WorldWideScience

Sample records for arkansas power-lsenic 71

  1. Slamming Arkansas Schools!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. Clayton

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author, a poet and teaching artist, shares how he successfully brought slam poetry to College Hill Middle School in Texarkana, Arkansas. In 2001 he discovered slam poetry--a poetry-reading format in which poets compete in dramatic readings of their works--and went to Slam Nationals in Seattle on the Arkansas slam team. He…

  2. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  3. Arkansas River Water Needs Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the legal elements, hydrologic analysis, objectives, and water levels related to the Arkansas River and the management of it.

  4. Libraries in Arkansas: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/arkansas.html Libraries in Arkansas To use the sharing features on ... Center Northwest - U Ark Med Sci AHEC - Northwest Library 1125 N College Ave Fayetteville, AR 72703 479- ...

  5. 75 FR 11195 - Central Arkansas National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... obtain a copy of the CCP by writing to: Mr. William R. Smith, Planning Team Leader, Central Arkansas... International Importance.'' Cache River NWR is noted as part of the most important wintering habitats for..., Including the Preferred Alternative A planning team comprised of Service personnel, State...

  6. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.

  7. Plant Nematodes Occurring in Arkansas

    OpenAIRE

    Wehunt, E. J.; Golden, A. M.; Robbins, R. T.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 110 species of plant nematodes were found in various habitats in Arkansas. Thirty species from 19 genera are reported here for the first time. Included in the new reports are the known plant pathogens Criconemella onoense, Hirshmanniella oryzae, Longidorus elongatus, and Pratylenchus pratensis.

  8. Arkansas State University Beebe Branch Faculty Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Univ., Beebe.

    Arkansas State University Beebe Branch provides a liberal arts oriented program for traditional and nontraditional students. Its faculty handbook contains institutional goals, description of responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty committees, faculty employment policies, and administrative and instructional policies. The…

  9. 2015 Fact Book: Arkansas Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides governmental and higher education decision-makers a statewide perspective of Arkansas public higher education finance for the 2015-17 biennium, as well as trends for the past several years. It also contains a detailed financial profile of each institution and presents a basis for comparative assessments of revenue sources…

  10. 78 FR 9448 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00061

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Arkansas Disaster AR-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  11. Battle Brewing Over Arkansas Creationism Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy

    1981-01-01

    Reports recent proceedings regarding a new law enacted in early 1981 in Arkansas which requires schools that teach evolution to teach what the law calls "creation-science." Opposition to the law by the American Civil Liberties Union is discussed. (CS)

  12. 78 FR 5202 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Arkansas State University Museum... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Arkansas State University Museum....

  13. 78 FR 5199 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Arkansas State University Museum... associated funerary objects may contact the Arkansas State University Museum. Repatriation of the...

  14. Identifying sites for elk restoration in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesco, R.L.; Van Manen, F.T.; Clark, J.D.; Cartwright, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    We used spatial data to identify potential areas for elk (Cervus elaphus) restoration in Arkansas. To assess habitat, we used locations of 239 elk groups collected from helicopter surveys in the Buffalo National River area of northwestern Arkansas, USA, from 1992 to 2002. We calculated the Mahalanobis distance (D2) statistic based on the relationship between those elk-group locations and a suite of 9 landscape variables to evaluate winter habitat in Arkansas. We tested model performance in the Buffalo National River area by comparing the D2 values of pixels representing areas with and without elk pellets along 19 fixed-width transects surveyed in March 2002. Pixels with elk scat had lower D2 values than pixels in which we found no pellets (logistic regression: Wald χ2 = 24.37, P cover, gently sloping ridge tops and valleys, low human population density, and low road densities. To assess the potential for elk–human conflicts in Arkansas, we used the analytical hierarchy process to rank the importance of 8 criteria based on expert opinion from biologists involved in elk management. The biologists ranked availability of forage on public lands as having the strongest influence on the potential for elk–human conflict (33%), followed by human population growth rate (22%) and the amount of private land in row crops (18%). We then applied those rankings in a weighted linear summation to map the relative potential for elk–human conflict. Finally, we used white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities to identify areas where success of elk restoration may be hampered due to meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) transmission. By combining results of the 3 spatial data layers (i.e., habitat model, elk–human conflict model, deer density), our model indicated that restoration sites located in west-central and north-central Arkansas were most favorable for reintroduction.

  15. Pine Mountain Revisited: An Archeological Study in the Arkansas Ozarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    that Winbcst :ound on the wall of Shelter 2. These tlree red -:iarks on the wall were indistinct as to shape or what they rcpreo-ented. Herbest notd...the Arkansas Ozarks, compiled by L. Mark Raab. Arkansas Archeological Survey Research ,eport 7:31-39. Flenniken, J. Jeffrey and Robert A. Taylor 1977...J. Jeffrey Flennikcen and Robert A. Taylor. 1977. 103 pages. $4.00 No. 12 Contract Archeology in the Lower Mississippi Valley of Arkansas

  16. A Feasibility Study of Youth Apprenticeship in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs for the Future, Inc., West Somerville, MA.

    A study assessed the feasibility and attractiveness of youth apprenticeship in Arkansas in over 80 interviews with employers in 5 key Arkansas industries and occupations. They were allied health, food processing (equipment repair and maintenance and lab technician/quality control), information services, metalworking, and self-employment and…

  17. 78 FR 61251 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas. AGENCY: Federal... Making filed by Sydney Allison Sugg, proposing the allotment of Channel 270C3 at Heber Springs, Arkansas, as the community's third local service. Channel 270C3 can be allotted to Heber Springs...

  18. 75 FR 44982 - Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and Long-Term Excess Capacity Master Contract, Fryingpan-Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ..., Fryingpan-Arkansas Project (Fry-Ark Project) Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... proposed feature of the Fryingpan-Arkansas (Fry-Ark) Project, and the issuance of an Excess Capacity Master...-Ark Project water in Pueblo Reservoir, a feature of the Fry-Ark Project. The water would be used...

  19. Enterovirus 71 Outbreak, Brunei

    OpenAIRE

    AbuBakar, Sazaly; Sam, I-Ching; Yusof, Jaliha; Lim, Meng Keang; Misbah, Suzana; ,; Hooi, Poh-Sim

    2009-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreaks occur periodically in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, Brunei reported its first major outbreak of EV71 infections, associated with fatalities from neurologic complications. Isolated EV71 strains formed a distinct lineage with low diversity within subgenogroup B5, suggesting recent introduction and rapid spread within Brunei.

  20. Arkansas' Anemometer Loan Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Vego

    2012-10-11

    The measurement campaign had one year duration from 04/01/2011 to 03/31/2012 and was taken at 20m and 34m with NRG instrumentation. The data was analyzed weekly to check inconsistencies and validity and processed using Excel, Flexpro and Windographer standard Edition Version 2.04. The site analyzed is located in the Waldron, Arkansas in Scott County. It is an open site for most of the direction sectors with immediate roughness class of 1.5. It has seasonally directional winds, of which the most energetic come from the southern direction. The vertical wind profile shows moderate wind shear that varies by season as well.

  1. Earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity 1699-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard L.; Ausbrooks, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    This map summarizes approximately 300 years of earthquake activity in Arkansas. It is one in a series of similar State earthquake history maps. Work on the Arkansas map was done in collaboration with the Arkansas Geological Survey. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Arkansas Geological Survey, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials presented include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Arkansas and parts of adjacent states. Arkansas has undergone a number of significant felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

  2. Aquifers of Arkansas: protection, management, and hydrologic and geochemical characteristics of groundwater resources in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Merriman, Katherine R.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Fugitt, D. Todd; Spellman, Jane L.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Blackstock, Joshua M.; Battreal, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen aquifers in Arkansas that currently serve or have served as sources of water supply are described with respect to existing groundwater protection and management programs, geology, hydrologic characteristics, water use, water levels, deductive analysis, projections of hydrologic conditions, and water quality. State and Federal protection and management programs are described according to regulatory oversight, management strategies, and ambient groundwater-monitoring programs that currently (2013) are in place for assessing and protecting groundwater resources throughout the State.

  3. Recombinant Human Enterovirus 71

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Two human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) isolates were identified from hand, foot and mouth disease patients with genome sequences that had high similarity to HEV71 (>93%) at 5´ UTR, P1, and P2 and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, >85%) at P3 and 3´UTR. Intertypic recombination is likely to have occurred between HEV71 and CV-A16 or an as-yet to be described CV-A16-like virus.

  4. Receptors for enterovirus 71

    OpenAIRE

    Yamayoshi, Seiya; Fujii, Ken; Koike, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Occasionally, EV71 infection is associated with severe neurological diseases, such as acute encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and cardiopulmonary failure. Several molecules act as cell surface receptors that stimulate EV71 infection, including scavenger receptor B2 (SCARB2), P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), sialylated glycan, heparan sulfate and annexin II (Anx2). SCARB2 plays crit...

  5. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This document consists of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner agricultural crop, agricultural waste, municipal waste and industrial waste in Arkansas that are potential biomass energy sources.

  6. Central Arkansas National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Central Arkansas NWR Complex for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Complex...

  7. Final Critical Habitat for the Arkansas River Shiner (Notropis girardi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Arkansas River Shiner (Notropis girardi) occur. The geographic extent includes New...

  8. Archeological Investigation at Montgomery Point, Desha County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    listed in the same census were the voyageurs trading on the Arkansas, White and St. Francis Rivers (Vaudreull Papers, LO 200). Life at the post settled...tied to the systems of navigation and commerce on the Mississippi, Arkansas, and White Rivers. Although the Mississippi River was a highway of trade...was guaranteed that a real system of commerce developed. Beginning with flatboats and keelboats, expanding during the steamboat era, and continuing into

  9. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands in the Arkansas Valley Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    the Arkansas River was incising into the sedimentary rocks of the valley, and periods in the Holocene when the river was aggrading caused by changes...from the adjacent upland slopes. Slack- water deposits formed from aggradation of the Arkansas River during the Holocene, which in turn caused...tributary streambeds to aggrade , resulting in “drowning” of the tributaries and deposition of thick deposits of fine-grained sediments. This process

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  11. 78 FR 72877 - Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice... Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Arkansas Electric Corporation (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company...

  12. 40 CFR 81.139 - Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.139 Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Arkansas Intrastate...

  13. 40 CFR 81.140 - Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.140 Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northwest Arkansas Intrastate...

  14. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.138 Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Arkansas Intrastate...

  15. 75 FR 66306 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ..., Little Rock, AR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Drawbridge operations for the Baring Cross Railroad Drawbridge across the Arkansas Waterway at Mile 119.6 at Little Rock, Arkansas... (NPRM) entitled Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Little ] Rock, AR in the...

  16. Biography of Dr. Eugene W. Smith Arkansas State University President 1984 to 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Glenda

    2012-01-01

    A president of a university in the state of Arkansas would benefit from researching the roots of the educational system within the state. Even though the state now has a number of universities that have evolved and are on the cutting-edge of advanced technology, Arkansas was slow in growth and development. Since Arkansas was slow to expand public…

  17. 10 CFR 71.71 - Normal conditions of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Normal conditions of transport. 71.71 Section 71.71 Energy..., Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.71 Normal conditions of transport. (a) Evaluation. Evaluation of each package design under normal conditions of transport must include a determination of the effect...

  18. Peak streamflow on selected streams in Arkansas, December 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaker, Brian K.

    2017-01-11

    Heavy rainfall during December 2015 resulted in flooding across parts of Arkansas; rainfall amounts were as high as 12 inches over a period from December 27, 2015, to December 29, 2015. Although precipitation accumulations were highest in northwestern Arkansas, significant flooding occurred in other parts of the State. Flood damage occurred in several counties as water levels rose in streams, and disaster declarations were declared in 32 of the 75 counties in Arkansas.Given the severity of the December 2015 flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), conducted a study to document the meteorological and hydrological conditions prior to and during the flood; compiled flood-peak gage heights, streamflows, and flood probabilities at USGS streamflow-gaging stations; and estimated streamflows and flood probabilities at selected ungaged locations.

  19. Black bears in Arkansas: Characteristics of a successful translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    In 1958, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission began translocating black bears (Ursus americanus) from Minnesota to the Interior Highlands (Ozark and Ouachita mountains) of Arkansas where bears had been extirpated early in this century. This project continued for 11 years with little public imput, during which time an estimated 254 bears were released. We estimate there are now >2,500 bears in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, making it one of the most successful translocations of a Carnivora. Factors that contributed to the success include use of wild-captured animals, elimination of major factors associated with extirpation, release into prime habitats within the former range, multiple release sites, release of 20–40 animals/year for eight years, and release of mostly males prior to release of mostly females. Studies on two allopatric populations demonstrate that they are now diverging in some demographic characteristics, including litter size, cub survivorship, and adult sex-ratio. Translocation of black bears to the Interior Highlands is successful in terms of numbers of animals, but it will not be truly successful until people accept black bears as part of the regional fauna. To that end, those associated with management and research of bears in Arkansas are now focussing on public education and control of nuisance bears.

  20. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    State minimum core curricula for two-year and four-year colleges and universities have been approved by the Arkansas Board of Higher Education. Within the framework of the State Minimum Core, each state institution is required to propose 35 semester/credit hours from its institutional general education core to be recognized for purposes of the…

  1. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This document provides state minimum core curricula for each two- and four-year institution of higher education in Arkansas, determined by the Department of Higher Education. Courses within this core are to apply toward the general education core curriculum requirements for baccalaureate degrees at state-supported institutions and should be fully…

  2. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    In 1990 the Arkansas State Board of Higher Education adopted guidelines for the development of state minimum core curriculum response to state legislation. This legislation provides that courses within the core shall apply to the general education core curriculum requirements for baccalaureate degrees at state-supported institutions and shall be…

  3. Risks, Assets, and Negative Health Behaviors among Arkansas' Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Choudary, Wendie; Kearney, Anne; Piko, Bettina F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between risk, assets, and negative health behaviors among a large sample of Hispanic adolescents. Data were collected from over 1,000 Hispanic youth in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 attending school in a moderate size school district in Northwest Arkansas. Logistic regression models examined the variation in the odds…

  4. Project CAP. Boston Mountains Educational Cooperative, Greenland, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jack A.; Leffler, Jeanne

    This description of career education activities in Greenland, Arkansas, was prepared as part of a study conducted to identify evaluated, exemplary career education activities which represent the best of the current career education programs and practices referred to in Public Law 93-380. (See CE 018 212 for the final report of this study.) This…

  5. Lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to assess the potential of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas, as a viable source of public-supply water was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Little Rock, District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. An important study component was to identify possible changes in hydrologic conditions following installation of James W. Trimble Lock and Dam 13 (December 1969) on the Arkansas River near the study area. Data were gathered for the study in regard to the lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the aquifer. Lithologic information was obtained from drillers’ logs of wells drilled from 1957 through 1959. Water-quality samples were collected from 10 irrigation wells and analyzed for inorganic constituents and pesticides. To evaluate the potential viability of the alluvial aquifer in the Van Buren area, these data were compared to similar stratigraphic, lithologic, and groundwater-quality data from the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer at Dardanelle, Ark., where the aquifer provides a proven, productive, sole-source of public-supply water.

  6. Multi-site Management Plan Ecoregional Conservation for the Ouachita Ecoregion Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Ecological Studies: Analysis of vertebrates in the Inyo-white Mountains, California . In Proc: Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals...Forests in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas and Oklahoma, Winrock International; 1992. Duncan, Wilbur H. and Leonard E. Foote. Wildflowers of the...Trees, Shrubs and Vines of Arkansas. Ozark Soc. Found.; 1989. Hunter, Carl G. Wildflowers of Arkansas (3rd. ed.). Ozark Soc. Found.; 1992 Hyatt

  7. Middle Claiborne Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outcrop and subcrop extent of the Middle Claiborne Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee.

  8. Histoplasmosis associated with a bamboo bonfire--Arkansas, October 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Dirk T; Safi, Haytham; Holcomb, David; Smith, Nathaniel; Wagner, Kendall D; Bolden, Branson B; Harik, Nada S

    2014-02-28

    On October 27, 2011, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) was notified by a northeast Arkansas primary care provider of a cluster of three histoplasmosis cases. On November 4, ADH was notified by a pediatric infectious diseases specialist regarding seven potential cases of pulmonary histoplasmosis associated with a family gathering that included a bonfire that burned bamboo from a grove that had been a red-winged blackbird roost. These reports prompted an outbreak investigation to ensure that the persons involved received appropriate medical care, to identify whether any novel exposures were associated with illness, and to determine whether any factors were associated with hospitalization. The investigation found that, among the 19 attendees at the family gathering, seven were confirmed with histoplasmosis, 11 were probable, and one did not have histoplasmosis.

  9. Floods of Selected Streams in Arkansas, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Jaysson E.; Eng, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Floods can cause loss of life and extensive destruction to property. Monitoring floods and understanding the reasons for their occurrence are the responsibility of many Federal agencies. The National Weather Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey are among the most visible of these agencies. Together, these three agencies collect and analyze floodflow information to better understand the variety of mechanisms that cause floods, and how the characteristics and frequencies of floods vary with time and location. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored and assessed the quantity of streamflow in our Nation's streams since the agency's inception in 1879. Because of ongoing collection and assessment of streamflow data, the USGS can provide information about a range of surface-water issues including the suitability of water for public supply and irrigation and the effects of agriculture and urbanization on streamflow. As part of its streamflow-data collection activities, the USGS measured streamflow in multiple streams during extreme flood events in Arkansas in the spring of 2008. The analysis of streamflow information collected during flood events such as these provides a scientific basis for decision making related to resource management and restoration. Additionally, this information can be used by water-resource managers to better define flood-hazard areas and to design bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures. Water levels (stage) and streamflow (discharge) currently are being monitored in near real-time at approximately 150 locations in Arkansas. The streamflow-gaging stations measure and record hydrologic data at 15-minute or hourly intervals; the data then are transmitted through satellites to the USGS database and displayed on the internet every 1 to 4 hours. Streamflow-gaging stations in Arkansas are part of a network of over 7,500 active streamflow-gaging stations operated by the USGS throughout the United

  10. Environmental Impact Assessment. Overall Training Mission, Fort Chaffee, Arkansas,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Lindane for fleas, and Warfarin for mice. (f) Fire protection and prevention. Fort Chaffee maintains its own fire protection service. At present...Sebastian County have inadequate diets , according to statistics acquired by the Cooperative Extension Service of~ the University of Arkansas, Division...adequate diet or lack knowledge of the basic four food groups. Homemakers lack the knowledge of principles of food cookery. Homemakers lack knowledge

  11. Suramin inhibits EV71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is one of the major causative reagents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections and leads to numerous dead cases. Although several inactivated whole-virus vaccines have entered in clinical trials, no antiviral agent has been provided for clinical therapy. In the present work, we screened our compound library and identified that suramin, which has been clinically used to treat variable diseases, could inhibit EV71 proliferation with an IC50 value of 40 μM. We further revealed that suramin could block the attachment of EV71 to host cells to regulate the early stage of EV71 infection, as well as affected other steps of EV71 life cycle. Our results are helpful to understand the mechanism for EV71 life cycle and provide a potential for the usage of an approved drug, suramin, as the antiviral against EV71 infection.

  12. Potentiometric surfaces and water-level trends in the Cockfield (upper Claiborne) aquifer in southern Arkansas and the Wilcox (lower Wilcox) aquifer of northeastern and southern Arkansas, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kirk D.

    2015-01-01

    The Cockfield aquifer, located in southern Arkansas, is composed of Eocene-age sand beds found near the base of the Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group. The Wilcox aquifer, located in northeastern and southern Arkansas, is composed of Paleocene-age sand beds found in the middle to lower part of the Wilcox Group. The Cockfield and Wilcox aquifers are primary sources of groundwater. In 2010, withdrawals from the Cockfield aquifer in Arkansas totaled 19.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), and withdrawals from the Wilcox aquifer totaled 36.5 Mgal/d.

  13. Transport and transformation of nutrients and sediment in two agricultural watersheds in northeast Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture is vital to Arkansas economy as it contributes $20 billion annually, double the average national contribution to the state GDP. Arkansas is ranked in the top 5 in rice, cotton seed and sorghum, and top 20 in soybean, corn for grain, and wheat production nationally. Despite the importance...

  14. 78 FR 27306 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dermott, Arkansas, and Cleveland, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Dermott, Arkansas, and Cleveland, Mississippi AGENCY... CFR part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant... Delta Radio Network, LLC, substitutes FM Channel 224A for 289A at Dermott, Arkansas, and substitutes...

  15. Association of School-Based Influenza Vaccination Clinics and School Absenteeism--Arkansas, 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquelais, Rachel E.; Safi, Haytham; Butler, Sandra; Smith, Nathaniel; Haselow, Dirk T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a major cause of seasonal viral respiratory illness among school-aged children. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) coordinates >800 school-based influenza immunization clinics before each influenza season. We quantified the relationship between student influenza vaccination in Arkansas public schools…

  16. 78 FR 14319 - Arkansas; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-4100-DR), dated January 29,...

  17. 76 FR 36142 - Arkansas; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-1975-DR), dated May 2, 2011,...

  18. Water-quality investigation of the Tyronza River watershed, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a 1-year study of surface-water quality in the Tyronza River Watershed, Arkansas, are presented to document conditions before implementation of Soil Conservation Service Programs. The report includes a general description of the watershed 's topography, geology, and aquifers, and the results of monthly measurements of discharge at five sites, and several physical and chemical parameters, plus quarterly analyses for several ions and semiannual analyses of bottom material for various pesticides. The results indicate that the quality of the water in the streams and ditches samples is normal for an intensely farmed area such as this watershed. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Tectonic origin of Crowley's Ridge, northeastern Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanArsdale, R.B. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Geology Dept.); Williams, R.A.; Shedlock, K.M.; King, K.W.; Odum, J.K. (Geological survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center); Schweig, E.S. III; Kanter, L.R. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Crowley's Ridge is a 320 km long topographic ridge that extends from Thebes, Illinois to Helena, Arkansas. The ridge has been interpreted as an erosional remnant formed during Quaternary incision of the ancestral Mississippi and Ohio rivers; however, the Reelfoot Rift COCORP line identified a down-to-the-west fault bounding the western margin of Crowley's Ridge south of Jonesboro, Arkansas. Subsequent Mini-Sosie seismic reflection profiles confirmed the COCORP data and identified additional faults beneath other margins of the ridge. In each case the faults lie beneath the base of the ridge scarp. The Mini-Sosie data did not resolve the uppermost 150 m and so it was not possible to determine if the faults displace the near-surface Claiborne Group (middle Eocene). A shotgun source seismic reflection survey was subsequently conducted to image the uppermost 250 m across the faulted margins. The shotgun survey across the western margin of the ridge south of Jonesboro reveals displaced reflectors as shallow as 30 m depth. Claiborne Group strata are displaced approximately 6 m and it appears that some of the topographic relief of Crowley's Ridge at this location is due to post middle Eocene fault displacement. Based on the reflection data, the authors suggest that Crowley's Ridge is tectonic in origin.

  20. Woodpecker densities in the big woods of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscier, J.D.; Krementz, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Sightings of the now-feared-extinct ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis in 2004 in the Big Woods of Arkansas initiated a series of studies on how to best manage habitat for this endangered species as well as all woodpeckers in the area. Previous work suggested that densities of other woodpeckers, particularly pileated Dryocopus pileatus and red-bellied Melanerpes carolinus woodpeckers, might be useful in characterizing habitat use by the ivory-billed woodpecker. We estimated densities of six woodpecker species in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and also during the winter season of 2007. Our estimated densities were as high as or higher than previously published woodpecker density estimates for the Southeastern United States. Density estimates ranged from 9.1 to 161.3 individuals/km2 across six woodpecker species. Our data suggest that the Big Woods of Arkansas is attractive to all woodpeckers using the region, including ivory-billed woodpeckers.

  1. 78 FR 56170 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; denial of application for review. SUMMARY: In...

  2. Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee; 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outcrop and subcrop extent of the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

  3. Middle Claiborne Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Claiborne Confining Unit in Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The hydrogeologic...

  4. Vicksburg-Jackson Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Vicksburg-Jackson Confining Unit in Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The hydrogeologic unit...

  5. Middle Wilcox Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Wolcox Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The hydrogeologic...

  6. Lower Wilcox Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi. The hydrogeologic unit dataset contains 414 rows and 394...

  7. 78 FR 48716 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Arkansas Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Arkansas River Basin, groundwater, climate change, recreation biological resources, human environment, socioeconomics, environmental justice, and historic properties. A Notice of Availability of the Draft EIS was... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  8. An Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration Options for Grand Prairie Region of Arkansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options covers the hydrogeomorphic analysis (HGM) for Grand Prairie Region of Arkansas. This three step...

  9. The fishes of Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, B.G.; Petersen, James C.

    2005-01-01

    A fish inventory was conducted at Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, during base-flow conditions in September 2003. Six sites including four streams and two ponds were sampled using conventional electrofishing equipment (a seine also was used at one site). There were 653 individuals collected comprising 18 species (plus 1 hybrid) and 15 genera. The number of species collected at the four stream sites ranged from 1 16. Most fish species collected generally are associated with small streams in the Ozark Plateaus. The two most common species were the banded sculpin and the southern redbelly dace. Three species and a sunfish hybrid were collected from the quarry pond. No fish were collected from the unnamed pond. A preliminary expected species list incorrectly listed 42 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. One species not on the original list was added to the revised list. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 18 the 40 species (45 percent) and 1 hybrid. No previous fish inventories have been completed for park but some observations can be made relative to species distributions. There were only five fish species collected in three headwater streams, and it is unlikely that many other species would occur in these three streams because of constraints imposed on the fish community by stream size. Little Sugar Creek, a medium-sized stream, had the most species collected, and it is likely that additional species would be collected from this stream if additional sampling were to occur. Distribution records indicate that all 18 species occur in the general area. Although no species collected in this study are federallylisted threatened or endangered species, three species collected at Pea Ridge National Military Park may be of some special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Two the species collected (cardinal shiner and stippled darter) are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus; both are rather common in certain

  10. First isolation of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 from Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamarão Leticia Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 has been associated to cases of neurological disease in many countries including Brazil. This virus has now been reported from three of the five Brazilian regions. Our study relates the findings concerning to the first isolate of this virus in Northern region of Brazil. A 15-month old female patient, from the rural zone of the municipality of Santana do Araguaia in southern Pará state was admitted at the hospital with acute, flaccid, asymmetric and ascending motor deficiency, located in the right lower limb. Stools samples from this child were inoculated in RD cells and was isolated an EV-71. We plan to sequence our strain and compare it to other isolates in Brazil. Differences at the molecular level can explain why EV-71 strains circulating in other continents, such as Asia, appear to be more virulent.

  11. Enterovirus 71 infection and vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious viral infection affecting young children during the spring to fall seasons. Recently, serious outbreaks of HFMD were reported frequently in the Asia-Pacific region, including China and Korea. The symptoms of HFMD are usually mild, comprising fever, loss of appetite, and a rash with blisters, which do not need specific treatment. However, there are uncommon neurological or cardiac complications such as meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis that can be fatal. HFMD is most commonly caused by infection with coxsackievirus A16, and secondly by enterovirus 71 (EV71). Many other strains of coxsackievirus and enterovirus can also cause HFMD. Importantly, HFMD caused by EV71 tends to be associated with fatal complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need to protect against EV71 infection. Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent EV71 outbreaks. Here, we summarize EV71 infection and development of vaccines, focusing on current scientific and clinical progress. PMID:28168168

  12. The Arkansas AHEC model of community-oriented primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, M S; Landis, B J

    1999-07-01

    This article explicates the Arkansas Area Health Education Center (AHEC) model of community-oriented primary care (COPC) and the role of the family nurse practitioner (FNP) in its implementation. The AHECs collaborate with local agencies to provide comprehensive, accessible, quality health care to specific patient populations, and offer learning opportunities to a wide variety of health professions students. The FNP demonstrates organizational and role competencies that include directing patient care, providing professional leadership, and developing the advanced practice nursing role. Two case studies are used to illustrate the FNPs' approach to COPC: (1) selection of interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and transdisciplinary approaches to management of a patient with chronic illnesses, and (2) the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners Training Project.

  13. Folic acid and the decline in neural tube defects in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A; Flowers, Bettye S; Smith, Veronica; Robbins, James M

    2007-04-01

    Folic acid has been shown to reduce the risk of pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (NTDs) by as much as 70%. Cereal grains sold in the U.S. have been fortified with folic acid since 1998. The Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System and the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition have encouraged use of folic acid and monitored the impact of increased consumption of folic acid among Arkansans. NTDs in Arkansas have declined 40% since intervention programs were implemented. The greatest decline has been observed among white and Hispanic women. Efforts to encourage folic acid consumption should continue to target Arkansas women. NTDs include anencephaly and spina bifida. These birth defects result from incomplete closure of the fetal neural tube during the first month of pregnancy. Infants with anencephaly are born without all or most of their brain and die within a few days of life. Infants with spina bifida have varying degrees of impairment ranging from little noticeable disability to severe, lifelong disability. Folic acid, when taken in supplement form has been shown to reduce the risk of a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect by as much as 70%. As a result of this finding, the U.S. Federal Drug Administration mandated that cereal grains sold in this country be fortified with at least 140 mcg of folic acid per 100 grams of grain by January 1, 1998. Prior to mandatory fortification, the March of Dimes and the U.S. Public Health Service released statements encouraging all women of reproductive age who are capable of becoming pregnant to take 400 mcg 'of synthetic folic acid daily. The Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System (ARHMS) has monitored rates of NTDs in Arkansas since 1980. ARHMS is the lead agency of the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition whose mission is to encourage folic acid use among all Arkansas women of reproductive age. In this report, we summarize efforts by ARHMS and the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition to increase the awareness and

  14. Challenges to Licensure of Enterovirus 71 Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Shi Lee; Fan-Chen Tseng; Jen-Ren Wang; Chia-Yu Chi; Pele Chong; Ih-Jen Su

    2012-01-01

    Human enteroviruses usually cause self-limited infections except polioviruses and enterovirus 71 (EV71), which frequently involve neurological complications. EV71 vaccines are being evaluated in humans. However, several challenges to licensure of EV71 vaccines need to be addressed. Firstly, EV71 and coxsackievirus A (CA) are frequently found to co-circulate and cause hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). A polyvalent vaccine that can provide protection against EV71 and prevalent CA are desirable. S...

  15. Structure determination of enterovirus 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

    2013-02-20

    Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

  16. Structure determination of enterovirus 71

    OpenAIRE

    Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the orientation of the enterovirus 71 virions in the crystal required the calculation of a locked rotation function that included only icosahedral threefold and fivefold symmetry axes. Otherwise, misleading high rotation-function values were produced by accidental alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes.

  17. The fishes of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Fish communities were sampled from eight sites within Hot Springs National Park. Fish were collected by seining and electrofishing during base-flow periods in July and October 2003. All individuals were identified to species. More than 1,020 individuals were collected, representing 24 species. The number of species collected at the sites ranged from 5 to 19. Central stoneroller, orangebelly darter, and longear sunfish were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. These species are typical of small streams in this area. An expected species list incorrectly listed 35 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 24 of the 51 expected species (47 percent). No species collected in 2003 were federally-listed threatened or endangered species. However, two species collected at Hot Springs National Park may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. The Ouachita madtom is endemic to the Ouachita Mountains and is listed as a species of special concern by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. The grass carp, which is a native of eastern Asia, is present in Ricks Pond; one individual was collected and no other grass carp were observed. The introduction of grass carp into the United States is a controversial issue because of possible (but undocumented) harmful effects on native species and habitats.

  18. A rare Uroglena bloom in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William R.; Hufhines, Brad

    2017-01-01

    A combination of factors triggered a Uroglena volvox bloom and taste and odor event in Beaver Lake, a water-supply reservoir in northwest Arkansas, in late April 2015. Factors contributing to the bloom included increased rainfall and runoff containing increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, followed by a stable pool, low nutrient concentrations, and an expansion of lake surface area and littoral zone. This was the first time U. volvox was identified in Beaver Lake and the first time it was recognized as a source of taste and odor. Routine water quality samples happened to be collected by the US Geological Survey and the Beaver Water District throughout the reservoir during the bloom—. Higher than normal rainfall in March 2015 increased the pool elevation in Beaver Lake by 2.3 m (by early April), increased the surface area by 10%, and increased the littoral zone by 1214 ha; these conditions persisted for 38 days, resulting from flood water being retained behind the dam. Monitoring programs that cover a wide range of reservoir features, including dissolved organic carbon, zooplankton, and phytoplankton, are valuable in explaining unusual events such as this Uroglena bloom.

  19. Sadness, suicide, and bullying in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey -- 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan; Messias, Erick

    2013-10-01

    Bullying is a common exposure in high school and more recently cyberbullying has become prevalent among teens. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of school bullying and cyberbullying and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 11.6% of students reported only school bullying, 6.2% only cyberbullying, and 10.2% both forms of bullying. We determined "feeling unsafe at school" was a significant risk factor for depression and all suicide questions. We also found that being a victim of school bullying, cyberbullying, or both, increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, and plan.

  20. Detection of enterovirus 71 (EV71)%肠道病毒71型(EV71)的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宪华

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨肠道病毒71型(EV71)的检测方法.方法 采用酶联免疫法(ELISA法)、免疫胶体金法(胶体金法)、荧光定量PCR法(PCR法)对1399例手足口病患儿的样本进行检测,并对检测结果进行卡方检验.结果 1399例手足口病患儿样本ELISA法、金标法、PCR法结果的阳性率分别为37.8%、36.0%、39.8%,三种方法检验结果 无显著性差异(x2=4.197,P>0.05).ELISA法与胶体金法及PCR法结果比较均无显著性差异(x2=0.959,P>0.05;x2=1.180,P>0.05);胶体金法与PCR法两者之间差异有统计学意义(x2=4.26,P<0.05).结论 这三种肠道病毒71型(EV71)检测方法无显著差异,但胶体金法方便快捷,PCR法精准,ELISA法可作为常规使用.

  1. Nutrient Concentrations, Loads, and Yields in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The City of Tulsa, Oklahoma, uses Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake in the Eucha-Spavinaw basin in northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma for public water supply. Taste and odor problems in the water attributable to blue-green algae have increased in frequency. Changes in the algae community in the lakes may be attributable to increases in nutrient levels in the lakes, and in the waters feeding the lakes. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tulsa, investigated and summarized nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and provided estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations in the Eucha-Spavinaw basin for three 3-year periods - 2002-2004, 2003-2005, and 2004-2006, to update a previous report that used data from water-quality samples for a 3-year period from January 2002 through December 2004. This report provides information needed to advance knowledge of the regional hydrologic system and understanding of hydrologic processes, and provides hydrologic data and results useful to multiple agencies for interstate agreements. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in runoff samples than in base-flow samples for all three periods at Spavinaw Creek near Maysville, Arkansas; Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma. Runoff concentrations were not significantly greater than base-flow concentrations at Spavinaw Creek near Cherokee, Arkansas; and Spavinaw Creek near Sycamore, Oklahoma except for phosphorus during 2003-2005. Nitrogen concentrations in base-flow samples significantly increased downstream in Spavinaw Creek from the Maysville to Sycamore stations then significantly decreased from the Sycamore to the Colcord stations for all three periods. Nitrogen in base-flow samples from Beaty Creek was significantly less than in samples from Spavinaw Creek. Phosphorus concentrations in base-flow samples significantly increased from the Maysville to

  2. Geologic map of the Murray Quadrangle, Newton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2016-07-06

    This map summarizes the geology of the Murray quadrangle in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the area is on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that has the oldest rocks exposed at its center, in Missouri. Physiographically, the Murray quadrangle is within the Boston Mountains, a high plateau region underlain by Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales. Valleys of the Buffalo River and Little Buffalo River and their tributaries expose an approximately 1,600-ft-thick (488-meter-thick) sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. The Buffalo National River, a park that encompasses the Buffalo River and adjacent land that is administered by the National Park Service is present at the northwestern edge of the quadrangle.Mapping for this study was carried out by field inspection of numerous sites and was compiled as a 1:24,000 geographic information system (GIS) database. Locations and elevation of sites were determined with the aid of a global positioning satellite receiver and a hand-held barometric altimeter that was frequently recalibrated at points of known elevation. Hill-shade relief and slope maps derived from a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model as well as orthophotographs were used to help trace ledge-forming units between field traverses within the Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian part of the stratigraphic sequence. Strike and dip of beds were typically measured along stream drainages or at well-exposed ledges. Structure contours, constructed on the top of the Boone Formation and the base of a prominent sandstone unit within the Bloyd Formation, were drawn based on the elevations of field sites on these contacts well as other limiting information for their minimum elevations above hilltops or their maximum elevations below valley bottoms.

