of the general kinematic analysis of the anthropomorphic arm, and the specific structure. Several simulations are conducted to verify that the proposed collision-free motion planning method for anthropomorphic arms has some advantages and can be regarded as a convenient and intuitive tool to control the configuration of the anthropomorphic arm in motion, without collision with obstacles in its surroundings.

  1. Anterolateral Versus Medial Plating of Distal Extra-articular Tibia Fractures: A Biomechanical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirolo, Joseph M; Behn, Anthony W; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bishop, Julius A

    2015-09-01

    Both medial and anterolateral plate applications have been described for the treatment of distal tibia fractures, each with distinct advantages and disadvantages. The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and anterolateral plating constructs used to stabilize simulated varus and valgus fracture patterns of the distal tibia. In 16 synthetic tibia models, a 45° oblique cut was made to model an Orthopedic Trauma Association type 43-A1.2 distal tibia fracture in either a varus or valgus injury pattern. Each fracture was then reduced and plated with a precontoured medial or anterolateral distal tibia plate. The specimens were biomechanically tested in axial and torsional loading, cyclic axial loading, and load to failure. For the varus fracture pattern, medial plating showed less fracture site displacement and rotation and was stiffer in both axial and torsional loading (Ptibia fractures.

  2. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  3. Functional evaluation of arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries in patients with pseudoparalysis,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the functional result from arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries in patients with pseudoparalysis, defined as incapacity to actively raise the arm above 90◦ , while complete passive elevation was possible.METHODS: we reevaluated 38 patients with a mean follow-up of 51 months (minimum of 24. We analyzed the pseudoparalysis reversion rate and the functional result obtained.RESULTS: according to the assessment criteria of the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA, 31 (82% patients had good and excellent results, two (5% had fair results and five (13% had poor results. The mean active elevation went from 39◦ before the operation to 139◦ after the operation (p < 0.05; the mean active lateral rotation went from 30◦ to 48◦ (p < 0.05 and the mean active medial rotation went from level L3 to T12 (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries produced good and excellent results in 82% of the cases and a statistically significant improvement of active range of motion, with reversion of the pseudoparalysis in 97.4% of the cases. It is therefore a good treatment option.

  4. Humeral elevation reduces the dynamic control ratio of the shoulder muscles during internal rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, William; Burgess, Jonathan; Vrhovnik, Borut; Stringer, Christian; Choy, Sherrie T; Marsden, Jonathan F; Gedikoglou, Ingrid A; Shum, Gary L

    2017-04-01

    To determine the differences in the dynamic control ratio of the glenohumeral joint rotators, during internal rotation at 20° and 60° of humeral elevation in the scapular plan. Dynamic control ratio (DCR) is defined as the ratio between eccentric action of the lateral rotators and the concentric action of the medial rotators. A cross-sectional laboratory study. Thirty asymptomatic participants (men n=14, women n=16, mean age=29.4±8.9years, BMI: 24.1±5.4) were tested. Peak torque generated by the concentric action of the MR and the eccentric action of the LR of the shoulder joint and the DCR were evaluated on the dominant arm using an isokinetic dynamometer at 20° and 60° of humeral elevation at a speed of 20°/s. There was a significant decrease in the DCR at 60° humeral elevation when compared to 20° humeral elevation (p0.05). The significant decrease in the DCR as a consequence of a decrease in the eccentric peak torque of the LR when the humerus is in a more elevated position suggests that the introduction of humeral elevation can be used as a progression for improving the eccentric action of the shoulder LR and subsequently the dynamic control of the shoulder. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Medial Plantar Fascia Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Stephanie C; Mazzola, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old man who participated in competitive soccer came to physical therapy via direct access for a chief complaint of plantar foot pain. The clinical examination findings and mechanism of injury raised a concern for a plantar fascia tear, so the patient was referred to the physician and magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. The magnetic resonance image confirmed a high-grade, partial-thickness, proximal plantar fascia tear with localized edema at the location of the medial band. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):495. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0409.

  6. Rotationally actuated prosthetic helping hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G., Jr. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor); West, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A prosthetic device has been developed for below-the-elbow amputees. The device consists of a cuff, a stem, a housing, two hook-like fingers, an elastic band for holding the fingers together, and a brace. The fingers are pivotally mounted on a housing that is secured to the amputee's upper arm with the brace. The stem, which also contains a cam, is rotationally mounted within the housing and is secured to the cuff, which fits over the amputee's stump. By rotating the cammed stem between the fingers with the lower arm, the amputee can open and close the fingers.

  7. Variant position of the medial plantar nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Astik RB; Dave UH; Gajendra KS

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of variation of position of the medial plantar nerve is important for the forefoot surgeon for plantar reconstruction, local injection therapy and an excision of interdigital neuroma. During routine dissection of 50-year-old female cadaver, we found the medial plantar nerve and vessels variably located between plantar aponeurosis and the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the right foot. Due to this variant position, the medial plantar nerve and vessels lose their protection ...

  8. Biomechanics of medial unicondylar in combination with patellofemoral knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Thomas J; El-Zayat, Bilal F; De Corte, Ronny; Scheys, Lennart; Chevalier, Yan; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Labey, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Modular bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BKA) for treatment of medio-patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) should allow for close to normal kinematics in comparison with unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) and the native knee. There is so far no data to support this. Six fresh frozen full leg cadaver specimens were prepared and mounted in a kinematic rig with six degrees of freedom for the knee joint. Three motion patterns were applied with the native knee and after sequential implantation of medial UKA and patellofemoral joint replacement (PFJ): passive flexion-extension, open chain extension, and squatting. During the loaded motions, quadriceps and hamstrings muscle forces were applied. Infrared cameras continuously recorded the trajectories of marker frames rigidly attached to femur, tibia and patella. Prior computer tomography allowed identification of coordinate frames of the bones. Strains in the collateral ligaments were calculated from insertion site distances. UKA led to a less adducted and internally rotated tibia and a more strained medial collateral ligament (MCL). Addition of a patellofemoral replacement led to a more posterior position of both femoral condyles, a more dorsally located tibiofemoral contact point and higher MCL strain with squatting. In comparison to UKA modular BKA leads to a more dorsal tibial contact point, a medial femoral condyle being located more posteriorly, and more MCL strain. Mainly the changes to the trochlear anatomy as introduced by PFJ may account for these differences. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Snapping Knee Caused by Medial Meniscal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ohishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Snapping phenomenon around the medial aspect of the knee is rare. We present this case of snapping knee caused by the sartorius muscle over a large medial meniscal cyst in a 66-year-old female. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a large medial meniscal cyst with a horizontal tear of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopic cyst decompression with limited meniscectomy resulted in the disappearance of snapping, and no recurrence of the cyst was observed during a 2-year follow-up period.

  10. Rotator Cuff and Shoulder Conditioning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... upper back) • Biceps (front of upper arm) • Teres muscles (supporting the shoulder joint) • Triceps (back of upper arm) • Supraspinatus (supporting ... connection to expert information about bones, joints, and muscles www.orthoinfo.org Rotator Cuff and Shoulder Conditioning Program Stretching ... ...

  11. Engineering analysis and test results of the pre-stage planetary gear trains for wrist rotation and pitch assembly and azimuth and elevation assembly of the extendable stiff arm manipulator kit assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    In order to improve the performance capability of the Extendable Stiff Arm Manipulator (ESAM) it was necessary to increase the overall gear ratio by a factor of approximately four. This is accomplished with minimum effect to existing hardware by the interposition of a planetary gear transmission between the respective drive motors and the harmonic drive transmissions. The engineering analysis in support of this design approach and the subsequent no-load test results are reported.

  12. Effect of active arm swing to local dynamic stability during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Li, Yue; Liu, An-Min; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yin-Zhi; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jin-Ling; Dai, Ke-Rong; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Arm swing is an essential component in regulating dynamic stability of the whole body during walking, while the contribution of active arm swing to local dynamic stability of different motion segments remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of arm swing under natural arm swing condition and active arm swing condition on local dynamic stability and gait variability of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) and lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint). The local divergence exponents (λs) and mean standard deviation over strides (MeanSD) of 24 young healthy adults were calculated while they were walking on treadmill with two arm swing conditions at their preferred walking speed (PWS). We found that in medial-lateral direction, both λs and MeanSD values of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) in active arm swing condition were significantly lower than those in natural arm swing condition (pknee and ankle joint) was found between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). In anterior-posterior and vertical direction, neither λs nor MeanSD values of all body segments showed significant difference between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). These findings indicate that active arm swing may help to improve the local dynamic stability of the trunk segments in medial-lateral direction.

  13. Positional changes of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles after surgical mandibular advancement procedures: an MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicker, G.J.; Koolstra, J.H.; Castelijns, J.A.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether surgical mandibular advancement procedures induced a change in the direction and the moment arms of the masseter (MAS) and medial pterygoid (MPM) muscles. Sixteen adults participated in this study. The sample was divided in two groups: Group I (n = 8) with a mandibular

  14. Effects of baseline anxiety on response to kindling of the right medial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R; Shallow, T

    The effects of kindling of the right anterior medial amygdala of Wistar rats was studied. Kindling lastingly increased anxiety (decreased open-arm exploration) in the elevated plus-maze 1 week after the last kindled seizure, replicating previous findings. Changes in anxiety were independent of changes in exploration or activity in either the plus-maze or hole board. A new finding is the dependence on baseline behavior of kindling induced behavioral changes. Using a novel-retest paradigm, it was possible to retest rats in the plus-maze without changes in their open arm explorations. This permitted pretesting rats to determine their baseline levels of plus-maze anxiety. Controls proved to be stable in their plus-maze behavior over a retest interval of 3 weeks. Rats below the median level of Test 1 open-arm exploration were unaffected by kindling. Those above the Test 1 median level of open-arm exploration showed reduced exploration following kindling. Kindling did not affect closed-arm entries in the plus-maze in this analysis. However, it was discovered that rats with arm entries below a critical level on Test 1 showed an increase in closed-arm entries following kindling. These findings point out how baseline behaviors can interact with kindling to influence behavioral outcome. Risk assessment was unchanged by kindling in this study, unlike previous reports. Subtle changes in focus location within the medial amygdala may have altered the effects of kindling on risk assessment. The electrodes in this study were in a slightly but significantly different location in the medial amygdala than in previous studies. As in previous studies, risk assessment was measured as frequency and duration of stretch attend postures toward the open arm of the plus maze when the hind quarters were in the closed arms. Risk assessment was taken as a ratio of time spent in the closed arms of the maze. This study, along with others reviewed elsewhere, suggest that a complex set of factors

  15. Biomechanical comparison of frontal plane knee joint moment arms during normal and Tai Chi walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodinsky, Adam; Fox, John; Decoux, Brandi; Weimar, Wendi; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] Medial knee osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, affects adults. The external knee adduction moment, a surrogate knee-loading measure, has clinical implications for knee osteoarthritis patients. Tai Chi is a promising intervention for pain alleviation in knee osteoarthritis; however, the characteristics of external knee adduction moment during Tai Chi have not been established. [Subjects and Methods] During normal and Tai Chi walking, a gait analysis was performed to compare the external knee adduction moment moment-arm characteristics and paired t-tests to compare moment-arm magnitudes. [Results] A significant difference was observed in the average lateral direction of moment-arm magnitude during Tai Chi walking (-0.0239 ± 0.011 m) compared to that during normal walking (-0.0057 ± 0.004 m). No significant difference was found between conditions in average medial direction of moment-arm magnitude (normal walking: 0.0143 ± 0.010 m; Tai Chi walking: 0.0098 ± 0.014 m). [Conclusion] Tai Chi walking produced a larger peak lateral moment-arm value than normal walking during the stance phase, whereas Tai Chi walking and normal walking peak medial moment-arm values were similar, suggesting that medial knee joint loading may be avoided during Tai Chi walking.

  16. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  17. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons, and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall, or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  18. Medial Patella Subluxation: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark A.; Bollier, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Medial patella subluxation is a disabling condition typically associated with previous patellofemoral instability surgery. Patients often describe achy pain with painful popping episodes. They often report that the patella shifts laterally, which occurs as the medial subluxed patella dramatically shifts into the trochlear groove during early knee flexion. Physical examination is diagnostic with a positive medial subluxation test. Nonoperative treatment, such as focused physical therapy and patellofemoral stabilizing brace, is often unsuccessful. Primary surgical options include lateral retinacular repair/imbrication or lateral reconstruction. Prevention is key to avoid medial patella subluxation. When considering patellofemoral surgery, important factors include appropriate lateral release indications, consideration of lateral retinacular lengthening vs release, correct MPFL graft placement and tension, and avoiding excessive medialization during tubercle transfer. This review article will analyze patient symptoms, diagnostic exam findings and appropriate treatment options, as well as pearls to avoid this painful clinical entity. PMID:26361441

  19. The Effect of Hip Bracing on Gait in Patients with Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Impaired hip motion has been associated with heightened medial knee joint loading in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. A hip external rotation strap designed to pull the femur into external rotation and abduction may serve as one protective mechanism. The primary aim of our study is to determine if the strap decreases medial knee joint loading during level walking in people with knee OA. Design. This study is a single-day repeated measures design. Methods. 15 volunteers with medial knee OA underwent motion analysis data collection during two randomly assigned walking conditions: (1 wearing the strap and (2 control (no strap. Primary outcome measures were peak pelvis, hip and knee joint motions, and torques. These outcomes were averaged across five trials for each condition. Results. Hip abduction (<0.01, trunk lean towards the stance limb (=0.04 and pelvic tilt (=0.02 significantly increased with the strap versus control trials. Knee adduction loading did not significantly change with the strap (=0.33. Conclusion. The use of the hip external rotation strap resulted in angular changes at the hip and pelvis which may be beneficial for patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

  20. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  1. Arm Lift (Brachioplasty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sagging. An arm lift might also boost your body image. As you get older, the skin on your upper arms changes — sagging and becoming loose. Significant weight loss also can cause the undersides of your upper arms to droop. While exercise can strengthen and improve muscle tone in the ...

  2. Biomechanical effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles on unilateral weight bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Tomonori; Kito, Nobuhiro; Yukimune, Masaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lateral wedge insoles reduce the peak external knee adduction moment and are advocated for patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, some patients demonstrate adverse biomechanical effects with treatment. In this study, we examined the immediate effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles under unilateral weight bearing. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. The subjects were assessed by using the foot posture index, and were divided into three groups: normal foot, pronated foot, and supinated foot groups. The knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm under the studied conditions were measured by using a three-dimensional motion capture system and force plates. [Results] In the normal and pronated groups, the change in knee adduction moment significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition compared with the medial wedge insole condition. In the normal group, the change in the knee-ground reaction force lever arm also significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition than under the medial wedge insole condition. [Conclusion] Lateral wedge insoles significantly reduced the knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm during unilateral weight bearing in subjects with normal feet, and the biomechanical effects varied according to individual foot alignment.

  3. The Vascularized Medial Femoral Corticoperiosteal Flap for Thumb Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Kavit; Darhouse, Nagham; Sivakumar, Bran; Floyd, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present an interesting method of shaping a vascularized medial femoral condyle (MFC) flap into a “neophalanx” for phalangeal reconstruction. Our patient presented with limited strength and function secondary to fracture nonunion of the proximal phalanx of the dominant thumb. Following excision of the pseudarthrosis, an MFC corticoperiosteal flap was harvested, sculpted into a prism shape and inset. The superomedial genicular pedicle was anastomosed to the princeps pollicis artery and a cephalic tributary. On follow-up, new bone growth was seen on radiographs and the patient had substantially improved function, with full metacarpophalangeal extension, a Kapandji score of 9, and a markedly reduced Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score of 2.68. The MFC flap is useful for reconstruction of bony defects, with minimal donor morbidity. This versatile vascularized flap can be crafted to requisite shapes and is useful for small defects in the hand, including phalangeal reconstruction. PMID:26495205

  4. Colgajo sural medial: un nuevo colgajo de perforantes para la reconstrucción del territorio maxilofacial Medial sural flap: a new flap for maxillofacial reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Arribas-García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La reconstrucción microquirúrgica de defectos mucocutáneos craneofaciales se realiza con técnicas descritas desde hace muchos años y se basan fundamentalmente en el colgajo radial, el anterolateral de muslo y el lateral de brazo, entre otros. Se presenta un nuevo colgajo microvascularizado fasciocutáneo para la reconstrucción de defectos en el territorio de cabeza y cuello, el colgajo de perforantes dependiente de la arteria sural medial. Material y métodos: Se presentan 4 pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide de cavidad oral, donde se realizaron 4 colgajos dependientes de la arteria sural medial para la reconstrucción de sus defectos tras la cirugía ablativa de la lesión tumoral. Resultados: El colgajo sural medial presentó una excelente adaptabilidad y una adecuada viabilidad en todos los casos, con unos buenos resultados funcionales, estéticos y con escasa morbilidad de la zona donante. Conclusión: Se presenta una nueva técnica reconstructiva en defectos de cabeza y cuello.Introduction: Microsurgical reconstruction of craniofacial mucocutaneous defects have been performed for many years using well-known techniques, that are mainly based on flaps from the radial forearm, the anterolateral thigh and lateral arm, among others. We present the medial sural artery perforator flap, a new vascularized fasciocutaneous flap for head and neck reconstruction. Material and methods: We present four patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. A medial sural artery flap was performed for the oral reconstruction after tumour ablation surgery. Results: The medial sural flap showed excellent adaptability and adequate viability in all cases, with good functional and aesthetic results and low donor site morbidity. Conclusion: We present a new reconstructive technique in head and neck defects.

  5. Clinical Outcomes After Suture Anchor Repair of Recalcitrant Medial Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian M; Fabricant, Peter D; Chin, Christopher S; Allen, Answorth A; DePalma, Brian J; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical and patient-reported outcomes and return to sport after surgical treatment of medial epicondylitis with suture anchor fixation. Consecutive patients were evaluated after undergoing debridement and suture anchor repair of the flexor-pronator mass for the treatment of medial epicondylitis. Demographic variables, a short version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score, Oxford Elbow Score (OES), and 10-point pain and satisfaction scales were collected. Ability and time to return to sport after surgery were evaluated, and the relationship between predictor variables and both elbow function and return to sport was investigated. Median age at the time of surgery was 55 years (range, 29-65 years), with median follow-up of 40 months (range, 12-67 months). Median QuickDASH score and OES at final follow-up were 2.3 (range, 0-38.6) and 45 (range, 22-48), respectively. Most patients returned to premorbid sporting activities at a median of 4.5 months (range, 2.5-12 months), whereas 4 patients (14%) reported significant limitations at final follow-up. Older age at the time of surgery was predictive of better QuickDASH score and OES (P=.05 and P=.02, respectively). Patients who underwent surgery after a shorter duration of symptoms had better outcomes, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (QuickDASH, P=.09; OES, P=.10). Surgical treatment of recalcitrant medial epicondylitis with suture anchor fixation offers good pain relief and patient satisfaction, with little residual disability. Older age at the time of surgery predicts a better outcome.

  6. Functional torque ratios and torque curve analysis of shoulder rotations in overhead athletes with and without impingement symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, Gisele G; Oliveira, Ana B; Saccol, Michele F; Ejnisman, Benno; Mattiello-Rosa, Stela M

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the peak torque, functional torque ratios, and torque curve profile of the shoulder rotators in overhead athletes with impingement symptoms so as to examine possible alterations in response to sports training and shoulder pain. Twenty-one overhead athletes with impingement symptoms were compared with 25 overhead athletes and 21 non-athletes, none of whom were symptomatic for impingement. The participants performed five maximal isokinetic concentric and eccentric contractions of medial and lateral shoulder rotations at 1.57 rad · s(-1) and 3.14 rad · s(-1). Isokinetic peak torque was used to calculate the eccentric lateral rotation-to-concentric medial rotation and the eccentric medial rotation-to-concentric lateral rotation ratios. An analysis of the torque curve profiles was also carried out. The eccentric lateral rotation-to-concentric medial rotation torque ratio of asymptomatic athletes was lower than that of non-athletes at both test velocities. The concentric medial rotation isokinetic peak torque of the asymptomatic athletes, at 3.14 rad · s(-1), was greater than that of the non-athletes, and the peak appeared to occur earlier in the movement for athletes than non-athletes. These findings suggest that there may be adaptations to shoulder function in response to throwing practice. The eccentric medial rotation-to-concentric lateral rotation torque ratio was altered neither by the practice of university-level overhead sports nor impingement symptoms.

  7. Variant position of the medial plantar nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astik RB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variation of position of the medial plantar nerve is important for the forefoot surgeon for plantar reconstruction, local injection therapy and an excision of interdigital neuroma. During routine dissection of 50-year-old female cadaver, we found the medial plantar nerve and vessels variably located between plantar aponeurosis and the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the right foot. Due to this variant position, the medial plantar nerve and vessels lose their protection from the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the foot and became vulnerable for compression.

  8. Medial talo-calcaneal coalition. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, B.D.; Towers, M.J.; Hamilton, S.

    1988-11-01

    Medial talo-calcaneal coalition is an uncommon developmental anomaly consisting of a bony projection arising from the postero-medial aspect of the sustentaculum tali, which may articulate with another bony projection from the medial aspect of the talus. Fibrous, cartilaginous or bony ankylosis may occur. It usually presents in adolescents, and causes pain following exercise. It may cause a lump, and can predispose to flat foot and early osteoarthrosis. This condition is easily overlooked on routine views of the ankle, and may require oblique views and tomography for its detection and clarification.

  9. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  10. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  11. Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot Problems Overview of Foot Problems Achilles Tendon Bursitis Achilles Tendon Enthesopathy Bunion Corns and Calluses Damage ... the Foot Freiberg Disease Hammer Toe Inferior Calcaneal Bursitis Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment Metatarsal Joint ...

  12. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  13. Evolution of robotic arms

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond th...

  14. Hip Rotations Influence Electromyographic Activity of Gluteus Medius Muscle During Pelvic Drop Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Renan Lima; Facchini, Joana Hoverter; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Callegaric, Bianca; Amado João, Sílvia Maria

    2016-08-24

    Pelvic drop exercises are often used to strengthen the gluteus medius muscle with the aim of increasing or prioritizing its recruitment. However, the effect of hip rotation on the performance of the action of the gluteus medius is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hip rotation on the recruitment of the gluteus medius muscle, tensor fasciae latae and quadratus lumborum. Seventeen healthy subjects performed two sets of four repetitions of pelvic drop exercise in random order with lateral (PDLR), medial (PDMR) and neutral (PDN) rotation of the hip. The electromyographic activity of the gluteus medius muscle (GM), tensor fasciae latae (TFL) and quadratus lumborum (QL) were evaluated using surface electromyography (sEMG). The results showed significant increases in activation of the GM with medial and neutral rotation compared with lateral rotation (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, respectively) and there was no difference between medial and neutral rotation (p=1.00). There was no difference in electromyographic activity of the tensor fasciae latae and quadratus lumborum in any of the positions. The GM:TFL ratio was the same in all analyzed positions. Regarding the GM:QL ratio, there was a significant increase with medial rotation compared with lateral rotation (p=0.02). Pelvic drop exercises are more efficient for activating the gluteus medius when the hip is in medial rotation and neutral position.

  15. The metabolic cost of human running: is swinging the arms worth it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Christopher J; Kram, Rodger

    2014-07-15

    Although the mechanical function is quite clear, there is no consensus regarding the metabolic benefit of arm swing during human running. We compared the metabolic cost of running using normal arm swing with the metabolic cost of running while restricting the arms in three different ways: (1) holding the hands with the arms behind the back in a relaxed position (BACK), (2) holding the arms across the chest (CHEST) and (3) holding the hands on top of the head (HEAD). We hypothesized that running without arm swing would demand a greater metabolic cost than running with arm swing. Indeed, when compared with running using normal arm swing, we found that net metabolic power demand was 3, 9 and 13% greater for the BACK, CHEST and HEAD conditions, respectively (all Prunning without arm swing, subjects significantly increased the peak-to-peak amplitudes of both shoulder and pelvis rotation about the vertical axis, most likely a compensatory strategy to counterbalance the rotational angular momentum of the swinging legs. In conclusion, our findings support our general hypothesis that swinging the arms reduces the metabolic cost of human running. Our findings also demonstrate that arm swing minimizes torso rotation. We infer that actively swinging the arms provides both metabolic and biomechanical benefits during human running.

  16. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics

  17. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  18. Rotating Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  19. A rotating Michelson interferometer from the co-rotating point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraner, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The phase shift induced by a uniform rotation in a Michelson interferometer is re-derived in the geometrical framework of the coordinate-free formalism of general relativity from the co-rotating point of view. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer's speed to the speed of light and further suppressed by the ratio of the length of the interferometer's arms to the radius of rotation. The relation of the effect to gravitational time dilation is discussed.

  20. Rotational elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2017-04-01

    We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint https://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3833

  1. Effects of Spiral Arms on Star Formation in Nuclear Rings of Barred-spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Woo-Young

    2014-01-01

    We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the effect of spiral arms on the star formation rate (SFR) occurring in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies. We find that spiral arms can be an efficient means of gas transport from the outskirts to the central parts, provided that the arms are rotating slower than the bar. While the ring star formation in models with no-arm or corotating arms is active only during about the bar growth phase, arm-driven gas accretion makes the ring star formation both enhanced and prolonged significantly in models with slow-rotating arms. The arm-enhanced SFR is larger by a factor of ~ 3-20 than in the no-arm model, with larger values corresponding to stronger and slower arms. Arm-induced mass inflows also make dust lanes stronger. Nuclear rings in slow-arm models are ~ 45% larger than in the no-arm counterparts. Star clusters that form in a nuclear ring exhibit an age gradient in the azimuthal direction only when the SFR is small, whereas no noticeable age gradient is found in the...

  2. Cardio-postural interactions and short-arm centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, Andrew; Goswami, Nandu; Xu, Da; Laurin, Alexendre

    INTRODUCTION: We are interested in mechanisms associated with orthostatic tolerance. In previous studies we have shown that postural muscles in the calf contribute to both posture and blood pressure regulation during orthostatic stress. In this study we investigated the relationship between cardiovascular and postural muscle control before, during and after short arm human centrifuge (SAHC) up to 2.2 G. METHODS: Eleven healthy young subjects (6 m, 5 f), with no history of cardiovascular disease, falls or orthostatic hypotension, participated. All were familiarized with the SAHC with 10 minutes at 1-G at the feet. Each subject was instrumented in the supine position on the SAHC for beat-to-beat ECG and blood pressure (Portapres derived SBP). Bilateral lower leg EMG was collected from four leg postural muscles: tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and medial soleus. Transdermal differential recording of signals was performed using an 8-channel EMG system, (Myosystem 1200, Noraxon Inc., Arizona, USA). Postural sway data of the body COP was computed from the force and moment data collected with a force platform (Accusway, AMTI, MA, USA). Before and after SAHC, the subject stood on a force platform with their gaze fixed on a point at eye level, closed their eyes and stood quietly for 5 min. A final stand was conducted 30 min after centrifugation with supine rest in between. During clockwise centrifugation (10-min 1g and 10-min 2.2g at the foot) the subjects’ head was hooded and in the dark. The subject’s body was restrained into the rotation arm with a parachute harness and given additional body support with a foot-plate. ECG, EMG and BP data were collected throughout and centre of pressure trajectory (COP) collected during the stand test. Subjects were requested to relax and not to voluntarily contract the leg muscles; however, they were not to suppress contractions as they occurred involuntarily or by reflex. A Continuous Wavelet

  3. Medial meniscal cyst: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Mauro; Sabbioni, Giacomo; Tigani, Domenico

    2008-12-01

    Meniscal cysts are a rare disease constantly combined with a horizontal meniscal lesion. Currently, nuclear magnetic resonance (MRI) is the main diagnostic tool, because of its high sensitivity and specificity, and decompression arthroscopy combined with selective meniscectomy is the treatment of choice. The Authors report a case of a voluminous medial meniscal cyst where instrumental examination, MRI, was fundamental for the preoperative diagnosis of the horizontal meniscal lesion causing the cystic degeneration of the meniscus. The treatment performed was selective meniscectomy of the body and posterior horn of the medial meniscus and decompression of the voluminous cyst by arthroscopy. Physical examination after six months showed the complete resolution of swelling at the medial hemirima, no walking pain and normal range of motion.

  4. The roles of the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in a spatial paired-association task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inah; Solivan, Frances

    2008-05-01

    Although the roles of both the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been suggested in a spatial paired-associate memory task, both areas were investigated separately in prior studies. The current study investigated the relative contributions of the hippocampus and mPFC to spatial paired-associate learning within a single behavioral paradigm. In a novel behavioral task, a pair of different objects appeared repeatedly across trials, but in different arms in a radial maze, and different rules were associated with those arms for reward. Specifically, in an "object-in-place" arm, the rat was required to choose a particular object associated with the arm. In a "location-in-place" arm, the animal was required to choose a certain within-arm location (ignoring the object occupying the location). Compared to normal animals, rats with ibotenic acid-based lesions in the hippocampus showed an irrecoverable impairment in performance in both object-in-place and location-in-place arms. When the mPFC was inactivated by muscimol (GABA(A) receptor agonist) in the normal animals with intact hippocampi, they showed the same severe impairment as seen in the hippocampal lesioned rats only in object-in-place arms. The results confirm that the hippocampus is necessary for a biconditional paired-associate task when space is a critical component. The mPFC, however, is more selectively involved in the object-place paired-associate task than in the location-place paired-associate task. The current task powerfully demonstrates an experimental situation in which both the hippocampus and mPFC are required and may serve as a useful paradigm for investigating the neural mechanisms of object-place association.

  5. Effect of reverse shoulder design philosophy on muscle moment arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew A; Diep, Phong; Roche, Chris; Flurin, Pierre Henri; Wright, Thomas W; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Routman, Howard

    2015-04-01

    This study analyzes the muscle moment arms of three different reverse shoulder design philosophies using a previously published method. Digital bone models of the shoulder were imported into a 3D modeling software and markers placed for the origin and insertion of relevant muscles. The anatomic model was used as a baseline for moment arm calculations. Subsequently, three different reverse shoulder designs were virtually implanted and moment arms were analyzed in abduction and external rotation. The results indicate that the lateral offset between the joint center and the axis of the humerus specific to one reverse shoulder design increased the external rotation moment arms of the posterior deltoid relative to the other reverse shoulder designs. The other muscles analyzed demonstrated differences in the moment arms, but none of the differences reached statistical significance. This study demonstrated how the combination of variables making up different reverse shoulder designs can affect the moment arms of the muscles in different and statistically significant ways. The role of humeral offset in reverse shoulder design has not been previously reported and could have an impact on external rotation and stability achieved post-operatively. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  7. MVACS Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  8. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  9. The effects of kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty on stress at the medial tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Kuriyama, S.; Ito, H.; Furu, M.; Matsuda, S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Little biomechanical information is available about kinematically aligned (KA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to simulate the kinematics and kinetics after KA TKA and mechanically aligned (MA) TKA with four different limb alignments. Materials and Methods Bone models were constructed from one volunteer (normal) and three patients with three different knee deformities (slight, moderate and severe varus). A dynamic musculoskeletal modelling system was used to analyse the kinematics and the tibiofemoral contact force. The contact stress on the tibial insert, and the stress to the resection surface and medial tibial cortex were examined by using finite element analysis. Results In all bone models, posterior translation on the lateral side and external rotation in the KA TKA models were greater than in the MA TKA models. The tibiofemoral force at the medial side was increased in the moderate and severe varus models with KA TKA. In the severe varus model with KA TKA, the contact stress on the tibial insert and the stress to the resection surface and to the medial tibial cortex were increased by 41.5%, 32.2% and 53.7%, respectively, compared with MA TKA, and the bone strain at the medial side was highest among all models. Conclusion Near normal kinematics was observed in KA TKA. However, KA TKA increased the contact force, stress and bone strain at the medial side for moderate and severe varus knee models. The application of KA TKA for severe varus knees may be inadequate. Cite this article: S. Nakamura, Y. Tian, Y. Tanaka, S. Kuriyama, H. Ito, M. Furu, S. Matsuda. The effects of kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty on stress at the medial tibia: A case study for varus knee. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:43–51. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.61.BJR-2016-0090.R1. PMID:28077396

  10. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  11. Dynamics of Robotic Arm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abhishek Chavan; Abhishek Bhuskute; Anmol Jain; Neha Shinde; M B Salunke

    2014-01-01

    ...'. Autonomous Systems are self-governed and does not require any manual interventions. This paper presents an overview of previous developments and the working of Robotic arms along with its mathematical aspects...

  12. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. Effects of asymmetrical stance and movement on body rotation in pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-01-21

    Pushing objects in the presence of body asymmetries could increase the risk of back injury. Furthermore, when the object is heavy, it could exacerbate the effects induced by asymmetrical posture. We investigated how the use of asymmetrical posture and/or upper extremity movement affect vertical torque (Tz) and center of pressure (COP) displacement during pushing. Ten healthy volunteers were instructed to push objects of three different weights using two hands (symmetrical hand use) or one hand (asymmetrical hand use) while standing in symmetrical or asymmetrical foot-positions. The peak values of Tz and COP displacement in the medial-lateral direction (COPML) were analyzed. In cases of isolated asymmetry, changes in the Tz were mainly linked with effects of hand-use whereas effects of foot-position dominated changes in the COPML displacement. In cases of a combined asymmetry, the magnitudes of both Tz and COPML were additive when asymmetrical hand-use and foot-position induced the rotation of the lower and upper body in the same direction or subtractive when asymmetries resulted in the rotation of the body segments in the opposite directions. Moreover, larger Tz and COP displacements were seen when pushing the heavy weight. The results point out the importance of using Tz and COPML to describe the isolated or combined effects of asymmetrical upper extremity movement and asymmetrical posture on body rotation during pushing. Furthermore, it suggests that a proper combination of unilateral arm movement and foot placements could help to reduce body rotation even when pushing heavy objects.

  14. MORPHOLOGY OF ULNAR NERVE IN AXILLA & ARM & ITS VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The ulnar nerve arises from the medial cord (C8, T1; medial cord also receives fibres from the ventral ramus of C7. Lesions of the ulnar nerve occur behind the medial epicondyle & in the cubital tunnel. When muscles are affected due to ulnar nerve dysfunction, there is ulnar neuropathy at the shoulder, arm & elbow. The study was done on 50 embalmed human cadavers (25 right & 25 left of both sexes of South Indian adult population obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore. Variations in the ulnar nerve in its presence, origin, relations, distribution & communications were observed. Ulnar nerve was present in all 50 upper limb specimens (100%. Ulnar nerve originated from the medial cord of the brachial plexus in 49 cases (98%. In 1 case (2%, the ulnar nerve received C7 fibers from lateral cord i.e. the lateral root of the median nerve and then later fused with the median root of the median nerve. In 49 specimens (98% ulnar nerve took origin from the tip of the acromion processes. In 1 case (2% it took origin from distal to the tip of the acromion process. 49 specimens (98% showed the normal course, i.e. medial to axillary & brachial artery. 1 case (2% showed ulnar nerve present anterior to the third part of the axillary artery and brachial artery. In the midarm it passed medially as a normal course, then runs distally through the cubital tunnel. The awareness of these variations along the normal pattern are helpful for the interventional radiologists, orthopaedicians and neurologists in preventing untoward iatrogenic injury to the ulnar nerve during radiological procedures or operating on fractured patients or diagnostic therapy.