  3. The Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Ninth-Grade Students in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Shellie Lyne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose, scope, and method of study. The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what degree a relationship existed between physical fitness and the academic achievement of ninth-grade public school students in Arkansas. A sample of 152 students from four different schools participated in the study. The dependent variable was academic…

  4. Dry matter partitioning and quality of Miscanthus, Panicum, and Saccharum genotypes in Arkansas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partitioning and quality of aboveground biomass have important ramifications for crop management and biomass conversion. In preliminary studies, small samples of Saccharum sp. x Miscanthus sp. hybrids exhibited stubble cold tolerance in west-central Arkansas, unlike Saccharum sp. x S. spontaneum...

  5. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  6. Implications of Teacher Motivation and Renewal Indicators in Arkansas toward Professional Growth and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Lary D.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to determine if the teaching population in the state of Arkansas had a more favorable attitude toward specific motivational theories and practices; and to determine if that attitude significantly affected the teacher retention rate and the quality of work produced. The literature reviewed included the role of…

  7. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  8. Utilizing Professional Learning Community Concepts and Social Networking for State Advocacy: The Arkansas Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Shelly; Chadwick, Mona; Bangs, David; Holt, Carleton; Longing, Jeff; Duyar, Ibrihim

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) state affiliate, Arkansas Professors of Educational Administration's (ARPEA), activities, accomplishments, and advocacy efforts. Faced with numerous changes being implemented in education in the state, it became imperative for ARPEA's…

  9. Arkansas Public Higher Education Personal Services Recommendations, 2011-2013 Biennium. 7-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication lists "non-classified" personal services recommendations of the Arkansas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and "classified" positions recommended by the Office of Personnel Management, Department of Finance and Administration for public institutions of higher education for the 2011-13 biennium. The Office of…

  10. Arkansas Public Higher Education Personal Services Recommendations: Fiscal Year 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication lists non-classified personal services recommendations of the Arkansas Higher Education Coordinating Board for the Fiscal Year 2010-11. Due to the implementation of the pay plan study, the Office of Personnel Management of the Department of Finance and Administration (OPM) did not make recommendations for classified positions.…

  11. 76 FR 76971 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... its 40 CFR Part 272--Approved State Hazardous Waste Management EPA-authorized program for electronic reporting of annual hazardous waste information submitted under 40 CFR parts 262, 264, and 265 is being... Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (AR DEQ) submitted an application for its Hazardous...

  12. What Factors Relate to Student Performance in Arkansas College Gateway Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rick; Butler, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    In higher education in the state of Arkansas, two courses are considered to be gateway courses to obtaining a college degree--College Algebra and English Composition I. While students may obtain Certificates of Proficiency and Technical Certificates without taking these courses, few, if any, can earn an Associate's or Bachelor's degree without…

  13. Ready to Lead? A Study of Arkansas and Louisiana Charter School Principals' Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Creshun Anjal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of Arkansas and Louisiana district conversion and open-enrollment charter school principals' background characteristics, leadership skills, and school success. A quantitative methodology was used to test the research questions prescribed in the study. Data was collected using a survey. The…

  14. Field evaluation of four spatial repellent devices against Arkansas rice-land mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four commercially available spatial repellent devices were tested in a rice land habitat near Stuttgart, Arkansas after semi-field level assessments had been made at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, ARS, USDA in Gainesville, FL. OFF! Clip-On® (a.i. metofluthrin, S.C....

  15. Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

  16. Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas (NPS, GRD, GRI, HOSP, HOSP digital map) adapted from the interim Arkansas Geological Survey DGM-HSR-003 by Johnson and Hanson (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR)...

  17. 7 CFR 985.71 - Effective time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 985.71 Section 985.71 Agriculture....71 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare and shall continue in force until terminated...

  18. 7 CFR 905.71 - Other information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other information. 905.71 Section 905.71 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Handlers' Reports § 905.71 Other information. Upon... committee, in such manner and at such times as it prescribes, such other information as will enable it...

  19. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  20. 31 CFR 103.71 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General. 103.71 Section 103.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Summons § 103.71 General. For any investigation for the...

  1. 27 CFR 71.55 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content. 71.55 Section 71.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Citations § 71.55 Content. (a) Citation for the suspension, revocation or annulment of a permit shall...

  2. 25 CFR 163.71 - Agreement funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreement funding. 163.71 Section 163.71 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Cooperative Agreements § 163.71 Agreement funding. In cooperative agreements, the Secretary is authorized to advance...

  3. 47 CFR 5.71 - License period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License period. 5.71 Section 5.71...) Applications and Licenses § 5.71 License period. (a) The regular license period for stations in the Experimental Radio Service is either 2 or 5 years. An applicant desiring to apply for a 5-year license...

  4. 14 CFR 33.71 - Lubrication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lubrication system. 33.71 Section 33.71... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.71 Lubrication system. (a) General. Each lubrication system must function properly in the flight attitudes and atmospheric...

  5. 10 CFR 71.37 - Quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality assurance. 71.37 Section 71.37 Energy NUCLEAR... Package Approval § 71.37 Quality assurance. (a) The applicant shall describe the quality assurance program... quality assurance program that are applicable to the particular package design under...

  6. 10 CFR 71.123 - Test control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test control. 71.123 Section 71.123 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.123 Test control. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish a...

  7. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  8. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  9. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.71 Section 437.71... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating rocket-powered flight, a permittee must confirm that all systems and operations necessary to ensure...

  10. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  11. 7 CFR 1735.71 - Nonrural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonrural areas. 1735.71 Section 1735.71 Agriculture... Funds § 1735.71 Nonrural areas. Loan funds may be approved for the acquisition and improvement of... located in and serving a nonrural area is necessary to serve as the nucleus of an expanded system...

  12. 28 CFR 71.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 Implementation for Actions Initiated by the Department of Justice § 71.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 71.21 Section 71.21...

  13. 46 CFR 71.01-5 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting. 71.01-5 Section 71.01-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 71.01-5 Posting. The certificate of inspection shall be displayed under glass in a...

  14. 46 CFR 71.05-15 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting. 71.05-15 Section 71.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Permit To Proceed to Another Port for Repair § 71.05-15 Posting. (a) The permit shall be carried in a manner similar...

  15. 46 CFR 71.10-15 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting. 71.10-15 Section 71.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Permit To Engage in Excursions § 71.10-15 Posting. (a) The permit when used, shall be carried in addition to...

  16. 36 CFR 71.4 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting. 71.4 Section 71.4... § 71.4 Posting. (a) The administering bureaus of the Department of the Interior shall provide for the posting of the following designation sign at entrances to Designated Entrance Fee Areas and at...

  17. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  18. 10 CFR 71.8 - Deliberate misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deliberate misconduct. 71.8 Section 71.8 Energy NUCLEAR... § 71.8 Deliberate misconduct. (a) This section applies to any— (1) Licensee; (2) Certificate holder; (3... deliberate misconduct that causes or would have caused, if not detected, a licensee, certificate...

  19. 7 CFR 993.71 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 993.71 Section 993.71... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Books and Other Records § 993.71 Confidential information... information constituting a trade secret or disclosing of the trade position, financial condition, or...

  20. 14 CFR 27.71 - Autorotation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Autorotation performance. 27.71 Section 27.71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.71 Autorotation performance....

  1. 43 CFR 12.71 - Real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Real property. 12.71 Section 12.71 Public... to State and Local Governments Changes, Property, and Subawards § 12.71 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired...

  2. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asbestos standard. 71.702 Section 71.702... Contaminants § 71.702 Asbestos standard. (a) Definitions. Asbestos is a generic term for a number of... fibrils. Asbestos means chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), crocidolite,...

  3. 7 CFR 7.1 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 7.1 Section 7.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.1 Administration. (a) The regulations of this part...

  4. 7 CFR 1412.71 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1412.71 Section 1412.71 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...) Program § 1412.71 Administration. (a) All of the provisions of this part apply to this subpart. To...

  5. 40 CFR 68.71 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training. 68.71 Section 68.71... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.71 Training. (a) Initial training. (1... operating a newly assigned process, shall be trained in an overview of the process and in the...

  6. 29 CFR 71.15 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Training. 71.15 Section 71.15 Labor Office of the Secretary... § 71.15 Training. All DOL systems managers, disclosure officers, and employees with responsibilities under the Privacy Act shall periodically attend training offered by the Department on the Privacy Act....

  7. Surface waters of Illinois River basin in Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, L.L.

    1959-01-01

    The estimated runoff from the Illinois River basin of 1,660 square miles has averaged 1,160,000 acre-feet per year during the water years 1938-56, equivalent to an average annual runoff depth of 13.1 inches. About 47 percent of the streamflow is contributed from drainage in Arkansas, where an average of 550,000 acre-ft per year runs off from 755 square miles, 45.5 percent of the total drainage area. The streamflow is highly variable. Twenty-two years of record for Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., shows a variation in runoff for the water year 1945 in comparison with 1954 in a ratio of almost 10 to 1. Runoff in 1927 may have exceeded that of 1945, according to records for White River at Beaver, Ark., the drainage basin just east of the Illinois River basin. Variation in daily discharge is suggested by a frequency analysis of low flows at the gaging station near Tahlequah, Okla. The mean flow at that site is 901 cfs (cubic feet per second), the median daily flow is 350 cfs, and the lowest 30-day mean flow in a year probably will be less than 130 cfs half of the time and less than 20 cfs every 10 years on the average. The higher runoff tends to occur in the spring months, March to May, a 3-month period that, on the average, accounts for almost half of the annual flow. High runoff may occur during any month in the year, but in general, the streamflow is the lowest in the summer. The mean monthly flow of Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., for September is about 11 percent of that for May. Records show that there is flow throughout the year in Illinois River and its principal tributaries Osage Creek, Flint Creek and Barren Fork. The high variability in streamflow in this region requires the development of storage by impoundment if maximum utilization of the available water supplies is to be attained. For example, a 120-day average low flow of 22 cfs occurred in 1954 at Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla. To have maintained the flow at 350 cfs, the median daily

  8. HEK293 cells express dystrophin Dp71 with nucleus-specific localization of Dp71ab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Yasuno, Sato; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Awano, Hiroyuki; Lee, Tomoko; Niba, Emma Tabe Eko; Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Hisahide; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    The dystrophin gene consists of 79 exons and encodes tissue-specific isoforms. Mutations in the dystrophin gene cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy, of which a substantial proportion of cases are complicated by non-progressive mental retardation. Abnormalities of Dp71, an isoform transcribed from a promoter in intron 62, are a suspected cause of mental retardation. However, the roles of Dp71 in human brain have not been fully elucidated. Here, we characterized dystrophin in human HEK293 cells with the neuronal lineage. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification of the full-length dystrophin transcript revealed the absence of fragments covering the 5' part of the dystrophin cDNA. In contrast, fragments covering exons 64-79 were present. The Dp71 promoter-specific exon G1 was shown spliced to exon 63. We demonstrated that the Dp71 transcript comprised two subisoforms: one lacking exon 78 (Dp71b) and the other lacking both exons 71 and 78 (Dp71ab). Western blotting of cell lysates using an antibody against the dystrophin C-terminal region revealed two bands, corresponding to Dp71b and Dp71ab. Immunohistochemical examination with the dystrophin antibody revealed scattered punctate signals in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Western blotting revealed one band corresponding to Dp71b in the cytoplasm and two bands corresponding to Dp71b and Dp71ab in the nucleus, with Dp71b being predominant. These results indicated that Dp71ab is a nucleus-specific subisoform. We concluded that Dp71, comprising Dp71b and Dp71ab, was expressed exclusively in HEK293 cells and that Dp71ab was specifically localized to the nucleus. Our findings suggest that Dp71ab in the nucleus contributes to the diverse functions of HEK293 cells.

  9. Arkansas: a leading laboratory for health care payment and delivery system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Deborah; du Pont, Lammot; Lipson, Mindy

    2014-08-01

    As states' Medicaid programs continue to evolve from traditional fee-for-service to value-based health care delivery, there is growing recognition that systemwide multipayer approaches provide the market power needed to address the triple aim of improved patient care, improved health of populations, and reduced costs. Federal initiatives, such as the State Innovation Model grant program, make significant funds available for states seeking to transform their health care systems. In crafting their reform strategies, states can learn from early innovators. This issue brief focuses on one such state: Arkansas. Insights and lessons from the Arkansas Health Care Payment Improvement Initiative (AHCPII) suggest that progress is best gained through an inclusive, deliberative process facilitated by committed leadership, a shared agreement on root problems and opportunities for improvement, and a strategy grounded in the state's particular health care landscape.

  10. Milrinone in Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Min

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) was implicated in a widespread outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia Pacific area since 1997 and has also been reported sporadically in patients with brain stem encephalitis. Neurogenic shock with pulmonary edema (PE) is a fatal complication of EV71 infection. Among inotropic agents, milrinone is selected as a therapeutic agent for EV71- induced PE due to its immunopathogenesis. Milrinone is a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor that has both inotropic and vasodilator effects. Its clinical efficacy has been shown by modulating inflammation, reducing sympathetic over-activity, and improving survival in patients with EV71-associated PE. Milrinone exhibits immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in the management of systemic inflammatory responses in severe EV71 infection. PMID:27065870

  11. Milrinone in Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIH-MIN eWANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 was implicated in a widespread outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD across the Asia Pacific area since 1997 and has also been reported sporadically in patients with brain stem encephalitis. Neurogenic shock with pulmonary edema (PE is a fatal complication of EV71 infection. Among inotropic agents, milrinone is selected as a therapeutic agent for EV71- induced PE due to its immunopathogenesis. Milrinone is a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor that has both inotropic and vasodilator effects. Its clinical efficacy has been shown by modulating inflammation, reducing sympathetic over-activity, and improving survival in patients with EV71-associated PE. Milrinone exhibits immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in the management of systemic inflammatory responses in severe EV71 infection.

  12. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 infections by a novel antiviral peptide derived from EV-71 capsid protein VP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wah Tan

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD. In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC(50 values ranging from 6-9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71.

  13. A demographic comparison of two black bear populations in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1994-01-01

    The Ozark and Ouachita mountain regions of western Arkansas, collectively known as the Interior Highlands, historically supported large numbers of black bears (Ursus americanus). Indiscriminate killing of bears by early settlers and subsequent habitat reductions due to extensive logging and changes in land use resulted in their decline (Smith et al. 1991). By the late 1940's, bears had been extirpated from both regions (Holder 1951).

  14. Field Evaluation of Four Spatial Repellent Devices Against Arkansas Rice-Land Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    FIELD EVALUATION OF FOUR SPATIAL REPELLENT DEVICES AGAINST ARKANSAS RICE-LAND MOSQUITOES DAVID A. DAME,1 MAX V. MEISCH,2 CAROLYN N. LEWIS,2 DANIEL L... mosquitoes to locate a host. There are many commercially available spatial repellent products currently on the market. These products include...a large rice growing area where late-spring and summer agricultural irriga- tion generates dense mosquito populations. Spatial repellent devices

  15. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia Species Within Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected from Arkansas United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C

    2015-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases.

  16. Distributing medical expertise: the evolution and impact of telemedicine in arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Curtis L; Bronstein, Janet M; Benton, Tina L; Fletcher, David A

    2014-02-01

    Arkansas's telemedicine system has evolved since 2003 from a support mechanism for high-risk pregnancy consultations to an initiative that spans medical specialties, including asthma care, pediatric cardiology, gynecology, and mental health. The system has also expanded care to diverse populations, including incarcerated women and people with HIV/AIDS. This article describes the system's evolution, organization, and diverse activities. It also shows how telemedicine can have a positive impact on a rural state and how such a state can become an engine for change regionally. The Arkansas telemedicine system faced classic challenges to uptake and function, in building and sustaining funding, in obtaining insurance reimbursement for services, and in educating patients and providers. The system's impacts on health outcomes and medical practice culture have also reached beyond patient care and provider support. The existing yet continually evolving telemedicine infrastructure and partnerships in Arkansas will respond to the state's inevitable health care reform adaptations from the Affordable Care Act and could provide direction for other states seeking to adopt or expand their telemedicine efforts.

  17. Methods and applications of electrical simulation in ground-water studies in the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River Valleys, Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Reed, J.E.; Wells, C.J.; Swafford, B.F.

    1970-01-01

    The Arkansas River Multiple-Purpose Plan will provide year-round navigation on the Arkansas River from near its mouth to Muskogee, Okla., and on the Verdigris River from Muskogee to Catoosa, Okla. The altered regimen in the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers will affect ground-water conditions in the adjacent alluvial aquifers. In 1957 the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers entered into a cooperative agreement for a comprehensive ground-water study of the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River valleys. At the request of the Corps of Engineers, the Geological Survey agreed to provide (1) basic ground-water data before, during, and after construction of the Multiple-Purpose Plan and (2) interpretation and projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions. The data collected were used by the Corps of Engineers in preliminary foundation and excavation estimates and by the Geological Survey as the basis for defining the hydrologic properties of, and the ground-water conditions in, the aquifer. The projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions were used by the Corps of Engineers in the planning, design, construction, and operation of the Multiple-Purpose Plan. Analysis and projections of ground-water conditions were made by use of electrical analog models. These models use the analogy between the flow of electricity in a resistance-capacitance circuit and the flow of a liquid in a porous and permeable medium. Verification provides a test of the validity of the analog to perform as the aquifer would, within the range of historic forces. The verification process consists of simulating the action of historic forces which have acted upon the aquifer and of duplicating the aquifer response with the analog. The areal distribution of accretion can be treated as an unknown and can be determined by analog simulation of the piezometric surface in an aquifer. Comparison of accretion with depth to piezometric surface below land surface shows that

  18. 40 CFR 405.71 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 405.71 Section 405.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND... materials entered into process. It can be calculated by multiplying the fats, proteins and carbohydrates...

  19. 28 CFR 71.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 71.2 Section 71.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL..., certification, affirmation, document, record, or accounting or bookkeeping entry made: (a) With respect to...

  20. 21 CFR 640.71 - Manufacturing responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturing responsibility. 640.71 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.71 Manufacturing responsibility. (a) All steps in the manufacturing of Source Plasma, including donor examination,...

  1. Challenges to licensure of enterovirus 71 vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Shi Lee

    Full Text Available Human enteroviruses usually cause self-limited infections except polioviruses and enterovirus 71 (EV71, which frequently involve neurological complications. EV71 vaccines are being evaluated in humans. However, several challenges to licensure of EV71 vaccines need to be addressed. Firstly, EV71 and coxsackievirus A (CA are frequently found to co-circulate and cause hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD. A polyvalent vaccine that can provide protection against EV71 and prevalent CA are desirable. Secondly, infants are the target population of HFMD vaccines and it would need multi-national efficacy trials to prove clinical protection and speed up the licensure and usage of HFMD vaccines in children. An international network for enterovirus surveillance and clinical trials is urgently needed. Thirdly, EV71 is found to evolve quickly in the past 15 years. Prospective cohort studies are warranted to clarify clinical and epidemiological significances of the antigenic and genetic variations between different EV71 genogroups, which is critical for vaccine design.

  2. Enterovirus 71 Virus Propagation and Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin L Shingler; Organtini, Lindsey J.; Hafenstein, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1969, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a serious worldwide health threat. This member of the picornavirus family causes hand, foot, and mouth disease, and also has the capacity to invade the central nervous system to cause severe disease and death. This is the propagation and purification procedure to produce infectious virion.

  3. 20 CFR 901.71 - Special orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special orders. 901.71 Section 901.71 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL SERVICES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 General Provisions §...

  4. 44 CFR 71.4 - Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation. 71.4 Section... LEGISLATION § 71.4 Documentation. (a) In order to obtain a new policy of flood insurance for a structure which... protected area,” the owner of the structure must submit the documentation described in this section in...

  5. Outbreak of Enterovirus - 71 Meningitis in Calicut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Sasidharan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterovirus 71(EV 71 causes wide spectrum of infections ranging from asymptomatic conditions to clinical syndromes like diarrhea, rash, hand-foot-and mouth disease (HFMD, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis, bulbar and brainstem encephalitis Guillain Barre syndrome, pulmonary haemorrhage. This study deals with an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children caused by EV 71 virus. Methods: The authors report an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children in and around Calicut in June 2008. Clinical and laboratory study was done in collaboration with National Centre for Disease Control, New Delhi. 149 children with aseptic meningitis were studied and followed up from June 2008 to May 2009. Result: All children had clinical features suggestive of aseptic meningitis and serology showed the rising antibody titre against EV 71 virus infection. CSF analysis also showed four fold rise in antibodies in one and ≥ 1:2 neutralising antibodies titer against EV- 71 in four samples indicating meningitis due to EV-71. Conclusion: EV 71 was identified as the causative agent of the outbreak of aseptic meningitis in the study and the fact that the EV 71 infection has evolved from minor illness like HFMD to major illness like aseptic meningitis from the same locality is truly alarming.

  6. 10 CFR 71.113 - Document control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Document control. 71.113 Section 71.113 Energy NUCLEAR....113 Document control. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to control the issuance of documents such as instructions, procedures, and drawings,...

  7. 40 CFR 436.71 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 436.71 Section 436.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos and...

  8. 28 CFR 71.42 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 71.42 Section 71.42....42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an... assessments under this part and specifies the procedures for such review....

  9. 10 CFR 7.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 7.1 Section 7.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... committees shall be balanced in their membership in terms of the points of view represented and the functions to be performed. (g) The Congress shall be kept informed of the number, purpose,...

  10. 34 CFR 691.71 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 691.71 Section 691.71 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS...

  11. 36 CFR 72.71 - Information collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 72.71... PARK AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Post-Completion Compliance Responsibilities § 72.71 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in § 72.72 have been approved by...

  12. 49 CFR 397.71 - Federal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal standards. 397.71 Section 397.71... standards. (a) A State or Indian tribe shall comply with the Federal standards under paragraph (b) of this... or may not be transported. (b) The Federal standards are as follows: (1) Enhancement of public...

  13. Genetic Diversity of Enterovirus A71, India

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Vinay K.; Sane, Sudhir; Nadkarni, Sushma S.; Sharma, Deepa K.; Deshpande, Jagadish M.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified circulation of 3 genogroups of enterovirus (EV) A71 in India. A new genogroup (proposed designation G) was discovered during this study. We isolated genogroups D and G in wide geographic areas but detected subgenogroup C1 only in 1 focus in western India. A systematic nationwide search for EV-A71 is warranted.

  14. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211-225 of VP1 formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most

  15. A Study of the School Principal Labor Market in Arkansas: Implications for Incentive-Based Compensation Policies to Improve Principal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Marc Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Improving principal quality in Arkansas may be a partial solution to the public policy problem of low performing public schools. Just as policymakers in other states are beginning to explore incentive-based compensation policies to improve principal quality, education policymakers in Arkansas should look to these policies as a way to align goals…

  16. 28 CFR 71.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 Implementation for Actions Initiated by the Department of Justice § 71.34 Evidence. (a... outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay...

  17. Neurologic Complications of Enterovirus 71 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1999-01-01

    The neurologic complications associated with the 1998 Taiwan enterovirus 71 epidemic are reported from National Cheng Kung University, Tainan; Chang Gung Children’s Hospital, Kaohsiung; and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

  18. 24 CFR 7.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal General Provisions § 7.1 Policy. The Department..., color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability in all aspects of its personnel...

  19. 40 CFR 279.71 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Fuel Marketers § 279.71 Prohibitions. A used oil fuel marketer may initiate a shipment of off-specification used oil only to a used oil burner who:...

  20. 40 CFR 98.71 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.71 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains an ammonia manufacturing process and the...

  1. 40 CFR 71.9 - Permit fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Consumer Price Index. (2) Part 71 permit program costs and fees will be reviewed by the... Administrator, the changes will be published in the Federal Register. (o) Use of revenue. All fees,...

  2. Potentiometric surfaces in the Cockfield and Wilcox aquifers of southern and northeastern Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of water-level measurements made at wells in the Cockfield Formation and Wilcox Group of southern and northeastern Arkansas during 2003, and the water levels are displayed in potentiometric-surface maps and hydrographs. During March and April 2003, the water level was measured at 55 wells completed in the Cockfield aquifer, 13 wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer of southern Arkansas, and 43 wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer of northeastern Arkansas. The Cockfield Formation generally consists of discontinuous sand units interbedded with silt, clay, and lignite in southeastern Arkansas. Sand beds near the base of the Cockfield Formation constitute most of the Cockfield aquifer. Withdrawals from the Cockfield aquifer in the study area during 2000 totaled about 9 million gallons per day. The potentiometric surface of the Cockfield aquifer constructed from the 2003 water levels shows that regional direction of ground-water flow generally is towards the east and southeast, away from the outcrop, except in areas of intense ground-water withdrawals. Some local ground-water flow in the outcrop area is toward rivers that have eroded into the Cockfield Formation and deposited alluvium in south Bradley and Calhoun Counties (Ouachita River), and in north Dallas County (Saline River). An evaluation of 20 wells with water-level data from 1983 to 2003 shows that water levels in 15 wells have declined at a rate of -0.04 to -0.97 feet per year, and water levels in 5 wells have risen at a rate of 0.07 to 0.32 feet per year. An evaluation of the same 20 wells from 2000 to 2003 shows that water levels have declined in only 8 wells, and water levels have risen in 12 wells. The Wilcox Group is distributed throughout most of southern and eastern Arkansas. There are two study areas in southern and northeastern Arkansas. The Wilcox Group of the southern study area consists of interbedded clay, sandy clay, sand, and lignite. Thin discontinuous sand

  3. Crystal Structure of Human Enterovirus 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

    2013-04-08

    Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus associated with fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Here, we report the crystal structure of enterovirus 71 and show that, unlike in other enteroviruses, the 'pocket factor,' a small molecule that stabilizes the virus, is partly exposed on the floor of the 'canyon.' Thus, the structure of antiviral compounds may require a hydrophilic head group designed to interact with residues at the entrance of the pocket.

  4. Development of Novel Vaccines against Enterovirus-71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinn Tsin Isabel Yee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by a group of Enteroviruses such as Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 and Coxsackievirus CV-A5, CV-A8, and CV-A16. Mild symptoms of EV-A71 infection in children range from high fever, vomiting, rashes and ulcers in mouth but can produce more severe symptoms such as brainstem and cerebellar encephalitis, leading up to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs against EV-A71 highlights the urgency of developing preventive and treatment agents against EV-A71 to prevent further fatalities. Research groups have developed experimental inactivated vaccines, recombinant Viral Protein 1 (VP1 vaccine and virus-like particles (VLPs. The inactivated EV-A71 vaccine is considered the safest viral vaccine, as there will be no reversion to the infectious wild type strain. The recombinant VP1 vaccine is a cost-effective immunogen, while VLPs contain an arrangement of epitopes that can elicit neutralizing antibodies against the virus. As each type of vaccine has its advantages and disadvantages, increased studies are required in the development of such vaccines, whereby high efficacy, long-lasting immunity, minimal risk to those vaccinated, safe and easy production, low cost, dispensing the need for refrigeration and convenient delivery are the major goals in their design.

  5. Air pollution and cardiovascular and respiratory emergency visits in Central Arkansas: A time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodopoulou, Sophia; Samoli, Evangelia; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart disease and stroke mortality and morbidity rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the U.S. While the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular health was identified in traffic-dominated metropolitan areas, there is a lack of studies for populations with variable exposure profiles, demographic and disease characteristics. Objective Determine the short-term effects of air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity in the stroke and heart failure belt. Methods We investigated the associations of fine particles and ozone with respiratory and cardiovascular emergency room visits during the 2002–2012 period for adults in Central Arkansas using Poisson generalized models adjusted for temporal, seasonal and meteorological effects. We evaluated sensitivity of the associations to mutual pollutant adjustment and effect modification patterns by sex, age, race and season. Results We found effects on cardiovascular and respiratory emergencies for PM2.5 (1.52% [95%CI: −1.10, 4.20]; 1.45% [95%CI: −2.64, 5.72] per 10 μg/m3) and O3 (0.93% [95%CI: −0.87, 2.76]; 0.76 [95%CI: −1.92, 3.52] per 10 ppbv) during the cold period (October–March). The effects were stronger among whites, except for the respiratory effects of O3 that were higher among Blacks/African-Americans. Effect modification patterns by age and sex differed by association. Both pollutants were associated with increases in emergency room visits for hypertension, heart failure and asthma. Effects on cardiovascular and respiratory emergencies were observed during the cold period when particulate matter was dominated by secondary nitrate and wood burning. Conclusion Outdoor particulate pollution during winter had an effect of cardiovascular morbidity in central Arkansas, the region with high stroke and heart disease incidence rates. PMID:26232212

  6. Both ERK1 and ERK2 are required for enterovirus 71 (EV71) efficient replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng; Duan, Hao; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Peng, Yihong

    2015-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that MEK1, one of the two MEK isoforms in Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, is essential for successful EV71 propagation. However, the distinct function of ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms, the downstream kinases of MEKs, remains unclear in EV71 replication. In this study, specific ERK siRNAs and selective inhibitor U0126 were applied. Silencing specific ERK did not significantly impact on the EV71-caused biphasic activation of the other ERK isoform, suggesting the EV71-induced activations of ERK1 and ERK2 were non-discriminative and independent to one another. Knockdown of either ERK1 or ERK2 markedly impaired progeny EV71 propagation (both by more than 90%), progeny viral RNA amplification (either by about 30% to 40%) and protein synthesis (both by around 70%), indicating both ERK1 and ERK2 were critical and not interchangeable to EV71 propagation. Moreover, suppression of EV71 replication by inhibiting both early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation showed no significant difference from that of only blocking the late phase, supporting the late phase activation was more importantly responsible for EV71 life cycle. Taken together, this study for the first time identified both ERK1 and ERK2 were required for EV71 efficient replication and further verified the important role of MEK1-ERK1/2 in EV71 replication.

  7. MicroRNA-23b inhibits enterovirus 71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bai-ping; Dai, Hong-jian; Yang, Yue-huang; Zhuang, Yu; Sheng, Ru

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and effective antiviral agents and vaccines against this virus have, to date, not been available. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of RNAs with the function of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. It has been demonstrated that miRNAs play important roles in the complicated interaction network between virus and host, while few studies have explored the role of miRNAs in EV71 infection. A recent study showed that hsa-miR-23b was downregulated significantly in cell-infected viruses. To address this issue, biological software miRanda was first used to predict possible target sites of miR-23b at EV71 gene sequence, then to confirm it by luciferase assay. miR-23b mimics were transfected to verify its effects on infection of EV71. These results suggest that miR-23b and upregulation of miR-23b inhibited the replication of EV71 by targeting at EV71 3'UTR conserved sequence. Taken together, miR-23b could inhibit EV71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein. These results may enhance our understanding on the prevention and treatment of hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by EV71 infection.

  8. Both ERK1 and ERK2 Are Required for Enterovirus 71 (EV71 Efficient Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that MEK1, one of the two MEK isoforms in Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, is essential for successful EV71 propagation. However, the distinct function of ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms, the downstream kinases of MEKs, remains unclear in EV71 replication. In this study, specific ERK siRNAs and selective inhibitor U0126 were applied. Silencing specific ERK did not significantly impact on the EV71-caused biphasic activation of the other ERK isoform, suggesting the EV71-induced activations of ERK1 and ERK2 were non-discriminative and independent to one another. Knockdown of either ERK1 or ERK2 markedly impaired progeny EV71 propagation (both by more than 90%, progeny viral RNA amplification (either by about 30% to 40% and protein synthesis (both by around 70%, indicating both ERK1 and ERK2 were critical and not interchangeable to EV71 propagation. Moreover, suppression of EV71 replication by inhibiting both early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation showed no significant difference from that of only blocking the late phase, supporting the late phase activation was more importantly responsible for EV71 life cycle. Taken together, this study for the first time identified both ERK1 and ERK2 were required for EV71 efficient replication and further verified the important role of MEK1-ERK1/2 in EV71 replication.

  9. COPI is required for enterovirus 71 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wang

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11, is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies.

  10. Protective effect of enterovirus-71 (EV71) virus-like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Lei; MAO, FENGFENG; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; MENG, QINGLING; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehen...

  11. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics.

  12. Habitat use of woodpeckers in the Big Woods of eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, David G.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Luscier, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Woods of eastern Arkansas contain some of the highest densities of woodpeckers recorded within bottomland hardwood forests of the southeastern United States. A better understanding of habitat use patterns by these woodpeckers is a priority for conservationists seeking to maintain these high densities in the Big Woods and the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley as a whole. Hence, we used linear mixed-effects and linear models to estimate the importance of habitat characteristics to woodpecker density in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and the winter of 2007. Northern flicker Colaptes auratus density was negatively related to tree density both for moderate (. 25 cm diameter at breast height) and larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height). Red-headed woodpeckers Melanerpes erythrocephalus also had a negative relationship with density of large (. 61 cm diameter at breast height) trees. Bark disfiguration (an index of tree health) was negatively related to red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus and yellow-bellied sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius densities. No measured habitat variables explained pileated woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus density. Overall, the high densities of woodpeckers observed in our study suggest that the current forest management of the Big Woods of Arkansas is meeting the nesting, roosting, and foraging requirements for these birds.

  13. Curriculum alignment and higher order thinking in introductory biology in Arkansas public two-year colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Elizabeth Diane

    This dissertation identified the cognitive levels of lecture objectives, lab objectives, and test questions in introductory majors' biology. The study group included courses offered by 27 faculty members at 18 of the 22 community colleges in Arkansas. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to identify cognitive levels, the median lecture learning outcomes were at level 2 (Comprehension) and test assessments at Level 1 (Knowledge). Lab learning outcomes were determined to have a median of level 3 (Analysis). A correlation analysis was performed using SPSS software to determine if there was an association between the Bloom's level of lecture objectives and test assessments. The only significant difference found was at the Analysis level, or Bloom's level 4 (p=.043). Correlation analyses were run for two other data sets. Years of college teaching experience and hours of training in writing objectives and assessments were compared to the Bloom's Taxonomy level of lecture objectives and test items. No significant difference was found for either of these independent variables. This dissertation provides Arkansas two-year college biology faculty with baseline information about the levels of cognitive skills that are required in freshman biology for majors courses. It can serve to initiate conversations about where we are compared to a national study, where we need to be, and how we get there.

  14. The Effect of Performance-Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement. Working Paper 2008-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay P.; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…

  15. 76 FR 67175 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2 LLC, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Engineers' (Corps) Joe Hardin Lock & Dam No. 3, located on the Arkansas River in Lincoln and Jefferson...), and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the Joe Hardin Lock & Dam No. 3, as directed by... 196.358 GWh, and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus ] water from the Joe Hardin Lock & Dam No....

  16. EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant in Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) populations from Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas, USA in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations was studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify altern...