  15. Effects of different medial arch support heights on rearfoot kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frank; Baur, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    Background Foot orthoses are usually assumed to be effective by optimizing mechanically dynamic rearfoot configuration. However, the effect from a foot orthosis on kinematics that has been demonstrated scientifically has only been marginal. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different heights in medial arch-supported foot orthoses on rear foot motion during gait. Methods Nineteen asymptomatic runners (36±11years, 180±5cm, 79±10kg; 41±22km/week) participated in the study. Trials were recorded at 3.1 mph (5 km/h) on a treadmill. Athletes walked barefoot and with 4 different not customized medial arch-supported foot orthoses of various arch heights (N:0 mm, M:30 mm, H:35 mm, E:40mm). Six infrared cameras and the `Oxford Foot Model´ were used to capture motion. The average stride in each condition was calculated from 50 gait cycles per condition. Eversion excursion and internal tibia rotation were analyzed. Descriptive statistics included calculating the mean ± SD and 95% CIs. Group differences by condition were analyzed by one factor (foot orthoses) repeated measures ANOVA (α = 0.05). Results Eversion excursion revealed the lowest values for N and highest for H (B:4.6°±2.2°; 95% CI [3.1;6.2]/N:4.0°±1.7°; [2.9;5.2]/M:5.2°±2.6°; [3.6;6.8]/H:6.2°±3.3°; [4.0;8.5]/E:5.1°±3.5°; [2.8;7.5]) (p>0.05). Range of internal tibia rotation was lowest with orthosis H and highest with E (B:13.3°±3.2°; 95% CI [11.0;15.6]/N:14.5°±7.2°; [9.2;19.6]/M:13.8°±5.0°; [10.8;16.8]/H:12.3°±4.3°; [9.0;15.6]/E:14.9°±5.0°; [11.5;18.3]) (p>0.05). Differences between conditions were small and the intrasubject variation high. Conclusion Our results indicate that different arch support heights have no systematic effect on eversion excursion or the range of internal tibia rotation and therefore might not exert a crucial influence on rear foot alignment during gait. PMID:28257426

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    world war, a nuclear inferno , for over 40 years. A sober assessment of the situation in world politics was conducted at the meet- ing of the...there is success in stopping the arms race, or those forces accelerating the arms race and driving humanity to the edge of a nuclear inferno will gain...dialogue with all forces fighting against a nuclear inferno , affirmed by the Warsaw Pact countries, is being seen more and more as the only practicable

  17. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  18. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  19. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  20. Hierarchical error representation in medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Noah; Brown, Joshua W

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is reliably activated by both performance and prediction errors. Error signals have typically been treated as a scalar, and it is unknown to what extent multiple error signals may co-exist within mPFC. Previous studies have shown that lateral frontal cortex (LFC) is arranged in a hierarchy of abstraction, such that more abstract concepts and rules are represented in more anterior cortical regions. Given the close interaction between lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, we explored the hypothesis that mPFC would be organized along a similar rostro-caudal gradient of abstraction, such that more abstract prediction errors are represented further anterior and more concrete errors further posterior. We show that multiple prediction error signals can be found in mPFC, and furthermore, these are arranged in a rostro-caudal gradient of abstraction which parallels that found in LFC. We used a task that requires a three-level hierarchy of rules to be followed, in which the rules changed without warning at each level of the hierarchy. Task feedback indicated which level of the rule hierarchy changed and led to corresponding prediction error signals in mPFC. Moreover, each identified region of mPFC was preferentially functionally connected to correspondingly anterior regions of LFC. These results suggest the presence of a parallel structure between lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, with the medial regions monitoring and evaluating performance based on rules maintained in the corresponding lateral regions.

  1. [Arthritis of the Medial Knee Joint Compartment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziolis, G; Röhner, E

    2015-10-01

    23 % of all persons older than 65 years suffer from osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint, a very common situation in orthopaedic practice 1. As a result of the demographic trend the number of patients is expected to increase in the future. Based on specific joint biomechanics and kinematics the medial knee joint compartment is more frequently affected than the lateral. Only an understanding of the functional anatomy and underlying pathology allows a critical evaluation of different available conservative and operative treatment options. This article gives an overview of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of osteoarthritis of the medial knee joint. Frequently performed surgeries, e.g. high tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will be presented in a comparative manner. The actual scientific evidence will be given with the goal of an evidence based therapy that is adopted to stage and pathology of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette

    2014-01-01

    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  3. Rotator cuff muscles perform different functional roles during shoulder external rotation exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardo, Daniel T; Halaki, Mark; Cathers, Ian; Ginn, Karen A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare activity in shoulder muscles during an external rotation task under conditions of increasing arm support to investigate whether changing support requirements would influence muscle recruitment levels, particularly in the rotator cuff (RC) muscles. Electromyographic recordings were collected from seven shoulder muscles using surface and indwelling electrodes. The dominant shoulder of 14 healthy participants were examined during dynamic shoulder external rotation performed at 90° abduction with the arm fully supported, partially supported, and unsupported. Linear regressions between arm support load and the averaged muscle activity across participants for each muscle showed infraspinatus predominantly contributing to rotating the shoulder whilst supraspinatus, deltoid, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior were predominantly functioning in support/stabilization roles. During dynamic shoulder external rotation in mid-range abduction, the RC muscles perform different functional roles. Infraspinatus is responsible for producing external rotation torque, supraspinatus is playing a larger joint stabilizer role, and subscapularis is contributing minimally to joint stability. The results also indicate that increasing support load requirements during an external rotation task may be a functionally specific way to retrain the stabilization function of axioscapular muscles. Manipulating joint stabilization requirements while maintaining constant rotational load is a novel method of investigating the differential contribution of muscles to joint movement and stabilization during a given task. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Period tripling causes rotating spirals in agitated wet granular layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Rehberg, Ingo

    2011-07-08

    Pattern formation of a thin layer of vertically agitated wet granular matter is investigated experimentally. Rotating spirals with three arms, which correspond to the kinks between regions with different colliding phases, are the dominating pattern. This preferred number of arms corresponds to period tripling of the agitated granular layer, unlike predominantly subharmonic Faraday crispations in dry granular matter. The chirality of the spatiotemporal pattern corresponds to the rotation direction of the spirals.

  5. Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy alters knee moments in multiple planes during walking and stair ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Kristyn M; Birmingham, Trevor B; Dunning, Cynthia E; Giffin, J Robert

    2015-07-01

    Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure intended to redistribute loads on the knee in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). The surgery may affect moments in multiple planes during ambulation, with potential beneficial or detrimental effects on joint loads. The objective of this study was to investigate three-dimensional external knee moments before and after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy during level walking and during stair ascent. Fourteen patients with varus alignment and osteoarthritis primarily affecting the medial compartment of the tibiofemoral joint were assessed. Three-dimensional motion analyses during level walking and stair ascent was evaluated using inverse dynamics before, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Mean changes at 12 months suggested decreases in the peak knee adduction, flexion and internal rotation moments, with standardized response means ranging from 0.15 to 2.54. These decreases were observed despite increases in speed. Changes in alignment were associated with changes in the adduction and internal rotation moments, but not the flexion moment. Both pre- and postoperatively, the peak knee adduction moment was significantly lower (p=0.001) during stair ascent than during level walking, while the flexion and internal rotation moments were significantly higher (pplanes of motion during ambulation, suggesting substantial alterations of the loads on the knee during ambulation.

  6. Horizontal intra-articular patellar dislocation resulting in quadriceps avulsion and medial patellofemoral ligament tear: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Dennis E; Simoni, Michael K

    2013-07-01

    Intra-articular patellar dislocations are rare. We present a 13-year-old boy who sustained a complete horizontal intra-articular patellar dislocation following blunt trauma to the flexed knee. Closed reduction was unsuccessful and open reduction indicated a repairable quadriceps avulsion and medial patellofemoral ligament tear. He is the youngest patient to sustain a quadriceps rupture and the only patient to sustain a medial patellofemoral ligament tear to date. His flexed knee and the horizontally positioned patella (seen on lateral radiograph) were indicative of a complete rotational injury with extensor mechanism involvement. Open reduction allowed for the repair of both injuries and a favorable outcome.

  7. Hip abductor moment arm - a mathematical analysis for proximal femoral replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing proximal femoral replacement for tumor resection often have compromised hip abductor muscles resulting in a Trendelenberg limp and hip instability. Commercially available proximal femoral prostheses offer several designs with varying sites of attachment for the abductor muscles, however, no analyses of these configurations have been performed to determine which design provides the longest moment arm for the hip abductor muscles during normal function. Methods This study analyzed hip abductor moment arm through hip adduction and abduction with a trigonometric mathematical model to evaluate the effects of alterations in anatomy and proximal femoral prosthesis design. Prosthesis dimensions were taken from technical schematics that were obtained from the prosthesis manufacturers. Manufacturers who contributed schematics for this investigation were Stryker Orthopaedics and Biomet. Results Superior and lateral displacement of the greater trochanter increased the hip abductor mechanical advantage for single-leg stance and adduction and preserved moment arm in the setting of Trendelenberg gait. Hip joint medialization resulted in less variance of the abductor moment arm through coronal motion. The Stryker GMRS endoprosthesis provided the longest moment arm in single-leg stance. Conclusions Hip abductor moment arm varies substantially throughout the hip's range of motion in the coronal plane. Selection of a proximal femur endoprosthesis with an abductor muscle insertion that is located superiorly and laterally will optimize hip abductor moment arm in single-leg stance compared to one located inferiorly or medially.

  8. Radiographic Relevance of the Distal Medial Cuneiform Angle in Hallux Valgus Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Daniel J; Smith, Abigail; Fowler, Troy

    2016-01-01

    The angle formed by the distal articular facet of the medial cuneiform has been evaluated and discussed by various investigators. However, no consistent method has been available to radiograph and measure this entity. The wide variability of the angle is not conducive to comparative analysis. Additionally, investigators have noted that the angles observed (obliquity) vary greatly because of changes in radiographic angle, foot position, rotation of the first ray, and declination of the first metatarsal. Recognizing that these variables exist, we propose a reproducible assessment using digital radiography and application of deformity of correction principles. Our results have indicated a mean distal medial cuneiform angle of 20.69° in normal feet, 23.51° with moderate hallux valgus, and 20.41° with severe hallux valgus deformity. The radiograph beam was kept at 15° from the coronal plane. An inverse relationship was found between the distal medial cuneiform angle and bunion severity. This was in contrast to our expected hypothesis. The overall angle of the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform did, however, correlate with the severity of the bunion deformity (p positioning, and soft tissue imbalances. Perhaps, 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging will provide better insight into this entity.

  9. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity Predicts Successful Relational Memory Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Ranganath, Charan

    2009-01-01

    Previous neuropsychological findings have implicated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures in retaining object-location relations over the course of short delays, but MTL effects have not always been reported in neuroimaging investigations with similar short-term memory requirements. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that the hippocampus and related MTL structures support accurate retention of relational memory representations, even across short delays. On every trial, four objects were presented, each in one of nine possible locations of a three-dimensional grid. Participants were to mentally rotate the grid and then maintain the rotated representation in anticipation of a test stimulus: a rendering of the grid, rotated 90° from the original viewpoint. The test stimulus was either a “match” display, in which object-location relations were intact, or a “mismatch” display, in which one object occupied a new, previously unfilled location (mismatch position), or two objects had swapped locations (mismatch swap). Encoding phase activation in anterior and posterior regions of the left hippocampus, and in bilateral perirhinal cortex, predicted subsequent accuracy on the short-term memory decision, as did bilateral posterior hippocampal activity after the test stimulus. Notably, activation in these posterior hippocampal regions was also sensitive to the degree to which object-location bindings were preserved in the test stimulus; activation was greatest for match displays, followed by mismatch-position displays, and finally mismatch-swap displays. These results indicate that the hippocampus and related MTL structures contribute to successful encoding and retrieval of relational information in visual short-term memory. PMID:18171929

  10. The effect of rotations on Michelson interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraner, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    In the contest of the special theory of relativity, it is shown that uniform rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer's speed to the speed of light, further suppressed by the ratio of the interferometer's arms length to the radius of rotation and depends on the interferometer's position in the co-rotating frame. The magnitude of the phase shift is just beyond the sensitivity of turntable rotated optical resonators used in present tests of Lorentz invariance. It grows significantly large in Earth's rotated kilometer-scale Fabry-Perot enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors where it appears as a constant bias. The effect can provide the means of sensing center and radius of rotations.

  11. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef Mohamadi; Seyed Behnam-edin Jameie; Mohammad Akbari; Masumeh Staji; Fatemeh Moradi; Tahmineh Mokhtari; Maryam Khanehzad; Gholamreza Hassanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we...

  12. Arm movements can increase leg muscle activity during submaximal recumbent stepping in neurologically intact individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kam, Digna; Rijken, Hennie; Manintveld, Toos; Nienhuis, Bart; Dietz, Volker; Duysens, Jacques

    2013-07-01

    Facilitation of leg muscle activity by active arm movements during locomotor tasks could be beneficial during gait rehabilitation after spinal cord injury. The present study explored the effects of arm movements on leg muscle activity during submaximal recumbent stepping. Healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepping machine both with and without arm movements. Activity of five leg muscles was recorded and compared for stepping with and without arm movements. To determine which arm movements are optimal for leg muscle facilitation, subjects were instructed to step with 1) mechanically coupled vs. decoupled arm and leg movements, 2) synchronous vs. asynchronous arm movements, and 3) at 50 vs. 70 RPM. Leg muscle activity was increased by active arm movements in all muscles, except the vastus lateralis muscle. Activity of other extensors (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and biceps femoris) was primarily increased during the extension phase, whereas activity of flexors (tibialis anterior) was also increased during the flexion phase. Facilitation was more or less consistent for both frequencies and for synchronous and asynchronous movements. For coupled arm movements, facilitation tended to be diminished or absent. The observed facilitation in the present study is probably of neuromuscular rather than biomechanical origin, since the arms are probably hardly involved in postural control or weight-bearing during recumbent stepping. Further studies in patients should explore the possibility to integrate neuromuscular facilitation in rehabilitation programs.

  13. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  14. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  15. Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Boysen, Lisbeth; Haugaard, Stine

    2008-01-01

    ). There was no correlation between medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in either of the 2 groups (r .653). The subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome in this study demonstrated increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing......The objective of this study was to investigate (1) if subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrate increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait compared with healthy subjects, and (2) the relationship between medial longitudinal......-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait. Thirty subjects aged 20 to 32 years were included (15 with medial tibial stress syndrome and 15 controls). Navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation were measured during quiet standing with neutral and loaded foot using a ruler and digital photography...

  16. Extensive sonographic ulnar nerve enlargement above the medial epicondyle is a characteristic sign in Hansen's neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathala, Lokesh; N Krishnam, Venkataramana; Kumar, Hari Kishan; Neladimmanahally, Vivekananda; Nagaraju, Umashankar; Kumar, Himanshu M; Telleman, Johan A; Visser, Leo H

    2017-07-01

    Earlier studies have shown sonographic enlargement of the ulnar nerve in patients with Hansen's neuropathy. The present study was performed to determine whether sonography or electrophysiological studies can detect the specific site of ulnar nerve pathology in leprosy. Eighteen patients (thirty arms) with Hansen's disease and an ulnar neuropathy of whom 66% had borderline tuberculoid (BT), 27% lepromatous leprosy (LL) and 7% mid-borderline (BB) leprosy were included in the study. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of ulnar nerve was measured every two centimeters from wrist to medial epicondyle and from there to axilla. All patients underwent standard motor and sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve. Thirty age and sex matched controls underwent similar ulnar nerve CSA measurements and conduction studies. Ulnar nerve was clinically palpable in 19 of the 30 arms of patients. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve showed a reduced compound motor action potential and sensory nerve action potential amplitude in all patients. Motor Conduction Velocity (MCV) in patients were slower in comparison to controls, especially at the elbow and upper arm, but unable to exactly locate the site of the lesion. In comparison to controls the ulnar nerveCSA was larger in the whole arm in patients and quite specific the maximum enlargement was seen between nulnar sulcus and axilla, peaking at four centimeters above the sulcus. A unique sonographic pattern of nerve enlargement is noted in patients with ulnar neuropathy due to Hansen's disease, while this was not the case for the technique used until now, the electrodiagnostic testing. The enlargement starts at ulnar sulcus and is maximum four centimeters above the medial epicondyle and starts reducing further along the tract. This characteristic finding can help especially in diagnosing pure neuritic type of Hansen's disease, in which skin lesions are absent, and alsoto differentiate leprosy from other

  17. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm. The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully. The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Medial Cochlear Efferent Function: A Theoretical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, David C.

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of the cochlear efferent system, many hypotheses have been put forth for its function. These hypotheses for its function range from protecting the cochlea from over stimulation to improving the detection of sounds in noise. It is known that the medial efferent system innervates the outer hair cells and that stimulation of this system reduces basilar membrane and auditory nerve sensitivity which suggests that this system acts to decrease the gain of the cochlear amplifier. Here I present modeling results as well as analysis of published experimental data that suggest that the function of the medial efferent reflex is to decrease the cochlear amplifier gain by just the right amount so that the nonlinearity in the basilar membrane response lines up perfectly with the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process to produce a hair cell receptor potential that is proportional to the logarithm of the sound pressure level.

  19. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Masseter and medial pterygoid muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, R; Rishi, Sudhirkumar; Nair, Preeti P; Thomas, Shaji

    2011-09-26

    Hypertrophy refers to an enlargement caused by an increase in the size but not in the number of cells. Generalised masticatory muscle hypertrophy may affect the temporalis muscle, masseters and medial pterygoids in a variety of combinations. Masseteric hypertrophy may present as either unilateral or bilateral painless swelling of unknown origin in the region of angle of mandible. It is a relatively rare condition and presents a diagnostic dilemma. While the history and clinical examination are important in differentiating this benign condition from parotid or dental pathology, they cannot necessarily exclude rare malignant lesion within the muscle. Advanced imaging modalities like CT and MRI are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Here the authors are reporting a unique case of masseter muscle hypertrophy along with medial pterygoid hypertrophy which was missed clinically but confirmed using CT and MRI.

  1. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process is capable of achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm on industrial components. In RAP, a robot arm carries a polishing module with controlled contact force utilizing oscillating or rotating tools. In this work a multisensory polishing arm with integrat...

  2. Electromyographic investigation of hypnotic arm levitation: differences between voluntary arm elevation and involuntary arm levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Burkhard; Schiebler, Philipp; Piesbergen, Christoph; Hagl, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-three volunteers were randomly exposed to 3 conditions: hypnotic arm levitation, holding up the arm voluntarily without hypnosis, and imagined arm lifting without hypnosis. Trapezius, deltoid, extensor digitorum, flexor digitorum profundus, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles were measured. Strain and muscle activity during lifting and holding up the right arm for 3 minutes were used as dependent variables. During hypnotic arm levitation, the total muscle activity was lower than during holding it up voluntarily (p levitation.

  3. Masseter and medial pterygoid muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    R, Guruprasad; Rishi, Sudhirkumar; Nair, Preeti P; Thomas, Shaji

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrophy refers to an enlargement caused by an increase in the size but not in the number of cells. Generalised masticatory muscle hypertrophy may affect the temporalis muscle, masseters and medial pterygoids in a variety of combinations. Masseteric hypertrophy may present as either unilateral or bilateral painless swelling of unknown origin in the region of angle of mandible. It is a relatively rare condition and presents a diagnostic dilemma. While the history and clinical examination ar...

  4. Functional bundles of the medial patellofemoral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hui Jun; Wang, Fei; Chen, Bai Cheng; Su, Yan Ling; Zhang, Zhan Chi; Yan, Chang Bao

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the anatomy and evaluate the function of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). Anatomical dissection was performed on 12 fresh-frozen knee specimens. The MPFL is a condensation of capsular fibers, which originates at the medial femoral condyle. It runs transversely and inserts to the medial edge of the patella. With the landmark of the medial femur epicondyle (MFE), the femoral origination was located: just 8.90 ± 3.27 mm proximally and 13.47 ± 3.68 mm posteriorly to the MFE. The most interesting finding in present study was functional bundles of its patellar insertion. Approximately from the femoral origination point, fibers of the MPFL form two relatively concentrated fiber bundles: the inferior-straight bundle and the superior-oblique bundle. The whole length of each was 71.78 ± 5.51 and 73.67 ± 5.40 mm, respectively. The included angle between bundles was 15.1° ± 2.1°. Although the superior-oblique bundle and the inferior-straight bundle run on the patellar MPFL inferiorly and superiorly, respectively, as their name indicates, the two bundles are not entirely separated, which make MPFL one intact structure. The inferior-straight bundle is the main static soft tissue restraints where the superior-oblique bundle associated with vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) is to serve as the main dynamic soft tissue restraints. So this finding may provide the theoretical foundation for the anatomical reconstruction of the MPFL and shed lights on the future researchers.

  5. POST OPERATIVE REHABILITATION OF GRADE III MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT INJURIES: EVIDENCE BASED REHABILITATION AND RETURN TO PLAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Catherine A; O'Brien, Luke T; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-12-01

    The medial collateral ligament is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee, with injury generally sustained in the athletic population as a result of valgus contact with or without tibial external rotation. The capacity of the medial collateral ligament to heal has been demonstrated in both laboratory and clinical studies; however, complete ruptures heal less consistently and may result in persistent instability. When operative intervention is deemed necessary, anatomical medial knee reconstruction is recommended. Post-operative rehabilitation focuses on early motion and the return of normal neuromuscular firing patterns with progression based on attainment of specific phase criteria and goals. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss the determinants of phase progression and the importance of objectively assessing readiness for advancement that is consistent with post-operative healing. Additional tests and validated measures to assess readiness for sport are also presented.

  6. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  7. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  8. ARM : abstract rewriting machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.T. Kamperman; H.R. Walters (Pum)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTerm rewriting is frequently used as implementation technique for algebraic specifications. In this paper we present the abstract term rewriting machine (ARM), which has an extremely compact instruction set and imposes no restrictions on the implemented TRSs. Apart from standard

  9. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    like tired runners exposed to the sights of millions of viewers. The fear of oxygen starvation was handled by the U.S. President on several levels...and to present the U.S. attitudes as the only way out of the maze of the arms race. It is an attempt to push through the old principles of U.S

  10. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-12

    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  11. Robotic Arm End Effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT, 12 Oct 85) . 14 GDR Commentary on Geneva Talks (Various sources,various dates) 19 Military...USSR GENEVA TALKS FRG DEFENSE UNDERSECRETARY SUPPORTS U.S. VIEW ON ARMS CONTROL Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT in German 12 Oct 85 p 3

  13. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    chronology of the intensification of violence in the area, see Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá...Arms, London, UK: Zed Books, 2000, pp. 155–178. Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá: Cinep & Justicia

  14. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  15. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Soviet Laser Expert (N. G. Bazov Interview; CAMBIO 16, 11-18 Feb 85) 86 Unnamed General Urges French ’Star Wars’ Effort (Hoplites; LE MONDE, 6...1024 85 JPRS-TAC-85-002 1 April 1985 SPACE ARMS SPANISH MAGAZINE CITES SOVIET LASER EXPERT PM211619 [Editorial Report] Madrid CAMBIO 16 in Spanish

  16. A rotating arm using shape-memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Mars Pathfinder mission, to be launched in 1996, reflects a new philosophy of exploiting new technologies to reduce mission cost and accelerate the pace of space exploration. One of the experiments on board Pathfinder will demonstrate the first use in space of a multi-cycle, electrically-activated, shape-memory alloy (SMA) actuator. SMA's are metal alloys which, when heated, undergo a crystalline phase change. This change in phase alters the alloy lattice-constant, resulting in a change of dimension. Upon cooling, the alloy returns to its original lattice formation. Wire drawn from an SMA contracts in length when heated. The reversible change in length is 3 percent to 5 percent. The wire used in this actuator is a nickel-titanium alloy known as nitinol.

  17. Post-ablative reconstruction of the medial canthus and medial orbital wall using conchal cartilage graft with three illustrative cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagregorio, G; Darsonval, V

    2005-12-01

    When the medial third of the upper or lower eyelid has to be reconstructed after full-thickness tumour excision, we usually use Hübner tarsomarginal grafts, but when medial canthal lesions spread to the medial orbital wall without invading the orbital margin, conchal graft becomes our first surgical option. Previously reported solutions to this difficult problem are few and concern more directly medial orbital wall fractures. We found no article dealing specifically with the use of conchal graft in post-ablative reconstruction of the medial orbital wall. Nevertheless the concha presents great advantages over bone grafting or rib cartilage, because it is more flexible and malleable. And it is less prone to extrusion or infection as may be allografts implants. It is a very effective way to repair medial orbital defects, but graft reorientation must be perfect to match exactly the medial orbital wall concavity.

  18. Effects of sex differences on scapular motion during arm elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamatsu Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Scapular motion during arm elevation is frequently evaluated in patients with shoulder disorders because it provides clinically useful information. With the development of measurement devices and improvement in accuracy, comparisons under various conditions have recently been reported. However, in most of these reports, the subjects examined were limited to males, or a mixed population of males and females. Only a few reports have described sex differences. In the current study, we performed three-dimensional dynamic analysis of arm elevation and investigated whether there is a sex difference in scapular motion. Methods: Subjects included 18 healthy adult males (18 shoulders and 19 healthy adult females (19 shoulders. Thirty-seven shoulders were on the dominant side. The age range was 20.5 ± 0.03 years. Subjects performed scapular plane arm elevation, and kinematic data were recorded using an electromagnetic tracking device. Scapular upward rotation and internal rotation angles and the posterior tilt angle accompanying arm elevation were calculated from recorded data. Changes in each angle during scapular motion were recorded according to sex. Results: There were sex differences in scapular upward rotation and internal rotation angles. The upward rotation angle was significantly greater in males, whereas the internal rotation angle was significantly greater in females. No sex differences were noted in the scapular posterior tilt angle. Discussion: Findings of this study may serve as basic data for scapular motion during scapular plane elevation in healthy males and females. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate and treat the shoulder while taking sex differences in scapular movement into consideration.

  19. Effects of sex differences on scapular motion during arm elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Takashi; Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Madokoro, Kazuya; Shiba, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Scapular motion during arm elevation is frequently evaluated in patients with shoulder disorders because it provides clinically useful information. With the development of measurement devices and improvement in accuracy, comparisons under various conditions have recently been reported. However, in most of these reports, the subjects examined were limited to males, or a mixed population of males and females. Only a few reports have described sex differences. In the current study, we performed three-dimensional dynamic analysis of arm elevation and investigated whether there is a sex difference in scapular motion. Methods: Subjects included 18 healthy adult males (18 shoulders) and 19 healthy adult females (19 shoulders). Thirty-seven shoulders were on the dominant side. The age range was 20.5 ± 0.03 years. Subjects performed scapular plane arm elevation, and kinematic data were recorded using an electromagnetic tracking device. Scapular upward rotation and internal rotation angles and the posterior tilt angle accompanying arm elevation were calculated from recorded data. Changes in each angle during scapular motion were recorded according to sex. Results: There were sex differences in scapular upward rotation and internal rotation angles. The upward rotation angle was significantly greater in males, whereas the internal rotation angle was significantly greater in females. No sex differences were noted in the scapular posterior tilt angle. Discussion: Findings of this study may serve as basic data for scapular motion during scapular plane elevation in healthy males and females. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate and treat the shoulder while taking sex differences in scapular movement into consideration. PMID:27163065

  20. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa BOZDEMİR; ADIGÜZEL, Esat

    1999-01-01

    Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides...

  1. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  2. Microsurgical treatment of medial sphenoid ridge meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-qi HE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the microsurgical technique of medial sphenoid ridge meningioma resectional therapy.Methods The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed of 29 patients(13 males and 16 females;aged 18-68 years with average of 42 years;duration of disease was 5 months to 8 years,averaged 28 months with medial sphenoidal ridge meningioma and admitted from Jan.2005 to Jan.2010.The anatomical relationship of the tumor to surrounding structures was assessed intraoperatively,the tumor was then completely resected through cutting off the tumor supplying vessels,shrinking the tumor volume and separating the tumors from adjacent vessels and nerves.All the patients were followed up for 4 months to 4 years.Results Of the 29 cases,20 got total tumor removal,7 got subtotal and 2 got partial tumor removal.Of the 20 patients with obviously preoperative visual impairment,12 were obviously relieved,6 showed no improvement and 2 got symptoms aggravation.Hemiplegia occurred in 2 cases and oculomoter nerve palsy in 6 cases.There was no death after surgery.A 6 months to 4 years follow-up showed that no recurrence was found in 27 patients with tumor resection level of Simpson I and II,2 patients with tumor resection level of Simpson III received postoperative radiotherapy or gamma knife surgery,and 1 recurred and received reoperation.Conclusions Fine intraoperative assessment of the anatomical relationship of the tumor to surrounding structures,separating and excising tumor according to the assessed result is the key of medial sphenoid ridge meningioma resection,and the tumor resection is favorable to visual rehabilitation and tumor control.

  3. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  4. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  5. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-12

    Paris AFP 29 Jan] 40 FRANCE Potential of Iraqi CBW, Nuclear Arms Evaluated [E. Marcuse ; L’EXPRESS INTERNATIONAL 18 Jan] 40 Firm Denies...18 Jan 91 p 13 [Article by Elie Marcuse : "Iraq’s Dirty Weapons"] [Excerpts] [passage omitted] There are three possible actions in Iraq’s battle...example, culture media for breeding plague, cholera, and anthrax. Even minor quan- tities of mycotoxins, which can cause cancer even when strongly

  6. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. In order- ing, it is recommended that the JPRS number, title, date and author, if applicable, of publication be...Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-025 14 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS U.S.-USSR GENEVA TALKS, USSR: Possibility for...34Vreyma" newscast] [Excerpts] A Moscow premiere. Our correspondent reports: The audience is hurrying to a premiere at the Moscow Satire Theater. What

  7. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  8. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    SINMUN in Korean 19 Jan 90 p 2 [ Editorial : "Arms Reduction Amid East-West Reconcil- iation"] [Text] It appears that with the end of cold-war, the...Navigation Radar Deployment PY1701143090 La Paz La Red Panamericana in Spanish 1130 GMT 17 Jan 90 [Text] Aeronautics Minister Luis Gonzales...airspace and that it can guarantee our sovereignty. Aeronautics Military Under Secretary Installed PY1701125290 La Paz La Red Panamericana in

  9. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  10. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission. Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil. The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Instability of counter-rotating stellar disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, R. G.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2015-09-01

    We use an N-body simulation, constructed using GADGET-2, to investigate an accretion flow onto an astrophysical disk that is in the opposite sense to the disk's rotation. In order to separate dynamics intrinsic to the counter-rotating flow from the impact of the flow onto the disk, we consider an initial condition in which the counter-rotating flow is in an annular region immediately exterior the main portion of the astrophysical disk. Such counter-rotating flows are seen in systems such as NGC 4826 (known as the "Evil Eye Galaxy"). Interaction between the rotating and counter-rotating components is due to two-stream instability in the boundary region. A multi-armed spiral density wave is excited in the astrophysical disk and a density distribution with high azimuthal mode number is excited in the counter-rotating flow. Density fluctuations in the counter-rotating flow aggregate into larger clumps and some of the material in the counter-rotating flow is scattered to large radii. Accretion flow processes such as this are increasingly seen to be of importance in the evolution of multi-component galactic disks.

  12. The effect of rotations on Michelson interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraner, Paolo, E-mail: pmaraner@unibz.it

    2014-11-15

    In the contest of the special theory of relativity, it is shown that uniform rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer’s speed to the speed of light, further suppressed by the ratio of the interferometer’s arms length to the radius of rotation and depends on the interferometer’s position in the co-rotating frame. The magnitude of the phase shift is just beyond the sensitivity of turntable rotated optical resonators used in present tests of Lorentz invariance. It grows significantly large in Earth’s rotated kilometer-scale Fabry–Perot enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors where it appears as a constant bias. The effect can provide the means of sensing center and radius of rotations. - Highlights: • Rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. • Earth’s rotation induces a constant bias in Michelson interferometers. • Michelson interferometers can be used to sense center and radius of rotations.

  13. Biomechanical consequences of patellar component medialization in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Carolyn; Brimacombe, Jill M; Wilson, David R; Masri, Bassam A; Greidanus, Nelson V; Tonetti, Jérôme; Hodgson, Antony J

    2010-08-01

    The optimal amount of patellar component medialization in knee arthroplasty is unknown. We measured the impact, on patellofemoral kinematics and contact force distribution, of 0.0-, 2.5-, and 5.0-mm patellar component medialization in 7 cadaveric specimens implanted with knee arthroplasty components. The knees were flexed dynamically in a weight-bearing rig. Medialization led to lateral shift of the patellar bone, slight medial shift of the patellar component in the femoral groove, lateral tilt of the patella, reduced patellofemoral contact force in later flexion, and lateral shift of the center of pressure in early flexion. Effects on shift and tilt were proportional to the amount of medialization. As a result of this investigation, we recommend medializing the patellar component slightly-on the order of 2.5 mm. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  15. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  16. Implementation of specific motor expertise during a mental rotation task of hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habacha, Hamdi; Molinaro, Corinne; Tabben, Montassar; Lejeune-Poutrain, Laure

    2014-11-01

    Mental rotation of the hands classically induces kinesthetic effects according to the direction of the rotation, with faster response times to the hands' medial rotations compared with lateral rotations, and is thus commonly used to induce engagement in motor imagery (MI). In the present study, we compared the performances of table tennis players (experts on hand movements), who commonly execute and observe fast hand movements, to those of soccer players (non-experts on hand movements) on a mental rotation task of hands. Our results showed a significant effect of the direction of rotation (DOR) confirming the engagement of the participants in MI. In addition, only hand movement experts were faster when the task figures corresponded to their dominant hand compared with the non-dominant hand, revealing a selective effect of motor expertise. Interestingly, the effect of the DOR collapsed in hand movement experts only when the task figures corresponded to their dominant hand, but it is noteworthy that lateral and medial rotations of the right-hand stimuli were not faster than medial rotations of the left-hand stimuli. These results are discussed in relation to possible strategies during the task. Overall, the present study highlights the embodied nature of the mental rotation task of hands by revealing selective effects of motor expertise.

  17. [A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting with arm levitation as an initial symptom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamogawa, Kenji; Ninomiya, Satoko; Okuda, Shinya; Matsumoto, Yushi; Tomita, Hitomi; Okamoto, Kensho; Okuda, Bungo

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old, right handed man, developed insidiously with levitation and clumsiness of the right upper limb. His right arm tended to levitate spontaneously, when he was examined. He could put the elevated arm down on command, while the arm resumed to antigravity posture when his attention was diverted. His right arm also exhibited unwilled elevation when performing complex finger movements on the right side. He had a feeling of strangeness of the elevated limb, especially with the eyes closed. In addition to asymmetric limb-kinetic apraxia, combined sensations such as stereognosis were disturbed on the right side. Brain MRI showed high signal lesions predominantly in the left cerebral cortices and basal ganglia. SPECT with (123)I-IMP revealed asymmetric hypoperfusion, predominantly in the left medial frontal and parietal regions. Two months after the onset, levitation of the arm gradually disappeared, with the development of rapidly progressive dementia, frontal signs, dystonia and generalized myoclonus. The diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) was made based on the clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. The early manifestation of the patient mimicked corticobasal degeneration which presents with arm levitation or alien hand syndrome. It is suggested that CJD can represent involuntary movements with higher brain dysfunction resembling corticobasal degeneration at the early stage of the illness. Although the underlying mechanism of arm levitation is still unknown, frontal disinhibition and parietal cortical sensory disturbance may contribute to the development of involuntary arm levitation in our patient.

  18. Ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty—Medial stabilizing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Matsuda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ligament balancing is one of the most important surgical techniques for successful total knee arthroplasty. It has traditionally been recommended that medial and lateral as well as flexion and extension gaps are equal. This article reviews the relevant literature and discusses the clinical importance of the aforementioned gaps. Current evidence indicates that achieving medial stability throughout the range of motion should be a high priority in ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty. Finally, the medial stabilising surgical technique, which aims to achieve good medial stability in posterior cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty, is introduced.

  19. Arm classification and velocity gradients in spiral galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Giuricin, G.; Mardirossian, F.; Mezzetti, M. (Trieste Univ. (Italy) Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy) Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy) Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy) Centro Interuniversitario Regionale di Astrofisica e Cosmologia (Italy))

    1991-08-01

    On the basis of published rotation curves, velocity gradients are compiled for 94 galaxies. A significant correlation is found in this sample of galaxies between their gradients and arm classes (as given by Elmegreen and Elmegreen, 1982); galaxies with steeper curves tend to have a flocculent arm structure, and galaxies with flatter curves tend to have a grand design morphology. The correlation is true, since it is not induced by other correlations. The present result is in agreement with previous suggestions by Whitmore (1984) and with the recent result by Elmegreen and Elmegreen; it is also consistent with the predictions of density wave theory for the formation of the spiral structure. 89 refs.

  20. Psoas major and its controversial rotational action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyrme, A D; Cahill, D J; Marsh, H P; Ellis, H

    1999-01-01

    The action of psoas major muscle as a primary flexor of the hip joint is undisputed. However it is also variably reported as being a medial and a lateral rotator of the femur at the hip joint. The psoas and iliacus muscles, along with their common insertion, were isolated by dissection in six adult cadaveric specimens. The action of psoas muscle was assessed by pulling the muscle along its long axis and then observing the effects on rotation of the femur, with a visual estimation of the rotation in degrees. The experiment was repeated with the hip joint capsule removed. In the anatomical position, applied traction along the long axis of the muscle produced hip flexion with no rotational component. With the hip in the abducted position, traction produced flexion, adduction, and lateral rotation of the femur at the hip joint. In adduction of the hip, traction on psoas produced only flexion at the hip joint, with no rotation. In maximal flexion, traction also produced adduction. The results were unaffected by the removal of the joint capsule.

  1. AES i ARM procesori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Protić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Potreba za zaštitom informacija dovodi do velikih problema u izradi prenosivih uređaja kojima su limitirani snaga, memorija i energija. Ukoliko se takvim uređajima dodaju koprocesori, koji treba da obavljaju funkcije kriptozaštite, njihove se dimenzije povećavaju, pojavljuje se nefleksibilnost pa cena uređaja raste i do nekoliko puta. Na drugoj strani, algoritmi za zaštitu podataka su često memorijski zahtevni, a zbog velikog broja operacija koje je potrebno izvršavati u procesima šifrovanja i dešifrovanja, koprocesori često uspore rad osnovnog procesora. Za jedan od standarda za kriptozaštitu, AES, NIST je prihvatio Rijndaelov blokovski algoritam sa dužinom ulaznog i izlaznog bloka od 128 b, i dužinama šifarskog ključa od 128 b, 192 b i 256 b. Zbog karakteristika male potrošnje, 32-bitske arhitekture i brzog izvršavanja instrukcija, ARM procesori mogu da realizuju kriptozaštitu podataka, između ostalog i AES-om, a da ne opterete glavne procese u sistemima u kojima se koriste. Tehnologija ARM-a zaštićena je kao intelektualna svojina, pa je veliki broj proizvođača koristi za razvoj sopstvenih proizvoda, što je rezultovalo činjenicom da je u svetu proizvedeno preko 2 milijarde čipova koji su bazirani na ovoj tehnologiji. U radu su prikazane mogućnosti za poboljšanja u izvršenju algoritma AES primenom najnovijih verzija ARM procesora.

  2. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    put their feet on the table.... But that Is not the USSR’s problem. It is not for the USSR to teach the rules of etiquette vh~nh are broken in the...34 /12858 CSO: 5200/2634 • 138 - RELATED ISSUES LABOR PARTY DISTRICT CONGRESS: BAN NUCLEAR ARMED SHIPS Oslo AFTENPOSTEN in Norwegian 27 Jan 86 p 3 [Article...that countries which send warships into Norwegian ports should guarantee that these ships are not carry- ing nuclear weapons. The requirement would

  3. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Radiological and clinical predictors of long-term outcome in rotator cuff calcific tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witte, Pieter Bas; van Adrichem, Raymond A; Selten, Jasmijn W; Nagels, Jochem; Reijnierse, M; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge on the epidemiology and long-term course of rotator cuff calcific tendinitis (RCCT) is scarce. We assessed demographics, radiological characteristics, and their association with long-term outcomes in a large patient group. Baseline demographics, radiological characteristics and treatment were recorded in 342 patients. Interobserver agreement of radiological measures was analyzed. Long-term outcome was evaluated with questionnaires (WORC, DASH). The association of baseline characteristics with outcome was assessed. Mean age was 49.0 (SD = 10.0), and 59.5 % were female. The dominant arm was affected in 66.0 %, and 21.3 % had bilateral disease. Calcifications were on average 18.7 mm (SD = 10.1, ICC = 0.84 (p < 0.001)) and located 10.1 mm (SD = 11.8) medially to the acromion (ICC = 0.77 (p < 0.001)). Gärtner type I calcifications were found in 32.1 % (Kappa = 0.47 (p < 0.001)). After 14 years (SD = 7.1) of follow-up, median WORC was 72.5 (range, 3.0-100.0; WORC < 60 in 42 %) and median DASH 17.0 (range, 0.0-82.0). Female gender, dominant arm involvement, bilateral disease, longer duration of symptoms, and multiple calcifications were associated with inferior WORC. DASH results were similar. Many subjects have persisting shoulder complaints years after diagnosis, regardless of treatment. Female gender, dominant arm involvement, bilateral disease, longer duration of symptoms, and multiple calcifications were associated with inferior outcome. Radiological measures had moderate-to-good reliability and no prognostic value. • Most RCCT studies report on short-term outcome and/or small patients groups. • In this large, long-term observational study, RCCT appeared to not be self-limiting in many subjects. • Negative prognostic factors included female gender, more calcifications, dominant arm affected, and longer duration of symptoms. • Interobserver agreement of general radiological RCCT measures is

  5. Haptic stabilization of posture: changes in arm proprioception and cutaneous feedback for different arm orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, E.; Bortolami, S. B.; DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    Postural sway during quiet stance is attenuated by actively maintained contact of the index finger with a stationary surface, even if the level of applied force (proprioceptive information about the hand and arm can serve as an active sensor of body position relative to the point of contact. A geometric analysis of the relationship between hand and torso displacement during body sway led to the prediction that arm and hand proprioceptive and finger somatosensory information about body sway would be maximized with finger contact in the plane of body sway. Therefore, the most postural stabilization should be possible with such contact. To test this analysis, subjects touched a laterally versus anteriorly placed surface while in each of two stances: the heel-to-toe tandem Romberg stance that reduces medial-lateral stability and the heel-to-heel, toes-outward, knees-bent, "duck stance" that reduces fore-aft stability. Postural sway was always least with finger contact in the unstable plane: for the tandem stance, lateral fingertip contact was significantly more effective than frontal contact, and, for the duck stance, frontal contact was more effective than lateral fingertip contact. Force changes at the fingertip led changes in center of pressure of the feet by approximately 250 ms for both fingertip contact locations for both test stances. These results support the geometric analysis, which showed that 1) arm joint angles change by the largest amount when fingertip contact is maintained in the plane of greatest sway, and 2) the somatosensory cues at the fingertip provide both direction and amplitude information about sway when the finger is contacting a surface in the unstable plane.

  6. Limited angle C-arm tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malalla, Nuhad A. Y.; Xu, Shiyu; Chen, Ying

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, C-arm tomosynthesis with digital detector was investigated as a novel three dimensional (3D) imaging technique. Digital tomosythses is an imaging technique to provide 3D information of the object by reconstructing slices passing through the object, based on a series of angular projection views with respect to the object. C-arm tomosynthesis provides two dimensional (2D) X-ray projection images with rotation (-/+20 angular range) of both X-ray source and detector. In this paper, four representative reconstruction algorithms including point by point back projection (BP), filtered back projection (FBP), simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) were investigated. Dataset of 25 projection views of 3D spherical object that located at center of C-arm imaging space was simulated from 25 angular locations over a total view angle of 40 degrees. With reconstructed images, 3D mesh plot and 2D line profile of normalized pixel intensities on focus reconstruction plane crossing the center of the object were studied with each reconstruction algorithm. Results demonstrated the capability to generate 3D information from limited angle C-arm tomosynthesis. Since C-arm tomosynthesis is relatively compact, portable and can avoid moving patients, it has been investigated for different clinical applications ranging from tumor surgery to interventional radiology. It is very important to evaluate C-arm tomosynthesis for valuable applications.

  7. Revision Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacob T; Bates, Dwight D; Postma, Gregory N

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the indications, results, and safety of revision Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty (GML). A retrospective chart review of 156 patients that underwent GML procedures between the years 1998-2002. Study population consisted of those patients who required revision surgery for any reason. Sixteen patients required 22 revision procedures. Indications for revision were divided into 2 groups, complications and glottal closure problems. Complications included extruded or displaced implants (n = 4). The most common glottal closure problem was undercorrection (n = 9). Others included anterior overcorrection (n = 1) and persistent posterior glottal gap (n = 2). Revision procedures included GML (n = 9), injection augmentation (n = 9), endoscopic implant removal (n = 2), and arytenoid adduction (n = 2). In patients with glottal closure problems, the GCI improved in all 10 and the voice rating scale improved in 9. Reasons for revision of GML are variable, the most common being undercorrection. A variety of safe, effective revision techniques are available with a high success rate.

  8. Neuromuscular Exercise Post Partial Medial Meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V

    2015-01-01

    outcomes included additional measures of knee joint load distribution, patient-reported outcomes, maximal knee and hip muscle strength, and physical function measures. RESULTS: 60 out of 62 randomized participants (97%) completed the trial. There were no significant between-group differences in the change......PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a 12-week, home-based, physiotherapist-guided neuromuscular exercise program on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral knee load distribution) in people with a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the past 3-12 months. METHODS...... or a control group with no exercise. The exercise program included eight individual sessions with one of seven physiotherapists in private clinics, together with home exercises. Primary outcomes were the peak external knee adduction moment during normal pace walking and during a one-leg sit-to-stand. Secondary...

  9. X-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Stoltz, Gilles; Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    We consider a generalization of stochastic bandits where the set of arms, $\\cX$, is allowed to be a generic measurable space and the mean-payoff function is "locally Lipschitz" with respect to a dissimilarity function that is known to the decision maker. Under this condition we construct an arm selection policy, called HOO hierarchical optimistic optimization), with improved regret bounds compared to previous results for a large class of problems. In particular, our results imply that if $\\cX$ is the unit hypercube in a Euclidean space and the mean-payoff function has a finite number of global maxima around which the behavior of the function is locally H\\"older continuous with a known exponent, then the expected of HOO regret is bounded up to a logarithmic factor by $\\sqrt{n}$, i.e., the rate of growth of the regret is independent of the dimension of the space. We also prove the minimax optimality of our algorithm when the dissimilarity is a metric.

  10. Medial humeral epicondylitis in clinically affected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Ronny; Bilzer, Thomas; Grest, Paula; Damur, Daniel; Montavon, Pierre M

    2015-10-01

    To describe the clinical signs and histologic changes in cats clinically affected with medial humeral epicondylitis (MHE) and evaluate long-term outcome after either conservative or surgical treatment. Prospective cohort study. Client-owned cats (n = 17) with MHE. Cats diagnosed with MHE, based on clinical signs, radiographs and computed tomography (CT), were prospectively recruited. Cats were treated conservatively for an initial 4 weeks, followed by either surgery or continued conservative treatment. Followup examinations were performed at 6 and 12 weeks and at 6-49 months. Cats had a mean age of 10.3 years and presented for chronic lameness. Examination revealed pain on palpation caudodistal to the medial epicondyle and by exerting antebrachial supination/pronation with elbow and carpal flexion. Lameness was restricted to 1 limb although CT revealed bilateral disease in 11/17 cats. Free mineralized joint bodies were identified in 9/17 cats. Nine cats were treated surgically and 8 cats were treated conservatively. Intraoperative findings included new bone formation at the origin of the humeral head of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle with displacement and adhesions of the ulnar nerve. Microscopic examination revealed neurogenic myopathy in 4/9 cats treated surgically. Seven of 9 cats treated surgically were free from lameness by 12 weeks. Seven of 8 cats treated conservatively were chronically lame throughout the study. Cats with forelimb lameness should be evaluated for MHE. This condition is associated with free joint bodies and neurogenic myopathy. Surgical treatment is associated with excellent outcome in the majority of cats. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. Abnormal relationship between medial temporal lobe and subcortical dopamine function in people with an ultra high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul; Chaddock, Christopher A; Howes, Oliver D; Egerton, Alice; Seal, Marc L; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Valli, Isabel; Day, Fern; McGuire, Philip K

    2012-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies in humans have implicated both dysfunction of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the dopamine system in psychosis, but the relationship between them is unclear. We addressed this issue by measuring MTL activation and striatal dopaminergic function in individuals with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), respectively. Thirty-four subjects (20 ARMS and 14 Controls), matched for age, gender, digit span performance, and premorbid IQ, were scanned using fMRI, while performing a verbal encoding and recognition task, and using 18F-DOPA PET. All participants were naïve to antipsychotic medication. ARMS subjects showed reduced MTL activation when encoding words and made more false alarm responses for Novel words than controls. The relationship between striatal dopamine function and MTL activation during both verbal encoding and verbal recognition was significantly different in ARMS subjects compared with controls. An altered relationship between MTL function and dopamine storage/synthesis capacity exists in the ARMS and may be related to psychosis vulnerability.

  12. Medial patellofemoral ligament and medial patellotibial ligament reconstruction in children: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigursky, David; Garcia, Lucas Cortizo; Armede, Maurício; Oliveira, Lucas Rodrigues de; Carneiro, Rogério Jamil Fernandes; Colavolpe, Paulo Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament associated with the medial patellotibial ligament in skeletally immature patients. This is a case series study in patients with patellar instability with open physis. In total, seven patients were evaluated: four males and three females were operated using the proposed technique. Patients with open physis who had more than two episodes of recurring patellar dislocation were included. No patients underwent additional procedures. The distance from the anterior tibial tuberosity to the trochlea grove (TT-TG) was measured in all patients. On physical examination, the inverted J-sign, the apprehension sign, and the knee range of motion parameters were used in the pre- and post-operative period. In addition, the Kujala and Lysholm scores were applied before and 12 months after surgery. The results were analyzed with the Wilcoxon test. The mean age of the patients was 11.28 in both genders. Comparing the data of the pre- and post-operative period, the inverted J-sign was present in six patients (85.7%) vs. absent in one (14.3%). The apprehension sign was absent in cases in the postoperative period; the range of motion was 117.85 ± 8.09 vs. 148.57 ± 3.77. The Kujala score was 42.57 ± 8.9 vs. 88.57 ± 5.09 and the Lysholm scores were classified as excellent or good in 28.6% and 71.4%, respectively. The combined reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament combined with the medial patellotibial ligament in skeletally immature patients with predisposing factors, presents satisfactory results without episodes of recurrence or residual subluxation; according to these preliminary results, it should be considered as a treatment option.

  13. Objective assessment of surgical technique in rotation and nasal projection variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Serrato Coelho Fagundes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In rhinoplasty, facial esthetic analysis is critical for proper surgical planning. Parameters such as rotation and nasal projection should be routinely evaluated. Few studies have objectively assessed changes in facial angles postoperatively. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of medial intercrural sutures and of rotation of the nasal tip on the increase of rotation and nasal projection in Caucasian patients undergoing primary rhinoplasty. METHODS: A prospective study carried out between 2011 and 2013, with 27 patients treated with primary rhinoplasty with a basic technique by the same surgeon, with medial intercrural sutures and rotation of the nasal tip. Rotation and nasal projection were measured from photographs obtained preoperatively and after 12 months. RESULTS: All 27 patients completed the study. The mean age was 27.1 years. There was a mean increase of 8.4° in the rotation - a statistically significant value. There was no significant change in the projection. CONCLUSION: The medial intercrural and nasal tip rotation sutures are effective in increasing nasal rotation in Caucasian patients undergoing rhinoplasty.

  14. Arm Swing as a Potential New Prodromal Marker of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelman, Anat; Bernad-Elazari, Hagar; Thaler, Avner; Giladi-Yacobi, Eytan; Gurevich, Tanya; Gana-Weisz, Mali; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Raymond, Deborah; Doan, Nancy; Bressman, Susan B.; Marder, Karen S.; Alcalay, Roy N.; Rao, Ashwini K.; Berg, Daniela; Brockmann, Kathrin; Aasly, Jan; Waro, Bjørg Johanne; Tolosa, Eduardo; Vilas, Dolores; Pont-Sunyer, Claustre; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Giladi, Nir

    2016-01-01

    Background Reduced arm swing is a well-known clinical feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD), often observed early in the course of the disease. We hypothesized that subtle changes in arm swing and axial rotation may also be detectable in the prodromal phase. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the LRRK2-G2019S mutation, arm swing, and axial rotation in healthy nonmanifesting carriers and noncarriers of the G2019S mutation and in patients with PD. Methods A total of 380 participants (186 healthy nonmanifesting controls and 194 PD patients) from 6 clinical sites underwent gait analysis while wearing synchronized 3-axis body-fixed sensors on the lower back and bilateral wrists. Participants walked for 1 minute under the following 2 conditions: (1) usual walking and (2) dual-task walking. Arm swing amplitudes, asymmetry, variability, and smoothness were calculated for both arms along with measures of axial rotation. Results A total of 122 nonmanifesting participants and 67 PD patients were carriers of the G2019S mutation. Nonmanifesting mutation carriers walked with greater arm swing asymmetry and variability and lower axial rotation smoothness under the dual task condition when compared with noncarriers (P < .04). In the nonmanifesting mutation carriers, arm swing asymmetry was associated with gait variability under dual task (P = .003). PD carriers showed greater asymmetry and variability of movement than PD noncarriers, even after controlling for disease severity (P < .009). Conclusions The G2019S mutation is associated with increased asymmetry and variability among nonmanifesting participants and patients with PD. Prospective studies should determine if arm swing asymmetry and axial rotation smoothness may be used as motor markers of prodromal PD. PMID:27430880

  15. A statically balanced and bi-stable compliant end effector combined with a laparoscopic 2DoF robotic arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassooij, J.; Tolou, N.; Tortora, G.; Caccavaro, S.; Menciassi, A.; Herder, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design of a newly developed 2DoF robotic arm with a novel statically balanced and bi-stable compliant grasper as the end effector for laparoscopic surgery application. The arm is based on internal motors actuating 2 rotational DoFs: pitch and roll. The positive stiffness of

  16. A statically balanced and bi-stable compliant end effector combined with a laparoscopic 2DoF robotic arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassooij, J.; Tolou, N.; Tortora, G.; Caccavaro, S.; Menciassi, A.; Herder, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design of a newly developed 2DoF robotic arm with a novel statically balanced and bi-stable compliant grasper as the end effector for laparoscopic surgery application. The arm is based on internal motors actuating 2 rotational DoFs: pitch and roll. The positive stiffness of

  17. Upper lid crease approach for margin rotation in trachomatous cicatricial entropion without external sutures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Velasco e Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe the use of a lid crease incision for upper eyelid margin rotation in cicatricial entropion combining internal traction on the anterior lamella, tarsotomy, and tarsal overlap without external sutures. Methods: Surgical description: The main steps of the procedure consisted of exposure of the entire tarsal plate up to the eyelashes followed by tarsotomy through the conjunctiva. A double-armed 6.0 polyglactin suture was then passed through the distal tarsal fragment to the marginal section of the orbicularis oculi muscle. As the sutures were tied, the distal tarsus advanced over the marginal section, and traction was exerted on the marginal strip of the orbicularis muscle. There were no bolsters or external knots. The pretarsal skin-muscle flap was closed with a 6.0 plain gut suture. Results: We used this procedure at a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia from 2013 to 2014. Sixty upper lids of 40 patients (23 women and 17 men were operated on, with an age range of 44-99 years [mean ± standard deviation (SD = 70.9 ± 13.01 years]. Bilateral surgery was performed on 21 patients. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 12 months (mean 3.0 ± 2.71 months. Forty percent of the patients (24 lids had more than 3 months' follow-up. The postoperative lid margin position was good in all cases. Trichiasis (two lashes was observed in only one patient with unilateral entropion on the medial aspect of the operated lid. Conclusions: The upper lid margin can be effectively rotated through a lid crease incision with internal sutures. The technique combines the main mechanisms of the Wies and Trabut approaches and avoids the use of bolsters or external sutures, which require a second consultation to be removed. Some other lid problems, such as ptosis, retraction, or dermatochalasis, can be concomitantly addressed during the procedure.

  18. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Evaluation of bone deformities of the femur, tibia, and patella in Toy Poodles with medial patellar luxation using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Shinji; Edamura, Kazuya; Tanegashima, Koji; Seki, Mamiko; Teshima, Kenji; Asano, Kazushi; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Kei

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate morphological parameters of the femur, tibia, and patella in Toy Poodles with medial patellar luxation (MPL) using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and to compare these parameters between radiography and CT. Thirty-five hindlimbs of Toy Poodles were divided into normal and grade 2 and 4 MPL groups. The anatomical and mechanical lateral proximal femoral angle, anatomical and mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA, mLDFA), femoral varus angle (FVA), inclination of the femoral head angle, procurvation angle, anteversion angle (AA), frontal angle of the femoral neck, mechanical medial proximal or distal tibial angle, mechanical cranial proximal or distal tibial angle, tibial plateau angle, tibial torsion angle (TTA), Z angle, relative tibial tuberosity width, ratio of the medial distance of tibial tuberosity to the proximal tibial width (MDTT/PTW), patella size, and the patellar ligament length: patellar length (L:P) ratio were evaluated on radiography and 3D CT. The aLDFA, mLDFA, FVA, and TTA were significantly larger and the AA, MDTT/PTW, and patella were significantly smaller in the grade 4 MPL group. There were significant differences in many parameters between imaging tools, and CT was considered less susceptible to potential artefacts and rotational deformities. Toy Poodles with grade 4 MPL had significant femoral varus deformity, medial displacement of the tibial tuberosity, internal torsion of the proximal tibia, and hypoplasia of the patella.

  1. Sliding Mode Observers for Rotational Robotics Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sendrescu, Dorin; Selisteanu, Dan; Petre, Emil; Ionete, Cosmin

    2008-01-01

    This work presents some aspects regarding modelling and control of some robotics rotational experiments: flexible beam and inverted pendulum experiments. The experiments were realised using WinConTM application that allows running code generated from a Simulink diagram in real-time. For the model describing the flexible beam experiment the control goal was to achieve the flexible beam position control and to damp the arm vibrations. The inverted pendulum experiment objective was to design a f...

  2. Absolute rotation detection by Coriolis force measurement using optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Yong

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we present an application of the optomechanical cavities for absolute rotation detection. Two optomechanical cavities, one in each arm, are placed in a Michelson interferometer. The interferometer is placed on a rotating table and is moved with a uniform velocity of \\dot{\\bar{y}} with respect to the rotating table. The Coriolis force acting on the interferometer changes the length of the optomechanical cavity in one arm, while the length of the optomechanical cavity in the other arm is not changed. The phase shift corresponding to the change in the optomechanical cavity length is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of the absolute rotation. An analytic expression for the minimum detectable rotation rate corresponding to the standard quantum limit of measurable Coriolis force in the interferometer is derived. Squeezing technique is discussed to improve the rotation detection sensitivity by a factor of \\sqrt{{γ }m/{ω }m} at 0 K temperature, where {γ }m and {ω }m are the damping rate and angular frequency of the mechanical oscillator. The temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  3. Towards a digital body: the virtual arm illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of the human brain with computers is an interesting new area of applied neuroscience, where one application is replacement of a person’s real body by a virtual representation. Here we demonstrate that a virtual limb can be made to feel part of your body if appropriate multisensory correlations are provided. We report an illusion that is invoked through tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real right hand with synchronous virtual visual stimulation on an aligned 3D stereo virtual arm projecting horizontally out of their shoulder. An experiment with 21 male participants showed displacement of ownership towards the virtual hand, as illustrated by questionnaire responses and proprioceptive drift. A control experiment with asynchronous tapping was carried out with a different set of 20 male participants who did not experience the illusion. After 5 minutes of stimulation the virtual arm rotated. Evidence suggests that the extent of the illusion was also correlated with the degree of muscle activity onset in the right arm as measured by EMG during this period that the arm was rotating, for the synchronous but not the asynchronous condition. A completely virtual object can therefore be experienced as part of one’s self, which opens up the possibility that an entire virtual body could be felt as one’s own in future virtual reality applications or online games, and be an invaluable tool for the understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying body ownership.

  4. Rotator cuff exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000357.htm Rotator cuff exercises To use the sharing features on this ... gov/pubmed/25560729 . Read More Frozen shoulder Rotator cuff problems Rotator cuff repair Shoulder arthroscopy Shoulder CT scan Shoulder ...

  5. Subject-specific knee joint geometry improves predictions of medial tibiofemoral contact forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerus, Pauline; Sartori, Massimo; Besier, Thor F.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Delp, Scott L.; Banks, Scott A.; Pandy, Marcus G.; D’Lima, Darryl D.; Lloyd, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating tibiofemoral joint contact forces is important for understanding the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis. However, tibiofemoral contact force predictions are influenced by many factors including muscle forces and anatomical representations of the knee joint. This study aimed to investigate the influence of subject-specific geometry and knee joint kinematics on the prediction of tibiofemoral contact forces using a calibrated EMG-driven neuromusculoskeletal model of the knee. One participant fitted with an instrumented total knee replacement walked at a self-selected speed while medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces, ground reaction forces, whole-body kinematics, and lower-limb muscle activity were simultaneously measured. The combination of generic and subject-specific knee joint geometry and kinematics resulted in four different OpenSim models used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths and moment arms. The subject-specific geometric model was created from CT scans and the subject-specific knee joint kinematics representing the translation of the tibia relative to the femur was obtained from fluoroscopy. The EMG-driven model was calibrated using one walking trial, but with three different cost functions that tracked the knee flexion/extension moments with and without constraint over the estimated joint contact forces. The calibrated models then predicted the medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces for five other different walking trials. The use of subject-specific models with minimization of the peak tibiofemoral contact forces improved the accuracy of medial contact forces by 47% and lateral contact forces by 7%, respectively compared with the use of generic musculoskeletal model. PMID:24074941

  6. Subject-specific knee joint geometry improves predictions of medial tibiofemoral contact forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerus, Pauline; Sartori, Massimo; Besier, Thor F; Fregly, Benjamin J; Delp, Scott L; Banks, Scott A; Pandy, Marcus G; D'Lima, Darryl D; Lloyd, David G

    2013-11-15

    Estimating tibiofemoral joint contact forces is important for understanding the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis. However, tibiofemoral contact force predictions are influenced by many factors including muscle forces and anatomical representations of the knee joint. This study aimed to investigate the influence of subject-specific geometry and knee joint kinematics on the prediction of tibiofemoral contact forces using a calibrated EMG-driven neuromusculoskeletal model of the knee. One participant fitted with an instrumented total knee replacement walked at a self-selected speed while medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces, ground reaction forces, whole-body kinematics, and lower-limb muscle activity were simultaneously measured. The combination of generic and subject-specific knee joint geometry and kinematics resulted in four different OpenSim models used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths and moment arms. The subject-specific geometric model was created from CT scans and the subject-specific knee joint kinematics representing the translation of the tibia relative to the femur was obtained from fluoroscopy. The EMG-driven model was calibrated using one walking trial, but with three different cost functions that tracked the knee flexion/extension moments with and without constraint over the estimated joint contact forces. The calibrated models then predicted the medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces for five other different walking trials. The use of subject-specific models with minimization of the peak tibiofemoral contact forces improved the accuracy of medial contact forces by 47% and lateral contact forces by 7%, respectively compared with the use of generic musculoskeletal model.

  7. Effects of Aging on Arm Swing during Gait: The Role of Gait Speed and Dual Tasking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Mirelman

    Full Text Available Healthy walking is characterized by pronounced arm swing and axial rotation. Aging effects on gait speed, stride length and stride time variability have been previously reported, however, less is known about aging effects on arm swing and axial rotation and their relationship to age-associated gait changes during usual walking and during more challenging conditions like dual tasking. Sixty healthy adults between the ages of 30-77 were included in this study designed to address this gap. Lightweight body fixed sensors were placed on each wrist and lower back. Participants walked under 3 walking conditions each of 1 minute: 1 comfortable speed, 2 walking while serially subtracting 3's (Dual Task, 3 walking at fast speed. Aging effects on arm swing amplitude, range, symmetry, jerk and axial rotation amplitude and jerk were compared between decades of age (30-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-77 years. As expected, older adults walked slower (p = 0.03 and with increased stride variability (p = 0.02. Arm swing amplitude decreased with age under all conditions (p = 0.04. In the oldest group, arm swing decreased during dual task and increased during the fast walking condition (p<0.0001. Similarly, arm swing asymmetry increased during the dual task in the older groups (p<0.004, but not in the younger groups (p = 0.67. Significant differences between groups and within conditions were observed in arm swing jerk (p<0.02, axial rotation amplitude (p<0.02 and axial jerk (p<0.001. Gait speed, arm swing amplitude of the dominant arm, arm swing asymmetry and axial rotation jerk were all independent predictors of age in a multivariate model. These findings suggest that the effects of gait speed and dual tasking on arm swing and axial rotation during walking are altered among healthy older adults. Follow-up work is needed to examine if these effects contribute to reduced stability in aging.

  8. Layers of Experience Using "Arms"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurinda; Coles, Alf; Ball, Derek; Morton, Pat; Coles, Matt; Ordman, Louise; Orr, Barry; Lam, Tung Ken

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the authors' personal accounts and their experiences in working on mathematics using "arms." "Arms" is an idea that first appeared as a program written by John Warwick and David Wooldridge in an ATM publication "Some Lessons in Mathematics with a Microcomputer," 1983. The introduction to…

  9. Cloud and Star Formation in Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, Clare

    2014-01-01

    We present the results from simulations of GMC formation in spiral galaxies. First we discuss cloud formation by cloud-cloud collisions, and gravitational instabilities, arguing that the former is prevalent at lower galactic surface densities and the latter at higher. Cloud masses are also limited by stellar feedback, which can be effective before clouds reach their maximum mass. We show other properties of clouds in simulations with different levels of feedback. With a moderate level of feedback, properties such as cloud rotations and virial parameters agree with observations. Without feedback, an unrealistic population of overly bound clouds develops. Spiral arms are not found to trigger star formation, they merely gather gas into more massive GMCs. We discuss in more detail interactions of clouds in the ISM, and argue that these are more complex than early ideas of cloud-cloud collisions. Finally we show ongoing work to determine whether the Milky Way is a flocculent or grand design spiral.

  10. Rotating Cavitation Supression Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating...

  11. Correlation of the SLAP lesion with lesions of the medial sheath of the biceps tendon and intra-articular subscapularis tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett William

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP lesions have been well described in the literature and are thought to be secondary to traction injuries to the biceps anchor and/or falls on the outstretched arm. The pulley has recently been described as a structure that aids in the prevention of biceps instability. The intra-articular subscapularis insertion (IASS has been noted to contribute to the robust nature of the medial sheath. The purpose of the study was to determine a potential correlation of SLAP lesions and pulley lesions with/without IASS lesions, (hereafter referred to as medial sheath as forces that can disrupt the biceps anchor and may also disrupt structures of the medial sheath or vice-versa. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen consecutive shoulder arthroscopies performed by one surgeon were reviewed retrospectively. Operative reports and arthroscopic pictures were carefully reviewed with particular attention paid to the labral and pulley pathology. Selection bias was noted as the author had never operated primarily for a Type 1 SLAP lesion. Following, however, and as such, the exclusion criteria, was a Type 1 SLAP. Results: There were a total of 30 SLAP lesions and a total of 126 medial sheath lesions. There were 13 patients who had both SLAP and medial sheath lesions. There were 17 patients who had a SLAP lesion without a medial sheath lesion. There were 96 medial sheath lesions without a SLAP. A comparison of rates between patients who had a medial sheath lesion with a SLAP and those who had a medial sheath lesion without a SLAP, for the 316 patients, and when tested with a Fisher exact test revealed that there was no statistical significance, P = 0.673. The prevalence of SLAP lesions in this population of 316 patients was 9.4%, Buford 1%, medial sheath lesions 39%, and SLAP and medial sheath lesions 4%. Interestingly, there were three Buford complexes, all associated with a SLAP and one Buford complex

  12. The medial scaffold of 3D unorganized point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymarie, Frederic F; Kimia, Benjamin B

    2007-02-01

    We introduce the notion of the medial scaffold, a hierarchical organization of the medial axis of a 3D shape in the form of a graph constructed from special medial curves connecting special medial points. A key advantage of the scaffold is that it captures the qualitative aspects of shape in a hierarchical and tightly condensed representation. We propose an efficient and exact method for computing the medial scaffold based on a notion of propagation along the scaffold itself, starting from initial sources of the flow and constructing the scaffold during the propagation. We examine this method specifically in the context of an unorganized cloud of points in 3D, e.g., as obtained from laser range finders, which typically involve hundreds of thousands of points, but the ideas are generalizable to data arising from geometrically described surface patches. The computational bottleneck in the propagation-based scheme is in finding the initial sources of the flow. We thus present several ideas to avoid the unnecessary consideration of pairs of points which cannot possibly form a medial point source, such as the "visibility" of a point from another given a third point and the interaction of clusters of points. An application of using the medial scaffold for the representation of point samplings of real-life objects is also illustrated.

  13. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  14. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danai eRiga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g. thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus, the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders.

  15. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Danai; Matos, Mariana R; Glas, Annet; Smit, August B; Spijker, Sabine; Van den Oever, Michel C

    2014-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus), the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders.

  16. Medial plica after reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yu; WANG Jian-quan; HE Zhen-ming

    2009-01-01

    Background The medial plica may be caused by direct trauma or joint degeneration,which also could be iatrogenic.There have been few reports in the literature discussing incidence of the medial plica caused by an operation on the knee joint,specifically after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).In this study,we aimed to evaluate and analyze the relationship between the incidence of the medial plica and reconstruction of the ACL.Methods A retrospective case series study was conducted to review the findings of 1085 patients between 2003 and 2007,who underwent second-look arthroscopy after reconstruction of the ACL (between 2002 and 2006).The correlation of the incidence of medial plica with the stability of the knee joint,the time from onset of injury to reconstruction surgery,the associated injuries,and the rate of progress during postoperative rehabilitation were analyzed.Results We found that 722 patients had the structure of a medial plica.The incidence after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (66.5%) was significantly higher than usually reported.All these medial plica had avascular fibrotic and thickened edges.An excision of pathologic medial plica and fat pad synovial fringes were done.The incidences were significantly different between the two groups with their reconstruction operation time,from onset of injury to surgery (less than one month or over 2 years),and the progress rate of postoperative rehabilitation (knee flexion could not be over 90° in four weeks).The incidence was not different between the groups with knee stable conditions.Conclusions Medial plica is more common in patients after reconstruction of ACL.More associated injuries and more rehabilitation difficulties can increase the medial plica incidence.

  17. Extensive sonographic ulnar nerve enlargement above the medial epicondyle is a characteristic sign in Hansen’s neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Krishnam, Venkataramana; Kumar, Hari Kishan; Neladimmanahally, Vivekananda; Nagaraju, Umashankar; Kumar, Himanshu M.; Telleman, Johan A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Earlier studies have shown sonographic enlargement of the ulnar nerve in patients with Hansen’s neuropathy. The present study was performed to determine whether sonography or electrophysiological studies can detect the specific site of ulnar nerve pathology in leprosy. Methods Eighteen patients (thirty arms) with Hansen’s disease and an ulnar neuropathy of whom 66% had borderline tuberculoid (BT), 27% lepromatous leprosy (LL) and 7% mid-borderline (BB) leprosy were included in the study. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of ulnar nerve was measured every two centimeters from wrist to medial epicondyle and from there to axilla. All patients underwent standard motor and sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve. Thirty age and sex matched controls underwent similar ulnar nerve CSA measurements and conduction studies. Results Ulnar nerve was clinically palpable in 19 of the 30 arms of patients. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve showed a reduced compound motor action potential and sensory nerve action potential amplitude in all patients. Motor Conduction Velocity (MCV) in patients were slower in comparison to controls, especially at the elbow and upper arm, but unable to exactly locate the site of the lesion. In comparison to controls the ulnar nerveCSA was larger in the whole arm in patients and quite specific the maximum enlargement was seen between nulnar sulcus and axilla, peaking at four centimeters above the sulcus. Conclusions A unique sonographic pattern of nerve enlargement is noted in patients with ulnar neuropathy due to Hansen’s disease, while this was not the case for the technique used until now, the electrodiagnostic testing. The enlargement starts at ulnar sulcus and is maximum four centimeters above the medial epicondyle and starts reducing further along the tract. This characteristic finding can help especially in diagnosing pure neuritic type of Hansen’s disease, in which skin lesions are absent, and

  18. Influence of preoperative musculotendinous junction position on rotator cuff healing using single-row technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Hung, Man; Burks, Robert T; Greis, Patrick E

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of rotator cuff musculotendinous junction (MTJ) retraction with healing after rotator cuff repair and with preoperative sagittal tear size. We reviewed preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 51 patients undergoing arthroscopic single-row rotator cuff repair between March 1, 2005, and February 20, 2010. Preoperative MRI studies were evaluated for anteroposterior tear size, tendon retraction, tendon length, muscle quality, and MTJ position with respect to the glenoid. The position of the MTJ was referenced off the glenoid face as either lateral or medial. Postoperative MRI studies obtained at a minimum of 1 year postoperatively (mean, 25 ± 13.9 months) were evaluated for healing, tendon length, and MTJ position. We found that 39 of 51 tears (76%) healed, with 26 of 30 small/medium tears (87%) and 13 of 21 large/massive tears (62%) healing. Greater tendon retraction, worse preoperative muscle quality, and a more medialized MTJ were all associated with worse tendon healing (P MTJ lateral to the face of the glenoid, 93% healed, whereas only 55% of tears that had a preoperative MTJ medial to the face of the glenoid healed (P MTJ position change (MTJ medialization, and had less preoperative rotator cuff fatty infiltration (P MTJ medialization, tendon retraction, and muscle quality are all predictive of tendon healing postoperatively when using a single-row rotator cuff repair technique. The position of the MTJ with respect to the glenoid face can be predictive of healing, with over 90% healing if lateral and 50% if medial to the face. Lengthening of the tendon accounts for a significant percentage of the musculotendinous unit lengthening that occurs in healed tears as opposed to muscle elongation. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Medial Femoral Condyle Degeneration Associated with a Mediopatellar Plica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-years-old female patient complaining from knee pain since 15 years. The patient could not localize the pain at first. Since 10 years, she experiences a temporary pain localized at the medial side of tibiofemoral joint during twisting her knee. Also, pain persists at the medial patellar region at semi-flexed position of her knee. The patient did not benefit from conversative treatment with the diagnosis of gonarthrosis. We performed knee artrhroplasty. During arthroplasty, we observed that the medial femoral condyle was damaged due to long term mediopatellar plica impingement.