  17. 33 CFR 207.275 - McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River navigation system: use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River navigation system: use, administration, and navigation. 207.275 Section 207.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS §...

  18. Knowledge and Perceptions of Visual Communications Curriculum in Arkansas Secondary Agricultural Classrooms: A Closer Look at Experiential Learning Integrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Kristin; Calico, Carley; Edgar, Leslie D.; Edgar, Don W.; Johnson, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    The University of Arkansas developed and integrated visual communications curriculum related to agricultural communications into secondary agricultural programs throughout the state. The curriculum was developed, pilot tested, revised, and implemented by selected secondary agriculture teachers. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate…

  19. SR-71 Pilot Rogers E. Smith

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Research pilot Rogers E. Smith is shown here in front of the SR-71 Blackbird he flew for NASA. Rogers was one of the two original NASA research pilots assigned to the SR-71 high speed research program at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Smith has been a NASA research pilot at Dryden since 1982. Data from the SR-71 program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. The SR-71 is capable of flying more than 2200 mph (Mach 3+) and at altitudes of over 80,000 feet. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data

  20. 肠道病毒EV71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    肠道病毒EV71感染疾病是由肠道病毒EV71引起的传染病,多发生于婴幼儿,尤以3岁以下年龄组发病率最高,可引起手、足、口腔等部位的疱疹,个别患者可引起心肌炎、肺水肿、无菌性脑膜脑炎等并发症。

  1. MRI of Enterovirus 71 myelitis with monoplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.C. [Department of Radiology, and School of Medicine, China Medical College, China Medical College Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan); Tsai, C.H. [Department of Paediatrics, and School of Medicine, China Medical College, China Medical College Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan); Chiu, H.H. [Department of Paediatrics, China Medical College Hospital, No. 2 Yuh-Der Road, 407 Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan); Chow, K.C. [Department of Medical Research, China Medical College Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2000-02-01

    We report two boys diagnosed as having herpangina and hand-foot-mouth disease complicated by monoplegia during the outbreak enterovirus infection in Taiwan in 1998. Enterovirus 71 was identified in the stool and throat swab; neither polio nor Coxsackie viruses was identified. MRI showed unilateral lesions in the anterior horns of the spinal cord at T11-12 and C2-5. Although the MRI findings and sites of these lesions were similar to those of poliovirus-associated poliomyelitis, the virological data indicated that these boys were infected with enterovirus type 71. (orig.)

  2. 50 CFR 71.12 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.12 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public sport fishing on a national... may be amended as needed to meet management responsibilities for the area....

  3. 37 CFR 41.71 - Rebuttal brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rebuttal brief. 41.71 Section... Rebuttal brief. (a) Within one month of the examiner's answer, any appellant may once file a rebuttal brief. (b)(1) The rebuttal brief of the owner may be directed to the examiner's answer and/or any...

  4. 15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary § 922.71 Definitions. In addition to those definitions found at 15 CFR 922.3, the following definitions apply to this subpart... into which altered genetic matter, or genetic matter from another species, has been transferred...

  5. 31 CFR 7.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.1 Purpose. Provisions defining the right, title, and interest of the Government in and to an invention made by a Government... forth in Executive Order 10096, 15 FR 389, as amended (35 U.S.C. 266 note). Further definition of...

  6. 9 CFR 71.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... International Committee on Animal Recording. The AIN beginning with the 840 prefix may be used only on animals..., concentration point, or any other premises under State or Federal veterinary supervision where livestock are assembled and that has been approved under § 71.20. Area veterinarian in charge. The veterinary official...

  7. 28 CFR 524.71 - Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.71 Responsibility. Authority for actions relative to the CIM system is delegated to the Assistant Director, Correctional... Division, and Regional Directors shall assign a person responsible for coordinating CIM activities....

  8. 45 CFR 400.71 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the employability or work skills of the individual. Employable means not exempt from registration for... Employability Services and Employment § 400.71 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart and Subpart I... must be determined acceptable by the State. Employability plan means an individualized written plan...

  9. 48 CFR 1503.500-71 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Responsibility To Avoid Improper Business Practices 1503.500-71 Procedures. (a) A contractor's system of management controls should provide for: (1) A written code of business ethics and conduct and an ethics training program for...

  10. 27 CFR 71.107 - Application proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application proceedings..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Decisions Action by the Appropriate Ttb Officer § 71.107 Application proceedings. If, upon receipt of...

  11. 27 CFR 71.70 - Application proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application proceedings..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Hearing Procedure Waiver of Hearing § 71.70 Application proceedings. At any time prior to final...

  12. Geodatabase of the available top and bottom surface datasets that represent the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains the spatial datasets that represent the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in the States of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Included are: (1)...

  13. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by...

  14. Geochemical and geostatistical evaluation, Arkansas Canyon Planning Unit, Fremont and Custer Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, E.F.; Connors, R.A.; Robinson, M.L.; Lindemann, J.W.; Meyer, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    A mineral assessment of the Arkansas Canyon Planning Unit was undertaken by Barringer Resources Inc., under the terms of contract YA-553-CTO-100 with the Bureau of Land Management, Colorado State Office. The study was based on a geochemical-geostatistical survey in which 700 stream sediment samples were collected and analyzed for 25 elements. Geochemical results were interpreted by statistical processing which included factor, discriminant, multiple regression and characteristic analysis. The major deposit types evaluated were massive sulfide-base metal, sedimentary and magmatic uranium, thorium vein, magmatic segregation, and carbonatite related deposits. Results of the single element data and multivariate geostatistical analysis indicate that limited potential exists for base metal mineralization near the Horseshoe, El Plomo, and Green Mountain Mines. Thirty areas are considered to be anomalous with regard to one or more of the geochemical parameters evaluated during this study. The evaluation of carbonatite related mineralization was restricted due to the lack of geochemical data specific to this environment.

  15. Chesterian davidsoniacean and orthotetacean brachiopods, Ozark region of Arkansas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T.W.; Gordon, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of orthotetaceans and one species of davidsoniacean are among the strophomenid brachiopods from Chesterian (Upper Mississippian) rocks of northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma. Type material from the Fayetteville Shale, Orthotetes subglobosus and O. subglobosus var. protensus, is figured for the first time. We regard these species, and O. subglobosus var. batesvillensis Girty from the Batesville Sandstone, as distinct species, for which we are selecting lectotypes. We describe a fourth species, O. stenopsis n.sp., from the Pitkin Limestone. Another species, described from the Pitkin as Streptorhynchus suspectum, has an impunctate shell and is thus not an orthotetacean. This bizarre species generally has a long twisted beak, high interarea, and large forked cardinal process; a myophragm may occur in either valve, but more commonly is in the brachial valve alone. We designate a lectotype for this species and propose a new genus Adectorhynchus and a new family Adectorhynchidae, under the Davidsoniacea, for this taxon.-from Authors

  16. Hope, Arkansas to Hope, Albania: naivete and idealism to reality and tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B C

    2000-06-01

    The wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo were perpretrated by a radical nationalist Serbian cultural political consciousness that the American cultural political consciousness and leadership had difficulty responding to and understanding. There is a great cultural divide between a 'pathology' in Serbian culture, Milosević's radical nationalism, and a humane 'naivete' in American cultural consciousness. I discuss why, finally, American political leadership, Bill Clinton from Hope, Arkansas, responded to the tragedy of these wars. However, we are still left with the question of good vs evil: What is the course of human history; psychotic political leadership causing repetitive human tragedy or can there be a higher humane and moral order to human cultural events?

  17. Interpreting temporal variations in river response functions: an example from the Arkansas River, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, A. E.; Stotler, R. L.; Reboulet, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater/surface-water interactions can play an important role in management of water quality and quantity, but the temporal and spatial variability of these interactions makes them difficult to incorporate into conceptual models. There are simple methods for identifying the presence of groundwater/surface-water interactions; however, identifying flow mechanisms and pathways can be challenging. More complex methods are available to better identify these mechanisms and pathways but are often too time consuming or costly. In this work, a simple method for interpreting and identifying flow mechanisms and sources using temporal variations of river response functions is presented. This approach is demonstrated using observations from two sites along the Arkansas River in Kansas, USA. A change in flow mechanisms between the rising and falling limbs of river hydrographs was identified, along with a second surface-water source to the aquifer, a finding that was validated with stable isotope analyses.

  18. Reemergence of Enterovirus 71 Epidemic in Northern Taiwan, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Ting Luo; Pai-Shan Chiang; Wan-Yu Chung; Min-Yuan Chia; Kuo-Chien Tsao; Ying-Hsiang Wang; Tzou-Yien Lin; Min-Shi Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) belongs to picornavirus family and could be classified phylogenetically into three major genogroups (A, B and C) including 11 genotypes (A, B1-B5 and C1-C5). Since 1997, EV71 has caused large-scale of epidemics with neurological complications in Asian children. In Taiwan, nationwide EV71 epidemics with different predominant genotypes have occurred cyclically since 1998. A nationwide EV71 epidemic occurred again in 2012. We conducted genetic and antigenic chara...

  19. Construction and characterization of infectious cDNA clones of enterovirus 71(EV71)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-wei; Ma; Shu-bin; Hao; Le-le; Sun; Jing; Li; Qiao; Qiao; Feng; Gao; Li; Zhao; Xue-jie; Yu; Zhi-yu; Wang; Hong-ling; Wen

    2015-01-01

    Dear Editor,Enterovirus 71(EV71),a member of the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae,is a single-stranded,positive-sense RNA virus that usually causes mild handfoot-mouth disease(HFMD)in children,with symptoms such as fever,diarrhea,and herpangina(Liu et al.,2013).However,certain strains of EV71 infection can cause severe neurological complications,such as SDLY107(Sun et al.,2014).EV71 is classified into three distinct genotypes(A–C);the B and C genotypes are further divided into B1–B5 and C1–C5 genotypes,respectively,based on

  20. Changes in school environments with implementation of Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martha M; Raczynski, James M; West, Delia S; Pulley, LeaVonne; Bursac, Zoran; Gauss, C Heath; Walker, Jada F

    2010-02-01

    Changes in school nutrition and physical activity policies and environments are important to combat childhood obesity. Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 was among the first and most comprehensive statewide legislative initiatives to combat childhood obesity through school-based change. Annual surveys of principals and superintendents have been analyzed to document substantial and important changes in school environments, policies, and practices. For example, results indicate that schools are more likely to require that healthy options be provided for student parties (4.5% in 2004, 36.9% in 2008; P students in cafeterias (white milk: 26.1% in 2004, 41.0% in 2008, P chocolate milk: 9.0% in 2004, 24.0% in 2008, P Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 is associated with a number of changes in school environments and policies, resulting from both statewide and local initiatives spawned by the Act.

  1. The road to tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis elimination in Arkansas; a re-examination of risk groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Berzkalns

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to generate knowledge useful for developing public health interventions for more effective tuberculosis control in Arkansas. METHODS: The study population included 429 culture-confirmed reported cases (January 1, 2004-December 31, 2010. Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping data were used to identify cases likely due to recent transmission (clustered versus reactivation (non-clustered. Poisson regression models estimated average decline rate in incidence over time and assessed the significance of differences between subpopulations. A multinomial logistic model examined differences between clustered and non-clustered incidence. RESULTS: A significant average annual percent decline was found for the overall incidence of culture-confirmed (9%; 95% CI: 5.5%, 16.9%, clustered (6%; 95% CI: 0.5%, 11.6%, and non-clustered tuberculosis cases (12%; 95% CI: 7.6%, 15.9%. However, declines varied among demographic groups. Significant declines in clustered incidence were only observed in males, non-Hispanic blacks, 65 years and older, and the rural population. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the Arkansas tuberculosis control program must target both traditional and non-traditional risk groups for successful tuberculosis elimination. The present study also demonstrates that a thorough analysis of TB trends in different population subgroups of a given geographic region or state can lead to the identification of non-traditional risk factors for TB transmission. Similar studies in other low incidence populations would provide beneficial data for how to control and eventually eliminate TB in the U.S.

  2. Progress on the research and development of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Gao, Fan; Wang, Junzhi

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, which can cause severe complications, have become one of the serious public health issues in the Western Pacific region and China. To date, a number of pharmaceutical companies and institutes have initiated the research and development of EV71 vaccines as a countermeasure. As is the case with innovative vaccine development, there are several critical bottlenecks in EV71 vaccine development that must be overcome before the clinical trials, including the selection of vaccine strain, standardization of the procedure for quantifying neutralizing antibody (NTAb) and antigen, establishment and application of a reference standard and biological standards, development of animal models for the evaluation of protective efficacy, and identification of the target patient population. To tackle these technical obstacles, researchers in Mainland of China have conducted a series of studies concerning the screening of vaccine strains and the establishment of criteria, biological standards and detection methods, thereby advancing EV71 vaccine development. This review summarizes recent worldwide progress on the quality control and evaluation of EV71 vaccines.

  3. Advances in Enterovirus 71 Receptors%EV71的受体研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐广振; 李明; 李晋涛

    2011-01-01

    @@ 手足口病(Hand-foot-mouth disease,HFMD)是一种临床表现为手、足、口腔等部位的疱疹及中枢神经系统并发症的婴幼儿疾病,其病原体以柯萨奇病毒A16型(Coxsackievirus A16,CoxA16)和人肠道病毒71型(Human enterovirus 71,EV71)最为常见[1].2008年中国卫生部将HFMD列人丙类传染病目录.近年来,引起手足口病的主要病原体为小RNA病毒科肠道病毒71型[2].自1969年EV71在美国加利福尼亚州手足口病疫情中首次报道后,该病毒已在世界范围内引起十余次手足口病暴发和流行,且死亡病例趋于增多[3].仅1998年中国台湾EV71大暴发中就出现129 000例病例,其中重症病例多达400个,死亡78例[4].

  4. Potentiometric Surfaces and Water-Level Trends in the Cockfield and Wilcox Aquifers of Southern and Northeastern Arkansas, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    The Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group and the Wilcox Group contain aquifers that provide sources of ground water in southern and northeastern Arkansas. In 2000, about 9.9 million gallons per day was withdrawn from the Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group and about 22.2 million gallons per day was withdrawn from the Wilcox Group. Major withdrawals from the aquifers were for industrial and public water supplies. A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey to determine the water level associated with the aquifers in the Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group and the Wilcox Group in southern and northeastern Arkansas. During February and March 2006, 56 water-level measurements were made in wells completed in the Cockfield aquifer and 59 water-level measurements were made in wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer, 16 in southwestern and 43 in northeastern Arkansas. This report presents the results as potentiometric-surface maps and as long-term water-level hydrographs. The regional direction of ground-water flow in the Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group generally is towards the east and southeast, away from the outcrop, except in areas of intense ground-water withdrawals, such as western Drew County, southeastern Lincoln County, southwestern Calhoun County, and near Crossett in Ashley County. There are three cones of depression indicated by relatively low water-level altitudes in southeastern Lincoln County, southwestern Calhoun County, and near Crossett in Ashley County. The lowest water-level altitude measured was 44 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in Lincoln County; the highest water-level altitude measured was 346 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in Columbia County at the outcrop area. Hydrographs from 40 wells with historical water levels from 1986 to 2006 were evaluated using linear regression to

  5. Statistical summary of selected water-quality data (water years 1975 through 1985) for Arkansas rivers and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Descriptive statistics were calculated for selected water quality data for 116 water quality stations on Arkansas rivers and streams. Water quality properties summarized included pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, total hardness, common dissolved constituents, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, turbidity, suspended sediment, and several trace metals. Regression equations and related statistics describing the relation between specific conductance and total alkalinity and several dissolved constituents also were calculated. Typical water quality (based upon median values at individual stations) of physiographic sections and major rivers of Arkansas also is discussed. Discernible differences in water quality exist between sections and major rivers. The regression analysis indicated that the usefulness of specific conductance as a predictor of other water quality values is variable. The relation between specific conductance and the other property is not statistically significant (p>0.05) about 30% of the time. (USGS)

  6. Do Place and Time Make a Difference? Examining Quality of Life Among Homeless Persons in Northwest Arkansas and Birmingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Gail; Fitzpatrick, Kevin

    2016-07-26

    This study examines the role that life chances and choices play in determining quality of life among homeless people. Given the prominent negative impact of homelessness, this paper specifically examines the impact of length of time homeless and location on adverse quality of life. OLS regression examined quality of life among 264 homeless adults living in Northwest Arkansas and Birmingham, Alabama. Analysis shows no significant impact of life choices on quality of life but a significant impact of life chances including strong social ties and mastery of fate, on adverse quality of life. Length of time homeless was related to adverse quality of life, but location was not, indicating that the homeless experience with regards to subjective quality of life did not vary significantly between Birmingham and Northwest Arkansas.

  7. Reciprocal Regulation between Enterovirus 71 and the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the major etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. Early studies showed that EV71-infected patients with severe complications exhibited elevated plasma levels of IL-1β, indicating that EV71 may activate inflammasomes. Our current study demonstrates that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a protective role against EV71 infection of mice in vivo. EV71 replication in myeloid cells results in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and secretion of IL-1β. Conversely, EV71 counteracts inflammasome activation through cleavage of NLRP3 by viral proteases 2A and 3C, which cleave NLRP3 protein at the G493-L494 or Q225-G226 junction, respectively. Moreover, EV71 3C interacts with NLRP3 and inhibits IL-1β secretion when expressed in mammalian cells. These results thus reveal a set of reciprocal regulations between enterovirus 71 and the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  8. Testicular histology and germ cell cytology during spermatogenesis in the Mississippi map turtle, Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii, from Northeast Arkansas

    OpenAIRE

    Lancaster, Kelsey; Trauth, Stanley E; Gribbins, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    The testicular histology and cytology of spermatogenesis in Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii were examined using specimens collected between July 1996 and May 2004 from counties in northeastern Arkansas. A histological examination of the testes and germ cell cytology indicates a postnuptial testicular cycle of spermatogenesis and a major fall spermiation event. The majority of the germ cell populations in May and June specimens are represented by resting spermatogonia, type A spermatogonia,...

  9. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in ...

  10. Crystal structures of enterovirus 71 (EV71) recombinant virus particles provide insights into vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ke; Wang, Guang-Chuan; He, Ya-Ling; Han, Jian-Feng; Ye, Qing; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Rong

    2015-02-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) remains a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific regions, and its major causative agents include human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16. A desirable vaccine against HFMD would be multivalent and able to elicit protective responses against multiple HFMD causative agents. Previously, we have demonstrated that a thermostable recombinant EV71 vaccine candidate can be produced by the insertion of a foreign peptide into the BC loop of VP1 without affecting viral replication. Here we present crystal structures of two different naturally occurring empty particles, one from a clinical C4 strain EV71 and the other from its recombinant virus containing an insertion in the VP1 BC loop. Crystal structure analysis demonstrated that the inserted foreign peptide is well exposed on the particle surface without significant structural changes in the capsid. Importantly, such insertions do not seem to affect the virus uncoating process as illustrated by the conformational similarity between an uncoating intermediate of another recombinant virus and that of EV71. Especially, at least 18 residues from the N terminus of VP1 are transiently externalized. Altogether, our study provides insights into vaccine development against HFMD.

  11. Protective effect of enterovirus‑71 (EV71) virus‑like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Mao, Fengfeng; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; Meng, Qingling; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-08-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine.

  12. The Antiviral Effect of Baicalin on Enterovirus 71 In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Baicalin is a flavonoid compound extracted from Scutellaria roots that has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. However, the antiviral effect of baicalin on enterovirus 71 (EV71 is still unknown. In this study, we found that baicalin showed inhibitory activity on EV71 infection and was independent of direct virucidal or prophylactic effect and inhibitory viral absorption. The expressions of EV71/3D mRNA and polymerase were significantly blocked by baicalin treatment at early stages of EV71 infection. In addition, baicalin could decrease the expressions of FasL and caspase-3, as well as inhibit the apoptosis of EV71-infected human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. Altogether, these results indicate that baicalin exhibits potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection, probably through inhibiting EV71/3D polymerase expression and Fas/FasL signaling pathways.

  13. 10 CFR 71.5 - Transportation of licensed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation of licensed material. 71.5 Section 71.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Provisions § 71.5 Transportation of licensed material. (a) Each licensee who transports...

  14. 20 CFR 71.6 - Notice of injury or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of injury or death. 71.6 Section 71.6..., DISABILITY OR DEATH OF CIVILIAN AMERICAN CITIZENS INCURRED WHILE DETAINED BY OR IN HIDING FROM THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE GOVERNMENT GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.6 Notice of injury or death. Notwithstanding any of...

  15. 7 CFR 984.71 - Reports of handler inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of handler inventory. 984.71 Section 984.71... Regulating Handling Reports, Books, and Other Records § 984.71 Reports of handler inventory. Each handler... or her inventory of inshell and shelled walnuts....

  16. 16 CFR 1101.71 - Delegation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delegation of authority. 1101.71 Section 1101.71 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Delegation of Authority to Information Group § 1101.71 Delegation...

  17. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  18. 42 CFR 71.52 - Turtles, tortoises, and terrapins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Turtles, tortoises, and terrapins. 71.52 Section 71..., INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.52 Turtles, tortoises, and terrapins. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Turtles includes all animals commonly known as...

  19. 41 CFR 105-71.144 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 105-71.144 Section 105-71.144 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 105-71.143 awards may be terminated in whole or in...

  20. 46 CFR 71.25-37 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 71.25-37 Section 71.25-37 Shipping... Annual Inspection § 71.25-37 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification, the inspector... pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B....

  1. 30 CFR 71.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 71.202 Section 71... Sampling Procedures § 71.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to...

  2. 28 CFR 71.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to administrative offset. 71.44... Department of Justice § 71.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which... agreed upon in a compromise or settlement under § 71.46, may be collected by administrative offset...

  3. 27 CFR 71.95 - Responsibilities of administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative law judges. 71.95 Section 71.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Administrative Law Judges § 71.95 Responsibilities of administrative law judges. Administrative law judges shall be under the administrative control of the Administrator. They shall...

  4. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  5. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... resistant materials. The containers shall be marked with the words “Drinking Water.” ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.237-71 - Pension portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Pension portability. 1852.237-71 Section 1852.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... 1852.237-71 Pension portability. As prescribed at 1837.110-70(b), insert the following clause:...

  7. 48 CFR 814.408-71 - Recommendation for award (construction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recommendation for award (construction). 814.408-71 Section 814.408-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS....408-71 Recommendation for award (construction). (a) For Central Office contracts, the Director,...

  8. 48 CFR 1415.207-71 - Confidentiality of proposal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Government for evaluation or advice shall be approved in writing by the HCA; (2) Outside... proposal evaluation. 1415.207-71 Section 1415.207-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Receipt of Proposals and Information 1415.207-71 Confidentiality of proposal evaluation. (a)...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.223-71 - Frequency authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 1852.223-71 Section 1852.223-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... 1852.223-71 Frequency authorization. As prescribed in 1823.7101, insert the following clause: Frequency Authorization (DEC 1988) (a) Authorization of radio frequencies required in support of this contract shall...

  10. 48 CFR 1631.205-71 - FEHBP bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP bad debts. 1631.205-71 Section 1631.205-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-71 FEHBP bad debts. Erroneous...

  11. 42 CFR 71.11 - Bills of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bills of health. 71.11 Section 71.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Measures at Foreign Ports § 71.11 Bills of health. A carrier at any foreign port clearing...

  12. 28 CFR 33.71 - Initial project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial project report. 33.71 Section 33.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Reports § 33.71 Initial project report. States are required to provide to the...

  13. 28 CFR 0.71 - Delegation respecting immunity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation respecting immunity matters. 0.71 Section 0.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Tax Division § 0.71 Delegation respecting immunity matters. The Assistant Attorney General...

  14. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  15. 12 CFR 908.71 - Practice before the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practice before the Finance Board. 908.71 Section 908.71 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION... Finance Board § 908.71 Practice before the Finance Board. Practice before the Finance Board for...

  16. 46 CFR 71.40-1 - General or partial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General or partial survey. 71.40-1 Section 71.40-1... CERTIFICATION Inspection After Accident § 71.40-1 General or partial survey. (a) A survey, either general or... survey shall be such as to insure that the necessary repairs or renewals have been effectively made,...

  17. 50 CFR 27.71 - Motion or sound pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motion or sound pictures. 27.71 Section 27.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Equipment § 27.71 Motion or sound pictures. The taking or filming of any motion or sound pictures on...

  18. Using Paid Radio Advertisements to Promote Physical Activity Among Arkansas Tweens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appathurai Balamurugan, MD, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The level of physical activity among children is a growing concern. Evidence shows that many children aged 9 to 13 years (tweens do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours, and some do not engage in any free-time physical activity. Physical inactivity is associated with a host of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paid media advertisements have been an effective method of promoting physical activity. Methods From March 10, 2003, through June 29, 2003, we aired paid radio advertisements in six major Arkansas metropolitan areas to promote physical activity among tweens. In September 2003, we surveyed 295 Arkansas tweens by telephone to assess their exposure to the advertisements and the impact of the advertisements on their intent to participate in physical activity. In the same telephone survey, we also asked questions about the respondents’ physical activity level. The data were weighted so that the results would be representative of the areas surveyed. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 11.5 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill. Results Of the tweens surveyed, 56.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.7%–62.1% reported hearing the radio advertisements. Of the tweens who heard the advertisement messages, 76.1% (95% CI, 69.4%–82.8% said the messages made them more likely to get involved in physical activity. Younger tweens (aged 9 and 10 years were less likely to have heard the advertisements than older tweens (aged 11 to 13 years. However, the advertisements were more likely to cause younger tweens to want to get involved in physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 6.89, P = .003 than older tweens. Of the tweens surveyed, 74.9% (95% CI, 70.0%–79.8% reported that they were involved in nonschool-sponsored sports, and 45.3% (95% CI, 39.6%–51.0% were involved in school-sponsored sports. Conclusion Paid media advertisements may be an effective way to

  19. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  20. Factors related to achievement in sophomore organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Harriet Arlene

    The purpose of this study was to identify the significant cognitive and non-cognitive variables that related to achievement in the first semester of organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas. Cognitive variables included second semester general chemistry grade, ACT composite score, ACT English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning subscores, and spatial ability. Non-cognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of the cognitive variables and non-cognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. The samples consisted of volunteers from the Fall 1999 and Fall 2000 sections of Organic Chemistry I at the University of Arkansas. All students in each section were asked to participate. Data for spatial ability and non-cognitive independent variables were collected using the Purdue Visualization of Rotations test and the modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales. Data for other independent variables, including ACT scores and second semester general chemistry grades, were obtained from the Office of Institutional Research. The dependent variable, organic chemistry achievement, was measured by each student's accumulated points in the course and consisted of scores on quizzes and exams in the lecture section only. These totals were obtained from the lecture instructor at the end of each semester. Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to measure the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables. Prior performance in chemistry as measured by second semester general

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3)-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chow, Vincent T K; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2014-01-01

    Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv), which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1) and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D). Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bianca Luena Victorio

    Full Text Available Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv, which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1 and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D. Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  3. Proteomics analysis of EV71-infected cells reveals the involvement of host protein NEDD4L in EV71 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Rei-Lin; Lin, Ya-Han; Wang, Robert Yung-Liang; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-I; Kao, Li-Ting; Yu, Jau-Song; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human enterovirus that has seriously affected the Asia-Pacific area for the past two decades. EV71 infection can result in mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina and may occasionally lead to severe neurological complications in children. However, the specific biological processes that become altered during EV71 infection remain unclear. To further explore host responses upon EV71 infection, we identified proteins differentially expressed in EV71-infected human glioblastoma SF268 cells using isobaric mass tag (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Network analysis of proteins altered in cells infected with EV71 revealed that the changed biological processes are related to protein and ion transport, regulation of protein degradation, and homeostatic processes. We confirmed that the levels of NEDD4L and PSMF1 were increased and reduced, respectively, in EV71-infected cells compared to mock-infected control cells. To determine the physiological relevance of our findings, we investigated the consequences of EV71 infection in cells with NEDD4L or PSMF1 depletion. We found that the depletion of NEDD4L significantly reduced the replication of EV71, whereas PSMF1 knockdown enhanced EV71 replication. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence of proteome-wide dysregulation by EV71 infection and suggest a novel role for the host protein NEDD4L in the replication of this virus.

  4. Progress in the research of enterovirus 71%肠道病毒71型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾文珍

    2010-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease resulting in severe neurological complications and fatality. In fact, EV71 has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after eradication of poliovirus. This paper reviews predisposing factors of EV71 infection and progress in the research of EV71 vaccine, thus pointing out the way for prevention and control of EV71 infection.%肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是引起手足口病(hand,foot and mouth disease,HFMD)的主要病原体之一,HFMD可并发严重神经系统疾病,甚至导致死亡.事实上,EV71一直被视为继脊髓灰质炎病毒消灭后最重要的嗜神经病毒.此文就EV71感染的易感因素以及疫苗的研究进展进行综述,从而为EV71感染的防控指明方向.

  5. The Construction of the EGFP Enterovirus 71%肠道病毒71型(EV71)荧光病毒的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱守海; 王璐璐

    2014-01-01

    人肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus,EV71)是引起手足口病的主要病原体。首先利用反向遗传学的方法,构建了EV71全长cDNA感染性克隆,经体外转录、转染RD细胞后成功获得了拯救病毒。随后,将增强型绿色荧光蛋白基因(Enhanced green fluorescent protein,EGFP)插入到EV71基因组中构建荧光病毒。结果表明,此荧光病毒不仅可以侵染、复制,在传代的过程中EGFP基因也保持了较好的稳定性,表明其可以作为一种报告病毒应用于高通量的EV71抗病毒药物筛选中。%Human Enterovirus 71(EV71)is one of the major agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD). An infectious full-length cDNA clone of EV71 as well as the recuse virus were obtained using the reverse genetic techniques. Then, the EGFP gene was inserted into the EV71 genome to construct the reporter virus. The results show that the EGFP-EV71 virus not only are replication-competent and infectious, but the EGFP gene are stable during passaging, implicating the recombinant virus could be used as a reporter virus for high throughput EV71 antiviral drugs screening.

  6. Nocturnal field use by fall migrating American woodcock in the Delta of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, David G.; Crossett, Richard; Lehnen, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    The American woodcock (Scolopax minor) population has declined since the late 1960s across its range and is now considered a species of special concern. Research on woodcock habitat use during migration and migratory routes through the Central Flyway has been limited. We assessed woodcock phenology, estimated density, and nocturnal habitat use in fields on public lands in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley portion of Arkansas during November and December of 2010 and 2011. We used all-terrain vehicles to survey woodcock along transects in 67 fields of 8 field types. We analyzed data using hierarchical distance sampling. We detected woodcock from the first week in November through the third week in December but in low numbers. We did not detect woodcock in millet or rice fields, whereas woodcock had the highest estimated densities in unharvested soybeans. All other crop type-post-harvest management combinations had low woodcock densities. We did not detect woodcock in fields 40 ha. Woodcock in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley may benefit from management for unharvested soybean fields of moderate size (approx. 8-40ha).

  7. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Arkansas. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  8. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  9. Bacteria and Turbidity Survey for Blue Mountain Lake, Arkansas, Spring and Summer, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, A. Dwight

    1995-01-01

    Introduction Blue Mountain Lake darn is located at river mile 74.4 on the Petit Jean River in Logan and Yell Counties in west-central Arkansas (fig. 1). Drainage area above the darn is 488 square miles. Blue Mountain Lake is located between two national forests-the Ozark National Forest and the Ouachita National Forest. The primary purpose for Blue Mountain Lake is flood control, but the lake is used for a variety of recreational purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.s. Army Corps of Engineers, Little Rock District, conducted a bacterial and turbidity study of the Blue Mountain Lake Basin during the spring and suri1mer 1994. Samples were collected weekly at 11 locations within the lake basin from May through September 1994. Eight sampling sites were located on tributaries to the lake and three sampling sites were located on the lake with one of the sites located at a swim beach (fig. 2; table 1).

  10. Helminth parasites of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from north-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D J; Owen, W B; Snyder, D E

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central Arkansas between November 1989 and April 1990. Helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. Each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following helminths: Brachylaima virginiana, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Pharyngostomoides procyonis, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides spp., Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria plica, Capillaria procyonis, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma goblei, Cruzia americana, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dracunculus insignis, Enterobius sp., Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis, Centrorhynchus wardae, Macracanthorhynchus ingens, and Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa. All helminths collected with the exception of D. insignis constitute new geographic distribution records. Occurrences of C. aerophila, C. wardae, and O. tortuosa are new host records. One nymphal pentastome, Porocephalus crotali, was found in the liver of 1 raccoon, constituting a new host record.

  11. Detection of Lead (Pb) in Three Environmental Matrices of the Cache River Watershed, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Mary K; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    Water bodies contaminated with lead (Pb) represent a considerable threat to both human and environmental health. The Cache River, located in northeastern Arkansas has been listed as impaired on the 303(d) list due to Pb contamination. However, historical data for the watershed is limited in both sampled waterways and analyses performed. This study measures concentrations of Pb in three environmental matrices of the Cache River Watershed; dissolved in the water column, total Pb (dissolved + particulate), and sediment-bound Pb. A variety of waterways were sampled including main channel and tributary sites. Frequency of detection and mean concentrations were compared to values for the entire Lower Mississippi Watershed. In general, no significant differences were found for the CRW when compared to the LMRW, with the exception of total Pb which was detected more frequently but at lower concentrations in the CRW than in the LMRW, and sediment Pb, which was detected at a significantly lower frequency in the CRW than the LMRW.

  12. Hydrogeology and Physical Characteristics of Water Samples at the Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, J. B.; Stanton, G. P.; Freiwald, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site.

  13. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  14. Hard lives, God's help, and struggling through: caregiving in Arkansas Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdner, Linda A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Simpson, Helen C

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to describe the experience of African American adults providing in-home care for a family member with chronic confusion living in the Arkansas Delta. We conducted this study over fourteen months in two rural Delta counties using participant observation and in-depth interviews. The majority of caregivers were adult daughters. Nearly half attributed chronic confusion to a difficult life and emotional stress or "worry;" a third believed it to be a natural component of "old age." Caregivers tended to view their work as an expression of love and devotion that was accompanied by emotional stress and personal sacrifice. While just under half of the caregivers had no other family members willing or available to assist with the physical care of the elder, the majority were able to turn to family members for emotional support. Further they identified strong religious beliefs as the primary force that sustained them in the caregiving role. The centrality of spirituality, faith/religion was noted in nearly all aspects of life. Faith in God was seen as continuing to be an important aspect of the care recipients' lives as well. Recipients' spiritual needs were addressed by accompanying the care recipient to church services and reading Bible passages to them on a regular basis. Selective community services (i.e., adult day care, home health services) were used that supported efforts at maintaining the family caregiver role. Findings are discussed within the context of historical and sociopolitical factors of the geographic region.

  15. 肠道病毒71型疫苗研究进展%Research progress of enterovirus 71 vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓晶; 温红玲; 王志玉

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main causative pathogens of hand,foot and mouth disease resulting in neurological complications and death.There are no effective drugs and measures for EV71 infection at present.Development of effective vaccines is the best method to control EV71 epidemic.This review summarizes the research progress of EV71 vaccines.%肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是引起手足口病(hand,foot and mouth disease,HFMD)的主要病原体之一,HFMD可并发神经系统疾病,甚至导致死亡.对于EV71感染,目前尚无有效的治疗药物和措施,因此研制有效的疫苗是控制EV71流行的最佳方法.此文就EV71疫苗的研究进展进行综述.