  20. Effect of classification-specific treatment on lumbopelvic motion during hip rotation in people with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Shannon L; Johnson, Molly B; Zou, Dequan; Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2011-08-01

    Increased and early lumbopelvic motion during trunk and limb movements is thought to contribute to low back pain (LBP). Therefore, reducing lumbopelvic motion could be an important component of physical therapy treatment. Our purpose was to examine the effects of classification-specific physical therapy treatment (Specific) based on the Movement System Impairment (MSI) model and non-specific treatment (Non-Specific) on lumbopelvic movement patterns during hip rotation in people with chronic LBP. We hypothesized that following treatment people in the Specific group would display decreased lumbopelvic rotation and achieve more hip rotation before lumbopelvic rotation began. We hypothesized that people in the Non-Specific group would display no change in these variables. Kinematic data collected before and after treatment for hip lateral and medial rotation in prone were analyzed. The Specific group (N = 16) demonstrated significantly decreased lumbopelvic rotation and achieved greater hip rotation before the onset of lumbopelvic rotation after treatment with both hip lateral and medial rotation. The Non-Specific group (N = 16) demonstrated significantly increased lumbopelvic rotation and no change in hip rotation achieved before the onset of lumbopelvic rotation. People who received treatment specific to their MSI LBP classification displayed decreased and later lumbopelvic motion with hip rotation, whereas people who received generalized non-specific treatment did not. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. One-Armed Spiral Instability in a Model Protostar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Pickett, B. K.; Durisen, R. H.

    1995-05-01

    Analytic and numerical work by several research groups over the last five years have shown that one-armed spiral instabilities (e.g. SLING) may play a crucial role in the evolution of protostars and protostellar disks. One-armed spirals have been shown to be effective at transporting angular momentum and mass and producing modest fragmentation. We have recently conducted a numerical survey of global nonaxisymmetric instabilities in self-gravitating, rapidly rotating protostar models (Pickett et al. 1995, ApJ., submitted). One interesting result is that the protostar models which correspond to equilibrium objects formed from the dynamical collapse of centrally condensed molecular clouds are quite unstable to one-armed spiral disturbances. These one-armed instabilities occur under conditions not anticipated by the work of others. Although significant mass and angular momentum transport occurs, the protostar does not fragment. This poster presents a detailed investigation of the dramatic one-armed mode detected in Pickett et al. (1995). We use a variety of initial conditions and a second-order 3D hydrodynamics code to probe the nature of the instability in three dimensions. The relevance of this work to the formation of binaries and planetary systems will be discussed. This work is supported by NASA grant NAGW-3399.

  2. Grand Design Spiral Arms in A Young Forming Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Tomida, Kengo; Hosokawa, Takashi; Sakurai, Yuya; Lin, Chia Hui

    2016-01-01

    We study formation and long-term evolution of a circumstellar disk in a collapsing molecular cloud core using a resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation. While the formed circumstellar disk is initially small, it grows as accretion continues and its radius becomes as large as 200 AUs toward the end of the Class-I phase. A pair of grand-design spiral arms form due to gravitational instability in the disk, and they transfer angular momentum in the highly resistive disk. Although the spiral arms disappear in a few rotations as expected in a classical theory, new spiral arms form recurrently as the disk soon becomes unstable again by gas accretion. Such recurrent spiral arms persist throughout the Class-0 and I phase. We then perform synthetic observations and compare our model with a recent high-resolution observation of a young stellar object Elias 2-27, whose circumstellar disk has grand design spiral arms. We find an excellent agreement between our theoretical model and the observation. Our model suggests tha...

  3. ARM Soc Based Enotebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranita C Bawankar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic media has grown very fast replacing papers, tape devices, books, etc. The new technologies provide large number of data into single device, fast searching options and more readability than ever. As eBooks are replacing books; we are proposing ENotebook system in which user can write as he did in notebook, save, searches and then reread content. This paper presents design and development of ENotebook using ARM7. The system uses touch screen to get input data and operations like save, delete, open & close of data file. All data sensed by touch screen is digitized by internal ADCs of LPC2148 microcontroller which gives low power platform with fast execution. The output is shown on graphical LCD. Whatever user writes on screen it may need to save for future use. The content of such hand written data will be in graphical/pictorial form hence required large of memory for storage. We can provide external memory using pen drive, memory card, EEPROM etc. in this system we are using SD card interfacing through SPI port.

  4. Satisfying esthetic demands with rotational path partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, T E

    1982-09-01

    A description of the rotational path design concept for removable partial dentures has been presented. Through the combined efforts of the clinician and laboratory technician, a rotational path partial denture can be developed that meets the basic mechanical requirements and eliminates certain clasp arms. The primary advantages of this design include less display of metal, enhancing the patient's appearance, and decreased tooth and tissue coverage by partial denture framework components.

  5. On the phase shift in a uniformly rotating Michelson interferometer (comment on "Quadratic Sagnac effect -- the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921-1926)" by G B Malykin and V I Pozdnyakova [Phys. Usp. 58 398 (2015); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 185 431 (2015)])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraner, P.

    2016-07-01

    It is argued that the 'quadratic Sagnac effect' recently put forward by G B Malykin and V I Pozdnyakova is the consequence of an incorrect estimation of second-order relativistic corrections and not a real physical phenomenon. The correct expression for the phase shift induced by rotations in a Michelson interferometer is presented.

  6. The effects of rotation and positional change of stump tissues upon morphogenesis of the regenerating axolotl limb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlson, Bruce M.

    1972-01-01

    Rotation of a skin cuff 180° around the proximodistal axis of the upper arm in the axolotl results in the formation of multiple regenerates in about 80° of cases after amputation of the limb through the rotated skin. Rotation of the dermis or the flexor and extensor muscles folowed by amputation pro

  7. Arm morbidity after breast cancer treatments and analysis of related factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Mi Son; Chung, Yong Sik; Kang, Seung Hee [College of Medicine, Ajou University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seong Mi [Ajou University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Hyun [Ajou University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Jin; Song, Yeoung Suk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Bung [Hee Bung Park Breast Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To evaluate the incidence of arm morbidity following breast cancer surgery including axillary dissection and to identify related factors. One hundred and fifty nine patients were studied using a self-report questionnaire and a clinical examination. Lymphedema, reduction of range of motion in shoulder joint and subjective symptoms (pain, impaired arm movement, numbness, stiffness) were evaluated. As related factors, demographic, oncologic characteristics and types of treatment were analysed. The incidence of lymphedema ({>=} 2 cm difference comparing to unaffected arm) was 6.3%, 10.7%, 22.6% and 23.3% at each 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm from wrist. Reduction of range of motion in shoulder joint ({>=} 20 degree difference comparing to unaffected arm) was noted in more than 1/3 patients for flexion, abduction and internal rotation. Especially the reduction of range of motion in internal rotation was severe (> 50% reduction) in 1/3 patients. Approximately 50 to 60% of patients complained impaired arm movement, numbness, stiffness and pain. Body mass index (BMI) was the significant risk factor for lymphedema. Lymphedema was present in 1/3 of patients and the common sites of edema were 30 cm 40 cm proximal from the wrist. Also most severe reduction of range of motion in shoulder joint was with internal rotation. There needs weight control for lymphedema because BMI was the significant risk factor for lymphedema. Also rehabilitation program for range of motion especially internal rotation in shoulder joint should be developed.

  8. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  9. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  10. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    rackets, to the material reciprocation of the recognition of rights. Focusing on the taxation practices of armed groups, the article argues that taxation is at the core of armed groups’ production of public authority and citizenship, and that their modes of taxation are based on long-standing registers...... of authority and practices of rule that originate in the colonial era. In particular, the article shows that by appealing to both local customary and national forms of political community and citizenship, armed groups are able to assume public authority to tax civilians. However, their public authority may...

  11. Variant attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Marian; Ratajczak, Wojciech; Pytel, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of variants of anomalous insertions of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus in human knee joints. The study was carried out on 78 human lower limbs of both sexes (42 males and 36 females). Out of 78 knee joints, 10 knee joints (12.82%) presented atypical attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus. In 9 cases we found that the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the transverse ligament of the knee and in 1 case it was attached to the coronary ligament. In the remaining cases the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia.

  12. Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear: A Comprehensive Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Dhong Won; Ha, Jeong Ku; Kim, Jin Goo

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the medial meniscus root, for example by a complete radial tear, destroys the ability of the knee to withstand hoop strain, resulting in contact pressure increases and kinematic alterations...

  13. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mohamadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and medial preoptic area (MPOA via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we hypothesized damage to the nuclei of this circuit can cause reproductive dysfunctions. Therefore in this project we assessed diabetic effect on these nuclei. For this purpose neuron tracing technique and TUNEL assay were used. We injected HRP in the MPOA and counted labeled cells in the Me and BNST to evaluate the reduction of neurons in diabetic animals. Also, coronal sections were analyzed with the TMB histochemistry method. Animals in this study were adult male Wistar rats (230 ± 8g divided to control and 10-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups. After data analysis by SPSS 16 software, a significant reduction of HRP-labeled neurons was shown in both Me and BNST nuclei in the diabetic group. Moreover, apoptotic cells were significantly observed in diabetic animals in contrast to control the group. In conclusion, these alterations of the circuit as a result of diabetes might be one of the reasons for reproductive dysfunctions.

  14. GABAergic Projections from the Medial Septum Selectively Inhibit Interneurons in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Sulser, Alfredo; Parthier, Daniel; Candela, Antonio; McClure, Christina; Pastoll, Hugh; Garden, Derek; Sürmeli, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    The medial septum (MS) is required for theta rhythmic oscillations and grid cell firing in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). While GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons project from the MS to the MEC, their synaptic targets are unknown. To investigate whether MS neurons innervate specific layers and cell types in the MEC, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 in mouse MS neurons and used patch-clamp recording in brain slices to determine the response to light activation of identified cells in the MEC. Following activation of MS axons, we observed fast monosynaptic GABAergic IPSPs in the majority (>60%) of fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold-spiking (LTS) interneurons in all layers of the MEC, but in only 1.5% of nonstellate principal cells (NSPCs) and in no stellate cells. We also observed fast glutamatergic responses to MS activation in a minority (<5%) of NSPCs, FS, and LTS interneurons. During stimulation of MS inputs at theta frequency (10 Hz), the amplitude of GABAergic IPSPs was maintained, and spike output from LTS and FS interneurons was entrained at low (25–60 Hz) and high (60–180 Hz) gamma frequencies, respectively. By demonstrating cell type-specific targeting of the GABAergic projection from the MS to the MEC, our results support the idea that the MS controls theta frequency activity in the MEC through coordination of inhibitory circuits. PMID:25505326

  15. Medial rectus muscle anchoring in complete oculomotor nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyung; Chang, Jee Ho

    2015-10-01

    The management of exotropia resulting from complete oculomotor nerve palsy is challenging. Conventional therapeutic interventions, including supramaximal resection and recession, superior oblique tendon resection and transposition, and several ocular anchoring procedures have yielded less-than-adequate results. Here we describe a novel surgical technique of anchoring the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall in combination with lateral rectus disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall.

  16. A comparison of throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Hsien; Wu, Ting-Yu; Learman, Kenneth E; Tsai, Yung-Shen

    2010-06-30

    Risk factors in throwing factors associated to little league elbow have not been adequately explored. Whether these factors also affect the players' performance is also important to elucidate while modifying throwing pattern to reduce injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with or without a history of medial elbow pain (MEP) and to determine the relationship between their throwing kinematics and ball speed. Fifteen players with previous MEP were matched with 15 healthy players by age, height and weight. Throwing kinematics was recorded by an electromagnetic motion analysis system. A foot switch was used for determining foot off and foot contact. Ball speed was recorded with a sports radar gun. The group with a history of MEP demonstrated less elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation and had more lateral trunk tilt at ball release compared to the healthy group. The group with a history of MEP also had faster maximum upper torso rotation velocities, maximum pelvis rotation velocities and ball speeds. Maximum shoulder external rotation angle (r = 0.458, P = 0.011), elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = -0.637, P = 0.0003), and maximum upper torso rotation velocity (r = 0.562, P = 0.002) had significant correlation with ball speed. Findings of this study can be treated as elbow injury-related factors that clinicians and coaches can attend to when taking care of youth

  17. Cytoarchitecture and probability maps of the human medial orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssen, Anton; Zilles, Karl; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Schleicher, Axel; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Gerboga, Fatma; Eickhoff, Simon B; Bludau, Sebastian; Amunts, Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Previous architectonical studies of human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) provided divergent maps regarding number, location, and extent of areas. To solve this controversy, an observer-independent cytoarchitectonical mapping of medial OFC (mOFC) was performed. Borders of cortical areas were detected in histological sections of ten human post-mortem brains using a quantitative, statistically testable method, and their stereotaxic localization and intersubject variability were determined. Three areas were identified: granular Fo1 mainly on the rostral Gyrus rectus and medial of the olfactory sulcus; granular to dysgranular Fo2, mainly on the posterior part of the ventromedial Gyrus rectus and the medial and lateral banks of the olfactory sulcus; granular Fo3 between the olfactory and medial or intermediate orbital sulci. Fo3 was bordered medially by Fo1 and Fo2 and laterally by the lateral OFC (lOFC). A cluster analysis of the cytoarchitectonical features of Fo1-Fo3, subgenual cingulate areas, BA12, lateral and medial areas of the frontopolar cortex, lOFC and areas of Broca's region demonstrated the cytoarchitectonical similarity between the mOFC areas in contrast to all other frontal areas. Probabilistic maps of mOFC areas show a considerable intersubject variability in extent and position in stereotaxic space, and provide spatial templates for anatomical localization of in vivo neuroimaging data via the JuBrain atlas and the Anatomy Toolbox.

  18. Anticipatory postural adjustments to arm movement reveal complex control of paraspinal muscles in the thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda-Joy; Coppieters, Michel W; Hodges, Paul W

    2009-02-01

    Anatomical and empirical data suggest that deep and superficial muscles may have different functions for thoracic spine control. This study investigated thoracic paraspinal muscle activity during anticipatory postural adjustments associated with arm movement. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were made from the right deep (multifidus/rotatores) and superficial (longissimus) muscles at T5, T8, and T11 levels using fine-wire electrodes. Ten healthy participants performed fast unilateral and bilateral flexion and extension arm movements in response to a light. EMG amplitude was measured during 25ms epochs for 150ms before and 400ms after deltoid EMG onset. During arm flexion movements, multifidus and longissimus had two bursts of activity, one burst prior to deltoid and a late burst. With arm extension both muscles were active in a single burst after deltoid onset. There was differential activity with respect to direction of trunk rotation induced by arm movement. Right longissimus was most active with left arm movements and right multifidus was most active with right arm movements. All levels of the thorax responded similarly. We suggest that although thoracic multifidus and longissimus function similarly to control sagittal plane perturbations, these muscles are differentially active with rotational forces on the trunk.

  19. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  20. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  1. Accuracy and Measurement Error of the Medial Clear Space of the Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metitiri, Ogheneochuko; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad; Zurakowski, David; Hochman, Mary G; Nazarian, Ara; Kwon, John Y

    2017-04-01

    Measurement of the medial clear space (MCS) is commonly used to assess deltoid ligament competency and mortise stability when managing ankle fractures. Lacking knowledge of the true anatomic width measured, previous studies have been unable to measure accuracy of measurement. The purpose of this study was to determine MCS measurement error and accuracy and any influencing factors. Using 3 normal transtibial ankle cadaver specimens, deltoid and syndesmotic ligaments were transected and the mortise widened and affixed at a width of 6 mm (specimen 1) and 4 mm (specimen 2). The mortise was left intact in specimen 3. Radiographs were obtained of each cadaver at varying degrees of rotation. Radiographs were randomized, and providers measured the MCS using a standardized technique. Lack of accuracy as well as lack of precision in measurement of the medial clear space compared to a known anatomic value was present for all 3 specimens tested. There were no significant differences in mean delta with regard to level of training for specimens 1 and 2; however, with specimen 3, staff physicians showed increased measurement accuracy compared with trainees. Accuracy and precision of MCS measurements are poor. Provider experience did not appear to influence accuracy and precision of measurements for the displaced mortise. This high degree of measurement error and lack of precision should be considered when deciding treatment options based on MCS measurements.

  2. The Kinetic Energy of a Rotating Figure Skater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei R.; Troelstra, Arne A.

    1998-01-01

    When a rotating figure skater's fully extended arms are pulled back toward the torso, the angular velocity is noticeably increased and the kinetic energy of the skater can also be shown to increase. Discusses the change of the kinetic energy during such a process, and the work necessary for such an increase is derived using a dynamic equilibrium…

  3. The Facility and Process Technics of Polyethylene Rotational Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction Rotational molding is the process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. It mainly processes the product which Injection molding and Blow molding can not process medium-sized, large-sized and super large-sized plastic parts. The technics may turn out a tub, dustbin, stock tank, sailboat. The research institute of Lanzhou introduces a suit of RS-16 Rotational Molding Machine from Germany Reinhadt Co. on 1990. It mainly put up experiment and smallscale production. RS-16 rotational molding machine is a single arm and di-axial equipment. It is consisting of a gas heated sintering oven, cooling chamber, mouldcarrying carriage and a controlling unit.

  4. Fix your eyes in the space you could reach: neurons in the macaque medial parietal cortex prefer gaze positions in peripersonal space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Hadjidimitrakis

    Full Text Available Interacting in the peripersonal space requires coordinated arm and eye movements to visual targets in depth. In primates, the medial posterior parietal cortex (PPC represents a crucial node in the process of visual-to-motor signal transformations. The medial PPC area V6A is a key region engaged in the control of these processes because it jointly processes visual information, eye position and arm movement related signals. However, to date, there is no evidence in the medial PPC of spatial encoding in three dimensions. Here, using single neuron recordings in behaving macaques, we studied the neural signals related to binocular eye position in a task that required the monkeys to perform saccades and fixate targets at different locations in peripersonal and extrapersonal space. A significant proportion of neurons were modulated by both gaze direction and depth, i.e., by the location of the foveated target in 3D space. The population activity of these neurons displayed a strong preference for peripersonal space in a time interval around the saccade that preceded fixation and during fixation as well. This preference for targets within reaching distance during both target capturing and fixation suggests that binocular eye position signals are implemented functionally in V6A to support its role in reaching and grasping.

  5. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  6. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...

  7. Lateral-Medial Dissociation in Orbitofrontal Cortex-Hypothalamus Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Satoshi; Osada, Takahiro; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Tanaka, Masaki; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Machida, Toru; Akahane, Masaaki; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in cognitive functions, and is also closely related to autonomic functions. The OFC is densely connected with the hypothalamus, a heterogeneous structure controlling autonomic functions that can be divided into two major parts: the lateral and the medial. Resting-state functional connectivity has allowed us to parcellate the cerebral cortex into putative functional areas based on the changes in the spatial pattern of connectivity in the cerebral cortex when a seed point is moved from one voxel to another. In the present high spatial-resolution fMRI study, we investigate the connectivity-based organization of the OFC with reference to the hypothalamus. The OFC was parcellated using resting-state functional connectivity in an individual subject approach, and then the functional connectivity was examined between the parcellated areas in the OFC and the lateral/medial hypothalamus. We found a functional double dissociation in the OFC: the lateral OFC (the lateral orbital gyrus) was more likely connected with the lateral hypothalamus, whereas the medial OFC (the medial orbital and rectal gyri) was more likely connected with the medial hypothalamus. These results demonstrate the fundamental heterogeneity of the OFC, and suggest a potential neural basis of the OFC-hypothalamic functional interaction.

  8. Lateral–Medial Dissociation in Orbitofrontal Cortex–Hypothalamus Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Satoshi; Osada, Takahiro; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Tanaka, Masaki; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Machida, Toru; Akahane, Masaaki; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in cognitive functions, and is also closely related to autonomic functions. The OFC is densely connected with the hypothalamus, a heterogeneous structure controlling autonomic functions that can be divided into two major parts: the lateral and the medial. Resting-state functional connectivity has allowed us to parcellate the cerebral cortex into putative functional areas based on the changes in the spatial pattern of connectivity in the cerebral cortex when a seed point is moved from one voxel to another. In the present high spatial-resolution fMRI study, we investigate the connectivity-based organization of the OFC with reference to the hypothalamus. The OFC was parcellated using resting-state functional connectivity in an individual subject approach, and then the functional connectivity was examined between the parcellated areas in the OFC and the lateral/medial hypothalamus. We found a functional double dissociation in the OFC: the lateral OFC (the lateral orbital gyrus) was more likely connected with the lateral hypothalamus, whereas the medial OFC (the medial orbital and rectal gyri) was more likely connected with the medial hypothalamus. These results demonstrate the fundamental heterogeneity of the OFC, and suggest a potential neural basis of the OFC–hypothalamic functional interaction. PMID:27303281

  9. Development of MH-300 angiographic C-arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Tetsu; Nakata, Isao; Magari, Yoshihide; Umeda, Mitsuru; Akutsu, Koji; Miyamoto, Wataru [Shimadzu Cop., Medical Systems Division, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    The technique of interventional radiology (IVR) has been established as a reliable method for various clinical applications, such as the diagnosis and cure of vascular and circulating systems. It has come to have a wider field of applications and is now being improved to provide performances of an even higher level. To meet the requirements of this particular fields, we have developed the MH-300 angiographic C-arm system. Designed as a multipurpose angiographic C-arm system of a floor stand type, the MH-300 is especially effective for the diagnosis and cure of whole body, and has the following noteworthy features: (1) Triple pivot construction, which enables traveling movement of the C-arm to permit highly reliable whole body angiography. (2) Higher speed rotation of the C-arm, which ensures minimized X-ray doses to the patients, and reduced quantity of contrast media, as well as higher speed of operation. (3) New F-50 collimator incorporating the MBH (multiple beam hardening) filter. (author)

  10. CT imaging with a mobile C-arm prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryauka, Arvi; Tubbs, David; Langille, Vinton; Kalya, Prabhanjana; Smith, Brady; Cherone, Rocco

    2008-03-01

    Mobile X-ray imagery is an omnipresent tool in conventional musculoskeletal and soft tissue applications. The next generation of mobile C-arm systems can provide clinicians of minimally-invasive surgery and pain management procedures with both real-time high-resolution fluoroscopy and intra-operative CT imaging modalities. In this study, we research two C-arm CT experimental system configurations and evaluate their imaging capabilities. In a non-destructive evaluation configuration, the X-ray Tube - Detector assembly is stationary while an imaging object is placed on a rotating table. In a medical imaging configuration, the C-arm gantry moves around the patient and the table. In our research setting, we connect the participating devices through a Mobile X-Ray Imaging Environment known as MOXIE. MOXIE is a set of software applications for internal research at GE Healthcare - Surgery and used to examine imaging performance of experimental systems. Anthropomorphic phantom volume renderings and orthogonal slices of reconstructed images are obtained and displayed. The experimental C-arm CT results show CT-like image quality that may be suitable for interventional procedures, real-time data management, and, therefore, have great potential for effective use on the clinical floor.

  11. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  12. Resonant drift of two-armed spirals by a periodic advective field and periodic modulation of excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Hong; Li, You-Quan

    2010-01-01

    The drift behavior of two-armed spirals induced by periodic advective field and periodic modulation of excitability is investigated. It is shown that the two-armed spirals controlled by periodic advective field and periodic modulation of excitability drift in completely different ways. For periodic advective field, the two tips of the two-armed spiral drift in the same direction and the two-armed spiral is stable. While for periodic modulation of excitability, the two tips drift in the opposite direction and the two-armed spiral splits into two single-armed spirals. Analytical results based on a kinematic theory of rotating spirals in weakly excitable media are consistent with the numerical results.

  13. Delaminated rotator cuff tear: extension of delamination and cuff integrity after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Heui-Chul; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Jung-Han; Choo, Hye-Jeung; Sagong, Seung-Yeob; Shin, John

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extension of delamination and the cuff integrity after arthroscopic repair of delaminated rotator cuff tears. Sixty-five patients with delaminated rotator cuff tears were retrospectively reviewed. The delaminated tears were divided into full-thickness delaminated tears and partial-thickness delaminated tears. To evaluate the medial extension, we calculated the coronal size of the delaminated portion. To evaluate the posterior extension, we checked the tendon involved. Cuff integrity was evaluated by computed tomography arthrography. The mean medial extension in the full-thickness and partial-thickness delaminated tears was 18.1 ± 6.0 mm and 22.7 ± 6.3 mm, respectively (P = .0084). The posterior extension into the supraspinatus and the infraspinatus was 36.9% and 32.3%, respectively, in the full-thickness delaminated tears, and it was 27.7% and 3.1%, respectively, in the partial-thickness delaminated tears (P = .0043). With regard to cuff integrity, 35 cases of anatomic healing, 10 cases of partial healing defects, and 17 cases of retear were detected. Among the patients with retear and partial healing of the defect, all the partially healed defects showed delamination. Three retear patients showed delamination, and 14 retear patients did not show delamination; the difference was statistically significant (P = .0001). The full-thickness delaminated tears showed less medial extension and more posterior extension than the partial-thickness delaminated tears. Delamination did not develop in retear patients, but delamination was common in the patients with partially healed defects. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  15. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  16. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Kigawa

    Full Text Available Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  17. [Medial venous catheter or midline (MVC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero Caballero, Ma Carmen; Montealegre Sanz, María; Cubero Pérez, Ma Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Current clinical practice is characterised for importance of the patient's quality of life and the need to reduce the costs of their treatment. We search intravenous therapy alternatives that meet the needs of the patient, reducing the complications associated with the use of venous catheters. Scientific evidence shows that there are midline venous catheters that offer patients and professionals the possibility of extending the duration of infusion therapy, using more venous compatibility materials, and with less risk of infection. The Midlines are becoming in a safe an efficient device for intravenous therapy, continuous and intermittent infusion, provided the necessary care by expert nurses. Midline catheters are peripheral venous access devices between 3 to 10 inches in length (8 to 25 cm). Midlines are usually placed in an upper arm vein, such as the brachial or cephalic, and the distal extreme ends below the level of the axillary line. Midlines catheters implanted in the cephalic or deep basilica veins get more blood flow. This large blood volume justifies the lower risk of mechanical or chemical phlebitis. Midlines are routinely used for two to six weeks. Due that the extrem of these catheters does not extend beyond the axillary line, there are limitations for its use: type of infused drugs, velocity of infusion, etc. In general, solutions that have pH 5 to 9, or an osmolarity less than 500 mOsm are appropriate for infusion through a Midline. Its use is recommended in case of treatments over 7 days with low irritant capacity fluids. According to the Infusion Nurses Society's standards of practice, Midline catheters are appropriate for all intravenous fluids that would normally be administered through a short peripheral IV Importantly, due that the catheter does not pass through the central veins, Midlines can be placed without a chest X-ray to confirm placement. For certain situations, Midlines are suitable for acute units and even for care home settings

  18. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  19. Case Report of Arm Kimura Disease with Atypical MR Finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Young; Kim, Baek Hyun; Lee, Young Hen; Kang, Chang Ho; Lee, Guen Young; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Lee, Ju Han [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ye Lim; Hong, Suk Ju [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Kimura disease is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of unknown origin that occurs mainly in young Asian male patients. Kimura disease is characterized by painless subcutaneous swelling and lymphadenopathy of the head and neck, associated with peripheral blood eosinophilia and increased serum IgE. According to some previous reports about a rare form of Kimura disease of the upper arm, soft tissue masses of the subcutaneous fat layer were demonstrated in the medial trochlear area, which showed strong and homogenous enhancement with marked perilesional edema and fat infiltrations on enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this case report, we introduce a case of Kimura disease of the upper arm in a 13-year male patient, which was seen as a well-marginated soft tissue mass without perilesional edema or fatty infiltrations on MRI. In this case study, we discuss the characteristics of the clinical and pathologic findings associated with unusual MRI findings, and report the Kimura disease with a different pathophysiology by anti-inflammatory drugs.

  20. Medial collateral ligament reconstruction in the baseball Pitcher's elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erne, Holger C; Zouzias, Ioannis C; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2009-08-01

    Pitchers are prone to elbow injuries because of high and repetitive valgus stresses on the elbow. The anterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MCL) of the elbow is the primary restraint and is often attenuated with time, leading to functional incompetence and ultimate failure. Pitchers with a history of medial elbow pain, reduced velocity, and loss of command may have an MCL injury in evolution. Physical examination and imaging can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment begins with rest and activity modification. All medial elbow pain is not MCL injury. Surgery is considered only for talented athletes who wish to return to competitive play and may include elite scholastic and other collegiates and professionals. The technique for MCL reconstruction was first described in 1986. Many variations have been offered since then, which can result in predictable outcomes, allowing many to return to the same level of competitive play.

  1. Isolated medial foot compartment syndrome after ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Josep; Amat, Carles; Selga, Jordi; Corona, Pablo Salvador

    2014-03-01

    Foot compartment syndrome is a serious potential complication of foot crush injury, fractures, surgery, and vascular injury. An acute compartment syndrome isolated to the medial compartment of the foot after suffering an ankle sprain is a rare complication. We report the case of a 31-year-old man who developed a medial foot compartment syndrome after suffering a deltoid ligament rupture at ankle while playing football. The patient underwent a medial compartment fasciotomy with resolution of symptoms. Compartment syndromes of the foot are rare and have been reported to occur after severe trauma. But, there are some reports in the literature of acute exertional compartment syndrome. In our case, the compartment syndrome appeared after an ankle sprain without vascular injuries associated. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Traumatic fragmented medial coronoid process in a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, H S; Wheeler, J L; Manley, P A

    2009-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP) is a disease process that has not previously been reported in toy-breed dogs. This report describes a presumptive case of FMCP in a 14-month-old Chihuahua that was presented for evaluation approximately four weeks following acute onset of moderate lameness in the left forelimb. Definitive diagnosis of a fragmented medial coronoid process was based upon computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan also demonstrated moderate joint incongruity in the affected elbow. Surgical removal of the fragment and subtotal coronoidectomy were performed via a medial arthrotomy. An ulnar ostectomy was also performed to address joint incongruity. Histology of specimens removed at surgery did not demonstrate evidence of microdamage as characteristic of FMCP in large breed dogs, and instead, suggested that the fracture was acute and traumatic in nature. Rapid return to function was observed following surgery.

  3. Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty for treatment of dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricker, Ryan M; deSilva, Brad W; Forrest, L Arick

    2010-04-01

    Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty is a well described procedure for the management of glottal incompetence with associated phonatory disturbance. Limited literature exists describing the use of this procedure in the management of dysphagia. We describe our experience with Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty and the treatment of dysphagia. Case series with chart review. Tertiary referral center. Between April 2000 and September 2008, 189 Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasties were performed on 180 patients by the senior author. Complete records and analysis were available for and performed on 121 procedures for 113 patients. The main outcome measures were discontinuation of gastrostomy tube (g-tube) use or avoidance of g-tube, as well as clinical subjective improvement in swallowing function. Fifty-seven of 113 (50%) patients had complaints of dysphagia at presentation, with 47 of 57 (82%) having an objective swallowing evaluation. Thirty-two of 47 (68%) had documented penetration and/or aspiration. Twenty of 57 (35%) patients with dysphagia required g-tubes for alimentation. Eleven of 20 (55%) patients were able to discontinue g-tube use after Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty, and an additional five patients with aspiration were able to avoid need for g-tubes with Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty and swallowing therapy. Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty is a well tolerated and well described treatment for the management of glottal incompetence. The procedure is an appropriate adjunct in dysphagia management for the appropriate patient population. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficiency of Medial Rectus Advancement Surgery in Consecutive Exotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Yar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of medial rectus advancement surgery in consecutive exotropia. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 20 cases, 10 male, 10 female, who were diagnosed as consecutive exotropia and underwent surgery between 2008-2013 at Cukurova University Medical Faculty Ophthalmology Department. Records of the patients were investigated retrospectively. We evaluated best corrected visual acuity, existence of ambliopia, postoperative duration following the first surgery and applied surgical procedures. Postoperative deviation lower than 10 PD were assesed as successful. Mean follow up period was 29,8 +/- 21,36 (8-80 months, patients with inadequate follow up period were dismissed from the study group. Results: We only applied bilateral medial rectus advancement surgery to 6 and unilateral medial rectus advancement surgery to 5 patients and obtained intended surgical result in these 11 cases. The other patients underwent lateral rectus recession or/and medial rectus resection operations inorder to reach projected deviation degrees. Deviation was found to be 46,4+/-9,24 (40-70 PD in cases who only underwent advancement surgery and was 65,56 +/- 18,78 (40-90 PD in cases who underwent additional surgical procedure. 16 (%80 of the cases had hypermetropi various dioptries and 7 (%35 had ambliopia. Discussion: Consecutive exotropia can appear years after surgery and is an important late period complication. In this study achievement of %55 success with medial rectus advancement surgery indicates that this is a preferable procedure. But in wide angle deviations additional lateral rectus recession or/and medial rectus resection operations can be applied inorder to reach intended adjustment. Accurrate prediction of the propotion of advancement surgery and adjustment is not always possible because of intensive fybrosis in operated muscles and enviroment tissue. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 707-713

  5. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY IN HUMAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh R. Aghera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial circumflex femoral artery is an important branch of Profunda femoris artery. It is an important artery in supplying blood to the head and neck of the femur, the adductor muscles and form anastomosis around head of femur. So study of variation of medial circumflex femoral artery great value for surgeon and orthopaedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study includes 102 lower limbs of adult formalin fixed human cadavers used for the routine dissection procedure for under graduate and post graduate students in the department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, KBN Medical college and H K E Homeopathic College, Gulbarga (India during 2011-2014.The study was done by dissection method as per Cunningham’s manual of practical Anatomy. Result: In present study, we found that 25 extremities (25.49% medial circumflex femoral artery was originated directly from femoral artery. In 10 extremities (9.80% a common trunk was observed form medial circumflex femoral with femoral artery. Normal study was observed in 66 extremities (64.70%. Conclusion: In present study and other past studies we conclude that knowledge of variation in this artery is very important to preventing injury to vessels during surgical procedures around hip joint and also has important value in plastic surgery operations as the vascular pedicle of grafts such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG flap, medial thigh flap and medial circumflex femoral (gracilis perforator free flap. During case of selective arteriography in ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head to know the arterial supply of the femoral head it is used.

  6. Sparsity-constrained three-dimensional image reconstruction for C-arm angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Essam A; al-Shatouri, Mohammad; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    X-ray C-arm is an important imaging tool in interventional radiology, road-mapping and radiation therapy because it provides accurate descriptions of vascular anatomy and therapeutic end point. In common interventional radiology, the C-arm scanner produces a set of two-dimensional (2D) X-ray projection data obtained with a detector by rotating the scanner gantry around the patient. Unlike conventional fluoroscopic imaging, three-dimensional (3D) C-arm computed tomography (CT) provides more accurate cross-sectional images, which are helpful for therapy planning, guidance and evaluation in interventional radiology. However, 3D vascular imaging using the conventional C-arm fluoroscopy encounters some geometry challenges. Inspired by the theory of compressed sensing, we developed an image reconstruction algorithm for conventional angiography C-arm scanners. The main challenge in this image reconstruction problem is the projection data limitations. We consider a small number of views acquired from a short rotation orbit with offset scan geometry. The proposed method, called sparsity-constrained angiography (SCAN), is developed using the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the results obtained from simulated and real data are encouraging. SCAN algorithm provides a framework to generate 3D vascular images using the conventional C-arm scanners in lower cost than conventional 3D imaging scanners.

  7. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, S.

    2009-01-01

    A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap. PMID:19881020

  8. Predictors of human rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, Jan; Croudace, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Why some humans prefer to rotate clockwise rather than anticlockwise is not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of the preferred rotation direction in humans. The variables hypothesised to influence rotation preference include handedness, footedness, sex, brain hemisphere lateralisation, and the Coriolis effect (which results from geospatial location on the Earth). An online questionnaire allowed us to analyse data from 1526 respondents in 97 countries. Factor analysis showed that the direction of rotation should be studied separately for local and global movements. Handedness, footedness, and the item hypothesised to measure brain hemisphere lateralisation are predictors of rotation direction for both global and local movements. Sex is a predictor of the direction of global rotation movements but not local ones, and both sexes tend to rotate clockwise. Geospatial location does not predict the preferred direction of rotation. Our study confirms previous findings concerning the influence of handedness, footedness, and sex on human rotation; our study also provides new insight into the underlying structure of human rotation movements and excludes the Coriolis effect as a predictor of rotation.

  9. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    to identify the specific tissue region under study. In order to use the spatial rotator in practice, however, it is necessary to be able to identify intersection points between cell boundaries and test rays in a series of parallel focal planes, also at the peripheral parts of the cell boundaries. In cases......This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...... the spatial rotator fast to use. Since a 3D probe is involved, it is expected that the spatial rotator will be more efficient than the the nucleator and the planar rotator, which are based on measurements in a single plane. An extensive simulation study shows that the spatial rotator may be more efficient...

  10. Return to Sports after Acute Simultaneous Reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Grade III Medial Collateral Ligament Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertona, Agustin; Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Viescas, Juan Manuel Gonzalez; Atala, Nicolas; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Costa-Paz, Matias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Combined Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury and Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) injury account for 20% of knee ligament lesions. Conservative treatment of MCL and surgical ACL reconstruction are generally recommended. Significant medial instability after non-surgical management of MCL can lead to ACL reconstruction failure. The optimal management for athletes with combined ACL-MCL injuries remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyze the functional and clinical evolution of patients who underwent combined ACL-MCL surgery and their return-to-sport level with minimum 2-years follow-up. Methods: A total of 20 athletes with acute simultaneous ACL/Grade III MCL reconstructions were treated between March 2006 and January 2014. The minimum follow-up time was 24 months. Subjective functional results (IKDC, Lysholm), range of motion, anterior-medial and rotational stability (Lachmann, Pivot Shift, valgus stress) were evaluated. The ability to return to sport (Tegner) and the level achieved was recorded. Results: All patients significantly improved functional scores and stability tests. The mean subjective IKDC score improved from 37.7 ± 12.9 (range 21-69) preoperatively to 88.21 ± 4.47 (range 80-96) postoperatively (P sports; 90% reached the level they had prior to the ligamentous injury. Of all competitive athletes, 66% achieved the same level of sport. Conclusion: In athletes with acute ACL-Grade III MCL lesions, an early simultaneous reconstruction can significantly improve the medial and sagittal stability of the knee. This procedure resulted in excellent functional outcomes, with return to the same level of sports in the majority of patients at short-term follow-up.

  11. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  12. Arms control and international security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolkowicz, R. (ed.); Joeck, N.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers delivered at a symposium held at the University of California, in 1983. It provides the discussions upon the value and importance of arms debate. The paper presents an expression of personal views rather than an analysis of the arguments of the primary presentations.

  13. Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisYou may have TENDINITIS, inflammation of a tendon.Self CareUse an over- ... OverDiagnosisYour may have TENNIS ELBOW, a type of TENDINITIS.Self CareRest the arm, apply ice packs to ...

  14. Gravity versus manual external rotation stress view in evaluating ankle stability: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBa, Thu-Ba; Gugala, Zbigniew; Morris, Randal P; Panchbhavi, Vinod K

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine whether gravity versus manual external rotation stress testing effectively detects widening of the medial clear space in isolated ankle fractures when compared with the uninjured contralateral side. Manual external rotation stress and gravity stress tests were performed on injured and uninjured ankles of ankle fracture patients in a clinic setting. Medial clear space measurements were recorded and differences between gravity and manual stress views were determined. Twenty consecutive patients with ankle injury were enrolled in the study. When compared with the uninjured side, gravity stress views showed a statistically significant (P = .017) increase in medial clear space widening (1.85 ± 1.07 mm) compared with manual stress view widening (1.35 ± 1.04 mm). This study suggests that gravity stress views are as effective as manual external rotation stress views in detecting medial clear space widening in isolated fibular fractures. Diagnostic, Level II: Prospective, comparative trial. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exits, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte-Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z<~0.1 with member galaxies selected from the SDSS DR10 spectroscopic database. We find that ~35% of our clusters are rotating when using a set of strict criteria, while loosening the criteria we find this fraction increasing to ~48%. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation that the significance and strength of their...

  16. Autonomous sensor-based dual-arm satellite grappling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian; Tso, Kam; Litwin, Todd; Hayati, Samad; Bon, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Dual-arm satellite grappling involves the integration of technologies developed in the Sensing and Perception (S&P) Subsystem for object acquisition and tracking, and the Manipulator Control and Mechanization (MCM) Subsystem for dual-arm control. S&P acquires and tracks the position, orientation, velocity, and angular velocity of a slowly spinning satellite, and sends tracking data to the MCM subsystem. MCM grapples the satellite and brings it to rest, controlling the arms so that no excessive forces or torques are exerted on the satellite or arms. A 350-pound satellite mockup which can spin freely on a gimbal for several minutes, closely simulating the dynamics of a real satellite is demonstrated. The satellite mockup is fitted with a panel under which may be mounted various elements such as line replacement modules and electrical connectors that will be used to demonstrate servicing tasks once the satellite is docked. The subsystems are housed in three MicroVAX II microcomputers. The hardware of the S&P Subsystem includes CCD cameras, video digitizers, frame buffers, IMFEX (a custom pipelined video processor), a time-code generator with millisecond precision, and a MicroVAX II computer. Its software is written in Pascal and is based on a locally written vision software library. The hardware of the MCM Subsystem includes PUMA 560 robot arms, Lord force/torque sensors, two MicroVAX II computers, and unimation pneumatic parallel grippers. Its software is written in C, and is based on a robot language called RCCL. The two subsystems are described and test results on the grappling of the satellite mockup with rotational rates of up to 2 rpm are provided.

  17. Optical design of a rotating eyepiece telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, M.; Nasim, F.; Khan, A. N.; Gul, A.

    2016-08-01

    Flexible eyepiece telescope has been designed and verified. The rotating eyepiece of telescope will facilitate viewing of objects in a remote or out of sight target. Eyepiece arm of telescope can be rotated upto 360o keeping objective and reticule unchanged and ensuring zero deviation in reticule inclination. Main application of this scope is off axis viewing of objects. Image inversion has been carried out by using pair of mirrors and length of telescope is controlled by using relay lenses. The optical design, simulation and image analysis has been carried out by using ZEMAX®. Magnification of telescope is between 10∼⃒12 times with FOV of 60. Experiment has been carried out using uncoated Edmund Optics and optical tool box of Micro Series Kit, NEWPORT.

  18. Particle Paths of Lagrangian Velocity Distribution Simulating the Spiral Arms of Galaxy M51

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzu-Fang Chen; Georgios H. Vatistas; Sui Lin

    2008-01-01

    Galaxies are huge families of stars held together by their own gravities. The system M51 is a spiral galaxy. It possesses billions of stars. The range of the spiral arms extends hundred thousand light years. The present study is in an attempt in using the particle paths of the Lagrangian flow field to simulate the spiral arms of Galaxy M51.The Lagrangian flow field is introduced. The initial locations of fluid particles in the space between two concentric cylinders are first specified. Then a linear velocity distribution of the fluid particles is used with different angle rotations of the particles to obtain the particle paths in the Lagrangian diagram. For simulating the spiral arms of Galaxy M51, the Lagrangian M51 diagram is developed. The particle paths of the Lagrangian M51 diagram agree quite well with the spiral arms of Galaxy M51.

  19. Stiffness of the healing medial collateral ligament of the mouse.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijssen, Y.; Sierevelt, I.N.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Blankevoort, L.

    2004-01-01

    The knee joints of mice can serve as a model for studying knee ligament properties. The goal of our study was to measure the structural stiffness of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the murine knee. A tensile test was developed for this purpose. First 84 femur-MCL-tibia complexes of

  20. Aetiology, imaging and treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The work contained is this thesis discusses aetiology, imaging and treatment of a common leg injury: medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Although a common injury, the number of scientific articles on this topic is relatively low as is explained in chapter 1. This chapter also highlights that the m

  1. Robust Segmentation of Voxel Shapes using Medial Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    We present a new patch-type segmentation method for 3D voxel shapes based on the medial surface, also called surface skeleton. The boundaries of the simplified fore- and background skeletons map one-to-one to increasingly fuzzy, soft convex, respectively concave, edges of the shape. Using this prope

  2. Anatomical segmentation of the human medial prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcoles-Parada, M.; Muller, N.C.J.; Ubero, M.; Serrano-Del-Pueblo, V.M.; Mansilla, F.; Marcos-Rabal, P.; Artacho-Perula, E.; Dresler, M.; Insausti, R.; Fernandez, G.; Munoz-Lopez, M.

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal areas 32, 24, 14, and 25 (mPFC) form part of the limbic memory system, but little is known about their functional specialization in humans. To add anatomical precision to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we aimed to identify these mPFC subareas i

  3. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klucharev, V.; Munneke, M.; Smidts, A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial front

  4. Internal Mammary and Medial Supraclavicular Irradiation in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortmans, P.M.P.; Collette, S.; Kirkove, C.; Limbergen, E. van; Budach, V.; Struikmans, H.; Collette, L.; Fourquet, A.; Maingon, P.; Valli, M.; Winter, K. De; Marnitz, S.; Barillot, I.; Scandolaro, L.; Vonk, E.; Rodenhuis, C.; Marsiglia, H.; Weidner, N.; Tienhoven, G. van; Glanzmann, C.; Kuten, A.; Arriagada, R.; Bartelink, H.; Bogaert, W. Van den

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph-node irradiation (regional nodal irradiation) added to whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation after surgery on survival among women with early-stage breast cancer is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned women who had a

  5. Temporary Medial Upper Eyelid Lagophthalmos after External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefliger, I O; Meienberg, O; Pimentel de Figueiredo, A R

    2016-04-01

    Background. Report of three cases of medial upper eyelid lagophthalmos as complication of external dacryocystorhinostomy. History and Signs. Shortly after dacryocystorhinostomy (skin incision on the side of the nose), three of ten consecutive patients (28 ± 4 years; mean ± standard deviation), presented with an ipsilateral lagophthalmos of 4 ± 1 mm in voluntary eyelid closure and 6 ± 1 mm in spontaneous blink. The lagophthalmos was due to a selective paresis of the medial part of the orbicularis oculi muscle of the upper eyelid. Patient 1 complained bitterly of dry eye symptoms and of her lagophthalmos. Patient 2 had mild symptoms but became very concerned after peers made her aware of her asymmetric blink. Patient 3 was asymptomatic and did not notice anything particular. Therapy and Outcome. Lagophthalmos resolved spontaneously within three months after surgery, first by improvement of voluntary eyelid closure and then of spontaneous blinking. Conclusions. Temporary lagophthalmos can occur as a complication of external dacryocystorhinostomy, most likely due to damage of the (only recently described) superficial buccal and/or zygomatic branches of the facial nerve that run upward to cross over the medial ligament and innervate the medial part of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Proactive and Reactive Control by the Medial Frontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit eStuphorn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior requires the ability to flexibly control actions. This can occur either proactively to anticipate task requirements, or reactively in response to sudden changes. In this article, we describe the behavioral and physiological evidence for dual mechanisms of control in response inhibition in the medial frontal cortex in the context of the stop signal or countermanding task.

  7. Tendon sheath fibroma of the medial canthal tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nicholas; Dodd, Tom; Selva, Dinesh; Davis, Garry

    2013-01-01

    Fibromas of the tendon sheath are slow-growing, benign tumors most commonly found on the hands and wrist. A fibroma of the tendon sheath arising from the medial canthal tendon presented as an enlarging nodule that had been present for 40 years. The fibroma was identified by microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and surgical resection appears to have been curative.

  8. [Medial unicompartmental knee prosthesis for patients with unicompartmental gonarthrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, N.P.; Deutman, R.; Raay, J.J. van; Horn, J.R. van

    2004-01-01

    The function and survival time of unicompartmental knee prostheses for patients with severe gonarthrosis have been improved the past few years by developments in their design, the instrumentarium and the surgical technique. A medial unicompartmental knee prosthesis may be indicated in patients with

  9. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in a Below-Knee Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif El-Tawil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar instability is a common finding in patients with below-knee amputation and yet management options are not commonly described in the literature. We describe the first reported case of a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction using allograft in a patient with a below-knee amputation. Clinical outcome at two-year follow-up remains very good.

  10. Arthroscopic Treatment of Medial Femoral Condylar Coronal Fractures and Nonunions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercin, Ersin; Bilgili, M. Gokhan; Basaran, S. Hakan; Baca, Emre; Kural, Cemal; Avkan, M. Cevdet

    2013-01-01

    Nonunion of medial femoral condylar coronal fractures are uncommon. In neglected Hoffa fractures despite nonunion, there is a risk of missing accompanying ligamentous and intra-articular injuries. Neither preoperative clinical examination nor magnetic resonance imaging showed these injuries before arthroscopy. Arthroscopy before internal fixation gives additional information and changes the surgical protocol for these fractures and nonunions. PMID:24400191

  11. MR imaging findings of medial tibial crest friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Akoumianakis, Ioannis D., E-mail: ioannis.akoumianakis@gmail.com; Vagios, Ilias, E-mail: iliasvagios@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Medial tibial condyle bone marrow edema (BME), associated with soft tissue edema (STe) surrounding the medial collateral ligament, was incidentally observed in MRI examinations of young and athletic individuals. The aim of the present study was to 1. Prospectively investigate the association between these findings and coexistence of localized pain, and 2. Explore the possible contribution of the tibial morphology to its pathogenesis. Methods: The medial tibial condyle crest was evaluated in 632 knee MRI examinations. The angle and depth were measured by two separate evaluators. The presence of STe and BME was recorded. A third evaluator blindly assessed the presence of pain at this site. Results: BME associated with STe was found in 24 patients (with no history of previous trauma, osteoarthritis, tumor or pes anserine bursitis). The mean crest angle was 151.3° (95%CI 147.4–155.3°) compared to 159.4° (95%CI 158.8–160°) in controls (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.0001). MRI findings were highly predictive of localized pain (sensitivity 92% specificity 99%, Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Friction at the medial tibial condyle crest is a painful syndrome. MRI is a highly specific and sensitive imaging modality for its diagnosis.

  12. Medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Fronek, Jan [Scripps Healthcare, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    We report the occurrence of a medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher. To our knowledge, this fracture has not been described in the literature, and awareness of this entity allows initiation of therapy and precludes further unnecessary work-up. The radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging appearances are reviewed and the mechanism of injury is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Rapid adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations of arm trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J R; Dizio, P

    1994-07-01

    1. Forward reaching movements made during body rotation generate tangential Coriolis forces that are proportional to the cross product of the angular velocity of rotation and the linear velocity of the arm. Coriolis forces are inertial forces that do not involve mechanical contact. Virtually no constant centrifugal forces will be present in the background when motion of the arm generates transient Coriolis forces if the radius of body rotation is small. 2. We measured the trajectories of arm movements made in darkness to a visual target that was extinguished as movement began. The reaching movements were made prerotation, during rotation at 10 rpm in a fully enclosed rotating room, and postrotation. During testing the subject was seated at the center of the room and pointed radially. Neither visual nor tactile feedback about movement accuracy was present. 3. In experiment 1, subjects reached at a fast or slow rate and their hands made contact with a horizontal surface at the end of the reach. Their initial perrotary movements were highly significantly deviated relative to prerotation in both trajectories and end-points in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces that had been generated during the reaches. Despite the absence of visual and tactile feedback about reaching accuracy, all subjects rapidly regained straight movement trajectories and accurate endpoints. Postrotation, transient errors of opposite sign were present for both trajectories and endpoints. 4. In a second experiment the conditions were identical except that subjects pointed just above the location of the extinguished target so that no surface contact was involved. All subjects showed significant initial perrotation deviations of trajectories and endpoints in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces. With repeated reaches the trajectories, as viewed from above, again became straight, but there was only partial restoration of endpoint accuracy, so that subjects reached in a straight

  14. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silson, Edward H.; Steel, Adam D.; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS). While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA) to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and the human face-selective fusiform face area (FFA), commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective occipital face area (OFA), suggesting a closer link with ventral than lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral

  15. Foot rotation--a potential target to modify the knee adduction moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichtahl, A J; Morris, M E; Wluka, A E; Baker, R; Wolfe, R; Davis, S R; Cicuttini, F M

    2006-05-01

    Isolating the particular joints/limb segments associated with knee adductor moment variability may provide clinically important data that could help to identify strategies to reduce medial tibiofemoral joint load. The aim of this study was to examine whether or not foot and thigh rotation during human locomotion are significant determinants of knee adductor moment variability. Three-dimensional gait analyses were performed on 32 healthy adult women (mean age 54+/-12 years, mean BMI 25+/-4 kg m(-2)) with radiologically normal knees. The relationships between foot rotation, thigh rotation and the external knee adduction moment were examined during early and late-stance phases of the gait cycle. The degree of foot rotation correlated significantly with the magnitude of the peak knee adduction moment during late stance (r=0.40, p=0.024). No significant associations were apparent between thigh rotation and the peak knee adduction moment. The association between foot rotation and the knee adduction moment in this study suggests that women who walk with external rotation at the foot reduce their knee adduction moment during late stance. This result implies that changes in foot kinematics can modify the medial tibiofemoral load during gait, which may be important in the prevention and management of knee osteoarthritis.

  16. Segond fracture: involvement of the iliotibial band, anterolateral ligament, and anterior arm of the biceps femoris in knee trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeseneer, Michel de; Boulet, Cedric; Willekens, Inneke; Mey, Johan de; Shahabpour, Maryam [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest University, Department of Radiology, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Cattrysse, Erik [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Experimental Anatomy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-12-04

    To evaluate the involvement of the iliotibial band (ITB), the anterolateral ligament (ALL), and the anterior arm of the biceps femoris in MRI-diagnosed Segond fracture and to evaluate other associated findings of Segond fracture. We retrospectively reviewed the MRI of 13 cases of Segond fracture. The studies included proton density-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted with fat saturation images in the three planes. We studied 2 cadaveric specimens with emphasis on the ALL. One cadaveric specimen was dissected while the other was sectioned in the sagittal plane. The mean age of the patients was 36 years (range, 17-52). There were 7 men and 6 women. The mean size of the Segond bone fragment was 8 x 10 x 2 mm. The distance from the tibia varied from 2 to 6 mm. Associated findings included anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear (n = 13), medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear (n = 8), meniscocapsular tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (n = 5), and posterolateral corner involvement (n = 4). Bone marrow edema involved the mid-lateral femoral condyle and the posterior tibial plateau on both the medial and the lateral side. Edema at the Segond area was seen, but was limited. Fibular head edema was also seen. The ITB (11 out of 13) and ALL (10 out of 13) inserted on the Segond bone fragment. The anterior arm of the biceps tendon did not insert on the Segond fracture. Associated findings of Segond fracture include ACL tear, MCL tear, medial meniscus tear, and posterolateral corner injury. Both the ITB and the ALL may be involved in the Segond avulsion. The anterior arm of the biceps femoris tendon is not involved. (orig.)

  17. Controlling robot arm with the mind

    National Science Foundation

    2017-05-31

    Full Text Available Research test subjects at the University of Minnesota who were fitted with a specialized noninvasive brain cap were able to move a robotic arm just by imagining moving their own arms.

  18. Design and experimental testing of the OctArm soft robot manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Michael D.; Chitrakaran, Vilas; Dienno, Dustin; Csencits, Matthew; Pritts, Michael; Jones, Bryan; McMahan, William; Dawson, Darren; Rahn, Chris; Walker, Ian

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the development of the octopus biology inspired OctArm series of soft robot manipulators. Each OctArm is constructed using air muscle extensors with three control channels per section that provide two axis bending and extension. Within each section, mesh and plastic coupler constraints prevent extensor buckling. OctArm IV is comprised of four sections connected by endplates, providing twelve degrees of freedom. Performance of OctArm IV is characterized in a lab environment. Using only 4.13 bar of air pressure, the dexterous distal section provides 66% extension and 380° of rotation in less than .5 seconds. OctArm V has three sections and, using 8.27 bar of air pressure, the strong proximal section provides 890 N and 250 N of vertical and transverse load capacity, respectively. In addition to the in-lab testing, OctArm V underwent a series of field trials including open-air and in-water field tests. Outcomes of the trials, in which the manipulator demonstrated the ability for adaptive and novel manipulation in challenging environments, are described. OctArm VI is designed and constructed based on the in-lab performance, and the field testing of its predecessors. Implications for the deployment of soft robots in military environments are discussed.

  19. Relativistic Rotating Vector Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    The direction of polarization produced by a moving source rotates with the respect to the rest frame. We show that this effect, induced by pulsar rotation, leads to an important correction to polarization swings within the framework of rotating vector model (RVM); this effect has been missed by previous works. We construct relativistic RVM taking into account finite heights of the emission region that lead to aberration, time-of-travel effects and relativistic rotation of polarization. Polarizations swings at different frequencies can be used, within the assumption of the radius-to-frequency mapping, to infer emission radii and geometry of pulsars.

  20. Multiple Identifications in Multi-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Viswanathan, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of identifying the top $m$ arms in a multi-armed bandit game. Our proposed solution relies on a new algorithm based on successive rejects of the seemingly bad arms, and successive accepts of the good ones. This algorithmic contribution allows to tackle other multiple identifications settings that were previously out of reach. In particular we show that this idea of successive accepts and rejects applies to the multi-bandit best arm identification problem.

  1. Photoelectric radar servo control system based on ARM+FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaixuan; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yeqiu; Dai, Qin; Yao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In order to get smaller, faster, and more responsive requirements of the photoelectric radar servo control system. We propose a set of core ARM + FPGA architecture servo controller. Parallel processing capability of FPGA to be used for the encoder feedback data, PWM carrier modulation, A, B code decoding processing and so on; Utilizing the advantage of imaging design in ARM Embedded systems achieves high-speed implementation of the PID algorithm. After the actual experiment, the closed-loop speed of response of the system cycles up to 2000 times/s, in the case of excellent precision turntable shaft, using a PID algorithm to achieve the servo position control with the accuracy of + -1 encoder input code. Firstly, This article carry on in-depth study of the embedded servo control system hardware to determine the ARM and FPGA chip as the main chip with systems based on a pre-measured target required to achieve performance requirements, this article based on ARM chip used Samsung S3C2440 chip of ARM7 architecture , the FPGA chip is chosen xilinx's XC3S400 . ARM and FPGA communicate by using SPI bus, the advantage of using SPI bus is saving a lot of pins for easy system upgrades required thereafter. The system gets the speed datas through the photoelectric-encoder that transports the datas to the FPGA, Then the system transmits the datas through the FPGA to ARM, transforms speed datas into the corresponding position and velocity data in a timely manner, prepares the corresponding PWM wave to control motor rotation by making comparison between the position data and the velocity data setted in advance . According to the system requirements to draw the schematics of the photoelectric radar servo control system and PCB board to produce specially. Secondly, using PID algorithm to control the servo system, the datas of speed obtained from photoelectric-encoder is calculated position data and speed data via high-speed digital PID algorithm and coordinate models. Finally, a

  2. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within......-social bonding. The paper ends by discussing the gender integration strategy of the Swedish Armed Forces....

  3. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  4. Constraints on arm position when pointing in three dimensions: Donders' law and the Fick gimbal strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, J; Watts, S; Vilis, T

    1992-08-01

    1. While making saccades between targets with the head stationary, eye positions are constrained to two of the possible three degrees of freedom. Classically this constraint has been described by Donders' and Listing's laws. The objective was to determine whether these laws also apply for the straight arm when pointing between different targets. Thus we determined whether the arm adopts only one angular position for every pointing direction (Donders' law) and whether these positions can be described by rotations from a reference position about axes that lie in a plane (Listing's law). 2. The angular positions (orientations) of the arm in three-dimensional space were studied as subjects pointed with a straight arm at different targets. Arm position was measured with the search coil technique by means of coils attached to the back of the hand. Pointing was studied over a range of +/- 45 degrees in all directions from a central target located 45 degrees to the right of the straight-ahead position. 3. The positions of the arm in space were described by quaternion vectors, i.e., a particular position was described in terms of the axis and amplitude of a rotation from a reference position to that position. Using this description, it was found that the straight arm adopted a similar orientation (standard deviations ranged from 2.8 to 4.8 degrees) when pointing at a particular target irrespective of which target from which it had moved. 4. The angular position vectors for arm positions associated with relatively small movements (e.g., less than +/- 30 degrees) lay in a flat surface with minimal torsion. At first sight, this surface appeared to be similar to Listing's plane of the eye. However, for positions associated with larger movements (e.g., +/- 45 degrees) it became apparent that, unlike the eye, the surface deviated from one obeying Listing's law, i.e., it was twisted and showed torsion like that produced by rotations around the horizontal and vertical axes of a

  5. Law of Armed Conflict Deskbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    or hygienic reasons). c. Honorable burial. Individual burial is strongly preferred; however, there is a military necessity exception which permits...members of military aircraft crews;31 d. Merchant marine and civil aviation crews;32 e. Persons accompanying armed forces (dependents);33 and, f...99 - 108) 10. Hygiene (GC III, art. 29); separate baths, showers and toilets must be provided for female POWs. D. POW Accountability.63 (GC III

  6. Dual arm master controller concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.

  7. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  8. Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per month. The number of inches from the injury to the tip of a finger gives the minimum number of months after which ... Replantation refers to the surgical reattachment of a finger, hand, or arm that has been completely cut from a person’s ... 2017 by American Society for Surgery of the Hand × Search Tips Tip 1: Start with the basics like "carpal ...

  9. Infraclavicular brachial plexus block: Comparison of posterior cord stimulation with lateral or medial cord stimulation, a prospective double blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus sheath provides anesthesia for surgery on the distal arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. It has been found that evoked distal motor response or radial nerve-type motor response has influenced the success rate of single-injection infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Aim: We conducted this study to compare the extent and effectiveness of infraclavicular brachial plexus block achieved by injecting a local anesthetic drug after finding specific muscle action due to neural stimulator guided posterior cord stimulation and lateral cord/medial cord stimulation. Methods: After ethical committee approval, patients were randomly assigned to one of the two study groups of 30 patients each. In group 1, posterior cord stimulation was used and in group 2 lateral/medial cord stimulation was used for infraclavicular brachial plexus block. The extent of motor block and effectiveness of sensory block were assessed. Results: All four motor nerves that were selected for the extent of block were blocked in 23 cases (76.7% in group 1 and in 15 cases (50.0% in group 2 (P:0.032. The two groups did not differ significantly in the number of cases in which 0, 1, 2, and 3 nerves were blocked (P>0.05. In group 1, significantly lesser number of patients had pain on surgical manipulation compared with patients of group 2 (P:0.037. Conclusion: Stimulating the posterior cord guided by a nerve stimulator before local anesthetic injection is associated with greater extent of block (in the number of motor nerves blocked and effectiveness of block (in reporting no pain during the surgery than stimulation of either the lateral or medial cord.

  10. The Prevalence of Medial Epicondylitis Among Patients With C6 and C7 Radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background: Medial epicondylitis, or golfer’s/pitcher’s elbow, develops as a result of medial stress overload on the flexor muscles at the elbow and presents as pain at the medial epicondyle. Cervical radiculopathy has been associated with lateral epicondylitis, but few associations between the cervical spine and medial epicondylitis have been made. Researchers propose that there is an association, suggesting that the weakness and imbalance in the elbow flexor and extensor muscles from C6 and...

  11. One-armed oscillations in Be star discs

    CERN Document Server

    Papaloizou, J C B

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of the quadrupole-term in the gravitational potential of a rotationally deformed central Be star on one armed density waves in the circumstellar disc. The aim is to explain the observed long-term violet over red (V/R) intensity variations of the double peaked Balmer emission-lines, not only in cool Be star systems, but also in the hot systems like gamma Cas. We have carried out semi-analytic and numerical studies of low-frequency one armed global oscillations in near Keplerian discs around Be stars. In these we have investigated surface density profiles for the circumstellar disc which have inner narrow low surface density or gap regions, just interior to global maxima close to the rapidly rotating star, as well as the mode inner boundary conditions. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to invoke extra forces such as caused by line absorption from the stellar flux in order to explain the long-term V/R variations in the discs around massive Be stars. When there exists...

  12. Posterior horn medial meniscal root tear: the prequel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, H. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, W. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DiFelice, G.S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Vaidya, N. [Crystal Run Healthcare, Middletown, NY (United States); Winalski, C.S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To determine whether subarticular marrow changes deep to the posterior horn medial meniscal root anchor might predict subsequent medial meniscal root tear. Fifteen patients with MR-diagnosed posterior horn medial meniscal root (PHMMR) tear and a knee MRI antecedent to the tear were identified at three imaging centers over a 7-year period. The pre- and post-tear MR images were evaluated for marrow signal changes deep to the root anchor, meniscal root signal intensity, medial compartment articular cartilage thinning, and meniscal body extrusion. Images of 29 age- and gender-matched individuals with two MRIs of the same knee were reviewed as a control group. MRI in 11 of 15 (73 %) cases with subsequent PHMMR tear demonstrated linear subcortical marrow edema deep to the meniscal root anchor on the antecedent MRI compared to only 1 of 29 (3 %) non-tear controls (p < 0.0001). The abnormal signal resolved on post-tear MRI in all but two patients. Cyst-like changes deep to the PHMMR were present on initial MRI in three of 15 (23 %) cases and three of 29 (10 %) controls, persisting in all but one case on follow-up imaging. The PHMMR was gray on the initial MRI in seven of 15 (47 %) of cases that developed tears compared to four of 29 (14 %) controls (p < 0.0001). There was medial meniscal extrusion (MME) prior to tear in two of 15 (13 %) patients and in ten of 15 (67 %) patients after PHMMR failure. In the control group, MME was present in one (3 %) and three (10 %) of 29 subjects on the initial and follow-up MRIs, respectively. Articular cartilage loss was noted in two of 15 (15 %) cases before tear and nine of 15 (69 %) on follow-up imaging, as compared to one (3 %) and four (14 %) of 29 subjects in the control group. Subcortical marrow edema deep to the PHMMR may result from abnormal stresses and thus be a harbinger of meniscal root failure. This hypothesis is supported by resolution of these marrow signal changes after root tear. Following tear, extrusion of the

  13. An extensive posterior approach of the elbow with osteotomy of the medial epicondyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de M.J.; Wagener, M.L.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Eygendaal, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes a posterior approach to the elbow for placement of a total elbow prosthesis. Methods Release of the medial collateral ligament is achieved by performing an osteotomy of the medial epicondyle. This allows anatomic refixation of the origin of the medial collateral liga

  14. An extensive posterior approach of the elbow with osteotomy of the medial epicondyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.J. de; Wagener, M.L.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Eygendaal, D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study describes a posterior approach to the elbow for placement of a total elbow prosthesis. METHODS: Release of the medial collateral ligament is achieved by performing an osteotomy of the medial epicondyle. This allows anatomic refixation of the origin of the medial collateral lig

  15. Dynamic Changes in Acetylcholine Output in the Medial Striatum during Place Reversal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzino, Michael E.; Choi, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The present studies explored the role of the medial striatum in learning when task contingencies change. Experiment 1 examined whether the medial striatum is involved in place reversal learning. Testing occurred in a modified cross-maze across two consecutive sessions. Injections of the local anesthetic, bupivacaine, into the medial striatum, did…

  16. Mental rotation of anthropoid hands: a chronometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Gawryszewski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that mental rotation of objects and human body parts is processed differently in the human brain. But what about body parts belonging to other primates? Does our brain process this information like any other object or does it instead maximize the structural similarities with our homologous body parts? We tried to answer this question by measuring the manual reaction time (MRT of human participants discriminating the handedness of drawings representing the hands of four anthropoid primates (orangutan, chimpanzee, gorilla, and human. Twenty-four right-handed volunteers (13 males and 11 females were instructed to judge the handedness of a hand drawing in palm view by pressing a left/right key. The orientation of hand drawings varied from 0º (fingers upwards to 90º lateral (fingers pointing away from the midline, 180º (fingers downwards and 90º medial (finger towards the midline. The results showed an effect of rotation angle (F(3, 69 = 19.57, P < 0.001, but not of hand identity, on MRTs. Moreover, for all hand drawings, a medial rotation elicited shorter MRTs than a lateral rotation (960 and 1169 ms, respectively, P < 0.05. This result has been previously observed for drawings of the human hand and related to biomechanical constraints of movement performance. Our findings indicate that anthropoid hands are essentially equivalent stimuli for handedness recognition. Since the task involves mentally simulating the posture and rotation of the hands, we wondered if "mirror neurons" could be involved in establishing the motor equivalence between the stimuli and the participants' own hands.

  17. A Bioinspired 10 DOF Wearable Powered Arm Exoskeleton for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Kanti Manna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed exoskeleton device (Exorn has ten degrees of freedom to control joints starting from shoulder griddle to wrist to provide better redundancy, portability, and flexibility to the human arm motion. A 3D conceptual model is being designed to make the system wearable by human arm. All the joints are simple revolute joints with desired motion limit. A Simulink model of the human arm is being developed with proper mass and length to determine proper torque required for actuating those joints. Forward kinematics of the whole system has been formulated for getting desired dexterous workspace. A proper and simple Graphical User Interface (GUI and the required embedded system have been designed for providing physiotherapy lessons to the patients. In the literature review it has been found that researchers have generally ignored the motion of shoulder griddle. Here we have implemented those motions in our design. It has also been found that people have taken elbow pronation and supination motion as a part of shoulder internal and external rotation though both motions are quite different. A predefined resolved motion rate control structure with independent joint control is used so that all movements can be controlled in a predefined way.

  18. Deconstructing Mental Rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Axel

    2014-01-01

    A random walk model of the classical mental rotation task is explored in two experiments. By assuming that a mental rotation is repeated until sufficient evidence for a match/mismatch is obtained, the model accounts for the approximately linearly increasing reaction times (RTs) on positive trials...... alignment take place during fixations at very high speed....

  19. Short-rotation plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip E. Pope; Jeffery O. Dawson

    1989-01-01

    Short-rotation plantations offer several advantages over longer, more traditional rotations. They enhance the natural productivity of better sites and of tree species with rapid juvenile growth. Returns on investment are realized in a shorter period and the risk of loss is reduced compared with long term investments. Production of wood and fiber can be maximized by...

  20. Faraday rotation measure synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brentjens, MA; de Bruyn, AG

    2005-01-01

    We extend the rotation measure work of Burn ( 1966, MNRAS, 133, 67) to the cases of limited sampling of lambda(2) space and non-constant emission spectra. We introduce the rotation measure transfer function (RMTF), which is an excellent predictor of n pi ambiguity problems with the lambda(2) coverag

  1. SMAP Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, David

    2016-01-01

    Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).

  2. Sonographic Visualization of the Rotator Cable in Patients With Symptomatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Correlation With Tear Size, Muscular Fatty Infiltration and Atrophy, and Functional Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Nathalie J; Blain-Paré, Etienne; Tétreault, Patrice; Rouleau, Dominique M; Hagemeister, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of sonographic visualization of the rotator cable in patients with symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears and asymptomatic controls and to correlate rotator cable visualization with tear size, muscular fatty infiltration and atrophy, and the functional outcome in the patients with rotator cuff tears. Fifty-seven patients with rotator cuff tears and 30 asymptomatic volunteers underwent shoulder sonography for prospective assessment of the rotator cable and rotator cuff tear and responded to 2 functional outcome questionnaires (shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [QuickDASH] and Constant). In the patients with rotator cuff tears, appropriate tests were used to correlate rotator cable visualization with the tear size, functional outcome, muscular fatty infiltration, and atrophy. The patients with rotator cuff tears included 25 women and 32 men (mean age,57 years; range, 39-67 years), and the volunteers included 13 women and 17 men (mean age, 56 years; range, 35-64 years). The rotator cable was identified in 77% (23 of 30) of controls and 23% (13 of 57) of patients with rotator cuff tears. In the patients, nonvisualization of the rotator cable correlated with larger tears (P infraspinatus fatty infiltration (P = .065). Nonvisualization of the rotator cable was more prevalent in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears than asymptomatic controls and was associated with a larger tear size and greater supraspinatus fatty infiltration and atrophy. Diligent assessment of the supraspinatus muscle should be done in patients with rotator cuff tears without a visible rotator cable, as the integrity of these anatomic structures may be interdependent.

  3. High precision detector robot arm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  4. High precision detector robot arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  5. A Rotating Quantum Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    De Lorenci, V A

    1996-01-01

    We investigate which mapping we have to use to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a "Lorentz-like" coordinate transformation we obtain that creation-anihilation operators of a massless scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state (a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. After this, introducing an apparatus device coupled linearly with the field we obtain that there is a strong correlation between number of rotating particles (in a given state) obtained via canonical quantization and via response function of the rotating detector. Finally, we analyse polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view.