  16. Amphotericin B Inhibits Enterovirus 71 Replication by Impeding Viral Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fengwen; Zhao, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Siqi; Li, Jian; Yin, Lijuan; Mei, Shan; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Ying; Ren, Lili; Cen, Shan; Zhao, Zhendong; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi; Liang, Chen; Ai, Bin; Guo, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease that leads to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is thus an urgent need to find new treatments to control EV71 infection. In this study, we report potent inhibition of EV71 by a polyene antibiotic Amphotericin B. Amphotericin B profoundly diminished the expression of EV71 RNA and viral proteins in the RD cells and the HEK293 cells. As a result, EV71 production was inhibited by Amphotericin B with an EC50 (50% effective concentration) of 1.75 μM in RD cells and 0.32 μM in 293 cells. In addition to EV71, EV68 was also strongly inhibited by Amphotericin B. Results of mechanistic studies revealed that Amphotericin B targeted the early stage of EV71 infection through impairing the attachment and internalization of EV71 by host cells. As an effective anti-fungi drug, Amphotericin B thus holds the promise of formulating a novel therapeutic to treat EV71 infection. PMID:27608771

  17. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  18. Benvenuto Cellini (1500-71) and "Rainstopping".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgrén, S.; Neumann, J.

    1981-10-01

    Benvenuto Cellini (1500-71), the renowned goldsmith and sculptor of the late Renaissance in Italy, claimed in his autobiography that he directed artillery fire at rain clouds, thus stopping the rain. The occasion was the festive entrance into Rome (on 3 November 1538) of the Duchess Margaret of Austria, natural daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor, who was also King of Spain Charles V. She came to Rome to be wedded to the grandson of the reigning Pontiff, Flaul III.Since Cellini tended to be boastful, we checked three independent contemporary sources describing Margaret's reception. None of the three mentions firing at clouds; they do not even say that there was rain on that day. It must be added, however, that all three accounts are very brief, and that in the past, records of events usually put emphasis on actions of rulers and other important personages, paying little attention to environmental (and even to social) conditions. Thus, the most that we can say in regard of Cellini's claim is that we cannot corroborate his assertion of firing at clouds.Attention is drawn also to Cellini's excellent description of a phenomenon in atmospheric optics, viz. that of the "Heiligtnschein" (of the "wet" type). Cicely M. Botley points out that this phenomenon was described by Cellini 250 years before the first scientific presentation of the observation.

  19. Subtask 7.1 - Strategic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Erickson

    2009-03-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has recently completed 11 years of research through the Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) focused on fossil energy technology development and demonstration. To support a significant number of the different activities being considered within all of our research contracts with NETL, a subtask (7.1 Strategic Studies) was created to focus on small research efforts that came up throughout the year which would support an existing EERC-NETL project or would help to develop a new concept for inclusion in future efforts. Typical efforts conducted under this task were usually between $15,000 and $60,000 in scope and had time lines of less than 6 months. A limited number of larger studies were also conducted, generally at the direct request of NETL. Over the life of this task, 46 projects were conducted. These efforts ranged from quick experiments to gain fundamental knowledge to support a current effort, to literature reviews, to a few larger engineering efforts.

  20. Dystrophin Dp71 Isoforms Are Differentially Expressed in the Mouse Brain and Retina: Report of New Alternative Splicing and a Novel Nomenclature for Dp71 Isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Jorge; González-Reyes, Mayram; Romo-Yáñez, José; Vacca, Ophélie; Aguilar-González, Guadalupe; Rendón, Alvaro; Vaillend, Cyrille; Montañez, Cecilia

    2017-01-27

    Multiple dystrophin Dp71 isoforms have been identified in rats, mice, and humans and in several cell line models. These Dp71 isoforms are produced by the alternative splicing of exons 71 to 74 and 78 and intron 77. Three main groups of Dp71 proteins are defined based on their C-terminal specificities: Dp71d, Dp71f, and Dp71e. Dp71 is highly expressed in the brain and retina; however, the specific isoforms present in these tissues have not been determined to date. In this work, we explored the expression of Dp71 isoforms in the mouse brain and retina using RT-PCR assays followed by the cloning of PCR products into the pGEM-T Easy vector, which was used to transform DH5α cells. Dp71-positive colonies were later analyzed by PCR multiplex and DNA sequencing to determine the alternative splicing. We thus demonstrated the expression of Dp71 transcripts corresponding to Dp71, Dp71a, Dp71c, Dp71b, Dp71ab, Dp71 Δ110, and novel Dp71 isoforms spliced in exon 74; 71 and 74; 71, 73 and 74; and 74 and 78, which we named Dp71d Δ74 , Dp71d Δ71,74 , Dp71d Δ71,73-74 , and Dp71f Δ74 , respectively. Additionally, we demonstrated that the Dp71d group of isoforms is highly expressed in the brain, while the Dp71f group predominates in the retina, at both the cDNA and protein levels. These findings suggest that distinct Dp71 isoforms may play different roles in the brain and retina.

  1. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Enhanced the Infectivity of Enterovirus 71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Liao

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infections may be associated with neurological complications, including brainstem encephalitis (BE. Severe EV71 BE may be complicated with autonomic nervous system (ANS dysregulation and/or pulmonary edema (PE. ANS dysregulation is related to the overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, which results from catecholamine release.The aims of this study were to explore the effects of catecholamines on severe EV71 infection and to investigate the changes in the percentages of EV71-infected cells, virus titer, and cytokine production on the involvement of catecholamines.Plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE and epinephrine (EP in EV71-infected patients were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. The expression of adrenergic receptors (ADRs on RD, A549, SK-N-SH, THP-1, Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs were detected using flow cytometry. The percentages of EV71-infected cells, virus titer, and cytokine production were investigated after treatment with NE and EP.The plasma levels of NE and EP were significantly higher in EV71-infected patients with ANS dysregulation and PE than in controls. Both α1A- and β2-ADRs were expressed on A549, RD, SK-N-SH, HL-60, THP-1, Jurkat cells and hPBMCs. NE treatment elevated the percentages of EV71-infected cells to 62.9% and 22.7% in THP-1 and Jurkat cells, respectively. Via treatment with EP, the percentages of EV71-infected cells were increased to 64.6% and 26.9% in THP-1 and Jurkat cells. The percentage of EV71-infected cells increased upon NE or EP treatment while the α- and β-blockers reduced the percentages of EV71-infected cells with NE or EP treatment. At least two-fold increase in virus titer was observed in EV71-infected A549, SK-N-SH and hPBMCs after treatment with NE or EP. IL-6 production was enhanced in EV71-infected hPBMCs at a concentration of 102 pg/mL NE.The plasma levels of NE and EP elevated in EV71-infected patients with ANS

  2. 新型肠道病毒71型(EV71)疫苗质量控制和评价标准的研究%Quality Control and Evaluation of New Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛群颖; 姚昕; 梁争论

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究建立新型肠道病毒71型(EV71)疫苗质量控制标准和评价体系,为EV71疫苗研发提供基础.方法 根据创新型疫苗研发的要求,充分发挥技术优势,开展EV71疫苗质控标准、标准品和评价方法研究.结果与结论 建立EV71灭活疫苗的中和抗体和抗原定量测定标准品,统一不同企业疫苗的质控标准,规范疫苗的评价体系,为EV71疫苗的研发提供保障.

  3. Development of EV71 virus-like particle purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and results in deaths of hundreds of young children. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty capsids consisting of viral structural proteins and can elicit potent immune responses, thus holding promise as an EV71 vaccine candidate. However, an efficient, scalable production and purification scheme is missing. For mass production of EV71 VLPs, this study aimed to develop a production and chromatography-based purification process. We first demonstrated the successful EV71 VLPs production in the stirred-tank bioreactor in which High Five™ cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing EV71 structural polyprotein P1 and protease 3CD. The culture supernatant containing the VLPs was subjected to tangential flow filtration (TFF) for concentration/diafiltration, which enabled the removal of >80% of proteins while recovering >80% of VLPs. The concentrated VLPs were next subjected to hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) in which the VLPs were mainly found in the flow through. After another TFF concentration/diafiltration, the VLPs were purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and concentrated/diafiltered by a final TFF. The integrated process yielded an overall VLPs recovery of ≈ 36% and a purity of ≈ 83%, which was better or comparable to the recovery and purity for the purification of live EV71 virus particles. This process thus may move the EV71 VLPs vaccine one step closer to the clinical applications.

  4. 肠道病毒71型研究进展%STUDY ON THE PROGRESS OF ENTEROVIRUS 71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙佳

    2011-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease is an acute infectious disease caused by different enteroviruses. including the coxsackievirus A16 and hu-man enterovirus 71 etc. Since EV71 can cause severe central nervous system complications. This article reviewed the research progress on EV 71 , provided the basis for the prevention and treatment of HFMD.%手足口病是由不同的肠道病毒所引起的一种急性传染病,其中以柯萨奇病毒A16型和人肠道病毒EV71最为常见.由于EV71能引起严重的中枢神经系统并发症,本文就EV71的研究进展作一综述,为手足口病的预防和治疗提供依据.

  5. EV71疫苗研究进展%Progress in the research of EV71 vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宏荣; 王蕾; 廖芸

    2009-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major etiological agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Since no effeetive antiviral agents are available,developing effective EV71 vaccines for prevention of HFMD has been the control measure of choice. Currently, the research of EV71 vaccines has made certain pro-gress,and various EV71 vaccines, including attenuated vccines, inactivated vaccine, VP1 subunit vaccine and DNA vaccine, are being developed. Although various EV71 vaccines have certain efficacy, the optimal vaccine needs to be identified by evaluating the safety and protective efficacy of various EV71 vaccines.%肠道病毒71型(enterovims 71,EV71)是手足口病的主要病原体,由于尚无治疗手足口病的有效抗病毒药,因此,开发预防手足口病的有效EV71疫苗成为所有控制措施的首选.目前,EV71疫苗研究已取得一定的进展,正在研发的疫苗包括减毒或灭活疫苗、VP1亚单位疫苗和DNA疫苗.虽然各种疫苗均具有一定的免疫效果,但最适疫苗的确认还需对各种疫苗的安全性和保护效力进行评估.

  6. The interplays between autophagy and apoptosis induced by enterovirus 71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Xi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the causative agent of human diseases with distinct severity, from mild hand, foot and mouth disease to severe neurological syndromes, such as encephalitis and meningitis. The lack of understanding of viral pathogenesis as well as lack of efficient vaccine and drugs against this virus impedes the control of EV71 infection. EV71 virus induces autophagy and apoptosis; however, the relationship between EV71-induced autophagy and apoptosis as well as the influence of autophagy and apoptosis on virus virulence remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, it was observed that the Anhui strain of EV71 induced autophagy and apoptosis in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD-A cells. Additionally, by either applying chemical inhibitors or knocking down single essential autophagic or apoptotic genes, inhibition of EV71 induced autophagy inhibited the apoptosis both at the autophagosome formation stage and autophagy execution stage. However, inhibition of autophagy at the stage of autophagosome and lysosome fusion promoted apoptosis. In reverse, the inhibition of EV71-induced apoptosis contributed to the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-I (LC3-I to LC3-II and degradation of sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/P62. Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy in the autophagsome formation stage or apoptosis decreased the release of EV71 viral particles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the results of this study not only revealed novel aspect of the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in EV71 infection, but also provided a new insight to control EV71 infection.

  7. Enterovirus71 (EV71) utilise host microRNAs to mediate host immune system enhancing survival during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Woo, Wee Hong; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

    2014-01-01

    Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a self-limiting viral disease that mainly affects infants and children. In contrast with other HFMD causing enteroviruses, Enterovirus71 (EV71) has commonly been associated with severe clinical manifestation leading to death. Currently, due to a lack in understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, there is no antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of HFMD patients. Therefore the need to better understand the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is warranted. We have previously reported a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) based model to study the pathogenesis of EV71. Using this system, we showed that knockdown of DGCR8, an essential cofactor for microRNAs biogenesis resulted in a reduction of EV71 replication. We also demonstrated that there are miRNAs changes during EV71 pathogenesis and EV71 utilise host miRNAs to attenuate antiviral pathways during infection. Together, data from this study provide critical information on the role of miRNAs during EV71 infection.

  8. Progress in research of enterovirus 71 vaccines%EV71疫苗研制新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕾; 陈敬贤; 王明丽

    2013-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是引起手足口病和神经系统并发症的重要病原体.近几年,世界多个地区发生了由EV72感染引起的手足口病.由于目前尚无有效的抗病毒药物对患者进行治疗,因而疫苗的研制成为预防和控制EV71传播的关键.此文主要就近年EV71疫苗的研制进展做一综述.%Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is known to be a causative agent of hand,foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and severe neurological complications.Many outbreaks caused by EV71 have occurred in different regions of the world.Due to lacking an effective antiviral agent,development of effective vaccines has become the top priority in terms of control strategies.This article reviews the recent advancement in the design of various kinds of vaccines against EV71.

  9. Methods for estimating annual exceedance probability discharges for streams in Arkansas, based on data through water year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel M.; Krieger, Joshua D.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2016-08-04

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study to update regional skew, annual exceedance probability discharges, and regional regression equations used to estimate annual exceedance probability discharges for ungaged locations on streams in the study area with the use of recent geospatial data, new analytical methods, and available annual peak-discharge data through the 2013 water year. An analysis of regional skew using Bayesian weighted least-squares/Bayesian generalized-least squares regression was performed for Arkansas, Louisiana, and parts of Missouri and Oklahoma. The newly developed constant regional skew of -0.17 was used in the computation of annual exceedance probability discharges for 281 streamgages used in the regional regression analysis. Based on analysis of covariance, four flood regions were identified for use in the generation of regional regression models. Thirty-nine basin characteristics were considered as potential explanatory variables, and ordinary least-squares regression techniques were used to determine the optimum combinations of basin characteristics for each of the four regions. Basin characteristics in candidate models were evaluated based on multicollinearity with other basin characteristics (variance inflation factor equations apply only to locations on streams in Arkansas where annual peak discharges are not substantially affected by regulation, diversion, channelization, backwater, or urbanization. The applicability and accuracy of the regional regression equations depend on the basin characteristics measured for an ungaged location on a stream being within range of those used to develop the equations.

  10. A New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Green Frog, Lithobates clamitans (Anura: Ranidae) from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcallister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Bursey, Charles R; Trauth, Stanley E; Connior, Matthew B; Robison, Henry W

    2014-07-01

    Between April and October 2012, 20 juvenile and adult green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) were collected by hand or dipnet from 3 counties of Arkansas and examined for coccidial parasites. A single frog (5%) was found to be passing oocysts of a new eimerian species. Oocysts of Eimeria menaensis n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 25.4 × 15.6 (23-27 × 13-17) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.6. A micropyle was absent but an oocyst residuum and polar granule were present. Sporocysts were spheroidal to subspheroidal and measured 5.0 × 5.0 (4-6) µm with L/W of 1.1. An indistinct Stieda body was present, but sub-and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate and attenuated at both ends with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the second report of coccidia from L. clamitans and the first time a coccidian has been reported from a green frog from Arkansas.

  11. Remote sensing of forest decline and Enaphalodes rufulus outbreak in the Arkansas Ozarks, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, John Joseph

    A widespread oak decline event was reported in the Arkansas Ozarks during the late 1990's. Ground-based monitoring attempts have been successful at recording the progression of this event, but are extremely laborious and as a result are only possible in a few locations. Remote sensing technologies offer the ability to substantially decrease labor and time required to collect large-scale forest biophysical data. Remote sensors allow continuous samples to be acquired across large tracts of land that would only be represented by a few widely spaced sampling points in traditional terrestrial sampling schemes. Remotely sensed data from large study areas can be acquired in minutes or hours, which greatly reduces cost compared to long-term field sampling activities. Additionally, changes of biophysical variables ongoing during long-term data collection can be avoided. Sampling bias caused by multiple individuals collecting field data is also reduced. Geographically-referenced digital remote sensor data from the Arkansas Ozarks have been acquired using two fundamentally different remote sensor systems: a hand held spectroradiometer, and aerial LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). Spectroradiometer data were used to identify the spectral signatures of northern red oak decline, and methods for applying this information to aerial imagery were described. LIDAR data were used to estimate total aboveground biomass. Biomass estimates will allow subsequent remote sensing and hazard modeling to estimate quantifiable changes in biomass at the landscape level.

  12. Archaeological Investigations at the Lewis Site (3LE266): A Twentieth- Century Black Owned Farmstead on the St. Francis Floodway, Lee County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series 21. Fayetteville. Stine, Linda France 1990 Social Inequality and Turn-of-the-Century Farmsteads: Issues of...University, Pullman , Washington. 1989 - M.A., Anthropology, Memphis State University, Memphis, Tennessee. I Areas of Specialization Ceramic and Lithic Analysis...Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman , Washington. 1988a Perspectives on Emerging Chiefdoms: A Comparative Analysis. Paper

  13. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value gas extraction activities. Major ions and trace metals additionally had lower concentrations in data gathered for this study than in the historical

  14. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  15. 48 CFR 1452.237-71 - Utilization of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Biomass. 1452.237-71 Section 1452.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Utilization of Woody Biomass. As prescribed in § 1437.7202, insert the following clause: Utilization of Woody Biomass (MAY 2005) (a) The contractor may remove and utilize woody biomass, if: (1) Project work...

  16. 48 CFR 2452.209-71 - Limitation on future contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or through the performance of tasks pursuant to this contract, is required to develop specifications... contracts. 2452.209-71 Section 2452.209-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions...

  17. 48 CFR 1352.239-71 - Electronic and information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technology. 1352.239-71 Section 1352.239-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Electronic and information technology. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1339.270(a), insert the following provision: Electronic and Information Technology (APR 2010) (a) To be considered eligible for award, offerors...

  18. 30 CFR 71.401 - Location of facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location of facilities. 71.401 Section 71.401... Location of facilities. Bathhouses, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities shall be in a location convenient for the use of the miners. Where these facilities are designed to serve more than...

  19. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852.228-71 Section 1852.228-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... the aircraft has returned to the ground and rotors are disengaged. (iv) With respect to vertical...

  20. 28 CFR 71.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal to authority head. 71.39 Section 71.39 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF... appeal shall be stayed automatically pending resolution of the motion for reconsideration. (2) If...

  1. 48 CFR 1352.231-71 - Duplication of effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duplication of effort. 1352.231-71 Section 1352.231-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES... Duplication of effort. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1331.205-70, insert the following clause: Duplication of...

  2. 48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor shall include the following statement on deliveries of hardware, software, and data products... delivery of hardware, software, or data on diskettes under this contract. (d) This clause shall not limit... Virus Security. 2452.239-71 Section 2452.239-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  3. 48 CFR 552.241-71 - Disputes (Utility Contracts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disputes (Utility....241-71 Disputes (Utility Contracts). As prescribed in 541.501, insert clause 552.241-71, Disputes (Utility Contracts), in solicitations and contracts for utility services subject to the jurisdiction...

  4. The complete genome of Enterovirus 71 China strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Five overlapping clones covering the full genome of Enterovirus71 China strain SHZH98 were obtained and then the sequences were determined by the chain termination method. It showed that the full length of EV71 SHZH98 genome (not including Poly A tail) is 7408 bp. There are some diversities on the lengths and sequences of 5′ UTR and 3′ UTR between SHZH98 and the other EV71 strains. In P1 capsid region, which is closely associated with viral immunogenicity, EV71 strain SHZH98 shares the highest homology with Taiwan strains; but in P2 and P3 non-structural gene regions there are higher identities with Coxsakievirus A16 and EV71 strains MS, BrCr than with Taiwan strains. Phylogenetic tree constructed by structural gene region indicates that China strain SHZH98 has a closer relationship with Taiwan strains, however, in the non-coding region it has a closer relationship with Coxsakievirus A16, EV71 strains MS and BrCr. EV71 China strain was analyzed at the molecular level. The results will contribute to the basic study on enteroviruses and the EV71 prevention in China.

  5. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  6. 40 CFR 164.71 - Fees of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fees of witnesses. 164.71 Section 164.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING...

  7. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the...

  8. 41 CFR 105-71.141 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reporting. 105... GOVERNMENTS 71.14-Post-Award Requirements/Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 105-71.141 Financial reporting. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) (2) and (5) of this section, grantees...

  9. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations involved in agriculture. 570.71 Section 570.71... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION 1-Occupations in Agriculture... agriculture. (a) Findings and declarations of fact as to specific occupations. The following occupations...

  10. 29 CFR 4044.71 - Valuation of annuity benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation of annuity benefits. 4044.71 Section 4044.71 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS... Valuation of annuity benefits. The value of a benefit which is to be paid as an annuity is the cost...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.231-71 - Determination of compensation reasonableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Determination of compensation reasonableness. 1852.231-71 Section 1852.231-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Contract Act employees proposed that do not fail within the scope of any classification listed in...

  12. 48 CFR 652.237-71 - Identification/Building Pass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pass. 652.237-71 Section 652.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES... Identification/Building Pass. As prescribed in 637.110(b), insert the following clause. Identification/Building Pass (APR 2004) (a) Contractors working in domestic facilities who already possess a security...

  13. 29 CFR 458.71 - Procedure upon admission of facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure upon admission of facts. 458.71 Section 458.71... facts. The admission of all the material allegations of fact in the complaint shall constitute a waiver... his recommended decision and order in which he shall adopt as his proposed findings of fact...

  14. 27 CFR 71.65 - Answer admitting facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer admitting facts. 71... Hearing Procedure Answers § 71.65 Answer admitting facts. If the respondent desires to waive the hearing on the allegations of fact set forth in the order to show cause, and does not contest the facts,...

  15. 42 CFR 71.54 - Etiological agents, hosts, and vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Etiological agents, hosts, and vectors. 71.54..., INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.54 Etiological agents, hosts, and vectors. (a) A... any arthropod or other animal host or vector of human disease, or any exotic living arthropod or...

  16. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  17. Anti-Enterovirus 71 Agents of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review, with 42 references, presents the fascinating area of anti-enterovirus 71 natural products over the last three decades for the first time. It covers literature published from 2005–2015 and refers to compounds isolated from biogenic sources. In total, 58 naturally-occurring anti-EV71 compounds are recorded.

  18. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors. 159.71 Section 159.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  19. 44 CFR 71.3 - Denial of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance. 71... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF COASTAL BARRIER LEGISLATION § 71.3 Denial of flood insurance. (a) No new flood insurance...

  20. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  1. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88...

  2. 7 CFR 4279.71 - Public bodies and nonprofit corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public bodies and nonprofit corporations. 4279.71... § 4279.71 Public bodies and nonprofit corporations. Any public body or nonprofit corporation that... by a public body or nonprofit corporation in compliance with OMB Circulars A-128 or A-133 or...

  3. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a calendar-year basis, for admission to any Designated Entrance Fee Area. The charge for the Golden...

  4. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  5. Characterization of the structure, clean-sand percentage, dissolved-solids concentrations, and estimated quantity of groundwater in the Upper Cretaceous Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillip, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    The West Gulf Coastal Plain, Mississippi embayment, and underlying Cretaceous aquifers are rich in water resources; however, large parts of the aquifers are largely unusable because of large concentrations of dissolved solids. Cretaceous aquifers are known to have large concentrations of salinity in some parts of Arkansas. The Nacatoch Sand and the Tokio Formation of Upper Cretaceous age were chosen for investigation because these aquifers produce groundwater to wells near their outcrops and have large salinity concentrations away from their outcrop areas. Previous investigations have indicated that dissolved-solids concentrations of groundwater within the Nacatoch Sand, 2–20 miles downdip from the outcrop, render the groundwater as unusable for purposes requiring freshwater. Groundwater within the Tokio Formation also exhibits large concentrations of dissolved solids downdip. Water-quality data showing elevated dissolved-solids concentrations are limited for these Cretaceous aquifers because other shallower aquifers are used for water supply. Although not suitable for many uses, large, unused amounts of saline groundwater are present in these aquifers. Historical borehole geophysical logs were used to determine the geologic and hydrogeologic properties of these Cretaceous aquifers, as well as the quality of the groundwater within the aquifers. Based on the interpretation of borehole geophysical logs, in Arkansas, the altitude of the top of the Nacatoch Sand ranges from more than 200 to less than -4,000 feet; the structural high occurs in the outcrop area and the structural low occurs in southeastern Arkansas near the Desha Basin structural feature. The thickness of the Nacatoch Sand ranges from 0 to over 550 feet. The minimum thickness occurs where the formation pinches out in the outcrop area, and the maximum thickness occurs in the southwestern corner of Arkansas. Other areas of large thickness include the area of the Desha Basin structural feature in

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Enterovirus Strain 71 (EV71/Taipei/3118/2011), Isolated from a Patient in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Pei; Liu, Jiung-Liang; Chen, Lung-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Chao; Wang, Hsiu-Chi; Lin, Shih-Jie; Chen, Pin-Chun; Wang, Kun-Teng; Huang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Yi-Chan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih; Wang, Der-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This full-length genome sequence of human enterovirus strain 71 (EV71/Taipei/3118/2011) was isolated from a clinical patient in Taiwan in 2011. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the complete genome sequence in this study is part of the subgenotype C4.

  7. Engineering geologic conditions at the sinkhole entrance to Logan Cave, Benton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Logan Cave, located in Benton County, Arkansas, is inhabited by several endangered and threatened species. The cave and surrounding area was designated a National Wildlife Refuge under the control of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1989. Cave researchers access the cave through a steep-sided sinkhole entrance, which also is one of the two access points used by endangered bats. There is evidence of instability of one of the entrance slopes that has raised concerns that the entrance could close if slope failure was to occur. At the request of USFWS, we performed an engineering geologic investigation of the sinkhole to evaluate stability of this slope, which is comprised of soil, and other mechanisms of sediment transport into the cave entrance. The investigation included engineering geologic mapping, sampling and laboratory testing of subsurface geologic materials, and slope-stability analysis. We found that the sinkhole slope that extends into the entrance of the cave is comprised of sandy and gravelly soil to the depths explored (6.4 meters). This soil likely was deposited as alluvium within a previous, larger sinkhole. Based on properties of the alluvium, geometry of the slope, and results of finite-element slope-stability analyses, we conclude that the slope is marginally stable. Future failures of the slope probably would be relatively thin and small, thus several would be required to completely close the cave entrance. However, sediment is accumulating within the cave entrance due to foot traffic of those accessing the cave, surface-water erosion and transport, and shallow slope failures from the other sinkhole slopes. We conclude that the entrance will be closed by sediment in the future, similar to another entrance that we identified that completely closed in the past. Several measures could be taken to reduce the potential for closure of the cave entrance, including periodic sediment removal, installation of materials that reduce erosion by

  8. Constituent concentrations, loads, and yields to Beaver Lake, Arkansas, water years 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Susan E.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Green, W. Reed

    2010-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir used as a drinking-water supply and considered a primary watershed of concern in the State of Arkansas. As such, information is needed to assess water quality, especially nutrient enrichment, nutrient-algal relations, turbidity, and sediment issues within the reservoir system. Water-quality samples were collected at three main inflows to Beaver Lake: the White River near Fayetteville, Richland Creek at Goshen, and War Eagle Creek near Hindsville. Water-quality samples collected over the period represented different flow conditions (from low to high). Constituent concentrations, flow-weighted concentrations, loads, and yields from White River, Richland Creek, and War Eagle Creek to Beaver Lake for water years 1999-2008 were documented for this report. Constituents include total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, total organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Linear regression models developed by computer program S-LOADEST were used to estimate loads for each constituent for the 10-year period at each station. Constituent yields and flow-weighted concentrations for each of the three stations were calculated for the study. Constituent concentrations and loads and yields varied with time and varied among the three tributaries contributing to Beaver Lake. These differences can result from differences in precipitation, land use, contributions of nutrients from point sources, and variations in basin size. Load and yield estimates varied yearly during the study period, water years 1999-2008, with the least nutrient and sediment load and yields generally occurring in water year 2006, and the greatest occurring in water year 2008, during a year with record amounts of precipitation. Flow-weighted concentrations of most constituents were greatest at War Eagle Creek near Hindsville

  9. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the six subunits of the Texas Coastal Uplands and Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the Texas Coastal Uplands and Mississippi Embayment aquifer system in the States of Alabama, Arkansas,...

  10. EV71疫苗研究进展%Progress of reaseach on vaccine of Enterovirus 71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 姚昕; 李凤祥

    2009-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(EV71),可引起手足口病(HFMD)和严重神经系统疾病.近年来,在世界多个国家和地区报道了EV71的爆发.由于目前缺乏有效的抗病毒药物,因此研制有效的疫苗是控制EV71流行最为有效的策略.近年来很多报道显示在EV71疫苗研究上取得了重要进展,本文以此为重点概括了EV71灭活疫苗、重组疫苗、DNA疫苗、多肽疫苗、减毒活疫苗等以及动物模型方面的研究进展.%Enterovirus 71(EV71)is known to be a causative agent of hand-foot-mouth disease(HFMD)and severe neurological complications.Many Ev71 outbreaks have been reposed in different regions of the world.Due to the lack of an effective antiviralagent,primary prevention of the disease,including the development of effective vaccines,has been the top priority in terms of control strategies.Recently,many reports indicated lots of important progression is acquired.In this article,we renewed the progression of EV71 animal model and vaccines which inchded inactivation vaccine,recombinant vaccine,DNA vaccine,polypeptide vaccine and live attenuated vaccine.

  11. The complete genome of Enterovirus 71 China strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Fan

    2001-01-01

    [1]Jin Qi, Medical Molecular Virology (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 2001.[2]McMinn, P., Stratov, I., Dowse, G., Enterovirus 71 outbreak in Western Australia associated with acute flaccid paralysis, Preliminary report, Commun. Dis. Intell., 1999, 23(7): 199.[3]Ho, M., Chen, E. R., Hsu, K. H. et al., An epidemic of Enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan, The New England Journal of Medicine, 1999, 341(13): 929.[4]He Yaqing, Yang Fan, Li Chengliang et al., Identification of EV71 isolates from hand, foot and mouth disease cases in ShenZhen, Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Virology (in Chinese), 1999, 1: 112.[5]Landry, M. L., Fonseca, S. N. S., Cohen, S. et al., Fatal enterovirus type 71 infection: rapid detection and diagnostic pitfalls, Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 1995, 14: 1095.[6]Brown, B. A., Pallansch, M. A., Complete nucleotide sequence of enterovirus 71 is distinct from poliovirus, Virus Res., 1995, 39: 195.[7]Brown, B. A., Oberste, M. S., Alexander, J. P. Jr., Molecular epidemiology and evolution of Enterovirus 71 strains isolated from 1970 to 1998, J. Virol., 1999, 73(12): 9969.[8]Ishimaru,Y., Nakano,S., Yamaoda,K.et al.,Outbreaks of hand,foot,and mouth disease by Enterovirus 71,Arch.Dis.Child.,1980,55:583.

  12. Molecular analysis of virulent determinants of enterovirus 71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renqing Li

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the most important causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in children. In most cases, it is a self-limiting illness. However some EV71 infectious cases can develop severe clinical outcomes, such as encephalitis, meningitis, poliomyelitis like paralysis, and even death. To identify the determinants of virulence, the deduced amino acid sequence of polyprotein and nucleotide sequence of 5'-NTR and 3'-NTR in 25 SC-EV71 strains (strains from severe cases and 31 MC-EV71 strains (strains from mild cases were analyzed. Results showed four amino acids on two positions (Gly(P710/Gln(P710/Arg(P710 and Glu(P729 on the DE and EF loop of VP1, one (Lys(P930 on the surface of protease 2A and four nucleotides on three positions (G(P272, U(P488 and A(P700/U(P700 in the 5'-NTR region are associated with EV71 virulent phenotype. Predicted secondary structure of RNA using the consensus sequence of 5'-NTR by RNAStructure showed the mutation of nucleotide at position 488 in strain BJ08-Z004-3 (position 491 in prototype strain BrCr can result in the discrepancy of an additional pair of nucleotides and thus change the stability of the second structure of IRES. Fragment base content analysis showed that in the region 696 to 714 bp at the 5'-NTR, where the A(P700/U(P700 was located, the nucleotide constitution ratios differed significantly between SC-EV71 and MC-EV71 strains. In conclusion, comparative genomic analysis showed that virulence of EV71 strains are mainly determined by the amino acids on two positions of VP1, one position of protease 2A and the nucleotides on three positions in 5'-NTR.

  13. Molecular analysis of virulent determinants of enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renqing; Zou, Qinghua; Chen, Lijuan; Zhang, Herun; Wang, Yumei

    2011-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most important causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. In most cases, it is a self-limiting illness. However some EV71 infectious cases can develop severe clinical outcomes, such as encephalitis, meningitis, poliomyelitis like paralysis, and even death. To identify the determinants of virulence, the deduced amino acid sequence of polyprotein and nucleotide sequence of 5'-NTR and 3'-NTR in 25 SC-EV71 strains (strains from severe cases) and 31 MC-EV71 strains (strains from mild cases) were analyzed. Results showed four amino acids on two positions (Gly(P710)/Gln(P710)/Arg(P710) and Glu(P729)) on the DE and EF loop of VP1, one (Lys(P930)) on the surface of protease 2A and four nucleotides on three positions (G(P272), U(P488) and A(P700)/U(P700)) in the 5'-NTR region are associated with EV71 virulent phenotype. Predicted secondary structure of RNA using the consensus sequence of 5'-NTR by RNAStructure showed the mutation of nucleotide at position 488 in strain BJ08-Z004-3 (position 491 in prototype strain BrCr) can result in the discrepancy of an additional pair of nucleotides and thus change the stability of the second structure of IRES. Fragment base content analysis showed that in the region 696 to 714 bp at the 5'-NTR, where the A(P700)/U(P700) was located, the nucleotide constitution ratios differed significantly between SC-EV71 and MC-EV71 strains. In conclusion, comparative genomic analysis showed that virulence of EV71 strains are mainly determined by the amino acids on two positions of VP1, one position of protease 2A and the nucleotides on three positions in 5'-NTR.

  14. Immunological Evaluation and Comparison of Different EV71 Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs, and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD cell virus neutralization assays indicate that (1 VP1 peptide (residues 211–225 formulated with Freund’s adjuvant (CFA/IFA elicited low virus neutralizing antibody response (1/32 titer; (2 recombinant virus-like particles produced from baculovirus formulated with CFA/IFA could elicit good virus neutralization titer (1/160; (3 individual recombinant EV71 antigens (VP1, VP2, and VP3 formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited antibody response with 1/128 virus neutralization titer; and (4 the formalin-inactivated EV71 formulated in alum elicited antibodies that cross-neutralized different EV71 genotypes (1/640, but failed to neutralize CVA16. In contrast, rabbits antisera could cross-neutralize strongly against different genotypes of EV71 but weakly against CVA16, with average titers 1/6400 and 1/32, respectively. The VP1 amino acid sequence dissimilarity between CVA16 and EV71 could partially explain why mouse antibodies failed to cross-neutralize CVA16. Therefore, the best formulation for producing cost-effective HFMD vaccine is a combination of formalin-inactivated EV71 and CAV16 virions.

  15. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 entry by transcription factor XBP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Lin, Chiou-Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong, E-mail: jimtong@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lau, Kean Seng [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRE1 was activated but no XBP1 splicing was detected during enterovirus 71 infection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XBP1 was subject to translational shutoff by enterovirus 71-induced eIF4G cleavage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uptake of UV-irradiated virus was decreased in XBP1-overexpressing cells. -- Abstract: Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) plays an important role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or unfolded protein, stress response by activating its downstream transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1). We demonstrated previously that enterovirus 71 (EV71) upregulated XBP1 mRNA levels but did not activate spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) mRNA or its downstream target genes, EDEM and chaperones. In this study, we investigated further this regulatory mechanism and found that IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after EV71 infection, whereas its downstream XBP1s protein level decreased. We also found that XBP1s was not cleaved directly by 2A{sup pro}, but that cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by the EV71 2A{sup pro} protein may contribute to the decrease in XBP1s expression. Knockdown of XBP1 increased viral protein expression, and the synthesis of EV71 viral protein and the production of EV71 viral particles were inhibited in XBP1-overexpressing RD cells. When incubated with replication-deficient and UV-irradiated EV71, XBP1-overexpressing RD cells exhibited reduced viral RNA levels, suggesting that the inhibition of XBP1s by viral infection may underlie viral entry, which is required for viral replication. Our findings are the first indication of the ability of XBP1 to inhibit viral entry, possibly via its transcriptional activity in regulating molecules in the endocytic machinery.

  16. Enterovirus 71 infection: An experience in Korea, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hyo Kim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has been recognized as a frequent cause of epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD associated with severe neurological symptoms. In the spring of 2009, HFMD was epidemic in Korea. Severe cases with complication, including death, have been reported and it has become a public health issue. Most symptomatic EV71 infections commonly result in HFMD or herpangina. These clinical manifestations can be associated with neurologic syndromes frequently. Neurologic syndromes observed in EV71 include meningitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, poliomyelitis-like paralytic disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, cerebellar ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, benign intracranial hypertension, and brainstem encephalitis. Examinations for EV 71 were performed from the stools, respiratory secretion or CSF of the children by realtime PCR. Gene analysis showed that most of them were caused by EV71 subgenotype C4a which was prevalent in China, 2008. Public health measures including personal and environmental hygiene, must to target daycare centers, kindergartens, and schools where highly susceptible children congregate. To prevent the spread of infection, preschools where transmission persists for more than 2 incubation periods, have been recommended for closure, and trigger criteria for voluntary closure was instituted. During closure, operators are to thoroughly clean the centers before they are allowed to reopen. In addition, parents are advised to ensure that their children adopt a high standard of personal hygiene and to keep the infected child at home until full recovery. Because the outbreaks occur in a cyclical pattern, surveillance system to predict next outbreaks and adequate public health measures to control need to be planned for future. Control of EV71 epidemics through surveillance and public health intervention needs to be maintained in Korea. Future research should focus on understanding of EV71

  17. Reemergence of enterovirus 71 epidemic in northern Taiwan, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ting Luo

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 belongs to picornavirus family and could be classified phylogenetically into three major genogroups (A, B and C including 11 genotypes (A, B1-B5 and C1-C5. Since 1997, EV71 has caused large-scale of epidemics with neurological complications in Asian children. In Taiwan, nationwide EV71 epidemics with different predominant genotypes have occurred cyclically since 1998. A nationwide EV71 epidemic occurred again in 2012. We conducted genetic and antigenic characterizations of the 2012 epidemic.Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH is a medical center in northern Taiwan. In CGMH, specimens were collected from pediatric inpatients with suspected enterovirus infections for virus isolation. Enterovirus isolates were serotyped and genotyped and sera from EV71 inpatients were collected for measuring neutralizing antibody titers.There were 10, 16 and 99 EV71 inpatients identified in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. There were 82 EV71 isolates genotyped, which identified 17 genotype C4a viruses and 65 genotype B5 viruses. The genotype B5 viruses were not detected until November 2011 and caused epidemics in 2012. Interestingly, the B5-2011 viruses were genetically distinguishable from the B5 viruses causing the 2008 epidemic and are likely introduced from China or Southeastern Asia. Based on antigenic analysis, minor antigenic variations were detected among the B5-2008, B5-2011, C4a-2008 and C4a-2012 viruses but these viruses antigenically differed from genotype A.Genotype B5 and C4a viruses antigenically differ from genotype A viruses which have disappeared globally for 30 years but have been detected in China since 2008. Enterovirus surveillance should monitor genetic and antigenic variations of EV71.

  18. An analysis of the design and implementation of elementary science methods class instruction in colleges and universities in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carole K.

    This study aims to understand the design and implementation of elementary methods classes focused in science instruction by teacher educators in the colleges and universities in the state of Arkansas. All 18 institutions with an Early Childhood Education program approved by the Arkansas Department of Education were reviewed with interviews, site visits and data analysis. The research questions are: (1) What goals do teacher educators express with respect to the preparation of preservice elementary teachers for the teaching of science? (2) What components of methods classes for teaching of elementary science examined relate to each of Feiman-Nemser's conceptual orientations in teacher education? (3) What challenges do teacher educators state that they encounter when they plan and teach the methods classes for teaching elementary science? (4) What specific scientific knowledge or skills are emphasized in the methods classes? Enrollment data of the Early Childhood Education program of the 18 institutions were sought. Data collected from the interviews of 16 teacher educators were transcribed according to Feiman-Nemser's five conceptual orientations in teacher education. The findings reveal the complexities and diverse nature of the science-focused method classes as they are affected by the perceptions and academic backgrounds of the teacher educators, the field experiences that preservice teachers have to teach science in the elementary schools, and the science teaching pedagogy and content knowledge provided by the teacher educators. Results show that not all methods classes are focused mainly in science teaching methods and science knowledge; some are an integration of mathematics and science or a blended curriculum with several disciplines. Most institutions do not provide science-related field experiences for preservice teachers. One common theme that emerges in the lesson observations is that all teacher educators use hands-on activities to illustrate the

  19. 27 CFR 479.71 - Proof of registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Registration § 479.71 Proof of registration. The approval by...

  20. Antiviral Effect of Matrine against Human Enterovirus 71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangning Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human enterovirus 71, a member of the Picornaviridae family, is one of the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease in children less than six years old. This illness has caused mortalities in large-scale outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region in recent years. No vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. In this study, antiviral effect of matrine against enterovirus 71 were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Matrine could suppress the viral RNA copy number on rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Moreover, matrine treatment of mice challenged with a lethal dose of enterovirus 71 reduced the mortality and relieved clinical symptoms. The results showed that matrine may represent a potential therapeutic agent for enterovirus 71 infection.

  1. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels,...

  2. Enterovirus 71 Brainstem Encephalitis and Cognitive and Motor Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Follow-up studies were conducted in 63 previously healthy children with enterovirus 71 brainstem encephalitis (49 stage II, 7 stage Ilia, and 7 stage Illb at National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.

  3. 29 CFR 801.71 - Filing and service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Administrative Proceedings Modification Or Vacation of Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge § 801.71 Filing and service. (a) Filing. All documents...

  4. Genetic evolution of enterovirus 71: epidemiological and pathological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jon M; Pantelidis, Panagiotis; Chan, Paul K S; Tong, C Y William

    2007-01-01

    Since its discovery in the 1970s, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become one of the most pathogenic enterovirus serotypes causing recurrent outbreaks in different parts of the world. Three waves of outbreaks globally have been recorded over the last three decades and more recently active circulation of EV71 is evident amongst countries in South East Asia and beyond. There is evidence of a continuous evolution in its genetic make up which is likely to impact on its epidemiology and pathological potential. This review examines the molecular genetics and evolution of EV71 in relation to its epidemiological and pathological properties. A thorough understanding of the relationship between the genetic changes and the resulting host-virus interaction is essential for successful control.

  5. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, K. F.

    1982-08-01

    A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

  6. Analysis and inundation mapping of the April-May 2011 flood at selected locations in northern and eastern Arkansas and southern Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Drew A.; Merriman, Katherine R.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Berenbrock, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation that fell from April 19 through May 3, 2011, resulted in widespread flooding across northern and eastern Arkansas and southern Missouri. The first storm produced a total of approximately 16 inches of precipitation over an 8-day period, and the following storms produced as much as 12 inches of precipitation over a 2-day period. Moderate to major flooding occurred quickly along many streams within Arkansas and Missouri (including the Black, Cache, Illinois, St. Francis, and White Rivers) at levels that had not been seen since the historic 1927 floods. The 2011 flood claimed an estimated 21 lives in Arkansas and Missouri, and damage caused by the flooding resulted in a Federal Disaster Declaration for 59 Arkansas counties that received Federal or State assistance. To further the goal of documenting and understanding floods, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers–Little Rock and Memphis Districts, and Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, conducted a study to summarize meteorological and hydrological conditions before the flood; computed flood-peak magnitudes for 39 streamgages; estimated annual exceedance probabilities for 37 of those streamgages; determined the joint probabilities for 11 streamgages paired to the Mississippi River at Helena, Arkansas, which refers to the probability that locations on two paired streams simultaneously experience floods of a magnitude greater than or equal to a given annual exceedance probability; collected high-water marks; constructed flood-peak inundation maps showing maximum flood extent and water depths; and summarized flood damages and effects. For the period of record used in this report, peak-of-record stage occurred at 24 of the 39 streamgages, and peak-of-record streamflow occurred at 13 of the 30 streamgages where streamflow was determined. Annual exceedance probabilities were estimated to be less than 0.5 percent at three

  7. Ethanol and water adsorption in methanol-derived ZIF-71

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    A room temperature method for synthesizing zeolitic imidizolate framework 71 (ZIF-71) is described. The methanol-based synthesis results in >95% yields (based on Zn) and produces crystals with 70% greater surface area than reported earlier. Ethanol uptake into the ZIF compares favorably with a recent modeling-based study. Water uptake was significantly higher than model predictions. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  8. Ecological response to hydrological variability and catchment development: Insights from a shallow oxbow lake in Lower Mississippi Valley, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Ruchi; Hausmann, Sonja; Hubeny, J Bradford; Gell, Peter; Black, Jessica L

    2016-11-01

    The ecological response of shallow oxbow lakes to variability in hydrology and catchment development in large river floodplain ecosystems (RFE) in Arkansas remains largely unknown. Investigating these responses will advance our understanding of ecological evolution of oxbow lakes in response to the major environmental drivers, which will establish baseline conditions required to develop effective management practices for RFE. In this pilot study, we examined the potential of using a dated surface sediment core from Adams Bayou, a floodplain lake located within the Cache-Lower White River Ramsar site in SE Arkansas. Stratigraphic records of diatoms and sediment geochemistry were used to ascertain variation in Adams Bayou's ecological condition. During 1968-2008, in response to hydrological and anthropogenic changes, Adams Bayou's diatom assemblages progressed from predominantly benthic (Gomphonema parvulum and Meridion circulare) to primarily planktonic assemblage (Aulacoseira granulata and Cyclotella meneghiniana), along with a decrease in magnetic susceptibility (k) and % silt. Statistical analyses reveled that during 1968-2000, higher hydrological connectivity and catchment alterations drove Adams Bayou's ecosystem. After 2000, lower hydrological connectivity and increase in cultivation were the major drivers. The potential impact of increasing air temperature was also noted. The shift in Adams Bayou from a connected, clear, mesotrophic state to a relatively isolated, turbid and nutrient enriched state is consistent with regime shift models and highlights its sensitivity to a combination of environmental stresses prevalent in the catchment. Although fluvial systems pose challenges in establishing clear chronologies, oxbow lake sediments can be a effective paleoecological archives. Our work provides clear evidence for the change in the ecological character of this wetland of international significance and flags the need for a wider assessment of water bodies

  9. Cytokine Immunopathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Min Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one of the most important causes of herpangina and hand, foot, and mouth disease. It can also cause severe complications of the central nervous system (CNS. Brain stem encephalitis with pulmonary edema is the severe complication that can lead to death. EV71 replicates in leukocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells resulting in the production of immune and inflammatory mediators that shape innate and acquired immune responses and the complications of disease. Cytokines, as a part of innate immunity, favor the development of antiviral and Th1 immune responses. Cytokines and chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis EV71 brain stem encephalitis. Both the CNS and the systemic inflammatory responses to infection play important, but distinctly different, roles in the pathogenesis of EV71 pulmonary edema. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to modulate inflammation, to reduce sympathetic overactivity, and to improve survival in patients with EV71 autonomic nervous system dysregulation and pulmonary edema.

  10. Two cubic phases in kimzeyite garnet from the type locality Magnet Cove, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antao, Sytle M.; Cruickshank, Laura A.

    2016-11-08

    The crystal structure of an optically anisotropic kimzeyite garnet from Magnet Cove, Arkansas, USA, where it was first discovered, was refined with the Rietveld method, cubic space group, Ia\\overline 3 d, and monochromatic [λ = 0.41422 (2) Å] synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data. The Rietveld refinement reduced χ2and overallR(F2) values are 1.840 and 0.0647, respectively. The sample, with the general garnet formula[8]X3[6]Y2[4]Z3[4]O12, contains an intergrowth of two cubic phases that occur initially as oscillatory growth zoning, and patchy intergrowths arise later from fluid-enhanced dissolution and re-precipitation. The two compositions obtained with electron-probe microanalyses (EPMA) are Ca3.00(Zr1.31Ti4+0.46Fe3+0.22Mn3+0.01)Σ2[Al0.76Fe3+1.01Si1.23]Σ3O12for phase 1aand Ca2.99(Zr1.48Ti4+0.37Fe3+0.15)Σ2[Al0.87Fe3+0.98Si1.15]Σ3O12for phase 1b. The weight percentage, unit-cell parameter (Å), distances (Å), and site occupancy factors (s.o.f.s) for phase 1aare as follows: 42.6 (2)%,a= 12.46553 (3) Å, average <X—O> = 2.482,Y—O = 2.059 (2),Z—O = 1.761 (2) Å, Ca (Xs.o.f.) = 0.960 (4), Zr (Ys.o.f.) = 0.809 (3), and Fe (Zs.o.f.) = 0.623 (2). The corresponding values for phase 1bare 57.4 (2)%,a= 12.47691 (2) Å, average <

  11. Penning-trap Q-value determination of the Ga-71(v, e(-))Ge-71 reaction using threshold charge breeding of on-line produced isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frekers, D.; Simon, M.C.; Andreoiu, C.; Bale, J. C.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Delheij, P.; Ejiri, H.; Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Gavrin, V.; Grossheim, A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Jang, F.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lassen, J.; Lennarz, A.; Luichtl, M.; Ma, T.; Macdonald, T. D.; Mane, E.; Robertson, D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, V. V.; Teigelhoefer, A.; Dilling, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a first direct Q-value measurement of the Ga-71(v, e(-))Ge-71 reaction using the TITAN mass-measurement facility at ISAC/TRIUMF. The measurements were performed in a Penning trap on neon-like Ga-71(21+) and Ge-71(22+) using isobar separation of the on-line produced mother and daughter nuc

  12. Adaptation of enterovirus 71 to adult interferon deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Caine

    Full Text Available Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71, have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (α/β interferon (IFN receptor deficient and AG129 (α/β, γ IFN receptor deficient mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p. into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m. in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05. The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection

  13. Viral kinetics of Enterovirus 71 in human habdomyosarcoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Lu; Ya-Qing He; Li-Na Yi; Hong Zan; Hsiang-Fu Kung; Ming-Liang He

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To characterise the viral kinetics of enterovirus 71 (EV71). METHODS: In this study, human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells were infected with EV71 at different multiplicity of infection (MOI). After infection, the cytopathic effect (CPE) was monitored and recorded using a phase contrast microscope associated with a CCD camera at different time points post viral infection (0, 6, 12, 24 h post infection). Cell growth and viability were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in both EV71 infected and mock infected cells at each time point. EV71 replication kinetics in RD cells was determined by measuring the total intracellular viral RNA with real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Also, the intracellular and extracellular virion RNA was isolated and quantified at different time points to analyze the viral package and secretion. The expression of viral protein was determined by analyze the levels of viral structure protein VP1 with Western blotting. RESULTS: EV71 infection induced a significant CPE as early as 6 h post infection (p.i.) in both RD cells infected with high ratio of virus (MOI 10) and low ratio of virus (MOI 1). In EV71 infected cells, the cell growth was inhibited and the number of viable cells was rapidly decreased in the later phase of infection. EV71 virions were uncoated immediately after entry. The intracellular viral RNA began to increase at as early as 3 h p.i. and the exponential increase was found between 3 h to 6 h p.i. in both infected groups. For viral structure protein synthesis, results from western-blot showed that intracellular viral protein VP1 could not be detected until 6 h p.i. in the cells infected at either MOI 1 or MOI 10; and reached the peak at 9 h p.i. in the cells infected with EV71 at both MOI 1 and MOI 10. Simultaneously, the viral package and secretion were also actively processed as the virus underwent rapid replication. The viral package kinetics

  14. Progress in Research of Enterovirus Type 71%肠道病毒71型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周世力; 杨帆; 金奇

    2003-01-01

    @@ 肠道病毒71型(enterovirus71,EV71)是小RNA病毒科(Picornaviridae)肠道病毒属(Enterovirus)成员,其感染主要引起患者手足口病(hand-foot-and-mouth disease,HFMD).通常情况下,EV71感染引起的HFMD在临床症状等方面与柯萨奇病毒A16(Coxsackie A16,CA16)引起的手足口病难以区别,但EV71感染除了引起HFMD以外,还能够引起无菌性脑膜炎(aseptic meningitis)、脑干脑炎(brainstem encephalitis)和脊髓灰质炎样的麻痹(poliomyelitis-like paralysis)等多种与神经系统相关的疾病[1].自1974年首次报道[2]以来,EV71已在世界范围内引起十多次爆发与流行[3-6].近年来,EV71病毒的流行在亚太地区呈上升趋势[7-9].根据病毒衣壳蛋白VP1核苷酸序列的差异,可将EV71分为A、B、C 3个基因型,其中,B型和C型又进一步分为B1、B2、B3、B4以及C1和C2亚型[10-12].

  15. Advances in the study of enterovirus 71 infection%肠道病毒71型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋鸿硕; 石爽; 阎玲; 庄辉

    2008-01-01

    肠道病毒71型是手足口病的主要病原体,在世界范围内广泛流行.本文综述了近年来肠道病毒71型感染的病原学、流行病学、致病机制、预防与治疗等方面的研究进展.

  16. Water Quality in the Equus Beds Aquifer and the Little Arkansas River Before Implementation of Large-Scale Artificial Recharge, South-Central Kansas, 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Andrew C.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Finn, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer using runoff from the Little Arkansas River in south-central Kansas was first proposed in 1956 and was one of many options considered by the city of Wichita to preserve its water supply. Declining aquifer water levels of as much as 50 feet exacerbated concerns about future water availability and enhanced migration of saltwater into the aquifer from past oil and gas activities near Burrton and from the Arkansas River. Because Wichita changed water-management strategies and decreased pumping from the Equus Beds aquifer in 1992, water storage in the aquifer recovered by about 50 percent. This recovery is the result of increased reliance on Cheney Reservoir for Wichita water supply, decreased aquifer pumping, and larger than normal precipitation. Accompanying the water-level recovery, the average water-level gradient in the aquifer decreased from about 12 feet per mile in 1992 to about 8 feet per mile in January 2006. An important component of artificial recharge is the water quality of the receiving aquifer and the water being recharged (source water). Water quality within the Little Arkansas River was defined using data from two real-time surface-water-quality sites and discrete samples. Water quality in the Equus Beds aquifer was defined using sample analyses collected at 38 index sites, each with a well completed in the shallow and deep parts of the Equus Beds aquifer. In addition, data were collected at diversion well sites, recharge sites, background wells, and prototype wells for the aquifer storage and recovery project. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, radionuclides, organic compounds, and bacterial and viral indicators. Water-quality constituents of concern for artificial recharge are those constituents that frequently (more than 5 percent of samples) may exceed Federal [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)] and State drinking-water criteria in water samples from the receiving

  17. Identification of specific antigenic epitope at N-terminal segment of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) VP1 protein and characterization of its use in recombinant form for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bingfu; Xu, Mingjie; Dai, Xing; Purdy, Michael A.; Meng, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiologic agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We sought to identify EV-71 specific antigens and develop serologic assays for acute-phase EV-71 infection. A series of truncated proteins within the N-terminal 100 amino acids (aa) of EV-71 VP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot (WB) analysis showed that positions around 11–21 aa contain EV-71-specific antigenic sites, whereas positions 1–5 and 51–100 contain epitopes shared with hum...

  18. Producing infectious enterovirus type 71 in a rapid strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin E-De

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is an etiologic agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD, and recent HFMD epidemics worldwide have been associated with a severe form of brainstem encephalitis associated with pulmonary edema and high case-fatality rates. EV71 contains a positive-sense single-stranded genome RNA of approximately 7400 bp in length which encodes a polyprotein with a single open reading frame (ORF, which is flanked by untranslated regions at both the 5' and 3' ends. Results A long distance RT-PCR assay was developed to amplify the full length genome cDNA of EV71 by using specific primes carrying a SP6 promoter. Then the in vitro synthesized RNA transcripts from the RT-PCR amplicons were then transfected into RD cells to produce the rescued virus. The rescued virus was further characterized by RT-PCR and indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA assay in comparison with the wild type virus. The rescued viruses were infectious on RD cells and neurovirulent when intracerebrally injected into suckling mice. Conclusions Thus, we established a rapid method to produce the infectious full length cDNA of EV71 directly from RNA preparations and specific mutations can be easily engineered into the rescued enterovirus genome by this method.

  19. Trends of Non-Accidental, Cardiovascular, Stroke and Lung Cancer Mortality in Arkansas Are Associated with Ambient PM2.5 Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cecile G. Chalbot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular and stroke mortality rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the USA. The annual trends of stroke and cardiovascular mortality are barely correlated to smoking cessation; while the prevalence of risk factors such as obesity; cholesterol and hypertension increased over the 1979–2007 period. The study determined the effect of chronic exposure to PM2.5 on non-accidental; cardiovascular; stroke and lung cancer mortality in Arkansas over the 2000–2010 period using the World Health Organization’s log-linear health impact model. County chronic exposures to PM2.5 were computed by averaging spatially-resolved gridded concentrations using PM2.5 observations. A spatial uniformity was observed for PM2.5 mass levels indicating that chronic exposures were comparable throughout the state. The reduction of PM2.5 mass levels by 3.0 μg/m3 between 2000 and 2010 explained a significant fraction of the declining mortality. The effect was more pronounced in southern and eastern rural Arkansas as compared to the rest of the state. This study provides evidence that the implementation of air pollution regulations has measurable effects on mortality even in regions with high prevalence of major risk factors such as obesity and smoking. These outcomes are noteworthy as efforts to modify the major risk factors require longer realization times.

  20. Characterization of peak streamflows and flood inundation of selected areas in Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi from flood of March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaker, Brian K.; Watson, Kara M.; Ensminger, Paul A.; Storm, John B.; Rose, Claire E.

    2016-11-29

    Heavy rainfall occurred across Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi in March 2016 as a result of a slow-moving southward dip in the jetstream, funneling tropical moisture into parts of the Gulf Coast States and the Mississippi River Valley. The storm caused major flooding in the northwestern and southeastern parts of Louisiana and in eastern Texas. Flooding also occurred in the Mississippi River Valley in Arkansas and Mississippi. Over 26 inches of rain were reported near Monroe, Louisiana, over the duration of the storm. In March 2016, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrographers made more than 500 streamflow measurements in Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi. Many of those streamflow measurements were made to verify the accuracy of stage-streamflow relations at gaging stations operated by the USGS. Peak streamflows were the highest on record at 14 locations, and streamflows at 29 locations ranked in the top five for the period of record at USGS streamflow-gaging stations analyzed for this report. Following the storm, USGS hydrographers documented 451 high-water marks in Louisiana and on the western side of the Sabine River in Texas. Many of these high-water marks were used to create 19 flood-inundation maps for selected areas of Louisiana and Texas that experienced flooding in March 2016.

  1. Relations between continuous real-time physical properties and discrete water-quality constituents in the Little Arkansas River, south-central Kansas, 1998-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Eslick, Patrick J.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2016-08-11

    Water from the Little Arkansas River is used as source water for artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer, one of the primary water-supply sources for the city of Wichita, Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey has operated two continuous real-time water-quality monitoring stations since 1995 on the Little Arkansas River in Kansas. Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely sampled constituent concentrations and continuously measured physical properties to compute concentrations of those constituents of interest. Site-specific regression models were originally published in 2000 for the near Halstead and near Sedgwick U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations and the site-specific regression models were then updated in 2003. This report updates those regression models using discrete and continuous data collected during May 1998 through August 2014. In addition to the constituents listed in the 2003 update, new regression models were developed for total organic carbon. The real-time computations of water-quality concentrations and loads are available at http://nrtwq.usgs.gov. The water-quality information in this report is important to the city of Wichita because water-quality information allows for real-time quantification and characterization of chemicals of concern (including chloride), in addition to nutrients, sediment, bacteria, and atrazine transported in the Little Arkansas River. The water-quality information in this report aids in the decision making for water treatment before artificial recharge.

  2. Similar protective immunity induced by an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Ma, Kaili; Yang, Erxia; Wang, Jingjing; Che, Yanchun; Jiang, Li; Pu, Jing; Guo, Lei; Feng, Min; Liang, Yan; Cui, Wei; Yang, Huai; Li, Qihan

    2015-11-17

    During the development of enterovirus 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccine for preventing human hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) by EV71 infection, an effective animal model is presumed to be significant and necessary. Our previous study demonstrated that the vesicles in oral regions and limbs potentially associated with viremia, which are the typical manifestations of HFMD, and remarkable pathologic changes were identified in various tissues of neonatal rhesus macaque during EV71 infection. Although an immune response in terms of neutralizing antibody and T cell memory was observed in animals infected by the virus or stimulated by viral antigen, whether such a response could be considered as an indicator to justify the immune response in individuals vaccinated or infected in a pandemic needs to be investigated. Here, a comparative analysis of the neutralizing antibody response and IFN-γ-specific T cell response in vaccinated neonatal rhesus macaques and a human clinical trial with an EV71 inactivated vaccine was performed, and the results showed the identical tendency and increased level of neutralizing antibody and the IFN-γ-specific T cell response stimulated by the EV71 antigen peptide. Importantly, the clinical protective efficacy against virus infection by the elicited immune response in the immunized population compared with the placebo control and the up-modulated gene profile associated with immune activation were similar to those in infected macaques. Further safety verification of this vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children confirmed the potential use of the macaque as a reliable model for the evaluation of an EV71 candidate vaccine.

  3. Revealing the Jets in the BHR 71 Protostellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Tyler L.; Tobin, John J.; Gusdorf, Antoine; Arce, Hector G.; Tafalla, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The BHR 71 low-mass protostellar binary system powers two highly collimated outflows, with the outflow from the primary (IRS1) producing shock-induced chemical activity only seen in a handful of other outflows (notably L1157, but also L1448 and IRAS04166). This may represent a very short phase in the outflow process that we don’t yet understand. The shocks are likely caused by jets with velocities > 50 km/s impacting on the ambient material, but unlike in the other outflows mentioned above, no such jet has yet been identified in BHR 71, although hints are found in low-resolution Herschel water observations. We report on ALMA observations of SiO toward both protostars within BHR 71, with surprising results.

  4. SR-71 Research Engineer Marta Bohn-Meyer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This 1992 photo shows SR-71 flight engineer Marta Bohn-Meyer in front of one of NASA's SR-71 aircraft on the ramp at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. An aerospace engineer who has been at Dryden since 1979, Bohn-Meyer is the first female crew member ever assigned to fly in the SR-71. Data from the SR-71 program carried out by NASA will be used to aid designers of future supersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes

  5. Antigenic analysis of divergent genotypes human Enterovirus 71 viruses by a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies: current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Li, Chuan; He, Delei; Cheng, Tong; Ge, Shengxiang; Shih, James Wai-Kuo; Zhao, Qinjian; Chen, Pei-Jer; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-01-01

    In recent year, Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become an important public health issue in China. EV71 has been classified into genotypes A, B1-B5 and C1-C5. With such genetic diversity, whether the convalescent or recovery antibody responses can cross-protect infections from other genotypes remains a question. Understanding of the antigenicity of such diverse genetic EV71 isolates is crucial for the EV71 vaccine development. Here, a total of 186 clones anti-EV71 MAbs was generated and characterized with Western blot and cell-based neutralization assay. Forty neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs were further used to analyze the antigenic properties of 18 recent EV71 isolates representing seven genotypes in neutralization assay. We found that most neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs are specific to conformational epitopes. We also classified the 40 neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs into two classes according to their reactivity patterns with 18 EV71 isolates. Class I MAb can neutralize all isolates, suggesting conserved epitopes are present among EV71. Class II MAb includes four subclasses (IIa-IId) and neutralizes only subgroups of EV71 strains. Conversely, 18 EV71 strains were grouped into antigenic types 1 and four antigenic subtypes (2.1-2.4). These results suggest that the current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity which may be important in the selection of EV71 vaccine strains. This panel of neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs may be useful for the recognition of emerging antigenic variants of EV71 and vaccine development.

  6. Sediment Quality and Comparison to Historical Water Quality, Little Arkansas River Basin, South-Central Kansas, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability in streambed-sediment quality and its relation to historical water quality was assessed to provide guidance for the development of total maximum daily loads and the implementation of best-management practices in the Little Arkansas River Basin, south-central Kansas. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at 26 sites in 2007, sieved to isolate the less than 63-micron fraction (that is, the silt and clay), and analyzed for selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, and the radionuclides beryllium-7, cesium-137, lead-210, and radium-226. At eight sites, streambed-sediment samples also were collected and analyzed for bacteria. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations in the streambed sediment varied substantially spatially and temporally, and positive correlations among the three constituents were statistically significant. Along the main-stem Little Arkansas River, streambed-sediment concentrations of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus generally were larger at and downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. The largest particulate nitrogen concentrations were measured in samples collected in the Emma Creek subbasin and may be related to livestock and poultry production. The largest particulate phosphorus concentrations in the basin were measured in samples collected along the main-stem Little Arkansas River downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon content in the water and streambed-sediment samples typically decreased as streamflow increased. This inverse relation may be caused by an increased contribution of sediment from channel-bank sources during high flows and (or) increased particle sizes transported by the high flows. Trace element concentrations in the streambed sediment varied from site to site and typically were less than threshold-effects guidelines for possible adverse biological effects

  7. EV71 virus-like particles produced by co-expression of capsid proteins in yeast cells elicit humoral protective response against EV71 lethal challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaowen; Xiao, Xiangqian; Zhao, Miao; Wei LIU; Pang, Lin; Sun, Xin; Cen, Shan; Burton B Yang; Huang, Yuming; Sheng, Wang; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most common causative pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with severe neurological complications. There is a great need to develop prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection. Results EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) was produced in yeast expression system by the co-expression of four EV71 structural proteins VP1–VP4. Immunization with the recombinant VLPs elicited potent anti-EV71 antibody responses in adult mice and anti-VLP sera...

  8. A Novel Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Virulence Determinant: The 69th Residue of 3C Protease Modulates Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingqing; Yue, Yingying; Zhang, Yajie; Yuan, Zenglin; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yan; Gu, Lichuan; Meng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71), the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has been known to cause fatal neurological complications. Unfortunately, the reason for neurological complications that have been seen in fatal cases of the disease and the relationship between EV71 virulence and viral genetic sequences remains largely undefined. The 3C protease (3Cpro) of EV71 plays an irreplaceable role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, and intervening with host life activity during viral infection. In this study, for the first time, the 69th residue of 3C protease has been identified as a novel virulence determinant of EV71. The recombinant virus with single point variation, in the 69th of 3Cpro, exhibited obvious decline in replication, and virulence. We further determined the crystal structure of 3C N69D at 1.39 Ǻ resolution and found that conformation of 3C N69D demonstrated significant changes compared with a normal 3C protein, in the substrate-binding site and catalytic active site. Strikingly, one of the switch loops, essential in fixing substrates, adopts an open conformation in the 3C N69D-rupintrivir complex. Consistent with this apparent structural disruption, the catalytic activity of 3C N69D decreased sharply for host derived and viral derived substrates, detected for both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in addition to EV71, Asp69 was also found in 3C proteases of other virus strains, such as CAV16, and was conserved in nearly all C type human rhinovirus. Overall, we identified a natural virulence determinant of 3C protease and revealed the mechanism of attenuated virulence is mediated by N69D substitution. Our data provides new insight into the enzymatic mechanism of a subdued 3C protease and suggests a theoretical basis for virulence determinantion of picornaviridae. PMID:28217559

  9. Comparing the 2000 and 2005 factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, T R; Barham, B L

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine how factors affecting the selling price of feeder calves changed from 2000 to 2005 and to examine the perception that discounts narrow or even disappear as calf supplies decrease and selling prices increase. Data from weekly Arkansas livestock auctions were collected from January 1 to December 31 in 2000 and 2005. Data included calf sex, breed type, color, muscle score, horn status, frame score, fill, condition, health, and BW. Mean selling prices for 2000 and 2005 were $92.91 +/- 15.05 and $118.32 +/- 15.13 (mean +/- SD; $/45.45 kg), respectively. Individual price observations were subtracted from the respective annual means and became the dependent variable. The selling prices for feeder calves sold in groups of 2 to 5 calves and in groups of >/= 6 calves were greater in 2005 than 2000 (P x Hereford, Angus, Angus x Charolais, and Brahman (P Brahman Cross, Charolais, Charolais x Limousin, Hereford x Limousin, Limousin, Limousin x one-fourth Brahman, Longhorn, Saler and Simmental. Yellow-white face, black-white face, black, and gray feeder calves received an increase in selling price from 2000 to 2005 (P < 0.001). Although fewer horned feeder calves were sold in 2005 (P < 0.01), they received greater discounts in 2005 than 2000 (-$2.86 +/- 0.16 and -$0.51 +/- 0.09; P < 0.001). In 2005, large-framed feeder calves did not receive the premium detected in 2000, but medium-framed feeder calves in 2005 received a greater selling price compared with 2000. Feeder calves with a muscle score of 1 received a greater premium in 2005 compared with 2000 ($2.58 +/- 0.06 and $0.02 +/- 0.09, respectively; P < 0.001). Feeder calves with a muscle score of 2 were discounted in both years, but the discount in 2005 was not as great as in 2000 (P < 0.001). Full and tanked feeder calves received greater discounts in 2005 than in 2000 (P < 0.001). Discounts for fleshy and fat feeder calves were greater in 2005 than in 2000. Most factors

  10. Potential for Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Rodriguez, Kamil

    Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeeker(TM) (GS), ii) Holland Scientific's Crop Circle(TM) (CC), and iii) Minolta's SPAD-502 chlorophyll content meter (CCM). The objective of this study was to find the optimum time for sensing and compare the relative performance of the sensors in estimating the yield potential of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Treatments included six levels of N fertilization (0, 37, 74, 111, 148, and 185 kg N/ ha), applied in a single split 20 days after planting (DAP). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications, in four locations in Arkansas, during 2012 and 2013. Sensors readings at vegetative growth stages V3, 4, 5 and 6. Results from simple regression analysis showed that the V3-V4 growth stage correlated better with grain yield than readings collected and any other time. In season estimated yield (INSEY) obtained at V3 captured 41, 57, 78, and 61% of the variation in grain sorghum yield when red NDVI of GS, red NDVI of CC, red edge for CC and CCM, respectively, were used. Results from these studies suggest that the CC sensor has a better potential for in-season site-specific N application in Arkansas than the GS sensor. The GS reflectance values appear to saturate after the V3 stage, in contrast with CC values that allow for discrimination past the V3 Stage. Therefore, the red

  11. A provisional fish index of biotic integrity for assessing Ouachita Mountains streams in Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalter, Daniel C; Jackson, John R

    2004-02-01

    Multimetric indices are often used to monitor aquatic-resource conditions. We used existing fish-collection data from streams to develop an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), which is a multimetric index, for the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion in Arkansas, U.S.A. Each fish-collection site was categorized as reference or non-reference. We examined 62 candidate IBI metrics, and selected 12 non-redundant metrics that differentiated best between reference and non-reference sites. The selected metrics were: Percent (of individuals) as Black Bass; Percent as Benthic Feeders; Percent as Centrarchids; Percent as Cyprinids; Percent as Ictalurids; Percent as Mineral, Site-Prep Spawners; Percent as Mineral, Site-Prep, Parental-Care Spawners; Percent as Simple, Mineral Substrate Spawners; Percent as Miscellaneous, Site-Prep, Parental-Care Spawners; Total Number of Centrarchid Species; Total Number of Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) Ouachita Mountains Indicator Species; and Total Number of ADEQ Ouachita Mountains Key Species. We standardized each metric to score from 0 to 10 by using linear equations and threshold limits. Some selected IBI metrics had their scoring criteria adjusted to account for watershed size (i.e., stream size). We standardized the IBI to score from 0 to 100. In addition, we determined that our Percent as Black Bass and Percent as Benthic Feeders metrics contributed most to IBI scores in reference conditions, but their contributions decreased with decreasing stream conditions. Reproductive metrics contributed most in degraded stream conditions. Furthermore, we identified relations between IBI metrics and water-quality and land-use variables; some relations were counterintuitive. Unexpected relations may be random observations explained by limited ranges of land-use and water-quality variables. When select water-quality and land-use variables were included in a principal component analysis, a composite Land Use Intensity variable explained

  12. Methods for estimating annual exceedance probability discharges for streams in Arkansas, based on data through water year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel M.; Krieger, Joshua D.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2016-08-04

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study to update regional skew, annual exceedance probability discharges, and regional regression equations used to estimate annual exceedance probability discharges for ungaged locations on streams in the study area with the use of recent geospatial data, new analytical methods, and available annual peak-discharge data through the 2013 water year. An analysis of regional skew using Bayesian weighted least-squares/Bayesian generalized-least squares regression was performed for Arkansas, Louisiana, and parts of Missouri and Oklahoma. The newly developed constant regional skew of -0.17 was used in the computation of annual exceedance probability discharges for 281 streamgages used in the regional regression analysis. Based on analysis of covariance, four flood regions were identified for use in the generation of regional regression models. Thirty-nine basin characteristics were considered as potential explanatory variables, and ordinary least-squares regression techniques were used to determine the optimum combinations of basin characteristics for each of the four regions. Basin characteristics in candidate models were evaluated based on multicollinearity with other basin characteristics (variance inflation factor < 2.5) and statistical significance at the 95-percent confidence level (p ≤ 0.05). Generalized least-squares regression was used to develop the final regression models for each flood region. Average standard errors of prediction of the generalized least-squares models ranged from 32.76 to 59.53 percent, with the largest range in flood region D. Pseudo coefficients of determination of the generalized least-squares models ranged from 90.29 to 97.28 percent, with the largest range also in flood region D. The regional regression equations apply only to locations on streams in Arkansas where annual peak discharges are not substantially affected by regulation, diversion, channelization, backwater, or urbanization

  13. 48 CFR 1652.215-71 - Investment Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Investment Income. 1652.215... 1652.215-71 Investment Income. As prescribed in 1615.470-1, the following clause shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts based on cost analysis: Investment Income (JAN 1998) (a) The Carrier shall...

  14. 48 CFR 836.606-71 - Architect-engineer's proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Architect-engineer's... AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 836.606-71 Architect-engineer's proposal. (a) When the contract price is estimated to be...

  15. 7 CFR 1212.71 - Books and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1212.71 Books... and records must be made available during normal business hours for inspection by the Board's...

  16. 7 CFR 900.71 - Hearing before Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Practice Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.71...: Provided, That he may issue a tentative order in which event the parties shall be afforded an...

  17. 45 CFR 98.71 - Content of reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Reporting Requirements § 98.71 Content of reports. (a) At a minimum, a State or territorial Lead... State or territorial Lead Agency's annual aggregate report to the Secretary, as required in §...

  18. 48 CFR 2115.404-71 - Profit analysis factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., enrollees, beneficiaries, and Congress as measures of economical and efficient contract performance. This... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Profit analysis factors... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 2115.404-71 Profit analysis factors. (a) The...

  19. 14 CFR 93.71 - General operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Niagara Falls, New York § 93.71 General operating procedures. (a) Flight restrictions are in effect below 3,500 feet MSL in the airspace above Niagara Falls, New York, west of a line from latitude... orbit of the Niagara Falls area below 3,500 feet MSL over the Niagara River. (d) The minimum...

  20. 48 CFR 852.273-71 - Alternative negotiation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative negotiation....273-71 Alternative negotiation techniques. As prescribed in 873.110(b), insert the following provision: Alternative Negotiation Techniques (JAN 2003) The contracting officer may elect to use the...

  1. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incremental funding. 3452... 3452.232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3452.771, insert the following provision in solicitations: Incremental Funding (AUG 1987) (a) Sufficient funds are not presently available to cover...

  2. 40 CFR 270.71 - Operation during interim status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation during interim status. 270... (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Interim Status § 270.71 Operation during interim status. (a) During the interim status period the facility shall not: (1)...

  3. 48 CFR 2452.242-71 - Contract management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract management system... 2452.242-71 Contract management system. As prescribed in 2442.1107, insert the following clause: Contract Management System (FEB 2006) (a) The contractor shall use contract management baseline...

  4. 48 CFR 811.104-71 - Purchase description clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase description... Documents 811.104-71 Purchase description clauses. (a) When a solicitation uses “brand name or equal” purchase descriptions, the contracting officer must include in the solicitation the clause at...

  5. Phenotype abnormality: 71 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 71 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u577i abnormal for trait of morph...ology in organ named trichome during process named growth ... trichome ... abnormal ... growth ... morphology

  6. 40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.71 - Suspension or termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1219.71..., have been engaged in the production or importation of Hass avocados. (c) If, as a result of...

  8. Sibelius: Scaramouche op. 71, Neeme Järvi / Rainer Wagner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wagner, Rainer

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Scaramouche op. 71 [World Premiere REcording of the Complete Score]. Hochzeitmarsch aus der Musik zum Drama Die Sprache der Vögel [Wedding March "The Language of the Birds"]. Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi. BIS/Disco-Ccenter CD 502 (WD:68'28") DDD

  9. 48 CFR 941.201-71 - Use of subcontracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF UTILITY SERVICES Acquiring Utility Services 941.201-71 Use of... and/or sewerage at facilities owned or leased by DOE shall not be acquired under a subcontract arrangement, except as provided for at 970.4102-1 or if the prime contract is with a utility company....

  10. 48 CFR 1201.301-71 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 1201.301... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-71 Effective date. Unless... therein is “effective upon receipt,” “upon a specified date,” or that changes set forth in the...

  11. 19 CFR 151.71 - Laboratory testing for clean yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory testing for clean yield. 151.71 Section... Laboratory testing for clean yield. (a) Test and report by Customs laboratory. The clean yield of all general samples taken in accordance with § 151.70 shall be determined by test in a Customs laboratory, unless...

  12. 14 CFR 65.71 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.71 Eligibility requirements: General. (a) To be eligible for a mechanic certificate and associated ratings, a person must— (1... sections of this subpart that apply to the rating he seeks. (b) A certificated mechanic who applies for...

  13. The overview of detection methods of Enterovirus 71%肠道病毒71型检测方法研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海波; 郭潮潭

    2008-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71)is an important pathogen of hand-foot-mouth disease(HFMD),several large outbreaks of EV71 infection have caused serious clinical symptoms and sequels,resulted in dozens of deaths.so more and more people pay attention to EV71.The paper reviews about the basic character and detection methods of EV71.%肠道病毒71型(EV71)是引起手足口病(HFMD)的重要病原,已在世界范围内引起了多次大流行,并导致了严重的并发症和后遗症,甚至死亡,引起了人们越来越多的关注.此文就EV71的基本特征和检测方法研究概况作了介绍.

  14. 肠道病毒71型研究进展%Research progress on enterovirus 71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁育伟

    2014-01-01

    肠道病毒71型是引起手足口病的主要病原体,感染常导致严重的神经系统症状.最近20年,EV71在亚太地区持续流行并不断引起暴发.由于病毒感染对儿童健康造成的严重危害,EV71已在亚太地区乃至全球引起广泛关注.对病毒以及病毒相关疾病的了解有助于抗病毒药物和疫苗的开发,从而达到预防和控制的目的.本文总结了近年来在EV71流行病学、病毒受体、抗病毒药物和疫苗开发等方面的最新研究进展.

  15. Histopathological features and distribution of EV71 antigens and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model of enterovirus 71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pin; Gao, Zifen; Zong, Yuanyuan; Bao, Linlin; Xu, Lili; Deng, Wei; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Gao, Zhancheng; Xu, Yanfeng; Yao, Yanfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2014-08-30

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease. While infection is usually self-limiting, a minority of patients infected with EV71 develop severe neurological complications. In humans, EV71 has been reported to utilize the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) as a receptor for infectious cellular entry. In this study, we define the pathological features of EV71-associated disease as well as the distribution of EV71 antigen and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model. Histopathologically, human fatal cases showed severe central nervous system (CNS) changes, mainly in the brainstems, spinal cords, and thalamus. These patient further exhibited pulmonary edema and necrotic enteritis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human fatal cases demonstrated that EV71 antigen and SCARB2 were observed mainly in neurons, microglia cells and inflammatory cells in the CNS, and epithelial cells in the intestines. However, skeletal muscle tissue was negative for EV71 antigen. In a mouse model of EV71 infection, we observed massive necrotic myositis, different degrees of viral diseases in CNS, and extensive interstitial pneumonia. In mice, EV71 exhibits strong myotropism compared to the neurotropism seen in humans. EV71 antigen was detected in the spinal cord and brainstem of mice. However, there was no clear correlation between mouse SCARB2 and EV71 antigen distribution in the mouse model, consistent with previous results that SCARB2 functions as a receptor for EV71 in humans but not mice. The EV71-induced lesions seen in the mouse model resembled the pathological changes seen in human samples. These results increase our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis and will inform further work developing a mouse model for EV71 infection.

  16. Altitudes and thicknesses of hydrogeologic units of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Drew A.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Richards, Joseph M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Clark, Brian R.

    2016-09-29

    A hydrogeologic framework was constructed to represent the altitudes and thicknesses of hydrogeologic units within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system as part of a regional groundwater-flow model supported by the U.S. Geological Survey Water Availability and Use Science Program. The Ozark Plateaus aquifer system study area is nearly 70,000 square miles and includes parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Nine hydrogeologic units were selected for delineation within the aquifer system and include the Western Interior Plains confining system, the Springfield Plateau aquifer, the Ozark confining unit, the Ozark aquifer, which was divided into the upper, middle, and lower Ozark aquifers to better capture the spatial variation in the hydrologic properties, the St. Francois confining unit, the St. Francois aquifer, and the basement confining unit. Geophysical and well-cutting logs, along with lithologic descriptions by well drillers, were compiled and interpreted to create hydrologic altitudes for each unit. The final compiled dataset included more than 23,000 individual altitude points (excluding synthetic points) representing the nine hydrogeologic units within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system.

  17. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  18. Three-Dimensional Geologic Framework Model for a Karst Aquifer System, Hasty and Western Grove Quadrangles, Northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Hudson, Mark R.; Murray, Kyle E.; Mott, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding ground-water flow in a karst aquifer benefits from a detailed conception of the three-dimensional (3D) geologic framework. Traditional two-dimensional products, such as geologic maps, cross-sections, and structure contour maps, convey a mental picture of the area but a stronger conceptualization can be achieved by constructing a digital 3D representation of the stratigraphic and structural geologic features. In this study, a 3D geologic model was created to better understand a karst aquifer system in the Buffalo National River watershed in northern Arkansas. The model was constructed based on data obtained from recent, detailed geologic mapping for the Hasty and Western Grove 7.5-minute quadrangles. The resulting model represents 11 stratigraphic zones of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian age. As a result of the highly dissected topography, stratigraphic and structural control from geologic contacts and interpreted structure contours were sufficient for effectively modeling the faults and folds in the model area. Combined with recent dye-tracing studies, the 3D framework model is useful for visualizing the various geologic features and for analyzing the potential control they exert on the ground-water flow regime. Evaluation of the model, by comparison to published maps and cross-sections, indicates that the model accurately reproduces both the surface geology and subsurface geologic features of the area.

  19. EPSPS Gene Amplification in Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) Populations from Arkansas (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Scott, Robert C; Dayan, Franck E; Burgos, Nilda R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas (United States) in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations were studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify alternative management approaches. Dose-response bioassays, glyphosate absorption and translocation experiments, herbicide target (EPSPS) gene sequence analysis, and gene amplification assays were conducted. The dose causing 50% growth reduction (GR50) was 7-19 times higher for the resistant population than for the susceptible standard. Uptake and translocation of (14)C-glyphosate were similar in resistant and susceptible plants, and no mutation in the EPSPS gene known to be associated with resistance to glyphosate was detected. Resistant plants contained from 11- to >100-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants, whereas the susceptible plants had only one copy of EPSPS. Plants surviving the recommended dose of glyphosate contained at least 10 copies. The EPSPS copy number was positively related to glyphosate resistance level (r = 80). Therefore, resistance to glyphosate in these populations is due to multiplication of the target site. Resistance mechanisms could be location-specific. Suppressing the mechanism for gene amplification may overcome resistance.

  20. Hydrogeology and physical characteristics of water samples at the Red River aluminum site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Freiwald, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site

  1. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  2. Modeling aboveground biomass of Tamarix ramosissima in the Arkansas River Basin of Southeastern Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, P.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Crall, A.W.; Newman, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Predictive models of aboveground biomass of nonnative Tamarix ramosissima of various sizes were developed using destructive sampling techniques on 50 individuals and four 100-m2 plots. Each sample was measured for average height (m) of stems and canopy area (m2) prior to cutting, drying, and weighing. Five competing regression models (P aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima using average height and/or canopy area measurements and were evaluated using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc). Our best model (AICc = -148.69, ??AICc = 0) successfully predicted T. ramosissima aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.97) and used average height and canopy area as predictors. Our 2nd-best model, using the same predictors, was also successful in predicting aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.97, AICc = -131.71, ??AICc = 16.98). A 3rd model demonstrated high correlation between only aboveground biomass and canopy area (R2 = 0.95), while 2 additional models found high correlations between aboveground biomass and average height measurements only (R2 = 0.90 and 0.70, respectively). These models illustrate how simple field measurements, such as height and canopy area, can be used in allometric relationships to accurately predict aboveground biomass of T. ramosissima. Although a correction factor may be necessary for predictions at larger scales, the models presented will prove useful for many research and management initiatives.

  3. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyong Ng; Fang He; Jimmy Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with ...

  4. Enterovirus 71-induced autophagy increases viral replication and pathogenesis in a suckling mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ying-Ray; Wang, Po-Shun; Wang, Jen-Ren; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported that Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection activates autophagy, which promotes viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we further investigated whether EV71 infection of neuronal SK-N-SH cells induces an autophagic flux. Furthermore, the effects of autophagy on EV71-related pathogenesis and viral load were evaluated after intracranial inoculation of mouse-adapted EV71 (MP4 strain) into 6-day-old ICR suckling mice. Results We demonstrated th...

  5. Epidemiology of Enterovirus 71 in The Netherlands, 1963 to 2008▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sanden, Sabine; Koopmans, Marion; Uslu, Gökhan; Avoort, Harrie

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has greatly increased in the Asian Pacific region since 1997. Several large outbreaks, caused by different subgenogroups of EV71, occurred with high rates of morbidity and a substantial number of deaths. In 2007, 58 cases of EV71 infection requiring hospitalization were reported in The Netherlands after a period of low endemicity of 21 years. These events triggered a study on the epidemiology of EV71 in The Netherlands. Genetic analysis of the ...

  6. TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR-LIKE EFFECTOR NUCLEASE-Mediated Generation and Metabolic Analysis of Camalexin-Deficient cyp71a12 cyp71a13 Double Knockout Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Teresa M; Böttcher, Christoph; Morbitzer, Robert; Götz, Cornelia C; Lehmann, Johannes; Lahaye, Thomas; Glawischnig, Erich

    2015-07-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of defense-related metabolites are synthesized via indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN), including camalexin and indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICOOH) derivatives. Cytochrome P450 71A13 (CYP71A13) is a key enzyme for camalexin biosynthesis and catalyzes the conversion of indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) to IAN. The CYP71A13 gene is located in tandem with its close homolog CYP71A12, also encoding an IAOx dehydratase. However, for CYP71A12, indole-3-carbaldehyde and cyanide were identified as major reaction products. To clarify CYP71A12 function in vivo and to better understand IAN metabolism, we generated two cyp71a12 cyp71a13 double knockout mutant lines. CYP71A12-specific transcription activator-like effector nucleases were introduced into the cyp71a13 background, and very efficient somatic mutagenesis was achieved. We observed stable transmission of the cyp71a12 mutation to the following generations, which is a major challenge for targeted mutagenesis in Arabidopsis. In contrast to cyp71a13 plants, in which camalexin accumulation is partially reduced, double mutants synthesized only traces of camalexin, demonstrating that CYP71A12 contributes to camalexin biosynthesis in leaf tissue. A major role of CYP71A12 was identified for the inducible biosynthesis of ICOOH. Specifically, the ICOOH methyl ester was reduced to 12% of the wild-type level in AgNO3-challenged cyp71a12 leaves. In contrast, indole-3-carbaldehyde derivatives apparently are synthesized via alternative pathways, such as the degradation of indole glucosinolates. Based on these results, we present a model for this surprisingly complex metabolic network with multiple IAN sources and channeling of IAOx-derived IAN into camalexin biosynthesis. In conclusion, transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated mutation is a powerful tool for functional analysis of tandem genes in secondary metabolism.

  7. Phenotype-gene: 71 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 71 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u3ria224u1070i decreased efficiency...b.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16467846i decreased efficiency for trait of fertility http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u647i AT4G35520

  8. The approved pediatric drug suramin identified as a clinical candidate for the treatment of EV71 infection-suramin inhibits EV71 infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Peijun; Zou, Gang; Bailly, Benjamin; Xu, Shanshan; Zeng, Mei; Chen, Xinsheng; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Ying; Guillon, Patrice; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Buchy, Philippe; Li, Jian; von Itzstein, Mark; Li, Qihan; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes severe central nervous system infections, leading to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is an urgent unmet medical need for new pharmaceutical agents to control EV71 infections. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we found that the approved pediatric antiparasitic drug suramin blocked EV71 infectivity by a novel mechanism of action that involves binding of the naphtalentrisulonic acid group of suramin to the viral capsid. Moreover, we demonstrate that when suramin is used in vivo at doses equivalent to or lower than the highest dose already used in humans, it significantly decreased mortality in mice challenged with a lethal dose of EV71 and peak viral load in adult rhesus monkeys. Thus, suramin inhibits EV71 infection by neutralizing virus particles prior to cell attachment. Consequently, these findings identify suramin as a clinical candidate for further development as a therapeutic or prophylactic treatment for severe EV71 infection.

  9. 肠道病毒71型感染的诊治%Diagnosis and Treatment of Enterovirus 71 Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绍基

    2010-01-01

    肠道病毒71型感染可导致于足口病,部分患儿可出现脑膜脑炎、心肌炎和支气管肺炎等.本病主要经粪.口途径传播,也可经呼吸道传播.患者多为1~6岁婴幼儿.若患儿血清抗肠道病毒71型IgM抗体阳性,或急性期与恢复期血清IgG抗体滴度升高4倍以上即可明确诊断.目前该病尚无特效治疗药物,主要为对症治疗.

  10. Water quality of the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer before and concurrent with large-scale artificial recharge, south-central Kansas, 1995-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappa, Daniel J.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Klager, Brian J.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The city of Wichita artificially recharged about 1 billion gallons of water into the Equus Beds aquifer during 2007–2012 as part of Phase I recharge of the Artificial Storage and Recovery project. This report, prepared in cooperation by the U.S. Geological Survey and the city of Wichita, Kansas, summarizes Little Arkansas River (source-water for artificial recharge) andEquus Beds aquifer water quality before (1995–2006) and during (2007–2012) Artificial Storage and Recovery Phase I recharge. Additionally, aquifer water-quality distribution maps are presented and water-quality changes associated with Phase I recharge timing are described.

  11. Effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on water quality in the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer, south-central Kansas, 2011-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Garrett, Jessica D.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2016-07-18

    The Equus Beds aquifer in south-central Kansas is aprimary water source for the city of Wichita. The Equus Beds aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project was developed to help the city of Wichita meet increasing current (2016) and future water demands. The Equus Beds ASR project pumps water out of the Little Arkansas River during above-base flow conditions, treats it using drinking-water quality standards as a guideline, and recharges it into the Equus Beds aquifer for later use. Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR project currently (2016) includes a river intake facility and a surface-water treatment facility with a 30 million gallon per day capacity. Water diverted from the Little Arkansas River is delivered to an adjacent presedimentation basin for solids removal. Subsequently, waste from the surface-water treatment facility and the presedimentation basin is returned to the Little Arkansas River through a residuals return line. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Wichita, developed and implemented a hydrobiological monitoring program as part of the ASR project to characterize and quantify the effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds aquifer water quality.Data were collected from 2 surface-water sites (one upstream and one downstream from the residuals return line), 1 residuals return line site, and 2 groundwater well sites (each having a shallow and deep part): the Little Arkansas River upstream from the ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (upstream surface-water site 375350097262800), about 0.03 mile (mi) upstream from the residuals return line site; the Little Arkansas River near Sedgwick, Kans. (downstream surface-water site 07144100), about 1.68 mi downstream from the residuals return line site; discharge from the Little Arkansas River ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (residuals return line site 375348097262800); 25S 01 W 07BCCC01 SMW–S11 near CW36 (MW–7 shallow groundwater well

  12. The use of instant medical history in a rural clinic. Case study of the use of computers in an Arkansas physician's office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, B

    2000-05-01

    This study evaluated the acceptance of using computers to take a medical history by rural Arkansas patients. Sex, age, race, education, previous computer experience and owning a computer were used as variables. Patients were asked a series of questions to rate their comfort level with using a computer to take their medical history. Comfort ratings ranged from 30 to 45, with a mean of 36.8 (SEM = 0.67). Neither sex, race, age, education, owning a personal computer, nor prior computer experience had a significant effect on the comfort rating. This study helps alleviate one of the concerns--patient acceptance--about the increasing use of computers in practicing medicine.

  13. European Union Council Directive 2009/71/EURATOM; Directiva 2009/71/Euratom del Consejo de la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butragueno, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Summary of Directive 2009/71, approved by the European Union on June 25th last. This text establishes a new Community framework for the safety of nuclear facilities and includes an analysis of issues such as the reactivation of nuclear programmes, the extension of the operating lifetime of the plants beyond their theoretical period of service and the need for safety requirements accepted by all the Member States. (Author)

  14. Progress in Research on Enterovirus Type 71%肠道病毒71型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶华; 方小楠

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1概述 肠道病毒71型(Human enterovirus 71,EV71)于1969年首次从美国加利福尼亚患有中枢神经系统疾病的婴儿粪便标本中分离出来[1],之后多次引起的世界性的暴发流行,尤其在欧洲和亚洲国家或地区发病率极高(例如1975年在保加利亚、1978年在匈牙利、1997年在马来西亚、1998年和2008年在中国台湾都引起暴发与流行).该病毒可在恒河猴肾脏细胞(Rhesus monkey kidney cell;RhMK)及人胚二倍体细胞(Human fetal diploid cell)中分离培养.在电子显微镜下观察,这些毒株的形态与已知的其他肠道病毒极为相似,但进行中和抗体试验(Neutralization test)或免疫扩散试验(Immuno diffusion test),发现其彼此间并没有交互作用的现象,

  15. [Establishment of EV71 animal models with 2-week-old BALB/c mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Li, Yu-Huan

    2013-03-01

    Animal model is very important for anti-EV71 (enterovirus 71) drug and vaccine development. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse model is the main in vivo model used in China. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse is too small to perform antiviral experiment. And the route of administration and dosage capacity are also restricted. A strong virulence EV71 virus strain was selected after screening from five EV71 strains with 1-day-old suckling mice. A mouse-adapted EV71 strain with increased virulence in 12-day-old suckling mice, EV71-M5, was generated after five serial passages of the parental EV71 strain in mice. Virus titers of EV71 infected mice heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine, brain and muscle tissue were determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. The virus used in this model is the first isolated EV71 strain in China. And 2-week-old suckling mice were used in this model. This is a supplement for the EV71 animal model in China. Establishment of this EV71 model will provide an attractive platform for anti-EV71 vaccine and drug development.

  16. Novel Nuclear Protein Complexes of Dystrophin 71 Isoforms in Rat Cultured Hippocampal GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rafael; Cárdenas-Aguayo, María Del Carmen; Alemán, Víctor; Osorio, Beatriz; Chávez-González, Oscar; Rendon, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The precise functional role of the dystrophin 71 in neurons is still elusive. Previously, we reported that dystrophin 71d and dystrophin 71f are present in nuclei from cultured neurons. In the present work, we performed a detailed analysis of the intranuclear distribution of dystrophin 71 isoforms (Dp71d and Dp71f), during the temporal course of 7-day postnatal rats hippocampal neurons culture for 1h, 2, 4, 10, 15 and 21 days in vitro (DIV). By immunofluorescence assays, we detected the highest level of nuclear expression of both dystrophin Dp71 isoforms at 10 DIV, during the temporal course of primary culture. Dp71d and Dp71f were detected mainly in bipolar GABAergic (≥60%) and multipolar Glutamatergic (≤40%) neurons, respectively. We also characterized the existence of two nuclear dystrophin-associated protein complexes (DAPC): dystrophin 71d or dystrophin 71f bound to β-dystroglycan, α1-, β-, α2-dystrobrevins, α-syntrophin, and syntrophin-associated protein nNOS (Dp71d-DAPC or Dp71f-DAPC, respectively), in the hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, both complexes were localized in interchromatin granule cluster structures (nuclear speckles) of neuronal nucleoskeleton preparations. The present study evinces that each Dp71's complexes differ slightly in dystrobrevins composition. The results demonstrated that Dp71d-DAPC was mainly localized in bipolar GABAergic and Dp71f-DAPC in multipolar Glutamatergic hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our results show that dystrophin 71d, dystrophin 71f and DAP integrate protein complexes, and both complexes were associated to nuclear speckles structures.

  17. Novel Nuclear Protein Complexes of Dystrophin 71 Isoforms in Rat Cultured Hippocampal GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez-Muñoz

    Full Text Available The precise functional role of the dystrophin 71 in neurons is still elusive. Previously, we reported that dystrophin 71d and dystrophin 71f are present in nuclei from cultured neurons. In the present work, we performed a detailed analysis of the intranuclear distribution of dystrophin 71 isoforms (Dp71d and Dp71f, during the temporal course of 7-day postnatal rats hippocampal neurons culture for 1h, 2, 4, 10, 15 and 21 days in vitro (DIV. By immunofluorescence assays, we detected the highest level of nuclear expression of both dystrophin Dp71 isoforms at 10 DIV, during the temporal course of primary culture. Dp71d and Dp71f were detected mainly in bipolar GABAergic (≥60% and multipolar Glutamatergic (≤40% neurons, respectively. We also characterized the existence of two nuclear dystrophin-associated protein complexes (DAPC: dystrophin 71d or dystrophin 71f bound to β-dystroglycan, α1-, β-, α2-dystrobrevins, α-syntrophin, and syntrophin-associated protein nNOS (Dp71d-DAPC or Dp71f-DAPC, respectively, in the hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, both complexes were localized in interchromatin granule cluster structures (nuclear speckles of neuronal nucleoskeleton preparations. The present study evinces that each Dp71's complexes differ slightly in dystrobrevins composition. The results demonstrated that Dp71d-DAPC was mainly localized in bipolar GABAergic and Dp71f-DAPC in multipolar Glutamatergic hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our results show that dystrophin 71d, dystrophin 71f and DAP integrate protein complexes, and both complexes were associated to nuclear speckles structures.

  18. Preparation of the EV71 VLPs%新肠道病毒71型病毒样颗粒的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓楠; 曹明慧; 李培锋

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究新肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)病毒样颗粒(Virus-like particles,VLPs)的制备方法.方法:依据昆虫细胞偏爱密码子优化EV71 P1和EV71 3CD基因,将二者分别克隆至供体质粒pFastBac Dual多角体蛋白启动子pPh和pP10上;构建重组pFastBac Dual EV71 P1-3CD质粒,并与Bacmid质粒转座后,获得重组杆状病毒表达质粒转染至Sf9细胞,应用PCR、免疫荧光、SDS-Page和Western blot方法鉴定EV71 VLPs表达情况,最后利用蔗糖密度梯度离心的方法纯化EV71 VLPs.结果:经昆虫密码子优化的EV71 P1和EV71 3CD基因,利用Bac-to-Bac系统成功组装了EV71 VLPs,纯化EV71 VLPs的浓度为0.817 mg/ml,纯度>90%.结论:成功地构建了重组杆状病毒EV71 P1-3CD Bacmid表达质粒,并表达和纯化了 EV71 VLPs,这为今后EV71 VLPs疫苗的研究奠定了基础.%Objective: The aim of the present study was to prepared EV71 VLPs, which was important for further studies in term of EV71 VLPs. Methods: Based on preferred codon optimization of insect cells ,EV71 P1 and EV71 3 CD genes were cloned into the donor vector pFastBac Dual under the polyhedrin promoter pPh and pP 10, and the constructed donor plasmid pFastBac Dual -P1 -3CD was transformed to E. Coli DHlOBac. The obtained recombinant baculovirus plasmid Bacmid -P1-3CD was transfected into Sf9 cells to prepare recombinant baeulovirus and the expressed products were identified by PCR , IFA, SDS-Page and Western -Blot. Then the VLPs were purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation . Results:The EV71 P1 and EV71 3CD genes insects codon optimized were assembled EV71 VLPs successfully by Bac-to-Bac system. Concentration of purified EV71 VLPs was 0. 817 mg/ml, purity of 90%. Conclusion:Finally, the pFastBac Dual EV71 P1-3CD was constructed , and EV71 VLPs were expressed and purified successfully, which provide a valuable platform for the future EV71 VLPs vaccine research.

  19. Intraspecific variation in the thermal biology of Rabidosa rabida (Araneae: Lycosidae) (Walckenaer) from the mountains of Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Ryan

    2012-12-01

    Temperature affects all levels of biological organization and multiple aspects of ecological performance and fitness. Descriptions of thermal biology are, therefore, essential pieces of information for studying ecology in varying thermal environments. This paper describes the thermal biology of the spider Rabidosa rabida by using three common descriptive measures. Spiders were collected from two populations on mountains in Arkansas that share similar climate and vegetation. Maximum sprint speed across temperature was used to calculate an estimate of thermal sensitivity of locomotor ability. Spiders were placed in a thermal gradient to determine thermal preference. Spiders' body temperatures were increased or decreased until the ability to move was lost. Results were compared between the populations to describe intraspecific variation. Maximum sprint speed increased across temperatures showing moderate sensitivity (Q(10 all spiders) = between 1.74 and 2) except at the highest temperatures in males, and the lowest temperatures in both sexes. Maximum sprint speeds differed between populations (P thermal maximum was shown to be 42.9°C ± 0.70. The critical thermal minimum was estimated at 0°C. Thermal preference of R. rabida was determined to be 31.9°C ± 0.44 showing no significant variation between populations. This study provides a first description of thermal biology in an ecologically important spider, and shows evidence of variation between thermal biology measures between populations with similar climate but no gene flow. Having adapted to various and changing conditions in the past, this spider and others like it can provide many ecologically and evolutionarily interesting lines of inquiry.

  20. Regional potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, November 2014–January 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottmeier, Anna M.

    2015-12-21

    The Ozark aquifer, within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (herein referred to as the “Ozark system”), is the primary groundwater source in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province (herein referred to as the “Ozark Plateaus”) of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Groundwater from the Ozark system has historically been an important part of the water resource base, and groundwater availability is a concern in some areas; dependency on the Ozark aquifer as a water supply has caused evolving, localized issues. The construction of a regional potentiometric-surface map of the Ozark aquifer is needed to aid assessment of current and future groundwater use and availability. The regional potentiometric-surface mapping is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater Resources Program initiative (http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/activities/regional.html) and the Ozark system groundwater availability project (http://ar.water.usgs.gov/ozarks), which seeks to quantify current groundwater resources, evaluate changes in these resources over time, and provide the information needed to simulate system response to future human-related and environmental stresses.The Ozark groundwater availability project objectives include assessing (1) growing demands for groundwater and associated declines in groundwater levels as agricultural, industrial, and public supply pumping increases to address needs; (2) regional climate variability and pumping effects on groundwater and surface-water flow paths; (3) effects of a gradual shift to a greater surface-water dependence in some areas; and (4) shale-gas production requiring groundwater and surface water for hydraulic fracturing. Data compiled and used to construct the regional Ozark aquifer potentiometric surface will aid in the assessment of those objectives.

  1. Testicular histology and germ cell cytology during spermatogenesis in the Mississippi map turtle, Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii, from Northeast Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kelsey; Trauth, Stanley E; Gribbins, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The testicular histology and cytology of spermatogenesis in Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii were examined using specimens collected between July 1996 and May 2004 from counties in northeastern Arkansas. A histological examination of the testes and germ cell cytology indicates a postnuptial testicular cycle of spermatogenesis and a major fall spermiation event. The majority of the germ cell populations in May and June specimens are represented by resting spermatogonia, type A spermatogonia, type B spermatogonia, pre-leptotene spermatocytes, and numerous Sertoli cell nuclei near the basement membrane. The start of proliferation is evident as spermatogonia in metaphase are present near the basal lamina and many of these germ cells have entered meiosis in June seminiferous tubules. Major spermatogenic events occur in the June and July specimens and result in an increased height of the seminiferous epithelium and increased diameter of the seminiferous tubules. The germ cell population during this time is represented by spermatogonia (type A, B, and resting), hypertrophic cells, large populations of early primary spermatocytes, and early round spermatids. By September, the major germ cell population has progressed past meiosis with abundant round and early elongating spermatids dominating the seminiferous epithelium. October seminiferous epithelia are marked by a decreas in height and mature spermatozoa fill the luminal space. Round and elongating spermatids constitute the largest portion of the germ cell population. Following the spermiation event, the testes enter a period of quiescence that lasts till the next spermatogenic cycle, which begins in the subsequent spring. Based on the cytological development of the seminiferous tubules revealed by our study, Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii demonstrates a temporal germ cell development strategy similar to other temperate reptiles. A single major generation of germ cells progresses through spermatogenesis each year

  2. 肠道病毒71型致病机制研究进展%Advances in pathogenic mechanisms of enterovirus 71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪

    2013-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(EV71)是引起手足口病的主要病原体之一,已经引起世界各地的大范围流行,可引起严重的并发症并导致患儿死亡.其引起严重并发症的致病机制尚不清楚,与许多因素有关包括细胞趋向、细胞凋亡和宿主免疫反应.该文主要介绍决定EV71细胞趋向的因素,引起细胞凋亡的相关机制及宿主免疫反应在EV71致病机制中的作用.%Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major pathogens that cause hand foot and mouth disease.Epidemics and pandemics have been periodically reported worldwide.EV71 also can cause serous complications and lead death in children.The mechanisms of EV71 cause serious complications has remained unclear,may relate to many factors,including cell tropism,cell death and host immune responses.This article reviews the recent advances in the identification of factors determining EV71 cell tropism,the associated mechanisms of viral infection-induced cell death and the interplay between EV71 and immunity.

  3. Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14

  4. RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication to accelerate the inhibition of the phosphorylation of AKT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengfeng; Liu, Yongjuan; Chen, Xiong; Dong, Lanlan; Zhou, Bingfei; Cheng, Qingqing; Han, Song; Liu, Zhongchun; Peng, Biwen; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong

    2015-03-20

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), occasionally leading to death. As a member of the RAS association domain family (RASSFs), RASSF4 plays important roles in cell death, tumor development and signal transduction. However, little is known about the relationship between RASSF4 and EV71. Our study reveals for the first time that RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication and then accelerates AKT phosphorylation inhibition in EV71-infected 293T cells, suggesting that RASSF4 may be a potential new target for designing therapeutic measures to prevent and control EV71 infection.

  5. 抗肠道病毒71型药物研究进展%Research Progress on Anti-EV71 Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静; 周志统; 袁正宏

    2011-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(EV71)是引起手足口病的主要病原体,并且EV71引起的神经系统并发症所造成的危害也越来越引起人们的重视.但是迄今尚无有效的EV71疫苗和特效抗EV71药物.目前,国内外针对EV71复制周期不同靶点的抗病毒药物研究取得了一定的突破.现将受体阻断剂、病毒衣壳结合剂、蛋白酶抑制剂、3DRNA多聚酶抑制剂、利巴韦林、RNA干扰技术以及中药等抗EV71的研究进展进行综述.%EV71 is the main etiological agent of hand , foot and mouth disease( HFMD ) , people pay more and more attention on the harm of EV71 caused neurological complications. But there are still lacking of effective EV71 vaccine and anti-EV71 drug. Currently,domestic and overseas research group have achieved some breakthrough progress on anti-EV71 drug research which target different site of viral replication cycle.This article reviewed recent studies of research progress on anti-EV71 agents which based on various molecular targets. Including receptor inhibitors , vial capsid-binding molecules , 3C protease inhibitor , 3 D RNA polymerase inhibitor , ribavirin, RNA interference and traditional Chinese medcine.

  6. Inter-state return migration in India: 1961-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamurthy, M; Kadi, A S

    1984-12-01

    "In this paper an attempt has been made to estimate return migration from the destination state of migrants for 15 major Indian states during 1961-71 among the life-time inter-state migrants enumerated in the 1961 census. The model used for estimation is based on the procedure suggested by Zachariah (1967) for estimating return migration from two census data." The results indicate that of the almost 13 million interstate migrants enumerated in the 1961 census, about 4.7 million returned during the period 1961-1971. Factors affecting this return migration are considered.

  7. A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from tri-colored bats, Perimyotis subflavus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), from the Ouachitas of Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Arlen, Robert; Connior, Matthew B

    2014-10-01

    Between February 2013 and October 2013, eleven tri-colored bats, Perimyotis subflavus were collected from Marion, Polk, and Searcy counties, Arkansas, and their faeces examined for coccidian parasites. Two of eleven (18%) harboured an eimerian that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria mcdanieli sp. n. were ellipsoidal to elongate with a bi-layered wall and measured (length × width, L × W) 28.3 × 17.9 μm, with an L/W ratio of 1.6. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a single polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 12.6 × 8.3 μm, with an L/W ratio of 1.5. A pronounced, nipple-like Stieda body was present as well as a substieda body. A sporocyst residuum was present as dispersed bubble-like granules. This is the third coccidian described from tri-colored bats and the sixth species reported from Arkansas chiropterans. In addition, both infected bats harbored a concurrent infection of Eimeria heidti McAllister, Burt, Seville, and Robison, 2011.

  8. Health Complaints Associated with Poor Rental Housing Conditions in Arkansas: The Only State Without a Landlord’s Implied Warranty of Habitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bachelder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arkansas is the only U.S. state that does not have a landlord’s implied warranty of habitability, meaning tenants have a requirement for maintaining their rental properties at certain habitability standards, but landlords are not legally required to contribute to those minimum health and safety standards. This project assessed the possibility that this lack of landlord responsibility affects tenants’ perceived health. Using surveys and interviews, we collected self-reported data on the prevalence and description of problems faced by renters who needed household repairs from their landlords. Of almost 1000 renters, one third of them had experienced a problem with their landlord making needed repairs; and one-quarter of those had a health issue they attributed to their housing conditions. Common issues included problems with plumbing, heating or cooling systems, and pest or rodent control. Reported health problems included elevated stress levels, breathing problems, headaches, high blood pressure and bites or infections. Hispanic respondents and those with less than a high school education were both significantly more likely to report problems with their landlords not making repairs as requested. The data suggest that the lack of landlord requirements may negatively impact the condition of rental properties, and therefore may negatively impact the health of Arkansas renters.

  9. EV71 Infection and Innate Antiviral Innate Immunity%EV71的感染和抗病毒天然免疫应答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广成; 段招军

    2016-01-01

    EV71是儿童手足口病的主要病原体,部分感染儿童会出现疱疹性咽峡炎以及严重的肺水肿和/或脑干脑炎.近几年,EV71感染引起的疾病机制研究取得了诸多进展.本文针对目前EV71的敏感细胞、EV71感染激活的信号途径以及EV71感染活化的天然免疫应答或免疫逃逸机制研究进行综述,旨在为EV71抗病毒药物研制和免疫致病机理的研究提供思路.

  10. The developments in the diagnosis of the enteroviruses 71%肠道病毒71型实验室诊断研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴星

    2012-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)为手足口病(Hand,foot and mouth disease,HFMD)和相关疾病的主要病原体,多感染婴幼儿,少数病例可以并发呼吸道感染和心肌炎、无菌性脑膜炎、脑炎、急性弛缓性麻痹等严重疾病,可致残、致死.因此EV71实验室诊断对EV71引起疾病的治疗和防控具有重要意义.本文将从核酸检测、抗体检测及其他检测等三部分对EV71的实验室诊断方法研究进展进行了综述.

  11. 肠道病毒71型分子流行病学研究进展%Progress of Reseach on Molecular Epidemiology of Enterovirus 71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田波; 段海生; 荣一兵; 周世力

    2004-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus type 71,EV71),自1974年首次报道以来,在世界范围内引起多次爆发与流行。EV71感染主要引起患者手足口病(hand,foot and mouth disease,HFMD),在临床上与柯萨奇病毒A16(Coxsakie A16,CA16)感染所引起的手足口病难以区别,但EV71还能够引起多种与神经系统相关的疾病。近年来,EV71病毒的流

  12. 肠道病毒71型疫苗的研究进展%Research progress of enterovirus 71 vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欢

    2012-01-01

    近年来,手足口病(Hand foot mouth disease,HFMD)在中国多次爆发流行,严重威胁公众健康,尤其是5岁以下的婴幼儿.而肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)是引起手足口病的主要病原体之一,由于目前还无针对该疾病有效的抗病毒药物,研制疫苗是控制EV71流行最为有效的措施.目前EV71疫苗及相关研究均取得重大突破,本文就近年来关于EV71疫苗研发、动物模型等的研究进展作一综述.

  13. Progress in research on inactivated whole virus vaccine against enterovirus 71%EV71全病毒灭活疫苗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚昕; 毛群颖

    2012-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD) has been circulated in China and has become a serious public health problem. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is emerged as a significant pathogen causing severe and death cases. Various EV71 vaccines are in development for controlling EV71 infection, of which inactivated vaccines are developed rapidly. At present, phase HI clinical trials will be performed on the inactivated whole virus vaccines against EV71 manufactured by three manufacturers in China. This review attempts to give an overview of the progress and quality control of inactivated whole virus vaccine against EV71.%近年来手足口病(Hand,foot and mouth disease,HFMD)在我国持续流行,已经成为危害儿童健康的严重疾病.肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)感染是引起HFMD病例和婴儿重症死亡的主要病因.为控制EV71感染的流行,国内外均在开展不同种类EV71疫苗的研发,其中以灭活疫苗的进展最快,目前国内3家EV71全病毒灭活疫苗即将进入Ⅲ期临床试验阶段.本文就全病毒灭活疫苗的研发进展及质量控制和评价要点作一综述.

  14. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Qingyong; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i) inactivated vaccines; (ii) baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii) human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment; and (iv) the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections.

  15. EV71-infected CD14(+) cells modulate the immune activity of T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Pu, Jing; Huang, Hongtai; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Longding; Yang, Erxia; Zhou, Xiaofang; Ma, Na; Zhao, Hongling; Wang, Lichun; Xie, Zhenfeng; Tang, Donghong; Li, Qihan

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary studies of the major pathogen enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, have suggested that EV71 may be a major cause of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases. Currently, the role of the pathological changes induced by EV71 infection in the immunopathogenic response remains unclear. Our study focused on the interaction between this virus and immunocytes and indicated that this virus has the ability to replicate in CD14(+) cells. Furthermore, these EV71-infected CD14(+) cells have the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of T cells and to enhance the release of certain functional cytokines. An adaptive immune response induced by the back-transfusion of EV71-infected CD14(+) cells was observed in donor neonatal rhesus monkeys. Based on these observations, the proposed hypothesis is that CD14(+) cells infected by the EV71 virus might modulate the anti-EV71 adaptive immune response by inducing simultaneous T-cell activation.

  16. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid endothelin 1 associated with neurogenic pulmonary edema in children with enterovirus 71 encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fang Tu

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: ET-1 in the central nervous system may play a role in the development of NPE in children with EV71 infection and could be used as a biomarker or therapeutic target for NPE in EV71 encephalitis.

  17. EV71 infection correlates with viral IgG preexisting at pharyngolaryngeal mucosa in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingchang; Xue; Yaoming; Li; Xiaoyi; Xu; Jie; Yu; Hu; Yan; Huimin; Yan

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) infection causes severe central nervous system damage, particularly for children under the age of 5 years old, which remains a major public health burden worldwide. Clinical data released that children may be repeatedly infected by different members in enterovirus and get even worsen. Mucosa, especially epithelium of alimentary canal, was considered the primary site of EV71 infection. It has been elusive whether the preexsiting viral antibody in mucosa plays a role in EV71 infection. To answer this question, we respectively measured viral antibody response and EV71 RNA copy number of one hundred throat swab specimens from clinically confirmed EV71-infected children. The results released that low-level of mucosal Ig G antibody against EV71 broadly existed in young population. More importantly, it further elucidated that the children with mucosal preexsiting EV71 Ig G were prone to be infected, which suggested a former viral Ig G mediated enhancement of viral infection in vivo.

  18. Evolution of re-emergent virus and its impact on enterovirus 71 epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Kiang, David; Smith, Derek J; Wang, Jen-Ren

    2011-08-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Enterovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family, has become an emergent infectious disease worldwide, most notably in Asia. As a neurotropic virus, EV71 infection occasionally causes neurological diseases with pulmonary edema, which is fatal for children. In this review, we examine the epidemiology of EV71, with three waves of increased EV71 activity since the 1970s and discuss the genotypic changes in phylogeny between the outbreaks or epidemics. Genetic changes including mutations and recombinations as well as the diversity of antigenic properties among EV71 strains in various outbreaks are described. Furthermore, the impact of genetic changes on viral pathogenesis and vaccine candidate selection are addressed. In conclusion, these genetic and antigenic investigations of EV71 evolution have provided us with new insight into the trend of EV71 epidemiology, which may contribute to a better understanding of the viral pathogenesis and vaccine development.

  19. 重症手足口病EV71感染护理体会%Nursing Experience of HFMD Children with Severe EV71 Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金利萍; 房彤; 芦玮玮

    2009-01-01

    目的:总结重症EV71感染患儿的护理经验.方法:时100多例重症EV71感染患儿的临床表现、救治措施及护理方法进行分析.结果:总结出重症手足口病EV71感染患儿各项护理要点.结论:重症EV71感染患儿的救治工作在配合护理措施后提高救治成功率.

  20. Delivery of human EV71 receptors by adeno-associated virus increases EV71 infection-induced local inflammation in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Lien, Shu-Pei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chong, Pele; Chen, Chih-Yeh; Tao, Mi-Hua; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and one major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). However potential animal models for vaccine development are limited to young mice. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to introduce the human EV71 receptors P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (hPSGL1) or a scavenger receptor class-B member-2 (hSCARB2) into adult ICR mice to change their susceptibility to EV71 infection. Mice were administered AAV-hSCARB2 or AAV-hPSGL1 through intravenous and oral routes. After three weeks, expression of human SCARB2 and PSGL1 was detected in various organs. After infection with EV71, we found that the EV71 viral load in AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice was higher than that of the control mice in both the brain and intestines. The presence of EV71 viral particles in tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines were induced in the brain and intestines of AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice after EV71 infection but not in wild-type mice. However, neurological disease was not observed in these animals. Taken together, we successfully infected adult mice with live EV71 and induced local inflammation using an AAV delivery system.

  1. Surveillance of the enterovirus type 71 in Shenzhen in 2000%2000年深圳市肠道病毒71型的监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雅青; 杨洪; 丰素娟; 严志平

    2003-01-01

    @@ 肠道病毒71型(enterovirus type 71; EV 71)的感染可导致多种临床症状,EV 71可以引起发热性疾病、手足口病、疱疹性咽峡炎、无菌性脑膜炎、脑炎、脑干脑炎、肺水肿、脊髓灰质炎样的麻痹性疾病等多种疾病,甚至导致死亡。

  2. Progress in Research on Enterovirus 71 Vaccine%肠道病毒71型疫苗的研发现状及进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚昕; 毛群颖

    2011-01-01

    Hand foot mouth disease (HFMD) has been epidemic in China in recent years. Severe and fatal cases caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the serious public healthy problem. The only effective measure to control HFMD is developing EV71 vaccine. At present, the vaccine is in developing in several manufacturers in China. This review attempts to give an overview of the necessity, feasibility as well as problem and progress in development of EV71 vaccine.%近年来,手足口病(Hand foot mouth disease,HFMD)在我国呈持续流行态势.其中,肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)感染引起的严重和死亡病例已成为政府和社会高度关注的公共卫生问题.研发疫苗是控制该病流行的唯一有效措施.目前,我国已有多个单位开展了EV71疫苗的研发工作,本文就EV71疫苗研发的必要性、可行性、研发的难点及研发进展作一综述.

  3. Biological characteristics and research progress of enterovirus 71%肠道病毒71型的生物学特征及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈小琴; 李鸿钧

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of enterovirus 71 (EV71) shows rising trend in Asia-Pacific area. The hand, foot and mouth disease caused by EV71 attracts widespread attention, and becomes a large challenge for preventive medicine and basic scientific research. This paper reviews research progress in biological characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of EV71.%近年来,肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)的流行在亚太地区呈逐渐上升趋势.EV71导致的手足口病已引起社会各界广泛关注,并成为医学预防和基础科研的挑战.此文就EV71的生物学特性、流行病学、致病机制、临床和实验室诊断、预防及治疗等方面的研究进展作一综述.

  4. 肠道病毒71型致病机制研究进展%Advances in the research of pathogenesis of enterovirus 71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁卫卫; 郭会杰

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major pathogens of hand,foot and mouth disease,which can cause a variety of nervous system-related diseases with high disability and mortality rates.This review summarizes the recent research progress of the immune responses against EV71 and pathogenesis of EV71 infection.%肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是引起手足口病的主要病原体之一,其感染可导致多种与神经系统相关的疾病,致残率及病死率较高.目前,关于其免疫机制和致病机制尚未完全清楚.此文阐述了机体对EV71的免疫应答以及EV71感染的致病机制的最新研究进展.

  5. 肠道病毒71型抵抗Ⅰ型干扰素诱导的抗病毒作用%Human enterovirus 71 ( EV71 ) resisted type I interferon induced antiviral effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔雨; 宋娟; 宋芹芹; 孙鹏; 甘星; 李公启; 王克霞; 韩俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究肠道病毒71型(EV71)抵抗Ⅰ型干扰素(interferon,IFN)诱导的抗病毒作用.方法 将1000 U/ml的Ⅰ型干扰素(α,β)加入HeLa细胞后,去除上清中的干扰素,感染带有GFP的重组单纯疱疹病毒(HSV-1)和EV71,观察GFP的表达和PCR检测HSV-1核酸,判断Ⅰ型干扰素对HSV-1的作用.通过RT-PCR方法检测EV71 2A基因的表达从而判断EV71病毒的复制能力.结果 Ⅰ型干扰素(α,β)诱导HeLa细胞产生抗病毒蛋白而有效地抑制重组HSV-1 GFP的表达和核酸扩增.而EV71 2A的RT-PCR结果证实EV71可在Ⅰ型干扰素(α,β)作用后的HeLa细胞中有效增殖.结论 Ⅰ型干扰素(a,β)诱导产生抗病毒蛋白;EV71可在Ⅰ型干扰素(α,β)诱导产生抗病毒蛋白的HeLa细胞中有效增殖.%Objective To investigate human enterovirus 71 (EV71) resistance to type Ⅰ interferon induced antiviral effect.Methods After type Ⅰ interferons (α,β ) were incubated with HeLa cells,recombinant type Ⅰ herpes simple virus ( HSV-1 ) with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inoculated onto the HeLa cells.HSV-1 proliferation was observed by GFP expression and PCR.After EV71 was inoculated onto HeLa cells incubated with the same quantity of interferon,proliferation of EV71 were detected by RTPCR of 2A gene. Results Recombinant HSV-1 GFP expression and viral DNA replication obviously decreased in HeLa cells incubated with type Ⅰ interferon (α,β).However,EV71 effectively proliferated in the interferon irritated HeLa cell by RT-PCR.Conclusion HeLa cell irritated by type Ⅰ interferon (α,β) produced antiviral substance that inhibits HSV-1 proliferation.EV71 resisted the antiviral substance induced by type Ⅰ interferon and could significantly replicate in the HeLa cells.

  6. 48 CFR 652.239-71 - Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Unclassified Information Technology Resources. 652.239-71 Section 652.239-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Provisions and Clauses 652.239-71 Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources. As... Technology Resources (SEP 2007) (a) General. The Contractor shall be responsible for information...

  7. 28 CFR 71.3 - Basis for civil penalties and assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 71.3 Section 71.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE... Department of Justice § 71.3 Basis for civil penalties and assessments. (a) Any person shall be subject, in... such claim is actually made to an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State...

  8. Evolutionary trajectory of the VP1 gene of human enterovirus 71 genogroup B and C viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.G. van der Sanden (Sabine); H.G.A.M. van der Avoort (Harrie); P. Lemey (Philippe); G. Uslu (Gökhan); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1963 to 1986, human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) infections in the Netherlands were successively caused by viruses of subgenogroups B0, B1 and B2. A genogroup shift occurred in 1987, after which viruses of subgenogroups C1 and C2 were detected exclusively. This is in line with HEV71 typin

  9. Expression and Purification of Enterovirus Type 71 Polyprotein P1 using Pichia pastoris system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Han; Xiaoling Ying; Hao Huang; Shili Zhou; Qi Huang

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus type 71(EV71) causes severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease(HFMD) resulting in hundreds of deaths of children every year; However,currently,there is no effective treatment for EV71.In this study,the EV71 poly-protein(EV71-P1 protein) gene was processed and cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pPIC9k and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strain GS115.The EV71 P1 pretein with a molecular weight of 100 kD was produced and secreted into the medium.The soluble EV71 P1 protein was purified by column chromatography with a recovery efficiency of 70%.The result of the immunological analysis showed that the EV71 P1 protein had excellent immunogenicity and could stimulate the production of EV71-VP1 IgG antibody in injected rabbits.We suggest that EV71-P1 protein is an ideal candidate for an EV71 vaccine to prevent EV71 infection.

  10. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commerce. 71.19 Section 71.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.19 Identification of swine in interstate commerce. (a)(1) Except as provided in... offered for sale or transportation, in interstate commerce, unless each swine is identified at...

  11. 48 CFR 1552.203-71 - Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspector General Hotline poster. 1552.203-71 Section 1552.203-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1552.203-71 Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline poster. As prescribed... all contract options. Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline Poster (AUG 2000) (a) For...

  12. 48 CFR 852.203-71 - Display of Department of Veterans Affairs hotline poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Veterans Affairs hotline poster. 852.203-71 Section 852.203-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 852.203-71 Display of Department of Veterans Affairs hotline poster. As prescribed in 803.7001, insert the following clause: Display of Department of Veterans Affairs Hotline Poster...

  13. 48 CFR 1649.101-71 - FEHBP termination for convenience clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP termination for convenience clause. 1649.101-71 Section 1649.101-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... CONTRACTS General Principles 1649.101-71 FEHBP termination for convenience clause. The clause set forth...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.247-71 - Protection of the Florida manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manatee. 1852.247-71 Section 1852.247-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.247-71 Protection of the Florida manatee. As prescribed in 1847.7001, insert the following clause: Protection of the Florida Manatee (MAR 1989) (a) Pursuant to the Endangered Species Act...

  15. 33 CFR 151.71 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage within special areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of garbage within special areas. 151.71 Section 151.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.71 Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage within special areas. (a) When...

  16. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) routes. 71.13 Section 71.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, ATS routes are classified as follows: (a) In subpart A of this part: (1) Jet routes. (2)...

  17. 48 CFR 952.211-71 - Priorities and allocations for energy programs (contracts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for energy programs (contracts). 952.211-71 Section 952.211-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.211-71 Priorities and allocations for energy programs (contracts). As prescribed in...

  18. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  19. 37 CFR 1.71 - Detailed description and specification of the invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specification of the invention. 1.71 Section 1.71 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions Specification § 1.71 Detailed description and specification of the invention. (a) The specification must include a written description of the invention or discovery and of the manner and process...

  20. 41 CFR 301-71.100 - What is the purpose of the travel authorization process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the travel authorization process? 301-71.100 Section 301-71.100 Public Contracts and Property...-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.100 What is the purpose of the travel authorization process? The purpose is to: (a) Provide the employee information regarding...

  1. 7 CFR 201.71 - Establishing the source of all classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seed. 201.71 Section 201.71 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.71 Establishing the source of all classes of certified seed. The certifying agency shall have evidence of the class and source...

  2. 42 CFR 102.71 - Insufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benefits determinations. 102.71 Section 102.71 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations § 102.71 Insufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. In the event that there is...

  3. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  4. 41 CFR 301-71.1 - What is the purpose of an agency travel accounting system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an agency travel accounting system? 301-71.1 Section 301-71.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71... accounting system? To: (a) Pay authorized and allowable travel expenses of employees; (b) Provide...

  5. 48 CFR 945.603-71 - Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Inventory 945.603-71 Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. Special procedures regarding the disposal of radioactively contaminated property may be found at 41 CFR 109-45.50. ... contaminated personal property. 945.603-71 Section 945.603-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  6. 48 CFR 1552.214-71 - Contract award-other factors-formal advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... factors-formal advertising. 1552.214-71 Section 1552.214-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1552.214-71 Contract award—other factors—formal advertising. As prescribed in 1514.201... Advertising” (FAR 52.214-10), and “Contract Award—Construction” (FAR 52.214-19). All other...

  7. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to § 71.88(a)(4), in addition to satisfying...

  8. 48 CFR 2152.216-71 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-service charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of the... cost redetermination-service charge. 2152.216-71 Section 2152.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations....216-71 Fixed price with limited cost redetermination—service charge. As prescribed in...

  9. 48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-reporting of child abuse. 352.237-71 Section 352.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND... Clauses 352.237-71 Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Crime Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child...

  10. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 817.71 Section 817.71 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.71 Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements. (a) General. You, the... stability of the fill. (5) Excess spoil that is acid- or toxic-forming or combustible shall be...

  11. 肠道病毒71型疫苗研究进展%Advances in research on enterovirus 71 vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁; 邓永强; 秦成峰; 秦鄂德

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the primary causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children and closely associated with severe neurological complications and even deaths.EV71 outbreaks have occurred throughout the Asia-Pacific region since 1990s, posing global public health threat;however, no specific therapeutic strategy exists for severe EV71 infection.Several inactivated vaccine products have entered or finished the clinical trial stage, and some novel vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, subunit, and virus-like particle, show great potential for further develop-ment.This review summarizes the present situation and progress in the development of EV71 vaccines.%肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是引起儿童手足口病的主要病原体之一,其感染可在少数患者中引起严重的神经系统综合征甚至导致死亡。自20世纪90年代后期在东南亚地区暴发以来,EV71感染已成为严重威胁全球,尤其是亚太地区儿童健康的公共卫生问题之一。尽管目前临床上尚无针对EV71的安全有效的疫苗,但多个灭活疫苗已进入或完成临床研究,减毒活疫苗、亚单位疫苗、病毒样颗粒疫苗等新型疫苗也显示出良好的发展前景,该文综述了EV71疫苗的最新研究进展。

  12. 肠道病毒71型感染的临床研究%Cinical research of Enterovirus 71 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠东; 吕铁锋

    2008-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71)was first idenfified in 1969.Since then,several epidemics of EV71 infection have occurred around the world.EV71 is a major causative viral agent responsible for large outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease(HEMD).It is often associated with neurological complications,such as aseptic meningitis,brain stem encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like paralysis and has caused high mortality in recent outbreaks.Currently.there is no effective anlivind treatment for severe EV71 infections and no vaccine is available.We need a rapid and sensitive method to detect EV71 from clinical specimens,and will allow quaranntine measures to be taken more effectively during outbreaks.This review briefly outlines the advance of EV71 infection in epidemiology,clinical manifestation,detective measures and therapy.%肠道病毒71型(EV71)自1969年首次分离出来后,已在世界范围内引起了数次爆发流行.EV71是手足口病的主要病因,常引起多种与神经系统相关的严重疾病.目前缺乏有效的抗病毒治疗和高效疫苗,故早期发现和检测尤为重要.此文就EV71感染的流行情况、临床表现、检测技术及治疗等研究作了介绍.

  13. 肠道病毒71型灭活疫苗相关研究现状%Current status of research of inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨二霞

    2013-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a life-threatening infectious disease of children under 5 years old.In recent years,major outbreaks of HFMD caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) have emerged in the Asia-Pacific region,and have resulted in millions of cases and hundreds of deaths each year in China since 2008.Because EV71 is one of the main pathogens of HFMD resulting in severe diseases and death,the pathogenesis of HFMD is still unclear,and no effective therapeutic drugs for EV71 infection are currently available,development of vaccines against EV71 is urgently needed.This review summarizes research progress of inactivated EV71 vaccines.%手足口病是一种威胁5岁以下儿童生命健康的传染病,近年来已在亚太地区造成了多次上百万患者发病的大规模暴发,仅在中国大陆,自2008年以来,每年发病人数就超过百万,死亡数百人.然而,由于肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是导致重症和死亡病例的主要病原体,而其致病机制尚不清楚,目前尚无有效的治疗性药物,因此EV71疫苗研究成为迫切需要解决的问题.此文就EV71灭活疫苗研究进展进行综述.

  14. Distribution and variability of redox zones controlling spatial variability of arsenic in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, southeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Hays, P.D.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty one of 118 irrigation water wells in the shallow (25-30??m thick) Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the Bayou Bartholomew watershed, southeastern Arkansas had arsenic (As) concentrations (oxide, organic, and hot HNO3-leachable fraction of As and other compounds in sediments. The Chao reagent (0.25??M hydroxylamine hydrochloride in 0.25??M HCl) removes amorphous Fe and Mn oxides and oxyhydroxides (present as coatings on grains and amorphous minerals) by reductive dissolution and is a measure of reducible Fe and Mn in sediments. The hot HNO3 extraction removes mostly crystalline metal oxides and all other labile forms of As. Significant total As (20%) is complexed with amorphous Fe and Mn oxides in sediments. Arsenic abundance is not significant in carbonates or organic matter. Significant (40-70????g/kg) exchangeable As is only present at shallow depth (0-1??m below ground surface). Arsenic is positively correlated to Fe extracted by Chao reagent (r = 0.83) and hot HNO3 (r = 0.85). Arsenic extracted by Chao reagent decreases significantly with depth as compared to As extracted by hot HNO3. Fe (II)/Fe (the ratio of Fe concentration in the extracts of Chao reagent and hot HNO3) is positively correlated (r = 0.76) to As extracted from Chao reagent. Although Fe (II)/Fe increases with depth, the relative abundance of reducible Fe decreases noticeably with depth. The amount of reducible Fe, as well as As complexed to amorphous Fe and Mn oxides and oxyhydroxides decreases with depth. Possible explanations for the decrease in reducible Fe and its complexed As with depth include historic flushing of As and Fe from hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) by microbially-mediated reductive dissolution and aging of HFO to crystalline phases. Hydrogeochemical data suggests that the groundwater in the area falls in the mildly reducing (suboxic) to relatively highly reducing (anoxic) zone, and points to reductive dissolution of HFO as the dominant As release mechanism

  15. Rupintrivir is a promising candidate for treating severe cases of Enterovirus-71 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the suitability of rupintrivir against Enterovirus 71(EV71)induced severe clinical symptoms using computational methods. METHODS:The structure of EV71 3C protease was predicted by homology modeling.The binding free energies between rupintrivir and EV71 3C and human rhinovirus 3C protease were computed by molecular dynamics and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann/ surface area and molecular mechanics generalized-born/ surface area methods.EV71 3C fragments obtained from clinical samples col...

  16. Genetic and antigenic characterization of enterovirus 71 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Phan Kim Thoa

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 frequently causes fatal infections in young children in Asia. In 2011, EV71 epidemics occurred in southern Vietnam. We conducted genetic and antigenic analysis of the EV71 isolates and found that 94% of them were genotype C4a related to two lineages circulating in China and 6% were genotype C5 which have circulated in Vietnam since 2003. Antigenic variants were not detected. EV71 vaccines are being developed. Longitudinal enterovirus surveillance data are critical to formulate vaccination policy in Vietnam.

  17. Detection of RNA of EV71 in hospital sewage%医院污水中EV71病毒核酸的检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华洪; 白志永

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究医院污水EV71病毒核酸的检测方法,为手足口病控制提供依据.方法 用栽阳电荷的硅胶滤材吸附浓集污水中的EV71病毒,然后用RT-PCR和实时荧光PCR技术检测EV71病毒.结果 建立的栽阳电荷硅胶浓集方法能有效浓集医院污水中的EV71病毒,通过对6家医院的医院污水检测有2家检出EV71病毒核酸,所有检出EV71核酸的医院污水余氯都不符合国家卫生标准.结论 医院污水中含有EV71病毒核酸,提示其为环境中EV71病毒的重要污染源.因此需要加强医院污水消毒的监督检查.

  18. 75 FR 43564 - TA-W-71,483, Continental Airlines, Inc., Reservations Division, Houston, TX; TA-W-71,483A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration TA-W-71,483, Continental Airlines, Inc., Reservations Division, Houston, TX; TA-W-71,483A, Continental Airlines, Inc., Reservations Division, Tampa, FL;...

  19. 71Ga Chemical Shielding and Quadrupole Coupling Tensors of the Garnet Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) from Single-Crystal (71)Ga NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vosegaard, Thomas; Massiot, Dominique; Gautier, Nathalie

    1997-01-01

    A single-crystal (71)Ga NMR study of the garnet Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) (YGG) has resulted in the determination of the first chemical shielding tensors reported for the (71)Ga quadrupole. The single-crystal spectra are analyzed in terms of the combined effect of quadrupole coupling and chemical shielding ...

  20. Determinants of EV71 immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junliang; Li, Jingliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanchen; Yang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Circulating enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health problem in the Asian-Pacific region. An EV71 vaccine for HFMD prevention is currently being developed. However, viral determinants that could influence the vaccine's efficacy have not been well characterized. In this study, we isolated and characterized several EV71 strains that are currently circulating in northern and southern China. We determined that VP1 variation is a major determinant of EV71 immunogenicity. A single amino acid variation in VP1 can lead to significant differences in the breadth and potency of immune responses against primary EV71 isolates as well as the sensitivity of EV71 to heterologous neutralizing antibody responses. We also identified EV71 strains that could induce potent immunogenic and cross-neutralizing antibody responses against diverse EV71 strains. Furthermore, these neutralizing antibodies could protect neonatal mice from lethal dose challenge with various circulating EV71 viruses. Our study provides useful information for EV71 vaccine development and evaluation.

  1. The Role of Lipid Rafts in the Early Stage of Enterovirus 71 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhe Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although it has been widely accepted that Enterovirus 71 (EV71 enters permissive cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, the details of entry mechanism for EV71 still need more exploration. This study aimed to investigate the role of lipid rafts in the early stage of EV71 Infection. Methods: The effect of cholesterol depletion or addition of exogenous cholesterol was detected by immunofluorescence assays and quantitative real-time PCR. Effects of cholesterol depletion on the association of EV71 with lipid rafts were determined by flow cytometry and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Localization and internalization of EV71 and its receptor were assayed by confocal microscpoy and sucrose gradient analysis. The impact of cholesterol on the activation of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway during initial virus infection was analyzed by Western-blotting. Results: Disruption of membrane cholesterol by a pharmacological agent resulted in a significant reduction in the infectivity of EV71. The inhibitory effect could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Cholesterol depletion post-infection did not affect EV71 infection. While virus bound equally to cholesterol-depleted cells, EV71 particles failed to be internalized by cholesterol-depleted cells. EV71 capsid protein co-localized with cholera toxin B, a lipid-raft-dependent internalization marker. Conclusion: Lipid rafts play a critical role in virus endocytosis and in the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the early stage of EV71 infection.

  2. Purification technology of hand -foot -and -mouth disease EV71 vaccine%手足口病EV71疫苗纯化的工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺芳; 穆瑞瑞; 张俊; 张可

    2012-01-01

    @@%为提高肠道病毒71型(EV71)疫苗的纯化工艺,采用粗纯、4FF层析、离子交换层析、蔗糖密度梯度离心等方法进行疫苗的纯化.结果表明,粗纯的EV71浓缩液经4FF层析和蔗糖密度梯度离心,得到高纯度的EV71疫苗.新工艺提高了EV71的纯度,适用于规模化生产.

  3. Knockdown of dystrophin Dp71 impairs PC12 cells cycle: localization in the spindle and cytokinesis structures implies a role for Dp71 in cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Villarreal-Silva

    Full Text Available The function of dystrophin Dp71 in neuronal cells remains to be established. Previously, we revealed the involvement of this protein in both nerve growth factor (NGF-induced neuronal differentiation and cell adhesion by isolation and characterization of PC12 neuronal cells with depleted levels of Dp71. In this work, a novel phenotype of Dp71-knockdown cells was characterized, which is their delayed growth rate. Cell cycle analyses revealed an altered behavior of Dp71-depleted cells, which consists of a delay in G0/G1 transition and an increase in apoptosis during nocodazole-induced mitotic arrest. Dp71 associates with lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan, proteins involved in aspects of the cell division cycle; therefore, we compared the distribution of Dp71 with that of lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan in PC12 cells at mitosis and cytokinesis by means of immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analysis. All of these three proteins exhibited a similar immunostaining pattern, localized at mitotic spindle, cleavage furrow, and midbody. It is noteworthy that a drastic decreased staining in mitotic spindle, cleavage furrow, and midbody was observed for both lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan in Dp71-depleted cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated the interaction of Dp71 with lamin B1 in PC12 cells by immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays, and importantly, we revealed that knockdown of Dp71 expression caused a marked reduction in lamin B1 levels and altered localization of the nuclear envelope protein emerin. Our data indicate that Dp71 is a component of the mitotic spindle and cytokinesis multi-protein apparatuses that might modulate the cell division cycle by affecting lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan levels.

  4. Rathke囊肿(附71例临床分析)%Rathke cleft cyst(a review of 71 cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯铭; 张子衡; 王任直; 魏俊吉; 马文斌; 李桂林; 杨义; 康军; 魏宇魁; 李照建

    2008-01-01

    目的 总结Rathke囊肿的临床表现、影像学、内分泌检查、手术疗效及病理结果 ,探讨其特点和规律.方法 回顾性分析我院1996年1月至2007年3月间经手术和病理证实的71例Rathke囊肿的病例资料.结果 Rathke囊肿女性多发(男:女=1∶1.5).临床表现以头痛、视力视野障碍、内分泌障碍为主.蝶鞍X线检查扩大者3例,其余正常.MRI检查T1WI可为高、低、等信号,T2WI 71.2%为高信号,部分病例增强后囊壁强化.术后33例头痛症状、25例视力视野障碍、6例内分泌障碍症状缓解.术后垂体功能低下者2例,一过性尿崩症8例,电解质紊乱7例.术后复发1例.结论 Rathke囊肿术前诊断困难.但影像学检查有助于诊断.症状性囊肿应手术治疗,手术效果良好,复发率低.%Objective To summarize the clinical manifestation,imaging,endocrine examination,operation effect and pathology result of Rathke cleft cysts.To explore the characteristics of Rathke cleft cysts.Method To retrospectively analyze the clinial materials of 71 cases between January 1996 and March 2007.Results A moderate predominance in females was presented.The clinical manifestations of the disease included headache,visual field deficency,dyserinism.Sella turcica in 3 cases are found to be enlarged by X-ray examination.On T2-weighted image,71.2% cases are hyperintense.Signal intensities of T1-weighted images are hyperintense,hypointense,isointense.Lack of or thin enhancement pattern of the cyst wall were seen in these cases.After operation,2 cases presented hypopituitarism,8 cases diabetes insipidus,7 cases electrolyte disturbances,1 case recurred two months postoperatively.Conclusion It is difficult to diagnose the disease preoperatively,but imaging exam could he helpful.Operation is the best solution for the symptomatic Rathke cleft cysts,with good prognosis and low recurrence.

  5. User's guide for PRISM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 1: Volume 1, Program for inspectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit One (ANO-1). This document, Volume 1, describes how the PRA information available in Version 1.0 of PRISIM is useful for planning inspections. Using PRISIM, inspectors can quickly access PRA information and use that information to update risk analysis results, reflecting a plant's status at any particular time. Both volumes are stand-alone documents, and each volume presents several sample computer sessions designed to lead the user through a variety of PRISIM applications used to obtain PRA-related information for monitoring and controlling plant risk.

  6. User's guide for PRISIM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One--Unit 1: Volume 2, Program for regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One--Unit One (ANA-1). This document, Volume 2, describes how the PRA information available in Version 2.0 of PRISIM is useful as an evaluation tool for regulatory activities. Using PRISIM is useful as an evaluation tool for regulatory activities. Using PRISIM, regulators can both access PRA information and modify the information to assess the impact these changes may have on plant safety. Each volume is a stand-alone document.

  7. 肠道病毒71型的分子流行病学现况%Molecular Epidemiological Research on Enterovirus 71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    檀晓娟; 许文波

    2008-01-01

    目的 肠道病毒71(Enterovirus 71,EV71)是导致婴幼儿感染的重要病原之一,可引起多种疾病,具有较广的疾病谱.EV71可引起大规模的手足口病(Hand,Foot,and Mouth Disease,HFMD)爆发,也可引起脑干脑炎等神经系统感染,导致死亡.现对EV71分子流行病学研究方法和研究进展进行综述,总结和分析了EV71各种基因型/亚型毒株的进化史及进化地位,对国际上EV71各种基因型/亚型的流行现况进行了概括总结.

  8. Advances in establishment of enterovirus 71 infection animal models%EV71病毒感染动物模型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周舒雅; 范昌发; 王佑春

    2013-01-01

    人肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是引起手足口病的主要病毒之一,并可导致严重的神经系统疾病,近年随着发病率的升高,严重威胁了婴幼儿的生命健康.可感染EV71的动物模型是研究其致病机理、疫苗评价和药物研发等的重要工具,然而目前尚未建立有效的EV71感染标准化动物模型.本文将对不同物种的EV71病毒感染模型进行总结,并着重就利用基因修饰手段建立的EV71病毒感染模型进行讨论和展望.

  9. High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 μl (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

  10. UDP-glucosyltransferase71c5, a major glucosyltransferase, mediates abscisic acid homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Yan, Jin-Ping; Li, De-Kuan; Luo, Qin; Yan, Qiujie; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Ye, Li-Ming; Wang, Jian-Mei; Li, Xu-Feng; Yang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in plant growth and development. The effect of ABA in plants mainly depends on its concentration, which is determined by a balance between biosynthesis and catabolism of ABA. In this study, we characterize a unique UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT), UGT71C5, which plays an important role in ABA homeostasis by glucosylating ABA to abscisic acid -: glucose ester (GE) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Biochemical analyses show that UGT71C5 glucosylates ABA in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of UGT71C5 and down-expression of UGT71C5 in Arabidopsis cause delay in seed germination and enhanced drought tolerance. In contrast, overexpression of UGT71C5 accelerates seed germination and reduces drought tolerance. Determination of the content of ABA and ABA-GE in Arabidopsis revealed that mutation in UGT71C5 and down-expression of UGT71C5 resulted in increased level of ABA and reduced level of ABA-GE, whereas overexpression of UGT71C5 resulted in reduced level of ABA and increased level of ABA-GE. Furthermore, altered levels of ABA in plants lead to changes in transcript abundance of ABA-responsive genes, correlating with the concentration of ABA regulated by UGT71C5 in Arabidopsis. Our work shows that UGT71C5 plays a major role in ABA glucosylation for ABA homeostasis.

  11. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Teng; Kong, Liangliang; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jinping; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yingyi; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Linqi; Huang, Zhong; Cong, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection. PMID:26938634

  12. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaohua; Fan, Chen; Ku, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Teng; Kong, Liangliang; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jinping; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yingyi; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Linqi; Huang, Zhong; Cong, Yao

    2016-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection.

  13. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3 of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2, the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection.

  14. Tyrosine sulfation of the amino terminus of PSGL-1 is critical for enterovirus 71 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorihiro Nishimura

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease, a common febrile disease in children; however, EV71 has been also associated with various neurological diseases including fatal cases in large EV71 outbreaks particularly in the Asia Pacific region. Recently we identified human P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 as a cellular receptor for entry and replication of EV71 in leukocytes. PSGL-1 is a sialomucin expressed on the surface of leukocytes, serves as a high affinity counterreceptor for selectins, and mediates leukocyte rolling on the endothelium. The PSGL-1-P-selectin interaction requires sulfation of at least one of three clustered tyrosines and an adjacent O-glycan expressing sialyl Lewis x in an N-terminal region of PSGL-1. To elucidate the molecular basis of the PSGL-1-EV71 interaction, we generated a series of PSGL-1 mutants and identified the post-translational modifications that are critical for binding of PSGL-1 to EV71. We expressed the PSGL-1 mutants in 293T cells and the transfected cells were assayed for their abilities to bind to EV71 by flow cytometry. We found that O-glycosylation on T57, which is critical for PSGL-1-selectin interaction, is not necessary for PSGL-1 binding to EV71. On the other hand, site-directed mutagenesis at one or more potential tyrosine sulfation sites in the N-terminal region of PSGL-1 significantly impaired PSGL-1 binding to EV71. Furthermore, an inhibitor of sulfation, sodium chlorate, blocked the PSGL-1-EV71 interaction and inhibited PSGL-1-mediated viral replication of EV71 in Jurkat T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the results presented in this study reveal that tyrosine sulfation, but not O-glycosylation, in the N-terminal region of PSGL-1 may facilitate virus entry and replication of EV71 in leukocytes.

  15. Assessing the impact of forest fragmentation due to natural gas development on wild turkey nesting success in Van Buren County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, James Kendall

    Natural gas exploration and production has caused large scale changes to portions of the Arkansas landscape. Well pad site construction, access roads, and pipelines utilized to extract and transport natural gas have fragmented forested areas. The forest fragmentation resulting from these rapid changes could be contributing to the documented decline in nesting success of the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). This study quantified temporal changes in forest fragmentation in terms of the number of forest patches, mean forest patch area, and forest edge length. The correlation between these fragmentation variables and nesting success data was explored to test the hypotheses of this study that 1) the number of forest patches is negatively correlated to nesting success, that 2) forest patch size is positively correlated to nesting success, and that 3) forest edge habitat length is negatively correlated to nesting success. There were 838 wells added within Van Buren County during the years 2000 through 2009. These wells resulted in a total forest loss of about 1.5% area from the initial inventory of forest in 2000. Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) values ranging from -0.19 to 0.17 suggests relationships exist between poults per hen and forest fragmentation due to natural gas development. These PPMC values and their respective directions confirm the hypothesis. However, their p-values were all greater than 0.5 which suggests the correlations may not be statistically significant. A stronger regression model, giving adjusted R squared value of 0.766, was constructed which takes into account annual precipitation, previous year's wild turkey harvest, along with the number of conifer forest patches. This study concludes that the low wild turkey nesting success may not be directly influenced by forests lost due to natural gas development within the study area Van Buren County Arkansas.

  16. The Power Behind the Controversy: Understanding Local Policy Elites' Perceptions on the Benefits and Risks Associated with High Voltage Power Line Installation in the State of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Rachael M.

    Following a proposal for the installation of high voltage power lines in northwest Arkansas, a controversial policy debate emerged. Proponents of the transmission line argue that such an installation is inevitable and necessary to efficiently and reliably support the identified electric load in the region. Opponents claim that the lines will degrade the natural environment and hamper the tourism-based local economy in affected regions, notably in Ozark Mountain areas. This study seeks to understand how local policy elites perceive the benefits and risks associated with proposed transmission lines, which is a critical step in comprehending the formation and changes of related government policies. First, based upon the dual process theory of judgment, this study systematically investigates the triadic relationships between (a) more profound personal value predispositions, (b) affects and feelings, and (c) perceived benefits and risks related to the proposed installation of high voltage power lines among local policy elites in the state of Arkansas. Next, this study focuses more specifically on the role of value predispositions, specific emotional dimensions of affect heuristics, and perceptions pertaining to high voltage power line risks and benefits. Using original data collected from a statewide Internet survey of 420 local leaders and key policymakers about their opinions on the related issues, other factors claimed by previous literature, including trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics are considered. Analytical results suggest that grid-group cultural predispositions, as deeply held core values within local policy elites' individual belief systems, both directly and indirectly -- through affective feelings -- shape perceived utility associated with the installation of high voltage power lines. Recognizing that risk perceptions factor into policy decisions, some practical considerations for better designing policy addressing controversial issues

  17. Surface complexation modeling for predicting solid phase arsenic concentrations in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.S.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Hays, P.D.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential health impact of As in drinking water supply systems in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the state of Arkansas, USA is significant. In this context it is important to understand the occurrence, distribution and mobilization of As in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Application of surface complexation models (SCMs) to predict the sorption behavior of As and hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) in the laboratory has increased in the last decade. However, the application of SCMs to predict the sorption of As in natural sediments has not often been reported, and such applications are greatly constrained by the lack of site-specific model parameters. Attempts have been made to use SCMs considering a component additivity (CA) approach which accounts for relative abundances of pure phases in natural sediments, followed by the addition of SCM parameters individually for each phase. Although few reliable and internally consistent sorption databases related to HFO exist, the use of SCMs using laboratory-derived sorption databases to predict the mobility of As in natural sediments has increased. This study is an attempt to evaluate the ability of the SCMs using the geochemical code PHREEQC to predict solid phase As in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Arkansas. The SCM option of the double-layer model (DLM) was simulated using ferrihydrite and goethite as sorbents quantified from chemical extractions, calculated surface-site densities, published surface properties, and published laboratory-derived sorption constants for the sorbents. The model results are satisfactory for shallow wells (10.6. m below ground surface), where the redox condition is relatively oxic or mildly suboxic. However, for the deep alluvial aquifer (21-36.6. m below ground surface) where the redox condition is suboxic to anoxic, the model results are unsatisfactory. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 肠道病毒71型疫苗研究进展%Research Progress of the Enterovirus Type 71 Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 刘燕敏; 梁晓峰

    2011-01-01

    近几年来,手足口病(Hand,Foot and Mouth Disease,HFMD)受到越来越多的关注.肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus Type 71,EV71)是引起HFMD的病原体之一.由于HFMD重症或死亡病例以EV71为主要病原,且该病尚无特效的治疗药物,因此EV71疫苗成为预防HFMD有效的措施.国内外已有灭活疫苗、减毒活疫苗、亚单位疫苗、病毒样颗粒和脱氧核糖核酸疫苗等多种尝试,但这些疫苗仅在动物模型中进行了评价,尚未实施临床试验.现将EV71疫苗研究进展进行综述.%Recent years, hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD)caused more and more attention. Enterovirus type 71 (EV71)is one of pathogen caused HFMD. EV7I vaccine is an effective measure to prevent HFMD because of most severe cases and deaths caused by EV7, and there is no effective drugs so far. There are several vaccine candidates! Including inactivated whole virus vaccine?live-attenuated virus vaccine, subunit vaccine, virus-like particle and deoxyribonucleic acid vaccines, which have been trial and evaluated in animals. Clinical trial, however, has not been conducted. The research progress of EV71 vaccine was reviewed in this paper.

  19. 肠道病毒71型感染机制研究进展%Advances in enterovirus A71 infection mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严文莉(综述); 朱俊萍; 安静(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71(EV-A71) is the main causative agent of hand-foot and mouth disease (HFMD) , and is in-volved in serious complications and fatal cases attributed to the disease. Numerous outbreaks of HFMD occurred in the A-sia-Pacific region in recent years. As a parasitic microbe, the virus highly depends on the energy and metabolic system of the host cells to establish an effective infection. Recently there are accumulated reports regarding mechanisms of the EV-A71 internalization and uncoating in different host cells, so search for advances on this aspect is benificial to its undestang-ding and providing a scientific basis in prevetion and tretment of HFMD. This review will focus on the advances of research in the early stage of EV-A71 infection.%重症手足口病及其死亡病例多由肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus A71,EV-A71)感染引起,且近年来在亚太地区广泛流行。由于EV-A71具有严格的宿主细胞寄生性,需依赖细胞的能量和代谢系统完成其复制过程。因此研究该病毒在进入、脱衣壳等感染早期过程中病毒与宿主相互作用的机制,不仅有助于理解其致病机理,同时可为建立相应预防和治疗的策略提供科学依据。为此,就EV-A71感染早期的致病机制的研究进展进行了综述。

  20. 人肠道病毒71型疫苗研究进展%Research progress of human enterovirus 71 vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明玉; 彭琪; 陆小梅; 钟柏茂

    2016-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is a major causative agent of hand,foot and mouth disease.Children infection with HEV71 can lead to series of neurological complications including aseptic meningitis,cerebral ataxia and even fatal outcomes.During recent decades,epidemic of hand,foot and mouth disease have occurred in many countries and regions in the world,which has become a major public health problem for children's health.There are no specific antiviral drugs for HEV71 infection,so it is necessary to develop safe and effective vaccine.In recent years,the research on HEV71 vaccine has made a breakthrough,and this article reviews the research progress of the vaccine.%人肠道病毒71型(HEV71)是引起重症手足口病的主要病原之一,感染患儿严重者可并发无菌性脑膜炎、脑干脑炎、脑脊髓炎等神经系统病变,甚至可导致死亡.近几十年来,全球多个国家和地区发生了多次大规模的手足口病暴发流行,已成为严重危害儿童健康的公共卫生问题.目前针对HEV71感染尚无特效抗病毒药物,因此研制安全有效的疫苗势在必行.近几年有关HEV71疫苗的研究取得了一定的突破,现将对该疫苗的相关研究进展作一综述.

  1. Completion Report for Well ER-7-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-7-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Yucca Flat. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 541.0 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.8 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 62 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 85.3 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies were conducted on 22 samples of cuttings. The well was collared in Quaternary surficial deposits and penetrated a thick section of Tertiary-age volcanic deposits before terminating in carbonate rocks of Paleozoic-age.

  2. Bacteremia caused by viridans streptococci in 71 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C; Delage, G; Rousseau, D; Cantor, E D

    1981-12-01

    A review of the hospital records of 71 patients from whose blood viridans streptococci were isolated showed that in 13 cases the patient's illness was definitely related to the bacteremia: 4 patients had endocarditis, 3 had pneumonia, 2 had peritonitis and 1 each had meningitis, a scalp wound infection, sinusitis and otitis media. The bacteremia may have contributed to the two deaths among these 13 patients. In 45 cases the viridans streptococci may have contributed to the patient's illness: 15 patients had an infection of the lower respiratory tract and 7 an infection of the upper respiratory tract, 8 were neonates with suspected septicemia, 3 had soft tissue infections, 3 had leukemia and sepsis, and 9 had miscellaneous infections; the bacteremia was unrelated to the two deaths in this group. In another 13 cases the viridans streptococci could not be related to the patient's illness. The species most frequently isolated were Streptococcus mitis, S. sanguis II and S. MG-intermedius. The outcome of the bacteremia was generally good, even among the 11 patients not treated with antibiotics. When viridans streptococci are cultured from a single blood sample, further samples of blood and, if feasible, specimens from the associated focus of infection should be obtained for culture; further blood cultures are especially important in cases of suspected endocarditis.

  3. Ballooning osteolysis in 71 failed total ankle arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpal; Reichard, Theresa; Hameister, Rita; Awiszus, Friedemann; Schenk, Katja; Feuerstein, Bernd; Roessner, Albert; Lohmann, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Aseptic loosening is a major cause of failure in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). In contrast to other total joint replacements, large periarticular cysts (ballooning osteolysis) have frequently been observed in this context. We investigated periprosthetic tissue responses in failed TAA, and performed an element analysis of retrieved tissues in failed TAA. Patients and methods - The study cohort consisted of 71 patients undergoing revision surgery for failed TAA, all with hydroxyapatite-coated implants. In addition, 5 patients undergoing primary TAA served as a control group. Radiologically, patients were classified into those with ballooning osteolysis and those without, according to defined criteria. Histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and elemental analysis of tissues was performed. Von Kossa staining and digital microscopy was performed on all tissue samples. Results - Patients without ballooning osteolysis showed a generally higher expression of lymphocytes, and CD3+, CD11c+, CD20+, and CD68+ cells in a perivascular distribution, compared to diffuse expression. The odds of having ballooning osteolysis was 300 times higher in patients with calcium content >0.5 mg/g in periprosthetic tissue than in patients with calcium content ≤0.5 mg/g (p < 0.001). Interpretation - There have been very few studies investigating the pathomechanisms of failed TAA and the cause-effect nature of ballooning osteolysis in this context. Our data suggest that the hydroxyapatite coating of the implant may be a contributory factor.

  4. 71st Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union

    CERN Document Server

    Rodonò, Marcello

    1983-01-01

    IAU Colloquium No. 71 had its immediate origins in a small gathering of people interested. in the optical and UV study of flare stars which took place during the 1979 Montreal General Assembly. We recognized that a fundamental change was taking place in the study of these objects. Space-borne instruments (especially lUE and Einstein) and a new genera­ tion of ground-based equipment were having a profound effect on the range of investigations it was possible to make. To extract maximum benefit from these new possibilities it would be necessary as never before to have good communication with colleagues in other disciplines, for instance,. with atomic and solar physicists. Similarly, studies of phenomena associated with the outer atmospheres of the late-type stars could now hope to give significant insights into certain aspects of solar activity. So, in view of the wide range of backgrounds of those participating, the meeting had an unusually high proportion of invited reviews while most of the contributed pape...

  5. Progress in quality control in developing enterovirus 71 vaccine%肠道病毒71型疫苗质量控制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一平; 姚昕(综述); 毛群颖; 梁争论(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Hand foot and mouth disease ( HFMD) has become the serious public health problem in Asia-Pacific region, and enterovirus 71 (EV71) was the major causative agent for HFMD.The development of EV71 vaccine was the effective method for controlling HFMD.The inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines from five manufacturers entered clinical trials in the world.The vaccines from three manufacturers in China have been completed the phase III clinical trials.Clinical results indicated that these vaccines have a high efficacy, satisfactory safety, and sustained immunogenicity.However, it is a gap to establish the quality control of antigen content and standard in development of a vaccine.The detection of antigen content is the crucial item for optimization in production process, evaluation of immunogenicity and dose selection.This article summarized the progress on quality control of EV71 antigen.%手足口病( Hand foot and mouth disease,HFMD)已成为西太平洋区严重的公共卫生问题之一,肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)是引起HFMD的主要病原体,研发疫苗是控制HFMD流行的有效手段。目前世界范围已有5个EV71全病毒灭活疫苗进入临床试验,其中中国研制的3种EV71疫苗已分别完成III期临床试验,结果表明3种疫苗都具有良好的安全性和保护效果。在EV71疫苗研发中,抗原质控的方法和标准是研发的瓶颈,其中抗原活性测定是工序工艺优化、免疫原性评价和剂量确定的关键指标。综述了EV71疫苗抗原质控的研究进展。

  6. Antiviral effects of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids against enterovirus 71 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Tao, Junyan; Yang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Virology and College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, Zhuliang [Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science, Kunming 650201 (China); Zhang, Li; Liu, Hongsheng [Department of Academy of Sciences, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wu, Kailang [State Key Laboratory of Virology and College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wu, Jianguo, E-mail: jwu@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology and College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • Triterpenoids GLTA and GLTB display anti-EV71 activities without cytotoxicity. • The compounds prevent EV71 infection by blocking adsorption of the virus to the cells. • GLTA and GLTB bind to EV71 capsid at the hydrophobic pocket to block EV71 uncoating. • The two compounds significantly inhibit the replication of EV71 viral RNA. • GLTA and GLTB may be used as potential therapeutic agents to treat EV71 infection. - Abstract: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and fatal neurological and systemic complications in children. However, there is currently no clinical approved antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of the viral infection. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs), Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one,15;26-dihydroxy (GLTA) and Ganoderic acid Y (GLTB), against EV71 infection. The results showed that the two natural compounds display significant anti-EV71 activities without cytotoxicity in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells as evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay. The mechanisms by which the two compounds affect EV71 infection were further elucidated by three action modes using Ribavirin, a common antiviral drug, as a positive control. The results suggested that GLTA and GLTB prevent EV71 infection through interacting with the viral particle to block the adsorption of virus to the cells. In addition, the interactions between EV71 virion and the compounds were predicated by computer molecular docking, which illustrated that GLTA and GLTB may bind to the viral capsid protein at a hydrophobic pocket (F site), and thus may block uncoating of EV71. Moreover, we demonstrated that GLTA and GLTB significantly inhibit the replication of the viral RNA (vRNA) of EV71 replication through blocking EV71 uncoating. Thus, GLTA and GLTB may represent two potential

  7. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Karr, Jonathan D.; Jackson, R.B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has changed the energy landscape in the USA providing a vast new energy source. The accelerated production of natural gas has triggered a debate concerning the safety and possible environmental impacts of these operations. This study investigates one of the critical aspects of the environmental effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers overlying producing shale formations. The geochemistry of domestic groundwater wells was investigated in aquifers overlying the Fayetteville Shale in north-central Arkansas, where approximately 4000 wells have been drilled since 2004 to extract unconventional natural gas. Monitoring was performed on 127 drinking water wells and the geochemistry of major ions, trace metals, CH4 gas content and its C isotopes (δ13CCH4), and select isotope tracers (δ11B, 87Sr/86Sr, δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC) compared to the composition of flowback-water samples directly from Fayetteville Shale gas wells. Dissolved CH4 was detected in 63% of the drinking-water wells (32 of 51 samples), but only six wells exceeded concentrations of 0.5 mg CH4/L. The δ13CCH4 of dissolved CH4 ranged from −42.3‰ to −74.7‰, with the most negative values characteristic of a biogenic source also associated with the highest observed CH4 concentrations, with a possible minor contribution of trace amounts of thermogenic CH4. The majority of these values are distinct from the reported thermogenic composition of the Fayetteville Shale gas (δ13CCH4 = −35.4‰ to −41.9‰). Based on major element chemistry, four shallow groundwater types were identified: (1) low ( 100 mg/L and Ca–HCO3 dominated, (3) TDS > 100 mg/L and Na–HCO3dominated, and (4) slightly saline groundwater with TDS > 100 mg/L and Cl > 20 mg/L with elevated Br/Cl ratios (>0.001). The Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097

  8. Influence of Locally Derived Recharge on the Water Quality and Temperature of Springs in Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard W.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2007-01-01

    The hot springs of Hot Springs National Park consist of a mixture of water from two recharge components: a primary hot-water component and a secondary cold-water component. Widespread distribution of fractures enables mixing of the hot- and cold-water components of flow near the discharge area for the springs. Urbanization in the area near the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park has increased the potential for degradation of the quality of surface-water runoff and locally derived ground-water recharge to the hot springs. Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have indicated that water from some cold-water springs and wells in the vicinity of Hot Springs, Arkansas, showed evidence of contamination and that water from locally derived cold-water recharge might contribute 25 percent of the total flow to the hot springs after storms. Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions at nine hot springs and two cold-water springs in September 2000. Nine hot springs and one cold-water spring were resampled in October 2001 after a storm that resulted in a measurable decrease in water temperature in selected hot springs. Water samples were analyzed for a variety of dissolved chemical constituents (nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, semivolatile compounds, isotopes, and radiochemicals), physical properties, field measurements, and bacteria. Comparison of analyses of samples collected during base-flow conditions from the springs in 2000 and during a storm event in 2001 with the results from earlier studies dating back to the late 1800's indicates that little change in major, minor, and trace constituent chemistry has occurred and that the water continues to be of excellent quality. Water-quality data show distinguishable differences in water chemistry of the springs during base-flow and stormflow conditions, indicating changing input of cold-water recharge relative to hot-water recharge. Silica, total dissolved solids, strontium, barium

  9. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration.

  10. 手足口病的元凶—EV71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明巧

    2008-01-01

    什么是 EV71?最近时常有一些家长带着有一点发热、或身上起了几个皮疹的宝宝来到医院就诊,首先就询问医生:"我家宝宝是否感染了EV71?""EV71"确实已给家长心理上蒙上了阴影,造成了恐慌。那么,什么是 EV71呢?EV71是一种肠道病毒,虽然 EV71是肠道病毒,但是人感染

  11. Lycorine reduces mortality of human enterovirus 71-infected mice by inhibiting virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Chuan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection causes hand, foot and mouth disease in children under 6 years old and this infection occasionally induces severe neurological complications. No vaccines or drugs are clinical available to control EV71 epidemics. In present study, we show that treatment with lycorine reduced the viral cytopathic effect (CPE on rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells by inhibiting virus replication. Analysis of this inhibitory effect of lycorine on viral proteins synthesis suggests that lycorine blocks the elongation of the viral polyprotein during translation. Lycorine treatment of mice challenged with a lethal dose of EV71 resulted in reduction of mortality, clinical scores and pathological changes in the muscles of mice, which were achieved through inhibition of viral replication. When mice were infected with a moderate dose of EV71, lycorine treatment was able to protect them from paralysis. Lycorine may be a potential drug candidate for the clinical treatment of EV71-infected patients.

  12. Full-Genome Sequences of Seven Fatal Enterovirus 71 Strains Isolated in Shenzhen, China, in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ya-Qing; Meng, Jun; Xiong, Ling-Hong; Wang, Chao; Yao, Xiang-Jie; Zhang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Ren-Li

    2016-01-01

    The whole-genome sequences of seven fatal enterovirus 71 (EV71) strains, isolated in southern China, in 2014, were determined. The complete genome sequences of these strains displayed close relationships to native EV71 strains and showed 94.2% to 99.8% identity to each other. All of these strains were assigned to subgenotype C4a based on phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene. PMID:27125487

  13. Enterovirus 71 virion-associated galectin-1 facilitates viral replication and stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Huan Lee

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection causes a myriad of diseases from mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease or herpangina to fatal brain stem encephalitis complicated with pulmonary edema. Several severe EV71 endemics have occurred in Asia-Pacific region, including Taiwan, and have become a serious threat to children's health. EV71 infection is initiated by the attachment of the virion to the target cell surface. Although this process relies primarily upon interaction between viruses and cell surface receptors, soluble factors may also influence the binding of EV71 to host cells. Galectin-1 has been reported to participate in several virus infections, but is not addressed in EV71. In this study, we found that the serum levels of galectin-1 in EV71-infected children were higher than those in non-infected people. In EV71 infected cells, galectin-1 was found to be associated with the EV71 VP1 and VP3 via carbohydrate residues and subsequently released and bound to another cell surface along with the virus. EV71 propagated from galectin-1 knockdown SK-N-SH cells exhibited lower infectivity in cultured cells and less pathogenicity in mice than the virus propagated from parental cells. In addition, this galectin-1-free EV71 virus was sensitive to high temperature and lost its viability after long-term storage, which could be restored following supplement of recombinant galectin-1. Taken together, our findings uncover a new role of galectin-1 in facilitating EV71 virus infection.

  14. Enterovirus A71 Meningoencephalitis Outbreak, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadishina, Ludmila V.; Govorukhina, Marina V.; Kovalev, Evgeniy V.; Nenadskaya, Svetlana A.; Ivanova, Olga E.

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-eight cases of enterovirus infection, including 25 neuroinfections, occurred in Rostov-on-Don, Russia, during May–June 2013. The outbreak was caused by an enterovirus A type 71 (EV-A71) subgenotype C4 lineage that spread to neighboring countries from China ≈3 years earlier. Enterovirus associated neuroinfection may emerge in areas with a preceding background circulation of EV-A71 with apparently asymptomatic infection. PMID:26196217

  15. The Ga-71(He-3, t) reaction and the low-energy neutrino response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frekers, D.; Ejiri, H.; Akimune, H.; Adachi, T.; Bilgier, B.; Brown, B. A.; Cleveland, B. T.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Ganioglu, E.; Gavrin, V. N.; Grewe, E. -W.; Guess, C. J.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hatanaka, K.; Hodak, R.; Holl, M.; Iwamoto, C.; Khai, N. T.; Kozer, H. C.; Lennarz, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, H.; Povinec, P. P.; Puppe, P.; Simkovic, F.; Susoy, G.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Thies, J. H.; Van de Walle, J.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2011-01-01

    A Ga-71(He-3,t)Ge-71 charge-exchange experiment was performed to extract with high precision the Gamow-Teller (GT) transition strengths to the three lowest-lying states in Ge-71, i.e., the ground state (1/2(-)), the 175 keV (5/2(-)) and the 500 key (3/2(-)) excited states. These are the relevant sta

  16. Effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on water quality in the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer, south-central Kansas, 2011-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Garrett, Jessica D.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2016-07-18

    The Equus Beds aquifer in south-central Kansas is aprimary water source for the city of Wichita. The Equus Beds aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project was developed to help the city of Wichita meet increasing current (2016) and future water demands. The Equus Beds ASR project pumps water out of the Little Arkansas River during above-base flow conditions, treats it using drinking-water quality standards as a guideline, and recharges it into the Equus Beds aquifer for later use. Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR project currently (2016) includes a river intake facility and a surface-water treatment facility with a 30 million gallon per day capacity. Water diverted from the Little Arkansas River is delivered to an adjacent presedimentation basin for solids removal. Subsequently, waste from the surface-water treatment facility and the presedimentation basin is returned to the Little Arkansas River through a residuals return line. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Wichita, developed and implemented a hydrobiological monitoring program as part of the ASR project to characterize and quantify the effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds aquifer water quality.Data were collected from 2 surface-water sites (one upstream and one downstream from the residuals return line), 1 residuals return line site, and 2 groundwater well sites (each having a shallow and deep part): the Little Arkansas River upstream from the ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (upstream surface-water site 375350097262800), about 0.03 mile (mi) upstream from the residuals return line site; the Little Arkansas River near Sedgwick, Kans. (downstream surface-water site 07144100), about 1.68 mi downstream from the residuals return line site; discharge from the Little Arkansas River ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (residuals return line site 375348097262800); 25S 01 W 07BCCC01 SMW–S11 near CW36 (MW–7 shallow groundwater well

  17. 捕获ELISA法测定抗EV71-IgM抗体用于EV71感染早期诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林裕龙; 温坤; 王压娣; 晋晶; 车小燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨捕获ELISA法测定抗肠道病毒71型(EV71) IgM抗体在EV71感染所致手足口病(HFMD)早期诊断中的价值.方法 以实时荧光RT-PCR检测89例临床初诊为HFMD患儿的粪便、疱疹液、咽拭子或肛拭子的肠道病毒RNA.用40例排除HFMD的5岁以下儿童血清为抗EV71-IgM抗体阴性对照,以捕获ELISA法检测患儿不同发病期血清中抗EV71 -IgM抗体.结果 经实时荧光RT-PCR检测,89例HFMD患儿粪便、疱疹液、咽拭子或肛拭子中EV71感染28例,柯萨奇病毒A16(CA16)感染43例,非EV71和CA16的肠道病毒感染14例,非肠道病毒感染4例.EV71感染者发病1~3d、4~6d及>6d的血清抗EV71 -IgM抗体阳性率分别为81.3%、100%和100%;CA16感染者分别为10.0%、26.4%和65.7%;非EV71和CA16的肠道病毒感染者及非肠道病毒感染者在发病1~3d和4~6d无1例阳性;阴性对照组无1例阳性.抗EV71-IgM抗体在EV71感染的早期(急性期)的诊断敏感性和特异性分别为81.3%和92.9%.结论 EV71感染者与CA16感染者血清抗EV71-IgM抗体在发病4d后存在较明显的交叉反应.抗EV71-IgM抗体可用作EV71感染早期诊断的血清学标志物.

  18. 人肠道病毒71型的研究进展%Progress in Study on Human Enterovirus Type 71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常宏伟; 王明丽

    2009-01-01

    近年来,人肠道病毒71(EV71)感染在世界各地尤其是亚太地区呈上升趋势.EV71感染主要引起手足口病,但所敛的神经系统并发症可导致死亡或永久性肌麻痹,已引起医学界的广泛关注.本文对EV71的病原学、流行病学、分子流行病学特征及实验室检测、预防和研究方向等作一综述.

  19. The prevention and treatment of enterovirus 71 infection%肠道病毒71型感染手足口病的防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宗祈

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 肠道病毒71型手足口病流行病学概况 能引起疱疹性咽峡炎和手足口病的病毒包括肠道病毒(EV)68~71型,柯萨奇病毒A组16、4、5、7、9、10型,B组2、5、13型和埃可病毒(ECHO)13型等.最多见的是柯萨奇病毒A16型和EV71型.EV71型感染是手足口病的主要病源,引起重症发病的比例较大.

  20. Development of A Quantitative ELISA Method for EV71 Antigen%EV71抗原ELISA定量检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卉; 蔡芳; 高强; 张建三; 井申荣

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立EV71抗原双抗体夹心ELISA定量检测方法,用于EV71灭活疫苗生产过程中抗原含量的检测.方法 采用EV71全病毒免疫,制备抗EV71单克隆抗体及多克隆抗体,以抗EV71多克隆抗体作为包被抗体,经HRP标记的抗EV71单克隆抗体作为酶标抗体,建立双抗体夹心ELISA法,检测样品中EV71抗原含量,并对该方法进行验证及应用.结果 所建立的方法线性范围为5~80 U/ml,R~2=0.994,线性关系良好,定量限度为5 U/ml;检测不同浓度的EV71抗原内部参考品,回收率为88%~119.0%;变异系数均小于15%;与甲肝病毒收获液、乙脑病毒灭活液、H5N1流感病毒裂解疫苗原液、小牛血清、人白蛋白、Veto细胞、MEM培养基及CoxA16收获液均无交叉反应;检测EV71灭活疫苗原液纯化过程样品的抗原含量,能有效反映抗原纯化趋势;检测铝吸附疫苗成品解离后抗原含量,准确性较高.结论 已建立了EV71抗原双抗体夹心ELISA定量检测方法,该方法线性好,特异性强,灵敏度高,准确性及重复性良好,可用于EV71疫苗生产过程中及终产品的抗原定量检测.