  6. Uniformly rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we review the recent results on the equilibrium configurations of static and uniformly rotating neutron stars within the Hartle formalism. We start from the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations formulated and extended by Belvedere et al. (2012, 2014). We demonstrate how to conduct numerical integration of these equations for different central densities ${\\it \\rho}_c$ and angular velocities $\\Omega$ and compute the static $M^{stat}$ and rotating $M^{rot}$ masses, polar $R_p$ and equatorial $R_{\\rm eq}$ radii, eccentricity $\\epsilon$, moment of inertia $I$, angular momentum $J$, as well as the quadrupole moment $Q$ of the rotating configurations. In order to fulfill the stability criteria of rotating neutron stars we take into considerations the Keplerian mass-shedding limit and the axisymmetric secular instability. Furthermore, we construct the novel mass-radius relations, calculate the maximum mass and minimum rotation periods (maximum frequencies) of neutron stars. Eventually, we compare a...

  7. Open release for post-traumatic stiff elbow with combined medial-lateral approaches%内外侧联合入路治疗创伤性肘关节僵硬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李连欣; 陶扶林; 周东生; 郝振海; 王永会; 徐鹏

    2016-01-01

    ,and hinged external fixator should be added.Total of 25 cases in this study used hinged external fixator.At forearm neutral position,the external fixator is placed lateral to humerus and posterior to ulna.The rotational center of the elbow was determined by intraoperative C-arm X-ray, then vertically penetrates the positioning guide pin of the external fixator into the rotational center as the rotational axis,pierce at slight proximal end of the rotational center so that up-shifting of the center with release of stiff elbow is taken into consideration,place the external fixator at the rotational axis,nail 2 bracket screws each at the humeral and ulnar side,usually nail the distal screw followed by the proximal screw,keep the screws at the same plane as and parallel to the rotational axis,tighten the retaining clips,examine and ensure good flexion and extension activities of the elbow,and lastly remove the positioning guide pin at the rotational axis.Postoperative treatment:request the patient to move the elbow actively at the 2nd day postoperatively,1-2 times elbow flexion and extension per day,move the elbow at the maximal range that could be obtained during the surgery,gradually increase frequency of exercise according to tolerance of the patients.Patients who did not receive external fixator may perform exercise with assistance of CPM,2 times per day at morning and evening,for duration of 0.5-1 h each,gradually increase exercise time.Patients who received hinged external fixator can alternately fix the elbow at maximal flexion and extension at daytime at an 2 h interval,set to functional position at evening time,remove the external fixator after 8-12 weeks,taking 25 mg indomethacin,3 times a day for 4-6 weeks after the surgery.Evaluation criteria:measure elbow flexion and extension and forearm rotation of the patients before and after the surgery to assess elbow function of the patients.Using Mayo elbow performance score to assess four aspects of the efficacy including

  8. Dopaminergic Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Fear Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Babaei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe purpose of the present study was to determine the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC dopaminergic system in fear conditioning response considering individual differences. Animals were initially counterbalanced and classified based on open field test, and then were given a single infusion of the dopamine agonist, amphetamine (AMPH and antagonist, clozapine (CLZ into the medial prefrontal cortex. Rats received tone-shock pairing in a classical fear conditioning test and then exposed to the tone alone. Freezing responses were measured as conditioned fear index. The results showed that both AMPH and CLZ infusion in mPFC reduced the expression of conditioned fear. This finding indicates that elevation or reduction in the dopaminergic activity is associated with the decrease of fear responses, despite preexisting individual-typological differences.

  9. Risk Factors of Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome(MTSS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sae Yong Lee

    2009-01-01

    @@ Background According to Mubarak[1,2],who first coined the term medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS)in 1982,the definition of MTSS is " a symptom complex in athletes who experience exercise-induced pain along thedistalposteromedialaspectofthetibia."Previous studies have shown that MTSS accounts for 6 to 15 percent of running related injuries [3-9] and has an incidence among certain populations (ie,military recruits) of up to 35 percent [10].The etiology of MTSS is not well known,but it is commonly believed that the cause is inflammation and possibly an avulsion of the origins of the posterior tibialis and/or the soleus from the periosteum of the posteromedial tibia [10].Traction at the periosteal interface is thought to lead to inflammation and pain at the periosteal-fascial junction.The location of the pain is usually localized over the posterior medial edge of the distal third of the tibia.

  10. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucharev, Vasily; Munneke, Moniek A M; Smidts, Ale; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-08-17

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex by theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces conformity, as indicated by reduced conformal adjustments in line with group opinion. Both the extent and probability of conformal behavioral adjustments decreased significantly relative to a sham and a control stimulation over another brain area. The posterior part of the medial frontal cortex has previously been implicated in behavioral and attitudinal adjustments. Here, we provide the first interventional evidence of its critical role in social influence on human behavior.

  11. Medial shoe-ground pressure and specific running injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brund, René Korsgaard; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Rasmus O.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome injuries (APM-injuries) account for approximately 25% of the total number of running injuries amongst recreational runners. Reports on the association between static foot pronation and APM-injuries...... are contradictory. Possibly, dynamic measures of pronation may display a stronger relationship with the risk of APM-injuries. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if running distance until the first APM-injury was dependent on the foot balance during stance phase in recreational male...... foot balance groups. Results Compared with the LP-group (n = 59), the proportion of APM-injuries was greater in the MP-group (n = 99) after 1500 km of running, resulting in a cumulative risk difference of 16%-points (95% CI = 3%-point; 28%-point, p = 0.011). Conclusions Runners displaying a more medial...

  12. Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baer MR

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael R. Baer, Jeffrey A. Macalena Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Patellofemoral instability is a painful and often recurring disorder with many negative long-term consequences. After a period of failed nonoperative management, surgical intervention has been used to reduce the incidence of patellar subluxation and dislocations. Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL reconstruction successfully addresses patellofemoral instability by restoring the deficient primary medial patellar soft tissue restraint. When planning MPFL reconstruction for instability, it is imperative to consider the patient’s unique anatomy including the tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove (TT–TG distance, trochlear dysplasia, and patella alta. Additionally, it is important to individualize surgical treatment in the skeletally immature, hypermobile, and athletic populations. Keywords: MPFL, indications, considerations, contraindications

  13. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David M; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2014-02-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake.

  14. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  15. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE RUPTURED MEDIAL HEAD OF GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Lukac

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Tennis leg, a common injury of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle in the muscle-tendon junction, is usually reported in men during recreational sports. Sudden pain is the main symptom accompanied by the feeling of rupture in the calf. Clinical examination followed by ultrasound is the standard diagnostic procedure. Objective: The main objectives of this study are to compare clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cases of tennis leg, evaluate the location and type of lesion in the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, and evaluate the edema volume and the presence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Second, the healing process was monitored with ultrasound to distinguish the level of recovery and to record the presence of chronic sequelae. Methods: Eighty-one subjects with clinical symptoms of rupture of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle participated in the study. A linear probe (7-12 MHz was used for ultrasonographic (US and a Doppler was used to verify the presence of DVT. Results: In 78 of 81 subjects examined, we found obvious US changes (96.3% and three of them had no positive findings. In 67 of them, we diagnosed rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Most of them had partial rupture (73.13% and the remaining had total rupture (26.87%. The edema (30.84% was found in the space between the aponeurosis of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. DVT with the clinical signs of tennis leg was observed in 5 of 81 patients (6.17%. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ultrasound is very important for early diagnosis of muscle-tendon injuries in the leg. In addition, monitoring the healing process and assessing the chosen treatment showed a high efficiency. Ultrasonography is an effective method to identify and differentiate the sequelae of the injured muscles and vascular complications.

  16. Aetiology, imaging and treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The work contained is this thesis discusses aetiology, imaging and treatment of a common leg injury: medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Although a common injury, the number of scientific articles on this topic is relatively low as is explained in chapter 1. This chapter also highlights that the most probable cause of MTSS is bone overload and not traction induced periostitis. In chapter 2 a review of the literature on MTSS is provided until 2009. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss different common a...

  17. Acutely calcified hematoma mimicking a displaced medial epicondyle fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Addie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an interesting and unusual case of an acutely calcified pin-site infection hematoma mimicking a displaced cartilaginous medial epicondyle, in a child with a Gartland type III fracture. The treatment of such pathology could be confusing and may interfere with the correct clinical decision-making process. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of such a case.

  18. Redundancy resolution of a human arm for controlling a seven DOF wearable robotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Al-Refai, Aimen; Brand, Moshe; Rosen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The human arm including the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints and exclusion scapular motion has 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) while positioning of the wrist in space and orientating the palm is a task that requires 6 DOF. As such it includes one more DOF than is needed to complete the task. Given the redundant nature of the arm, multiple arm configurations can be used to complete a task, which is expressed mathematically by none unique solution for the inverse kinematics. Despite this mathematical difficulty, the motor control provides a unique solution for the arm redundancy as the arm is moved in space. Resolving this redundancy is becoming critical as the human interacts with a wearable robotic system(exoskeleton) which includes the same redundancy as the human arm. Therefore, the inverse kinematics solution resolving the redundancy of these two coupled systems must be identical in order to guarantee a seamless integration. The redundancy of the arm can be formulated kinematically by defining the swivel angle - the rotation angle of the plane including the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis connecting the shoulder and wrist joints which are fixed in space. Analyzing reaching tasks recorded with a motion capture lab indicates that the swivel angle is selected such that when the elbow joint is flexed, the palm points the head. Based on these experimental results, selecting the point around the center of the head as a stationary target allows to calculate the swivel angle and in that way to resolve the human arm redundancy. Experimental results indicated that by using the proposed redundancy resolution criteria the error between the predicted swivel angle and the actual swivel angle adopted by the motor control system is less then 5 Deg. This criterion or a synthesis of several additional criteria may improve the synergistic relationships between an operator and a wearable robotic system.

  19. Modeling brain injury response for rotational velocities of varying directions and magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ashley A; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2012-09-01

    An estimated 1.7 million people in the United States sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually. To investigate the effects of rotational motions on TBI risk and location, this study modeled rotational velocities of five magnitudes and 26 directions of rotation using the Simulated Injury Monitor finite element brain model. The volume fraction of the total brain exceeding a predetermined strain threshold, the Cumulative Strain Damage Measure (CSDM), was investigated to evaluate global model response. To evaluate regional response, this metric was computed relative to individual brain structures and termed the Structure Cumulative Strain Damage Measure (SCSDM). CSDM increased as input magnitude increased and varied with the direction of rotation. CSDM was 0.55-1.7 times larger in simulations with transverse plane rotation compared to those without transverse plane rotation. The largest SCSDM in the cerebrum and brainstem occurred with rotations in the transverse and sagittal planes, respectively. Velocities causing medial rotation of the cerebellum resulted in the largest SCSDM in this structure. For velocities of the same magnitude, injury risk calculated from CSDM varied from 0 to 97% with variations in the direction of rotation. These findings demonstrate injury risk, as estimated by CSDM and SCSDM, is affected by the direction of rotation and input magnitude, and these may be important considerations for injury prediction.

  20. Bilateral Medial Medullary Stroke: A Challenge in Early Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Torabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral medial medullary stroke is a very rare type of stroke, with catastrophic consequences. Early diagnosis is crucial. Here, I present a young patient with acute vertigo, progressive generalized weakness, dysarthria, and respiratory failure, who initially was misdiagnosed with acute vestibular syndrome. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that was done in the acute phase was read as normal. Other possibilities were excluded by lumbar puncture and MRI of cervical spine. MR of C-spine showed lesion at medial medulla; therefore a second MRI of brain was requested, showed characteristic “heart appearance” shape at diffusion weighted (DWI, and confirmed bilateral medial medullary stroke. Retrospectively, a vague-defined hyperintense linear DWI signal at midline was noted in the first brain MRI. Because of the symmetric and midline pattern of this abnormal signal and similarity to an artifact, some radiologists or neurologists may miss this type of stroke. Radiologists and neurologists must recognize clinical and MRI findings of this rare type of stroke, which early treatment could make a difference in patient outcome. The abnormal DWI signal in early stages of this type of stroke may not be a typical “heart appearance” shape, and other variants such as small dot or linear DWI signal at midline must be recognized as early signs of stroke. Also, MRI of cervical spine may be helpful if there is attention to brainstem as well.

  1. Medial blepharosynechioplasty: a new surgical concept for severe dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsugihisa Sasaki,1,2 Taeko Ota,3 Youko Ookura,4 Kazuhisa Sugiyama11Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Tonami General Hospital, Tonami-city, Toyama; 4Department of Ophthamology, Saiseikai Kanazawa Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: The purpose of this work was to report on the performance of medial blepharosynechioplasty (MBSP, a newly devised technique for treating severe dry eye.Methods: In this retrospective, nonrandomized clinical trial, three cases with severe dry eye (Sjögren’s syndrome associated with repeated punctal plug loss were treated using MBSP to create a synechia between the upper and lower lid medial borders of the puncta to suppress the lacrimal pump.Results: Postoperative follow-up showed improvement in the corneal condition in all three cases that persisted for 12–35 months. None of the patients had visual impairment.Conclusion: MBSP is a promising treatment for severe dry eye and merits further study.Keywords: dry eye, lacrimal pump suppression, medial blepharosynechioplasty

  2. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current state-of-the-art sampling-based techniques as they typically focus on simply finding any path. Despite this difficulty, sampling-based techniques have shown great success in planning for a wide range of applications. Among such planners, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) search the planning space by biasing exploration toward unexplored regions. This paper introduces a novel RRT variant, Medial Axis RRT (MARRT), which biases tree exploration to the medial axis of free space by pushing all configurations from expansion steps towards the medial axis. We prove that this biasing increases the tree\\'s clearance from obstacles. Improving obstacle clearance is useful where path safety is important, e.g., path planning for robots performing tasks in close proximity to the elderly. Finally, we experimentally analyze MARRT, emphasizing its ability to effectively map difficult passages while increasing obstacle clearance, and compare it to contemporary RRT techniques.

  3. Dopamine in the medial amygdala network mediates human bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Rudy, Tali; Salcedo, Stephanie; Feldman, Ruth; Hooker, Jacob M.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Catana, Ciprian; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers’ dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the “medial amygdala network”) that supports social functioning. We also measured the mothers’ behavioral synchrony with their infants and plasma oxytocin. The results of this study suggest that synchronous maternal behavior is associated with increased dopamine responses to the mother’s infant and stronger intrinsic connectivity within the medial amygdala network. Moreover, stronger network connectivity is associated with increased dopamine responses within the network and decreased plasma oxytocin. Together, these data indicate that dopamine is involved in human bonding. Compared with other mammals, humans have an unusually complex social life. The complexity of human bonding cannot be fully captured in nonhuman animal models, particularly in pathological bonding, such as that in autistic spectrum disorder or postpartum depression. Thus, investigations of the neurochemistry of social bonding in humans, for which this study provides initial evidence, are warranted. PMID:28193868

  4. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, Ismail; El-Anwar, Mohammad; Amer, Hazem; Quriba, Amal

    2015-07-01

    Introduction Although medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States) has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol. Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology. Methods Eleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies that failed compensation were operated by type 1 thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex. Pre- and postoperative (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months) voice assessment was done and statistical analysis was performed on the results. Results In all postoperative assessments, there was significant improvement in the grade of dysphonia (p Gore-Tex medialization provides reliable results for both subjective and objective voice parameters. It leads to a satisfactory restoration of voice whatever the etiology of glottic incompetence is. This technique is relatively easy and does not lead to major complications. Further studies with larger number of patients and more extended periods of follow-up are still required to assess the long-term results of the technique regarding voice quality and implant extrusion.

  5. Medial Epicondyle Fractures in the Pediatric Overhead Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Aristides I; Steere, Joshua T; Lawrence, J Todd R

    2016-06-01

    The medial epicondyle serves as the proximal attachment of the medial ulnar collateral ligament and the origin of the flexor pronator musculature and as such it is responsible for resisting the main static and dynamic restraints to valgus force at the elbow. Fractures through the physis in the developing elbow are common and treatment remains controversial. Biomechanical modeling predicts that anterior should be the direction of greatest displacement. Anatomic considerations predict that anterior displacement should have the greatest effect on elbow stability and range of motion making the ulnar collateral ligament too loose in flexion and too tight in extension and potentially leading to valgus laxity in flexion and a block to full extension. In the elite overhead athlete, where elbow stability is critical both for sports performance and the long-term health of the elbow, assessment of anterior displacement is thus theoretically an important consideration. Standard radiographic views cannot adequately assess anterior displacement. Specialized radiographs and 3-dimensional modalities such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can adequately assess anterior displacement and in the overhead athlete can sometimes aid in the decision-making process. Here, we present a review of the current literature and the rationale for a treatment algorithm for medial epicondyle fractures in the skeletally immature overhead athlete.

  6. The Fate of Old Memories after Medial Temporal Lobe Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Peter J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2008-01-01

    Damage to the hippocampal region and related medial temporal lobe structures (perirhinal, entorhinal, and parahippocampal cortices) impairs new learning (anterograde amnesia) as well as memory for information that was acquired before the damage occurred (retrograde amnesia). We assessed retrograde amnesia with the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) and with a news events test in six patients with damage limited primarily to the hippocampal region (H group) and two patients with large medial temporal lobe lesions (MTL group). On the news event test, the H group exhibited temporally limited retrograde amnesia covering ∼5 years. On the same test, the MTL group exhibited an extensive retrograde amnesia covering decades. Nevertheless, performance was relatively spared for very remote time periods. On the AMI, all patients had intact remote autobiographical memory. Because our patients with hippocampal lesions, as well as our patients with large MTL lesions, performed normally on the AMI, patients who perform poorly on the same test presumably have damage beyond the hippocampus and related structures in the medial temporal lobe. The findings emphasize the difference in the extent of retrograde amnesia associated with hippocampal lesions and large MTL lesions. PMID:17182781

  7. An Isolated Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction with Patellar Tendon Autograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Witoński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of the medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with a medial strip of patellar tendon autograft after a minimum 2-year followup. Ten patients (10 knees were operated on by one surgeon, according to the modified technique, described by Camanho, without any bone plug at free graft end. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 years (ranging from 18 to 42 years. The mean follow-up period was 3 years and 7 months. All patients were reviewed prospectively. At the last follow-up visit, all the patients demonstrated a significant improvement in terms of patellofemoral joint stability, all aspects of the KOOS questionnaire, and Kujala et al.’s score (59.7 points preoperatively and 84.4 points at the last followup. No patient revealed recurrent dislocation. The SF-36 score revealed a significant improvement in bodily pain, general health, physical role functioning, social role functioning, and physical functioning domains. The described MPFL reconstruction with the use of the medial 1/3rd of patella tendon is an effective procedure that gives satisfactorily patellofemoral joint functions, improves the quality of life, and provides much pain relief. It is relatively simple, surgically not extensive, and economically cost-effective procedure.

  8. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Blanchard, Jane; Morin, Lawrence P.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) receives input from all vestibular endorgans and provides extensive projections to the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated projections from the MVe to the circadian rhythm system. In addition, there are known projections from the MVe to regions considered to be involved in sleep and arousal. In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. The results demonstrate MVe connections with regions mediating visuomotor and postural control, as previously observed in other mammals. The data also identify extensive projections from the MVe to regions mediating arousal and sleep-related functions, most of which receive immunohistochemically identified projections from the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. These include the locus coeruleus, dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and lateral preoptic area. The MVe itself receives a projection from hypocretin cells. CTB tracing demonstrated reciprocal connections between the MVe and most brain areas receiving MVe efferents. Virus tracing confirmed and extended the MVe afferent connections identified with CTB and additionally demonstrated transneuronal connectivity with the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the medial habenular nucleus. These anatomical data indicate that the vestibular system has access to a broad array of neural functions not typically associated with visuomotor, balance, or equilibrium, and that the MVe is likely to receive information from many of the same regions to which it projects.

  10. Bipartite Medial Cuneiform: Case Report and Retrospective Review of 1000 Magnetic Resonance (MR Imaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine H. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To present a unique case report of a Lisfranc fracture in a patient with a bipartite medial cuneiform and to evaluate the prevalence of the bipartite medial cuneiform in a retrospective review of 1000 magnetic resonance (MR imaging studies of the foot. Materials and Methods. Case report followed by a retrospective review of 1000 MR imaging studies of the foot for the presence or absence of a bipartite medial cuneiform. Results. The incidence of the bipartite medial cuneiform is 0.1%. Conclusion. A bipartite medial cuneiform is a rare finding but one with both clinical and surgical implications.

  11. Dynamic Instability of Rapidly Rotating Protostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, B. K.; Durisen, R. H.; Johnson, M. S.; Davis, G. A.

    1994-12-01

    Modern studies of collapse and fragmentation of protostellar clouds suggest a wide variety of outcomes, depending on the assumed initial conditions. Individual equilibrium objects which result from collapse are likely to be in rapid rotation and can have a wide range of structures. We have undertaken a survey of parameter space in order to examine the role of dynamic instabilities in the subsequent evolution of these objects. For the purposes of conducting a systematic study, we so far have considered only the n = 3/2 polytropic equilibrium states that might form from the collapse of uniformly rotating spherical clouds. By varying the central concentration of the assumed initial cloud, we obtain equilibrium states distinguished primarily by their different specific angular momentum distributions. These equilibrium states span the range between starlike objects with angular momentum distributions analogous to the Maclaurin spheroids and objects more accurately described as massive Keplerian disks around stars. Using a new SCF code to generate the n = 3/2 axisymmetric equilibrium states and an improved 3D hydrodynamics code, we have investigated the the onset and nature of global dynamic instabilities in these objects. The starlike objects are unstable to barlike instabilities at T/|W| gtorder 0.27, where T/|W| is the ratio of total rotational kinetic energy to gravitational potential energy. These instabilities are vigorous and lead to violent ejection of mass and angular momentum. As the angular momentum distribution shifts to the other extreme, one- and two-armed spiral instabilities begin to dominate at considerably lower T/|W|. These instabilities appear to be driven by the SLING and swing mechanisms. In extremely flattened disks, one-armed spirals dominate all other disturbances but eventually saturate at nonlinear amplitude without producing fragmentation. We conclude that the nature of the global instabilities encountered during the process of star formation

  12. Arms Race in Maghreb Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL AMOURI ALLAL

    2016-01-01

    Maghreb countries competitive altitude towards each other’ s has reached a higher level by entering an arms race.Morocco and Al ̄geria have dominated more than 50 percent of the Africa’ s imported weapons,mainly because of inherited cold war mentality of competi ̄tion and hostility. Maghreb countries competition has drugged the re ̄gion into a chaos that threatens regional stability obviously which af ̄fect the domestic political stability,since military spending weakens the financial capacity of states.

  13. Dual arm master controller development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  15. Chaotic rotation of Hyperion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzel, R. P.; Green, J. R.; Opal, C. B.

    1986-01-01

    Thomas et al. (1984) analyzed 14 Voyager 2 images of Saturn's satellite Hyperion and interpreted them to be consistent with a coherent (nonchaotic) rotation period of 13.1 days. This interpretation was criticized by Peale and Wisdom (1984), who argued that the low sampling frequency of Voyager data does not allow chaotic or nonchaotic rotation to be distinguished. New observations obtained with a higher sampling frequency are reported here which conclusively show that the 13.1 day period found by Thomas et al. was not due to coherent rotation.

  16. A rotating quantum vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenci, V.A. de; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-11-01

    It was investigated which mapping has to be used to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a non-Galilean coordinate transformation, the creation-annihilation operators of a massive scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state(a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. Polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view were analysed. 65 refs.

  17. Arthroscopic trans-portal deep medial collateral ligament pie-crusting release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoun, Ehud; Debbi, Ronen; Lubovsky, Omri; Weiler, Andreas; Debbi, Eytan; Rath, Ehud

    2013-02-01

    Arthroscopic treatments of meniscal injuries of the knee are among the most common orthopaedic procedures performed. Adequate visualization of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus might be challenging, especially in patients with tight medial compartments. In these cases instrument manipulation in an attempt to reach the posterior horn of the meniscus can cause an iatrogenic chondral injury because of the narrow medial joint space. A transcutaneous medial collateral ligament (MCL) pie-crusting release facilitates expansion of the medial joint space in a case of a tight medial compartment. Nevertheless, it might cause injury to the superficial MCL, infection, and pain and injury to the saphenous nerve because of multiple needle punctures of the skin. We describe an inside-out, arthroscopic deep MCL pie-crusting release, which allows access to the medial meniscus through the anterior approach to provide good visualization of the footprint and sufficient working space.

  18. Rotating Space Debris Tracking Based on The Orbit-Attitude Coordinated Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuquan; Zhu, Lingchao

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the rotating space debris tracking problem. Active capturing and removal of space debris are challenging because the space debris is noncoorperating. The scenario considered is that a rotating space debris is the target to be captured by a spacecraft with a robotic arm. One rough approach is to capture the space debris with a strong arm then detumble the rotation of the whole system using the attitude control system on board. In this way the arm and the spacecraft have to be strong enough to withstand the impact caused by the relative orbital and attitude motions. Another way is to at first track the motion of the characterized surface, which should be easier to capture, of the debris. Then the robotic arm is engaged to capture the debris. In this way, the impact applied on the robotic arm is greatly reduced such that the possibility of causing new debris is also reduced. The orbit-attitude coordinated controller is developed to track the motion of the space debris. The controller is assymptotically stable without considering the boundness of the control efforts. The stability in the situation of bounded control inputs is analyzed. Analytical criterion for a successful tracking is obtained in the situation that rotational motion of the space debris is percession.

  19. Multimodal intervention in older adults improves resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Niu, Yanan; Zheng, Zhiwei; Huang, Xin; Wang, Baoxi; Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe are particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The disconnection between them is suggested to be an important cause of cognitive decline in normal aging. Here, using multimodal intervention training, we investigated the functional plasticity in resting-state connectivity of these two regions in older adults. The multimodal intervention, comprised of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, was conducted to explore the regional connectivity changes in the default-mode network, as well as changes in prefrontal-based voxel-wise connectivity in the whole brain. Results showed that the intervention selectively affected resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Moreover, the strength of resting-state functional connectivity between these regions correlated with individual cognitive performance. Our results suggest that multimodal intervention could postpone the effects of aging and improve the function of the regions that are most heavily influenced by aging, as well as play an important role in preserving the brain and cognition during old age.

  20. Multimodal intervention in older adults improves resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe are particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The disconnection between them is suggested to be an important cause of cognitive decline in normal aging. Here, using multimodal intervention training, we investigated the functional plasticity in resting-state connectivity of these two regions in older adults. The multimodal intervention, comprised of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, was conducted to explore the regional connectivity changes in the default-mode network, as well as changes in prefrontal-based voxel-wise connectivity in the whole brain. Results showed that the intervention selectively affected resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Moreover, the strength of resting-state functional connectivity between these regions correlated with individual cognitive performance. Our results suggest that multimodal intervention could postpone the effects of aging and improve the function of the regions that are most heavily influenced by aging, as well as play an important role in preserving the brain and cognition during old age.Clinical Trial Registration: This trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR (http://www.chictr.org: ChiCTR-PNRC-13003813.

  1. Estimation of the Rotational Terms of the Dynamic Response Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montalvão

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of a structure can be described by both its translational and rotational receptances. The latter ones are frequently not considered because of the difficulties in applying a pure moment excitation or in measuring rotations. However, in general, this implies a reduction up to 75% of the complete model. On the other hand, if a modification includes a rotational inertia, the rotational receptances of the unmodified system are needed. In one method, more commonly found in the literature, a so called T-block is attached to the structure. Then, a force, applied to an arm of the T-block, generates a moment together with a force at the connection point. The T-block also allows for angular displacement measurements. Nevertheless, the results are often not quite satisfactory. In this work, an alternative method based upon coupling techniques is developed, in which rotational receptances are estimated without the need of applying a moment excitation. This is accomplished by introducing a rotational inertia modification when rotating the T-block. The force is then applied in its centroid. Several numerical and experimental examples are discussed so that the methodology can be clearly described. The advantages and limitations are identified within the practical application of the method.

  2. Controlled Rotation and Manipulation of Individual Molecular Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersell, Heath; Perera, U. G. E.; Ample, F.; Zhang, Y.; Vives, G.; Echeverria, J.; Grisolia, M.; Rapenne, G.; Joachim, C.; Hla, S.-W.

    2015-03-01

    The design of artificial molecular machines often takes inspiration from macroscopic machines, but the parallels between the two are frequently only superficial because many molecular machines are governed by quantum processes. Previously, chemically and light driven rotary molecular motors have been developed. For electrically driven motors, tunneling electrons from the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) have been used to drive rotation in a simple rotor into a single direction and to move a wheeled molecule across a surface. Here, we show that a single standalone molecular motor adsorbed on a gold surface can be made to rotate in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction [1] by selective inelastic electron tunneling through different sub-units of the motor. Our motor is composed of a tripodal stator for vertical positioning, a five-arm rotator for controlled rotations, and a Ru atomic ball bearing connecting the static and rotational parts. The directional rotation originates from saw-tooth-like rotational potentials, which are determined by the internal molecular structure and are independent of the surface adsorption site. This project is supported by the US DOE, BES grant: DE-FG02-02ER46012.

  3. Quantifying shoulder rotation weakness in patients with shoulder impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Timothy F; Nahow, Rachael C; Nicholas, Stephen J; McHugh, Malachy P

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength deficits could be detected in individuals with and without shoulder impingement, all of whom had normal shoulder strength bilaterally according to grading of manual muscle testing. Strength of the internal rotators and external rotators was tested isokinetically at 60 degrees /s and 180 degrees /s, as well as manually with a handheld dynamometer (HHD) in 17 patients and 22 control subjects. Testing was performed with the shoulder positioned in the scapular plane and in 90 degrees of shoulder abduction with 90 degrees of elbow flexion (90-90). The peak torque was determined for each movement. The strength deficit between the involved and uninvolved arms (patients) and the dominant and nondominant arms (control subjects) was calculated for each subject. Comparisons were made for the scapular-plane and 90-90 positions between isokinetic and HHD testing. Despite a normal muscle grade, patients had marked weakness (28% deficit, P weakness was not evident with isokinetic testing at the 90-90 position (60 degrees /s and 180 degrees /s, 0% deficit, P = .99). In control subjects, greater internal rotator strength in the dominant compared with the nondominant arm was evident with the HHD at the 90-90 position (11%, P muscle testing can quantify shoulder strength deficits that may not be apparent with isokinetic testing. By using an HHD during shoulder testing, clinicians can identify weakness that may have been presumed normal.

  4. Rotator Cuff Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...

  5. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng-Min; WU Li-Li; LU Hang-Jun; LI Qiao-Wen; YE Gao-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω the fractal dimension decreases with increasing ω, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  6. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUFeng-Min; WULi-Li; LUHang-Jun; LIQiao-Wen; YEGao-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω; thefractal dimension decreases with increasing ω;, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  7. Solar rotation gravitational moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ajabshirizadeh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available   Gravitational multipole moments of the Sun are still poorly known. Theoretically, the difficulty is mainly due to the differential rotation for which the velocity rate varies both on the surface and with the depth. From an observational point of view, the multipole moments cannot be directly measured. However, recent progresses have been made proving the existence of a strong radial differential rotation in a thin layer near the solar surface (the leptocline. Applying the theory of rotating stars, we will first compute values of J2 and J4 taking into account the radial gradient of rotation, then we will compare these values with the existing ones, giving a more complete review. We will explain some astrophysical outcomes, mainly on the relativistic Post Newtonian parameters. Finally we will conclude by indicating how space experiments (balloon SDS flights, Golf NG, Beppi-Colombo, Gaia... will be essential to unambiguously determine these parameters.

  8. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Alexander Lee

    2010-08-01

    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  9. Rotational spectrum of phenylglycinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Alcides; Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.

    2014-11-01

    Solid samples of phenylglycinol were vaporized by laser ablation and investigated through rotational spectroscopy in a supersonic expansion using two different techniques: chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and narrow band molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. One conformer, bearing an O-H···N and an N-H···π intramolecular hydrogen bonds, could be successfully identified by comparison of the experimental rotational and 14N nuclear quadruple coupling constants with those predicted theoretically.

  10. Earth rotation and geodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusz Janusz; Brzezinski Aleksander; Kosek Wieslaw; Nastula Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals wit...

  11. Latent herpesvirus infection arms NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas W; Keppel, Catherine R; Schneider, Stephanie E; Reese, Tiffany A; Coder, James; Payton, Jacqueline E; Ley, Timothy J; Virgin, Herbert W; Fehniger, Todd A

    2010-06-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells were identified by their ability to kill target cells without previous sensitization. However, without an antecedent "arming" event, NK cells can recognize, but are not equipped to kill, target cells. How NK cells become armed in vivo in healthy hosts is unclear. Because latent herpesviruses are highly prevalent and alter multiple aspects of host immunity, we hypothesized that latent herpesvirus infection would arm NK cells. Here we show that NK cells from mice latently infected with Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) were armed as evidenced by increased granzyme B protein expression, cytotoxicity, and interferon-gamma production. NK-cell arming occurred rapidly in the latently infected host and did not require acute viral infection. Furthermore, NK cells armed by latent infection protected the host against a lethal lymphoma challenge. Thus, the immune environment created by latent herpesvirus infection provides a mechanism whereby host NK-cell function is enhanced in vivo.

  12. 3D finite element models of shoulder muscles for computing lines of actions and moment arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Joshua D; Blemker, Silvia S; Delp, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    Accurate representation of musculoskeletal geometry is needed to characterise the function of shoulder muscles. Previous models of shoulder muscles have represented muscle geometry as a collection of line segments, making it difficult to account for the large attachment areas, muscle-muscle interactions and complex muscle fibre trajectories typical of shoulder muscles. To better represent shoulder muscle geometry, we developed 3D finite element models of the deltoid and rotator cuff muscles and used the models to examine muscle function. Muscle fibre paths within the muscles were approximated, and moment arms were calculated for two motions: thoracohumeral abduction and internal/external rotation. We found that muscle fibre moment arms varied substantially across each muscle. For example, supraspinatus is considered a weak external rotator, but the 3D model of supraspinatus showed that the anterior fibres provide substantial internal rotation while the posterior fibres act as external rotators. Including the effects of large attachment regions and 3D mechanical interactions of muscle fibres constrains muscle motion, generates more realistic muscle paths and allows deeper analysis of shoulder muscle function.

  13. The role of shoulder maximum external rotation during throwing for elbow injury prevention in baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Koji; Urabe, Yukio; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yokoe, Kiyoshi; Koshida, Sentaro; Kawamura, Morio; Ida, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether the passive range of shoulder external rotation (ER), the maximum shoulder external rotation angle (MER) during throwing, and the ratio of MER to ER are related to the incidence of the elbow injury. A mixed design with one between-factor (a history of the elbow injury) and two within-factors (ER and MER) was used to analyze the difference between baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain. Twenty high school baseball players who had experienced the medial elbow pain within the previous month but who were not experiencing the pain on the day of the experiment were recruited (elbow-injured group). Another twenty baseball players who had never experienced the medial elbow pain were also used for testing (control group). MER during throwing, ER, and the ratio of MER to ER were obtained in both of the group. A Mann-Whitney test was used for the group comparison (p baseball players. Key pointsIt is accepted that the greatest elbow valgus stress appears at the position of shoulder maximum external rotation (MER) in the acceleration phase of the throwing movement. As a consequence, shoulders with restricted range of motion of external rotation (ER) compensate with a valgus stress on their elbow joints.In this study, we evaluated the relation between MER and ER of shoulder in players with/without elbow injuries.The result of this study demonstrated that the elbow injured group showed significantly greater MER/ER relation than the control group.The current finding suggests that great MER combined with the ROM restriction may be one of the risk factors to cause medial elbow pain in baseball players.

  14. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  15. Passive Muscle-Tendon Unit Gearing is Joint Dependent in Human Medial Gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F Hodson-Tole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscles change length and develop force both passively and actively. Gearing allows muscle fibre length changes to be uncoupled from those of the whole muscle-tendon unit. During active contractions this process allows muscles to operate at mechanically favorable conditions for power or economical force production. Here we ask whether gearing is constant in passive muscle; determining the relationship between fascicle and muscle-tendon unit length change in the bi-articular medial gastrocnemius and investigating the influence of whether motion occurs at the knee or ankle joint. Specifically, the same muscle-tendon unit length changes were elicited by rotating either the ankle or knee joint whilst simultaneously measuring fascicle lengths in proximal and distal muscle regions using B-mode ultrasound. In both the proximal and distal muscle region, passive gearing values differed depending on whether ankle or knee motion occurred. Fascicle length changes were greater with ankle motion, likely reflecting anatomical differences in proximal and distal passive tendinous tissues, as well as shape changes of the adjacent mono-articular soleus. This suggests that there is joint-dependent dissociation between the mechanical behaviour of muscle fibres and the muscle-tendon unit during passive joint motions that may be important to consider when developing accurate models of bi-articular muscles.

  16. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  19. The Relation of Hand and Arm Configuration Variances while Tracking Geometric Figures in Parkinson's Disease: Aspects for Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keresztenyi, Zoltan; Cesari, Paola; Fazekas, Gabor; Laczko, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Variances of drawing arm movements between patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls were compared. The aim was to determine whether differences in joint synergies or individual joint rotations affect the endpoint (hand position) variance. Joint and endpoint coordinates were measured while participants performed drawing tasks.…

  20. Fracture of an unossified humeral medial epicondyle: use of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Katsuhisa; Miyamoto, Nao [Nishinomiya Municipal Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Fracture of the humeral medial epicondyle is a relatively common injury in children. Surgery is a good option for treatment, but correct diagnosis is important. Most fractures occur after the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. If a fracture occurs before the ossification of the medial epicondyle, it is undetectable by radiographs. Here we report a case of an unossified medial epicondyle fracture of the humerus. A 9-year-old boy had persistent pain in the medial side of the right elbow after a fall. Despite his pain, he could move his injured elbow with a range from 60 to 90 . Radiographs and computed tomography showed neither fracture nor dislocation in the injured elbow, and soft tissue swelling was the only finding. Neither the trochlea nor the medial epicondyle was ossified. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the medial epicondyle was separated from the medial metaphysis and displaced. This clear finding led us to surgical fixation. Under general anesthesia, valgus stress showed gross instability of the injured elbow. Two years after the operation, he had no complaints and could play sports with the same range of motion as the left elbow. It is important to keep in mind that medial epicondylar fractures may be hidden in a normal radiograph before the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. (orig.)

  1. Medial patellar ossification after patellar instability: a radiographic finding indicative of prior patella subluxation/dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerabek, Seth A. [Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program, Boston, MA (United States); Asnis, Peter D.; Poon, Steven K.; Gill, Thomas J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A.; Ouellette, Hugue A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    To describe the correlation between medial patellar ossification and prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. A retrospective billing database search identified 544 patients who had been diagnosed with patellar instability over a 13-year period. One hundred twenty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. After review by a staff orthopedic surgeon and two musculoskeletal radiologists, 28 patients were found to have medial patellar ossification. The size and location of medial patellar ossification was recorded. Of the 28 patients (20 males, eight females, age 13-66 years, mean 28 years) who were found to have medial patellar ossification, 22 had radiographs, 16 had magnetic resonance imaging, and ten had both. The medial patellar ossification ranged in size from 2 to 18 mm with an average of 6.8 mm. Twelve were located in the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), 14 in the medial joint capsule, and two in both the MPFL and joint capsule. Twenty-seven of 28 patients had a single ossification, and one patient had two ossifications. The timing from injury to first imaging of the lesion ranged from 10 days to a chronic history ({>=}35 years) of patellar instability. Medial patellar ossification correlates with a history of prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. The medial ossification can be seen within the MPFL or the medial joint capsule, suggesting remote injury to these structures. The presence of this lesion will prompt physicians to evaluate for patellar instability. (orig.)

  2. Technical Note: Unsupervised C-arm pose tracking with radiographic fiducial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallavollita, P.; Burdette, E. C.; Song, D. Y.; Abolmaesumi, P.; Fichtinger, G. [Queen' s University, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Acoustic MedSystems Inc., Champaign, Illinois 61820 (United States); Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland 21231-2410 (United States); University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Queen' s University, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: C-arm fluoroscopy reconstruction, such as that used in prostate brachytherapy, requires that the relative poses of the individual C-arm fluoroscopy images must be known prior to reconstruction. Radiographic fiducials can provide excellent C-arm pose tracking, but they need to be segmented in the image. The authors report an automated and unsupervised method that does not require prior segmentation of the fiducial. Methods: The authors compute the individual C-arm poses relative to a stationary radiographic fiducial of known geometry. The authors register a filtered 2D fluoroscopy image of the fiducial to its 3D model by using image intensity alone without prior segmentation. To enhance the C-arm images, the authors investigated a three-step cascade filter and a line enhancement filter. The authors tested the method on a composite fiducial containing beads, straight lines, and ellipses. Ground-truth C-arm pose was provided by a clinically proven method. Results: Using 111 clinical C-arm images and {+-}10 deg. and {+-}10 mm random perturbation around the ground-truth pose, a total of 2775 cases were evaluated. The average rotation and translation errors were 0.62 deg. (STD=0.31 deg.) and 0.72 mm (STD=0.55 mm) for the three-step filter and 0.67 deg. (STD=0.40 deg.) and 0.87 mm (STD=0.27 mm) using the line enhancement filter. Conclusions: The C-arm pose tracking method was sufficiently accurate and robust on human patient data for subsequent 3D implant reconstruction.

  3. The effect of different depths of medial heel skive on plantar pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonanno Daniel R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot orthoses are often used to treat lower limb injuries associated with excessive pronation. There are many orthotic modifications available for this purpose, with one being the medial heel skive. However, empirical evidence for the mechanical effects of the medial heel skive modification is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect that different depths of medial heel skive have on plantar pressures. Methods Thirty healthy adults (mean age 24 years, range 18–46 with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture and no current foot pain or deformity participated in this study. Using the in-shoe pedar-X® system, plantar pressure data were collected for the rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot while participants walked along an 8 metre walkway wearing a standardised shoe. Experimental conditions included a customised foot orthosis with the following 4 orthotic modifications: (i no medial heel skive, (ii a 2 mm medial heel skive, (iii a 4 mm medial heel skive and (iv a 6 mm medial heel skive. Results Compared to the foot orthosis with no medial heel skive, statistically significant increases in peak pressure were observed at the medial rearfoot – there was a 15% increase (p = 0.001 with the 4 mm skive and a 29% increase (p  Conclusions This study found that a medial heel skive of 4 mm or 6 mm increases peak pressure under the medial rearfoot in asymptomatic adults with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture. Plantar pressures at the midfoot and forefoot were not altered by a medial heel skive of 2, 4 or 6 mm. These findings provide some evidence for the effects of the medial heel skive orthotic modification.

  4. AN M DWARF COMPANION AND ITS INDUCED SPIRAL ARMS IN THE HD 100453 PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Ruobing [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rafikov, Roman [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Wagner, Kevin, E-mail: rdong2013@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Recent VLT/SPHERE near-infrared imaging observations revealed two spiral arms with a near m = 2 rotational symmetry in the protoplanetary disk around the ∼1.7 M{sub ⊙} Herbig star HD 100453. A ∼0.3 M{sub ⊙} M dwarf companion, HD 100453 B, was also identified at a projected separation of 120 AU from the primary. In this Letter, we carry out hydrodynamic and radiative transfer simulations to examine the scattered light morphology of the HD 100453 disk as perturbed by the companion on a circular and coplanar orbit. We find that the companion truncates the disk at ∼45 AU in scattered light images, and excites two spiral arms in the remaining (circumprimary) disk with a near m = 2 rotational symmetry. Both the truncated disk size and the morphology of the spirals are in excellent agreement with the SPHERE observations at Y, J, H, and K1-bands, suggesting that the M dwarf companion is indeed responsible for the observed double-spiral-arm pattern. Our model suggests that the disk is close to face on (inclination angle ∼5°), and that the entire disk-companion system rotates counterclockwise on the sky. The HD 100453 observations, along with our modeling work, demonstrate that double spiral arm patterns in near-infrared scattered light images can be generically produced by companions, and support future observations to identify the companions responsible for the arms observed in the MWC 758 and SAO 206462 systems.

  5. Testing Density Wave Theory with Resolved Stellar Populations around Spiral Arms in M81

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Yumi; Williams, Benjamin F; Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dolphin, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Stationary density waves rotating at a constant pattern speed $\\Omega_{\\rm P}$ would produce age gradients across spiral arms. We test whether such age gradients are present in M81 by deriving the recent star formation histories (SFHs) of 20 regions around one of M81's grand-design spiral arms. For each region, we use resolved stellar populations to determine the SFH by modeling the observed color-magnitude diagram (CMD) constructed from archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) F435W and F606W imaging. Although we should be able to detect systematic time delays in our spatially-resolved SFHs, we find no evidence of star formation propagation across the spiral arm. Our data therefore provide no convincing evidence for a stationary density wave with a single pattern speed in M81, and instead favor the scenario of kinematic spiral patterns that are likely driven by tidal interactions with the companion galaxies M82 and NGC 3077.

  6. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  7. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnashar, Ismail

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Although medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol. Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology. Methods Eleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies that failed compensation were operated by type 1 thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex. Pre- and postoperative (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months voice assessment was done and statistical analysis was performed on the results. Results In all postoperative assessments, there was significant improvement in the grade of dysphonia (p < 0.004 and highly significant reduction in the size of glottic gap and prolongation of maximum phonation time (p < 0.0001. The difference in voice parameters in the early (1 week and the late (3 and 6 months postoperative period was not significant. None of the patients developed stridor or shortness of breath necessitating tracheotomy, and there was no implant extrusion in any patient during the study period. Conclusion Gore-Tex medialization provides reliable results for both subjective and objective voice parameters. It leads to a satisfactory restoration of voice whatever the etiology of glottic incompetence is. This technique is relatively easy and does not lead to major complications. Further studies with larger number of patients and more extended periods of follow-up are still required to assess the long-term results of the technique regarding voice quality and implant extrusion.

  8. Isolated medial incisional approach to subtalar and talonavicular arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, Glenn M; Schuberth, John M; Lee, Michael; Rush, Shannon; Ford, Lawrence; Neufeld, Jason; Yu, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Triple arthrodesis is commonly used to correct complex deformity with hindfoot valgus. The authors use an isolated medial incisional approach for subtalar and talonavicular joint arthrodesis to correct hindfoot deformity, including high degrees of hindfoot valgus. To assess outcomes achieved with this approach, we reviewed the records of 45 patients from the practices of 5 surgeons. Independent variables evaluated included patient age, primary pathology, use of biologic agents, operative time, time to union, and complications. The median patient age was 57 years (range, 14-78 years). Pathology leading to fusion included 27 (60%) posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, 6 (13.3%) tarsal coalition, 7 (5.5%) degenerative joint disease, 2 (4.4%) rheumatoid arthritis, and 1 (2.2%) each, with Charcot neuroarthropathy, multiple sclerosis, and poliomyelitis. Orthobiological materials were used in 27 (60.0%) of the patients. The median duration of surgery was 87 minutes (range, 65-164 minutes), and the median time to successful arthrodesis was 8 weeks (range, 6-20 weeks). A complication was observed in 6 (13.3%) of the patients, including 1 each of the following: painful calcaneal-cuboid joint, talar fracture, incision dehiscence, poor exposure that required abandonment of the procedure, elevated first ray, and painful fixation. None of the patients experienced a nonunion or an adverse event related to the medial neurovascular structures. Based on our experience with the procedure, the single medial-incision subtalar and talonavicular joint arthrodesis is a useful alternative to triple arthrodesis for the correction of hindfoot valgus deformity. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reaching during virtual rotation: context specific compensations for expected coriolis forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J V; DiZio, P; Lackner, J R

    2000-06-01

    Subjects who are in an enclosed chamber rotating at constant velocity feel physically stationary but make errors when pointing to targets. Reaching paths and endpoints are deviated in the direction of the transient inertial Coriolis forces generated by their arm movements. By contrast, reaching movements made during natural, voluntary torso rotation seem to be accurate, and subjects are unaware of the Coriolis forces generated by their movements. This pattern suggests that the motor plan for reaching movements uses a representation of body motion to prepare compensations for impending self-generated accelerative loads on the arm. If so, stationary subjects who are experiencing illusory self-rotation should make reaching errors when pointing to a target. These errors should be in the direction opposite the Coriolis accelerations their arm movements would generate if they were actually rotating. To determine whether such compensations exist, we had subjects in four experiments make visually open-loop reaches to targets while they were experiencing compelling illusory self-rotation and displacement induced by rotation of a complex, natural visual scene. The paths and endpoints of their initial reaching movements were significantly displaced leftward during counterclockwise illusory rotary displacement and rightward during clockwise illusory self-displacement. Subjects reached in a curvilinear path to the wrong place. These reaching errors were opposite in direction to the Coriolis forces that would have been generated by their arm movements during actual torso rotation. The magnitude of path curvature and endpoint errors increased as the speed of illusory self-rotation increased. In successive reaches, movement paths became straighter and endpoints more accurate despite the absence of visual error feedback or tactile feedback about target location. When subjects were again presented a stationary scene, their initial reaches were indistinguishable from pre

  10. Reaching during virtual rotation: context specific compensations for expected coriolis forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J. V.; DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Subjects who are in an enclosed chamber rotating at constant velocity feel physically stationary but make errors when pointing to targets. Reaching paths and endpoints are deviated in the direction of the transient inertial Coriolis forces generated by their arm movements. By contrast, reaching movements made during natural, voluntary torso rotation seem to be accurate, and subjects are unaware of the Coriolis forces generated by their movements. This pattern suggests that the motor plan for reaching movements uses a representation of body motion to prepare compensations for impending self-generated accelerative loads on the arm. If so, stationary subjects who are experiencing illusory self-rotation should make reaching errors when pointing to a target. These errors should be in the direction opposite the Coriolis accelerations their arm movements would generate if they were actually rotating. To determine whether such compensations exist, we had subjects in four experiments make visually open-loop reaches to targets while they were experiencing compelling illusory self-rotation and displacement induced by rotation of a complex, natural visual scene. The paths and endpoints of their initial reaching movements were significantly displaced leftward during counterclockwise illusory rotary displacement and rightward during clockwise illusory self-displacement. Subjects reached in a curvilinear path to the wrong place. These reaching errors were opposite in direction to the Coriolis forces that would have been generated by their arm movements during actual torso rotation. The magnitude of path curvature and endpoint errors increased as the speed of illusory self-rotation increased. In successive reaches, movement paths became straighter and endpoints more accurate despite the absence of visual error feedback or tactile feedback about target location. When subjects were again presented a stationary scene, their initial reaches were indistinguishable from pre

  11. Arms Control and Strategic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yumin

    2014-01-01

    This essay intends to offer a comment on concepts, trends and attitudes concerning arms control and strategic stability with reference to the current international security situation. It also offers observations from two different perspectives about strategic stability: one proceeds from the concept of universal security and aims to prevent conflicts and instability from disrupting regional and international security environment on which nation states depend so much for their peaceful development; the other starts from maintaining the global leadership by a super power and aiming to contain any challenge that sways or is likely to sway its dominating status. If China and the United States commit themselves to the undertaking of a new type of major powers relationship that stresses win-win cooperation, they will be able to contribute greatly to a stable international security architecture that is good for world peaceful development.

  12. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  13. [Chondropathy of the patella. Experiences with 100 medializations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, K J

    1976-10-01

    After a brief reference to the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint, the anamnesis and the clinical and the radiologic symptomatology of chondropathia and the possibilities of its therapy are described. Patellofemoral arthrography is very helpful for the diagnosis. The technique of our operation is also described. After close study of current available literature and careful control of our 100 medialization cases, the results after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months are shown in tabular form. The operation is recommended for primary chondropathia patellae with lateroposition or lateral-tipped patella.

  14. Visualization of the medial forebrain bundle using diffusion tensor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian eHana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging is a technique that enables physicians the portrayal of white matter tracts in vivo. We used this technique in order to depict the medial forebrain bundle in 15 consecutive patients between 2012 and 2015. Men and women of all ages were included. There were 6 women and 9 men. The mean age was 58,6 years (39-77. Nine patients were candidates for an eventual deep brain stimulation. Eight of them suffered from Parkinson`s disease and one had multiple sclerosis. The remaining 6 patients suffered from different lesions which were situated in the frontal lobe. These were 2 metastasis, 2 meningiomas, 1 cerebral bleeding and 1 glioblastoma. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI- sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 x 200 mm², slice thickness 2 mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 x 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 x 2 x 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-value was 800 s/mm². The maximal angle was 50°. Additional scanning time was less than 9 minutes. We were able to visualize the medial forebrain bundle in 12 of our patients bilaterally and in the remaining 3 patients we depicted the medial forebrain bundle on one side. It was the contralateral side of the lesion. These were 2 meningiomas and one metastasis. Portrayal of the medial forebrain bundle is possible for everyday routine for neurosurgical interventions. As part of the reward circuitry it might be of substantial importance for neurosurgeons during deep brain stimulation in patients with psychiatric disorders. Furthermore it might explain at a certain extent character changes in patients with lesions in the frontal lobe. Surgery in this part of the brain should always take the preservation of this white matter tract into account.

  15. Foot posture in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feller Julian A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot posture has long been considered to contribute to the development of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions as it may alter the mechanical alignment and dynamic function of the lower limb. This study compared foot posture in people with and without medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA using a range of clinical foot measures. The reliability of the foot measures was also assessed. Methods The foot posture of 32 patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed OA predominantly in the medial compartment of the knee and 28 asymptomatic age-matched healthy controls was investigated using the foot posture index (FPI, vertical navicular height and drop, and the arch index. Independent t tests and effect size (Cohen's d were used to investigate the differences between the groups in the foot posture measurements. Results Significant differences were found between the control and the knee OA groups in relation to the FPI (1.35 ± 1.43 vs. 2.46 ± 2.18, p = 0.02; d = 0.61, medium effect size, navicular drop (0.02 ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 ± 0.01, p = 0.01; d = 1.02, large effect size and the arch index (0.22 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.04, p = 0.04; d = 1.02, large effect size. No significant difference was found for vertical navicular height (0.24 ± 0.03 vs. 0.23 ± 0.03, p = 0.54; d = 0.04, negligible effect size. Conclusion People with medial compartment knee OA exhibit a more pronated foot type compared to controls. It is therefore recommended that the assessment of patients with knee OA in clinical practice should include simple foot measures, and that the potential influence of foot structure and function on the efficacy of foot orthoses in the management of medial compartment knee OA be further investigated.

  16. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  17. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eDura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm.This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility

  18. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  19. Rapidly rotating red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Gehan, Charlotte; Michel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, which behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the id...

  20. Comments and corrections on 3D modeling studies of locomotor muscle moment arms in archosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Bates

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a number of recent studies we used computer modeling to investigate the evolution of muscle leverage (moment arms and function in extant and extinct archosaur lineages (crocodilians, dinosaurs including birds and pterosaurs. These studies sought to quantify the level of disparity and convergence in muscle moment arms during the evolution of bipedal and quadrupedal posture in various independent archosaur lineages, and in doing so further our understanding of changes in anatomy, locomotion and ecology during the group’s >250 million year evolutionary history. Subsequent work by others has led us to re-evaluate our models, which revealed a methodological error that impacted on the results obtained from the abduction–adduction and long-axis rotation moment arms in our published studies. In this paper we present corrected abduction–adduction and long axis rotation moment arms for all our models, and evaluate the impact of this new data on the conclusions of our previous studies. We find that, in general, our newly corrected data differed only slightly from that previously published, with very few qualitative changes in muscle moments (e.g., muscles originally identified as abductors remained abductors. As a result the majority of our previous conclusions regarding the functional evolution of key muscles in these archosaur groups are upheld.

  1. Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy and Combined Arthroscopic Surgery in Severe Medial Osteoarthritis and Varus Malalignment: Minimum 5-Year Results

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Moon-Jib; Shin, Yong-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the radiologic and functional outcomes of medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) combined with arthroscopic procedure in patients with medial osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods From June 1996 to March 2010, 26 patients (32 knees) who underwent medial open wedge osteotomy and arthroscopic operation for medial osteoarthritis were retrospectively reviewed. Measurements included hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, femorotibial angle, medial proximal tibial angle, posterior t...

  2. Calculation of surface dose in rotational total skin electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, C.; Heese, R.; Pla, M.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    1984-07-01

    A single-field rotational total skin electron irradiation technique has recently been developed at the McGill University for treatment of skin malignancies. The dose received by a given surface point during rotation in a uniform large electron field depends on the radius of rotation of the surface point, on the local radius of curvature of the contour in the vicinity of the point of interest, and on the shadows cast by limbs (arms upon trunk or head and neck, and legs upon each other). A method for calculating the surface dose distribution on a patient is presented accounting for the various parameters affecting the dose. A series of measurements were performed with polystyrene and a humanoid phantom, and an excellent agreement between measured and calculated dose distributions was obtained.

  3. The Facility and Process Technics of Polyethylene Rotational Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; BaiShun

    2001-01-01

    1. Introduction Rotational molding is the process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. It mainly processes the product which Injection molding and Blow molding can not process medium-sized, large-sized and super large-sized plastic parts. The technics may turn out a tub, dustbin, stock tank, sailboat.  The research institute of Lanzhou introduces a suit of RS-16 Rotational Molding Machine from Germany Reinhadt Co. on 1990. It mainly put up experiment and smallscale production. RS-16 rotational molding machine is a single arm and di-axial equipment. It is consisting of a gas heated sintering oven, cooling chamber, mouldcarrying carriage and a controlling unit.  ……

  4. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  5. Chiral Rotational Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Robert P; Barnett, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy: a new technique that enables the determination of the individual optical activity polarisability components $G_{XX}'$, $G_{YY}'$, $G_{ZZ}'$, $A_{X,YZ}$, $A_{Y,ZX}$ and $A_{Z,XY}$ of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample whilst yielding an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centres. The principles that underpin chiral rotational spectroscopy can also be exploited in the search for molecular chirality in space, which, if found, may add weight to hypotheses that biological homochirality and indeed life itself are of cosmic origin.

  6. Chiral rotational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy, a technique that enables the determination of the orientated optical activity pseudotensor components BX X, BY Y, and BZ Z of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample and provides an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral solely by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centers. A basic design for a chiral rotational spectrometer together with a model of its functionality is given. Our proposed technique offers the more familiar polarizability components αX X, αY Y, and αZ Z as by-products, which could see it find use even for achiral molecules.

  7. Rotating ice blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbolo, Stephane; Adami, Nicolas; Grasp Team

    2014-11-01

    The motion of ice discs released at the surface of a thermalized bath was investigated. As observed in some rare events in the Nature, the discs start spinning spontaneously. The motor of this motion is the cooling of the water close to the ice disc. As the density of water is maximum at 4°C, a downwards flow is generated from the surface of the ice block to the bottom. This flow generates the rotation of the disc. The speed of rotation depends on the mass of the ice disc and on the temperature of the bath. A model has been constructed to study the influence of the temperature of the bath. Finally, ice discs were put on a metallic plate. Again, a spontaneous rotation was observed. FNRS is thanked for financial support.

  8. The optical rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    1997-01-01

    The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat...

  9. Rotation of cometary meteoroids

    CERN Document Server

    Capek, David

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the rotational characteristics of meteoroids after their release from a comet during normal activity. The results can serve as initial conditions for further analyses of subsequent evolution of rotation in the interplanetary space. A sophisticated numerical model was applied to meteoroids ejected from 2P/Encke comet. The meteoroid shapes were approximated by polyhedrons with several thousands of surface elements, which have been determined by 3D laser scanning method of 36 terrestrial rock samples. These samples came from three distinct sets with different origin and shape characteristics. Two types of gas-meteoroid interactions (diffuse and specular reflection of gas molecules from the surface of meteoroid) and three gas ejection models (leading to very different ejection velocities) were assumed. The rotational characteristics of ejected meteoroid population were obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion with random initial conditions and random shape sele...

  10. A numerical investigation of flow around octopus-like arms: near-wake vortex patterns and force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakidi, A; Vavourakis, V; Tsakiris, D P; Ekaterinaris, J A

    2015-01-01

    The fluid dynamics of cephalopods has so far received little attention in the literature, due to their complexity in structure and locomotion. The flow around octopuses, in particular, can be complicated due to their agile and dexterous arms, which frequently display some of the most diverse mechanisms of motion. The study of this flow amounts to a specific instance of the hydrodynamics problem for rough tapered cylinder geometries. The outstanding manipulative and locomotor skills of octopuses could inspire the development of advanced robotic arms, able to operate in fluid environments. Our primary aim was to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of such bio-inspired robotic models and to derive the hydrodynamic force coefficients as a concise description of the vortical flow effects. Utilizing computational fluid dynamic methods, the coefficients were computed on realistic morphologies of octopus-like arm models undergoing prescribed solid-body movements; such motions occur in nature for short durations in time, e.g. during reaching movements and exploratory behaviors. Numerical simulations were performed on translating, impulsively rotating, and maneuvering arms, around which the flow field structures were investigated. The results reveal in detail the generation of complex vortical flow structures around the moving arms. Hydrodynamic forces acting on a translating arm depend on the angle of incidence; forces generated during impulsive rotations of the arms are independent of their exact morphology and the angle of rotation; periodic motions based on a slow recovery and a fast power stroke are able to produce considerable propulsive thrust while harmonic motions are not. Parts of these results have been employed in bio-inspired models of underwater robotic mechanisms. This investigation may further assist elucidating the hydrodynamics underlying aspects of octopus locomotion and exploratory behaviors.

  11. Why we cannot grow a human arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, John L

    2013-11-01

    There are several significant issues that prevent us from growing a human arm now, or within the next 10-20 years. From a tissue engineering perspective, while we can grow many of the components necessary for construction of a human arm, we can only grow them in relatively small volumes, and when scaled up to large volumes we lack the ability to develop adequate blood/nerve supply. From a genetic engineering perspective, we will probably never be able to turn on the specific genes necessary to "grow an arm" unless it is attached to a fetus and this presents enormous ethical issues related to farming of human organs and structures. Perhaps the most daunting problem facing the transplantation of a tissue engineered or transplanted arm is that of re-innervation of the structure. Since the sensory and motor nerve cells of the arm are located outside of the structure, re-innervation requires those nerves to regenerate over relatively large distances to repopulate the nervous system of the arm. This is something with which we have had little success. We can grow repair parts, but "growing an arm" presents too many insurmountable problems. The best we could possibly do with tissue engineering or genetic engineering would be the equivalent of a fetal arm and the technical problems, costs, and ethical hurdles are enormous. A more likely solution is a functional, permanent, neuroelectronically-controlled prosthesis. These are nearly a reality today.

  12. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  13. Books in Action: The Armed Services Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, John Y., Ed.

    In an effort to reach a wide audience, the Center for the Book in the Library of Congress presents this book in honor of the 40th anniversary celebration of the Armed Services Editions (ASE), the paperback books distributed during World War II. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: "The Armed Services Editions: An…

  14. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and making a turn or coming to a stop shall signal the turn or stop in accordance with this section. (b) A...

  15. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as a gay

  16. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  17. Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon combined with reconstruction of medial patellotibial ligament using patellar tendon: initial experience☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe a surgical technique for anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon; and to present the initial results from a case series. Method The proposed technique was used on a series of cases of patients with diagnoses of patellofemoral instability and indications for surgical treatment, who were attended by the Knee Group of HC-IOT, University of São Paulo. The following were evaluated before and after the operation: range of motion (ROM), apprehension test, lateral translation test, patellar inclination test, inverted J sign, subluxation upon extension, pain from compression of the patella and pain from contraction of the quadriceps. After the operation, the patients were asked whether any new episode of dislocation had occurred, what their degree of satisfaction with the surgery was (on a scale from 0 to 10) and whether they would be prepared to go through this operation again. Results Seven knees were operated, in seven patients, with a mean follow-up of 5.46 months (±2.07). Four patients who presented apprehension before the operation did not show this after the operation. The lateral translation test became normal for all the patients, while the patellar inclination test remained positive for two patients. The patients with an inverted J sign continued to be positive for this sign. Five patients were positive for subluxation upon extension before the operation, but all patients were negative for this after the operation. None of the patients presented any new episode of dislocation of the patella. All of them stated that they were satisfied: five gave a satisfaction score of 9 and two, a score of 10. All of them said that they would undergo the operation again. Only one patient presented a postoperative complication: dehiscence of the wound. Conclusion Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament

  18. Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon combined with reconstruction of medial patellotibial ligament using patellar tendon: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Bremer Hinckel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe a surgical technique for anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon; and to present the initial results from a case series. METHOD: The proposed technique was used on a series of cases of patients with diagnoses of patellofemoral instability and indications for surgical treatment, who were attended by the Knee Group of HC-IOT, University of São Paulo. The following were evaluated before and after the operation: range of motion (ROM, apprehension test, lateral translation test, patellar inclination test, inverted J sign, subluxation upon extension, pain from compression of the patella and pain from contraction of the quadriceps. After the operation, the patients were asked whether any new episode of dislocation had occurred, what their degree of satisfaction with the surgery was (on a scale from 0 to 10 and whether they would be prepared to go through this operation again. RESULTS: Seven knees were operated, in seven patients, with a mean follow-up of 5.46 months (±2.07. Four patients who presented apprehension before the operation did not show this after the operation. The lateral translation test became normal for all the patients, while the patellar inclination test remained positive for two patients. The patients with an inverted J sign continued to be positive for this sign. Five patients were positive for subluxation upon extension before the operation, but all patients were negative for this after the operation. None of the patients presented any new episode of dislocation of the patella. All of them stated that they were satisfied: five gave a satisfaction score of 9 and two, a score of 10. All of them said that they would undergo the operation again. Only one patient presented a postoperative complication: dehiscence of the wound. CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of the

  19. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy for zygomatic implant salvage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudeen, Bobby A.; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an epidemiologically important disease process due, in part, to the increasingly commonplace use of dental restorative procedures such as zygomatic implantation. Traditional management of this clinical entity typically entails extraction of the infected hardware via an open or endoscopic approach. We describe a novel management strategy of odontogenic CRS following bilateral zygomatic implantation for oral rehabilitation that we surgically salvaged via a modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Methods: We describe the presentation and management of a case of metachronous development of bilateral CRS subsequent to zygomatic implantation. Results: The patient's postoperative course was characterized by marked endoscopic, radiologic, and symptomatic improvement as measured by the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test. Conclusion: We describe a novel treatment strategy for the management of odontogenic sinusitis resulting from erroneous zygomatic implant placement. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy in this clinical context facilitates mucosal normalization of the affected sinus, while permitting preservation of oral function through salvage of the displaced implant. PMID:28107147

  20. MRI parcellation of ex vivo medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinack, Jean C; Magnain, Caroline; Reuter, Martin; van der Kouwe, André J W; Boas, David; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Recent advancements in radio frequency coils, field strength and sophisticated pulse sequences have propelled modern brain mapping and have made validation to biological standards - histology and pathology - possible. The medial temporal lobe has long been established as a pivotal brain region for connectivity, function and unique structure in the human brain, and reveals disconnection in mild Alzheimer's disease. Specific brain mapping of mesocortical areas affected with neurofibrillary tangle pathology early in disease progression provides not only an accurate description for location of these areas but also supplies spherical coordinates that allow comparison between other ex vivo cases and larger in vivo datasets. We have identified several cytoarchitectonic features in the medial temporal lobe with high resolution ex vivo MRI, including gray matter structures such as the entorhinal layer II 'islands', perirhinal layer II-III columns, presubicular 'clouds', granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus as well as lamina of the hippocampus. Localization of Brodmann areas 28 and 35 (entorhinal and perirhinal, respectively) demonstrates MRI based area boundaries validated with multiple methods and histological stains. Based on our findings, both myelin and Nissl staining relate to contrast in ex vivo MRI. Precise brain mapping serves to create modern atlases for cortical areas, allowing accurate localization with important applications to detecting early disease processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiki Tajima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2O  15 positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11. Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue.

  2. Function of the medial meniscus in force transmission and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter S; Arno, Sally; Bell, Christopher; Salvadore, Gaia; Borukhov, Ilya; Oh, Cheongeun

    2015-06-01

    We studied the combined role of the medial meniscus in distributing load and providing stability. Ten normal knees were loaded in combinations of compressive and shear loading as the knee was flexed over a full range. A digital camera tracked the motion, from which femoral-tibial contacts were determined by computer modelling. Load transmission was determined from the Tekscan for the anterior horn, central body, posterior horn, and the uncovered cartilage in the centre of the meniscus. For the three types of loading; compression only, compression and anterior shear, compression and posterior shear; between 40% and 80% of the total load was transmitted through the meniscus. The overall average was 58%, the remaining 42% being transmitted through the uncovered cartilage. The anterior horn was loaded only up to 30 degrees flexion, but played a role in controlling anterior femoral displacement. The central body was loaded 10-20% which would provide some restraint to medial femoral subluxation. Overall the posterior horn carried the highest percentage of the shear load, especially after 30 degrees flexion when a posterior shear force was applied, where the meniscus was estimated to carry 50% of the shear force. This study added new insights into meniscal function during weight bearing conditions, particularly its role in early flexion, and in transmitting shear forces.

  3. Increased Intrinsic Activity of Medial-Temporal Lobe Subregions is Associated with Decreased Cortical Thickness of Medial-Parietal Areas in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Scherr, Martin; Tahmasian, Masoud; Myers, Nicholas E; Ortner, Marion; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Grimmer, Timo; Akhrif, Atae; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), disrupted connectivity between medial-parietal cortices and medial-temporal lobes (MTL) is linked with increased MTL local functional connectivity, and parietal atrophy is associated with increased MTL memory activation. We hypothesized that intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal degeneration and impaired memory in AD. To test this hypothesis, resting-state-functional and structural-MRI was assessed in 22 healthy controls, 22 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 21 AD-dementia patients. Intrinsic activity was measured by power-spectrum density of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal, medial-parietal degeneration by cortical thinning. In AD-dementia patients, intrinsic activity was increased for several right MTL subregions. Raised intrinsic activity in dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis 1 was associated with cortical thinning in posterior cingulate cortices, and at-trend with impaired delayed recall. Critically, increased intrinsic activity in the right entorhinal cortex was associated with ipsilateral posterior cingulate degeneration. Our results provide evidence that in AD, intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal atrophy. Results fit a model in which medial-parietal degeneration contributes to MTL dysconnectivity from medial-parietal cortices, potentially underpinning disinhibition-like changes in MTL activity.

  4. Medial Elbow Exposure for Coronoid Fractures: FCU-Split Versus Over-the-Top

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    margin of the mass anteriorly) was split and the pronator teres was released from the medial epicondyle and reflected off the anterior elbow capsule and...ORIGINAL ARTICLE Medial Elbow Exposure for Coronoid Fractures: FCU-Split Versus Over-the-Top Jeannie Huh, MD,* Chad A. Krueger, MD,* Michael J...fractures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare the osseous and ligamentous exposure of the medial elbow using the flexor

  5. Comparison Of Medial Arch-Supporting Insoles And Heel Pads In The Treatment Of Plantar Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkoc Melih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantar fasciitis is a disorder caused by inflammation of the insertion point of the plantar fascia over the medial tubercle of the calcaneus. Foot orthotics are used to treat plantar fasciitis. Heel pads medialise the centre of force, whereas medial arch supporting insoles lateralise the force. We assessed the clinical results of the treatment of plantar fasciitis with silicone heel pads and medial arch-supported silicone insoles.

  6. The mechanical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. METHODS: Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. RESULTS: Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (P<0.0001. When the proximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P ≤ 0.0207. Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.

  7. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  8. Structure and rotations of the Hoyle state

    CERN Document Server

    Epelbaum, Evgeny; Lähde, Timo; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2012-01-01

    The Hoyle state is one of the most interesting and important challenges in nuclear physics. This excited state of the 12C nucleus plays a key role in the fusion of three alpha particles to form carbon in red giant stars. In this letter we present ab initio lattice calculations which unravel the structure of this state and find evidence for a low-lying spin-2 rotational excitation. For the structure of the 12C ground state and first spin-2 state, we find a compact triangular configuration of alpha clusters. For the Hoyle state and second spin-2 state, we find a bent-arm or obtuse triangular configuration of alpha clusters. We calculate electromagnetic transition rates among the various low-lying states.

  9. A statically balanced and bi-stable compliant end effector combined with a laparoscopic 2DoF robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lassooij

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design of a newly developed 2DoF robotic arm with a novel statically balanced and bi-stable compliant grasper as the end effector for laparoscopic surgery application. The arm is based on internal motors actuating 2 rotational DoFs: pitch and roll. The positive stiffness of the monolithic grasper has been compensated using pre-curved straight guided beams that are preloaded collinear with the direction of actuation of the grasper. The result is a fully compliant statically balanced laparoscopic grasper. The grasper has been successfully adapted to a robotic arm. The maximum force and stiffness compensations were measured to be 94% and 97% (i.e. near zero stiffness respectively. Furthermore, the feasibility of adjusting for bi-stable behavior has been shown. This research can be a preliminary step towards the design of a statically balanced fully compliant robotic arm for laparoscopic surgery and similar areas.

  10. Simultaneous MPFL and LPFL reconstruction for recurrent lateral patellar dislocation with medial patellofemoral instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kusano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare case of both recurrent lateral patella dislocation and medial patellofemoral instability, following prior operations to correct patella maltracking. Manual translation of the patella revealed medial and lateral instability with a positive apprehension sign. 3-D computer modelling of kinematics based on MRI data demonstrated that the patella deviated laterally at full extension and translated medially with knee flexion. The medial and lateral patellofemoral ligaments were reconstructed simultaneously with hamstring tendons, alleviating peripatellar pain and patellar instability in both directions.

  11. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  12. Missed Medial Malleolar Fracture Associated With Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Koji; Taketomi, Shuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kensuke; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old man sustained an Achilles tendon rupture while playing futsal. A concomitant medial malleolar fracture was not diagnosed until the patient underwent an operation for Achilles tendon repair. A routine postoperative radiograph showed a minimally displaced medial malleolar fracture. Conservative treatment was chosen for the fracture. The function of the Achilles tendon recovered well, and the fracture was united. A medial malleolar fracture can be missed when an Achilles tendon rupture occurs simultaneously. Thus, surgeons should consider the possibility of medial malleolar fracture associated with an Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: 'SCOPEX', a randomised control trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V

    2012-01-01

    Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential...... to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have...

  14. Effect of rotation on a rotating hot-wire sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to discern the effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on a rotating hot-wire. The probe was calibrated in a wind tunnel as well as in a rotating mode. The effect of rotation was found to be negligibly small. A small change in cold resistance (1.5%) was observed in the rotating wire. The rotation seems to have a negligible effect on the fluid mechanics, heat transfer and material characteristics of the wire. This is a significant conclusion in view of the potential application of the hot-wire probe in a rotating passage (such as turbomachinery).

  15. Galactic Bar/Spiral Arm Interactions in NGC3627

    CERN Document Server

    Beuther, H; Schinnerer, E; Paladino, R; Leroy, A

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To gain insight into the expected gas dynamics at the interface of the Galactic bar and spiral arms in our own Milky Way galaxy, we examine as an extragalactic counterpart the evidence for multiple distinct velocity components in the cold, dense molecular gas populating a comparable region at the end of the bar in the nearby galaxy NGC3627. Methods: We assemble a high resolution view of molecular gas kinematics traced by CO(2-1) emission and extract line-of-sight velocity profiles from regions of high and low gas velocity dispersion. Results: The high velocity dispersions arise with often double-peaked or multiple line-profiles. We compare the centroids of the different velocity components to expectations based on orbital dynamics in the presence of bar and spiral potential perturbations. A model of the region as the interface of two gas-populated orbits families supporting the bar and the independently rotating spiral arms provides an overall good match to the data. An extent of the bar to the corotati...

  16. CIMEL Measurements of Zenith Radiances at the ARM Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Wiscombe, Warren; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Starting from October 1, 2001, Cimel at the ARM Central Facility in Oklahoma has been switched to a new "cloud mode." This mode allows taking measurements of zenith radiance when the Sun in blocked by clouds. In this case, every 13 min. Cimel points straight up and takes 10 measurements with 9 sec. time interval. The new Cimel's mode has four filters at 440, 670, 870 and 1020 nm. For cloudy conditions, the spectral contrast in surface albedo dominates over Rayleigh and aerosol effects; this makes normalized zenith radiances at 440 and 670 as well as for 870 and 1020 almost indistinguishable. We compare Cimel measurements with other ARM cart site instruments: Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), Narrow Field of View (NFOV) sensor, and MicroWave Radiometer(MWR). Based on Cimel and MFRSR 670 and 870 nm channels, we build a normalized difference cloud index (NDCI) for radiances and fluxes, respectively. Radiance NDCI from Cimel and flux NDCI from MFRSR are compared between themselves as well as with cloud Liquid Water Path (LWP) retrieved from MWR. Based on our theoretical calculations and preliminary data analysis,there is a good correlation between NDCIs and LWP for cloudy sky above green vegetation. Based on this correlation, an algorithm to retrieve cloud optical depth from NDCI is proposed.

  17. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH ROBOTICS ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Margun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of control system synthesis for multi rotational UAV equipped with robotics arm. Control algorithm is proposed based on the method of feedback linearization and synthesis of proportional-differential controller with the real time computation of the inertia tensor and center of mass changes and compensation of the reactive torque generated by the dynamics of the manipulator. Quadrocopter with attached articulated manipulator is selected as a model of the control object. Systems of equations describing the behavior of considered dynamical system are obtained according to the Newton and Euler-Lagrange laws. Expressions are offered, defining the inertia tensor and the position of the system center of mass depending on the current position of the manipulator, and the torque acting on the quadrocopter from the manipulator. Feedback linearization with arm influence compensation on quadrocopter is applied for the resulting nonlinear coupled system. As a result, robot dynamics equations have been converted to a linear stationary system. Converted system control is achieved by a proportional-differential controller. Examined system simulation is done with control method described in the paper and the classical method based on a proportional-differential controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate that the proposed approach provides higher accuracy of the tracking error, than control method by means of proportional-differential regulator.

  18. CyARM: Haptic Sensing Device for Spatial Localization on Basis of Exploration by Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Akita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new type of perception aid device based on user's exploration action, which is named as CyARM (acronym of “Cyber Arm”. The user holds this device in her/his arm, the extension of the arm is controlled by tension in wires, which are attached to her/his body according to the distance to the object. This user interface has unique characteristics that give users the illusion of an imaginary arm that extends to existing objects. The implementations of CyARM and our two experiments to investigate the efficiency and effectiveness of CyARM are described. The results show that we could confirm that CyARM can be used to recognize the presence of an object in front of the user and to measure the relative distance to the object.

  19. The Spatiale Rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan

    2009-01-01

    The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest befo...

  20. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  1. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  2. Compact rotating cup anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Compact, collapsible rotating cup anemometer is used in remote locations where portability and durability are factors in the choice of equipment. This lightweight instrument has a low wind-velocity threshold, is capable of withstanding large mechanical shocks while in its stowed configuration, and has fast response to wind fluctuations.

  3. The rotating quantum vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Paul Charles William; Manogue, C A; Davies, Paul C W; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A

    1996-01-01

    We derive conditions for rotating particle detectors to respond in a variety of bounded spacetimes and compare the results with the folklore that particle detectors do not respond in the vacuum state appropriate to their motion. Applications involving possible violations of the second law of thermodynamics are briefly addressed.

  4. Comorbidities in rotator cuff disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchener, Andrew G; White, Jonathan J E; Hinchliffe, Sally R; Tambe, Amol A; Hubbard, Richard B; Clark, David I

    2014-09-01

    Rotator cuff disease is a common condition in the general population, but relatively little is known about its associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and to quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for rotator cuff disease in the community. Our data set included 5000 patients with rotator cuff disease who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice (primary care practice). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range, 44-65 years). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with rotator cuff disease were Achilles tendinitis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.78), trigger finger (OR = 1.99), lateral epicondylitis (OR = 1.71), and carpal tunnel syndrome (OR = 1.55). Oral corticosteroid therapy (OR = 2.03), oral antidiabetic use (OR = 1.66), insulin use (OR = 1.77), and "overweight" body mass index of 25.1 to 30 (OR = 1.15) were also significantly associated. Current or previous smoking history, body mass index of greater than 30, any alcohol intake, medial epicondylitis, de Quervain syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis were not found to be associated with rotator cuff disease. We have identified a number of comorbidities and risk factors for rotator cuff disease. These include lateral epicondylitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, Achilles tendinitis, oral corticosteroid use, and diabetes mellitus. The findings should alert the clinician to comorbid pathologic processes and guide future research into the etiology of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Local Galaxy Density and the Arm Class of Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mezzetti, M

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the effect of the environmental density on the arm classification of an extensive sample of spiral galaxies included in the Nearby Galaxy Catalog (Tully, 1988a). We have also explored the dependence of the arm class of a galaxy on other factors, such as its blue absolute magnitude and its disk-to-total mass ratio, inferred in the literature either from the gradient of a good galaxy rotation curve or from a photometric mass decomposition method. We have found that the arm class is strongly related to the absolute magnitude in the mid-type spirals (in the sense that grand design galaxies are, on average, more luminous than flocculent objects), whilst this relation is considerably weaker in the early and late types. In general the influence of the local density on the arm structure appears to be much weaker than that of the absolute magnitude. The local density acts essentially in strengthening the arm class--absolute magnitude relation for the mid types, whereas no environmental density effects...

  6. The arms race between fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  7. Youth Armed Groups in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the many years of Colombia’s civil war, youth have been trying to find their way in complicated and dangerous situations. A central component of this is their relationship with armed groups, something that has evolved considerably over the past ten years. This practice note examines the context within which these connections are formed and the implications this has for self/social identity and meaningful resistance. The ideas in this practice note are based on consultations with young Colombians, particularly those displaced from 2000-2013. These sessions included art activities, focus groups and individual interviews. Art activities involved descriptive and expressive projects so that participants could explore their feelings and memories of situations and experiences. This provided a base for group discussions where youth exchanged information and debated issues. A total of 34 workshops were held over a twelve year period. These consultations revealed how war flows all over young people, touching every aspect of their identity. The boundaries between the personal and political no longer exist in today’s civil wars, if indeed they every truly did. Young people growing up inside Colombia’s war understand this at a deep level. An acknowledgement of this pain – showing the connections between the personal and political dimensions of war – is, they would maintain, the basis for their personal healing as well as an important tool for the building of sustainable peace.

  8. Vulnerability of the medial frontal corticospinal projection accompanies combined lateral frontal and parietal cortex injury in rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, R J; Ge, J; Stilwell-Morecraft, K S; McNeal, D W; Hynes, S M; Pizzimenti, M A; Rotella, D L; Darling, W G

    2015-03-01

    Concurrent damage to the lateral frontal and parietal cortex is common following middle cerebral artery infarction, leading to upper extremity paresis, paresthesia, and sensory loss. Motor recovery is often poor, and the mechanisms that support or impede this process are unclear. Since the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is commonly spared following stroke, we investigated the spontaneous long-term (6 and 12 month) effects of lateral frontoparietal injury (F2P2 lesion) on the terminal distribution of the corticospinal projection (CSP) from intact, ipsilesional supplementary motor cortex (M2) at spinal levels C5 to T1. Isolated injury to the frontoparietal arm/hand region resulted in a significant loss of contralateral corticospinal boutons from M2 compared with controls. Specifically, reductions occurred in the medial and lateral parts of lamina VII and the dorsal quadrants of lamina IX. There were no statistical differences in the ipsilateral CSP. Contrary to isolated lateral frontal motor injury (F2 lesion), which results in substantial increases in contralateral M2 labeling in laminae VII and IX (McNeal et al. [2010] J. Comp. Neurol. 518:586-621), the added effect of adjacent parietal cortex injury to the frontal motor lesion (F2P2 lesion) not only impedes a favorable compensatory neuroplastic response but results in a substantial loss of M2 CSP terminals. This dramatic reversal of the CSP response suggests a critical trophic role for cortical somatosensory influence on spared ipsilesional frontal corticospinal projections, and that restoration of a favorable compensatory response will require therapeutic intervention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty leads to significant biomechanical changes in the remaining rotator cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perka Carsten

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective After reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA external and internal rotation will often remain restricted. A postoperative alteration of the biomechanics in the remaining cuff is discussed as a contributing factor to these functional deficits. Methods In this study, muscle moment arms as well as origin-to-insertion distance (OID were calculated using three-dimensional models of the shoulder derived from CT scans of seven cadaveric specimens. Results Moment arms for humeral rotation are significantly smaller for the cranial segments of SSC and all segments of TMIN in abduction angles of 30 degrees and above (p ≤ 0.05. Abduction moment arms were significantly decreased for all segments (p ≤ 0.002. OID was significantly smaller for all muscles at the 15 degree position (p ≤ 0.005, apart from the cranial SSC segment. Conclusions Reduced rotational moment arms in conjunction with the decrease of OID may be a possible explanation for the clinically observed impaired external and internal rotation.

  10. Mobile 3D rotational X-ray: comparison with CT in sinus surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelsen, B. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bakker, N.H. [Dept. of Man-Machine Systems, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Boon, S.N. [General X-ray Surgery, Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Fokkens, W.J. [ENT Dept., Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Freling, N.J.M. [Radiology Dept., Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Noordhoek, N.J. [X-ray Pre-development, Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    Clinical evaluation of a 3D rotational X-ray (3D-RX) system, comprising a modified Philips BV Pulsera C-arm system and a Philips 3D-RA workstation, demonstrates good diagnostic accuracy in functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  11. Familial Discoid Medial Meniscus Tear in Three Members of a Family: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheel Ahmed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A discoid meniscus is a thickened variant of the normal C-shaped meniscus prone to injury. Discoid medial meniscal tears have rarely been reported within families and may suggest familial or developmental origins. Methods. We report the cases of two Caucasian brothers with symptomatic discoid medial meniscus tears. A literature review was conducted addressing discoid medial meniscus and cases of familial meniscus tears. Case Presentation. Physically active brothers presented with progressively worsening knee pain. MRI revealed medial meniscus tears in both brothers. The family history of medial meniscus tears in their mother and the discoid medial meniscus injuries found on arthroscopy suggested evidence for familial discoid medial meniscus tears. Conclusions. Discoid medial meniscus tears within a family have not been previously reported. Two cases of families with discoid lateral meniscus tears have been reported. Discoid medial meniscus is rare relative to the discoid lateral meniscus and predisposes children to symptomatic tears.

  12. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Koo

    Full Text Available The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients' ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs. Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8 in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4 in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29-71 years and 30 years (range: 14-62 years in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001, and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001. A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001. LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001. Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001. Meniscal extrusion is

  13. Effect of arm swinging on lumbar spine and hip joint forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Lorenza; Damm, Philipp; Zander, Thomas; Arshad, Rizwan; Di Puccio, Francesca; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2017-09-14

    During level walking, arm swing plays a key role in improving dynamic stability. In vivo investigations with a telemeterized vertebral body replacement showed that spinal loads can be affected by differences in arm positions during sitting and standing. However, little is known about how arm swing could influence the lumbar spine and hip joint forces and motions during walking. The present study aims to provide better understanding of the contribution of the upper limbs to human gait, investigating ranges of motion and joint reaction forces. A three-dimensional motion analysis was carried out via a motion capturing system on six healthy males and five patients with hip instrumented implant. Each subject performed walking with different arm swing amplitudes (small, normal, and large) and arm positions (bound to the body, and folded across the chest). The motion data were imported in a commercial musculoskeletal analysis software for kinematic and inverse dynamic investigation. The range of motion of the thorax with respect to the pelvis and of the pelvis with respect to the ground in the transversal plane were significantly associated with arm position and swing amplitude during gait. The hip external-internal rotation range of motion statistically varied only for non-dominant limb. Unlike hip joint reaction forces, predicted peak spinal loads at T12-L1 and L5-S1 showed significant differences at approximately the time of contralateral toe off and contralateral heel strike. Therefore, arm position and swing amplitude have a relevant effect on kinematic variables and spinal loads, but not on hip loads during walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulsar rotation measures and the large-scale structure of Galactic magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Han, J L; Manchester, R N; Qiao, G J; Van Straten, W

    2006-01-01

    The large-scale magnetic field of our Galaxy can be probed in three dimensions using Faraday rotation of pulsar signals. We report on the determination of 223 rotation measures from polarization observations of relatively distant southern pulsars made using the Parkes radio telescope. Combined with previously published observations these data give clear evidence for large-scale counterclockwise fields (viewed from the north Galactic pole) in the spiral arms interior to the Sun and weaker evidence for a counterclockwise field in the Perseus arm. However, in interarm regions, including the Solar neighbourhood, we present evidence that suggests that large-scale fields are clockwise. We propose that the large-scale Galactic magnetic field has a bisymmetric structure with reversals on the boundaries of the spiral arms. Streaming motions associated with spiral density waves can directly generate such a structure from an initial inwardly directed radial field. Large-scale fields increase toward the Galactic Center, ...

  15. A comparison of subtalar joint motion during anticipated medial cutting turns and level walking using a multi-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkyn, T R; Shultz, R; Giffin, J R; Birmingham, T B

    2010-02-01

    The weight-bearing in-vivo kinematics and kinetics of the talocrural joint, subtalar joint and joints of the foot were quantified using optical motion analysis. Twelve healthy subjects were studied during level walking and anticipated medial turns at self-selected pace. A multi-segment model of the foot using skin-mounted marker triads tracked four foot segments: the hindfoot, midfoot, lateral and medial forefoot. The lower leg and thigh were also tracked. Motion between each of the segments could occur in three degrees of rotational freedom, but only six inter-segmental motions were reported in this study: (1) talocrural dorsi-plantar-flexion, (2) subtalar inversion-eversion, (3) frontal plane hindfoot motion, (4) transverse plane hindfoot motion, (5) forefoot supination-pronation twisting and (6) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch. The motion at the subtalar joint during stance phase of walking (eversion then inversion) was reversed during a turning task (inversion then eversion). The external subtalar joint moment was also changed from a moderate eversion moment during walking to a larger inversion moment during the turn. The kinematics of the talocrural joint and the joints of the foot were similar between these two tasks. During a medial turn, the subtalar joint may act to maintain the motions in the foot and talocrural joint that occur during level walking. This is occurring despite the conspicuously different trajectory of the centre of mass of the body. This may allow the foot complex to maintain its function of energy absorption followed by energy return during stance phase that is best suited to level walking.

  16. Bucket handle tears of the medial meniscus: meniscal intrusion rather than meniscal extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlossberg, S. [Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Umans, H. [Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Surgery Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Bronx, NY (United States); Flusser, G. [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv (Israel); DiFelice, G.S. [Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Surgery Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Bronx, NY (United States); Lerer, D.B. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2007-01-15

    To determine the frequency of medial meniscal extrusion (MME) versus ''medial meniscal intrusion'' in the setting of bucket handle tears. Images were evaluated for previously reported risk factors for MME, including: medial meniscal root tear, radial tear, degenerative joint disease and joint effusion. Forty-one consecutive cases of bucket handle tear of the medial meniscus were reviewed by consensus by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Imaging was performed using a 1.5 GE Signa MR unit. Patient age, gender, medial meniscal root integrity, MME, medial meniscal intrusion, degenerative joint disease, effusion and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear were recorded. Thirteen females and 27 males (age 12-62 years, median=30 years) were affected; one had bucket handle tear of each knee. Effusion was small in 13, moderate in 9 and large in 18. Degenerative joint disease was mild in three, moderate in two and severe in one. 26 ACL tears included three partial and three chronic. Medial meniscal root tear was complete in one case and partial thickness in two. None of the 40 cases with an intact or partially torn medial meniscal root demonstrated MME. MME of 3.1 mm was seen in the only full-thickness medial meniscal root tear, along with chronic ACL tear, moderate degenerative joint disease and large effusion. Medial meniscal intrusion of the central bucket handle fragment into the intercondylar notch was present in all 41 cases. Given an intact medial meniscal root in the setting of a ''pure'' bucket handle tear, there is no MME. (orig.)

  17. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  18. ARM Unmanned Aerial Systems Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) coupled with changes in the regulatory environment for operations of UAS in the National Airspace increase the potential value of UAS to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. UAS include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and tethered balloon systems (TBS). The roles UAVs and TBSs could play within the ARM Facility, particularly science questions they could help address, have been discussed in several workshops, reports, and vision documents, including: This document describes the implementation of a robust and vigorous program for use of UAV and TBS for the science missions ARM supports.

  19. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  20. Isolated cystic tuberculosis of medial cuneiform: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolated tuberculosis of foot is a rare entity. Plenty of literature is available on osteoarticular tuberculosis but literature on tuberculosis of foot is limited. Additionally the condition mimics variety of other foot pathologies which can delay diagnosis and add to morbidity. We present a twelve year old boy who presented clinically with swelling, pain and discharging sinus of foot with a cystic lesion in medial cuneiform on radiography. Though histopathology and Ziehl Nielsen staining later on established the diagnosis, but initially it was mistaken as a case of mycotic osteomyelitis. Tuberculosis of foot, though rare, should always be one of the differential diagnoses in a patient presenting with bony lesion on radiography irrespective of absence of constitutional symptoms and negative tests for tuberculosis. If battery of tests fails to establish diagnosis, open biopsy with curettage and histopathology should be considered to work out the final diagnosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 592-595

  1. Watching cartoons activates the medial prefrontal cortex in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) of human adults is involved in attributing mental states to real human agents but not to virtual artificial characters. This study examined whether such differential MPFC activity can be observed in children who are more fascinated by cartoons than adults. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while 10-year-old children watched movie and cartoon clips, simulating real and virtual visual worlds, respectively. We showed neuroimaging evidence that, in contrast to adults, the MPFC of children was activated when perceiving both human agents and artificial characters in coherent visual events. Our findings suggest that, around the age of 10 years, the MPFC activity in children is different from that in adults in that it can be spontaneously activated by non-human agents in a virtual visual world.

  2. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENTS OF ANKLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The ankle joint is one of the most frequently injured joint. A sprained ankle results due to tear of anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments when the foot is twisted in lateral direction. In forcible eversion of the foot, the deltoid ligament may be torn. At times, the deltoid ligament pulls the medial malleolus thereby causing avulsion fracture of the malleolus. The strong eversion pull on the deltoid ligament causes transverse fracture of medial malleolus. If the tibia is carried anteriorly, the posterior margin of the distal end of the tibia is also broken by the talus producing a trimalleolar fracture. The talocrural joint is a major weight bearing joint of the body. The weight of the body is transmitted from the tibia and fibula to the talus which distributes the weight anteriorly and posteriorly within the foot. One sixth of the static load of the leg is carried by the fibula at the tibiofibular joint. These require a high degree of stability which is determined by the passive and dynamic factors. A sprained ankle results due to tear of anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments when the foot is twisted in lateral direction. In forcible eversion of the foot, the deltoid ligament may be torn. At times, the deltoid ligament pulls the medial malleolus thereby causing avulsion fracture of the malleolus. The strong eversion pull on the deltoid ligament causes transverse fracture of medial malleolus. If the tibia is carried anteriorly, the posterior margin of the distal end of the tibia is also broken by the talus producing a trimalleolar fracture. Conventionally, X-ray techniques have been used to diagnose ligament injuries. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has opened new horizons in the diagnosis and treatment of many musculoskeletal diseases of the ankle and foot. It demonstrates abnormalities in the bones and soft tissues before they become evident at other imaging modalities. The anatomy of the deltoid ligament

  3. Sports injury to a bipartite medial cuneiform in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Timothy B; Ahmad, Mudussar A; Oddy, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy who had sustained a soccer injury to his mid-foot. Plain radiography did not reveal any fracture to account for the severity of his symptoms or his inability to bear weight. Magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken and demonstrated the medial cuneiform to be a bipartite bone consisting of 2 ossicles connected by a synchondrosis. No acute fracture or diastasis of the bipartite bone was demonstrated; however, significant bone marrow edema was noted, corresponding to the site of the injury and his clinical point bony tenderness. This anatomic variant should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in the skeletally immature foot. The injury was treated nonoperatively with a non-weightbearing cast and pneumatic walker immobilization, with successful resolution of his symptoms and a return to sports activity by 4 months after injury.

  4. Lateral and medial epicondylitis: role of occupational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2011-02-01

    Epicondylitis is a common upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorder. It is most common at the age of 40-60 years. Epicondylitis seems to affect women more frequently than men. Diagnosis of epicondylitis is clinical and based on symptoms and findings of physical examination. The prevalence of lateral epicondylitis in the general populations is approximately 1.0-1.3% in men and 1.1-4.0% in women and that of medial epicondylitis is nearly 0.3-0.6% in men and 0.3-1.1% in women. The incidence rate of medical consultations has been estimated at 0.3-1.1 for lateral and 0.1 for medial epicondylitis per year per 100 subjects of general practice populations. Of occupational risk factors, forceful activities, high force combined with high repetition or awkward posture and awkward postures are associated with epicondylitis. The number of studies is limited to work-related psychosocial factors and the effects are not as consistent as those of physical load factors. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections and acupuncture provide short-term beneficial effects. Workload modification should be considered, especially in manually strenuous jobs. According to clinical case series, surgical treatment has shown fair to good results; however, the efficacy of surgical treatment has not been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Poorer prognosis of epicondylitis has been reported for individuals with high level of physical strain at work, non-neutral wrist postures during work activity and for those with the condition on the dominant elbow. Modification of physical factors could reduce the risk or improve the prognosis of epicondylitis.

  5. Perfusion network shift during seizures in medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Sequeira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE is associated with limbic atrophy involving the hippocampus, peri-hippocampal and extra-temporal structures. While MTLE is related to static structural limbic compromise, it is unknown whether the limbic system undergoes dynamic regional perfusion network alterations during seizures. In this study, we aimed to investigate state specific (i.e. ictal versus interictal perfusional limbic networks in patients with MTLE. METHODS: We studied clinical information and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images obtained with intravenous infusion of the radioactive tracer Technetium- Tc 99 m Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime (Tc-99 m HMPAO during ictal and interictal state confirmed by video-electroencephalography (VEEG in 20 patients with unilateral MTLE (12 left and 8 right MTLE. Pair-wise voxel-based analyses were used to define global changes in tracer between states. Regional tracer uptake was calculated and state specific adjacency matrices were constructed based on regional correlation of uptake across subjects. Graph theoretical measures were applied to investigate global and regional state specific network reconfigurations. RESULTS: A significant increase in tracer uptake was observed during the ictal state in the medial temporal region, cerebellum, thalamus, insula and putamen. From network analyses, we observed a relative decreased correlation between the epileptogenic temporal region and remaining cortex during the interictal state, followed by a surge of cross-correlated perfusion in epileptogenic temporal-limbic structures during a seizure, corresponding to local network integration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MTLE is associated with a state specific perfusion and possibly functional organization consisting of a surge of limbic cross-correlated tracer uptake during a seizure, with a relative disconnection of the epileptogenic temporal lobe in the interictal period. This

  6. Functional connectivity based parcellation of the human medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Fang; Ritchey, Maureen; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan

    2016-10-01

    Regional differences in large-scale connectivity have been proposed to underlie functional specialization along the anterior-posterior axis of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus (HC) and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). However, it is unknown whether functional connectivity (FC) can be used reliably to parcellate the human MTL. The current study aimed to differentiate subregions of the HC and the PHG based on patterns of whole-brain intrinsic FC. FC maps were calculated for each slice along the longitudinal axis of the PHG and the HC. A hierarchical clustering algorithm was then applied to these data in order to group slices according to the similarity of their connectivity patterns. Surprisingly, three discrete clusters were identified in the PHG. Two clusters corresponded to the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and the perirhinal cortex (PRC), and these regions showed preferential connectivity with previously described posterior-medial and anterior-temporal networks, respectively. The third cluster corresponded to an anterior PRC region previously described as area 36d, and this region exhibited preferential connectivity with auditory cortical areas and with a network involved in visceral processing. The three PHG clusters showed different profiles of activation during a memory-encoding task, demonstrating that the FC-based parcellation identified functionally dissociable sub-regions of the PHG. In the hippocampus, no sub-regions were identified via the parcellation procedure. These results indicate that connectivity-based methods can be used to parcellate functional regions within the MTL, and they suggest that studies of memory and high-level cognition need to differentiate between PHC, posterior PRC, and anterior PRC.

  7. Instability patterns between counter-rotating disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moisy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The instability patterns in the flow between counter-rotating disks (radius to height ratio R/h from 3.8 to 20.9 are investigated experimentally by means of visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry. We restrict ourselves to the situation where the boundary layers remain stable, focusing on the shear layer instability that occurs only in the counter-rotating regime. The associated pattern is a combination of a circular chain of vortices, as observed by Lopez et al. (2002 at low aspect ratio, surrounded by a set of spiral arms, first described by Gauthier et al. (2002 in the case of high aspect ratio. Stability curve and critical modes are measured for the whole range of aspect ratios. From the measurement of a local Reynolds number based on the shear layer thickness, evidence is given that a free shear layer instability, with only weak curvature effect, is responsible for the observed patterns. Accordingly, the number of vortices is shown to scale as the shear layer radius, which results from the competition between the centrifugal effects of each disk.

  8. In vivo three-dimensional motion analysis of the shoulder joint during internal and external rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koishi, Hayato; Goto, Akira; Tanaka, Makoto; Omori, Yasushi; Futai, Kazuma; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess accurately the three-dimensional movements of the scapula and humerus relative to the thorax during internal/external rotation motion with abduction of the shoulder joint. Ten right shoulders of ten healthy volunteers were examined using a wide-gantry open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. MRI was performed every 30° from 90° external rotation to 90° internal rotation of the shoulder joint. The contribution ratio of the scapulothoracic joint was 12.5% about the long axis of the humerus during internal/external rotation motion. With arm position changes from 90° external rotation to 60° internal rotation, most movement was performed by the glenohumeral joint. Conversely, at internal rotation of ≥60°, the scapula began to markedly tilt in the anterior direction. At 90° internal rotation, the scapula was significantly tilted anteriorly (p specific scapulohumeral motion pattern, whereby the glenohumeral joint moves with internal rotation and the scapulothoracic joint moves with anterior tilt together with internal rotation motion of the shoulder joint.

  9. Kinematic analysis of arm and trunk movements in the gait of Parkinson's disease patients based on external signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hohee; Kim, Eunjung

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the role of external cues on arm swing amplitude and trunk rotation in Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 13 elderly patients with Parkinson's disease. Subjects walked under four different conditions in a random order: no cue, visual cue, auditory cue, and combined cue. The auditory cue velocity consisted of a metronome beat 20% greater than the subject's general gait speed. For the visual cue condition, bright yellow colored strips of tape placed on the floor at intervals equal to 40% of each subject's height. A motion analysis system was used to measure arm swing amplitude and trunk rotation during walking. [Results] There was a significant difference in the kinematic variables (arm swing amplitude) between different cues, but there was not a significant difference in the kinematic variables with respect to the trunk rotation. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicate that patients with Parkinson's disease are likely to focus attention on auditory cues. The measurement of arm and trunk kinematics during gait by auditory cues can increase the available methods for the analysis of complex motor programs in movement disorders.

  10. Multi-body dynamic coupling mechanism for generating throwing arm velocity during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Tokio; Kubota, Hideaki; Maruyama, Takeo

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the detailed mechanism how the maximum throwing arm endpoint velocity is determined by the muscular torques and non-muscular interactive torques from the perspective of the dynamic coupling among the trunk, thorax and throwing and non-throwing arm segments. The pitching movements of ten male collegiate baseball pitchers were measured by a three-dimensional motion capture system. Using the induced-segmental velocity analysis (IVA) developed in this study, the maximum fingertip velocity of the throwing arm (MFV) was decomposed into each contribution of the muscular torques, passive motion-dependent torques due to gyroscopic moment, Coriolis force and centrifugal force, and other interactive torque components. The results showed that MFV (31.6±1.7m/s) was mainly attributed to two different mechanisms. The first is the passive motion-dependent effect on increasing the angular velocities of three joints (thorax rotation, elbow extension and wrist flexion). The second is the muscular torque effect of the shoulder internal rotation (IR) torque on generating IR angular velocity. In particular, the centrifugal force-induced elbow extension motion, which was the greatest contributor among individual joint contributions, was caused primarily by the angular velocity-dependent forces associated with the humerus, thorax, and trunk rotations. Our study also found that a compensatory mechanism was achieved by the negative and positive contributions of the muscular torque components. The current IVA is helpful to understand how the rapid throwing arm movement is determined by the dynamic coupling mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arm-to-arm variation when evaluating neuromuscular block: an analysis of the precision and the bias and agreement between arms when using mechanomyography or acceleromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Skovgaard, L T; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2010-01-01

    Studies comparing acceleromyography and mechanomyography indicate that the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. However, it is uncertain to what extent differences in precision between the methods and the naturally occurring arm-to-arm variation have influenced the results of these studies....... Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the precision and the arm-to-arm variation, when the same method is used on both of the arms....

  12. Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotator Cuff Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  13. Pressure distribution in the humeroradial joint and force transmission to the capitellum during rotation of the forearm: effects of the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure and incision of the interosseous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofuchi, S; Takahashi, K; Yamagata, M; Rokkaku, T; Moriya, H; Hara, T

    2001-01-01

    A biomechanical study was undertaken, using four fresh cadaveric arms, to evaluate the changes in pressure distribution in the humeroradial joint (H-R joint) during rotation of the forearm before and after the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure (S-K procedure) and also after incision of the interosseous membrane (IOM) following the S-K procedure. The pressure distribution was measured with a pressure-sensitive conductive rubber sensor while the forearm was rotated. Force transmitted to the capitellum was calculated from the measured pressure. In the intact specimens, pressure was concentrated on the medial side of the capitellum in pronation and on the posterolateral side in supination. The pattern of change after the S-K procedure and that after incision of the IOM following the S-K procedure were almost the same as that in the intact forearm. Although the force transmitted to the capitellum increased after the S-K procedure, there were no significant differences between the forces before and after the S-K procedure. However, the force increased significantly after incision of the IOM following the S-K procedure when the forearm was supinated more than 35 degrees, and it was concentrated on the posterior side of the capitellum. The IOM seemed to have an important axial load-bearing function in the forearm position supinated more than 35 degrees. The S-K procedure in patients suffering from distal radioulnar joint disorders with IOM injury is likely to induce H-R joint osteoarthritis, so it should be avoided in these patients.

  14. Fractures of the Medial Column of the Distal Humerus in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Brouwer; T.G. Guitton; J.N. Doornberg; P. Kloen; J.B. Jupiter; D. Ring

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Medial column fractures of the distal humerus are uncommon in adults. Among 26 patients identified in the English language literature, only 2 had articular fragmentation. We reviewed the experience of 2 trauma centers with isolated medial column fractures to evaluate our impression that thes

  15. Case report - curved femoral osteotomy for management of medial patellar luxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allpass, Maja; Miles, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    Medial patellaluxation kan forårsages af femoral varus hos hund. Førhen har patienter med excessiv femoralvarus været korrigeret ved en lateralt placeret femoral kile-ostektomi. Her præsenteres en case, hvor en buet osteotomi blev anvendt til behandling af medial patellaluxation....

  16. Analysis of medial deviation of center of pressure after initial heel contact in forefoot varus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Hsi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The most medial CoP of the row and CoP% detected increased medial CoP deviation in FV ≥ 8°, and may be applied to other clinical conditions where rearfoot angle and CoP of the array after initial heel contact cannot detect significant differences.

  17. Releasing the circumferential fixation of the medial meniscus does not affect its kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, A.C.T.; Tienen, van T.G.; Hannink, G.; Janssen, D.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Buma, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Meniscal functioning depends on the fixation between the meniscal horns and the surrounding tissues. It is unknown, however, whether the integration between the outer circumference of the medial meniscus and the knee capsule/medial collateral ligament also influences the biomechanical beh

  18. Correlation between the knee adduction torque and medial contact force for a variety of gait patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Banks, Scott A; Mitchell, Kim H; D'Lima, Darryl D; Colwell, Clifford W; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2007-06-01

    The external knee adduction torque has been proposed as a surrogate measure for medial compartment load during gait. However, a direct link between these two quantities has not been demonstrated using in vivo measurement of medial compartment load. This study uses in vivo data collected from a single subject with an instrumented knee implant to evaluate this link. The subject performed five different overground gait motions (normal, fast, slow, wide, and toe-out) with simultaneous collection of instrumented implant, video motion, and ground reaction data. For each trial, the knee adduction torque was measured externally while the total axial force applied to the tibial insert was measured internally. Based on data collected from the same subject performing treadmill gait under fluoroscopic motion analysis, a regression equation was developed to calculate medial contact force from the implant load cell measurements. Correlation analyses were performed for the stance phase and entire gait cycle to quantify the relationship between the knee adduction torque and both the medial contact force and the medial to total contact force ratio. When the entire gait cycle was analyzed, R(2) for medial contact force was 0.77 when all gait trials were analyzed together and between 0.69 and 0.93 when each gait trial was analyzed separately (p knee adduction torque is highly correlated with medial compartment contact force and medial to total force ratio during gait.

  19. Increased medial foot loading during drop jump in subjects with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Richter, Camilla; Brushøj, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    pressure distribution was collected during drop jump and single leg squat using pressure-sensitive Pedar insoles, inserted into a standard flat shoe. The primary outcome was the medial-to-lateral force, quantified as the peak force under the medial forefoot as the percentage of force under the total...

  20. Impact of occupational mechanical exposures on risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia requiring surgical repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Marie Vestergaard; Frost, Poul; Bay-Nielsen, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair.......We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair....