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Sample records for arkansas pharmacists perceptions

  1. Patients Perception of Community Pharmacist in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Catic, Tarik; Jusufovic, Fatima Insanic; Tabakovic, Vedad

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists play a significant role in patient/disease management and perception by patients is increasingly important. A self-administered questionnaire was developed consisted of sociodemographic part and 15 questions. Patients have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists that is comparable to most studies in Europe. Community pharmacists’ beyond dispensing drugs play a significant role in patient and disease management. This role of the pharmacist is performed thro...

  2. Patients perception of community pharmacist in bosnia and herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catic, Tarik; Jusufovic, Fatima Insanic; Tabakovic, Vedad

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists play a significant role in patient/disease management and perception by patients is increasingly important. A self-administered questionnaire was developed consisted of sociodemographic part and 15 questions. Patients have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists that is comparable to most studies in Europe. Community pharmacists' beyond dispensing drugs play a significant role in patient and disease management. This role of the pharmacist is performed through pharmaceutical care. Patient's opinion is increasingly considered to be a useful component in the determination of care outcomes and consumer satisfaction is an integral component of the quality of primary health care. For the purpose of this study we developed self-administered questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic part, and 15 questions. Survey has been conducted in 10 pharmacies. Results are presented in tables and figures and descriptive statistics has been used. We found that patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and of the services offered from community pharmacies that is comparable to most studies in Europe, but there is still room for improvement of relationships and pharmaceutical services. PMID:24167438

  3. Pharmacist perception and use of UpToDate®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Katie L; Beckett, Robert D; Sheehan, Amy Heck

    2014-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1,199 pharmacists was conducted to describe pharmacists' use and perception of UpToDate®. Of 472 (39%) respondents, 217 (46%) reported using UpToDate. Most respondents who used or had heard of UpToDate indicated willingness to change a treatment plan based on UpToDate recommendations (77%). Many believed that UpToDate is updated weekly (31%) or monthly (49%) and that all articles undergo external peer review (51%). In conclusion, the majority of respondents reported that they would adjust drug therapy based on UpToDate recommendations; however, many pharmacists may hold misconceptions regarding the updating and peer-review processes.

  4. The Great Boundary Crossing: Perceptions on Training Pharmacists as Supplementary Prescribers in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tann, Jennifer; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Grime, Janet; Evans, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the perceptions of General Medical Practitioners and pharmacist supplementary prescribers of the training provided for qualification as a pharmacist supplementary prescriber, and the experience of pharmacist supplementary prescribers of subsequent continuing professional development in practice. Design: A qualitative study of…

  5. Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pharmaceutical industry pharmacists work in areas such as marketing, sales, or research and development. They may design ... workers was $36,200. Recommend this page using: Facebook Twitter LinkedIn tools Areas at a Glance Industries ...

  6. A qualitative study exploring public perceptions on the role of community pharmacists in Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Rayes IK; Hassali MA; AR, Abduelkarem

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of community pharmacists is very important due to their access to primary care patients and expertise. For this reason, the interaction level between pharmacists and patients should be optimized to ensure enhanced delivery of pharmacy services. Objective: To gauge perceptions and expectations of the public on the role of community pharmacists in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: Twenty five individuals were invited to participate in 4 separate focus group ...

  7. Identification of the Discrepancies between Pharmacist and Patient Perception of the Pharmacist's Role as an Advisor on Drug Therapy Based on Social Science Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Shinji; Senoo, Kazuhiko; Negishi, Akio; Akimoto, Hayato; Ohara, Kousuke; Inoue, Naoko; Ohshima, Shigeru; Kutsuma, Nobuaki; Juni, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Article 25-2 of the Japanese Pharmacists' Act was revised in June 2014, establishing the position of pharmacists as "advisors on the use of pharmaceuticals." Prior to the Act's revision, we investigated the perceptions of patients and pharmacists about pharmacists' roles using a social science methodology. We also examined current opinions and necessary factors for the future growth and development of pharmacists. This questionnaire survey was conducted using an internet method. Patients and pharmacists answered 12 questions. Responses from 529 patients and 338 pharmacists were analyzed. For all items, pharmacists' awareness of their roles exceeded patients' awareness of the roles. In this study, the difference between pharmacist and patient awareness was larger than in similar research conducted in the United States. The greatest difference was observed in three items: "Understanding the effects of the drugs the patients are taking" (rate of high ratings: pharmacists 80.2%, patients 37.8%), "Understanding the health changes caused by the drugs dispensed to the patients" (pharmacists 80.2%, patients 28.4%), and "Consciously protecting patients from the adverse effects of drugs" (pharmacists 82.8%, patients 42.2%), indicating role discrepancy. Partition analysis indicated the three factors for a pharmacist to be regarded as a drug therapy or medication specialist: "The patient regards the pharmacist as his/her family or regular pharmacist," "The pharmacist is making it easy for a patient to talk with him/her" and "The pharmacist is aware of a patient's use of products other than prescribed drugs, such as over the counter (OTC) medications or health foods and nutritional supplements." Future efforts are necessary to resolve role discrepancy and implement ongoing monitoring. PMID:26700216

  8. Pharmacy Student Perceptions of Pharmacist Prescribing: A Comparison Study

    OpenAIRE

    Charrois, Theresa L; Meagen Rosenthal; Kreshnik Hoti; Christine Hughes

    2013-01-01

    Several jurisdictions throughout the world, such as the UK and Canada, now have independent prescribing by pharmacists. In some areas of Canada, initial access prescribing can be done by pharmacists. In contrast, Australian pharmacists have no ability to prescribe either in a supplementary or independent model. Considerable research has been completed regarding attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing from the perspective of health care professionals, however currently no literature exists re...

  9. Knowledge, perception and practice of pharmacovigilance among community pharmacists in South India

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    Prakasam A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance has not progressed well in India and the concept is still in its infancy. India rates below 1% in pharmacovigilance as against the world rate of 5%. Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and practice of pharmacovigilance among registered community pharmacists in Hyderabad, India. Methods: This was a prospective study to find out the knowledge, perception and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting among community pharmacists. It was conducted by a face to face questionnaire and the convenience factor of the pharmacist was taken into consideration. Results: From the 650 questionnaire administered to community pharmacists, 347 (53.3% were returned completely filled questionnaires. A number of 120 (34.6% pharmacists could define the term ‘pharmacovigilance’ to an acceptable extent and 119 (34.3% knew about the National Pharmacovigilance Programme in India. 96 (27.7% had good knowledge, 36(10.4% had fair knowledge and 215(61.9% had poor knowledge about pharmacovigilance. We have found that 196 (56.5% had good perception, 94(27.1% had fair perception and 57(16.4% had poor perception. Only 41(11.8% pharmacists ever reported an ADR and the other never reported ADR. The majority of pharmacists 223(64.3% felt that the AE is very simple and non-serious and hence did not report. Pharmacists have poor knowledge, good perception and negligibly low reporting rates. Conclusions: Incorporation of ADR reporting concepts in education curriculum, training of pharmacists and voluntary participation of pharmacists in ADR reporting is very crucial in achieving the safety goals and safeguarding public health.

  10. A qualitative study exploring public perceptions on the role of community pharmacists in Dubai

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    Rayes IK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of community pharmacists is very important due to their access to primary care patients and expertise. For this reason, the interaction level between pharmacists and patients should be optimized to ensure enhanced delivery of pharmacy services. Objective: To gauge perceptions and expectations of the public on the role of community pharmacists in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE. Methods: Twenty five individuals were invited to participate in 4 separate focus group discussions. Individuals came from different racial groups and socio-economic backgrounds. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Using thematic analysis, two reviewers coded all transcripts to identify emerging themes. Appropriate measures were taken to ensure study rigor and validity. Results: All facilitators and barriers that were identified were grouped into 5 distinct themes. The pharmacist as a healthcare professional in the public mind was the most prominent theme that was discussed in all 4 focus groups. Other themes identified were, in decreasing order of prevalence, psychological perceptions towards pharmacists, important determinants of a pharmacist, the pharmacy as a unique healthcare provider, and control over pharmacies by health authorities. Conclusions: This study provided insight into the way that the public looks at the role of community pharmacists in Dubai. Determinants that influence their perception are the media, health authorities, pharmacist’s knowledge level, attire, nationality, age, and pharmacy location.

  11. Pharmacy Student Perceptions of Pharmacist Prescribing: A Comparison Study

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    Theresa L. Charrois

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Several jurisdictions throughout the world, such as the UK and Canada, now have independent prescribing by pharmacists. In some areas of Canada, initial access prescribing can be done by pharmacists. In contrast, Australian pharmacists have no ability to prescribe either in a supplementary or independent model. Considerable research has been completed regarding attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing from the perspective of health care professionals, however currently no literature exists regarding pharmacy student views on prescribing. The primary objective of this study is to examine pharmacy student’s opinions and attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing in two different settings. Focus groups were conducted with selected students from two universities (one in Canada and one in Australia. Content analysis was conducted. Four main themes were identified: benefits, fears, needs and pharmacist roles. Students from the Australian University were more accepting of the role of supplementary prescribing. In contrast, the Canadian students felt that independent prescribing was moving the profession in the right direction. There were a number of similarities with the two groups with regards to benefits and fears. Although the two cohorts differed in terms of their beliefs on many aspects of prescribing, there were similarities in terms of fears of physician backlash and blurring of professional roles.

  12. Public Education Campaigns to Transform Perceptions of Pharmacists: Are They Worth the Investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, Jason; Abramovic, Melissa

    2016-07-01

    Recent public opinion polls consistently rank pharmacists as highly trusted health care professionals, but the reasoning for this ranking continues to remain vague and inconclusive. One possible explanation for this high ranking is that it is due in part to the limited expectations the public has of the profession. To gather comparative "before" and "after" data for this study, a self-administered, 33-item paper questionnaire was disseminated to 382 postsecondary (undergraduate) business students in a classroom setting. The questionnaire was designed to assess respondents' baseline perceptions toward (1) the pharmacy profession, in general, and (2) a prerecorded video of a simulated patient-pharmacist counseling session. Most respondents initially reported a "Poor/Fair" understanding of pharmacist education and training (52.1%), what to expect when having a prescription dispensed (55.5%), the content of a counseling session (49.7%), and pharmacist scope of practice (55.5%). After viewing the educational video, the number of respondents who reported a "Poor/Fair" understanding dropped to less than 5%; the majority of respondents reported a "Very Good/Excellent" understanding of pharmacist education and training (63.1%), what to expect when having a prescription dispensed (56.0%), the content of a counseling session (66.4%), and pharmacist scope of practice (60.5%). Results of this study demonstrated that using a public education-type video to increase public awareness for the pharmacy profession and pharmacist counseling duties significantly impacted respondents' knowledge and perception of value toward the profession and of pharmacist counseling. PMID:26642817

  13. Perception of community pharmacists toward their current professional role in the healthcare system of Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Rayes, Ibrahim Khalid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abduelmula R Abduelkarem

    2014-01-01

    The new paradigm to pharmacy profession has changed the focus of pharmacists from product-centered to patient-oriented. This change has brought new set of beliefs and assumptions on the way services should be delivered to pharmacy clients. The main aim of this study was to explore the perception of community pharmacists on their current professional role in Dubai. Key findings show that community pharmacists are more directed toward business than patients. They almost dispense all categories ...

  14. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: a quantitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rayes IK; Hassali MA; AR, Abduelkarem

    2015-01-01

    Background: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. Objective: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire...

  15. Quantitative study evaluating perception of general public towards role of pharmacist in health care system of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xianglan; Azhar, Saira; Murtaza, Ghulam; Xue, Feiran; Mumtaz, Amara; Niu, Huanmin; Taha, Asia; Zhang, Yunling

    2014-01-01

    To investigate general public perception towards the role of pharmacist in developing countries' healthcare system was the main aim of this study, which would be the basic foundation for researching the treatment pattern of cognitive disorder after stroke in communities. The study population (sample size = 385) consisted of general public from Islamabad, Faisalabad and Lahore, Pakistan. Main sections of the questionnaire comprised of series of statements pertaining to consumer's perception and experience with the pharmacists. The response rate of study was 77.1%. A majority (80.1%) of the consumers knows who is pharmacist; 49.8% (n = 148) of the respondents found the pharmacist working in the pharmacies; 74.1% (n = 220) believed that pharmacist can guide them regarding their medicine. With respect to government efforts to improve services provided by community pharmacies, less percentage (31.0%) of the consumers were satisfied. Half of the respondents (59.9%) were expecting from the pharmacists to be knowledgeable drug therapy experts, whereas 61.3% (n = 182) expect from the pharmacists to educate them regarding safe and appropriate use of medication. The findings of this study conclude that the quality of pharmaceutical services provided is very low in Pakistan. There is a gap between the public and the pharmacist, which can only be filled by creating awareness among public regarding the pharmacist's role in healthcare system and by focusing on how services provided by the pharmacists can add improvement to general public health. PMID:25362816

  16. Perception of community pharmacists toward their current professional role in the healthcare system of Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayes, Ibrahim Khalid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abduelkarem, Abduelmula R

    2015-07-01

    The new paradigm to pharmacy profession has changed the focus of pharmacists from product-centered to patient-oriented. This change has brought new set of beliefs and assumptions on the way services should be delivered to pharmacy clients. The main aim of this study was to explore the perception of community pharmacists on their current professional role in Dubai. Key findings show that community pharmacists are more directed toward business than patients. They almost dispense all categories of medicines over-the-counter without the need of prescriptions. However, a new trend of pharmacists in Dubai is to provide enhanced pharmacy services such as consultation to patients upon request.

  17. General practitioners′ perceptions about the extended roles of the community pharmacists in the state of Karnataka: A study

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    Adepu R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, professional relationships between the prescribers and pharmacists are good due to the professional services offered by the pharmacists. Many researchers have found that, prescribers are in favour of the new extended roles of practising pharmacists as patient counsellors and drug information providers. In India, professional relationships between the prescribers and pharmacists require becoming strong in the interest of profession and patient care. The present study is aimed at analysing the general practitioners′ perception and expectations from practising community pharmacists in four district headquarters of Karnataka. The study was conducted through convenient sampling method using a well-designed 14-item questionnaire to collect the opinions from the respondents. Likert scale was employed to assess the responses. One hundred and fifteen general practitioners have participated in the study. The respondents opined that only qualified pharmacists should run the pharmacies (4.73. Although the present D. Pharm qualification is sufficient to run the pharmacies (3.55, to meet the present health care demands, B. Pharm or M. Pharm is a must (3.86. Pharmacists are considered as a part of health care team (3.43 and should be located within the medical practice (3.82 and accepted as professional partner (3.30. Coming to the question of extended roles, some respondents have mentioned that pharmacists should check the legality and drug interactions in the prescriptions (3.20 and provide the necessary drug information. However, the respondents were against the pharmacist-run diabetic and anticoagulant clinics and against pharmacists prescribing cost-effective suggestions. Age has shown significant influence only on few opinions, whereas experience of the respondents has shown significant influence on majority of the opinions. Many respondents expressed positive opinion about the extended roles of the pharmacists but said the

  18. Pharmacists' Perceptions of the Economic Value of Compounded Pharmaceuticals: A Comparison of Compounded and Commercial Pharmaceuticals in Select Disease States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, William B; Wilkin, Noel E; Holmes, Erin R

    2015-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to assess patient satisfaction with compounded pharmaceuticals and to directly compare compounded pharmaceuticals with their comparable commercial pharmaceuticals. Yet, the economic value of or potential for economic value derived from compounded pharmaceuticals relative to commercial pharmaceuticals is still not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess and compare compounding and non-compounding pharmacists' perceptions of the economic value of compounded preparations relative to commercial products. In-depth interviews with 10 compounding pharmacists and physicians who prescribe compounded prescription pharmaceutical preparations were conducted to help develop a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 50 compounding and 50 non-compounding pharmacists. Compounding and non-compounding pharmacists' perceptions differed most often in the context of compounded pharmaceuticals for pediatric patients. However, both groups responded with moderate agreement that compounded prescription treatments are more profitable for the pharmacy than commercial prescription treatments in most therapeutic areas. This research sought to understand the perception of pharmacists of areas for potential direct and indirect economic cost savings as a result of compounding. For all items whereby compounding and non-compounding pharmacists' ratings were significantly different, compounding pharmacists more strongly believed that compounding pharmaceuticals offered benefit and vice versa. The differences in ratings that were most common were those that directly compared the economic value of compounding and commercial pharmaceuticals, with compounding pharmacists more strongly agreeing with the potential cost savings associated with compounded pharmaceuticals. Based on these findings, prescription compounds are believed to have a benefit to the health system by those who provide them. Future research should proactively explore the economic

  19. Pharmacists' and Doctors’ Perception of Pharmaceutical Representative’s Ethical Practices of Drug Promotion in Romania. A Comparative Study

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    Laszlo-Zoltan SZTANKOVSZKY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify perception of doctors and pharmacists on drug promotion practices adopted by pharmaceutical representatives. Material and Methods: A total of 72 pharmacists and 65 doctors responded to a questionnaire about their perceptions on drug promotion practices by pharmaceutical representatives, both in relation to pharmacists and doctors in the relationship. Variables such as age, work environment (urban, rural, seniority, were considered. Of all pharmacists who responded to the questionnaire, a percentage of 47.8% say they have no information about the existence of an ethical code of the pharmaceutical company, and 52.1% believe that there is such a code. Pharmacists estimated that over 75% of pharmaceutical representatives promote clearly the products; the information provided is accurate, complete and balanced enough to compete. Meanwhile, the percent estimated by doctors is 73%. Informal gifts are more often offered to doctors, in both category’s opinion. Conclusion: medical doctors have a more positive evaluation about pharmaceutical representative’s attitude than pharmacists.

  20. Patient perceptions of pharmacist roles in guiding self-medication of over-the-counter therapy in Qatar

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    Kerry Wilbur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kerry Wilbur1, Samah El Salam1, Ebrahim Mohammadi21Qatar University College of Pharmacy, Doha, Qatar; 2Qatar Petroleum Medical Services, Doha, QatarBackground: Self-care, including self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC drugs, facilitates the public’s increased willingness to assume greater responsibility for their own health. Direct consultation with pharmacists provides efficient professional guidance for safe and appropriate OTC use.Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize patient perceptions of pharmacists and use of nonprescription therapy in an ambulatory care population in Qatar. Methods: Patients having prescriptions filled at one organization’s private medical clinics during two distinct two-week periods were invited to participate in a short verbal questionnaire. Awareness of pharmacist roles in guiding OTC drug selection was assessed, as were patient preferences for OTC indications. Attitudes towards pharmacist and nurse drug knowledge and comfort with direct dispensing were also evaluated.Results: Five hundred seventy patients participated representing 29 countries. Most respondents were men (92.1% with mean age of 38.3 years. Almost 1 in 7 did not know medical complaints could be assessed by a pharmacist (15.3% and 1 in 5 (21.9% were unaware pharmacists could directly supply OTC therapy. The majority (85.3% would be interested in this service. In general, respondents were more comfortable with medication and related advice supplied by pharmacists as opposed to nursing professionals.Conclusion: Patients were familiar with the roles of pharmacists as they pertain to selfmedication with OTC therapy and described the desire to use such a service within this Qatar ambulatory health care setting.Keywords: patient, self-medication, over-the-counter, pharmacist, Qatar

  1. Refinement and Validation of the Student Perceptions of Physician-Pharmacist Interprofessional Clinical Education Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorek, Joseph A; Fike, David S; Eickhoff, Jens C; Engle, Jeffrey A; MacLaughlin, Eric J; Dominguez, Daniel G; Seibert, Christine S

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To refine the Student Perceptions of Physician-Pharmacist Interprofessional Clinical Education (SPICE) instrument to address deficiencies observed in previous studies and to demonstrate external validity and reliability of the refined instrument in a broad population of medical and pharmacy students. Methods. The original SPICE instrument plus four pilot items generated via cognitive interviewing of students was administered to 1708 medical and pharmacy students at five academic institutions. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify candidate model structures and evaluate their psychometric properties. Results. An improved version of the instrument was created (SPICE 2) by incorporating three pilot items and removing three original items. Validity and reliability were demonstrated. Conclusion. The SPICE 2 instrument addresses the limitations observed to date in model structure while increasing its utility. The authors recommend use of the SPICE 2 instrument moving forward. PMID:27170818

  2. Refinement and Validation of the Student Perceptions of Physician-Pharmacist Interprofessional Clinical Education Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorek, Joseph A; Fike, David S; Eickhoff, Jens C; Engle, Jeffrey A; MacLaughlin, Eric J; Dominguez, Daniel G; Seibert, Christine S

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To refine the Student Perceptions of Physician-Pharmacist Interprofessional Clinical Education (SPICE) instrument to address deficiencies observed in previous studies and to demonstrate external validity and reliability of the refined instrument in a broad population of medical and pharmacy students. Methods. The original SPICE instrument plus four pilot items generated via cognitive interviewing of students was administered to 1708 medical and pharmacy students at five academic institutions. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify candidate model structures and evaluate their psychometric properties. Results. An improved version of the instrument was created (SPICE 2) by incorporating three pilot items and removing three original items. Validity and reliability were demonstrated. Conclusion. The SPICE 2 instrument addresses the limitations observed to date in model structure while increasing its utility. The authors recommend use of the SPICE 2 instrument moving forward.

  3. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayes IK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. Objective: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists’ current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services. Results: About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90 agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104 felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94 of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession’s malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128 stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252 found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124 disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134 gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not. Conclusions: Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost.

  4. The perceptions of pharmacists in Victoria, Australia on pharmacogenetics and its implications

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    McMahon T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore how well Victorian pharmacists perceived they understood pharmacogenetics, their perceived capacity to counsel a patient about such testing, how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession, and to investigate the ways in which Victorian pharmacists would like to be educated about pharmacogenetics.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was dispatched to 800 Victorian pharmacists. The participants were randomly selected and the survey was anonymous. The survey contained questions about where the pharmacists worked, the pharmacists’ perceived knowledge of pharmacogenetics, how well they believed they would be able to counsel patients about pharmacogenetic testing, how they thought pharmacists should be educated on the topic and how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession.Results: 291 surveys were returned (36% response rate. Results suggest that Victorian pharmacists generally perceived they had a poor understanding of pharmacogenetics and that those who have more recently graduated from tertiary education had a better perceived understanding than those who have been in the workforce for longer. Most pharmacists indicated that they did not believe that they could counsel a patient adequately about the results of a pharmacogenetic test. Regarding education about pharmacogenetics, participants suggested that this would be best delivered during tertiary studies, and as seminars and workshops forming part of their continuing professional development. Although some pharmacists were unsure how pharmacogenetics would affect their profession, many believed it would have a major impact upon their role as a pharmacist and lead to improved patient care. Some concerns about the implementation of pharmacogenetics were noted, including economic and ethical issues.Conclusion: This study highlights the need for further research across the pharmacy profession in Australia on the

  5. Pharmacist characteristics, medication use perceptions, and professional satisfaction: a first national survey in the state of Qatar

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    Maguy Saffouh El Hajj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maguy Saffouh El Hajj1, Nadir Kheir1, Manal Zaidan2, Peter J Jewesson11College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2Pharmacy Department, Al Amal Cancer Centre, Doha, QatarPurpose: To characterize the professional demographics, opinions about the medication use process, perceived public satisfaction with pharmacy services, and professional satisfaction of pharmacists practicing in the state of Qatar.Materials and methods: The study was designed as a hypothesis-generating, online, anonymous, opinion survey of practicing pharmacists in Qatar.Results: Two hundred and sixty-four survey accesses were recorded during the 6-week study period, and 250 surveys containing responses to one or more questions were included in the analysis. Eighty-four percent of respondents reported graduating at least 5 years prior to the survey, and 86% held a baccalaureate degree in pharmacy as their highest degree. The most common source of the highest degree was one of five countries (Egypt, Jordan, India, Sudan, or Pakistan. Forty-five percent of respondents were working in a hospital setting, and 33% were in a community pharmacy. The lowest incidence of agreement across the 10 drug procurement and distribution process statements was observed for the adequacy of medication supplies statements (33% of all respondents. The highest incidence of agreement across the eight medication use process statements was for the statement pertaining to infrequent dispensing errors (68%, and the lowest incidence of agreement was observed for the statement pertaining to the adequacy of patient monitoring (30%. The pharmacist was chosen as the best candidate to resolve perceived unmet medication needs for four of eight statements, whereas physicians were most frequently chosen for three of the four remaining statements. Respondents' perceptions regarding patient satisfaction with the different elements of the medication use process revealed that the lowest incidence of agreement

  6. The Arkansas Building Industry's Perceptions of Entry-Level Employee Work Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, James A.

    1989-01-01

    A study surveyed 100 (66 responses) employers in the Arkansas home building industry to determine the emphasis they place on affective, cognitive, and psychomotor skills. Although employers value affective work behaviors, the Arkansas building trades competency profiles used for curriculum development emphasize the psychomotor domain. (JOW)

  7. Perceptions of collaboration between general practitioners and community pharmacists: findings from a qualitative study based in Spain.

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    Jové, Anna Maria; Fernández, Ana; Hughes, Carmel; Guillén-Solà, Mireia; Rovira, Marta; Rubio-Valera, Maria

    2014-07-01

    According to the theory of reasoned action (TRA), collaboration is only possible when it is perceived as useful by the participants involved. This paper describes a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews to explore the preceived usefulness of general practitioner (GPs)-community pharmacists (CPs)' collaboration from these professionals' perspectives based in two Spanish regions. Thirty-seven interviews were conducted with GPs and CPs with and without previous experience of collaborating with the other groups of professionals. Analysis of the data indicated that the GPs and CPs considered that collaboration between practitioners and pharmacists to have different forms of usefulness, ranging from positive to negative perceptions of usefulness. Negative and neutral opinions (collaboration generates conflict and/or is not benefitial) could prevent practitioners from initiating collaboration with the other group of professionals, which is explained by the TRA. These perceptions were only found among those participants without experience in collaboration. When collaboration was perceived as advantageous, it could be beneficial on three levels: health system (i.e. provision of integrated care, increased efficiency of the system), GPs and CPs (i.e. increased job satisfaction and patient loyalty) and patients (i.e. improved patient safety). Although GPs and CPs with experience identified benefits using a range of examples, GPs and CPs who had never collaborated also believed that if collaboration was undertaken there would be benefits for the health system, patients and health professionals. These results should be considered when developing strategies to encourage and improve the implementation of collaborative working relationships between GPs and pharmacists in primary care. PMID:24625196

  8. Knowledge, perception, practice and barriers of breast cancer health promotion activities among community pharmacists in two Districts of Selangor state, Malaysia.

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    Beshir, Semira A; Hanipah, Monalina A

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women in Malaysia. Despite the campaigns undertaken to raise the awareness of the public regarding breast cancer, breast cancer screening rates are still low in the country. The community pharmacist, as one of the most accessible healthcare practitioners, could play a role in the provision of breast cancer health promotion services to the community. However, there are no documented data regarding the community pharmacists' involvement in breast cancer related health promotion activities. Hence, this study was conducted to examine self-reported knowledge, practice and perception of community pharmacists on provision of breast cancer health promotion services and to investigate the barriers that limit their involvement. This cross-sectional survey conducted between May to September 2010, included a sample of 35 community pharmacists working in the districts of Hulu Langat and Sepang in state of Selangor. A 22-item validated questionnaire that included both closed and Lickert scale questions was used to interview those pharmacists who gave their informed consent to participate in the study. The data was analysed using SPSS. Only 11.3% of the community pharmacists answered all the questions on the knowledge section correctly. The mean overall knowledge of the community pharmacists on risk factors of breast cancer and screening recommendations is 56%. None of the respondents was currently involved in breast cancer health promotion activities. Lack of time (80%), lack of breast cancer educational materials (77.1%) and lack of training (62.9%) were the top three mentioned barriers. Despite these barriers, 94.3% (33) of the community pharmacists agreed that they should be involved in breast cancer health promotion activities. Hence, there is need to equip community pharmacists with necessary training and knowledge to enable them to contribute their share towards prevention and screening of

  9. Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes toward Chronic Pain and Its Management: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Frontline Pharmacists in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejal Patel

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic pain consumes a significant share of primary care. Community and family health team pharmacists frequently see patients with chronic pain, thus have the opportunity to improve their care. To assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of Ontario pharmacists, we invited 5,324 Ontario pharmacists, to participate in an online survey we developed using Qualtrics. The 31-question survey gathered demographic information, assessed pharmacists' knowledge of three chronic pain conditions; chronic lower back pain (CLBP, eight true/false statements; chronic headache disorder (CHD, eight true/false statements and painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN, seven true/false statements, and their attitudes toward and perceptions of patients with these conditions, and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of opioids in pain management. We received 688 responses (12.9% and 392 pharmacists completed the survey. The mean age of respondents was 48.5 years and 48.5% were male. More than 50% of respondents were in practice for more than 20 years and 58.7% worked 25-40 hours per week. The mean knowledge scores were 4.5/8, 5.5/8, and 5.3/8 for CBLP, CHD, and PDN respectively. While 95% of respondents were aware of the increasing death rates due to opioid use, only half were familiar with the Canadian guideline for safe opioid prescribing for non-cancer use. Responses were compared based on gender, time in practice and location of practice. Pharmacists with more than ten years of experience scored significantly higher than those with less experience. Fewer differences were found in comparisons of gender and location of practice. Safe and effective care of chronic pain patients, particularly with opioids, will require additional pharmacist education.

  10. Pharmacist, general practitioner, and nurse perceptions, experiences, and knowledge of medication dosage form modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen TMU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thi-My-Uyen Nguyen,1 Esther TL Lau,1,3 Kathryn J Steadman,1 Julie AY Cichero,1 Kaeleen Dingle,2 Lisa M Nissen1,3 1School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2School of Public Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Background: People often modify oral solid dosage forms when they experience difficulty swallowing them. Modifying dosage forms may cause adverse effects to the patient, and the person undertaking the modification. Pharmacists are often the first point of contact for people in the general community seeking advice regarding medications. Nurses are at the forefront of administering medications to patients and are likely to be most directly affected by a patient’s swallowing ability, while general practitioners (GPs are expected to consider swallowing abilities when prescribing medications. Objective: To compare the perspectives and experiences of GPs, pharmacists, and nurses regarding medication dosage form modification and their knowledge of medication modification. Method: Questionnaires tailored to each profession were posted to 630 GPs, and links to an online version were distributed to 2,090 pharmacists and 505 nurses. Results: When compared to pharmacists and GPs, nurses perceived that a greater proportion of the general community modified solid dosage forms. Pharmacists and GPs were most likely to consider allergies and medical history when deciding whether to prescribe or dispense a medicine, while nurses’ priorities were allergies and swallowing problems when administering medications. While nurses were more likely to ask their patients about their ability to swallow medications, most health professionals reported that patients “rarely” or “never” volunteered information about swallowing difficulties. The majority of health professionals would advise a patient to

  11. Antibiotic use and resistance: perceptions and ethical challenges among doctors, pharmacists and the public in Vellore, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Sujith J; Mathai, Elizabeth; Thomas, Kurien; Faruqui, Atiya Rehman; Holloway, Kathleen; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic use and resistance are major public health challenges. Interventional strategies require ascertaining the perceptions of major stakeholders and documenting the challenges to changing practice. Towards this aim, a qualitative study was conducted in Vellore, South India, using focus group discussions among doctors, pharmacists and public. There were eight groups with six to eight participants each. The themes explored were: understanding of infections, antibiotics and resistance; practices and pressure driving antibiotic use; and strategies for appropriate use. Data were transcribed, analysed, verified and a summary prepared with salient features and quotations. It was found that the public had minimal awareness of resistance, antibiotics and infections. They wanted symptomatic relief. Doctors reported prescribing antibiotics for perceived patient expectations and quick recovery. Business concerns contributed to antibiotics sales among pharmacists. Pharmaceutical industry incentives and healthcare provider competition were the main ethical challenges. Suggested interventional strategies by the participants included creating public awareness, better healthcare provider communication, improved diagnostic support, strict implementation of guidelines, continuing education, and strengthening of regulations. Perceived patient benefit, unrestricted autonomy and business-cum-industry pressures are promoting inappropriate use of antibiotics. Strategies improving responsible use will help preserve their effectiveness, and provide distributive justice and benefit for future generations.

  12. Antibiotic use and resistance: perceptions and ethical challenges among doctors, pharmacists and the public in Vellore, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Sujith J; Mathai, Elizabeth; Thomas, Kurien; Faruqui, Atiya Rehman; Holloway, Kathleen; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic use and resistance are major public health challenges. Interventional strategies require ascertaining the perceptions of major stakeholders and documenting the challenges to changing practice. Towards this aim, a qualitative study was conducted in Vellore, South India, using focus group discussions among doctors, pharmacists and public. There were eight groups with six to eight participants each. The themes explored were: understanding of infections, antibiotics and resistance; practices and pressure driving antibiotic use; and strategies for appropriate use. Data were transcribed, analysed, verified and a summary prepared with salient features and quotations. It was found that the public had minimal awareness of resistance, antibiotics and infections. They wanted symptomatic relief. Doctors reported prescribing antibiotics for perceived patient expectations and quick recovery. Business concerns contributed to antibiotics sales among pharmacists. Pharmaceutical industry incentives and healthcare provider competition were the main ethical challenges. Suggested interventional strategies by the participants included creating public awareness, better healthcare provider communication, improved diagnostic support, strict implementation of guidelines, continuing education, and strengthening of regulations. Perceived patient benefit, unrestricted autonomy and business-cum-industry pressures are promoting inappropriate use of antibiotics. Strategies improving responsible use will help preserve their effectiveness, and provide distributive justice and benefit for future generations. PMID:23439193

  13. Evaluating the impact of pharmacist health education on the perceptions of the pharmacist’s role among women living in a homeless shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the impact of pharmacist-provided educational seminars on the participant’s perception of the pharmacist’s role in providing women’s health education. Secondary objectives include the participant’s level of perceived benefit from the information provided during each presentation, as well as determining characteristics of participants who are interested in attending seminars. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted within a homeless women’s shelter in Phoenix, Arizona. Pharmacists and pharmacy students provided 10 monthly educational seminars on topics related to women’s health. Participants completed a pre- and post-seminar survey regarding their perceptions of the presentations and pharmacists. Results: Fifty-six participants attended at least one of 10 seminars from January to November 2014. The average age was 46 years old, taking approximately 3 medications, and 66% completed a high school degree or lower. Prior to the presentations, 30% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would seek advice from a pharmacist on the topic presented, which increased significantly to 82% of participants after the presentation (p<0.001. Similarly, 55% of participants rated themselves as agreeing or strongly agreeing with being knowledgeable on the topic presented prior to the presentation, and this increased significantly to 77% after the presentation (p=0.001. After attending the educational session, 70% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would make changes to their health, and that they would attend an additional session. The participants noted their increased learning about the topic, the clarity of visual aids and presentation, and knowledge of the presenters as the best parts of the presentation. Conclusion: Pharmacist’s participation in providing educational seminars in the homeless women’s population increases the participant’s knowledge and perception of the pharmacist

  14. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  15. Public perception on the role of community pharmacists in self-medication and self-care in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    You, Joyce H.; Wong, Fiona Y; Chan, Frank W.; Wong, Eliza L; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    2011-01-01

    Background The choices for self-medication in Hong Kong are much diversified, including western and Chinese medicines and food supplements. This study was to examine Hong Kong public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding self-medication, self-care and the role of pharmacists in self-care. Methods A cross-sectional phone survey was conducted, inviting people aged 18 or older to complete a 37-item questionnaire that was developed based on the Thematic Household surveys in Hong Kong, fin...

  16. Too far away to work with each other: Does location impact on pharmacists' perceptions of interprofessional interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Andrew Ian; Hughes, Mary Louise; Mantzourani, Efthymia; Smith, Mathew Wayne

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the delivery of health services has seen a shift towards interprofessional teamwork in order to effectively utilise the skills of each member of the healthcare team to deliver optimal patient care. Nevertheless, a variety of barriers, including lack of communication between healthcare professionals (HCPs), have been identified. The expanding clinical services provided by community pharmacies have increased the potential for pharmacist-HCP interaction; however, primary care pharmacy environments vary from individual distinct premises to part of interprofessional 'health centres'. As such, one potential factor affecting interprofessional communication could be the geographical location ('space') of HCPs. This study sought to determine whether these different primary healthcare 'spaces' impact on the frequency of interprofessional interactions. An anonymous, self-complete questionnaire was sent to all community pharmacies in Wales (n = 716) to quantify the frequency of interprofessional interactions between community pharmacists and other HCPs. A response rate of 62% was achieved. Results showed that pharmacists working in pharmacies physically linked to general practitioner (GP) surgeries had significantly more frequent interaction with HCPs based within the surgeries. This suggests that housing HCPs in the same physical space will enable more interprofessional interaction, supporting the drive to improve the quality of patient care. PMID:27351784

  17. The Power Behind the Controversy: Understanding Local Policy Elites' Perceptions on the Benefits and Risks Associated with High Voltage Power Line Installation in the State of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Rachael M.

    Following a proposal for the installation of high voltage power lines in northwest Arkansas, a controversial policy debate emerged. Proponents of the transmission line argue that such an installation is inevitable and necessary to efficiently and reliably support the identified electric load in the region. Opponents claim that the lines will degrade the natural environment and hamper the tourism-based local economy in affected regions, notably in Ozark Mountain areas. This study seeks to understand how local policy elites perceive the benefits and risks associated with proposed transmission lines, which is a critical step in comprehending the formation and changes of related government policies. First, based upon the dual process theory of judgment, this study systematically investigates the triadic relationships between (a) more profound personal value predispositions, (b) affects and feelings, and (c) perceived benefits and risks related to the proposed installation of high voltage power lines among local policy elites in the state of Arkansas. Next, this study focuses more specifically on the role of value predispositions, specific emotional dimensions of affect heuristics, and perceptions pertaining to high voltage power line risks and benefits. Using original data collected from a statewide Internet survey of 420 local leaders and key policymakers about their opinions on the related issues, other factors claimed by previous literature, including trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics are considered. Analytical results suggest that grid-group cultural predispositions, as deeply held core values within local policy elites' individual belief systems, both directly and indirectly -- through affective feelings -- shape perceived utility associated with the installation of high voltage power lines. Recognizing that risk perceptions factor into policy decisions, some practical considerations for better designing policy addressing controversial issues

  18. American Pharmacists Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Status Recognition Every pharmacist's effort is needed to achieve provider status recognition. Be part of the team working toward this goal. MORE Spotlight Zika Outbreak: What Pharmacists Need to ...

  19. Pharmacist provision of primary health care: a modified Delphi validation of pharmacists' competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennie-Kaulbach Natalie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacists have expanded their roles and responsibilities as a result of primary health care reform. There is currently no consensus on the core competencies for pharmacists working in these evolving practices. The aim of this study was to develop and validate competencies for pharmacists' effective performance in these roles, and in so doing, document the perceived contribution of pharmacists providing collaborative primary health care services. Methods Using a modified Delphi process including assessing perception of the frequency and criticality of performing tasks, we validated competencies important to primary health care pharmacists practising across Canada. Results Ten key informants contributed to competency drafting; thirty-three expert pharmacists replied to a second round survey. The final primary health care pharmacist competencies consisted of 34 elements and 153 sub-elements organized in seven CanMeds-based domains. Highest importance rankings were allocated to the domains of care provider and professional, followed by communicator and collaborator, with the lower importance rankings relatively equally distributed across the manager, advocate and scholar domains. Conclusions Expert pharmacists working in primary health care estimated their most important responsibilities to be related to direct patient care. Competencies that underlie and are required for successful fulfillment of these patient care responsibilities, such as those related to communication, collaboration and professionalism were also highly ranked. These ranked competencies can be used to help pharmacists understand their potential roles in these evolving practices, to help other health care professionals learn about pharmacists' contributions to primary health care, to establish standards and performance indicators, and to prioritize supports and education to maximize effectiveness in this role.

  20. An exploration of pharmacist-patient communication in clinic-style consultations

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhill, Nicola H.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of communication skills for pharmacists has been widely acknowledged. Research has shown that the use of good communication skills can improve patient health outcomes but little research has focussed on communication within new consultation based roles of pharmacists. This study aimed to explore the communication between pharmacists and patients in clinic style consultations and to investigate participant perceptions of communication and consultations. Eleven pharmacists ...

  1. Community Pharmacists' Perceptions about Pharmaceutical Care of Traditional Medicine Products: A Questionnaire-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Hu, Hao; Liu, Xiaodan; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Yuanjia; Li, Peng; Yang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate community pharmacists' perceived responsibility, practice behaviors, knowledge, perceived barriers, and improvement measures towards provision of pharmaceutical care in relation to traditional medicine (TM) products in Guangzhou, China. A self-completion questionnaire was used to survey licensed pharmacists working at community pharmacies. This study found that the community pharmacists in Guangzhou, China, were involved in the provision of TM products during their daily practice but only provided pharmaceutical care in this area with a passive attitude. Extrinsic barriers such as lack of scientific evidence for the safety and efficacy of TM products and unclear definition of their roles and responsibilities were highlighted while intrinsic factors such as insufficient TM knowledge were identified. PMID:27066101

  2. Pharmacist specialty certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Sharon M

    2012-03-01

    Nutrition support is a pharmacy specialty in which pharmacists work with prescribers, conduct order review, and either perform or oversee compounding of these complex parenteral nutrition formulations. Pharmacists should be certified in this specialty, and the options for certification are outlined in this article. PMID:22275326

  3. Exploring consumer and pharmacist views on the professional role of the pharmacist with respect to natural health products: a study of focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heschuk Shirley

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural health products (NHPs such as herbs, vitamins and homeopathic medicines, are currently available for sale in most Canadian pharmacies. However, most pharmacists report that they have limited knowledge about these products which have been regulated in Canada as a specific sub-category of drugs. In this paper, consumers' and practicing pharmacists' perceptions of pharmacists' professional responsibilities with respect to NHPs are examined. Methods A total of 16 focus groups were conducted with consumers (n = 50 and pharmacists (n = 47 from four different cities across Canada (Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, and Halifax. Results In this paper, we illustrate the ways in which pharmacists' professional responsibilities are impacted by changing consumer needs. Many consumers in the study utilized a wide range of information resources that may or may not have included pharmacists. Nevertheless, the majority of consumers and pharmacists agreed that pharmacists should be knowledgeable about NHPs and felt that pharmacists should be able to manage drug-NHPs interactions as well as identify and evaluate the variety of information available to help consumers make informed decisions. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that consumers' expectations and behaviour significantly impact pharmacists' perceptions of their professional responsibilities with respect to NHPs.

  4. Stakeholders' views on granting prescribing authority to pharmacists in Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, Asa; Strickland-Hodge, Barry; Maz, Julia

    2016-08-01

    Background In Nigeria, only medical doctors, dentists and some nurses in primary care facilities have the legal right to prescribe medicines to patients. Patients' access to prescription medicines can be seriously affected by the shortage of prescribers leading to longer waiting times in hospitals. Objective This research was carried out to investigate stakeholders' views on granting prescribing authority to pharmacists in Nigeria. Setting The study was conducted in Nigeria. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 43 Nigerian stakeholders including policymakers, pharmacists, doctors and patient group representatives. Transcribed interviews were entered into the QSR NVivo 10 software and analysed using a thematic approach. Main outcome measure Stakeholders' perception on the granting of prescribing authority to pharmacists in Nigeria. Results Three major themes emerged from the interviews: (1) prescribing as a logical role for pharmacists, (2) pharmacist prescribing- an opportunity or a threat and (3) the potential barriers to pharmacist prescribing. Many non-medical stakeholders including pharmacists and patient group representatives supported an extended role for pharmacists in prescribing while the majority of medical doctors including those in policy making were reluctant to do so. Generally, all stakeholders perceived that pharmacist prescribing represents an opportunity to increase patients' access to medicines, reduce doctors' workload and promote the utilisation of pharmacists' skills. However, many stakeholders including pharmacists and doctors commonly identified pharmacists' inadequate skills in diagnosis, medical resistance and shortage of pharmacists as potential barriers to the introduction of pharmacist prescribing in Nigeria. Conclusion The present study showed a split of opinion between participants who were medical doctors and those who were non-doctors in their support for pharmacist prescribing. However, all

  5. Slamming Arkansas Schools!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. Clayton

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author, a poet and teaching artist, shares how he successfully brought slam poetry to College Hill Middle School in Texarkana, Arkansas. In 2001 he discovered slam poetry--a poetry-reading format in which poets compete in dramatic readings of their works--and went to Slam Nationals in Seattle on the Arkansas slam team. He…

  6. Talking to the Pharmacist (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Talking to the Pharmacist KidsHealth > For Parents > Talking to the Pharmacist Print ... and families privately. Reasons to Talk to the Pharmacist Pharmacists cannot diagnose medical conditions but can answer ...

  7. Beliefs about inhaled corticosteroids: comparison of community pharmacists, pharmacy technicians and patients with asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driesenaar, J.A.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Hulten, R. van; Horne, R.; Zwikker, H.E.; Bemt, B.J.F. van den; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians' perceptions of patients' beliefs regarding inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with those of patients and to compare the ICS beliefs of pharmacists and technicians with those of patients with asthma. Methods: 1269 community pharmacies were app

  8. Multidisciplinary members’ perspectives on a pharmacist joining a rheumatology practice team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Kerry; Kur, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmacist participation in chronic disease management benefits patients in many ambulatory settings. We explored the attitudes and perceptions among multidisciplinary members of a rheumatology team towards the skills and responsibilities of a pharmacist joining their practice. Methods: The physicians, nurse, physiotherapist and staff of a rheumatology clinic were invited to participate in focus group and semistructured interviews. Practice members also completed an inventory of perceived health professional roles in the medication use process. Results: Discussions with 2 physicians, a nurse, physiotherapist and 1 office administrator were conducted. Concepts related to 3 key themes included positively viewed pharmacist roles broadly related to activities that encompass provision of medication-related services for the patients, the providers and the practice. Examples of such care included educational tasks related to therapies (rheumatological and otherwise) and maintenance of accurate drug histories. These findings were reflected in high scores for perceived pharmacist roles in education and medication review responsibilities using the Medication Use Processes Matrix instrument. Most members were not comfortable with pharmacists conducting physical assessments and emphasized the need for a team member who could adapt to variations in workflow preferences across rheumatologists in the practice. Interpretation: Perceived pharmacist roles expressed by existing rheumatology team members were largely consistent with the scope of pharmacist knowledge, skills and responsibilities in primary care. Conclusion: Overall, existing multidisciplinary staff exhibited favourable attitudes towards a pharmacist joining their practice setting. Data from this job analysis exercise were used to inform the development of a job description for a rheumatology clinical pharmacist. PMID:26862335

  9. Arkansas' Disappearing Tax Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppmeyer, Martin; Venters, Tommy

    State legislation that has contributed to the reduction of Arkansas' tax base is described in this paper. Amendment 59, adopted in 1980, has reduced the state tax base by millions of dollars. At the end of 1992, the majority of school districts have equalized their real, personal, and carrier and utility property. Act 34, the current foundation…

  10. Pharmacist interventions in depressed patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Valera, Maria

    2012-01-01

    1) Objectives: - To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacist care compared with usual care (UC) on improving adherence to antidepressants in depressed outpatients. - To evaluate the effectiveness and cost‐effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention (CPI) compared to UC in the improvement of adherence to antidepressants and patient wellbeing in a primary care population initiating treatment with antidepressants. 2) Methods: A systematic review and meta‐a...

  11. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kapur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and
    interviewed just after they visited the pharmacy.
    Key findings: A total of 77 consumers in the age group of 11 to 72 years were included in the present study, of
    which 66.2% were males and 33.8% were females. It is observed that 46.7% consumers came for prescription
    medicines, 23.4% for over the counter medicines. Close to general physicians’ clinics and proximity to home
    were most important reasons given for visiting particular pharmacy. Majority of the consumers (n=56, 72.7%
    rated the advice given by the pharmacist as very useful, only 1(1.3% rated it as not useful at all and 2 (2.6%
    consumers did not respond. Among consumer groups 31 (40.3% thought that pharmacist has a good balance
    between health and business matter and 35.7% were in opinion that pharmacist is more concerned with making
    money, while 5.2% supported that the pharmacist is also interested in the health of his/her customers. The pharmacists
    were ranked at the top with 28(36.4% by the consumers and favoured pharmacy as the most convenient
    place to get advice about staying healthy.
    Conclusion: Most of the consumers in the present study were of the opinion that pharmacist is concerned with the
    health of the consumers, though he/she is also interested in making money. Many respondents were unaware
    about the difference between pharmacist and doctor, most of them consider

  12. Body image and weight management: young people, internet advertisements and pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Luevorasirikul, Kanokrat

    2007-01-01

    Media promotion of the ideal body as slimness for women and muscularity for men, has led to increasing numbers of both genders reporting dissatisfaction with their bodies and trying to change using weight control products. It has been suggested that pharmacists can play a key role in promoting healthy lifestyles and weight management. The main aim of the research study was to examine the impact of media on body image perception and to investigate the role of pharmacists in weight man...

  13. Comparison of pharmacist and public views and experiences of community pharmacy medicines-related services in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ruth M; Gammie, Shivaun M; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah A; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background Services provided by community pharmacists designed to support people using medicines are increasing. In England, two national services exist: Medicine Use Reviews (MUR) and New Medicines Service (NMS). Very few studies have been conducted seeking views of the public, rather than service users, on willingness to use these services or expectations of these services, or determined whether views align with pharmacist perceptions. Objective To compare the perceptions of pharmacists and the general public on medicines-related services, particularly MUR and NMS services. Methods Two parallel surveys were conducted in one area of England: one involved the general public and was administered using a street survey, and the other was a postal survey of community pharmacists. Similar questionnaires were used, seeking views of services, awareness, reasons for using services, and perceived benefits. Results Response rates were 47.2% (1,000/2,012 approached) for the public and 40.8% (341/836) for pharmacists. Few people had experienced a discussion in a private consultation room or were aware of the two formal services, although their willingness to use them was high. Pharmacists estimated time spent on service provision as 10 minutes for MUR and 12 minutes for NMS, which aligned with acceptability to both pharmacists and the public. Pharmacists underestimated the willingness of the public to wait for an informal discussion or to make appointments for formal services. Both pharmacists and the public had high expectations that services would be beneficial in terms of increasing knowledge and understanding, but public expectations and experiences of services helping to sort out problems fell well below pharmacists’ perceptions. People who had experienced a pharmacy service had different perceptions of pharmacists. Conclusion Views differed regarding why people use services and key aspects of service delivery. For services to improve, the pharmacy profession needs a

  14. Arkansas River Water Needs Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the legal elements, hydrologic analysis, objectives, and water levels related to the Arkansas River and the management of it.

  15. Marshallese COFA Migrants in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2016-05-01

    Arkansas is home to one of the largest populations of Marshallese in the world. Marshallese communities suffer from a disproportionate incidence of chronic diseases, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and infectious diseases, such as Hansen's disease (leprosy), tuberculosis, and types of hepatitis. There are a number of structural, legal, economic, and social issues that must be addressed in order to reduce health disparities and increase access to health care for Marshallese living in Arkansas. PMID:27263176

  16. Independent pharmacist prescribing in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Michael R.; Ma, Tracey; Fisher, Judith; Sketris, Ingrid S

    2012-01-01

    Background: While pharmacists are trained in the selection and management of prescription medicines, traditionally their role in prescribing has been limited. In the past 5 years, many provinces have expanded the pharmacy scope of practice. However, there has been no previous systematic investigation and comparison of these policies.

  17. Care of the stroke patient-communication between the community pharmacist and prescribers in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimes, Tamasine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the perceptions that community pharmacists have of communication with prescribers in both primary and secondary care in Ireland, with respect to care of stroke patients. SETTING: Community pharmacies across Ireland, stratified into the four representative administrative regions. METHOD: Survey using a structured postal questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Perceptions of communication with prescribers based in primary and secondary care; pharmacy and pharmacy premises demographics. RESULTS: A response rate of 52% (n = 314) was achieved. Community pharmacists\\' perceptions of information provision from secondary care were low, the majority (83%) never received any information from the hospital, although they would welcome it. Communication with hospital based prescribers was considered by most (93%) to be poor. The majority (greater than 75%) of respondents expressed a desire for greater information provision concerning a stroke patient\\'s medication and diagnostic information. Pharmacists\\' perceptions of interaction with general practitioners were generally regarded as good (63%) although information provision in both directions between pharmacist and general practitioner could be improved. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicated that community pharmacists perceive that there is room for improvement in the communication between themselves and prescribers in the primary and secondary care settings, concerning the care of the stroke patient. This highlights the need for the development of formal communication channels between community pharmacists and other members of the healthcare team involved in the care of the stroke patient. However, the challenges of communicating patient information across healthcare sectors are recognized.

  18. General practitioners' views of pharmacists' current and potential contributions to medication review and prescribing in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatah E

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Internationally, non-medical practitioners are increasingly involved in tasks traditionally undertaken by general practitioners (GPs, such as medication review and prescribing. This study aims to evaluate GPs' perceptions of pharmacists' contributions to those services. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out in two localities with GPs whose patients had and had not undergone a pharmacist-led adherence support Medication Use Review (MUR. GPs were asked their opinions of pharmacists' provision of MUR, clinical medication review and prescribing. Data were analysed thematically using NVivo 8 and grouped by strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT category. FINDINGS: Eighteen GPs were interviewed. GPs mentioned their own skills, training and knowledge of clinical conditions. These were considered GPs' major strengths. GPs' perceived weaknesses were their time constraints and heavy workloads. GPs thought pharmacists' strengths were their knowledge of pharmacology and having more time for in-depth medication review than GPs. Nevertheless, GPs felt pharmacist-led medication reviews might confuse patients, and increase GP workloads. GPs were concerned that pharmacist prescribing might include pharmacists making a diagnosis. This is not the proposed model for New Zealand. In general, GPs were more accepting of pharmacists providing medication reviews than of pharmacist prescribing, unless appropriate controls, close collaboration and co-location of services took place. CONCLUSION: GPs perceived their own skills were well suited to reviewing medication and prescribing, but thought pharmacists might also have strengths and skills in these areas. In future, GPs thought that working together with pharmacists in these services might be possible in a collaborative setting.

  19. 33 CFR 117.121 - Arkansas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arkansas River 117.121 Section 117.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.121 Arkansas River The draw of...

  20. General practitioners' views of pharmacists' current and potential contributions to medication review and prescribing in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Hatah E; Braund R; Duffull SB; Tordoff J

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Internationally, non-medical practitioners are increasingly involved in tasks traditionally undertaken by general practitioners (GPs), such as medication review and prescribing. This study aims to evaluate GPs' perceptions of pharmacists' contributions to those services. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out in two localities with GPs whose patients had and had not undergone a pharmacist-led adherence support Medication Use Review (MUR). GPs were asked their opini...

  1. Pharmacist's Role in Diabetes Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-19

    This podcast is for a professional audience and discusses the role pharmacists can play on the diabetes care team, through collaborative practice agreements and medication therapy management.  Created: 5/19/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  2. Involving staff pharmacists in management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L A; Vanderveen, T W

    1977-03-01

    Various administrative techniques used to bring staff pharmacists in a decentralized, satellite pharmacy system into the managerial decision-making process are discussed. These techniques include a staff pharmacist on-call procedure to discourage absenteeism, and the concept of a head pharmacist to serve as a link with departmental administration. The head pharmacist works in the satelite pharmacy, is responsible for its daily operation and is the spokesman for the satellite. Active roles for the head pharmacist in the selection and evaluation of technicians are outlines. Management skills are developed in head pharmacists through a program of special classes and discussion groups. It is concluded that this program has improved the credibility of administrative decisions and has tapped an underused source of ideas and talent.

  3. Impact of Pharmacist Facilitated Discharge Medication Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Super

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.

  4. Job Sharing for Women Pharmacists in Academia

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Kelly C.; Finks, Shannon W.

    2009-01-01

    The pharmacist shortage, increasing numbers of female pharmacy graduates, more pharmacy schools requiring faculty members, and a lower percentage of female faculty in academia are reasons to develop unique arrangements for female academic pharmacists who wish to work part-time. Job sharing is an example of a flexible alternative work arrangement that can be successful for academic pharmacists who wish to continue in a part-time capacity. Such partnerships have worked for other professionals b...

  5. The Changing Roles Of Pharmacists In Society

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Arthur Hudson; John Jackson Mc Anaw; Barbara Julienne Johnson

    2007-01-01

    A clinical role for pharmacists has developed inresponse to the societal need to improve the use ofmedicines. Clinical role development has been led byinitiatives in the hospital sector which have enabledSchools of Pharmacy to make shifts in the pre-graduateeducation of pharmacists. The increasing complexity inthe management of drug therapy has given pharmacistsclear roles that integrate within the healthcare team.The history is one in which the development ofchanging roles of pharmacists is ...

  6. Pharmacist interventions for obesity: improving treatment adherence and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan MA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melanie A Jordan, Jonathan HarmonCollege of Pharmacy – Glendale, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Obesity is currently a worldwide pandemic, with overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 estimated at 35% and 12% of the global adult population, respectively. According to data collected from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, approximately 68.8% of US adults are overweight or obese. Additionally, a large burden of health care costs can be attributed directly to obesity as well as multiple, potentially preventable, comorbidities such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. As a result, national and international organizations, such as the US Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization, have made halting the rise of the obesity epidemic a top priority. Pharmacists, commonly considered one of the most trustworthy and accessible health care professionals, are ideally situated to provide counseling for weight and lifestyle management. This review presents examples of pharmacist-led as well as collaborative practices that have been somewhat successful in educating and monitoring patient progress in attaining weight-loss goals. Common barriers and potential solutions to administration of lifestyle counseling and monitoring programs, such as limited pharmacist time and resources, lack of expertise and/or confidence in program administration, and patient perception and awareness, are also discussed.Keywords: pharmacy, obesity, counseling, weight loss, lifestyle management

  7. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.

  8. Why Hospital Pharmacists Have Failed to Manage Antimalarial Drugs Stock-Outs in Pakistan? A Qualitative Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeeha Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of hospital pharmacists towards drug management and reasons underlying stock-outs of antimalarial drugs in Pakistan. Methods. A qualitative study was designed to explore the perceptions of hospital pharmacists regarding drug management and irrational use of antimalarial drugs in two major cities of Pakistan, namely, Islamabad (national capital and Rawalpindi (twin city. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 hospital pharmacists using indepth interview guides at a place and time convenient for the respondents. Interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, were evaluated by thematic content analysis and by other authors’ analysis. Results. Most of the respondents were of the view that financial constraints, inappropriate drug management, and inadequate funding were the factors contributing toward the problem of antimalarial drug stock-outs in healthcare facilities of Pakistan. The pharmacists anticipated that prescribing by nonproprietary names, training of health professionals, accepted role of hospital pharmacist in drug management, implementation of essential drug list and standard treatment guidelines for malaria in the healthcare system can minimize the problem of drug stock outs in healthcare system of Pakistan. Conclusion. The current study showed that all the respondents in the two cities agreed that hospital pharmacist has failed to play an effective role in efficient management of anti-malarial drugs stock-outs.

  9. Understanding of definition and safety of oral health products among patients, physicians and pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, Yasuko; Hori, Satoko; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to clarify the current understanding of the definition and safety of oral health products among patients and health professionals, and patients' perception about their communication with physicians and pharmacists regarding those products. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by patients at 17 community pharmacies in 14 prefectures of Japan. For health professionals, we sent a questionnaire to pharmacists and physicians who were registered as members of the Internet-based Medical Doctor's and Pharmacist's Information-Sharing System. The respondents were 242 patients, 158 physicians and 407 pharmacists. Some patients did not categorize dietary supplements as health products, while they did so categorize conventional foods (e.g., fermented soybeans, yogurt). Their understanding of the definition of health products was different from that of health professionals. Less than half of the patients considered that health products might potentiate or attenuate the effects of concomitant drugs, and this view was especially common among the elderly. The percentage of patients who reported that they rarely or never asked for advice from a pharmacist about their use of health products was significantly higher among those who had an incorrect understanding about health products. In conclusion, some patients' recognition of oral health products was different from that of health professionals, and most patients do not discuss their use of such products unless they are asked. Therefore, it is important for health professionals to check a patient's use of health products and be sure what he or she means when using the term 'health product'.

  10. Patient self-management and pharmacist-led patient self-management in Hong Kong: A focus group study from different healthcare professionals' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Eliza LY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient self-management is a key approach to manage non-communicable diseases. A pharmacist-led approach in patient self-management means collaborative care between pharmacists and patients. However, the development of both patient self-management and role of pharmacists is limited in Hong Kong. The objectives of this study are to understand the perspectives of physicians, pharmacists, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM practitioners, and dispensers on self-management of patients with chronic conditions, in addition to exploring the possibilities of developing pharmacist-led patient self-management in Hong Kong. Methods Participants were invited through the University as well as professional networks. Fifty-one participants comprised of physicians, pharmacists, TCM practitioners and dispensers participated in homogenous focus group discussions. Perspectives in patient self-management and pharmacist-led patient self-management were discussed. The discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed accordingly. Results The majority of the participants were in support of patients with stable chronic diseases engaging in self-management. Medication compliance, monitoring of disease parameters and complications, lifestyle modification and identifying situations to seek help from health professionals were generally agreed to be covered in patient self-management. All pharmacists believed that they had extended roles in addition to drug management but the other three professionals believed that pharmacists were drug experts only and could only play an assisting role. Physicians, TCM practitioners, and dispensers were concerned that pharmacist-led patient self-management could be hindered, due to unfamiliarity with the pharmacy profession, the perception of insufficient training in disease management, and lack of trust of patients. Conclusions An effective chronic disease management model should involve patients in stable

  11. Student Pharmacists as Tuberculosis Screeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKennon, Skye A; Arnold, Jennifer

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a targeted educational module on tuberculosis screening with second-year professional pharmacy students that improves their knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding tuberculosis screening. Design. A tuberculosis-screening educational module was developed in collaboration with the Washington State Pharmacy Association and Department of Health and incorporated in a core student pharmacist class. Students completed online didactic training and a live practicum, each lasting 90 minutes. Assessment. Students were assessed using a pre/postdidactic assessment, live practicum tuberculin skin testing (TST) administration and evaluation assessment, and postprogram written reflection. Student pre/postknowledge assessment scores improved in all areas except in documentation. Conclusion. The tuberculosis screening educational module significantly improved student knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding tuberculosis screening. PMID:27073277

  12. Arkansas: Its Land and People, Vol. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Tom

    This bicentennial volume offers a blend of Arkansas history, ecology, and literature. Its purpose is to show the relationship between Arkansas' people and their land. It contains a discussion of the Natural Divisions concept, the geological development of the state, and descriptions by early pioneers. The volume is not intended to be a complete…

  13. Pharmacist Computer Skills and Needs Assessment Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M. Balen; Jewesson, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Background To use technology effectively for the advancement of patient care, pharmacists must possess a variety of computer skills. We recently introduced a novel applied informatics program in this Canadian hospital clinical service unit to enhance the informatics skills of our members. Objective This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of the baseline computer skills and needs of our hospital pharmacists immediately prior to the implementation of an applied informatics progr...

  14. Chronicles of a primary care practice pharmacist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman CR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Christopher R Freeman,1 W Neil Cottrell,1 Greg Kyle,2 Ian D Williams,3 Lisa M Nissen11School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 2Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia; 3Camp Hill Healthcare, Camp Hill, Brisbane, AustraliaBackground: In 2009, a pharmacist commenced working in a nondispensing role at a primary care medical center located in a metropolitan suburb of Brisbane, Australia. Research into the role and function of a practice pharmacist in this setting is still in its infancy.Methods: Ethnographic methods were used over a 3-month period to record activities undertaken by the practice pharmacist on a daily basis.Results: During the 3-month period, 296 hours of activity were documented. Activities the practice pharmacist performed most frequently included medication review, “pharmaceutical opinion,” student supervision, drug information, and administrative tasks.Conclusion: This study demonstrates the broad range of activities which were conducted by a practice pharmacist in the primary care setting as part of a multidisciplinary team.Keywords: practice pharmacist, general practice, integration, medical center

  15. Community pharmacists' involvement in smoking cessation: familiarity and implementation of the National smoking cessation guideline in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factors relating to Guideline familiarity, implementation and provision of SC services. Methods A nationwide mail survey was sent to a systematic, sample of community pharmacy owners and staff pharmacists (total n = 2291. Response rate was 54% (n = 1190. Factors related to the SC Guideline familiarity were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Almost half (47% of the respondents (n = 1190 were familiar with the SC Guideline and familiarity enhanced Guideline implementation. The familiarity was associated with the respondents' perceptions of their personal SC skills and knowledge (OR 3.8; of customers' value of counseling on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT (OR 3.3; and regular use of a pocket card supporting SC counseling (OR 3.0. Pharmacists' workplaces' characteristics, such as size and geographical location were not associated with familiarity. In addition to recommending NRT, the pharmacists familiar with the Guideline used more frequently other Guideline-based SC methods, such as recommended non-pharmacological SC aids, compared to unfamiliar respondents. Conclusions SC Guideline familiarity and implementation is crucial for community pharmacists' involvement in SC actions in addition to selling NRT products. Pharmacists can constitute a potential public health resource in SC easily accessible throughout the country.

  16. Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Care for Dyslipidemia Patients: Knowledge and Skills of Community Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Julie; Lamarre, Diane; Lussier, Marie-Therese; Vanier, Marie-Claude; Genest, Jacques; Blais, Lucie; Hudon, Eveline; Perreault, Sylvie; Berbiche, Djamal; Lalonde, Lyne

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In a physician-pharmacist collaborative-care (PPCC) intervention, community pharmacists were responsible for initiating lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy and adjusting the medication dosage. They attended a 1-day interactive workshop supported by a treatment protocol and clinical and communication tools. Afterwards, changes in…

  17. The attitudes of pharmacists and physicians in Bosnia and Herzegovina towards adverse drug reaction reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Catic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are threat to the patient’s safety and the quality of life, and they increase the cost of health care. Spontaneous ADR reporting system mainly relies on physicians, but also pharmacists, nurses, and even patients. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes, barriers, and possible improvements to ADR reporting practices in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was developed to collect data on the perception of pharmacovigilance practice and ADR reporting. The survey was conducted in the period between September, 2014 and October, 2014.Results: The response rate was 73% (44 of 60 and 93% (148 of 160 among the pharmacist and family medicine physician groups, respectively. Regarding the attitudes to pharmacovigilance practice and reporting, both the pharmacists and physicians found the practices important. The majority of pharmacists and physicians in year 2014 did not report any ADR, while 18% of the pharmacists and 12% of the physicians, who participated in this study, reported one ADR. Reporting procedure, uncertainty, and their exposure were the main barriers to reporting ADRs for the pharmacists. The physicians claimed lack of knowledge to whom to report an ADR as the main barrier. A significant number of the respondents thought that additional education in ADR reporting would have a positive impact, and would increase the ADR reporting rate.Conclusions: Despite the overall positive attitude towards ADR reporting, the reporting rate in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still low. Different barriers to the ADR reporting have been identified, and there is also the need for improvements in the traditional education in this field.

  18. Medical and nursing staff highly value clinical pharmacists in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Hildebrand, James M.; Kolstee, Karen E; Schneider, Sandra M.; Shah, Manish N.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the potential impact that emergency pharmacist (EPh) programmes could have on medication safety and quality of care in the emergency department (ED), very few programmes exist. This descriptive survey study aimed to assess staff perceptions of an EPh programme. A random sample of medical and nursing staff in an academic medical centre ED with a dedicated EPh programme received a 26‐item survey (82% return rate). 99% of respondents felt the EPh improves quality of care, 96% feel they a...

  19. A survey for assessment of the role of pharmacist in community pharmacy services

    OpenAIRE

    SHARMA, H; Jindal, D.; Aqil, M.; Alam, M. S.; Karim, S.; Kapur, P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective : To assess the role of a pharmacist in a community setting and the consumer′s perception in the National Capital Region. Setting : The study was conducted in the National Capital Region of India during the year 2003 - 2004. Materials and Methods : Four pharmacies were selected for this study, which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy-seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and interviewed just after they v...

  20. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivanandy P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Palanisamy Sivanandy,1 Mari Kannan Maharajan,1 Kingston Rajiah,1 Tan Tyng Wei,2 Tan Wee Loon,2 Lim Chong Yee2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, 2School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use.Objective: To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia.Methods: A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted.Results: The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of “staff training and skills” were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup.Conclusion: The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety. Keywords

  1. [Pharmacists contribute to the safety of medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacists have a professional obligation in medicine. As a member of a medical team to provide a safe medication, it is important that they be involved with drug safety in mind. Currently a pharmacist in a business operating with a focus on traditional dispensing and drug administration also functions with a focus on patient care and the provision of drug information. It is important that a pharmacist has a risk management approach to medicine. Together with the institutions responsible for drug safety, he must be cognizant of published reports to prevent serious adverse drug reactions as well as taking part in post-marketing surveillance. Management of safety information for high-risk pharmaceutical drugs, also falls to the pharmacist. Thus he must have knowledge of the skill required for the job of each member of the health care team. Recent newly added responsibilities are: advice in planning patient treatment, checking vital signs and the prescription brought to him to fill. In short a pharmacist working in the medical field must, above all, respect and assure safety to the patients he serves. PMID:21628969

  2. For Better Heart Care, Get a Pharmacist on Your Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159384.html For Better Heart Care, Get a Pharmacist on Your Team Canadian study highlights a potential ... cut their chances of future trouble by having pharmacists help manage their care, new Canadian research suggests. ...

  3. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists - an Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kreshnik Hoti; Jeffery Hughes; Bruce Sunderland

    2011-01-01

    Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professional practice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australian pharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-counter medications. This review aims to identify Australian studies involving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing. Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacist prescribing were identified and considered in the context of its implementation internationally. Australian studies have mainly focused on the attitudes of com...

  4. [Vaccination by the pharmacist: practical guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freney, J

    2012-11-01

    It appears to be entirely appropriate for pharmacists to administer vaccinations if restricted to a limited number of vaccines and a well-defined set of recipients. Recommended types of vaccines would be inert vaccines with no contraindications, including flu vaccines, booster shots for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio, and HPV vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. Recipients targeted for these types of vaccinations would only be adults and adolescents. In addition, pharmacist-administered vaccinations would not be recommended for pregnant women, people with immunodeficiencies, chronic diseases, or cystic fibrosis, people under treatment (anticoagulants) or with known allergies, and haemophiliacs. They would not be recommended either when needed in the context of employment and for traveling abroad. Training is essential to manage the successful implementation of a pharmacist-administered vaccination program (maintaining cold storage, monitoring, space allocation, vaccination administration process, preventive measures, quick recognition and management of anaphylactic chock…). PMID:23177558

  5. Arkansas State University Beebe Branch Faculty Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Univ., Beebe.

    Arkansas State University Beebe Branch provides a liberal arts oriented program for traditional and nontraditional students. Its faculty handbook contains institutional goals, description of responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty committees, faculty employment policies, and administrative and instructional policies. The…

  6. Redefining the Role of the Pharmacist: Medication Therapy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenrath, Peter; Woelfel, Joseph; Shek, Allen; Ordanza, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore better use of pharmacists in rural communities as a partial solution to scarcity of physicians and other health care providers. It discusses expected reduction in public subsidies for rural health care and the changing market for pharmacists. The paper emphasizes the use of pharmacists as a backdrop…

  7. Arkansas' Children: How Well Are They Doing? Arkansas Kids Count Data Book 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Sherryl M.; High, Rhonda L.

    This Kids Count data book is the fourth to examine the well-being of Arkansas' children and notes trends from 1990 to 1995. The report's introductory sections include discussions of the potential impact of welfare reform on Arkansas' children, and present figures detailing the number of children affected by particular risk factors each week. The…

  8. Antibiotics: Pharmacists Can Make the Difference

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-16

    In this podcast, a pharmacist counsels a frustrated father about appropriate antibiotic use and symptomatic relief options for his son's cold.  Created: 4/16/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  9. Effects of prescription adaptation by pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Carlo A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granting dispensing pharmacists the authority to prescribe has significant implications for pharmaceutical and health human resources policy, and quality of care. Despite the growing number of jurisdictions that have given pharmacists such privileges, there are few rigorous evaluations of these policy changes. This study will examine a January 2009 policy change in British Columbia (BC, Canada that allowed pharmacists to independently adapt and renew prescriptions. We hypothesize this policy increased drug utilization and drug costs, increased patient adherence to medication, and reduced total healthcare resource use. Methods/Design We will study a population-based cohort of approximately 4 million BC residents from 2004 through 2010. We will use data from BC PharmaNet on all of the prescriptions obtained by this cohort during the study period, and link it to administrative billings from physicians and hospital discharges. Using interrupted time series analysis, we will study longitudinal changes in drug utilization and costs, medication adherence, and short-term health care use. Further, using hierarchical modelling, we will examine the factors at the regional, pharmacy, patient, and prescription levels that are associated with prescription adaptations and renewals. Discussion In a recent survey of Canadian policymakers, many respondents ranked the issue of prescribing privileges as one of their most pressing policy questions. No matter the results of our study, they will be important for policymakers, as our data will make policy decisions surrounding pharmacist prescribing more evidence-based.

  10. Challenges in the management of chronic noncommunicable diseases by Indonesian community pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspitasari HP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explored factors influencing Indonesian primary care pharmacists’ practice in chronic noncommunicable disease management and proposed a model illustrating relationships among factors. Methods: We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with pharmacists working in community health centers (Puskesmas, n=5 and community pharmacies (apotek, n=15 in East Java Province. We interviewed participating pharmacists using Bahasa Indonesia to explore facilitators and barriers to their practice in chronic disease management. We audiorecorded all interviews, transcribed ad verbatim, translated into English and analyzed the data using an approach informed by “grounded-theory”. Results: We extracted five emergent themes/factors: pharmacists’ attitudes, Puskesmas/apotek environment, pharmacy education, pharmacy professional associations, and the government. Respondents believed that primary care pharmacists have limited roles in chronic disease management. An unfavourable working environment and perceptions of pharmacists’ inadequate knowledge and skills were reported by many as barriers to pharmacy practice. Limited professional standards, guidelines, leadership and government regulations coupled with low expectations of pharmacists among patients and doctors also contributed to their lack of involvement in chronic disease management. We present the interplay of these factors in our model. Conclusion: Pharmacists’ attitudes, knowledge, skills and their working environment appeared to influence pharmacists’ contribution in chronic disease management. To develop pharmacists’ involvement in chronic disease management, support from pharmacy educators, pharmacy owners, professional associations, the government and other stakeholders is required. Our findings highlight a need for systematic coordination between pharmacists and stakeholders to improve primary care pharmacists’ practice in Indonesia to achieve continuity of care.

  11. Electronic prescriptions and disruptions to the jurisdiction of community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Aude; Sicotte, Claude; Lamothe, Lise; Winslade, Nancy; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2011-07-01

    The practice of community pharmacists is being challenged by the appearance of electronic prescription (e-Rx) technology. This article examines the disruptions caused by e-Rx technology to the jurisdiction of community pharmacists based on a model developed from work by Abbott (1988). The main disruptions to professional activities were investigated by qualitative methods in a series of interviews with pharmacists and physicians separated in two groups: practitioners who tested a typical e-Rx technology and stakeholders involved in the implementation of this large-scale e-Rx project in Quebec, Canada. The findings suggest that the technology may disrupt the jurisdiction of community pharmacists, mainly by changing the distribution of information among physicians and community pharmacists. More specifically, the technology represents both a threat to community pharmacists - by supporting the dominant position held by physicians if it gives them access to information held exclusively by pharmacists - and an opportunity - by redistributing information to the pharmacists' benefit, allowing them to improve the quality of their inferences about medication. However, it would appear that the opportunities offered by the technology generate concerns and tensions, both between physicians and pharmacists and between the pharmacists themselves. This phenomenon may well work against the implementation and use of available tools.

  12. As percepções dos farmacêuticos sobre seu trabalho nas farmácias comunitárias em uma região do estado do Rio de Janeiro The pharmacist's perceptions about their job at communitarian pharmacies of the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Garcia Bastos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo compreender as percepções de farmacêuticos de farmácias comunitárias do estado do Rio de Janeiro sobre suas práticas profissionais e como estas poderiam estar relacionadas com a implantação da Atenção Farmacêutica. Foi desenvolvido um estudo qualitativo, com a realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas, posteriormente submetidas à análise de conteúdo baseada na análise temática das falas. A população de estudo foi composta por quinze farmacêuticos responsáveis técnicos de farmácias comunitárias do estado, com distribuição equânime segundo a seguinte tipologia: farmácias de rede estadual, de rede local e farmácias consideradas familiares, sem filiais. A categorização do discurso dos farmacêuticos mostrou, pelo menos, três convergências: as contínuas dificuldades da população quanto ao uso de medicamentos, certo deslocamento da prática, no sentido de (revalorizar o paciente, e um conhecimento bastante superficial do conceito de Atenção Farmacêutica. Faz-se necessário ampliar as reflexões sobre esse tema, de modo a identificar elementos que possam vir a garantir que a práxis farmacêutica se insira com complementaridade nos serviços de saúde.The aim of this study was to understand the pharmacist's perceptions that work at communitarian pharmacies from Rio de Janeiro about their professional practices and how this vision can be related to the practice implementation of Pharmaceutical Attention. A qualitative research was developed with the execution of semi-structured interviews; subsequently discourse was submitted to content analysis, through the thematic analysis. This research have been made with 15 pharmaceuticals of Rio de Janeiro state pharmacies with proportional distribution corresponding to the following typology: state pharmacy network; local network; and familiar, without branches. The speech classification which was made here has shown at least three

  13. Role of the pharmacist in parenteral nutrition therapy: challenges and opportunities to implement pharmaceutical care in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoue MG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists can provide beneficial pharmaceutical care services to patients receiving Parenteral Nutrition (PN therapy by working within Nutrition Support Teams (NSTs. Objective: This study was designed to explore pharmacists’ role in PN therapy in hospitals of Kuwait, sources of PN-related information, opinions on NSTs, perceptions about the barriers to pharmaceutical care implementation and views on how to enhance their practices. Methods: Data were collected via face-to-face semi-structured interviews with the senior Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN pharmacists at all the hospitals which provide TPN preparation services (six governmental hospitals and one private hospital in Kuwait. Descriptive statistics were used to describe pharmacists’ demographic details and practice site characteristics. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The pharmacists mainly performed technical tasks such as TPN compounding with minimal role in providing direct patient care. They used multiple different sources of TPN-related information to guide their practice. They reported positive and negative experiences with physicians depending on their practice environment. None of the hospitals had a functional NST. However, pharmacists expressed preference to work within NSTs due to the potential benefits of enhanced communication and knowledge exchange among practitioners and to improve service. Pharmacists perceived several barriers to providing pharmaceutical care including lack of reliable sources of TPN-related information, lack of a standard operating procedure for TPN across hospitals, insufficient staff, time constraints and poor communication between TPN pharmacists. To overcome these barriers, they recommended fostering pharmacists’ education on TPN, establishing national standards for TPN practices, provision of pharmacy staff, development of NSTs, enhancing TPN pharmacists

  14. [The pharmacist: health professional and citizen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Suely

    2008-04-01

    This text was presented at the V Congress on Pharmacy Care/Riopharma with the intent to approach some aspects important for discussing the role of the pharmacist as health professional and citizen capable of acting in society. To this purpose we decided to recall some of the cornerstones of the Brazilian health reform; the pressure of the industry on health professionals and regulatory agencies; the inequity in the distribution of medicaments among the different social classes. Some of the changes proposed in this paper are: to widen the role the pharmacist plays in pharmacotherapy; to prohibit drug advertising; a global and independent evaluation of the national regulatory agency; inclusion of information about medicament consumption during hospitalizations in the national databases. PMID:21936158

  15. Job sharing for women pharmacists in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kelly C; Finks, Shannon W

    2009-11-12

    The pharmacist shortage, increasing numbers of female pharmacy graduates, more pharmacy schools requiring faculty members, and a lower percentage of female faculty in academia are reasons to develop unique arrangements for female academic pharmacists who wish to work part-time. Job sharing is an example of a flexible alternative work arrangement that can be successful for academic pharmacists who wish to continue in a part-time capacity. Such partnerships have worked for other professionals but have not been widely adopted in pharmacy academia. Job sharing can benefit the employer through retention of experienced employees who collectively offer a wider range of skills than a single employee. Benefits to the employee include balanced work and family lives with the ability to maintain their knowledge and skills by remaining in the workforce. We discuss the additional benefits of job-sharing as well as our experience in a non-tenure track job-sharing position at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. PMID:19960092

  16. Virtual Pharmacist: A Platform for Pharmacogenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghai Cheng

    Full Text Available We present Virtual Pharmacist, a web-based platform that takes common types of high-throughput data, namely microarray SNP genotyping data, FASTQ and Variant Call Format (VCF files as inputs, and reports potential drug responses in terms of efficacy, dosage and toxicity at one glance. Batch submission facilitates multivariate analysis or data mining of targeted groups. Individual analysis consists of a report that is readily comprehensible to patients and practioners who have basic knowledge in pharmacology, a table that summarizes variants and potential affected drug response according to the US Food and Drug Administration pharmacogenomic biomarker labeled drug list and PharmGKB, and visualization of a gene-drug-target network. Group analysis provides the distribution of the variants and potential affected drug response of a target group, a sample-gene variant count table, and a sample-drug count table. Our analysis of genomes from the 1000 Genome Project underlines the potentially differential drug responses among different human populations. Even within the same population, the findings from Watson's genome highlight the importance of personalized medicine. Virtual Pharmacist can be accessed freely at http://www.sustc-genome.org.cn/vp or installed as a local web server. The codes and documentation are available at the GitHub repository (https://github.com/VirtualPharmacist/vp. Administrators can download the source codes to customize access settings for further development.

  17. Pharmacist involvement in a diabetic education centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitz, J; Birken, B; Ward, V

    1982-01-01

    During the past two years, a multi-discipline health team has been meeting with selected diabetic "problem" patients on a regular basis at the North York General Hospital (NYGH). The patients are referred to the programme by their physicians when they appear to be having difficulty handling or coping with their diabetes. The participants in the programme attend the Diabetic Education Centre (DEC) for one week as day patients in the hospital and are exposed to various types of counselling from members of the Diabetic Education Centre Team (DECT), one of which is the pharmacist. Follow-up from this week of intensive education is made at annual intervals. The main purpose of the pharmacist in the clinic is to provide information for the patients regarding their prescriptions and over the counter (OTC) medication. This is achieved by means of individual patient interviews and informal group discussions, as well as rounds with other team members and contact with patients' families. This programme provides a forum for the patient and the patient's family to obtain valid information about diabetes, as well as problems associated with the disease, and aids in coping with these problems. The team concept enables the patient to be analyzed by all disciplines in order to assess his teaching needs and fulfill them. The pharmacist is continually involved in this information system and plays a valuable role on the team. PMID:10257341

  18. Development and evaluation of a pharmacogenomics educational program for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formea, Christine M; Nicholson, Wayne T; McCullough, Kristen B; Berg, Kevin D; Berg, Melody L; Cunningham, Julie L; Merten, Julianna A; Ou, Narith N; Stollings, Joanna L

    2013-02-12

    Objectives. To evaluate hospital and outpatient pharmacists' pharmacogenomics knowledge before and 2 months after participating in a targeted, case-based pharmacogenomics continuing education program.Design. As part of a continuing education program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), pharmacists were provided with a fundamental pharmacogenomics education program.Evaluation. An 11-question, multiple-choice, electronic survey instrument was distributed to 272 eligible pharmacists at a single campus of a large, academic healthcare system. Pharmacists improved their pharmacogenomics test scores by 0.7 questions (pretest average 46%; posttest average 53%, p=0.0003).Conclusions. Although pharmacists demonstrated improvement, overall retention of educational goals and objectives was marginal. These results suggest that the complex topic of pharmacogenomics requires a large educational effort in order to increase pharmacists' knowledge and comfort level with this emerging therapeutic opportunity.

  19. Interventions by pharmacists in out-patient pharmaceutical care

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rahbi, Hussain Abdullah Mubarak; Al-Sabri, Raid Mahmood; Chitme, Havagiray R

    2013-01-01

    Interventions by the pharmacists have always been considered as a valuable input by the health care community in the patient care process by reducing the medication errors, rationalizing the therapy and reducing the cost of therapy. The primary objective of this study was to determine the number and types of medication errors intervened by the dispensing pharmacists at OPD pharmacy in the Khoula Hospital during 2009 retrospectively. The interventions filed by the pharmacists and assistant pha...

  20. Pharmacist independent prescribing in secondary care: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Richard S; Baqir, Wasim; Onatade, Raliat

    2016-02-01

    In recent years a number of countries have extended prescribing rights to pharmacists in a variety of formats. The latter includes independent prescribing, which is a developing area of practice for pharmacists in secondary care. Potential opportunities presented by wide scale implementation of pharmacist prescribing in secondary care include improved prescribing safety, more efficient pharmacist medication reviews, increased scope of practice with greater pharmacist integration into acute patient care pathways and enhanced professional or job satisfaction. However, notable challenges remain and these need to be acknowledged and addressed if a pharmacist prescribing is to develop sufficiently within developing healthcare systems. These barriers can be broadly categorised as lack of support (financial and time resources), medical staff acceptance and the pharmacy profession itself (adoption, implementation strategy, research resources, second pharmacist clinical check). Larger multicentre studies that investigate the contribution of hospital-based pharmacist prescribers to medicines optimisation and patient-related outcomes are still needed. Furthermore, a strategic approach from the pharmacy profession and leadership is required to ensure that pharmacist prescribers are fully integrated into future healthcare service and workforce strategies. PMID:26613738

  1. Pharmacist educators in family medicine residency programs: A qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgenson Derek

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 25-29% of North American family medicine residency programs utilize a pharmacist to teach residents. Little is known about the impact that these pharmacist educators have on residency training. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of residents, residency directors and pharmacists within Canadian family medicine residency programs that employ a pharmacist educator to better understand the impact of the role. Methods Recruitment from three cohorts (residents, residency directors, pharmacists within family medicine residency programs across Canada for one-on-one semi-structured interviews followed by thematic analysis of anonymized transcript data. Results 11 residents, 6 residency directors and 17 pharmacist educators participated in interviews. Data themes were: (1 strong value of the teaching with respect to improved resident knowledge, confidence and patient care delivery; (2 lack of a formal pharmacotherapy curriculum; (3 desire for expansion of pharmacist teaching; (4 impact of teaching on collaboration; (5 impact of teaching on residency program faculty; and (6 lack of criticism of the role. Conclusions The pharmacist educator role is valued within residency programs across Canada and the role has a positive impact on several important aspects of family medicine resident training. Suggestions for improvement focused on expanding the teaching role and on implementing a formal curriculum for pharmacist educators to follow.

  2. Pharmacist-led minor ailment programs: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeff Gordon; Joubert, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacists have a long history of helping Canadians with minor ailments. This often has involved management with over-the-counter medications. If pharmacists felt that the best care required something more robust, they would refer the patient to a physician. In hopes of improving the care of such ailments, Canadian provinces have granted pharmacists the option of selecting medications traditionally under physician control. This review examines the Canadian perspective on pharmacists prescribing for minor ailments and the evidence of value for these programs. It might provide guidance for other jurisdictions contemplating such a move. PMID:27570460

  3. Implementation of sequential therapy programmes--a pharmacist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, C

    1998-07-01

    Sequential antibiotic therapy has a number of advantages in terms of patient benefit and value for money in drug use. Introduction and maintenance of a process to ensure sequential therapy is multidisciplinary, involving clinicians, pharmacists, microbiologists and possibly nurses. The contribution of pharmacists is multi-faceted and involves senior and junior pharmacists working in a number of areas. Pharmacy managers will be involved at policy setting level through the Drug and Therapeutics committee and similar bodies. Purchasing and formulary pharmacists will be involved in negotiating purchasing agreements while clinical pharmacists provide data on the costs and outcomes of treatment. The drug information pharmacist is a valuable resource in searching and interpreting the available literature. Whatever system is used, clinical pharmacists have an important role in identifying patients and monitoring prescribing. In many schemes described in the literature, pharmacists have had an important role in auditing the effectiveness of sequential therapy. There may be scope for developing the clinical pharmacist's role further by devolving, under protocol, increased decision making and medicines management responsibilities. PMID:9756371

  4. What is the role of the pharmacist?: physicians' and nurses' perspectives in community and hospital settings of Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Niurka María Dupotey Varela; Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira; Caridad Sedeño Argilagos; Kisvel Oliveros Castro; Elisveidis Mosqueda Pérez; Yelina Hidalgo Clavel; Nelly Sánchez Bisset

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to understand the perceptions and expectations of the other health care professionals about pharmacists' role in primary health care centers and hospitals in Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, applying a self-administered questionnaire to health care professionals. The sample included 763 professionals (40.9% physicians and 59.1 % nurses) from hospitals and primary health care clinics, chosen by random stratified sampling,. T...

  5. Arkansas' Junior Executive Training Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Dean; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to help teachers conduct courses on small business management and entrepreneurship to high school seniors in Arkansas. The program focuses upon the managerial process, examining the functions of planning, organization, staffing, directing, and controlling as related to the activities and responsibilities of the…

  6. 78 FR 9448 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00061

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Arkansas Disaster AR-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  7. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Jean Creek. (vi) Then generally northeastward and eastward along Petit Jean Creek until it becomes the Petit Jean River (on the Russellville map). (vii) Then generally eastward along the Petit Jean River, flowing through Blue Mountain Lake, until the Petit Jean River joins the Arkansas River. (viii)...

  8. Rickettsiae in Gulf Coast Ticks, Arkansas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Trout, Rebecca; Steelman, C Dayton; Szalanski, Allen L.; Williamson, Phillip C

    2010-01-01

    To determine the cause of spotted fever cases in the southern United States, we screened Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) collected in Arkansas for rickettsiae. Of the screened ticks, 30% had PCR amplicons consistent with Rickettsia parkeri or Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii.

  9. Identifying sites for elk restoration in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesco, R.L.; Van Manen, F.T.; Clark, J.D.; Cartwright, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    We used spatial data to identify potential areas for elk (Cervus elaphus) restoration in Arkansas. To assess habitat, we used locations of 239 elk groups collected from helicopter surveys in the Buffalo National River area of northwestern Arkansas, USA, from 1992 to 2002. We calculated the Mahalanobis distance (D2) statistic based on the relationship between those elk-group locations and a suite of 9 landscape variables to evaluate winter habitat in Arkansas. We tested model performance in the Buffalo National River area by comparing the D2 values of pixels representing areas with and without elk pellets along 19 fixed-width transects surveyed in March 2002. Pixels with elk scat had lower D2 values than pixels in which we found no pellets (logistic regression: Wald χ2 = 24.37, P cover, gently sloping ridge tops and valleys, low human population density, and low road densities. To assess the potential for elk–human conflicts in Arkansas, we used the analytical hierarchy process to rank the importance of 8 criteria based on expert opinion from biologists involved in elk management. The biologists ranked availability of forage on public lands as having the strongest influence on the potential for elk–human conflict (33%), followed by human population growth rate (22%) and the amount of private land in row crops (18%). We then applied those rankings in a weighted linear summation to map the relative potential for elk–human conflict. Finally, we used white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities to identify areas where success of elk restoration may be hampered due to meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) transmission. By combining results of the 3 spatial data layers (i.e., habitat model, elk–human conflict model, deer density), our model indicated that restoration sites located in west-central and north-central Arkansas were most favorable for reintroduction.

  10. Do community pharmacists have the attitudes and knowledge to support evidence based self-management of low back pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waddell Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, community pharmacists can be consulted without appointment in a large number of convenient locations. They are in an ideal position to give advice to patients at the onset of low back pain and also reinforce advice given by other healthcare professionals. There is little specific information about the quality of care provided in the pharmacy for people with back pain. The main objectives of this survey were to determine the attitudes, knowledge and reported practice of English pharmacists advising people who present with acute or chronic low back pain. Methods A questionnaire was designed for anonymous self-completion by pharmacists attending continuing education sessions. Demographic questions were designed to allow comparison with a national pharmacy workforce survey. Attitudes were measured with the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ and questions based on the Working Backs Scotland campaign. Questions about the treatment of back pain in the community pharmacy were written (or adapted to reflect and characterise the nature of practice. In response to two clinical vignettes, respondents were asked to select proposals that they would recommend in practice. Results 335 responses from community pharmacists were analysed. Middle aged pharmacists, women, pharmacy managers and locums were over-represented compared to registration and workforce data. The mean (SD BBQ score for the pharmacists was 31.37 (5.75, which was slightly more positive than in similar surveys of other groups. Those who had suffered from back pain seem to demonstrate more confidence (fewer negative feelings, more advice opportunities and better advice provision in their perception of advice given in the pharmacy. Awareness of written information that could help to support practice was low. Reponses to the clinical vignettes were generally in line with the evidence base. Pharmacists expressed some caution about recommending activity. Most

  11. 78 FR 5202 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Arkansas State University Museum... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Arkansas State University Museum....

  12. 78 FR 5199 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Arkansas State University Museum... associated funerary objects may contact the Arkansas State University Museum. Repatriation of the...

  13. Interaction between community pharmacists and community nurses in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Veronica M

    2016-04-01

    There has been little research that explores the interaction between community pharmacists and community nurses and how this interaction could benefit people affected by dementia. Using information taken from a larger study, this article presents the views of community pharmacists and one community nurse on how their communication, information sharing and team integration may improve care for this patient group. The community pharmacists reported positive attitudes to supporting people affected by dementia, but they highlighted barriers to integrated team working. In contrast, the community nurse conveyed the belief that the community pharmacist was an integrated member of the community health team. Community pharmacists and community nurses are keen to interact with each other to support people affected by dementia, but this interaction stops short of collaborative, integrated team working. Further research is needed to address this issue.

  14. Pharmacists belong in accountable care organizations and integrated care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie; Bates, David W; Bodenheimer, Thomas S

    2013-11-01

    Effective health care workforce development requires the adoption of team-based care delivery models, in which participating professionals practice at the full extent of their training in pursuit of care quality and cost goals. The proliferation of such new models as medical homes, accountable care organizations, and community-based care teams is creating new opportunities for pharmacists to assume roles and responsibilities commensurate with their capabilities. Some challenges to including pharmacists in team-based care delivery models, including the lack of payment mechanisms that explicitly provide for pharmacist services, have yet to be fully addressed by policy makers and others. Nevertheless, evolving models and strategies reveal a variety of ways to draw on pharmacists' expertise in such critical areas as medication management for high-risk patients. As Affordable Care Act provisions are implemented, health care workforce projections need to consider the growing number of pharmacists expected to play an increasing role in delivering primary care services.

  15. Benefits of Pharmacist's Participation on Hospitalist Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdikhani, Simin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-02-01

    This study was performed to assess the incidence of medication errors and irrational use of human albumin in two wards of our hospital and also aimed to evaluate the ability of pharmaceutical care center and pharmacists in improving patient care. Albumin administration was evaluated for patients who received albumin during the study period, in gastroenterology and general surgery wards. The indications for Albumin administration were evaluated on the basis of reliable guidelines. The prescribing errors were simultaneously evaluated by reviewing patients' medical records. Prescribing errors were defined as selecting improper drug (based on indications, contraindications, known allergies, drug-class duplications and drug-drug interactions), dose, dosage form, and route of administration. It was found that 465 containers of human albumin solution 20 % were used for 54 patients treated in gastroenterology and general surgery wards of our hospital. A total of 306 (65.81%) vials of the albumin administrations were in concordance with the reliable protocol. The cost of irrational use of this drug (159 vials) for patients is equivalent to $ 8215. From 609 reviewed cases, 81 prescribing errors were detected in 64 patients. This study showed that the pharmacists were effective in identifying irrational drug use and medication errors. PMID:26997602

  16. Time of travel of selected Arkansas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Between 1971 and 1981, time-of-travel and dispersion measurements were made in 15 streams in Arkansas. Most of the streams studied were at or near base flow. Graphs are presented for predicting traveltime of solutes in segments of the streams studied. The relationship of time of passage and peak unit concentration to traveltime is presented for two of the streams. Examples of use and application of the data are given. (USGS)

  17. 10 CFR 35.55 - Training for an authorized nuclear pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training for an authorized nuclear pharmacist. 35.55... Administrative Requirements § 35.55 Training for an authorized nuclear pharmacist. Except as provided in § 35.57, the licensee shall require the authorized nuclear pharmacist to be a pharmacist who— (a) Is...

  18. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists – an Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Hoti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professionalpractice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australianpharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-countermedications. This review aims to identify Australian studiesinvolving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing.Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacistprescribing were identified and considered in the context ofits implementation internationally. Australian studies havemainly focused on the attitudes of community and hospitalpharmacists towards such an expansion. Studies evaluatingthe views of Australian consumers and pharmacy clients werealso considered. The available Australian literature indicatedsupport from pharmacists and pharmacy clients for anexpanded pharmacist prescribing role, with preference fordoctors retaining a primary role in diagnosis. Australianpharmacists and pharmacy client’s views were also inagreement in terms of other key issues surrounding expandedpharmacist prescribing. These included the nature of anexpanded prescribing model, the need for additional trainingfor pharmacists and the potential for pharmacy clients gainingimproved medication access, which could be achieved withinan expanded role that pharmacists could provide. Currentevidence from studies conducted in Australia providesvaluable insight to relevant policymakers on the issue ofpharmacist prescribing in order to move the agenda ofpharmacist prescribing forwards.

  19. Key Value Considerations for Consultant Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lee; Perry, Ronald G; Rhodus, Susan M; Stearns, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Managing the efficiency and costs of residents' drug regimens outside the acute-care hospital and through transitions of care requires a toolbox filled with cost-control tools and careful collaboration among the pharmacy provider(s), facility staff, and the consultant/senior care pharmacist. This article will provide the reader with key long-term care business strategies that affect the profitability of the pharmacy provider in various care settings while, at the same time, ensuring optimal therapy for residents as they transition across levels of care. Readers can take away ideas on how to access critical information, what they can do with this information, and how they can improve the overall care process. Four experts in various aspects of pharmacy management share their insights on pharmacy practice issues including formulary management, performance metrics, short-cycle dispensing challenges/solutions, cost-control measures, facility surveys, billing practices, medication reconciliation, prospective medication reviews, and transitions of care. PMID:27412312

  20. Influence of pharmacists' opinions on their dispensing medicines without requirement of a doctor's prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Caamaño

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of pharmacists' opinions on their dispensing medicines with a «medical prescription only» label without requiring a doctor's prescription. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 166 community pharmacies in northwest Spain. The opinions of pharmacists on the following were collected as independent variables through personal interview: a physicians' prescribing practices; b the pharmacist's qualifications to prescribe; c the responsibility of the pharmacist regarding the dispensed drugs; d the customer' qualifications for self-medication; and e the pharmacist's perception of his or her own work. The dependent variable was the pharmacist's demand for a medical prescription for 5 drugs, which in Spain require a prescription. Multiple linear regression models were constructed. Results: The response rate was 98.8%. A total of 65.9% of pharmacists reported dispensing antibiotics without a prescription. This percentage was 83.5% for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 46.3% for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 13.4% for benzodiazepines, and 84.8% for oral contraceptives. Further results showed that pharmacists with a heavier workload and those who underestimated the physicians' qualifications to prescribe but overestimated their own qualifications to prescribe less frequently demanded medical prescriptions. In contrast, pharmacists who stressed the importance of their duty in rationalizing the consumption of drugs more frequently demanded medical prescriptions. Conclusion: Our results suggest that to increase the quality of dispensing: a the importance of the pharmacist's duty in controlling drug consumption should be stressed; b pharmacies' workload should be optimized; and c perceptions of physicians' prescribing practices among pharmacists should be improved.Objetivo: Evaluar la influencia de las opiniones de los farmacéuticos que no solicitan receta médica para dispensar fármacos que la

  1. Pharmacists' documentation in patients' hospital health records: Issues and educational implications

    OpenAIRE

    Pullinger, W.; Franklin, B. D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to identify potential barriers to hospital pharmacists' documentation in patients' hospital health records, and to explore pharmacists' training needs. Our objectives were to identify the methods used by pharmacists to communicate and document patient care issues, to explore pharmacists' attitudes towards documentation of patient care issues in health records, to identify and examine the factors influencing whether or not pharmacists document their care in health records a...

  2. An exploration of the role of pharmacists within general practice clinics: the protocol for the pharmacists in practice study (PIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Edwin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication-related problems are a serious concern in Australian primary care. Pharmacist interventions have been shown to be effective in identifying and resolving these problems. Collaborative general practitioner-pharmacist services currently available in Australia are limited and underused. Limitations include geographical isolation of pharmacists and lack of communication and access to patient information. Co-location of pharmacists within the general practice clinics is a possible solution. There have been no studies in the Australian setting exploring the role of pharmacists within general practice clinics. The aim of this study is to develop and test a multifaceted practice pharmacist role in primary care practices to improve the quality use of medicines by patients and clinic staff. Methods/design This is a multi-centre, prospective intervention study with a pre-post design and a qualitative component. A practice pharmacist will be located in each of two clinics and provide short and long patient consultations, drug information services and quality assurance activities. Patients receiving long consultation with a pharmacist will be followed up at 3 and 6 months. Based on sample size calculations, at least 50 patients will be recruited for long patient consultations across both sites. Outcome measures include the number, type and severity of medication-related problems identified and resolved; medication adherence; and patient satisfaction. Brief structured interviews will be conducted with patients participating in the study to evaluate their experiences with the service. Staff collaboration and satisfaction with the service will be assessed. Discussion This intervention has the potential to optimise medication use in primary care clinics leading to better health outcomes. This study will provide data about the effectiveness of the proposed model for pharmacist involvement in Australian general practice clinics

  3. Innovative medical devices and hospital decision making: a study comparing the views of hospital pharmacists and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaux, Mathilde; Borget, Isabelle; Prognon, Patrice; Pineau, Judith; Martelli, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Many university hospitals have developed local health technology assessment processes to guide informed decisions about new medical devices. However, little is known about stakeholders' perceptions and assessment of innovative devices. Herein, we investigated the perceptions regarding innovative medical devices of their chief users (physicians and surgeons), as well as those of hospital pharmacists, because they are responsible for the purchase and management of sterile medical devices. We noted the evaluation criteria used to assess and select new medical devices and suggestions for improving local health technology assessment processes indicated by the interviewees. Methods We randomly selected 18 physicians and surgeons (nine each) and 18 hospital pharmacists from 18 French university hospitals. Semistructured interviews were conducted between October 2012 and August 2013. Responses were coded separately by two researchers. Results Physicians and surgeons frequently described innovative medical devices as 'new', 'safe' and 'effective', whereas hospital pharmacists focused more on economic considerations and considered real innovative devices to be those for which no equivalent could be found on the market. No significant difference in evaluation criteria was found between these groups of professionals. Finally, hospital pharmacists considered the management of conflicts of interests in local health technology assessment processes to be an issue, whereas physicians and surgeons did not. Conclusions The present study highlights differences in perceptions related to professional affiliation. The findings suggest several ways in which current practices for local health technology assessment in French university hospitals could be improved and studied. What is known about the topic? Hospitals are faced with ever-growing demands for innovative and costly medical devices. To help hospital management deal with technology acquisition issues, hospital

  4. Success For Arkansas: Success for All Schools In Arkansas Continue Gains On Benchmark Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Success for All Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Success for All is the most extensively researched of all comprehensive reform models for Title I elementary schools. It incorporates scientifically based principles of reading, cooperative learning, professional development, tutoring, and family support. Arkansas elementary schools using the Success for All reading program continued to make …

  5. A Look at Arkansas' Children: Arkansas Kids Count Data Book 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Sherryl M.; High, Rhonda L.

    This Kids Count data book provides information on indicators of the well-being of Arkansas' children. The report's introduction discusses factors contributing to increased attention to children and families, the need for broad-based community collaborations to address children and family needs, and cultural changes influencing families. Data…

  6. 75 FR 44982 - Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and Long-Term Excess Capacity Master Contract, Fryingpan-Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ..., Fryingpan-Arkansas Project (Fry-Ark Project) Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... proposed feature of the Fryingpan-Arkansas (Fry-Ark) Project, and the issuance of an Excess Capacity Master...-Ark Project water in Pueblo Reservoir, a feature of the Fry-Ark Project. The water would be used...

  7. The historical study of an ethics for American pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, K; Okuda, J

    1999-01-01

    The Code of Ethics for pharmacists clarifies the standards of professional conduct. The code should be positively enforced in every country, and must play its role as the conduct standard for pharmacists at all times. American pharmacists did not suddenly become ethical in the 1980s. An appreciation of the importance of professional ethics has a long history starting when the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy adopted a Code of Ethics in 1848. Since the first legislation of the American Pharmacy Code of Ethics as far back as 1852, the code has been revised in 1922, 1952, 1969, 1981 and 1994. The term of between revisions has gotten shorter over the years, reflecting the change in the status and the proficiency of pharmacists in 146 years. Its historical meaning is quite significant. PMID:11623965

  8. Pharmacist conscience clauses and access to oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, D P

    2008-07-01

    The introduction of conscience clauses after the 1973 US Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade allowed physicians and nurses to opt out of medical procedures, particularly abortions, to which they were morally opposed. In recent years pharmacists have requested the same consideration with regard to dispensing some medicines. This paper examines the pharmacists' role and their professional and moral obligations to patients in the light of recent refusals by pharmacists to dispense oral contraceptives. A review of John Rawls's concepts of the "original position" and the "veil of ignorance", along with consideration of the concept of compartmentalisation, are used to assess pharmacists' requests and the moral and legal rights of patients to have their prescriptive needs met.

  9. Code of Ethics for Pharmacists – Pharmaceutical Chamber of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra

    2015-01-01

    Code of ethics represents the principles that form the fundamental basis of the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists in pharmaceutical practice. According to pharmacy practice, pharmacists are confirmed as healthcare professionals with unique knowledge, skills and responsibilities for safe and efficient medication therapy management in order to optimize therapeutic outcomes. The scope of pharmacy practice includes technical aspects of pharmaceutical services, the preparation of p...

  10. Emerging Roles for Pharmacists in Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Obeng, Aniwaa; WEITZEL, KRISTIN W.; Hatton, Randy C.; Staley, Benjamin J.; Ashton, Jennifer; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Johnson, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacists are uniquely qualified to play essential roles in the clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics. However, specific responsibilities and resources needed for these roles have not been defined. We describe roles for pharmacists that emerged in the clinical implementation of genotype-guided clopidogrel therapy in the University of Florida Health Personalized Medicine Program, summarize preliminary program results, and discuss education, training, and resources needed to support suc...

  11. Pharmacist-led minor ailment programs: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jeff; Joubert,Ray

    2016-01-01

    Jeff Gordon Taylor,1 Ray Joubert,2 1College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 2Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy Professionals, Regina, SK, Canada Abstract: Pharmacists have a long history of helping Canadians with minor ailments. This often has involved management with over-the-counter medications. If pharmacists felt that the best care required something more robust, they would refer the patient to a physician. In hopes of improving the care of such ailments, ...

  12. Optimizing Prophylactic Antibiotic Practice for Cardiothoracic Surgery by Pharmacists' Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Ma, Jingjing; Gao, Jie; Chen, Shiqi; Bao, Jianan

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacists' role may be ideal for improving rationality of drug prescribing practice. We aimed to study the impact of multifaceted pharmacist interventions on antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing clean or clean-contaminated operations in cardiothoracic department. A pre-test-post-test quasiexperimental study was conducted in a cardiothoracic ward at a tertiary teaching hospital in Suzhou, China. Patients admitted to the ward were collected as baseline group (2011.7-2012.12) and intervention group (2013.7-2014.12), respectively. The criteria of prophylaxis antibiotic utilization were established on the basis of the published guidelines and official documents. During the intervention phase, a dedicated pharmacist was assigned and multifaceted interventions were implemented in the ward. Then we compared the differences in antibiotic utilization, bacterial resistance, clinical and economic outcomes between the 2 groups. Furthermore, patients were collected after the intervention (2015.1-2015.6) to evaluate the sustained effects of pharmacist interventions. 412 and 551 patients were included in the baseline and intervention groups, while 156 patients in postintervention group, respectively. Compared with baseline group, a significant increase was found in the proportion of antibiotic prophylaxis, the proportion of rational antibiotic selection, the proportion of suitable prophylactic antibiotic duration, and the proportion of suitable timing of administration of the first preoperative dose (P pharmacist intervention resulted in favorable outcomes with significantly decreased rates of surgical site infections, prophylactic antibiotic cost, and significantly shortened length of stay (P Pharmacist interventions in cardiothoracic surgery result in a high adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines and a profound culture change in drug prescribing with favorable outcomes. The effects of pharmacist intervention are sustained and the role of pharmacists is

  13. [Specialist pharmacist training from the viewpoint of sports pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashi, Kumiko

    2012-01-01

    When athletes consult sports outpatient or orthopedic clinics it is possible to undergo drug treatment with the medical staff having prior knowledge of that patient being an athlete. However, if athletes seek any other diagnosis and treatment as an ordinary patient, the possibility of medical staff realizing the potential for imposing a doping issue on the athlete is extremely low. As a result, if the athlete fails to provide medical staff with information regarding anti-doping regulations when receiving clinical treatment, drug treatment administered as part of medical practices could be viewed as doping, resulting in the athlete being disciplined. In order to avoid this, pharmacist should participate in training in order to be able to provide information for anti-doping purposes. It is my personal opinion that knowledge regarding anti-doping is something that should be shared by all pharmacists, as pharmacists are educated in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics during the pharmacy education process, and sports pharmacology is a part of this. However, in order for pharmacists to understand sports pharmacology, it is necessary to provide education not only on the benefits and adverse effects of pharmaceutical products, but also on the concept of banned substances. It can be considered one of the pharmacist's duties to protect athletes who purchase drugs at a pharmacy or consult medical institutions as patients. With this, I would like to propose considering the potential for introducing sports pharmacology to pharmaceutical education, and specialist pharmacist training in the sports spectrum.

  14. Advantages of a Warfarin Protocol for Long-term Care Pharmacists: a Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Randall; Brocklebank, Cynthia; Tam-Tham, Helen; Williamson, Tyler; Quail, Patrick; Turner, Diana; Drummond, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Warfarin is an anticoagulant prescribed to 12% of long-term care residents to reduce the risk of thrombo-embolism. This study used indicators to compare warfarin management by pharmacists to usual care. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study comparing a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol with usual care of qualified warfarin recipients at long-term care facilities (two protocol, one control) in Calgary, Alberta. We compared the proportion of international normalized ratio (INR) tests in the range 2.0 to 3.0, time in range, number of tests, and frequency of bleeding at protocol and control sites. Our primary outcome, time in INR therapeutic range, is an indicator for assuring care quality. A cross-sectional survey at these sites compared health professionals’ perceptions of workload and effectiveness of warfarin management. Results Of the 197 residents’ charts reviewed in the study period, those on protocol had 45.0 INR tests while those on usual care had 52.7 tests (p = .034, 95% CI for the difference: 0.6 to 14.6 INR tests). No significant difference was found for time in therapeutic range, number of tests in range, or major bleeding events. Of 178 health professionals surveyed, those from protocol facilities were more satisfied with warfarin management (p = .013). Workload and safety were perceived similarly at all sites. Interpretation Our results suggest that a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol is as effective as usual care and has advantages pertaining to work satisfaction, knowledge of drug interactions, consistent documentation, and fewer INR tests. Further research on teamwork and coagulation management in long-term care facilities is recommended. PMID:27403212

  15. Arkansas' Anemometer Loan Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Vego

    2012-10-11

    The measurement campaign had one year duration from 04/01/2011 to 03/31/2012 and was taken at 20m and 34m with NRG instrumentation. The data was analyzed weekly to check inconsistencies and validity and processed using Excel, Flexpro and Windographer standard Edition Version 2.04. The site analyzed is located in the Waldron, Arkansas in Scott County. It is an open site for most of the direction sectors with immediate roughness class of 1.5. It has seasonally directional winds, of which the most energetic come from the southern direction. The vertical wind profile shows moderate wind shear that varies by season as well.

  16. Maslach Burnout Inventory: factor structures for pharmacists in health maintenance organizations and comparison with normative data for USA pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupchup, G V; Lively, B T; Holiday-Goodman, M; Siganga, W W; Black, C D

    1994-06-01

    This study compared the factor structure and burnout scores obtained on the Maslach Burnout Inventory from 84 pharmacists in Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO) with the normative data for USA pharmacists. Results provided empirical support for the reliability and validity of the inventory to measure burnout within the profession of pharmacy. Values of Cronbach coefficient alpha for subscales of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment were similar to those obtained with the normative sample. Factor analysis was conducted to yield the best three-factor solution. Derived factor loadings matched the three hypothesized subscales. On Personal Accomplishment the mean subscale score for HMO pharmacists was significantly higher than the normative score. Given limitations of the small sample, research is indicated to substantiate use of the inventory among HMO pharmacists.

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY SERVICES BY PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  18. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Isaac

    Full Text Available Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists' perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy.Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software.Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients.This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future

  19. Emerging roles for pharmacists in clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Obeng, Aniwaa; Weitzel, Kristin W; Hatton, Randy C; Staley, Benjamin J; Ashton, Jennifer; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M; Johnson, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacists are uniquely qualified to play essential roles in the clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics. However, specific responsibilities and resources needed for these roles have not been defined. We describe roles for pharmacists that emerged in the clinical implementation of genotype-guided clopidogrel therapy in the University of Florida Health Personalized Medicine Program, summarize preliminary program results, and discuss education, training, and resources needed to support such programs. Planning for University of Florida Health Personalized Medicine Program began in summer 2011 under leadership of a pharmacist, with clinical launch in June 2012 of a clopidogrel-CYP2C19 pilot project aimed at tailoring antiplatelet therapies for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and stent placement. More than 1000 patients were genotyped in the pilot project in year 1. Essential pharmacist roles and responsibilities that developed and/or emerged required expertise in pharmacy informatics (development of clinical decision support in the electronic medical record), medication safety, medication-use policies and processes, development of group and individual educational strategies, literature analysis, drug information, database management, patient care in targeted areas, logistical issues in genetic testing and follow-up, research and ethical issues, and clinical precepting. In the first 2 years of the program (1 year planning and 1 year postimplementation), a total of 14 different pharmacists were directly and indirectly involved, with effort levels ranging from a few hours per month, to 25-30% effort for the director and associate director, to nearly full-time for residents. Clinical pharmacists are well positioned to implement clinical pharmacogenomics programs, with expertise in pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics, informatics, and patient care. Education, training, and practice-based resources are needed to support these roles and to

  20. Emerging Roles for Pharmacists in Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Obeng, Aniwaa; Weitzel, Kristin W.; Hatton, Randy C.; Staley, Benjamin J.; Ashton, Jennifer; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M.; Johnson, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacists are uniquely qualified to play essential roles in the clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics. However, specific responsibilities and resources needed for these roles have not been defined. We describe roles for pharmacists that emerged in the clinical implementation of genotype-guided clopidogrel therapy in the University of Florida Health Personalized Medicine Program, summarize preliminary program results, and discuss education, training, and resources needed to support such programs. Planning for University of Florida Health Personalized Medicine Program began in summer 2011 under leadership of a pharmacist, with clinical launch in June 2012 of a clopidogrel-CYP2C19 pilot project aimed at tailoring antiplatelet therapies for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and stent placement. More than 1000 patients were genotyped in the pilot project in year 1. Essential pharmacist roles and responsibilities that developed and/or emerged required expertise in pharmacy informatics (development of clinical decision support in the electronic medical record), medication safety, medication-use policies and processes, development of group and individual educational strategies, literature analysis, drug information, database management, patient care in targeted areas, logistical issues in genetic testing and follow-up, research and ethical issues, and clinical precepting. In the first 2 years of the program (1 year planning and 1 year postimplementation), a total of 14 different pharmacists were directly and indirectly involved, with effort levels ranging from a few hours per month, to 25–30% effort for the director and associate director, to nearly full-time for residents. Clinical pharmacists are well positioned to implement clinical pharmacogenomics programs, with expertise in pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics, informatics, and patient care. Education, training, and practice-based resources are needed to support these roles and to

  1. Dispensing physicians and prescribing pharmacists: economic considerations for the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M; Bond, C

    1994-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the number of dispensing physicians in the UK. There have also been suggestions that legislation restricting certain drugs to prescription-only availability should be relaxed and that pharmacists should take a more active role in the provision of drugs. General medical practitioners and pharmacists have common ancestry in the medieval spicers, who dispensed medicines and offered medical advice. Rural practitioners have been allowed to dispense drugs since 1911. Physician dispensing can benefit patients via savings in time and the monetary cost of visiting a pharmacist, but it restricts drug choice, can compromise safety, and encourages overprescribing except for physicians with drugs budgets. The effects of physician dispensing on government costs are not yet clear. Over-the-counter (OTC) purchase can save patients the cost of a physician visit and reduce drug costs to some patients, but it can also provide an incentive to pharmacists to profit twice from a drug, at government expense. Switching drugs from prescription-only to OTC reduces the government drug bill, but provides an incentive to pharmacists to overprescribe, and may not be as safe for patients. Liberalising prescribing by doctors would discourage community pharmacies which provide an advisory service to patients. Liberalising OTC switches would reduce opportunistic assessment of patients by doctors and could compromise patient safety. Separation of physician and pharmacist functions is probably safer for patients. It is concluded that the current situation in the UK, whereby most dispensing is done by pharmacists, is the preferred option other than for those patients who do not live within easy access of a pharmacy. A reassessment of the legal status of drugs and subsequent OTC switch of drugs used to treat minor self-limiting illnesses is also favoured. PMID:10146862

  2. Evaluation of Clinical and Communication Skills of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urteaga, Elizabeth M; Attridge, Rebecca L; Tovar, John M; Witte, Amy P

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains.

  3. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvajal MJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods: A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500 and hospital (n = 500 settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings.Results: Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusion: This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries.

  4. Small Works in Arkansas: How Poverty and the Size of Schools and School Districts Affect School Performance in Arkansas. Summary of Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural School and Community Trust, Washington, DC.

    A study examined how Arkansas students' achievement is related to poverty, school and district size, and the interaction between these factors. Achievement test scores from grades 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9 in all Arkansas schools were supplied by the Arkansas Department of Education. Poverty levels were determined by percentage of students receiving…

  5. Aquifers of Arkansas: protection, management, and hydrologic and geochemical characteristics of groundwater resources in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Merriman, Katherine R.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Fugitt, D. Todd; Spellman, Jane L.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Blackstock, Joshua M.; Battreal, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen aquifers in Arkansas that currently serve or have served as sources of water supply are described with respect to existing groundwater protection and management programs, geology, hydrologic characteristics, water use, water levels, deductive analysis, projections of hydrologic conditions, and water quality. State and Federal protection and management programs are described according to regulatory oversight, management strategies, and ambient groundwater-monitoring programs that currently (2013) are in place for assessing and protecting groundwater resources throughout the State.

  6. Applying the guidelines for pharmacists integrating into primary care teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Arden R.; Pammett, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2013, Jorgenson et al. published guidelines for pharmacists integrating into primary care teams. These guidelines outlined 10 evidence-based recommendations designed to support pharmacists in successfully establishing practices in primary care environments. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed, practical approach to implementing these recommendations in real life, thereby aiding to validate their effectiveness. Methods: Both authors reviewed the guidelines independently and ranked the importance of each recommendation respective to their practice. Each author then provided feedback for each recommendation regarding the successes and challenges they encountered through implementation. This feedback was then consolidated into agreed upon statements for each recommendation. Results and Discussion: Focusing on building relationships (with an emphasis on face time) and demonstrating value to both primary care providers and patients were identified as key aspects in developing these new roles. Ensuring that the environment supports the practice, along with strategic positioning within the clinic, improves uptake and can maximize the usefulness of a pharmacist in primary care. Demonstrating consistent and competent clinical and documentation skills builds on the foundation of the other recommendations to allow for the effective provision of clinical pharmacy services. Additional recommendations include developing efficient ways (potentially provider specific) to communicate with primary care providers and addressing potential preconceived notions about the role of the pharmacist in primary care. Conclusion: We believe these guidelines hold up to real-life integration and emphatically recommend their use for new and existing primary care pharmacists.

  7. School Pharmacist/School Environmental Hygienic Activities at School Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The "School Health and Safety Act" was enforced in April 2009 in Japan, and "school environmental health standards" were established by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In Article 24 of the Enforcement Regulations, the duties of the school pharmacist have been clarified; school pharmacists have charged with promoting health activities in schools and carrying out complete and regular checks based on the "school environmental health standards" in order to protect the health of students and staff. In supported of this, the school pharmacist group of Japan Pharmaceutical Association has created and distributed digital video discs (DVDs) on "check methods of school environmental health standards" as support material. We use the DVD to ensure the basic issues that school pharmacists deal with, such as objectives, criteria, and methods for each item to be checked, advice, and post-measures. We conduct various workshops and classes, and set up Q&A committees so that inquiries from members are answered with the help of such activities. In addition, school pharmacists try to improve the knowledge of the school staff on environmental hygiene during their in-service training. They also conduct "drug abuse prevention classes" at school and seek to improve knowledge and recognition of drugs, including "dangerous drugs". PMID:27252053

  8. Impact of Self Efficacy on Innovative Behaviour Pharmacist in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri M. Wahyuningrum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are always required in order to improve the quality of service in accordance with professional standards in accordance with their code of ethics. Therefore, health workers in hospitals, especially pharmacists, are required to continuously improve its service to the community. To improve health services to the community, then the pharmacist must interact and be accepted by other professional health personnel in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of self-efficacy pharmacist in a hospital organization that became an impact on innovative behavior. This study used an obsevational quantitative measurement using questionnaire instrument. The results measured by number consist of value, rank, and frequencies were analyzed using statistics software smartPLS to answer the research question or hypothesis to predict a particular variable affects another variable. The results showed that effect between self-efficacy of behavioral innovations in the hospital pharmacist significantly different. A pharmacist who has high self-efficacy will obviously have the higher innovation behavior in hospitals.

  9. [Covariance structure analysis of pharmacists' attitudes toward medication history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Shimamori, Yoshimitu

    2011-01-01

    Keeping track of patients' medication histories is an important component of pharmacy practice. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey on medication histories among pharmacists and performed covariance structure analysis to investigate pharmacists' attitudes toward medication histories. The survey was conducted among pharmacists who work at pharmacies. With regard to the questions on medication histories, factor analysis and covariance structure analysis were performed to create a path diagram. The response rate to the questionnaire was 97.0%. The factor analysis revealed six factors, including: "patient assessment", "learning attitude", "practicing the recording of medication histories", "conscious effort to improve medication histories", "uniformity in medication histories" and "issues regarding medication histories". Meanwhile, covariance structure analysis revealed that the five-factor model excluding "issues regarding medication histories" was the best-fitted model. According to this model, it was clear that the pharmacists were extremely conscious about introducing improvements to the content of medication histories. In this study, covariance structure analysis enabled the effective analysis of the attitudes of pharmacists toward medication histories. We believe that creating and conducting a training program to clarify and resolve issues related to medication histories and then reviewing the outcome of such a training program will lead to quality improvement and standardization of the future management of medication histories. PMID:21532278

  10. Final Critical Habitat for the Arkansas River Shiner (Notropis girardi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Arkansas River Shiner (Notropis girardi) occur. The geographic extent includes New...

  11. Central Arkansas National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Central Arkansas NWR Complex for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Complex...

  12. 76 FR 44031 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050, Presidentially Declared Disaster... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  13. [Arkansas annual winter goose survey: December 10 & 11, 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A table presents data gathered during the goose survey in Arkansas. Numbers of Canada Geese, Whitefronted Geese, resident geese, and BlueSnow Geese are included.

  14. [Arkansas annual winter goose survey: December 11 - 15, 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A table presents data gathered during the goose survey in Arkansas. Numbers of Canada Geese, Whitefronted Geese, resident geese, and BlueSnow Geese are included.

  15. Fitness-for-duty program at Arkansas nuclear one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key events at Arkansas Power and Light Co. (AP and L) the fitness for duty (FFD) program since January 1981 are outlined. The sequential interface and impact of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) ruling, of the Edison Electric Institute (EEI)-published guidelines, and of the NUMARC commitment have played a key role in the continuing evolution of the FFD program at Arkansas Nuclear One (ANO). The major elements of the FFD program, difficulties encountered, and successful results are described

  16. Internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain: what do registration data tell us about their recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassell Karen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally trained health professionals are an important part of the domestic workforce, but little is known about pharmacists who come to work in Great Britain. Recent changes in the registration routes onto the Register of Pharmacists of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain may have affected entries from overseas: reciprocal arrangements for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand ended in June 2006; 10 new states joined the European Union in 2004 and a further two in 2007, allowing straightforward registration. Aims The aims of the paper are to extend our knowledge about the extent to which Great Britain is relying on the contribution of internationally trained pharmacists and to explore their routes of entry and demographic characteristics and compare them to those of pharmacists trained in Great Britain. Methods The August 2007 Register of Pharmacists provided the main data for analysis. Register extracts between 2002 and 2005 were also explored, allowing longitudinal comparison, and work pattern data from the 2005 Pharmacist Workforce Census were included. Results In 2007, internationally trained pharmacists represented 8.8% of the 43 262 registered pharmacists domiciled in Great Britain. The majority (40.6% had joined the Register from Europe; 33.6% and 25.8% joined via adjudication and reciprocal arrangements. Until this entry route ended for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand in 2006, annual numbers of reciprocal pharmacists increased. European pharmacists are younger (mean age 31.7 than reciprocal (40.0 or adjudication pharmacists (43.0, and the percentage of women among European-trained pharmacists is much higher (68% when compared with British-trained pharmacists (56%. While only 7.1% of pharmacists registered in Great Britain have a London address, this proportion is much higher for European (13.9%, adjudication (19.5% and reciprocal pharmacists (28.9%. The latter are more likely to

  17. The contribution of Ghanaian pharmacists to mental healthcare: current practice and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Boateng Edmund A; Marfo Afia FA; Owusu-Daaku Frances T

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is scant knowledge of the involvement of developing country pharmacists in mental healthcare. The objectives of this study were: to examine the existing role of Ghanaian community and hospital pharmacists in the management of mental illness, and to determine the barriers that hinder pharmacists' involvement in mental healthcare in Ghana. Method A respondent self-completion questionnaire was randomly distributed to 120 superintendent community pharmacists out of an es...

  18. Using a notification card to improve communication between community pharmacists and general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Blenkinsopp, A.; Jepson, M; Drury, M.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot scheme was set up to evaluate a notification card to be used by community pharmacists when referring patients to their general practitioner, with the aim of improving communication. Six community pharmacists and 15 general practitioners took part in the study. During the 18 month study period 120 cards were issued by pharmacists. The majority of patients (71%) advised to see their general practitioner by the pharmacist did so. Fourteen cards (12%) were issued for suspected adverse dru...

  19. Using scenarios to test the appropriateness of pharmacist prescribing in asthma management

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna T; Bajorek B; LeMay K; Armour CL

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential for community pharmacist prescribing in terms of usefulness, pharmacists’ confidence, and appropriateness, in the context of asthma management. Methods: Twenty community pharmacists were recruited using convenience sampling from a group of trained practitioners who had already delivered asthma services. These pharmacists were asked to complete a scenario-based questionnaire (9 scenarios) modelled on information from real patients. Pharmacist interventio...

  20. A Retrospective Evaluation of Remote Pharmacist Interventions in a Telepharmacy Service Model Using a Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Murante, Lori J.; Moffett, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated a telepharmacy service model using a conceptual framework to compare documented remote pharmacist interventions by year, hospital, and remote pharmacist and across rural hospitals with or without an on-site rural hospital pharmacist. Materials and Methods: Documented remote pharmacist interventions for patients at eight rural hospitals in the Midwestern United States during prospective prescription order review/entry from...

  1. [Fraud and pharmacist: an old companionship from Antiquity to nowadays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Fraudulent trading often deals with pharmacist, from several viewpoints. Pharmacist had often suffered from it, but he was also sometimes the source of falsification which initiated the need for inspection of pharmacy shops. The scientific knowledge of pharmacists, and particularly his analytical skills, explains their role to detect falsifications for products outside drugs, especially for food and also for drug use in competitive sport. Drug falsification goes back to time immemorial and goes on today very actively with Internet expansion. States and WHO try to fight against this plague with more and more complex tools such as Datamatrix progressively implemented worldwide. Pharmacy and falsifications, two words that will be unfortunately associated during the whole human history.

  2. The pharmacist's role in preventing medication errors in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbekar, Rupal; Maples, Meghan; Bernacchi, Ann; Duong, Linh; Oramasionwu, Christine U

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 1.5 million medication errors occur each year in the United States. Older adults may be at increased risk for these errors as a result of a variety of contributing factors such as inappropriate medication use, polymorbidity, and complexities in managing dosage adjustments for geriatric patients. Pharmacists, as trained medication experts, are uniquely poised to lead efforts to prevent, detect, and resolve medications errors. As the American population continues to age, future pharmacists are likely to play an even greater role in promoting safe and effective medication use in older adults. In this paper, we highlight common settings for medication errors in older individuals, explore tools and solutions for error prevention, and outline the unique role that pharmacists have in preventing medication errors in older adults. PMID:25521659

  3. Obtaining a critical care pharmacist position: a marketing case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, T P; Wu, B; Nakagawa, R S

    1993-06-01

    Marketing theory is used to explain how Pharmacy Department managers at a Vancouver-area hospital secured a new ICU pharmacist position in a period of severe fiscal constraint. Market segmentation, target marketing and pull marketing strategy were combined to obtain support for the new position. Improved drug information services for ICU nurses were promoted to Nursing Administration and enhanced pharmacotherapy monitoring was promoted to the two critical care physicians primarily responsible for patient care in the ICU. These physicians and Nursing Administration voiced their support for the new position to the V.P. of Nursing (the functional officer for Pharmacy), who then promoted the new position to Hospital Administration. A half-time DUR commitment by the ICU pharmacist was offered to Hospital Administration, expanding this already successful service and guaranteeing cost recovery for the new position. Hospital Administration approved the new ICU clinical pharmacist position in a budget which saw other hospital departments lose several positions. PMID:10126865

  4. Revised Subjects of the Current Korean Oriental Pharmacists' Licensing Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Pil Lim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to draw out new integrated subjects of the Korean Oriental Pharmacists??Licensing Examination (KOPLE. In 2004, for the revision of subjects, we have analyzed the curriculums of the Oriental Pharmacy department, the oriental pharmacist?占퐏 (OP?占퐏 job description book, and the elementary items of KOPLE. We also examined the system of the Chinese Herb Pharmacists??Examination and other health personnel licensing examinations and studied the data of items and compared them with KOPLE. We heard the public opinion on the present KOPLE. We developed a subfield of 18 subjects, a middle category of 188 items, and a small category of 1,026 items. We proposed a new KOPLE that consists of three subjects: basic oriental pharmacy, applied oriental pharmacy, and laws and regulations.

  5. Evaluating Pharmacists' Motivation and Job Satisfaction Factors in Saudi Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslimane, Nabila; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    High turnover rate among healthcare professionals is a very expensive price that healthcare organizations might pay if they don't have the proper strategies for motivating and satisfying their employees. Healthcare organizations should be able to identify areas that require more attention. Many studies discussed the vital link that bonds job satisfaction with motivation, which has a major impact on productivity, innovation, and overall organizational performance. Our study explored the level of job satisfaction and factors that motivate pharmacists in Saudi hospitals using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. From pharmacy managers' point of view; financial rewards are more important than non-financial incentives and benefits. This contradicts with pharmacists' opinions; who ranked recognition, promotion, job satisfaction, job feedback, autonomy and task significance among the most influential motivators to pharmacists. These results show that managers need to revise their plans and provide further attention to ensure that effective motivation and retention strategies are put in place. PMID:27350504

  6. The importance of pharmacist providing patient education in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Mia; Williams, Felecia

    2015-02-01

    The world's increasing diversity requires health care professionals to adjust delivery methods of teaching to accommodate different cultural values and beliefs. The ability to communicate effectively across languages and various cultural practices directly affects patient education outcomes. Pharmacist should be aware of varying modalities and considerations when counseling a patient diagnosed with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy. In more recent years, the medical profession has seen an increase in patient outcomes due to using the multidisciplinary team approach and has benefited by implementing Medication Therapy Management (MTM) programs at various institutions. For the clinical pharmacist, this would mean documentation for these services should be precise and accurate based on the specific patients needs. There are several factors involved in the care and therapy of the patient with cancer. Clinical oncology pharmacist should be aware of the ever-changing role in oncology and be able to implement new practices at their facility for better patient outcomes. PMID:25540194

  7. Attitudes of Iraqi society towards the role of community pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasoul Wayyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aims of this study were to assess society’s use of community pharmacies; evaluate attitudes towards the role of the community pharmacist; and describe required pharmacist characteristics and future services.Study design: A cross-sectional survey with a stratified sampling technique.Methods: A self-administered, validated, questionnaire was distributed to 500 consumers in attendance at 50 community pharmacies in Baghdad, Iraq. Data were gathered from January to April 2012. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to test for statistical differences among the study variables. Further analysis through the Chi-square test and logistic regression was completed to assess the predictors of society’s attitudes.Results: Twenty-six percent of respondents visited their community pharmacies at least once per week and an additional 65% reported visiting their pharmacy at least once per month. Fifty-five percent of respondents listed the community pharmacist as the first person they would contact in case of any drug-related problem. However, the pharmacist’s role was under-appreciated by the majority of respondents (79.8%. These attitudes varied significantly with regard to the demographic characteristics of respondents. Logistic regression analysis showed that gender and age were the influential predictors of favourable versus non-favourable attitudes towards the role of pharmacist.Conclusions: The use of community pharmacies in Iraq was characterized by frequent visits to purchase medicines. Selection of the pharmacy primarily depended on its location. Overall, an under-appreciation of the professional performance of pharmacists was predominant. Raising public awareness towards the important role of community pharmacists in providing public health is warranted.

  8. Pharmacist advice is accepted more for medical than for surgical patients in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer Mogensen, Christian; Olsen, Inger; Thisted, Anette Rehn

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists' advice may reduce medication errors in the emergency department (ED). However, pharmacists' recommendations are of little value if not acknowledged by physicians. The aim of the present study was to analyze how often and which categories of pharmacist recommendations were taken...... into account by the physicians in a Danish ED. Special attention is paid to problems of significant or vital importance....

  9. The pharmacist as a drug information supplier in hospitals : A view from services marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerkamp, EJC; Reuijl, JC; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into how the information supply services of the pharmacist and his or her-potential competitors ave seen by physicians. In the context of the upcoming professionalization trend of the pharmacist we are interested in determining how the hospital pharmacist can

  10. Electronic prescribing - how does it affect the ward pharmacist?

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, B D; O'Grady, K.; Donyai, P.; Jacklin, A.; Barber, N

    2005-01-01

    It is likely that electronic prescribing will be a common feature in tomorrow’s hospitals. However, we do not yet know how its introduction will affect the practice of hospital pharmacists. We are evaluating a closed-loop electronic prescribing, automated dispensing, bar-coded administration system (ServeRx) on one surgical ward. As part of this evaluation, we wanted to explore its impact on the ward pharmacist. Our objectives were to assess the impact of ServeRx on the time spent providing a...

  11. 78 FR 72877 - Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice... Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Arkansas Electric Corporation (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company...

  12. Medical Oncology Pharmacy: A New Role for the Clinical Pharmacist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carl R.; Hickman, Mary Johne

    1977-01-01

    The University of Tennessee has established a training program for clinical pharmacists dealing with cancer chemotherapy patients. Health-care settings are described in which these individuals can contribute as unique health-care team members in oncology. (Author/LBH)

  13. [Lavoisier and the Parisian pharmacists of his time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahaut, J

    1996-01-01

    In the 17th and 18th centuries, pharmacists were highly competent in experimentation and well-versed in chemical manipulations. Of necessity, Lavoisier had extensive rapport with them. Presented here are the attitudes regarding him by pharmacists who had their own shops during the twenty years preceding the Revolution. There were his adversaries (one implacable: Baumé; the other lightly mocking: Demachy), his defenders (one timorous: Bronigniart; the other enthusiastic: Cadet de Vaux), and finally and above all those who remained indifferent, although for the most part they had worked for brief periods with Lavoisier (Cadet de Gassicourt, Déyeux, Mitouard and Quinquet). And yet, Baumé and Cadet de Vaux, who were in opposition when faced with the ideas of the new chemistry, joined in their efforts to attempt to get Lavoisier out of prison, at the risk of being guillotined. Finally, the greatest hommage rendered to the pharmacists came from Lavoisier himself, who believing that he would be released from prison denied all of his assets, envisaged himself becoming a pharmacist.

  14. [The punishment of a pharmacist in Istanbul in 1853].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, A

    1998-01-01

    Yakop who ran a pharmacy in Istanbul was accused of malpractice in 1853. The pharmacist had prepared a bottle of cod liver oil for a patient and a bottle of croton oil for another one. He had neglected to label the bottles which were administered by mistake to the patients by his apprentice. The patient who drank a spoonful of croton oil was intoxicated immediately and died. As soon as the event was reported, the police asked the deceased person's family if they intended to sue the pharmacist. They did not. However, the police forces started an investigation and asked the School of Medicine whether the pharmacist was guilty. The School answered that the pharmacist had neglected to label the bottles and was found guilty of causing the death. The Supreme Court took up the matter and sentenced Mr. Yakop to six months imprisonment and decided to close his pharmacy. The decision was published in Takvim-i Vekayi, the official newspaper of the State. PMID:11624174

  15. Regulation of pharmacists: a comparative law and economics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the regulation of pharmacists from an economic perspective, focusing on licensing, price and fee regulation, advertising restrictions and rules on exercise of the profession, and restrictions on business structure. A comparative overview is presented of the most common forms of

  16. Evaluation of pharmacist clinical interventions in a Dutch hospital setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Liesbeth; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Franken, Anton M.; Harting, Johannes W.; Van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Assessing the relevance of a clinically active pharmacist method compared to the traditional working method. Method The study was carried out in a general internal/gastro-enterology unit during two 8-weeks periods in 2004. It was an observational, non-randomized prospective study. Outcome

  17. Views of English Pharmacists on Providing Public Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Dewsbury

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Locally-commissioned pharmacy public health services have developed in England over the last 20 years. Few studies have sought pharmacist views on commissioning and provision of public health services in general. This study sought views of community pharmacists (n = 778 in 16 areas of England on services provided, decisions about services, support, promotion and future developments, using a postal questionnaire with two reminders. Response rate was 26.5% (206. Funded public health services provided most frequently were: emergency contraception (71%, smoking cessation (62%, and supervised drug consumption (58%. Blood pressure monitoring was provided by 61% and was considered to be one of the services pharmacists perceived as being most valued by customers, but was not National Health Services (NHS-funded. Motivation for providing public health services was professional not financial, particularly from those working in independent pharmacies. Only 35% were personally involved in deciding which services to deliver, and fewer than 20% based decisions on local public health reports. Pharmacists had positive attitudes towards providing public health services, but mixed views on support for services and their promotion. Most thought services would increase in future, but were concerned about commissioning. Both national and local support is needed to ensure future commissioning of pharmacy public health services.

  18. [Christ as a pharmacist, according to Martin Luther].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Johann Anselm

    2003-07-01

    This condition has been stimulated by the latest study written by Fitz Krafft concerning the motif "Jesus Christ as a pharmacist", which was frequently used in Christian art. It is shown that this motif, fully developed in the first third of the 17th century, originated in the theology of Martin Luther.

  19. Interventions by pharmacists in out-patient pharmaceutical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahbi, Hussain Abdullah Mubarak; Al-Sabri, Raid Mahmood; Chitme, Havagiray R

    2014-04-01

    Interventions by the pharmacists have always been considered as a valuable input by the health care community in the patient care process by reducing the medication errors, rationalizing the therapy and reducing the cost of therapy. The primary objective of this study was to determine the number and types of medication errors intervened by the dispensing pharmacists at OPD pharmacy in the Khoula Hospital during 2009 retrospectively. The interventions filed by the pharmacists and assistant pharmacists in OPD pharmacy were collected. Then they were categorized and analyzed after a detailed review. The results show that 72.3% of the interventions were minor of which 40.5% were about change medication order. Comparatively more numbers of prescriptions were intervened in female patients than male patients. 98.2% of the interventions were accepted by the prescribers reflecting the awareness of the doctors about the importance of the pharmacy practice. In this study only 688 interventions were due to prescribing errors of which 40.5% interventions were done in changing the medication order of clarifying the medicine. 14.9% of the interventions were related to administrative issues, 8.7% of the interventions were related to selection of medications as well as errors due to ignorance of history of patients. 8.2% of the interventions were to address the overdose of medications. Moderately significant interventions were observed in 19.4% and 7.5% of them were having the impact on major medication errors. Pharmacists have intervened 20.8% of the prescriptions to prevent complications, 25.1% were to rationalize the treatment, 7.9% of them were to improve compliance. Based on the results we conclude that the role of pharmacist in improving the health care system is vital. We recommend more number of such research based studies to bring awareness among health care professionals, provide solution to the prescription and dispensing problems, as it can also improve the documentation

  20. The contribution of Ghanaian pharmacists to mental healthcare: current practice and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Edmund A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is scant knowledge of the involvement of developing country pharmacists in mental healthcare. The objectives of this study were: to examine the existing role of Ghanaian community and hospital pharmacists in the management of mental illness, and to determine the barriers that hinder pharmacists' involvement in mental healthcare in Ghana. Method A respondent self-completion questionnaire was randomly distributed to 120 superintendent community pharmacists out of an estimated 240 pharmacists in Kumasi, Ashanti Region of Ghana. A purposive sampling method was utilized in selecting two public psychiatric hospital pharmacists in Accra, the capital city of Ghana for a face-to-face interview. A semi-structured interview guide was employed. Results A 91.7% response rate was obtained for the community pharmacists' questionnaire survey. Approximately 65% of community pharmacists were not involved in mental health provision. Of the 35% who were, 57% counseled psychiatric patients and 44% of these dispensed medicines for mental illness. Perceived barriers that hindered community pharmacists' involvement in the management of mental health included inadequate education in mental health (cited by 81% of respondents and a low level of encounter with patients (72%. The psychiatric hospital pharmacists were mostly involved in the dispensing of medicines from the hospital pharmacy. Conclusion Both community and hospital pharmacists in Ghana were marginally involved in the provision of mental healthcare. The greatest barrier cited was inadequate knowledge in mental health.

  1. 78 FR 48716 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Arkansas Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Arkansas River Basin, groundwater, climate change, recreation biological resources, human environment... Valley Conduit and Long-Term Excess Capacity Master Contract, Fryingpan-Arkansas Project; Bent, Chaffee... statement (EIS) for the Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and Long-Term Excess Capacity Contract,...

  2. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.

  3. Transitioning Pharmacogenomics into the Clinical Setting: Training Future Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Amber; Benton, Cristina S; Scolaro, Kelly L; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Bradley, Courtney L; Suzuki, Oscar T; Wang, Nan; Wiltshire, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics, once hailed as a futuristic approach to pharmacotherapy, has transitioned to clinical implementation. Although logistic and economic limitations to clinical pharmacogenomics are being superseded by external measures such as preemptive genotyping, implementation by clinicians has met resistance, partly due to a lack of education. Pharmacists, with extensive training in pharmacology and pharmacotherapy and accessibility to patients, are ideally suited to champion clinical pharmacogenomics. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of an innovative pharmacogenomic teaching approach. Second-year student pharmacists enrolled in a required, 15-week pharmaceutical care lab course in 2015 completed educational activities including lectures and small group work focusing on practical pharmacogenomics. Reflecting the current landscape of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic testing, students were offered 23andMe genotyping. Students completed surveys regarding their attitudes and confidence on pharmacogenomics prior to and following the educational intervention. Paired pre- and post-intervention responses were analyzed with McNemar's test for binary comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for Likert items. Responses between genotyped and non-genotyped students were analyzed with Fisher's exact test for binary comparisons and the Mann-Whitney U-test for Likert items. Responses were analyzed for all student pharmacists who voluntarily completed the pre-intervention survey (N = 121, 83% response) and for student pharmacists who completed both pre- and post-intervention surveys (N = 39, 27% response). Of those who completed both pre- and post-intervention surveys, 59% obtained genotyping. Student pharmacists demonstrated a significant increase in their knowledge of pharmacogenomic resources (17.9 vs. 56.4%, p educational intervention, including personal genotyping, was feasible, and positively enhanced students' reflections, and attitudes toward

  4. Impact of clinical pharmacist in an Indian Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A critically ill patient is treated and reviewed by physicians from different specialties; hence, polypharmacy is a very common. This study was conducted to assess the impact and effectiveness of having a clinical pharmacist in an Indian Intensive Care Unit (ICU. It also evaluates the clinical pharmacist interventions with a focus on optimizing the quality of pharmacotherapy and patient safety. Materials and Methods: The prospective, observational study was carried out in medical and surgical/trauma ICU over a period of 1 year. All detected drug-related problems and interventions were categorized based on the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe system. Results: During the study period, average monthly census of 1032 patients got treated in the ICUs. A total of 986 pharmaceutical interventions due to drug-related problems were documented, whereof medication errors accounted for 42.6% (n = 420, drug of choice problem 15.4% (n = 152, drug-drug interactions were 15.1% (n = 149, Y-site drug incompatibility was 13.7% (n = 135, drug dosing problems were 4.8% (n = 47, drug duplications reported were 4.6% (n = 45, and adverse drug reactions documented were 3.8% (n = 38. Drug dosing adjustment done by the clinical pharmacist included 140 (11.9% renal dose, 62 (5.2% hepatic dose, 17 (1.4% pediatric dose, and 104 (8.8% insulin dosing modifications. A total of 577 drug and poison information queries were answered by the clinical pharmacist. Conclusion: Clinical pharmacist as a part of multidisciplinary team in our study was associated with a substantially lower rate of adverse drug event caused by medication errors, drug interactions, and drug incompatibilities.

  5. Evaluation of the first pharmacist-administered vaccinations in Western Australia: a mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Sim, T Fei; Parsons, R; Czarniak, P; Vickery, A; Ayadurai, S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the uptake of Western Australian (WA) pharmacist vaccination services, the profiles of consumers being vaccinated and the facilitators and challenges experienced by pharmacy staff in the preparation, implementation and delivery of services. Design Mixed-methods methodology with both quantitative and qualitative data through surveys, pharmacy computer records and immuniser pharmacist interviews. Setting Community pharmacies in WA that provided pharmacist vaccination services between March and October 2015. Participants Immuniser pharmacists from 86 pharmacies completed baseline surveys and 78 completed exit surveys; computer records from 57 pharmacies; 25 immuniser pharmacists were interviewed. Main outcome measures Pharmacy and immuniser pharmacist profiles; pharmacist vaccination services provided and consumer profiles who accessed services. Results 15 621 influenza vaccinations were administered by immuniser pharmacists at 76 WA community pharmacies between March and October 2015. There were no major adverse events, and managed. Between 12% and 17% of consumers were eligible to receive free influenza vaccinations under the National Immunisation Program but chose to have it at a pharmacy. A high percentage of vaccinations was delivered in rural and regional areas indicating that provision of pharmacist vaccination services facilitated access for rural and remote consumers. Immuniser pharmacists reported feeling confident in providing vaccination services and were of the opinion that services should be expanded to other vaccinations. Pharmacists also reported significant professional satisfaction in providing the service. All participating pharmacies intended to continue providing influenza vaccinations in 2016. Conclusions This initial evaluation of WA pharmacist vaccination services showed that vaccine delivery was safe. Convenience and accessibility were important aspects in usage of services. There is scope to expand pharmacist

  6. Pharmacists in primary care. Determinants of the care-providing function of Dutch community pharmacists in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijrers, P.E.; Knottnerus, J.A.; Sijbrandij, J.; Janknegt, R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants of the care-providing function of the community pharmacists (CPs) to explain variations in professional practice. SETTING: The Netherlands 2001. PARTICIPANTS: 328 CPs. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed. Questionnaires were used to collec

  7. The Impact Of State Policies On ACA Applications And Enrollment Among Low-Income Adults In Arkansas, Kentucky, And Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Maylone, Bethany; Nguyen, Kevin H; Blendon, Robert J; Epstein, Arnold M

    2015-06-01

    States are taking variable approaches to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion, Marketplace design, enrollment outreach, and application assistance. We surveyed nearly 3,000 low-income adults in late 2014 to compare experiences in three states with markedly different policies: Kentucky, which expanded Medicaid, created a successful state Marketplace, and supported outreach efforts; Arkansas, which enacted the private option and a federal-state partnership Marketplace, but with legislative limitations on outreach; and Texas, which did not expand Medicaid and passed restrictions on navigators. We found that application rates, successful enrollment, and positive experiences with the ACA were highest in Kentucky, followed by Arkansas, with Texas performing worst. Limited awareness remains a critical barrier: Fewer than half of adults had heard some or a lot about the coverage expansions. Application assistance from navigators and others was the strongest predictor of enrollment, while Latino applicants were less likely than others to successfully enroll. Twice as many respondents felt that the ACA had helped them as hurt them (although the majority reported no direct impact), and advertising was strongly associated with perceptions of the law. State policy choices appeared to have had major impacts on enrollment experiences among low-income adults and their perceptions of the ACA. PMID:26056207

  8. Transitioning Pharmacogenomics into the Clinical Setting: Training Future Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Amber; Benton, Cristina S.; Scolaro, Kelly L.; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; Bradley, Courtney L.; Suzuki, Oscar T.; Wang, Nan; Wiltshire, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics, once hailed as a futuristic approach to pharmacotherapy, has transitioned to clinical implementation. Although logistic and economic limitations to clinical pharmacogenomics are being superseded by external measures such as preemptive genotyping, implementation by clinicians has met resistance, partly due to a lack of education. Pharmacists, with extensive training in pharmacology and pharmacotherapy and accessibility to patients, are ideally suited to champion clinical pharmacogenomics. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of an innovative pharmacogenomic teaching approach. Second-year student pharmacists enrolled in a required, 15-week pharmaceutical care lab course in 2015 completed educational activities including lectures and small group work focusing on practical pharmacogenomics. Reflecting the current landscape of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic testing, students were offered 23andMe genotyping. Students completed surveys regarding their attitudes and confidence on pharmacogenomics prior to and following the educational intervention. Paired pre- and post-intervention responses were analyzed with McNemar's test for binary comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for Likert items. Responses between genotyped and non-genotyped students were analyzed with Fisher's exact test for binary comparisons and the Mann-Whitney U-test for Likert items. Responses were analyzed for all student pharmacists who voluntarily completed the pre-intervention survey (N = 121, 83% response) and for student pharmacists who completed both pre- and post-intervention surveys (N = 39, 27% response). Of those who completed both pre- and post-intervention surveys, 59% obtained genotyping. Student pharmacists demonstrated a significant increase in their knowledge of pharmacogenomic resources (17.9 vs. 56.4%, p < 0.0001) and confidence in applying pharmacogenomic information to manage patients' drug therapy (28.2 vs. 48.7%, p = 0.01), particularly if the student

  9. Effects on Deaf Patients of Medication Education by Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyoguchi, Naomi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-10-01

    Deaf people often experience difficulty in understanding medication information provided by pharmacists due to communication barriers. We held medication education lectures for deaf and hard of hearing (HH) individuals and examined the extent to which deaf participants understood medication-related information as well as their attitude about medication. We used two questionnaires to compare the results from the deaf participants with those from the HH and hearing participants. We found that before the lecture, the deaf participants' understanding of medication use was lower than that of the HH and hearing participants. The deaf participants' knowledge increased after the lecture, but did not improve to the level exhibited by the HH participants. However, the deaf participants felt confident using medication despite their low comprehension levels. In conclusion, adjusting the medication information provided by pharmacists according to the recipient's reading level could help improve deaf patients' knowledge; however, such measures might not increase deaf patients' comprehension levels sufficiently. PMID:27262170

  10. Clinical pharmacist interventions to support adherence to thrombopreventive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Ulla

    individualised interventions and team-based care, e.g. integrating a clinical pharmacist with particular focus on patients’ drug-related problems. One approach with growing evidence of improving medication adherence is motivational interviewing (MI). So far, no clinical pharmacist intervention using MI has......-based patient interview and three follow-up telephone calls. There was no difference in the primary outcome, the composite medication possession ratio (MPR) for antiplatelets, anticoagulants and statins during the year after hospitalisation, as assessed by analysing prescription refill records. At 12 months...... to the one in the first study, except that the patient interview was more structured using the Drug Adherence Work-up (DRAW) tool and an adherence questionnaire for identifying potential adherence and lifestyle-related problems. At 12 months, 20.3% of the patients in the intervention group (N=231) were non...

  11. Patient attitudes towards a new role for pharmacists: continued dispensing

    OpenAIRE

    Abukres SH; Hoti K; Hughes JD

    2014-01-01

    Salem Hasn Abukres, Kreshnik Hoti, Jeffery David Hughes School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health and Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Background: In Australia, “continued dispensing” (CD) is a new model for supply of prescription medications. Under specific circumstances, community pharmacists are allowed to dispense a further one month supply of prescription only medications without a valid prescription. It allows continuation and treatment adhere...

  12. Professional Use of Social Media by Pharmacists: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy Frank; Schaefer, Marion; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media is frequently used by consumers and health care professionals; however, our knowledge about its use in a professional capacity by pharmacists is limited. Objective Our aim was to investigate the professional use of social media by pharmacists. Methods In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with practicing pharmacists (N=31) from nine countries. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. Results Wikipedia, YouTube, and Facebook were the main social media platforms used. Professional use of social media included networking with peers, discussion of health and professional topics, accessing and sharing health and professional information, job searching, and professional promotion. Wikipedia was the participants’ first choice when seeking information about unfamiliar topics, or topics that were difficult to search for. Very few pharmacy-related contributions to Wikipedia were reported. YouTube, a video-sharing platform, was used for self-education. University lectures, “how-to” footage, and professionally made videos were commonly watched. No professional contribution was made to YouTube. Facebook, a general social networking site, was used for professional networking, promotion of achievements, and job advertisements. It also afforded engagement in professional discussions and information sharing among peers. Conclusions Participants used social media in a professional capacity, specifically for accessing and sharing health and professional information among peers. Pharmacists, as medicines experts, should take a leading role in contributing to health information dissemination in these user-friendly virtual environments, to reach not only other health care professionals but also health consumers. PMID:27663570

  13. Application of STOPP and START criteria: interrater reliability among pharmacists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Cristin

    2009-07-01

    Inappropriate prescribing is a well-documented problem in older people. The new screening tools, STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Peoples\\' Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment) have been formulated to identify potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential errors of omissions (PEOs) in older patients. Consistent, reliable application of STOPP and START is essential for the screening tools to be used effectively by pharmacists.

  14. Polypharmacy in pediatric patients and opportunities for pharmacists' involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horace AE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexis E Horace, Fahamina Ahmed School of Pharmacy, College of Health and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA, USA Abstract: Rates of chronic conditions among pediatrics have been steadily increasing and medications used to treat these conditions have also shown a proportional increase. Most clinical trials focus on the safety of solitary medications in adult patients. However, data from these trials are often times extrapolated for use in pediatric patients who have different pharmacokinetic processes and physical profiles. As research increases and more drugs become available for pediatric use, the issue of polypharmacy becomes more of a concern. Polypharmacy is defined as the practice of administering or using multiple medications concurrently for the treatment of one to several medical disorders. With the increased rates of diagnosed complex disease states as prescribed mediations in pediatric patients, the prevalence and effect of polypharmacy in this patient population is largely a mystery. Polypharmacy falls within the realm of expertise of specialized pharmacists who can undertake medication therapy management services, medical chart reviews, and other services in pediatrics. Pharmacists have the time and knowledge to undertake pertinent interventions when managing polypharmacy and can play a major positive role in preventing adverse events. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on pediatric polypharmacy and provide insight into opportunities for pharmacists to help with management of polypharmacy. Information on adverse events, efficacy, and long-term outcomes with regard to growth and development of children subject to polypharmacy has yet to be published, leaving this realm of patient safety ripe for research. Keywords: polypharmacy, pediatrics, pharmacists, involvement

  15. Evaluation of the pharmacist role in discharge from hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Al Motlaq, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    When patients are discharged from hospital it is vital that the information regarding their medication is provided to the General Practitioner (GP) as accurately and efficiently as possible. However errors frequently occur and the NHS is currently investigating how to improve discharge systems, one approach is to use pharmacists to write discharge prescriptions or To Take Out (TTOs). The aim of the audit was to compare discrepancies on TTOs (To take out) between different transcribers: doctor...

  16. Evaluation of anticoagulant control in a pharmacist operated anticoagulant clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Radley, A S; Hall, J; Farrow, M.; Carey, P J

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To compare the quality of outpatient anticoagulant control before and after the transfer of dosing responsibility to designated trained pharmacists from rotating junior medical staff. METHODS--All International Normalised Ratio (INR) values for an eight month period either side of the staff changeover were assessed for precision of therapeutic control according to described standards. Allowing for patient associated effects, observed and expected frequencies of "successful" control for ...

  17. Pharmacist initiation of postexposure doxycycline for Lyme disease prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anita N; Orr, K Kelly; Bratberg, Jeffrey P; Silverblatt, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To enhance public access to prophylaxis for Lyme disease following an identified Ixodes scapularis tick bite through pharmacist-initiated antibiotic therapy and to assess patient satisfaction with the pharmacy-based service provided. SETTING Independent community pharmacy in Charlestown, RI, from May to October 2012. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION Under a collaborative practice agreement, trained pharmacists at an independent pharmacy identified patients eligible for postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis following attachment and removal of an I. scapularis tick (commonly known as a deer tick) and dispensed two 100 mg tablets of doxycycline. Patients were included if they were 18 years or older, provided informed consent, had an estimated time of tick attachment of 36 hours or more, had the tick removed within 72 hours of visit, denied contraindications to doxycycline therapy, and reported telephone access for follow-up. Patients enrolled in the study protocol were given counseling related to doxycycline, signs and symptoms of Lyme disease, and future tick prevention strategies. PRACTICE INNOVATION Pharmacist initiation of doxycycline prophylaxis has not been described in the literature previously. Successful pharmacist initiation of antibiotic prophylaxis may have broader implications for states with endemic Lyme disease or other infectious disease public health concerns. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Patient self-reported adverse outcomes and satisfaction with the pharmacy-based service. RESULTS Eight patients enrolled in the study and completed the follow-up survey. The results indicated a high level of satisfaction with the pharmacy services provided, with no reports of the subsequent development of Lyme disease symptoms or major adverse events. CONCLUSION The project has expanded to three community pharmacy sites in southern Rhode Island based on this experience. Similar pharmacy-based collaborative practice models should be considered in highly endemic Lyme disease

  18. The case of pharmacist prescribing policy in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Yariv, Hila

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacy prescribing policy in Israel has been negotiated and changed in recent years in order to improve patient treatment and access to medicines, and reduce national health insurance costs by allowing pharmacists to prescribe medications. Various stakeholders and institutions were involved in the formulation process, affecting the process while representing different motives. The complexity of pharmacy prescribing policy formulation is universal - any policy project needs, for strategic an...

  19. Pharmacist contributions as members of the multidisciplinary ICU team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preslaski, Candice R; Lat, Ishaq; MacLaren, Robert; Poston, Jason

    2013-11-01

    Critical care pharmacy services in the ICU have expanded from traditional dispensing responsibilities to being recognized as an essential component of multidisciplinary care for critically ill patients. Augmented by technology and resource utilization, this shift in roles has allowed pharmacists to provide valuable services in the form of assisting physicians and clinicians with pharmacotherapy decision-making, reducing medication errors, and improving medication safety systems to optimize patient outcomes. Documented improvements in the management of infections, anticoagulation therapy, sedation, and analgesia for patients receiving mechanical ventilation and in emergency response help to justify the need for clinical pharmacy services for critically ill patients. Contributions to quality improvement initiatives, scholarly and research activities, and the education and training of interdisciplinary personnel are also valued services offered by clinical pharmacists. Partnering with physician and nursing champions can garner support from hospital administrators for the addition of clinical pharmacy critical care services. The addition of a pharmacist to an interprofessional critical care team should be encouraged as health-care systems focus on improving the quality and efficiency of care delivered to improve patient outcomes.

  20. [Pharmacists' and general practitioners' views on parallel import of drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, R; Torgauten, O; Olsen, H

    1999-04-30

    Since 1995, parallel import of drugs to Norway has been allowed under the European Economic Area Agreement. The health authorities have stated that there are no concerns connected with the use of parallel-imported drugs. This study is an interview survey among general practitioners, pharmacy staff and pharmacists working in pharmacies. The findings show that 91% of the pharmacies dispense parallel-imported drugs and that there is a certain amount of scepticism regarding the use of parallel-imported drugs. Most respondents feel that parallel-imported pharmaceuticals may have financial advantages for the individual patient and economic advantages for society at large, but 50% of the pharmacists and 54% of the physicians were of the opinion that parallel-imported pharmaceuticals represented an increased medical risk for the patients. Approximately 15% of doctors and pharmacy staff had knowledge of either incorrect treatment or adverse drug reactions due to the use of parallel-imported drugs. The time used for prescribing and dispensing parallel-imported drugs is longer than for directly imported preparations. The survey shows that approximately every fifth doctor will use the right of reservation in connection with the dispensing of parallel-imported drugs, whereas approximately every fourth pharmacist will disregard the right of reservation. PMID:10385799

  1. Professional liability for pharmacists: a focus on pharmacy practice acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, M A; Green, J A; Greve, P A; Lovejoy, L S

    1988-11-01

    The increased complexity of pharmacotherapeutics and the expanded role of pharmacists in the drug-use process may bring about an increased liability exposure for failure to conform to a professional standard of care. Therefore, a survey of 51 state pharmacy practice acts was conducted: (1) to establish a nationwide statutory definition of pharmacy practice, and (2) to outline possible use of the statutes in civil and administrative law. Twenty percent of state statutes contain no definition of pharmacy practice. Of the remaining 41 states, dispensing (97.5 percent), compounding (92.5 percent), interpretation and evaluation of prescriptions (68.2 percent), and consultation (73 percent) are legally defined. Pharmacokinetic consultation, drug administration, pharmacist prescribing, and pharmaceutical research are defined in one, seven, four, and one state(s), respectively. Pharmacists may face legal responsibilities from both the courts and state boards of medical and pharmacy practice. Aggressively updating the statutes and regulations to reflect contemporary pharmacy practice may provide a mechanism for a defense in court litigation and regulatory action.

  2. The influence of job characteristics on job outcomes of pharmacists in hospital, clinic, and community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Yeh, Ying-Chen; Lin, Wen-Hung

    2007-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between job characteristics and job outcomes of pharmacists in hospital, clinic, and community pharmacies in Taiwan. The structured questionnaires covered the items of job characteristics, job outcomes, and demographics of pharmacists, and were distributed between Feb 2004 and April 2004. Two hundred and ninety-eight pharmacists responded. Data were analyzed descriptively, and univariate analyses, factor analysis, and multiple regression analyses were used. It found the more enriched the job, the greater the job satisfaction and less intention to leave. And community pharmacists reported greater job enrichment and job satisfaction and less intention to leave than did hospital and clinic pharmacists. It suggests pharmacy managers could recognize the needs of pharmacists to redesign and enrich their work arrangements. PMID:17622026

  3. Arkansas Superintendents Predict Curriculum for the Year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupel, Carl F., Jr.; Sweat, Joseph P.

    1985-01-01

    Superintendents of 164 Arkansas small school districts predicted the importance of 20 selected academic courses/physical activities by the year 2000. Courses/activities ranked highest for 2000 were computer science, physics, soccer, economics, and composition. Study assumes collective wisdom or bias of superintendents will alter future secondary…

  4. Arkansas and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Arkansas's participation in SREB programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of targeted projects for educational…

  5. Black bears in Arkansas: Characteristics of a successful translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    In 1958, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission began translocating black bears (Ursus americanus) from Minnesota to the Interior Highlands (Ozark and Ouachita mountains) of Arkansas where bears had been extirpated early in this century. This project continued for 11 years with little public imput, during which time an estimated 254 bears were released. We estimate there are now >2,500 bears in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, making it one of the most successful translocations of a Carnivora. Factors that contributed to the success include use of wild-captured animals, elimination of major factors associated with extirpation, release into prime habitats within the former range, multiple release sites, release of 20–40 animals/year for eight years, and release of mostly males prior to release of mostly females. Studies on two allopatric populations demonstrate that they are now diverging in some demographic characteristics, including litter size, cub survivorship, and adult sex-ratio. Translocation of black bears to the Interior Highlands is successful in terms of numbers of animals, but it will not be truly successful until people accept black bears as part of the regional fauna. To that end, those associated with management and research of bears in Arkansas are now focussing on public education and control of nuisance bears.

  6. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    State minimum core curricula for two-year and four-year colleges and universities have been approved by the Arkansas Board of Higher Education. Within the framework of the State Minimum Core, each state institution is required to propose 35 semester/credit hours from its institutional general education core to be recognized for purposes of the…

  7. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This document provides state minimum core curricula for each two- and four-year institution of higher education in Arkansas, determined by the Department of Higher Education. Courses within this core are to apply toward the general education core curriculum requirements for baccalaureate degrees at state-supported institutions and should be fully…

  8. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    In 1990 the Arkansas State Board of Higher Education adopted guidelines for the development of state minimum core curriculum response to state legislation. This legislation provides that courses within the core shall apply to the general education core curriculum requirements for baccalaureate degrees at state-supported institutions and shall be…

  9. Project CAP. Boston Mountains Educational Cooperative, Greenland, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jack A.; Leffler, Jeanne

    This description of career education activities in Greenland, Arkansas, was prepared as part of a study conducted to identify evaluated, exemplary career education activities which represent the best of the current career education programs and practices referred to in Public Law 93-380. (See CE 018 212 for the final report of this study.) This…

  10. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  11. The effect of patient satisfaction with pharmacist consultation on medication adherence: an instrumental variable approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gu NY; Gai Y; Hay JW

    2008-01-01

    There are limited studies on quantifying the impact of patient satisfaction with pharmacist consultation on patient medication adherence. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of patient satisfaction with pharmacist consultation services on medication adherence in a large managed care organization. Methods: We analyzed data from a patient satisfaction survey of 6,916 patients who had used pharmacist consultation services in Kaiser Permanente Southern California fro...

  12. Pharmacists implementing transitions of care in inpatient, ambulatory and community practice settings

    OpenAIRE

    Sen S.; Bowen JF; Ganetsky VS; Hadley D; Melody K; Otsuka S; Vanmali R; Thomas T

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To introduce pharmacists to the process, challenges, and opportunities of creating transitions of care (TOC) models in the inpatient, ambulatory, and community practice settings. Methods: TOC literature and resources were obtained through searching PubMed, Ovid, and GoogleScholar. The pharmacist clinicians, who are the authors in this manuscript are reporting their experiences in the development, implementation of, and practice within the TOC models. Results: Pharmacists are...

  13. Pharmacists and medical doctors in the 19th century in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Schepers, Rita

    1988-01-01

    In this article the main areas of conflict between the medical and the pharmaceutical professions in Belgium in the 19th century are outlined. The medical profession was dominant in the division of labour and the pharmacists were not allowed to threaten its position. However, pharmacists were also able to achieve their objectives - geographical expansion of their officially recognized monopoly and the safeguarding of the pharmacist's key role in the dispensing of drugs, including proprietary ...

  14. Work-related well-being of South African hospital pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastiaan Rothmann; Madeleine Malan

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Hospital pharmacists in South Africa are experiencing increased stress because of the high demand for their services, a lack of resources in hospital pharmacies, and the shortage of pharmacists in South Africa.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether job stress and coping strategies could predict the work-related well-being (burnout and work engagement) of hospital pharmacists in South Africa.Motivation for the study: Information about the work-rel...

  15. Patients’ and physicians’ satisfaction with a pharmacist managed anticoagulation program in a family medicine clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Lisa; Young, Stephanie; Twells, Laurie; Dillon, Carla; Hawboldt, John

    2015-01-01

    Background A pharmacist managed anticoagulation service was initiated in a multi-physician family medicine clinic in December 2006. In order to determine the patient and physician satisfaction with the service, a study was designed to describe the patients’ satisfaction with the warfarin education and management they received from the pharmacist, and to describe the physicians’ satisfaction with the level of care provided by the pharmacist for patients taking warfarin. A self-administered sur...

  16. The practice of OTC counseling by community pharmacists in Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halila GC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to provide appropriate advice to the patient at the time of dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC medication counseling, community pharmacists need access to current and reliable information about medicines. Brazilian pharmacists have assumed new functions such as prescribing medication, in a dependent model, based in protocols. Objective: To examine the practice of community pharmacists in a Brazilian State, focusing on OTC recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in a state of Brazil was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014, with data collection through a pre-piloted self-administered anonymous survey via Survey Monkey® platform. Following ethical approval, the online instrument was sent to 8,885 pharmacists registered in Parana State, Brazil, focusing on professionals working in community pharmacies. The questionnaire assessed the community pharmacy setting, the search for information, the knowledge of the evidence-based practice, the important factors to consider when recommending an OTC medicine, and the pharmacist prescribing. Responses were imported into SPSS® (version 22.0 for analysis. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the association between responses and demographic information with a significance level less than 5% (p<0.05. Results: Of the pharmacists, 97.4% dispensed medications and counseled patients for a median of six hours per day. Product's efficacy (97% and adverse effects (62.3% were the most important factors taken into account when counseling a nonprescription medicine. Few pharmacists knew the meaning of terms related to evidence-based health. Most respondents agreed that pharmacists have the necessary training to prescribe. Conclusion: Over-the-counter medication counseling is a daily practice among Brazilian pharmacists. Learning needs exist for community pharmacists in relation to evidence-based practice. Thus, sources of information with good evidence

  17. Who are the opinion leaders? The physicians, pharmacists, patients, and direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annisa Lai

    2010-09-01

    A popular perception holds that physicians prescribe requested drugs to patients influenced by mass mediated direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising. The phenomenon poses a serious challenge to the two-step flow model, which emphasizes the influence of opinion leaders on their followers and their legitimating power over the informing power of the mass media. This study investigates a 2002 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) survey and finds that patients searching for drug information through mass and hybrid media in newspapers and magazines' small print, the Internet, and toll-free numbers are more likely to seek information through interpersonal communication channels like health care providers. Patients using small print, toll-free numbers, one's own physician, and other physicians are associated with influencing their physicians with various drug-requesting behaviors. But physicians only prescribe requested drugs to patients who are influenced by other health care providers, such as pharmacists and other physicians, not the mass media. The influence of expert opinion leaders of drugs is so strong that the patients even would switch from their own unyielding physicians who do not prescribe drugs as advised by the pharmacists. Physicians and patients all are influenced more by other expert opinion leaders of drugs than by the mass media and therefore still uphold the basic tenet of the two-step model. PMID:20812124

  18. The role of the pharmacist in the management of kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Joshua J; Olyaei, Ali J

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacists may play a key role on the multidisciplinary transplant team. This article describes the development and current status of pharmacists in the management of transplant recipients in the United States. Traditionally, pharmacists played an important support role in transplant medicine. This role has been expanded to include direct patient care for the avoidance, detection, and/or treatment of side effects from the polypharmacy necessary in the management of these complex patients. Pharmacists provide pre- and post-transplant education to transplant recipients to enhance adherence to complicated medical regimens and thereby reduce readmission to hospital and unscheduled, costly visits to urgent care centers and/or hospital emergency departments. PMID:27555676

  19. Lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to assess the potential of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas, as a viable source of public-supply water was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Little Rock, District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. An important study component was to identify possible changes in hydrologic conditions following installation of James W. Trimble Lock and Dam 13 (December 1969) on the Arkansas River near the study area. Data were gathered for the study in regard to the lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the aquifer. Lithologic information was obtained from drillers’ logs of wells drilled from 1957 through 1959. Water-quality samples were collected from 10 irrigation wells and analyzed for inorganic constituents and pesticides. To evaluate the potential viability of the alluvial aquifer in the Van Buren area, these data were compared to similar stratigraphic, lithologic, and groundwater-quality data from the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer at Dardanelle, Ark., where the aquifer provides a proven, productive, sole-source of public-supply water.

  20. What is the role of the pharmacist?: physicians' and nurses' perspectives in community and hospital settings of Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niurka María Dupotey Varela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to understand the perceptions and expectations of the other health care professionals about pharmacists' role in primary health care centers and hospitals in Santiago de Cuba (Cuba. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, applying a self-administered questionnaire to health care professionals. The sample included 763 professionals (40.9% physicians and 59.1 % nurses from hospitals and primary health care clinics, chosen by random stratified sampling,. The most common activity performed by pharmacists was the distribution of medications or the drug supply management (51.5% and adverse drug reactions reporting (29.4%, activities performed daily by pharmacists. Pharmaceutical care practice was considered as poor by the professionals, and only 15.6% of them have collaborated in these programs in the past. For nurses and physicians, interprofessional communication occurs sometimes (56.9% and never (25.8%. Pharmacists' integration into the health team was considered as fair (50.7%. A total of 70.1% perceived the pharmacist as a drug expert and 60.1% as a professional who provides medication counseling. The main expectations these health care professionals expressed were that pharmacists provide more education about medication (97.4% and improve their interprofessional communication techniques in order to communicate more effectively with the other members of the health care team (96.6%.O presente trabalho analisa o papel do farmacêutico na atenção primária de saúde e em hospitais, na percepção de profissionais da saúde na província de Santiago de Cuba. Um estudo descritivo transversal foi conduzido, através da aplicação de um questionário autoadministrado a uma amostra de 763 profissionais de atenção primária e hospitalar, 40,9% de médicos e 59,1% de enfermeiros. As funções farmacêuticas mais reconhecidas pelos profissionais desta amostra foram o fornecimento e distribuição de medicamentos

  1. Food Shopping Perceptions, Behaviors And Ability To Purchase Healthy Food Items In The Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To examine the agreement between perceptions, behaviors and ability to purchase healthy foods in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Methods: FOODS 2000, a nutritional survey conducted in 18 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, provided information about dietary intake. A food ...

  2. Food shopping perceptions, behaviors, and ability to purchase healthful food items in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOODS 2000, a nutritional survey conducted in 18 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, provided information about dietary intake. A food store survey investigated the availability and price of foods. One focus group on shopping perceptions was conducted in each of nine counties. Foods p...

  3. [Alzheimer's disease and pharmacists in contact with the public].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreux, C

    2009-03-01

    All healthcare professionals are concerned by Alzheimer's disease, which in France will affect, in just a few years, over one million persons, mainly women. Pharmacists have shown particular interest, irrespective of their sector of activity. Here, we wanted to better define the role of colleagues who are constantly in contact with the public, i.e. in France in drug dispensaries and biology laboratories. Within the framework of the French pharmacy committee for health and social education, Cespharm, the Ethics and Communications working group of the 2008-2012 Alzheimer Disease Committee headed by Professor Joël Menard proposed a project worksheet which can be used by French pharmacists in their action to help Alzheimer patients and their caregivers. This project, prepared by Fabienne Blanchet, the Cespharm director and Christine Curty, mission head, was approved by the Menard commission and is inscribed in the National Alzheimer Plan 2008-2012 presented by this commission in November 2007. Here, our objective is to motivate pharmacists to participate in a structured initial and continuing training program proposed by specialists from the School of Pharmacy and other organizations duly approved by the High Committee for Continuing Education in Pharmacy. In keeping with the general operative procedures of Cespharm, information tools should be developed for colleagues and the public. Available interventions, in terms of prevention, diagnosis and treatment should be updated permanently and transmitted to professionals. Information which can be delivered to patients, and most importantly to their caregivers, concerning local assistance programs should be collected and transmitted to the local professionals. The role of the pharmacist can be summarized with four verbs: listen, reassure, orient, support. It is important to identify all available means enabling a confidential relationship with the persons needing help. Of particular interest are the relationship guides

  4. [Alzheimer's disease and pharmacists in contact with the public].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreux, C

    2009-03-01

    All healthcare professionals are concerned by Alzheimer's disease, which in France will affect, in just a few years, over one million persons, mainly women. Pharmacists have shown particular interest, irrespective of their sector of activity. Here, we wanted to better define the role of colleagues who are constantly in contact with the public, i.e. in France in drug dispensaries and biology laboratories. Within the framework of the French pharmacy committee for health and social education, Cespharm, the Ethics and Communications working group of the 2008-2012 Alzheimer Disease Committee headed by Professor Joël Menard proposed a project worksheet which can be used by French pharmacists in their action to help Alzheimer patients and their caregivers. This project, prepared by Fabienne Blanchet, the Cespharm director and Christine Curty, mission head, was approved by the Menard commission and is inscribed in the National Alzheimer Plan 2008-2012 presented by this commission in November 2007. Here, our objective is to motivate pharmacists to participate in a structured initial and continuing training program proposed by specialists from the School of Pharmacy and other organizations duly approved by the High Committee for Continuing Education in Pharmacy. In keeping with the general operative procedures of Cespharm, information tools should be developed for colleagues and the public. Available interventions, in terms of prevention, diagnosis and treatment should be updated permanently and transmitted to professionals. Information which can be delivered to patients, and most importantly to their caregivers, concerning local assistance programs should be collected and transmitted to the local professionals. The role of the pharmacist can be summarized with four verbs: listen, reassure, orient, support. It is important to identify all available means enabling a confidential relationship with the persons needing help. Of particular interest are the relationship guides

  5. Job characteristics, well-being and risky behaviour amongst pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Denham L; Walshe, Kieran; Parker, Dianne; Noyce, Peter R; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-12-01

    Healthcare practitioners' fitness to practise has often been linked to their personal and demographic characteristics. It is possible that situational factors, such as the work environment and physical or psychological well-being, also have an influence on an individual's fitness to practise. However, it is unclear how these factors might be linked to behaviours that risk compromising fitness to practise. The aim of this study was to examine the association between job characteristics, well-being and behaviour reflecting risky practice amongst a sample of registered pharmacists in a region of the United Kingdom. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional self-report survey of 517 pharmacists. These data were subjected to principal component analysis and path analysis, with job characteristics (demand, autonomy and feedback) and well-being (distress and perceived competence) as the predictors and behaviour as the outcome variable. Two aspects of behaviour were found: Overloading (taking on more work than one can comfortably manage) and risk taking (working at or beyond boundaries of safe practice). Separate path models including either job characteristics or well-being as independent variables provided a good fit to the data-set. Of the job characteristics, demand had the strongest association with behaviour, while the association between well-being and risky behaviour differed according to the aspect of behaviour being assessed. The findings suggest that, in general terms, situational factors should be considered alongside personal factors when assessing, judging or remediating fitness to practise. They also suggest the presence of different facets to the relationship between job characteristics, well-being and risky behaviour amongst pharmacists.

  6. Medication Safety Systems and the Important Role of Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Jeannell M

    2016-03-01

    Preventable medication-related adverse events continue to occur in the healthcare setting. While the Institute of Medicine's To Err is Human, published in 2000, highlighted the prevalence of medical and medication-related errors in patient morbidity and mortality, there has not been significant documented progress in addressing system contributors to medication errors. The lack of progress may be related to the myriad of pharmaceutical options now available and the nuances of optimizing drug therapy to achieve desired outcomes and prevent undesirable outcomes. However, on a broader scale, there may be opportunities to focus on the design and performance of the many processes that are part of the medication system. Errors may occur in the storage, prescribing, transcription, preparation and dispensing, or administration and monitoring of medications. Each of these nodes of the medication system, with its many components, is prone to failure, resulting in harm to patients. The pharmacist is uniquely trained to be able to impact medication safety at the individual patient level through medication management skills that are part of the clinical pharmacist's role, but also to analyze the performance of medication processes and to lead redesign efforts to mitigate drug-related outcomes that may cause harm. One population that can benefit from a focus on medication safety through clinical pharmacy services and medication safety programs is the elderly, who are at risk for adverse drug events due to their many co-morbidities and the number of medications often used. This article describes the medication safety systems and provides a blueprint for creating a foundation for medication safety programs within healthcare organizations. The specific role of pharmacists and clinical pharmacy services in medication safety is also discussed here and in other articles in this Theme Issue. PMID:26932714

  7. Analgesics: a comparison of therapeutic knowledge and inter-professional liaison between general practitioners and community pharmacists.

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, A; Scott, E.; Steele, K

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain general practitioners' (GPs') and pharmacists' knowledge of analgesics, to establish professional opinion on their use, and to assess the extent of pharmacist input into the prescribing of analgesics. Pharmacists displayed a better knowledge of analgesics than their colleagues in general practice, but had little input into the prescribing decisions made by GPs. Pharmacists' knowledge is not being put to best use in contributing to the preparation of prac...

  8. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  9. [Research on the forecasting of trends in demand for pharmacists 2011-2035].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoichi; Sakamaki, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Manabu; Iwatsuki, Susumu; Oide, Sentaro; Kitada, Mitsukazu; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Suda, Kohji; Mochizuki, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    The first crop of pharmacists graduating from 6-year programs in pharmaceutical l education arrived in April 2012, and it will be important to incorporate new factors when predicting future trends in supply and demand for pharmacists. If we project supply given an exam pass rate of 75%, the supply of pharmacists will increase for the next 10 years or so if the number of exam takers is about 10000, and no decrease in the total number of pharmacists is expected until 2035. At pharmacies, a high degree of demand for the services of pharmacists can be expected to result from increases in the number of elderly patients and the number of patients receiving prescriptions, together with expanded accommodation of home health care, if the proportion of prescriptions that are actually filled up to 70%. At hospitals, demand has been projected to increase over the short term, owing to such factors as the trend toward having a resident pharmacist in each ward, advances in team medicine, and the spread of outpatient chemotherapy. Given the rising enrollment quotas for schools of pharmacy, and if the current supply and demand for pharmacists are maintained, we cannot rule out the possibility that pharmacists will come to be in excess supply within a 10-year horizon if the number of unemployed continues to decrease and the employment rate continues to improve along with changes in economic conditions and the consciousness of graduates of the 6-year programs.

  10. Drug related problems and interventions of pharmacists on prescribed medicines in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    De Wulf, Isabelle; Boussery, Koen; De Vriese, Carine; Meyer, Guido; Foulon, Veerle; Lacour, Valérie; Mehuys, Els; Steurbaut, Stephane; Van Hees, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Aim of project/study (1) To study the frequency and nature of drug related problems (DRP) detected by community pharmacists and internship students when dispensing prescribed medicines. (2) To investigate the nature and frequency of interventions by pharmacists. (3) To study whether there is a difference between DRP detection at the moment of dispensing versus in a quiet setting.

  11. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.J.; Bauwens, M.; Bernheim, J.L.; Stichele, R.V.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54% (n = 35

  12. From "retailers" to health care providers : Transforming the role of community pharmacists in chronic disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossialos, Elias; Courtin, Emilie; Naci, Huseyin; Benrimoj, Shalom; Bouvy, Marcel; Farris, Karen; Noyce, Peter; Sketris, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Community pharmacists are the third largest healthcare professional group in the world after physicians and nurses. Despite their considerable training, community pharmacists are the only health professionals who are not primarily rewarded for delivering health care and hence are under-utilized as p

  13. Optimizing identification and management of COPD patients - reviewing the role of the community pharmacist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Thys; van Boven, Job F M; Maguire, Terence; Goyal, Pankaj; Altman, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To propose key steps for community pharmacist integration into a patient care pathway for COPD management. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify publications focusing on the role of the community pharmacist in identification and management of COPD. RESULTS: The literature searc

  14. Expanding the Role of the Pharmacist in the Modern Health-Care Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S. Jack

    1979-01-01

    The pharmacist-physician-patient relationship is discussed as well as factors that affect the prescribing and dispensing of drugs. It is suggested that pharmacists coordinate their efforts with those of the physicians by taking a more active role in serving their customers. (SF)

  15. Student and Teacher Reflections on Indirectness as a Pragmatic Feature of Pharmacist-Patient Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a research process where focussed reflection on pharmacist-patient simulations led to meta-pragmatic awareness and directions for pedagogical practice. The research participants were third-year EAL pharmacy students, who were practising being pharmacists, and pharmacy staff members, who played the part of patients. Analysis…

  16. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of a Modular Approach to a Pharmacist-Oriented Course in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Marie A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A project to develop, implement, and evaluate a slide/text modular oncology course teaching disease state and pharmacist-oriented information to pharmacy students, with potential adaptation for pharmacist continuing education, is described. Module effectiveness was evaluated using a pretest, posttest design, with group mean comparisons across both…

  17. The Arkansas Autism Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (AR ADDM) project: statewide autism surveillance in a rural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maya; Schulz, Eldon G; Baroud, Thaer; Hudson, Allison; Wilson, Mark

    2012-03-01

    In 2002, the Arkansas Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (AR ADDM) project collected data on the number and characteristics of resident children aged 8 years using a retrospective record review standardized methodology. This paper provides a first-look epidemiology of ASDs among 8 year old Arkansas children using data from the 2002 study year. Overall prevalence estimates, demographic distribution and a temporal lag from concerns identified to diagnosis of ASDs among 8 year olds in Arkansas were similar to that in other sites. Dissemination of information that promotes timely resolution of developmental concerns and improving educational services will benefit children with autism in Arkansas. PMID:22479981

  18. Middle Claiborne Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Claiborne Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The...

  19. The roles of community pharmacists in cardiovascular disease prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence in the international literature forpharmacist involvement in the prevention and managementof cardiovascular disease (CVD conditions in primary care.Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed thesignificant clinical benefits of pharmacist interventions for arange of CVD conditions and risk factors. Evidence generatedin research studies of Australian community pharmacistinvolvement in CVD prevention and management issummarised in this article.Commonwealth funding through the Community PharmacyAgreements has facilitated research to establish the feasibilityand effectiveness of new models of primary care involvingcommunity pharmacists. Australian community pharmacistshave been shown to effect positive clinical, humanistic andeconomic outcomes in patients with CVD conditions.Improvements in blood pressure, lipid levels, medicationadherence and CVD risk have been demonstrated usingdifferent study designs. Satisfaction for GPs, pharmacists andconsumers has also been reported. Perceived ‘turf’encroachment, expertise of the pharmacist, space, time andremuneration are challenges to the implementation of diseasemanagement services involving community pharmacists.

  20. Floods of Selected Streams in Arkansas, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Jaysson E.; Eng, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Floods can cause loss of life and extensive destruction to property. Monitoring floods and understanding the reasons for their occurrence are the responsibility of many Federal agencies. The National Weather Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey are among the most visible of these agencies. Together, these three agencies collect and analyze floodflow information to better understand the variety of mechanisms that cause floods, and how the characteristics and frequencies of floods vary with time and location. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored and assessed the quantity of streamflow in our Nation's streams since the agency's inception in 1879. Because of ongoing collection and assessment of streamflow data, the USGS can provide information about a range of surface-water issues including the suitability of water for public supply and irrigation and the effects of agriculture and urbanization on streamflow. As part of its streamflow-data collection activities, the USGS measured streamflow in multiple streams during extreme flood events in Arkansas in the spring of 2008. The analysis of streamflow information collected during flood events such as these provides a scientific basis for decision making related to resource management and restoration. Additionally, this information can be used by water-resource managers to better define flood-hazard areas and to design bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures. Water levels (stage) and streamflow (discharge) currently are being monitored in near real-time at approximately 150 locations in Arkansas. The streamflow-gaging stations measure and record hydrologic data at 15-minute or hourly intervals; the data then are transmitted through satellites to the USGS database and displayed on the internet every 1 to 4 hours. Streamflow-gaging stations in Arkansas are part of a network of over 7,500 active streamflow-gaging stations operated by the USGS throughout the United

  1. Impact of Pharmacists and Student Pharmacists in Educating and Screening Low-Income Women for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A. DiPietro, PharmD, MPH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD and to increase awareness of risk factors among female patients of a community health center with an on-site 340B pharmacy.Methods: The program consisted of a 10-minute educational intervention and brief pre-test, post-test, and participant satisfaction survey. Adult female patients at the clinic for any provider visit or prescription fill were eligible to participate. Participants met individually with a student pharmacist or faculty member and verbally completed the pre-test. The participant received education regarding CVD, risk factors, and symptoms of myocardial infarction and were screened for hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia. The post-test was then verbally administered. Participants answered the satisfaction survey privately. Based on individual needs, educational materials and information on available pharmacy clinical services were provided. The university IRB deemed the study exempt. Results: Eighty-four individuals received educational materials and/or a screening test. Of those, 30 women (mean age 46.9 years completed the educational intervention. Thirteen (43% reported smoking; 22 (73% identified themselves as overweight. Fourteen (47% indicated a preexisting diagnosis of hypertension. Correct responses for 6 of 8 knowledge-based questions were statistically significantly improved from pre-test to post-test (p<0.05. Twenty-nine patients (97% rated the program as “useful” or “very useful”. Conclusion: CVD is the leading cause of death in U.S. women. Data from this program indicate that through screening and education, pharmacists and student pharmacists can impact female patients’ knowledge of CVD risk factors. Continued efforts in this area may help to reduce the public health burden of CVD.

  2. UPPER BUFFALO WILDERNESS AND BUFFALO ADDITION ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    The Upper Buffalo Wilderness and Buffalo Addition Roadless Area covers about 19 sq mi in the Ozark National Forest, Newton County, Arkansas. No metal-bearing minerals were observed during geologic mapping, and analyses for zinc and lead contents in surface rock and sediment samples from the study area are not anomalous. Exploratory drilling into the Boone Formation and (or) the Everton Formation will be necessary to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of zinc and lead in the study area.

  3. Rural Australian community pharmacists' views on complementary and alternative medicine: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Jon A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs are being used increasingly across the world. In Australia, community pharmacists are a major supplier of these products but knowledge of the products and interactions with other medicines is poor. Information regarding the use of CAMs by metropolitan pharmacists has been documented by the National Prescribing Service (NPS in Australia but the views of rural/regional community pharmacists have not been explored. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and information seeking of a cohort of rural community pharmacists towards CAMs and to compare the findings to the larger NPS study. Methods A cross sectional self-administered postal questionnaire was mailed to all community pharmacists in one rural/regional area of Australia. Using a range of scales, data was collected regarding attitudes, knowledge, information seeking behaviour and demographics. Results Eighty eligible questionnaires were returned. Most pharmacists reported knowing that they should regularly ask consumers if they are using CAMs but many lacked the confidence to do so. Pharmacists surveyed for this study were more knowledgeable in regards to side effects and interactions of CAMs than those in the NPS survey. Over three quarters of pharmacists surveyed reported sourcing CAM information at least several times a month. The most frequently sought information was drug interactions, dose, contraindications and adverse effects. A variety of resources were used to source information, the most popular source was the internet but the most useful resource was CAM text books. Conclusions Pharmacists have varied opinions on the use of CAMs and many lack awareness of or access to good quality CAMs information. Therefore, there is a need to provide pharmacists with opportunities for further education. The data is valuable in assisting interested stakeholders with the development of initiatives to

  4. Work-related well-being of South African hospital pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Hospital pharmacists in South Africa are experiencing increased stress because of the high demand for their services, a lack of resources in hospital pharmacies, and the shortage of pharmacists in South Africa.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether job stress and coping strategies could predict the work-related well-being (burnout and work engagement of hospital pharmacists in South Africa.Motivation for the study: Information about the work-related well-being and coping strategies of hospital pharmacists could be used to plan individual and organisational interventions which can be used to retain them and to manage their well-being and performance.Research design, approach and method: A survey design was used. A stratified random sample (N = 187 of pharmacists in South African hospitals was studied. The Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Pharmacist Stress Inventory and the COPE questionnaire were administered.Main findings: The results showed that job related stress and three coping strategies (approach coping, avoidant coping, and turning to religion predicted burnout and work engagement of South African hospital pharmacists.Practical implications: Job stressors that are in the main responsible for the unfavourable work environment and that lead to the development of burnout amongst hospital pharmacists should be addressed. It is also important to enhance the coping capabilities of the hospital pharmacists.Contribution/value-add: The findings of this study provide insight into the factors impacting on the work-related well-being of hospital pharmacists in South Africa.

  5. Submarine-fan sedimentation, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiola, R.J.; Shanmugam, G.

    1984-09-01

    More than 10,000 m (32,808 ft) of interbedded sandstones and shales comprise the Upper Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian flysch succession (Stanley, Jackfork, Johns Valley, Atoka) in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma. Deposited primarily by turbidity current and hemipelagic processes in bathyal and abyssal water depths, these strata formed major submarine-fan complexes that prograded in a westward direction along the axis of an elongate remnant ocean basin that was associated with the collision and suturing of the North American and African-South American plates. A longitudinal fan system is visualized as the depositional framework for these strata, which were deposited in a setting analogous to the modern Bengal fan of the Indian Ocean. Facies analysis of the Jackfork formation indicates that inner fan deposits are present in the vicinity of Little Rock, Arkansas; middle fan channel and interchannel deposits occur at DeGray Dam and Friendship, Arkansas; and outer fan depositional-lobe deposits are present in southeastern Oklahoma. Boulder-bearing units (olistostromes), many with exotic clasts, were shed laterally into the Ouachita basin. They occur throughout the flysch succession and in all fan environments (i.e., inner, middle, and outer). This relationship may serve as a useful criterion for recognizing analogous longitudinal fan systems in the rock record.

  6. NEED OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST FOR RATIONALIZATION OF PRESCRIPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Muhammad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in the Medical ward of Hayath Abad Medical Complex (HMC, Peshawar, Pakistan from 1st June 2009 to 31st December 2009. HMC is one of the teaching hospital in KPK, Pakistan, it consist of 800 beds. The data were collected through prescribed history form and questionnaire designed from the general medical ward. The results indicates that the hepatotoxic drug prescribed in hepatic impaired patients were 5.6% of the study and about 31% drugs were found with improper dose or the frequency of dose was not mentioned. About 12.56% drugs were prescribed without mentioning the duration of therapy while, untreated conditions were found about 15.70% of our study. In the present study 21.46% drug interactions was found. The prescription containing unnecessary drugs without any indication were 7.85%. All these mentioned irrationality were due to the lack of clinical pharmacist in the whole hospital. It is concluded that the presence or involvement of a competent and qualified clinical pharmacist is very essential for the rationalization of the prescription in any hospital or health institution.

  7. A Study on How Industrial Pharmacists Rank Competences for Pharmacy Practice: A Case for Industrial Pharmacy Specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the way in which industrial pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European industrial pharmacists (n = 135 ranked 68 competences for practice, arranged into 13 clusters of two types (personal and patient care. Results show that, compared to community pharmacists (n = 258, industrial pharmacists rank competences centering on research, development and production of drugs higher, and those centering on patient care lower. Competences centering on values, communication skills, etc. were ranked similarly by the two groups of pharmacists. These results are discussed in the light of the existence or not of an “industrial pharmacy” specialization.

  8. 78 FR 78398 - Notice and Request for Comments: LSC merger of the migrant service areas in Texas, Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Notice and Request for Comments: LSC merger of the migrant service areas in Texas, Arkansas, Kentucky... Request for Comments--LSC merger of the migrant service areas in Texas, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana..., Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama migrant service areas. Grants for...

  9. [The Pharmacist as Gatekeeper of Prescription Drug Abuse: Return to "Community Scientists"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimane, Takuya

    2016-01-01

      The non-medical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including benzodiazepines, is a growing health problem in Japan. An association between prescription drug overdose and suicide risk has also been reported. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has expected pharmacists to act as "gatekeepers", facilitating early identification of individuals at high risk of prescription drug abuse including overdose, supplying medication counseling to patients, and helping to introduce these patients to appropriate medical care. Prescription drugs such as benzodiazepines are widely used in psychiatry. However, these drugs are prescribed not only by psychiatrists but also by other healthcare professionals including primary care physicians. Moreover, in recent years, the dispensing of prescriptions has moved rapidly from inside to outside hospitals, with prescription drugs being dispensed mainly at community pharmacies. Although all healthcare professionals including hospital pharmacists can play a role in preventing prescription drug abuse, the role of the community pharmacist is vital in addressing this problem. Formerly, community pharmacists were recognized as "community scientists", low-threshold accessible healthcare advisors. Now, community pharmacists should return to the role of community scientists to prevent prescription drug abuse. This article begins by reviewing the current situation of prescription drug abuse and dependence in Japan. The role of pharmacists as gatekeepers in preventing prescription drug abuse is then examined. Finally, this article discusses the effect of intervention in the form of gatekeeper training for community pharmacists.

  10. A newly developed assessment tool on collaborative role of doctor–pharmacist in patient medication management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Porwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Poor communication is one of the most important common factor contributing to medication errors. Despite their common history, there are many intellectual and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that eventually affects patient care and health outcomes. Objectives. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the coordination and teamwork between pharmacist and doctor to provide betterment in the care of the patient health. Material and methods . A questionnaire of 10 questions was developed each for the patient, pharmacist and doctor posted on District Hospital, Moradabad (U.P., India and data collected from the patient and medical professionals through questionnaire were analyzed for collaborative role of doctor-pharmacist with respect to patient care. The results were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism 5. Results. The data obtained from the questionnaire highlights a significant effort between pharmacist and doctors. However, some patients often doubt in the skills of pharmacist for treatment outcome, but the majority of people responds positive to doctor-pharmacist role as they prove to be fruitful in removing medication errors. Conclusions . To facilitate the patient care, doctor-pharmacist alliance is necessary, desired and should be motivated as professed by the respondents. Collaboration is an important element of effective patient-focused health care delivery.

  11. Pharmacists implementing transitions of care in inpatient, ambulatory and community practice settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To introduce pharmacists to the process, challenges, and opportunities of creating transitions of care (TOC models in the inpatient, ambulatory, and community practice settings. Methods: TOC literature and resources were obtained through searching PubMed, Ovid, and GoogleScholar. The pharmacist clinicians, who are the authors in this manuscript are reporting their experiences in the development, implementation of, and practice within the TOC models. Results: Pharmacists are an essential part of the multidisciplinary team and play a key role in providing care to patients as they move between health care settings or from a health care setting to home. Pharmacists can participate in many aspects of the inpatient, ambulatory care, and community pharmacy practice settings to implement and ensure optimal TOC processes. This article describes establishing the pharmacist’s TOC role and practicing within multiple health care settings. In these models, pharmacists focus on medication reconciliation, discharge counseling, and optimization of medications. Additionally, a checklist has been created to assist other pharmacists in developing the pharmacist’s TOC roles in a practice environment or incorporating more TOC elements in their practice setting. Conclusion: Optimizing the TOC process, reducing medication errors, and preventing adverse events are important focus areas in the current health care system, as emphasized by The Joint Commission and other health care organizations. Pharmacists have the unique opportunity and skillset to develop and participate in TOC processes that will enhance medication safety and improve patient care.

  12. Pharmacists' perspective on providing care when patients engage in unhealthy behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine; Segal, Richard; Kimberlin, Carole; Smith, W Thomas; Weiler, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association between unhealthy lifestyle-related behaviors in patients and the pharmacist's professional obligation for providing care. DESIGN Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the effect of severity of lifestyle disease on professional obligation. SETTING Four live continuing education programs on law and management conducted in the state of Florida. PARTICIPANTS 488 Florida pharmacists were surveyed with 65% completing the survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Pharmacists' opinions based on lifestyle-related diseases classified as follows: low lifestyle-related disease (low LD): nonsmoker with asthma who is adherent with asthma medications; moderate (mod) LD: nonsmoker with asthma who is nonadherent with asthma medications; high LD: smoker with asthma who is adherent with asthma medications. RESULTS The difference between the scales for measuring professional obligation for low and mod LD was significant, with pharmacists reporting greater professional obligation for low versus mod LD. The difference between professional obligation for low and high LD was significant, with pharmacists reporting greater professional obligation for low than high LD. The difference between professional obligation for mod and high LD was significant, with pharmacists reporting a higher professional obligation for mod than high LD. CONCLUSION The differences in professional obligation between the three patient scenarios were small but statistically significant. The findings suggest that certain patient behaviors, such as smoking or medication nonadherence, can have a negative effect on pharmacists' sense of professional obligation to the patient.

  13. Future expectations for Japanese pharmacists as compared to the rest of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yutaka; Morita, Yuki; Takikawa, Mayu; Takao, Koichi; Kanamoto, Ikuo; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    It is important to share information about other countries' pharmacists to optimize cross-border medical cooperation. This paper examines the dispensing systems and the work done by pharmacists in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Thailand, and Malaysia so as to compare these countries' medical practices and develop a cohesive vision for the future of Japanese pharmacists. All five of the countries have dispensing assistants. Pharmacists in Japan have duties of inventory control, drug dispensing, and providing medication advice. In contrast, assistants working in other countries are responsible for some aspects of dispensing and inventory control, allowing the pharmacists to spend their time and competency in instructing patients on how to take their medication. Because of this, pharmacists were actively involved with health promotion intervention in the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. It is hoped that work done by Japanese pharmacists would transition from primarily dispensing drugs to patient care, advice, and counseling to enrich overall health promotion and health/nutrition counseling. PMID:25443642

  14. Pharmacists' views on implementing a disease state management program for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Shaheed, Christina; Maher, Christopher G; Williams, Kylie A; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacists have the potential to take a lead role in the primary care management of people with acute low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate pharmacists' views on implementing a care program for people with acute low back pain in the community pharmacy. Recruitment of pharmacists for this study took place between July 2012 and March 2013. A convenience sample of 30 pharmacists who collaborated in recruiting participants for a low back pain clinical trial in Sydney (n=15 pharmacist recruiters and n=15 non-recruiters) completed an open-ended questionnaire. There was no marked variation in responses between the two groups. Participating pharmacists were receptive to the idea of implementing a care program for people with low back pain, highlighting the need for adequate reimbursement and adequate training of staff to ensure it is successful. Pharmacists identified that the follow up of people receiving such a service is dependent on several factors such as effective reminder systems and the proximity of patients to the pharmacy. PMID:25719762

  15. 78 FR 27306 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dermott, Arkansas, and Cleveland, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Dermott, Arkansas, and Cleveland, Mississippi AGENCY... Delta Radio Network, LLC, substitutes FM Channel 224A for 289A at Dermott, Arkansas, and substitutes FM...-20110913AAK. Channel 224A can be allotted at Dermott with a site restriction of 3.5 km (2.2 miles)...

  16. "McLean v. Arkansas" (1982) and Beyond: Implications for Biology Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Mark W.; Moore, Randy

    2011-01-01

    To assess current trends of evolution instruction in high schools of the mid-South, we invited Arkansas high school biology teachers from across the state to respond to a survey designed to address this issue. We also asked students enrolled in a freshman-level, nonmajors biology course at a midsize public Arkansas university to recall their…

  17. Association of School-Based Influenza Vaccination Clinics and School Absenteeism--Arkansas, 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquelais, Rachel E.; Safi, Haytham; Butler, Sandra; Smith, Nathaniel; Haselow, Dirk T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a major cause of seasonal viral respiratory illness among school-aged children. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) coordinates >800 school-based influenza immunization clinics before each influenza season. We quantified the relationship between student influenza vaccination in Arkansas public schools…

  18. 77 FR 6711 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arkansas; Infrastructure Requirements for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... proposing to approve SIP revisions that modify the Arkansas PSD SIP to include nitrogen oxides (NO X ) as an... Greenhouse Gas Emitting-Sources in State Implementation Plans; Final Rule,'' 75 FR 82536 (December 30, 2010... Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule; Final Rule.'' 75 FR 31514 (June 3, 2010). The approved Arkansas SIP...

  19. 77 FR 47779 - Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... FR 31756-31769 Arkansas Code of 1987 Annotated (A.C.A.) Treatment Sludges from Auto Sections 8-7-201... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision... to the EPA for Final authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the...

  20. Patient attitudes towards a new role for pharmacists: continued dispensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukres SH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Salem Hasn Abukres, Kreshnik Hoti, Jeffery David Hughes School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health and Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Background: In Australia, “continued dispensing” (CD is a new model for supply of prescription medications. Under specific circumstances, community pharmacists are allowed to dispense a further one month supply of prescription only medications without a valid prescription. It allows continuation and treatment adherence when patients run out of statin and/or oral contraceptive (OC medications, when it is not practical or they fail to plan accordingly to get a new prescription. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore patient attitudes towards a CD model, including any perceived concerns or associated risks with CD prior to its introduction.Methods: An Australia-wide computer-assisted telephone interview survey of statin and OC users aged 18 years or older was conducted in July 2013 prior to implementation of the CD model. A telephone number list was generated via a random number generation function based on a broad breakdown of the Australian population as outlined in the June 2013 Australian Bureau of Statistics data. The sample target for the survey was 300, consisting of 150 statin users and 150 OC users.Results: There were a total of 301 respondents, comprising 151 statin users and 150 OC users. Approximately 37% of all respondents had experienced running out of their medications in the past 12 months, of whom 35.4% had temporarily stopped treatment and 33.6% requested their medication from a pharmacist without a valid prescription. OC users were more likely to run out of their medications (P=0.021. The majority of respondents had a regular pharmacy (86% and therefore would be eligible for CD in the future. The majority of those surveyed had no concerns about CD or perceived it as posing no risks. Concerns raised included consultation privacy and the pharmacist’s lack

  1. An exploration of clinical interventions provided by pharmacists within a complex asthma service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeMay KS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists in Australia are accessible health care professionals, and their provision of clinical pharmacy interventions in a range of areas has been proven to improve patient outcomes. Individual clinical pharmacy interventions in the area of asthma management have been very successful. An understanding of the nature of these interventions will inform future pharmacy services. What we do not know is when pharmacists provide a complex asthma service, what elements of that service (interventions they choose to deliver. Objective: To explore the scope and frequency of asthma-related clinical interventions provided by pharmacists to patients in an evidence-based complex asthma service. Methods: Pharmacists from 4 states/territories of Australia were trained in asthma management. People with asthma had 3 or 4 visits to the pharmacy. Guided by a structured patient file, the pharmacist assessed the patient’s asthma and management and provided interventions where and when considered appropriate, based on their clinical decision making skills. The interventions were recorded in a checklist in the patient file. They were then analysed descriptively and thematically. Results: Pharmacists provided 22,909 clinical pharmacy interventions over the service to 570 patients (398 of whom completed the service. The most frequently delivered interventions were in the themes ‘Education on asthma’, ‘Addressing trigger factors’, ‘Medications – safe and effective use’ and ‘Explore patient perspectives’. The patients had a high and ongoing need for interventions. Pharmacists selected interventions based on their assessment of perceived need then revisited and reinforced these interventions. Conclusion: Pharmacists identified a number of areas in which patients required interventions to assist with their asthma management. Many of these were perceived to require continuing reinforcement over the duration of the service. Pharmacists were

  2. Over-the-Counter Sale of Emergency Contraception: A Survey of Pharmacists in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Archana; Saxena, Pikee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pharmacists play a key role while dispensing over-the-counter emergency contraception (EC) to the client. Aims The study aims to evaluate the knowledge and over-the-counter services provided by the pharmacists in Delhi. Methods A prestructured questionnaire-based survey was conducted in Delhi, the capital city of India. Results Only 60 out of 85 pharmacies approached agreed to participate in the study. Number of packs sold in a month per pharmacy varied from 2 to 500 packs/month. Sixty-two percent of the pharmacists claimed that majority of the clients repeated use during the same month. Only 18% of the clients were referred by doctors while 82% directly approached the pharmacists. Nearly one third of the clients were adolescents. Sixty-seven percent of the pharmacists had adequate knowledge about EC. Only 3.3% asked about the last menstrual period or the time elapsed since the last unprotected intercourse. No pharmacist inquired whether there were one or multiple unprotected acts of intercourse, if any regular contraceptive method was being used, or explored the reason for EC intake. There were 91.7% who explained the dosage schedule to clients. Only half of them explained that the client may experience side effects. None of the pharmacists advised their clients for a sexually transmitted disease screening, and 35% counseled the clients regarding regular contraception. Conclusion Improving the quality of services provided by the pharmacists can clear misconceptions of the clients and promote subsequent regular contraception along with precautions to avoid sexually transmitted diseases. Mishra A and Saxena P. Over-the-counter sale of emergency contraception: A survey of pharmacists in Delhi. Sex Med 2013;1:16–20. PMID:25356282

  3. Using scenarios to test the appropriateness of pharmacist prescribing in asthma management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the potential for community pharmacist prescribing in terms of usefulness, pharmacists’ confidence, and appropriateness, in the context of asthma management. Methods: Twenty community pharmacists were recruited using convenience sampling from a group of trained practitioners who had already delivered asthma services. These pharmacists were asked to complete a scenario-based questionnaire (9 scenarios modelled on information from real patients. Pharmacist interventions were independently reviewed and rated on their appropriateness according to the Respiratory Therapeutic Guidelines (TG by three expert researchers. Results: In seven of nine scenarios (78%, the most common prescribing intervention made by pharmacists agreed with TG recommendations. Although the prescribing intervention was appropriate in the majority of cases, the execution of such interventions was not in line with guidelines (i.e. dosage or frequency in the majority of scenarios. Due to this, only 47% (76/162 of the interventions overall were considered appropriate. However, pharmacists were deemed to be often following common clinical practice for asthma prescribing. Therefore 81% (132/162 of prescribing interventions were consistent with clinical practice, which is often not guideline driven, indicating a need for specific training in prescribing according to guidelines. Pharmacists reported that they were confident in making prescribing interventions and that this would be very useful in their management of the patients in the scenarios. Conclusion: Community pharmacists may be able to prescribe asthma medications appropriately to help achieve good outcomes for their patients. However, further training in the guidelines for prescribing are required if pharmacists are to support asthma management in this way.

  4. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  5. ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS: FACTORS AND ROLE OF PHARMACIST IN THEIR PREVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushra, Rabia; Baloch, Saba Ajaz; Jabeen, Aisha; Bano, Nusrat; Aslam, Nousheen

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the undesirable effects of drugs even when administered in daily normal doses. It has been seen that ADRs may arise even after single administration of drug(s), however, long term therapies are more prone to ADRs. Currently it has become a burning issue all around the world and connected with financial expansion owing to hospitalization. Pharmacists are the custodians of drugs especially clinical pharmacists play a vital role in preventing the risks of ADRs. This review deals with the factors leading to possible ADRs, its prevention and the role of pharmacist in management of ADRs.

  6. [Role of the community pharmacist in the management of drug related problems in home care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Putte, M; Appels, S; Boone, T; Collienne, S; Daems, T; De Lepeleire, J; Foulon, V

    2012-09-01

    Medication management in home care is an error prone process. In a small pilot project in Flanders, community pharmacists collaborated with physicians and home care nurses through a shared electronic care plan, to optimize the medication management of their home care patients. The pilot project shows that GPs and nurses are positive about the possible contribution of the pharmacist in medication management of home care patients. A larger follow up study is necessary to further identify possible roles of pharmacists in home care and to show related health benefits. PMID:23697093

  7. Medical care and drug-related problems: Do doctors and pharmacists speak the same language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppe van Mil, J W; Westerlund, Tommy; Brown, Lawrence; Chen, Timothy F; Henman, Martin; Hersberger, Kurt; McElnay, James; Schulz, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Optimal communication between physicians and pharmacists is important for patient care. However, pharmacists and doctors do not always seem to understand each other. They have been professionalized differently, and do not always speak the same language. Especially in the areas of prescribing, medication review, and medicine use, there can be differences in views. This contribution clarifies some essential concepts that doctors and pharmacists use. Thus we hope that our commentary contributes to a better understanding of each other's role and the importance of interprofessional cooperation for the benefit of the patient. PMID:26797769

  8. Adherence to antidepressant medications: an evaluation of community pharmacists' counseling practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong WW

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wen Chong,1,2 Parisa Aslani,1 Timothy F Chen1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Recent studies have shown that pharmacists have a role in addressing antidepressant nonadherence. However, few studies have explored community pharmacists' actual counseling practices in response to antidepressant adherence-related issues at various phases of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate counseling practices of community pharmacists in response to antidepressant adherence-related issues. Methods: A simulated patient method was used to evaluate pharmacist counseling practices in Sydney, Australia. Twenty community pharmacists received three simulated patient visits concerning antidepressant adherence-related scenarios at different phases of treatment: 1 patient receiving a first-time antidepressant prescription and hesitant to begin treatment; 2 patient perceiving lack of treatment efficacy for antidepressant after starting treatment for 2 weeks; and 3 patient wanting to discontinue antidepressant treatment after 3 months due to perceived symptom improvement. The interactions were recorded and analyzed to evaluate the content of consultations in terms of information gathering, information provision including key educational messages, and treatment recommendations. Results: There was variability among community pharmacists in terms of the extent and content of information gathered and provided. In scenario 1, while some key educational messages such as possible side effects and expected benefits from antidepressants were mentioned frequently, others such as the recommended length of treatment and adherence-related messages were rarely addressed. In all scenarios, about two thirds of pharmacists explored patients' concerns about antidepressant treatment. In scenarios 2 and 3, only half of all pharmacists

  9. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Jill S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews

  10. General practitioners’ perceptions on home medicines reviews: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Amrith Kaur; Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia; Stafford, Andrew; Hoti, Kreshnik

    2015-01-01

    Background Home Medicines Review (HMR) is an Australian initiative introduced in 2001 to improve quality use of medicines. Medication management services such as HMRs have the potential to reduce medication related problems. In 2011, changes to the HMR program were introduced to allow for referrals directly to accredited pharmacists in addition to the community pharmacy referral model. These changes were introduced to improve efficiency of the process. This study explored the perceptions of W...

  11. Pharmacist-led medication review in an acute admissions unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Graabæk; Bonnerup, Dorthe Krogsgaard; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Over the last decades, several papers have evaluated clinical pharmacy interventions in hospital settings with conflicting findings as results. Medication reviews are frequently a central component of these interventions. However, the term ‘medication review’ covers a plethora of...... data, (2) collection of information about the patient's medical treatment, (3) patient interview, (4) critical examination of the patient's medications and (5) recommendations for the hospital physician.Conclusions We have provided a detailed description of a procedure for pharmacist-led medication...... review. We do so, not to provide or advocate a single one-size-fits-all solution, but in an attempt to inspire a debate of the practical approach on how to execute a systematic medication review in order to develop and expand clinical pharmacy and achieve better patient outcomes....

  12. [Zhang-shu-zhen pharmacists' activities in the Qing dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the Qing dynasty, the commodity economy and domestic distribution in China developed dramatically. In this context, the market of Chinese medicines also expanded. At that time, the Zhang-shu-zhen pharmacists, in Jiangxi province, took the initiative in this market. This article explores their activities which were spread across China and it also examines the level of success or failure of their activities as well as the economical impact to the society of Zhang-shu-zhen. Due to its location between two important rivers that were used extensively for trade and their technical proficiency in pharmacy, Zhang-shu-zhen became an emporium of medicines. Nevertheless, many of the druggists were active in the southwest provinces of China. In order words, the activities of the druggists were coupled with the movement of immigration, from midland China to the southwest. PMID:22164690

  13. Farmacevtske kognitivne storitve pri zdravljenju z zdravili - pogled farmacevta svetovalca v ambulanti: Pharmaceutical cognitive services in pharmacotherapy - pharmacist's consultant perspective at an ambulance:

    OpenAIRE

    Premuš Marušič, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacist cognitive services in different countries in Europe and around the world are carried out in various ways. The range of responsibilities of clinical pharmacists is ranging from prescribing medicine in the United Kingdom and the United States, to pharmacotherapy groups and pharmacist consultant in the Netherlands. Pharmacotherapy Groups and Clinical Pharmacist's Consultation is a currently ongoing development program in Slovenia. Within the program, the clinical pharmacist reviews th...

  14. The raison d'etre for the community pharmacy and the community pharmacist in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim...... of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who...... are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks...

  15. Exploring the nature of power distance on general practitioner and community pharmacist relations in a chronic disease management context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Allison Margaret

    2014-09-01

    To improve collaboration in Australian primary health care, there is a need to understand aspects of the general practitioner (GP)/community pharmacist relationship, its influence on collaborative chronic disease management (CDM) and if this influence can be explained by a pre-existing theory or concept. Adopting a grounded theory approach, 22 GP and 22 community pharmacist semi-structured interviews were undertaken. Analysis of the transcripts identified common themes regarding the GP/community pharmacist relationship. Trustworthiness of the themes identified was tested through negative case analysis and member checking. Hofstede's (in 1980) phenomenon of power distance was employed to illuminate the nature of GP/community pharmacist relations. The majority of GPs and community pharmacists described the characteristics of this phenomenon. The power distance was based on knowledge and expertise and was shown to be a barrier to collaboration between GPs and community pharmacists because GPs perceived that community pharmacists did not have the required expertise to improve CDM above what the GP could deliver alone. Power distance exists within the GP/community pharmacist relationship and has a negative influence on GP/community pharmacist collaborative CDM. Understanding and improving GP awareness of community pharmacist expertise has important implications for the future success of collaborative CDM.

  16. A web-based training program to support chronic kidney disease screening by community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheewala, Pankti A; Peterson, Gregory M; Zaidi, Syed Tabish R; Bereznicki, Luke; Jose, Matthew D; Castelino, Ronald L

    2016-10-01

    Background Community pharmacists' role in screening of several chronic diseases has been widely explored. The global health burden of chronic kidney disease is high; however, the progression and adverse outcomes can be prevented or delayed by detecting and treating the disease in its initial stages 1-3. Therefore, a web-based training program was developed to enhance pharmacists' knowledge and skills required to perform a chronic kidney disease screening service in a community setting. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a web-based training program on community pharmacists' knowledge and skills associated with chronic kidney disease screening. As secondary aim, pharmacists' satisfaction with the training program was assessed. Setting Community pharmacy practice. Method A web-based training program was developed by four pharmacists and a nephrologist. Quantitative data was collected by employing a self-administered, web-based questionnaire, which comprised a set of five multiple-choice knowledge questions and one clinical vignette to assess skills. A nine-item Likert scale was used to determine pharmacists' satisfaction with the training program. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' knowledge and skills scores at pre and post-training, reliability of the Likert scale, and the proportion of responses to the individual nine items of the satisfaction survey. Results Fifty pharmacists participated in the pre-questionnaire and 38 pharmacists completed the web-based training and post-questionnaire. Significant differences were observed in the knowledge scores (p < 0.001) and skills scores (p < 0.001) at pre- and post-training. Cronbach's alpha for the nine-item satisfaction scale was 0.73 and the majority pharmacists (92.1-100 %) were satisfied with the various aspects of the training program. Conclusion The web-based training program positively enhanced pharmacists' knowledge and skills associated with chronic kidney disease screening. These

  17. Piloting the role of a pharmacist in a community palliative care multidisciplinary team: an Australian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Box Margaret

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the home is the most common setting for the provision of palliative care in Australia, a common problem encountered here is the inability of patient/carers to manage medications, which can lead to misadventure and hospitalisation. This can be averted through detection and resolution of drug related problems (DRPs by a pharmacist; however, they are rarely included as members of the palliative care team. The aim of this study was to pilot a model of care that supports the role of a pharmacist in a community palliative care team. A component of the study was to develop a cost-effective model for continuing the inclusion of a pharmacist within a community palliative care service. Methods The study was undertaken (February March 2009-June 2010 in three phases. Development (Phase 1 involved a literature review; scoping the pharmacist's role; creating tools for recording DRPs and interventions, a communication and education strategy, a care pathway and evidence based patient information. These were then implemented in Phase 2. Evaluation (Phase 3 of the impact of the pharmacist's role from the perspectives of team members was undertaken using an online survey and focus group. Impact on clinical outcomes was determined by the number of patients screened to assess their risk of medication misadventure, as well as the number of medication reviews and interventions performed to resolve DRPs. Results The pharmacist screened most patients (88.4%, 373/422 referred to the palliative care service to assess their risk of medication misadventure, and undertook 52 home visits. Medication reviews were commonly conducted at the majority of home visits (88%, 46/52, and a variety of DRPs (113 were detected at this point, the most common being "patient requests drug information" (25%, 28/113 and "condition not adequately treated" (22%, 25/113. The pharmacist made 120 recommendations in relation to her interventions. Fifty percent of online

  18. New Roles for Pharmacists in Community Mental Health Care: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rubio-Valera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence for pharmacist-delivered services in mental health care and address the barriers and facilitators to increasing the uptake of pharmacist services as part of the broader mental health care team. This narrative review is divided into three main sections: (1 the role of the pharmacist in mental health care in multidisciplinary teams and in supporting early detection of mental illness; (2 the pharmacists’ role in supporting quality use of medicines in medication review, strategies to improve medication adherence and antipsychotic polypharmacy, and shared decision making; and (3 barriers and facilitators to the implementation of mental health pharmacy services with a focus on organizational culture and mental health stigma. In the first section, the review presents new roles for pharmacists within multidisciplinary teams, such as in case conferencing or collaborative drug therapy management; and new roles that would benefit from increased pharmacist involvement, such as the early detection of mental health conditions, development of care plans and follow up of people with mental health problems. The second section describes the impact of medication review services and other pharmacist-led interventions designed to reduce inappropriate use of psychotropic medicines and improve medication adherence. Other new potential roles discussed include the management of antipsychotic polypharmacy and involvement in patient-centered care. Finally, barriers related to pharmacists’ attitudes, stigma and skills in the care of patients with mental health problems and barriers affecting pharmacist-physician collaboration are described, along with strategies to reduce mental health stigma.

  19. A Narrative Review of Diabetes Intervention Studies to Explore Diabetes Care Opportunities for Pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Shamala Ayadurai; H. Laetitia Hattingh; Tee, Lisa B.G.; Siti Norlina Md Said

    2016-01-01

    Background. We conducted a review of current diabetes intervention studies in type 2 diabetes and identified opportunities for pharmacists to deliver quality diabetes care. Methods. A search on randomised controlled trials (RCT) on diabetes management by healthcare professionals including pharmacists published between 2010 and 2015 was conducted. Results and Discussion. Diabetes management includes multifactorial intervention which includes seven factors as outlined in diabetes guidelines, na...

  20. Pharmacists’ knowledge and attitudes about natural health products: a mixed-methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Kheir, Nadir

    2014-01-01

    Nadir Kheir, Hoda Y Gad, Safae E Abu-Yousef College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha, Qatar Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitude of pharmacists in Qatar towards natural health products (NHPs). Methods: The quantitative component of this study consisted of an anonymous, online, self-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge about NHPs among pharmacists in Qatar. Descriptive statistics and inferential analysis were conducted using Statistical Package of Social Scienc...

  1. Drug advertising directed to pharmacists in Brazil: information or sales promotion?

    OpenAIRE

    Jussara Calmon Reis de Souza Soares

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of drug advertising reveal important social and cultural values and attitudes at a certain point in history. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how pharmaceutical industry communicates with pharmacists in Brazil, using drug promotion as a valuable tool. The point of departure was the analysis of a series of drug advertisements published in three Brazilian technical journals targeted at pharmacists and other health professionals. For the present study, the focus was on the c...

  2. Advantages of a Warfarin Protocol for Long-term Care Pharmacists: a Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent, Randall; Brocklebank, Cynthia; Tam-Tham, Helen; Williamson, Tyler; Quail, Patrick; Turner, Diana; Drummond, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Warfarin is an anticoagulant prescribed to 12% of long-term care residents to reduce the risk of thrombo-embolism. This study used indicators to compare warfarin management by pharmacists to usual care. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study comparing a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol with usual care of qualified warfarin recipients at long-term care facilities (two protocol, one control) in Calgary, Alberta. We compared the proportion of international normalized ratio ...

  3. Drug information for patients: bringing together the messages from prescriber, pharmacist and manufacturer *

    OpenAIRE

    Herxheimer, Andrew; Davies, Charles

    1982-01-01

    Patients may receive information about their medicine from the prescriber, the pharmacist and the manufacturer (in a package insert). If it is to be used effectively, all this information must be integrated: the different sources should complement, and not seem to contradict one another. Prescribers and pharmacists should therefore have at hand the text of any package inserts that patients will receive with prescribed medicines. In addition, doctors might be helped by an aide-mémoire, remindi...

  4. Pharmacist prescribing in the United Kingdom and the implication for the Nigerian context

    OpenAIRE

    Auta, A; Strickland-Hodge, B; Maz, J; Alldred, DP

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-medical professionals including pharmacists have been granted the right to prescribe medicines in the United Kingdom. In Nigeria, only medical doctors, dentists and some nurses in primary care facilities have the legal right to prescribe medicines and patients' access to prescriptions can be seriously affected by a shortage of prescribers and long waiting times in hospitals. Objective: This article presents a review of pharmacist prescribing in the UK including its model, impa...

  5. Pharmacist intervention in primary care to improve outcomes in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Lowrie, R.; Mair, F S; Greenlaw, N.; Forsyth, P.; Jhund, P.S.; McConnachie, A.; Rae, B.; McMurray, J.J.V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Meta-analysis of small trials suggests that pharmacist-led collaborative review and revision of medical treatment may improve outcomes in heart failure. Methods and results We studied patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a cluster-randomized controlled, event driven, trial in primary care. We allocated 87 practices (1090 patients) to pharmacist intervention and 87 practices (1074 patients) to usual care. The intervention was delivered by non-specialist pharmac...

  6. Inpatient Oral Anticoagulation Management by Clinical Pharmacists: Safety and Cost effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Hosmane, Sharath R.; Tucker, Johanna; Osman, Dave; Williams, Steve; Waterworth, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background Warfarin prescription for anticoagulation after cardiac surgery has always been a challenge for junior medical staff. Methods A prospective study was carried out to assess the quality of anticoagulation control by junior doctors compared with clinical pharmacists at South Manchester University hospitals NHS Trust. The junior medical staff prescribed warfarin for 50 consecutive patients from April to September 2006 (group A, n = 50) and experienced clinical pharmacists dosed 46 cons...

  7. A qualitative study of hospital pharmacists and antibiotic governance: negotiating interprofessional responsibilities, expertise and resource constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Broom, Alex; Plage, Stefanie; Broom, Jennifer; Kirby, Emma; Adams, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Antibiotic treatment options for common infections are diminishing due to the proliferation of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) programs seeking to preserve viable antibiotic drugs by governing their use in hospitals has hitherto been limited. Pharmacists have been delegated a critical role in antibiotic governance in AMS teams within hospitals but the experience of pharmacists in influencing antibiotic use has received limited attention...

  8. Advancing Medication Reconciliation in an Outpatient Internal Medicine Clinic through a Pharmacist-Led Educational Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah M. Westberg, Pharm.D.; Kathrine Beeksma, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and deliver an effective pharmacist-led educational initiative to clinic staff to advance medication reconciliation in the electronic medical record of an outpatient internal medicine clinic.Methods: An educational initiative designed to improve the ability of nursing staff in medication reconciliation was launched in the outpatient internal medicine clinic of a regional healthcare system. The education was provided by the pharmacist to clinic nursing staff, includ...

  9. Does the presence of a pharmacist in primary care clinics improve diabetes medication adherence?

    OpenAIRE

    Kocarnik Beverly Mielke; Liu Chuan-Fen; Wong Edwin S; Perkins Mark; Maciejewski Matthew L; Yano Elizabeth M; Au David H; Piette John D; Bryson Chris L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) are an essential element of therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes, OHA adherence is often suboptimal. Pharmacists are increasingly being integrated into primary care as part of the move towards a patient-centered medical home and may have a positive influence on medication use. We examined whether the presence of pharmacists in primary care clinics was associated with higher OHA adherence. Methods This retrospective cohort s...

  10. Evaluation of a pharmacist-led intervention to reduce prescribing costs in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    Introduction and aim It has been suggested that the employment of pharmacists in general practice might moderate the growth in prescribing costs. However, empirical evidence for this proposition has been lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate a controlled trial of pharmacist-led intervention in general practice to determine whether intervention practices made savings relative to controls and if so, exactly how these savings were made and whether quality of prescribing was maintain...

  11. Repeat prescribing: a role for community pharmacists in controlling and monitoring repeat prescriptions.

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, C.; Matheson, C.; Williams, S; Williams, P.; Donnan, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional systems of managing repeat prescribing have been criticised for their lack of clinical and administrative controls. AIM: To compare a community pharmacist-managed repeat prescribing system with established methods of managing repeat prescribing. METHOD: A randomised controlled intervention study (19 general medical practices, 3074 patients, 62 community pharmacists). Patients on repeat medication were given sufficient three-monthly scripts, endorsed for monthly dispens...

  12. Pharmacist-documented interventions during the dispensing process in a primary health care facility in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Kheir, Nadir

    2009-01-01

    Richard Hooper1, Abdullah Adam2, Nadir Kheir31Medical Services Department, 2Pharmacy Department, Medical Services, Qatar Petroleum, Doha, Qatar; 3Qatar University, College of Pharmacy, Doha, QatarObjectives: To characterize prescribing error interventions documented by pharmacists in four pharmacies in a primary health care service in Qatar.Methods: The study was conducted in a primary health care service in the State of Qatar in the period from January to March 2008. Pharmacists in four clin...

  13. Are nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers making clinically appropriate prescribing decisions? An analysis of consultations

    OpenAIRE

    Latter, Sue; Smith, Alesha; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Nicholls, Peter G.; Little, Paul; Chapman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Legislation and health policy enabling nurses and pharmacists to prescribe a comprehensive range of medicines has been in place in the UK since 2006. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical appropriateness of prescribing by these professionals. METHODS: A modified version of the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) was used by 10 medical, seven pharmacist and three nurse independent raters to evaluate a sample of 100 audio-recorded consultations in which a medicine was pr...

  14. Controlled trial of pharmacist intervention in general practice: the effect on prescribing costs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, S.; Avery, A J; Meechan, D; Briant, S; Geraghty, M.; Doran, K; Whynes, D K

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the employment of pharmacists in general practice might moderate the growth in prescribing costs. However, empirical evidence for this proposition has been lacking. We report the results of a controlled trial of pharmacist intervention in United Kingdom general practice. AIM: To determine whether intervention practices made savings relative to controls. METHOD: An evaluation of an initiative set up by Doncaster Health Authority. Eight practices agreed to...

  15. Pharmaceutical Care and the Role of a Pharmacist in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina

    2007-01-01

    Space medicine is primarily preventative medicine Outcomes of space medicine pharmaceutical care are: a) Elimination or reduction of a patient's symptomatology; b) Arresting or slowing of long term effects from microgravity; and c) Preventing long term effects or symptomatology as a result of microgravity. Space medicine pharmaceutical care is about both the patient and the mission. Pharmaceutical care in the area of space medicine is evolving. A pharmacist serves a critical role in this care. Commercial space travel will require pharmacist involvement.

  16. Engaging community pharmacists in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: protocol for the Pharmacist Assessment of Adherence, Risk and Treatment in Cardiovascular Disease (PAART CVD pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mc Namara Kevin P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death globally. Community pharmacist intervention studies have demonstrated clinical effectiveness for improving several leading individual CVD risk factors. Primary prevention strategies increasingly emphasise the need for consideration of overall cardiovascular risk and concurrent management of multiple risk factors. It is therefore important to demonstrate the feasibility of multiple risk factor management by community pharmacists to ensure continued currency of their role. Methods/Design This study will be a longitudinal pre- and post-test pilot study with a single cohort of up to 100 patients in ten pharmacies. Patients aged 50-74 years with no history of heart disease or diabetes, and taking antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medicines, will be approached for participation. Assessment of cardiovascular risk, medicines use and health behaviours will be undertaken by a research assistant at baseline and following the intervention (6 months. Validated interview scales will be used where available. Baseline data will be used by accredited medicines management pharmacists to generate a report for the treating community pharmacist. This report will highlight individual patients' overall CVD risk and individual risk factors, as well as identifying modifiable health behaviours for risk improvement and suggesting treatment and behavioural goals. The treating community pharmacist will use this information to finalise and implement a treatment plan in conjunction with the patient and their doctor. Community pharmacists will facilitate patient improvements in lifestyle, medicines adherence, and medicines management over the course of five counselling sessions with monthly intervals. The primary outcome will be the change to average overall cardiovascular risk, assessed using the Framingham risk equation. Discussion This study will assess the feasibility of implementing holistic

  17. Assessing the relationship between pharmacists' job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling at community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Kubilienė, Loreta

    2016-04-01

    Background Community pharmacies have an increasing role in self-medication and community health is dependent on the quality of counselling services provided to patients. Some studies show that pharmacists' job satisfaction affects their work quality; other studies found that higher involvement in clinical services increases pharmacists' job satisfaction. Objective To test the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling practice at community pharmacies. Setting Community pharmacies in Lithuania. Method A convenience sample (n = 305) of community pharmacists participated in the cross-sectional survey where they expressed satisfaction with job and reported on their over-the-counter counselling behaviour on self-report scales. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling approach was employed for data analysis. Main outcome measure The strength of the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service. Results A bidirectional relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service was found. In addition, job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling quality depended on pharmacists' age. Conclusion Organizations were recommended to create a counselling friendly environment that would increase pharmacists' job satisfaction and, in return, counselling quality. Also, additional motivation of the retired pharmacists, as well as development of counselling skills of the younger pharmacy workforce, were seen as a means to improve both organizational climate and counselling quality over the counter. PMID:26666908

  18. Pharmacist-generated electronic consults to improve hypertension management in a multisite health centre: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Salvo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Utilisation of the electronic medical record (EMR is believed to facilitate timely access to patient information, enhance communication between care team members and further promote clinical decision support.Objective To determine if pharmacist-generated electronic consults (e-consults improve blood pressure control among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in a multisite health centre.Methods Pharmacists generated hypertension medication e-consults with review by primary care provider (PCP during the patient appointment. We conducted a retrospective review of consults to determine types of pharmacist recommendations, PCP acceptance rates, and blood pressure changes.Results Pharmacists generated a total of 60 econsults, 41 patients with a systolic blood pressure above their respective goal; e-consults were accepted 46% (n = 19 of the time.Conclusion This pilot project demonstrates a unique way for pharmacists to proactively utilise the EMR when delivering coordinated care within a multisite health centre. In addition, pharmacists were successfully integrated into the planned care approach.

  19. Status of Water Levels in Aquifers in the Nacatoch Sand of Southwestern and Northeastern Arkansas and the Tokio Formation of Southwestern Arkansas, February 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    The Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation aquifers in southwestern Arkansas and the Nacatoch Sand aquifer in northeastern Arkansas are sources of water for industrial, public supply, domestic, and agricultural uses. Potentiometric-surface maps were constructed from water-level measurements made in 60 wells completed in the Nacatoch Sand and 50 wells completed in the Tokio Formation during February 2005. Aquifers in the Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation are hereafter referred to as the Nacatoch aquifer and Tokio aquifer, respectively. The direction of ground-water flow in the Nacatoch aquifer in northeastern Arkansas generally is towards the southeast. The potentiometric high is located along the north and northwestern boundaries of the area. The direction of ground-water flow in the Nacatoch aquifer in southwestern Arkansas is towards the south-southeast in Little River, Miller, and Hempstead Counties and to the east-southeast in Nevada and Clark Counties. The potentiometric high is located within the outcrop area in north-central Hempstead County. A cone of depression exists in the Nacatoch aquifer at Hope in southeastern Hempstead County. The direction of ground-water flow in the Tokio aquifer in southwestern Arkansas generally is towards the south or southeast. The potentiometric high is within the outcrop area. An area of artesian flow exists in southeastern Pike, northeastern Hempstead, and northwestern Nevada Counties. One apparent cone of depression might exist northwest of Hope in Hempstead County. In northeastern Arkansas, withdrawals from the Nacatoch aquifer increased by 516 percent from 1965 to 2000. In southwestern Arkansas, withdrawals from Nacatoch aquifer and Tokio aquifer increased by 125 percent and 201 percent, respectively, from 1965 to 1980 and decreased by 93 percent and 80 percent, respectively, from 1980 to 2000. Long-term hydrographs were prepared for 10 wells in the study areas. Changes in water levels in some wells may be associated with

  20. Status of Water Levels in Aquifers in the Nacatoch Sand of Southwestern and Northeastern Arkansas and the Tokio Formation of Southwestern Arkansas, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Tony P.

    1999-01-01

    Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation aquifers in southwestern Arkansas and the Nacatoch Sand aquifer in northeastern Arkansas are a source of water for industrial, public supply, domestic, and agricultural uses. Potentiometric-surface maps were constructed from water-level measurements made in 59 wells completed in the Nacatoch Sand and 45 wells completed in the Tokio Formation from April through May 1999. The direction of ground-water flow in the aquifer in the Nacatoch Sand in northeastern Arkansas generally is towards the southeast. The potentiometric high is located along the north and northwestern boundaries. The direction of ground-water flow in the aquifer in the Nacatoch Sand in southwestern Arkansas is towards the south-southeast in Little River, Miller, and Hempstead Counties and to the east-southeast in Nevada and Clark Counties. The potentiometric high is located within the outcrop area in north-central Hempstead County. A cone of depression exists in the aquifer in the Nacatoch Sand at Hope in southeastern Hempstead County. The direction of ground-water flow in the aquifer in the Yokio Formation in southwestern Arkansas generally is towards the southeast. The potentiometric high is within the outcrop area. An area of artesian flow exists in southeastern Pike, northeastern Hempstead, and northwestern Nevada Counties. One apparent cone of depression might exist northwest of Hope in Hempstead County. In northeastern Arkansas, withdrawals from the Nacatoch Sand increased by 736 percent from 1965 to 1995. In southwestern Arkansas withdrawals from aquifers in the Nacatoch Sand and Yokio Formation increased by 125 percent and 201 percent, respectively, from 1965 to 1980 and decreased by 78 percent and 63 percent, respectively, from 1980 to 1995. Long-term hydrographs were prepared for 13 wells in the study area. Changes in water levels in some wells may be associated with changes in withdrawals from the respective aquifers.

  1. An analysis of the design and implementation of elementary science methods class instruction in colleges and universities in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carole K.

    This study aims to understand the design and implementation of elementary methods classes focused in science instruction by teacher educators in the colleges and universities in the state of Arkansas. All 18 institutions with an Early Childhood Education program approved by the Arkansas Department of Education were reviewed with interviews, site visits and data analysis. The research questions are: (1) What goals do teacher educators express with respect to the preparation of preservice elementary teachers for the teaching of science? (2) What components of methods classes for teaching of elementary science examined relate to each of Feiman-Nemser's conceptual orientations in teacher education? (3) What challenges do teacher educators state that they encounter when they plan and teach the methods classes for teaching elementary science? (4) What specific scientific knowledge or skills are emphasized in the methods classes? Enrollment data of the Early Childhood Education program of the 18 institutions were sought. Data collected from the interviews of 16 teacher educators were transcribed according to Feiman-Nemser's five conceptual orientations in teacher education. The findings reveal the complexities and diverse nature of the science-focused method classes as they are affected by the perceptions and academic backgrounds of the teacher educators, the field experiences that preservice teachers have to teach science in the elementary schools, and the science teaching pedagogy and content knowledge provided by the teacher educators. Results show that not all methods classes are focused mainly in science teaching methods and science knowledge; some are an integration of mathematics and science or a blended curriculum with several disciplines. Most institutions do not provide science-related field experiences for preservice teachers. One common theme that emerges in the lesson observations is that all teacher educators use hands-on activities to illustrate the

  2. U.S. and Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors toward dietary supplements: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.

  3. A cross-sectional study of psychological distress, burnout, and the associated risk factors in hospital pharmacists in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Yuji; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Koyama, Toshihiro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Sendo, Toshiaki; Fujimori, Maiko; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Yamada, Norihito

    2016-01-01

    Background Opportunities for face-to-face communication with patients is increasing in modern hospital pharmacist practice. This may impose new burdens on hospital pharmacists. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the prevalence of psychological distress, burnout, and compassion fatigue among hospital pharmacists. We also investigated possible relevant factors, such as sex, years of experience, hospital size, interpersonal work hours, and personality traits related to communication...

  4. Usage trends for memory and vitality-enhancing medicines: A pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of the Gujarat region

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Jigna Samir; Goyal, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the trends and rationale of use of memory and vitality-enhancing medicines (MVEM) in the Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: A prospective pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of Gujarat region was carried out in the year 2005. Pharmacists (n = 351) working in general and Ayurvedic medical stores were selected from 12 districts of Gujarat region. The pharmacists were explained about the objective of the study and were given a pr...

  5. Perceived barriers to pharmacist engagement in adverse drug event prevention activities in Ghana using semi-structured interview

    OpenAIRE

    Acheampong, Franklin; Anto, Berko Panyin

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmacist involvement in the prevention of medication errors is well documented. One such method, the process by which hospital pharmacists undertake these clinical interventions needs to be described and documented. The perceived barriers to pharmacists succeeding in getting their recommendations accepted could inform future safety strategy development. This study was therefore to trace the typical process involved and explore the perceived barriers to pharmacists’ medication saf...

  6. Pharmacist-led management of chronic pain in primary care:results from a randomised controlled exploratory trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bruhn, Hanne; Christine M. Bond; Elliott, Alison M; Hannaford, Philip C; Amanda J Lee; McNamee, Paul; Smith, Blair H; Watson, Margaret C; Holland, Richard; Wright, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effectiveness of pharmacist medication review, with or without pharmacist prescribing, with standard care, for patients with chronic pain. Design An exploratory randomised controlled trial. Setting Six general practices with prescribing pharmacists in Grampian (3) and East Anglia (3). Participants Patients on repeat prescribed pain medication (4815) were screened by general practitioners (GPs), and mailed invitations (1397). 196 were randomised and 180 (92%) complete...

  7. Pharmacist, general practitioner, and nurse perceptions, experiences, and knowledge of medication dosage form modification

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Thi-My-Uyen Nguyen,1 Esther TL Lau,1,3 Kathryn J Steadman,1 Julie AY Cichero,1 Kaeleen Dingle,2 Lisa M Nissen1,3 1School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2School of Public Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Background: People often modify oral solid dosage forms when they experience difficulty swallowing them. Modifying dosage forms m...

  8. Dry season mean monthly flow and harmonic mean flow regression equations for selected ungaged basins in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaker, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, Southwestern Energy, the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, and the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, developed regression equations for estimation of dry season mean monthly flows and harmonic mean flows that are representative of natural streamflow conditions at selected ungaged basins in Arkansas. Observed values of dry season mean monthly flow and harmonic mean flow computed from daily-mean flow data were used with basin characteristics to identify significant explanatory variables for multiple-linear-regression equations to estimate predicted values of dry season mean monthly flow and harmonic mean flow. Five dry season mean monthly flow regression equations and two harmonic mean flow regression equations were developed using dry season mean monthly flows and harmonic mean flows established for 91 and 93 U.S. Geological Survey continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, respectively. The dry season in Arkansas is defined as the months of July through November for this study. For harmonic mean flow calculations and regression equations, the study area is composed of the Springfield-Salem Plateaus (Arkansas and Missouri), Boston Mountains, Arkansas Valley, Ouachita Mountains (Arkansas and Oklahoma), and West Gulf Coastal Plain (Arkansas) physiographic sections. All continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations used to compute dry season mean monthly flows were located within Arkansas.

  9. The difference in pharmacists' interventions across the diverse settings in a children's hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesty Utami Ramadaniati

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study aimed to document and compare the nature of clinical pharmacists' interventions made in different practice settings within a children's hospital. METHODS: The primary investigator observed and documented all clinical interventions performed by clinical pharmacists for between 35-37 days on each of the five study wards from the three practice settings, namely general medical, general surgical and hematology-oncology. The rates, types and significance of the pharmacists' interventions in the different settings were compared. RESULTS: A total of 982 interventions were documented, related to the 16,700 medication orders reviewed on the five wards in the three practice settings over the duration of the study. Taking medication histories and/or patient counselling were the most common pharmacists' interventions in the general settings; constituting more than half of all interventions. On the Hematology-Oncology Ward the pattern was different with drug therapy changes being the most common interventions (n = 73/195, 37.4% of all interventions. Active interventions (pharmacists' activities leading to a change in drug therapy constituted less than a quarter of all interventions on the general medical and surgical wards compared to nearly half on the specialty Hematology-Oncology Ward. The majority (n = 37/42, 88.1% of a random sample of the active interventions reviewed were rated as clinically significant. Dose adjustment was the most frequent active interventions in the general settings, whilst drug addition constituted the most common active interventions on the Hematology-Oncology Ward. The degree of acceptance of pharmacists' active interventions by prescribers was high (n = 223/244, 91.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of pharmacists' active interventions differed across different practice settings, being most frequent in the specialty hematology-oncology setting. The nature and type of the interventions documented in the

  10. 77 FR 55430 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... grammatical changes, correct punctuation, revise dates, and delete and add citations. The proposed amendment consists of substantive changes to Arkansas's regulations regarding: Subchapter A--General; Subchapter F... grammatical changes, correct punctuation, revise dates, update addresses, and delete and add...

  11. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  12. Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee; 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outcrop and subcrop extent of the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

  13. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  14. Middle Wilcox Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Wolcox Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The hydrogeologic...

  15. Upper Claiborne Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Upper Claiborne Aquifer in Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The hydrogeologic unit dataset...

  16. Middle Claiborne Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Claiborne Confining Unit in Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The hydrogeologic...

  17. An Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration Options for Grand Prairie Region of Arkansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options covers the hydrogeomorphic analysis (HGM) for Grand Prairie Region of Arkansas. This three step...

  18. Vicksburg-Jackson Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Vicksburg-Jackson Confining Unit in Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The hydrogeologic unit...

  19. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Arkansas

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    None of the approximately 47,000 LGBT workers in Arkansas are explicitly protected from discrimination under local, state or federal laws. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 22 more complaints would be filed in Arkansas each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

  20. Clinical impact of a pharmacist-led inpatient anticoagulation service: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tiffany Lee, Erin Davis, Jason Kielly School of Pharmacy, Memorial University, St John's, NL, Canada Background: Anticoagulant therapies provide management options for potentially life-threatening thromboembolic conditions. They also carry significant safety risks, requiring careful consideration of medication dose, close monitoring, and follow-up. Inpatients are particularly at risk, considering the widespread use of anticoagulants in hospitals. This has prompted the introduction of safety goals for anticoagulants in Canada and the USA, which recommend increased pharmacist involvement to reduce patient harm. The goal of this review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pharmacist-led inpatient anticoagulation services compared to usual or physician-managed care. Methods: This narrative review includes articles identified through a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases, as well as hand searches of the references of relevant articles. Full publications of pharmacist-managed inpatient anticoagulation services were eligible if they were published in English and assessed clinical outcomes. Results: Twenty-six studies were included and further divided into two categories: 1 autonomous pharmacist-managed anticoagulation programs (PMAPs and 2 pharmacist recommendation. Pharmacist management of heparin and warfarin appears to result in improvements in some surrogate outcomes (international normalized ratio [INR] stability and time in INR goal range, while results for others are mixed (time to therapeutic INR, length of stay, and activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT] measures. There is also some indication that PMAPs may be associated with reduced patient mortality. When direct thrombin inhibitors are managed by pharmacists, there seems to be a shorter time to therapeutic aPTT and a greater percentage of time in the therapeutic range, as well as a decrease in the frequency of medication

  1. The role of the pharmacist in patient-centered medical home practices: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis NJW

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nancy JW Lewis,1 Leslie A Shimp,2 Stuart Rockafellow,2 Jeffrey M Tingen,2 Hae Mi Choe,3 Marie A Marcelino21Private consultancy practice, Rochester Hills, MI, USA; 2Clinical, Social and Administrative Department, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy Services, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs are the centerpiece of primary care transformation in the US. They are intended to improve care coordination and communication, enhance health care quality and patient experiences, and lower health care costs by linking patients to a physician-led interdisciplinary health care team. PCMHs are widely supported by health care associations, payers, and employers. Health care accreditation organizations have created performance measures that promote the adoption of PCMH core attributes. Public and private payers are increasingly providing incentives and bonuses related to performance measure status. Evidence-based prescription, medication adherence, medication use coordination, and systems to support medication safety are all necessary components of PCMHs. Pharmacists have unique knowledge and skills that can complement the care provided by other PCMH team members. Their experience in drug therapy assessments, medication therapy management, and population health has documented benefits, both in terms of patient health outcomes and health care costs. Through collaborative care, pharmacists can assist physicians and other prescribers in medication management and thus improve prescriber productivity and patient access to care. Pharmacists are engaged in PCMHs through both employment and contractual arrangements. While some pharmacists serve a unique PCMH, others work within practice networks that serve practices within a geographical area. Financial support for pharmacist-provided services includes university funding, external grant funding

  2. Appropriateness of diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis among Thai community pharmacists according to the Centor criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Jaisawang, Pornchanok; Udomcharoensab, Palita; Buathong, Kittika; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2016-10-01

    Background Inappropriate use of antibiotic treatment for pharyngitis by community pharmacists is prevalent in developing countries. Little is known about how the pharmacists identify patients with bacterial pharyngitis. Objective To ascertain the appropriateness of diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis among Thai community pharmacists according to the Centor criteria and to identify factors related to antibiotic dispensing. Setting 1040 Thai community pharmacists. Method A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists was conducted in November 2012 to March 2013. The self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 57 % of community pharmacists in the south of Thailand (n = 1040). The survey included questions on diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, knowledge on pharyngitis, and attitudes and control beliefs regarding antibiotic dispensing. Main outcome measure The appropriateness of diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis according to the original and modified Centor criteria and determinants of antibiotic dispensing including demographic characteristics of pharmacists, knowledge on pharyngitis, and attitudes and control beliefs on antibiotic dispensing. Results Approximately 68 % completed the questionnaires (n = 703). Compared to the pharmacists who reported not dispensing antibiotics in the hypothetical case with common cold, those reported dispensing antibiotics were more likely to consider the following conditions-presence of cough, mild sore throat and patients with age >60 years as cues for diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis (p 5 years) [odds ratio (OR) 1.52; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.23], belief that antibiotics could shorten duration of pharyngitis (OR 1.48; 95 % CI 1.11-1.99), belief that antibiotics could prevent the complications (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.09-1.91) and belief that dispensing antibiotics could satisfy the patients (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.01-1.71). Nonetheless, antibiotic dispensing was negatively associated with

  3. Development of a Survey to Assess the Acceptability of an Innovative Contraception Practice among Rural Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved access to effective contraceptive methods is needed in Canada, particularly in rural areas, where unintended pregnancy rates are high and specific sexual health services may be further away. A rural pharmacist may be the most accessible health care professional. Pharmacy practice increasingly incorporates cognitive services. In Canada many provinces allow pharmacists to independently prescribe for some indications, but not for hormonal contraception. To assess the acceptability for the implementation of this innovative practice in Canada, we developed and piloted a survey instrument. We chose questions to address the components for adoption and change described in Rogers’ “diffusion of innovations” theory. The proposed instrument was iteratively reviewed by 12 experts, then focus group tested among eight pharmacists or students to improve the instrument for face validity, readability, consistency and relevancy to community pharmacists in the Canadian context. We then pilot tested the survey among urban and rural pharmacies. 4% of urban and 35% of rural pharmacies returned pilot surveys. Internal consistency on repeated re-phrased questions was high (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.901. We present our process for the development of a survey instrument to assess the acceptability and feasibility among Canadian community pharmacists for the innovative practice of the independent prescribing of hormonal contraception.

  4. [Qualitative Research to Investigate the Needs of Pharmacists and Drug Therapy of Cancer Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yusuke; Hanya, Manako; Tatematsu, Michiko; Nakamura, Chikako; Abe, Keiko; Fujisaki, Kazuhiko; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    We performed a survey of cancer patients' needs for drug treatment and support from pharmacists during treatment and evaluated the support that cancer patients can expect from community pharmacists in the future. The patients consisted of 16 members of the Cancer Patient Association in Aichi prefecture who underwent chemotherapy. The results of a semistructured group interview were qualitatively analyzed using the grounded theory method. Patients undergoing chemotherapy had high hopes for its effectiveness but were worried about side effects and medical costs. To overcome these problems, they hoped for a decrease in the economic burden, compassionate-use system, and development of novel drugs. The patients had anxiety because the side effects of chemotherapy often caused physical and psychological damage. Despite patients' confusion, pharmacists sometimes did not give adequate explanations to them. The patients expected more from pharmacists regarding medication support and hoped for a system allowing continuous side effect monitoring and consultation without hesitation. For patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy who are confused regarding side effects, pharmacists should understand the patient explanatory model and become more involved with patients as partners in treatment. PMID:26632155

  5. Prevention of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs by community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimane, Takuya; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi

    2012-10-01

    The nonmedical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including psychotropic medicines, is a growing health problem in Japan. Patient access to psychotropic drugs, specifically from the oversupply of medications due to overlapping prescriptions, may increase the risk of drug abuse and dependence. However, very little is known about such overlapping prescriptions. Today, the dispensing of prescriptions is generally moving from inside to outside of hospitals, with psychotropic drugs mainly dispensed at community pharmacies. In this study, we used health insurance claims (i.e., receipts) for dispensing as the main source of information in an investigation of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs. A total of 119 patients were found to have received overlapping prescriptions, as identified by community pharmacists who were members of the Saitama Pharmaceutical Association, using patient medication records, followed by medication counseling and prescription notes for the patient. According to our findings, the most frequently overlapping medication was etizolam. Etizolam can be prescribed for more than 30 days since it is not regulated under Japanese law as a "psychotropic drug." Generally, when a drug can be prescribed for a greater number of days, it increases the likelihood of an overlapping prescription during the same period. As a result, the long-term prescription of etizolam increases the risk of overlapping prescriptions. We also found that the patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam were mostly elderly and the most common pattern was prescription from both internal medicine and orthopedics physicians. Etizolam has wide range of indications that are covered by health insurance. Our results suggest that patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam may receive prescriptions from different prescribers for different purposes. Therefore, it may be appropriate to regulate etizolam as a "psychotropic drug" under Japanese law

  6. [Pharmacist's requirements for evidence-based self-medication guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laven, Anna; Läer, Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Due to the removal of many pharmaceuticals from the prescription requirement, self-medication implies an increasing responsibility for pharmacists towards their patients. The application of evidence-based guidelines could be a responsible basis for consulting in pharmacies. Evidence-based guidelines represent the systematically accumulated and evaluated facts (the evidence) of desired and undesired effects of pharmaceuticals in the population. We wanted to find out which interest pharmaceutical professionals have in evidence-based guidelines and which are the exact requirements on their content, deducted from public pharmacies everyday demands. With this purpose, three surveys were conducted between March and August 2012, in which 365, 350, and 486 pharmaceutical professionals participated respectively. The results show that pharmacy staff is very interested in evidence based guidelines. Furthermore, they suggest that the pharmacy staff feel safe with the self-diagnosis of the customer, with the consideration of limits of self-medication, as well as with the selection of the--according to own assessment--appropriate active substance. For the selection of the correct active substance, the following criteria are named: self-security in the counselling, first-hand experiences as well as the wish of the customer. At the same time, it is striking that the most frequent critique the pharmacy staff gets from pharmacy customers is the lack of effectiveness of the selected medication. With that in mind, it is possible that not the appropriate medication was selected, and the chosen criteria as selection method should be replaced by an evidence-based decision. Secondly, the results show that in up to 52% of the cases, depending on the indications, the participating consultants felt less certain to uncertain with regards to possible interactions or contraindications. Also in this context, it is desirable to prepare the existing data in such a practical way, that the

  7. "How dare you question what I use to treat this patient?": Student pharmacists' reflections on the challenges of communicating recommendations to physicians in interdisciplinary health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvir, Paul; Brewer, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of pharmacists practice within interdisciplinary health care teams, leading pharmacy educators to place increased emphasis on the development of interprofessional collaboration skills. In the pharmacist-physician relationship, pharmacists' medication therapy recommendations (MTRs) are a recurrent and significant interprofessional activity, one that can be challenging for both seasoned and student pharmacists. Drawing on in-depth ethnographic interviews with pharmacy preceptors and advanced student pharmacists, we identify and describe an important distinction between pharmacist-initiated MTRs and physician-initiated MTRs as contexts for interprofessional collaboration. We describe and illustrate a range of social, professional, and communication challenges that students experience in each context, as well as some strategies they use to navigate these challenges. Using the theoretical framework of dialectic tensions, we argue that the pharmacist-physician relationship is characterized by a tension between assertiveness and deference. We also offer recommendations to pharmacy preceptors, who can use this article to enhance the experiential education of pharmacists.

  8. Integrating a pharmacist into the general practice environment: opinions of pharmacist’s, general practitioner’s, health care consumer’s, and practice manager’s

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman Christopher; Cottrell W; Kyle Greg; Williams Ian; Nissen Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pharmacists are viewed as highly trained yet underutilised and there is growing support to extend the role of the pharmacist within the primary health care sector. The integration of a pharmacist into a general practice medical centre is not a new concept however is a novel approach in Australia and evidence supporting this role is currently limited. This study aimed to describe the opinions of local stakeholders in South-East Queensland on the integration of a pharmacist ...

  9. Medication reviews by clinical pharmacists at hospitals lead to improved patient outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Graabæk; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal medication use may lead to morbidity, mortality and increased costs. To reduce unnecessary patient harm, medicines management including medication reviews can be provided by clinical pharmacists. Some recent studies have indicated a positive effect of this service, but the quality...... and outcomes vary among studies. Hence, there is a need for compiling the evidence within this area. The aim of this systematic MiniReview was to identify, assess and summarize the literature investigating the effect of pharmacist-led medication reviews in hospitalized patients. Five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE......, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library) were searched from their inception to 2011 in addition to citation tracking and hand search. Only original research papers published in English describing pharmacist-led medication reviews in a hospital setting including minimum 100 patients or 100...

  10. Evaluation of the Impact of a Physical Assessment Course on the Practice of Institutional Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene R. Breault

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess the impact of a professional development course on clinical pharmacists’ level of confidence using physical assessment (PA and whether it resulted in changes to their clinical practice. Workshop participants were asked to complete a pre-workshop survey, as well as three post-workshop surveys, to assess the pharmacists’ level of confidence in PA. Pharmacists were also asked about their integration of PA skills and use of Additional Prescribing Authority (APA. Pharmacists’ confidence in performing PA, discussing PA findings, and using PA to manage drug therapy were significantly higher at all time-points post workshop. Pharmacists with APA also indicated increased confidence with prescribing. Professional development in physical assessment may provide opportunities for pharmacists to integrate new knowledge and skills within their practice. Future research should examine if such educational opportunities will support sustainable practice change.

  11. Evaluation of a Danish pharmacist student-physician medication review collaboration model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2014-01-01

    Background Interprofessional collaboration between pharmacists and physicians to conduct joint home medication reviews (HMR) is important for optimizing the medical treatment of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. However, collaboration has proved difficult to achieve. The HMR programme...... "Medisam" was launched in 2009 at the University of Copenhagen with the aim of "developing, implementing and evaluating a collaboration model for HMRs and medicine reconciliations in Denmark". The Medisam programme involves patients, pharmacy internship students, the (pharmacist) supervisor of the pharmacy...... students and physicians. Objective To explore if it was possible through the Medisam programme to obtain a fruitful HMR collaboration between pharmacy internship students and physicians as a means to develop HMR collaboration between trained pharmacists and physicians further. Setting Ten matching pairs...

  12. Folic acid and the decline in neural tube defects in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A; Flowers, Bettye S; Smith, Veronica; Robbins, James M

    2007-04-01

    Folic acid has been shown to reduce the risk of pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (NTDs) by as much as 70%. Cereal grains sold in the U.S. have been fortified with folic acid since 1998. The Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System and the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition have encouraged use of folic acid and monitored the impact of increased consumption of folic acid among Arkansans. NTDs in Arkansas have declined 40% since intervention programs were implemented. The greatest decline has been observed among white and Hispanic women. Efforts to encourage folic acid consumption should continue to target Arkansas women. NTDs include anencephaly and spina bifida. These birth defects result from incomplete closure of the fetal neural tube during the first month of pregnancy. Infants with anencephaly are born without all or most of their brain and die within a few days of life. Infants with spina bifida have varying degrees of impairment ranging from little noticeable disability to severe, lifelong disability. Folic acid, when taken in supplement form has been shown to reduce the risk of a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect by as much as 70%. As a result of this finding, the U.S. Federal Drug Administration mandated that cereal grains sold in this country be fortified with at least 140 mcg of folic acid per 100 grams of grain by January 1, 1998. Prior to mandatory fortification, the March of Dimes and the U.S. Public Health Service released statements encouraging all women of reproductive age who are capable of becoming pregnant to take 400 mcg 'of synthetic folic acid daily. The Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System (ARHMS) has monitored rates of NTDs in Arkansas since 1980. ARHMS is the lead agency of the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition whose mission is to encourage folic acid use among all Arkansas women of reproductive age. In this report, we summarize efforts by ARHMS and the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition to increase the awareness and

  13. Folic acid and the decline in neural tube defects in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A; Flowers, Bettye S; Smith, Veronica; Robbins, James M

    2007-04-01

    Folic acid has been shown to reduce the risk of pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (NTDs) by as much as 70%. Cereal grains sold in the U.S. have been fortified with folic acid since 1998. The Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System and the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition have encouraged use of folic acid and monitored the impact of increased consumption of folic acid among Arkansans. NTDs in Arkansas have declined 40% since intervention programs were implemented. The greatest decline has been observed among white and Hispanic women. Efforts to encourage folic acid consumption should continue to target Arkansas women. NTDs include anencephaly and spina bifida. These birth defects result from incomplete closure of the fetal neural tube during the first month of pregnancy. Infants with anencephaly are born without all or most of their brain and die within a few days of life. Infants with spina bifida have varying degrees of impairment ranging from little noticeable disability to severe, lifelong disability. Folic acid, when taken in supplement form has been shown to reduce the risk of a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect by as much as 70%. As a result of this finding, the U.S. Federal Drug Administration mandated that cereal grains sold in this country be fortified with at least 140 mcg of folic acid per 100 grams of grain by January 1, 1998. Prior to mandatory fortification, the March of Dimes and the U.S. Public Health Service released statements encouraging all women of reproductive age who are capable of becoming pregnant to take 400 mcg 'of synthetic folic acid daily. The Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System (ARHMS) has monitored rates of NTDs in Arkansas since 1980. ARHMS is the lead agency of the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition whose mission is to encourage folic acid use among all Arkansas women of reproductive age. In this report, we summarize efforts by ARHMS and the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition to increase the awareness and

  14. Impact of pharmacist recommendations on the cost of drug therapy in ICU patients at a Malaysian hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidi, S.T.R.; Hassan, Y.; Postma, Maarten; Hain Ng, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse clinical pharmacists interventions in the ICU of the Penang General Hospital (Penang, Malaysia) and to assess the pharmaco-economic impact of these interventions. Methods: A clinical pharmacist reviewed drug prescriptions during one month. Drug-related problems were documented

  15. Differences in prescribing between GPs: impact of the cooperation with pharmacists and impact of visits from pharmaceutical industry representatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijrers, P.E.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Sijbrandij, J.; Janknegt, R.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists, pharmaceutical industry and differences in prescribing between GPs. OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of the pharmacists and pharmaceutical industry representatives. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 1434 GPs in The Netherlands in 2001. Prescribing i

  16. Case Study: Hidden Complexity of Medicines Use: Information Provided by a Person with Intellectual Disability and Diabetes to a Pharmacist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Bernadette; Henman, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities may be "invisible" to pharmacists. They are a complex group of patients many of whom have diabetes. Pharmacists may have little experience of the challenges faced by this high risk group of patients who may be prescribed high risk medications. This case report details information supplied by Pat, a…

  17. A Study on How Industrial Pharmacists Rank Competences for Pharmacy Practice: A Case for Industrial Pharmacy Specialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Pozo, Antonio Sánchez; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at the way in which industrial pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European industrial pharmacists (n = 135) ranked 68 competences for practice, arranged into 13 clusters of two types (personal and patient care). Results show that, compared to communi

  18. The effect of patient satisfaction with pharmacist consultation on medication adherence: an instrumental variable approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu NY

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited studies on quantifying the impact of patient satisfaction with pharmacist consultation on patient medication adherence. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of patient satisfaction with pharmacist consultation services on medication adherence in a large managed care organization. Methods: We analyzed data from a patient satisfaction survey of 6,916 patients who had used pharmacist consultation services in Kaiser Permanente Southern California from 1993 to 1996. We compared treating patient satisfaction as exogenous, in a single-equation probit model, with a bivariate probit model where patient satisfaction was treated as endogenous. Different sets of instrumental variables were employed, including measures of patients' emotional well-being and patients' propensity to fill their prescriptions at a non-Kaiser Permanente (KP pharmacy. The Smith-Blundell test was used to test whether patient satisfaction was endogenous. Over-identification tests were used to test the validity of the instrumental variables. The Staiger-Stock weak instrument test was used to evaluate the explanatory power of the instrumental variables. Results: All tests indicated that the instrumental variables method was valid and the instrumental variables used have significant explanatory power. The single equation probit model indicated that the effect of patient satisfaction with pharmacist consultation was significant (p<0.010. However, the bivariate probit models revealed that the marginal effect of pharmacist consultation on medication adherence was significantly greater than the single equation probit. The effect increased from 7% to 30% (p<0.010 after controlling for endogeneity bias. Conclusion: After appropriate adjustment for endogeneity bias, patients satisfied with their pharmacy services are substantially more likely to adhere to their medication. The results have important policy implications given the increasing focus

  19. Knowledge of folic acid and counseling practices among Ohio community pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues CR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine knowledge of folic acid use for neural tube defect (NTD prevention and counseling practices among community pharmacists registered in Ohio.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on a random sample (n=500 of community pharmacists registered with the Ohio Board of Pharmacy and practicing in Ohio. A survey previously used by researchers to assess folic acid knowledge and practices among samples of other healthcare provider groups in the United States was adapted with permission for this study. The final tool consisted of 28 questions evaluating the knowledge, counseling practices, and demographics of respondents. The cover letter did not reveal the emphasis on folic acid, and surveys were completed anonymously. The university institutional review board deemed the study exempt.Results: Of the 122 pharmacists who completed the survey, 116 (95.1% knew that folic acid prevents some birth defects. Twenty-eight (22.9% responded that they “always” or “usually” discuss multivitamins with women of childbearing potential, and 19 (15.6% responded that they “always” or “usually” discuss folic acid supplements. Some gaps in knowledge specific to folic acid were revealed. While 63.1% of pharmacists selected the recommended dose of folic acid intake for most women of childbearing potential, 13.1% could identify the dose recommended for women who have had a previous NTD-affected pregnancy. Respondents identified continuing education programs, pharmacy journals/magazines, and the Internet as preferred avenues to obtain additional information about folic acid and NTD.Conclusion: This study represents the first systematic evaluation of folic acid knowledge and counseling practices among a sample of pharmacists in the United States. As highly accessible healthcare professionals, community pharmacists can fulfill a vital public health role by counseling women of childbearing potential about folic acid intake. Educational

  20. Medication reviews led by community pharmacists in Switzerland: a qualitative survey to evaluate barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niquille A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1 To evaluate the participation rate and identify the practical barriers to implementing a community pharmacist-led medication review service in francophone Switzerland and, 2 To assess the effectiveness of external support.Methods: A qualitative survey was undertaken to identify barriers to patient inclusion and medication review delivery in daily practice among all contactable independent pharmacists working in francophone Switzerland (n=78 who were members of a virtual chain (pharmacieplus, regardless of their participation in a simultaneous cross-sectional study. This study analyzed the dissemination of a medication review service including a prescription and drug utilization review with access to clinical data, a patient interview and a pharmaceutical report to the physicians. In addition, we observed an exploratory and external coaching for pharmacists that we launched seven months after the beginning of the cross-sectional study. Results: Poor motivation on the part of pharmacists and difficulties communicating with physicians and patients were the primary obstacles identified. Lack of time and lack of self-confidence in administering the medication review process were the most commonly perceived practical barriers to the implementation of the new service. The main facilitators to overcome these issues may be well-planned workflow organization techniques, strengthened by an adequate remuneration scheme and a comprehensive and practice-based training course that includes skill-building in pharmacotherapy and communication. External support may partially compensate for a weak organizational framework.Conclusions: To facilitate the implementation of a medication review service, a strong local networking with physicians, an effective workflow management and a practice- and communications-focused training for pharmacists and their teams seem key elements required. External support can be useful to help some pharmacists improve their

  1. Factors affecting pharmacists’ recommendation of complementary medicines – a qualitative pilot study of Australian pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culverhouse Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary medicines (CMs are widely used by the Australian public, and pharmacies are major suppliers of these medicines. The integration of CMs into pharmacy practice is well documented, but the behaviours of pharmacists in recommending CMs to customers are less well studied. This study reports on factors that influence whether or not pharmacists in Australia recommend CMs to their customers. Methods Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with twelve practicing pharmacists based in Brisbane, Australia. The qualitative data were analysed by thematic analysis. Results The primary driver of the recommendation of CMs was a desire to provide a health benefit to the customer. Other important drivers were an awareness of evidence of efficacy, customer feedback and pharmacy protocols to recommend a CM alongside a particular pharmaceutical medication. The primary barrier to the recommendation of CMs was safety concerns around patients on multiple medications or with complex health issues. Also, a lack of knowledge of CMs, a perceived lack of evidence or a lack of time to counsel patients were identified as barriers. There was a desire to see a greater integration of CM into formal pharmacy education. Additionally, the provision of good quality educational materials was seen as important to allow pharmacists to assess levels of evidence for CMs and educate them on their safe and appropriate use. Conclusions Pharmacists who frequently recommend CMs identify many potential benefits for patients and see it as an important part of providing a ‘healthcare solution’. To encourage the informed use of CMs in pharmacy there is a need for the development of accessible, quality resources on CMs. In addition, incorporation of CM education into pharmacy curricula would better prepare graduate pharmacists for community practice. Ultimately, such moves would contribute to the safe and effective use of CMs to the benefit of

  2. Prescribers and pharmacists requests for prescription monitoring program (PMP) data: does PMP structure matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Marc L; Chandwani, Hitesh; Barner, Jamie C; Weber, Stephanie N; Okoro, Tony T

    2013-06-01

    Prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) have been purported to be an effective tool to combat prescription drug abuse. However, utilization rates of PMP data by health care providers (e.g., prescribers and pharmacists) is relatively low. The objectives of the study were to describe (1) PMP utilization (e.g., requested reports) by prescribers, pharmacists, and law enforcement for active state PMPs; (2) PMP utilization by health care providers with and without online access; (3) average annual operational costs for PMPs from 2008 to 2009; and (4) PMP requests based on PMP housing authority (law enforcement vs. non-law enforcement [e.g., board of pharmacy]). This was a cross-sectional study employing a Web-based survey. A 16-item questionnaire was e-mailed to the 33 operational state PMP administrators and responses were collected from January to March 2011. Descriptive statistics were used to describe PMP request rates and annual operating costs. The usable survey response rate was 45.5%. Among all authorized users, prescribers had higher mean (±SD) requests per 100,000 population (2198.2 ± 3218.0) compared with pharmacists' requests (268.9 ± 261.2). Online accessibility resulted in higher request rates per 100,000 population (2996.4 ± 3021.5) compared with mail/fax access (14.6 ± 2.8). On average, PMP annual costs were $12,515 ± $14,911 per 100,000 population. In law enforcement-governed PMPs, health care provider utilization was lower compared with PMPs under health or pharmacy boards. Prescriber request rates were higher than pharmacists and online access for providers (e.g., prescribers and pharmacists) resulted in higher request rates per 100,000 population. More research is needed to determine other factors that may be associated with PMP utilization by prescribers and pharmacists.

  3. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path. PMID:27756925

  4. Improving the working relationship between doctors and pharmacists: is inter-professional education the answer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Ruth M

    2012-05-01

    Despite their common history, there are many cultural, attitudinal and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that ultimately influence patient care and health outcomes. While poor communication between doctors and pharmacists is a major cause of medical errors, it is clear that effective, deliberate doctor-pharmacist collaboration within certain clinical settings significantly improves patient care. This may be particularly true for those patients with chronic illnesses and\\/or requiring regular medication reviews. Moreover, in hospitals, clinical and antibiotic pharmacists are successfully influencing prescribing and infection control policy. Under the new Irish Pharmacy Act (2007), pharmacists are legally obliged to provide pharmaceutical care to their patients, thus fulfilling a more patient-centred role than their traditional \\'dispensing\\' one. However, meeting this obligation relies on the existence of good doctor-pharmacist working relationships, such that inter-disciplinary teamwork in monitoring patients becomes the norm in all healthcare settings. As discussed here, efforts to improve these relationships must focus on the strategic introduction of agreed changes in working practices between the two professions and on educational aspects of pharmaceutical care. For example, standardized education of doctors\\/medical students such that they learn to prescribe in an optimal manner and ongoing inter-professional education of doctors and pharmacists in therapeutics, are likely to be of paramount importance. Here, insights into the types of factors that help or hinder the improvement of these working relationships and the importance of education and agreed working practices in defining the separate but inter-dependent professions of pharmacy and medicine are reviewed and discussed.

  5. Interventions performed by community pharmacists in one Canadian province: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young SW

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie W Young, Lisa D Bishop, Amy ConwaySchool of Pharmacy, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, CanadaPurpose: Interventions made by pharmacists to resolve issues when filling a prescription ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of medication therapy for patients. The purpose of this study was to provide a current estimate of the number and types of interventions performed by community pharmacists during processing of prescriptions. This baseline data will provide insight into the factors influencing current practice and areas where pharmacists can redefine and expand their role.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study of community pharmacist interventions was completed. Participants included third-year pharmacy students and their pharmacist preceptor as a data collection team. The team identified all interventions on prescriptions during the hours worked together over a 7-day consecutive period. Full ethics approval was obtained.Results: Nine student–pharmacist pairs submitted data from nine pharmacies in rural (n = 3 and urban (n = 6 centers. A total of 125 interventions were documented for 106 patients, with a mean intervention rate of 2.8%. The patients were 48% male, were mostly ≥18 years of age (94%, and 86% had either public or private insurance. Over three-quarters of the interventions (77% were on new prescriptions. The top four types of problems requiring intervention were related to prescription insurance coverage (18%, drug product not available (16%, dosage too low (16%, and missing prescription information (15%. The prescriber was contacted for 69% of the interventions. Seventy-two percent of prescriptions were changed and by the end of the data collection period, 89% of the problems were resolved.Conclusion: Community pharmacists are impacting the care of patients by identifying and resolving problems with prescriptions. Many of the issues identified in this study were related

  6. Over-the-Counter Sale of Emergency Contraception: A Survey of Pharmacists in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Archana; Saxena, Pikee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pharmacists play a key role while dispensing over-the-counter emergency contraception (EC) to the client. Aims The study aims to evaluate the knowledge and over-the-counter services provided by the pharmacists in Delhi. Methods A prestructured questionnaire-based survey was conducted in Delhi, the capital city of India. Results Only 60 out of 85 pharmacies approached agreed to participate in the study. Number of packs sold in a month per pharmacy varied from 2 to 500 packs/month....

  7. A systematic review of pharmacists performing obstructive sleep apnea screening services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Michael J; Warning, William J

    2016-08-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic sleep disorder associated with a varying degree of upper airway collapse during sleep. Left untreated, OSA can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease including risk of stroke and increased mortality. Pharmacists are the most accessible and underutilized healthcare resource in the community and can have a significant role in screening patients for OSA. The result may include an expedited referral to the patient's general practitioners or sleep disorder specialists for further diagnostic assessment and therapeutic intervention. Aim of the review The primary aim of this review was to identify the current published evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services in a community pharmacy setting. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services. The literature search including five databases [PubMed, (1946-January 2015), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2015), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar] with search terms of ("pharmacist or pharmacy") AND ("obstructive sleep apnea") AND ("sleep disorders") AND ("continuous positive airway pressure-CPAP") were used. Articles were limited to English and reported in humans. Results A total of seven publications (four Australia, two Switzerland and one France) were selected and evaluated. Pharmacists utilized validated screening tools in 6/7 (86 %) of clinical studies to assist in the identification of patients with sleep disorders in community pharmacies. A total of 1701 pharmacies encompassing 9177 patients were screened in the clinical studies. Pharmacists were able to identify between 21.4 and 67 % of patients that were at risk for developing OSA or required a referral to a general practitioner or sleep disorder specialist for further diagnostic testing. Conclusion Studies assessing the role

  8. Research on the effects of pharmacist-patient communication in institutions and ambulatory care sites, 1969-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, M

    1996-06-01

    Research on the effects of pharmacist-patient communication that appeared in the pharmacy literature between 1969 and 1994 is reviewed. The terms patients education and patient counseling were used in identifying relevant research. Many authors used these terms interchangeably; also, the terms counseling and consultation often were not clearly defined. Studies of pharmacists' history-taking in institutional settings and of other communication with patients in ambulatory care settings were examined by decade. The research questions, theories, methods, results, and limitations were analyzed. More than 30 studies examined the effect of pharmacists' communication on patient outcomes, primarily knowledge and medication compliance; generally, the results suggested that pharmacists' communication led to increased knowledge and compliance. A few researchers raised concerns about patients' knowledge as an indicator of effective communication by pharmacists, and in the 1980s a few suggested that better medication compliance could be associated with the time and attention given to patients rather than the informational content of the interaction. Little was reported about the communication theories or models on which the studies were based, and there was little indication in most studies that patients' ideas about their therapy were considered. Often, the numbers of patients and pharmacists were small, and the pharmacists may have had training or motivation exceeding that of the average practitioner. In studies of pharmacists' versus physicians' history-taking, the physicians were not well described; their involvement and their approach may not have been comparable to those of the pharmacists. Before 1990, a few researchers had examined outcomes such as pulmonary function and control of diabetes. In the 1990s, more researchers looked at outcomes such as medication-related problems and use of health care resources. The research indicated that pharmacists can increase patients

  9. Detecting pre-diabetes and the role of the pharmacist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to use a pharmacoepidemiological approach to study the drug use of patients during the year prior to diabetes diagnosis (i.e. pre-diabetic patients and control patients. Drug use might reveal cardiovascular, metabolic and/or endocrinological changes and help to identify indicators for active monitoring of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: A retrospective case-control study compared drug use of patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes (experimental patients with patients without a diabetes diagnosis (control patients based on community pharmacy records. An experimental patient had used oral hypoglycaemic drugs during 2005 or 2006. Experimental and control patients were matched in terms of age, gender and quarter of index date. Drugs were selected based on possible co-morbidities of diabetes. Drug use was expressed as a binary variable, indicating whether or not a patient took specific drugs. Drug use was compared between experimental patients during the year prior to diagnosis and control patients using the chi-squared test.Results: Our dataset covered 5,064 patients (1,688 experimental and 3,376 control patients. A higher probability of taking cardiovascular drugs was observed for specific subgroups of patients with pre-diabetes as compared to control patients: this trend was observed for men as well as for women, for various cardiovascular drug classes, and for different age groups (p<0.05, although it was not always statistically significant for the 29-38 age group. For each selected age and gender group, patients with pre-diabetes had a higher probability of taking a combination of a lipid-modifying agent and an antihypertensive drug than control patients (p<0.005.Conclusions: Using community pharmacy data, this study demonstrated that age and a characteristic drug use pattern could contribute to detecting pre-diabetes. There is a potential role for community pharmacists to follow up drug indicators of patients

  10. Pharmacists remuneration models in iran and selected countries: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Keshavarz, Khosro; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Vazirian, Iman; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists are members of the healthcare teams that provide valuable services to society. Their incentive to deliver such services is influenced by remuneration methods. In this study, we aimed to review the remuneration models for pharmacists' services and the factors affecting the profitability of pharmacies in some selected countries, including France, Ireland, Canada and Turkey, and compared them to Iran. International data were collected by literature review on Google, Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus. In addition, domestic data were collected by contacting relevant organizations. There is no payment for pharmacists' cognitive services in Iran and in the countries investigated, except for some Canadian provinces. The dispensing fee system in Iran does not seem to be adequate, especially considering that most of the insurers do not cover these fees. The pricing method in Iran has resulted in a low price level, in comparison to the other countries, and this issue has dramatically affected the profitability of pharmacies in standard practice. It could be concluded that changing the current formulation for the dispensing fee to a more appropriate one, defining a remuneration system for non-owner pharmacists other than salary and implementing the new pricing method are necessary in order to improve the services provided by pharmacies.

  11. Empowered diabetes management: life coaching and pharmacist counseling for employed adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Christy; Cardazone, Gina; Uehara, Denise Lea; Tom, Tammy

    2013-10-01

    The Hawai'i Demonstration to Maintain Independence and Employment was a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of a participant-driven, multicomponent intervention on 190 employed adults with diabetes, 36% of whom were Asian and 35% of whom were Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. A no treatment concurrent control group was used, and the treatment group was provided an intervention that paired each participant with a life coach and a pharmacist counselor with whom they worked to achieve collaboratively chosen goals. Treatment fidelity data suggest that the intervention was largely implemented as planned. Life coaches and pharmacists performed key program functions with high to moderate adherence. The quality of their adherence to the intervention model ranged from basic to above basic and below basic to above basic for life coaches and pharmacists, respectively. Results of repeated-measures analysis of covariance analyses indicate that the intervention had a significant positive effect on participants' diabetes self-efficacy, quality of life, and body mass index but not on hemoglobin A1c levels. Further analyses examining just the treatment group indicate a dosage effect, with body mass index and quality of life outcomes optimized among participants who engaged in a greater number of sessions with life coaches and pharmacists. Implications of the study findings for practice are discussed.

  12. Early Clinical Experiences for Second-Year Student Pharmacists at an Academic Medical Center

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; Amerine, Lindsey B.; Chen, Sheh-Li; Luter, David N.; Arnall, Justin; Smith, Shayna; Roth, Mary T.; Rodgers, Philip T.; Williams, Dennis M.; Pinelli, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine student outcomes associated with the Student Medication and Reconciliation Team (SMART) program, which was designed to provide second-year student pharmacists at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Eshelman School of Pharmacy direct patient care experience at UNC Medical Center.

  13. Factors determining social distance towards people with depression among community pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Liekens, Sophie; Smits, Tim; Laekeman, Gert; Foulon, Veerle

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to measure stigma among community pharmacists regarding patients with depression, using social distance as a proxy measure. Furthermore, factors influencing stigmatization were identified. Methods: A survey consisting of questions regarding social distance, cognitive attitude components, stereotypical beliefs and behavioural tendencies towards pharmaceutical care for patients with depression was carried out. The survey was completed b...

  14. [Role of pharmacists during serious natural disasters: report from Ishinomaki, the disaster-struck city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    On August 31, 2011, five months after the Great East Japan Earthquake, Miyagi prefecture reported 9357 dead and 2288 missing citizens, whereas Ishinomaki reported 4753 dead and 1302 missing citizens. A total of 12 pharmacists in Miyagi prefecture had lost their lives. Many medical institutions at the time were rendered out of service due to damage. Ishinomaki Red Cross had to serve as headquarters of disaster medicine management for the area. The government of Miyagi and Miyagi Pharmacist Association signed a contract regarding the provision of medical and/or other related tasks. Nevertheless, the contract was not fully applied given the impact of the tsunami, which caused chaos in telecommunication, traffic, and even the functions of the government. Given the nature of the disaster, medical teams equipped only with emergency equipment could not offer appropriate response to the needs of patients with chronicle diseases. "Personal medicine logbook" and pharmacists were keys to relief works during the disaster. Pharmacists played a critical role not only for self-medication by distributing over the counter (OTC) drugs, but also in hygiene management of the shelter. Apart from the establishment of an adoptive management system for large-scale natural disasters, a coordinated system for disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), Japanese Red Cross (JRC), Self-Defense Force (SDF), and other relief work organizations was imperative.

  15. Use of Six Sigma to improve pharmacist dispensing errors at an outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes L F

    2004-01-01

    Hospital pharmacists have been challenged to face the paradigm shift in their model of services in the 21st century in Taiwan. Patients are increasingly concerned about drug safety and medication errors. Because of the financial crisis of our national insurance bureau, pharmacists are required to care for more patients, use fewer resources, and work faster, better, and more efficiently than ever before while striving to enhance customer satisfaction and quality of care. Under these circumstances, patient safety needs to be a priority of pharmacists. According to a preliminary report on medication error announced by the nonofficial medication error reporting system, pharmacist dispensing error ranked second in the list of errors in Taiwan. In our drive to improve quality, reduce costs, and enhance financial performance, our department has tried the traditional quality-improvement strategy with varying degrees of success. We wanted to achieve a breakthrough result, hence we implemented Six-Sigma methodology. This program is the catalyst needed to combine quality, cost, and patient safety. This article describes our experience using Six-Sigma methodology to reduce dispensing error in our pharmacy department. PMID:15212318

  16. Improving the Working Relationship between Doctors and Pharmacists: Is Inter-Professional Education the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ruth M.; Gallagher, Helen C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their common history, there are many cultural, attitudinal and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that ultimately influence patient care and health outcomes. While poor communication between doctors and pharmacists is a major cause of medical errors, it is clear that effective, deliberate…

  17. Evaluation of clinical pharmacist interventions on drug interactions in outpatient pharmaceutical HIV-care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maat, M M R; de Boer, A; Koks, C H W; Mulder, J W; Meenhorst, P L; van Gorp, E C M; Mairuhu, A T A; Huitema, A D R; Beijnen, J H

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of intervention in drug interactions of antiretroviral drugs with coadministered agents by a clinical pharmacist in outpatient HIV-treatment. METHODS: The study design included two intervention arms (A and B), which were both preceded by a control observation pe

  18. Evaluation of clinical pharmacist interventions on drug interactions in outpatient pharmaceutical HIV-care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.M. de; Boer, A.T. den; Koks, C.H.W.; Mulder, J.W.; Meenhorst, P.L.; Gorp, E. van; Mairuhu, A.T.; Huitema, A.D.; Beijnen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of intervention in drug interactions of antiretroviral drugs with coadministered agents by a clinical pharmacist in outpatient HIV-treatment. METHODS: The study design included two intervention arms (A and B), which were both preceded by a control observation pe

  19. Isoniazid Completion Rates for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among College Students Managed by a Community Pharmacist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Karl; Goad, Jeffery; Wu, Joanne; Johnson, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors' objective was to document 9-month and previously recommended 6-month treatment completion rates for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in a pharmacist-managed LTBI clinic in a community pharmacy on a college campus, and to describe patient characteristics. Participants: Participants were university students diagnosed with…

  20. Drug-related problems identified in medication reviews by Australian pharmacists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Andrew C; Tenni, Peter C; Peterson, Gregory M;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study was to exam...

  1. Facets of pharmacists recommendation on over-the-counter market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Talaba

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to explore the valued aspects for persons who buy dietary supplemnets and whether pharmacists recommendation influence the buying decision and in what measure. The study is based on a initial qualitative research, followed by a quantitative research, both on pharmacists and consumers from the city of Iasi. The results differ to an extent from the findings in West European studies. Pharmacists recommendation is of subjective nature, influenced by the relation they have with the over-the-counter (OTC producing company representative and by the trust they place in a brand or anither. From the viw of the customers, pharmacists recommendation has certain power in taking the decision to buy but it is not the most important aspect nor the only one taken into consideration. The reasearch identifies 6 important aspects for the customers when they buy OTC products and 4 aspects that the pahramacists take into account when recommending a producer od dietary supplements to the pacients.

  2. Are pharmacists reducing COPD'S impact through smoking cessation and assessing inhaled steroid use?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Arpana; Harrison, Annie; Torun, Perihan;

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) COPD 2004 guidelines recommend: * COPD patients who smoke should be encouraged to stop at every opportunity; * Inhaled corticosteroid should be used only among patients with moderate to severe COPD; * Pharmacists should identify smo...

  3. The fishes of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Fish communities were sampled from eight sites within Hot Springs National Park. Fish were collected by seining and electrofishing during base-flow periods in July and October 2003. All individuals were identified to species. More than 1,020 individuals were collected, representing 24 species. The number of species collected at the sites ranged from 5 to 19. Central stoneroller, orangebelly darter, and longear sunfish were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. These species are typical of small streams in this area. An expected species list incorrectly listed 35 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 24 of the 51 expected species (47 percent). No species collected in 2003 were federally-listed threatened or endangered species. However, two species collected at Hot Springs National Park may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. The Ouachita madtom is endemic to the Ouachita Mountains and is listed as a species of special concern by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. The grass carp, which is a native of eastern Asia, is present in Ricks Pond; one individual was collected and no other grass carp were observed. The introduction of grass carp into the United States is a controversial issue because of possible (but undocumented) harmful effects on native species and habitats.

  4. Ooid mineralogy and diagenesis of upper Mississippian Pitkin Formation, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, E.; Snelling, R.D.; Dawson, W.C.; Machain, M.L. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Pitkin formation is a marine oolitic-bioclastic limestone exhibiting shoal, lagoonal, beach, and tidal-channel facies. Ooids formed on the Pitkin carbonate shelf show lateral and vertical variations in original mineralogy. In a section south of Mountain View, Arkansas, the lower marine shoal and shoreface facies are composed of originally aragonitic ooids. These ooids are replaced by neomorphic calcite and exhibit elevated strontium and low magnesium concentrations. The overlying lagoonal facies are composed of originally calcite ooids that have retained their original radial fabrics. These ooids exhibit low strontium and high magnesium concentration. Ooids in sections to the west of Mountain View are all calcitic. Early diagenesis of the formation is dominated by marine cementation. Postdepositional diagenesis encompasses extensive dissolution of originally aragonite and magnesian calcite components, precipitation of a late unzoned ferroan calcite, and minor amounts of saddle dolomite. Grainstone units lack any intergranular porosity. Pressure solution contacts among grains in grainstones are generally uncommon. Cementation alone is responsible for destruction of all of the original porosity in these rocks. Intensive pressure solution is observed only in packstone units not affected by early marine cementation.

  5. Community Pharmacists role in obesity treatment in Kuwait: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Abdelmoneim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a growing health concern in Kuwait. Obesity has been identified as a key risk factor for many chronic diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown that community pharmacists' involvement is associated with successful weight management in developed countries. This study was conducted to investigate the role of community pharmacists in obesity counseling, and to identify the barriers to counseling in Kuwait. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study involved 220 community pharmacies that were selected via stratified and systematic random sampling. A pretested self-administered questionnaire collected information on frequency and comfort level with obesity counseling, and the perceived effectiveness of four aspects of obesity management (diet and exercise, prescribed antiobesity medications, diet foods, and nonprescription products and dietary supplements. Information on perceived confidence in achieving positive outcomes as a result of counseling and barriers to counseling was also collected. Descriptive and Spearman’ r analysis were conducted using SPSS version 17. Responses with Likert scale rating 1(low score to 5 (high score and binary choices (yes/no were presented as mean (SD and (95% CI, respectively. Results The response rate was 93.6%. The overall mean (SD responses indicated that pharmacists counseled obese patients sometimes to most of the time, 3.67 (1.19 and were neutral to comfortable with counseling about aspects of obesity management, 3.77 (1.19. Respondents perceived obesity management aspects to be somewhat effective, 3.80 (1.05. Of the four aspects of obesity management, diet and exercise, and diet foods were the highest ranked in terms of frequency of counseling, comfort level and perceived effectiveness. Pharmacists were neutral to confident in achieving positive outcomes as a result of obesity counseling, 3.44 (1.09. Overall mean responses of

  6. Evaluation of clinical pharmacist recommendations in the geriatric ward of a Belgian university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somers A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Annemie Somers,1 Hugo Robays,1 Peter De Paepe,2 Georges Van Maele,3 Katrina Perehudoff,4 Mirko Petrovic41Department of Pharmacy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 3Department of Medical Statistics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 4Department of Geriatrics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, BelgiumObjective: To evaluate the type, acceptance rate, and clinical relevance of clinical pharmacist recommendations at the geriatric ward of the Ghent university hospital.Methods: The clinical pharmacist evaluated drug use during a weekly 2-hour visit for a period of 4 months and, if needed, made recommendations to the prescribing physician. The recommendations were classified according to type, acceptance by the physician, prescribed medication, and underlying drug-related problem. Appropriateness of prescribing was assessed using the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI before and after the recommendations were made. Two clinical pharmacologists and two clinical pharmacists independently and retrospectively evaluated the clinical relevance of the recommendations and rated their own acceptance of them.Results: The clinical pharmacist recommended 304 drug therapy changes for 100 patients taking a total of 1137 drugs. The most common underlying drug-related problems concerned incorrect dose, drug–drug interaction, and adverse drug reaction, which appeared most frequently for cardiovascular drugs, drugs for the central nervous system, and drugs for the gastrointestinal tract. The most common type of recommendation concerned adapting the dose, and stopping or changing a drug. In total, 59.7% of the recommendations were accepted by the treating physician. The acceptance rate by the evaluators ranged between 92.4% and 97.0%. The mean clinical relevance of the recommendations was assessed as possibly important (53.4%, possibly low relevance (38.1%, and possibly

  7. Cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention in patients with depression: a randomized controlled trial (PRODEFAR Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rubio-Valera

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to antidepressants generates higher costs for the treatment of depression. Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of pharmacist's interventions aimed at improving adherence to antidepressants. The study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention in comparison with usual care in depressed patients initiating treatment with antidepressants in primary care.Patients were recruited by general practitioners and randomized to community pharmacist intervention (87 that received an educational intervention and usual care (92. Adherence to antidepressants, clinical symptoms, Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs, use of healthcare services and productivity losses were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months.There were no significant differences between groups in costs or effects. From a societal perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for the community pharmacist intervention compared with usual care was €1,866 for extra adherent patient and €9,872 per extra QALY. In terms of remission of depressive symptoms, the usual care dominated the community pharmacist intervention. If willingness to pay (WTP is €30,000 per extra adherent patient, remission of symptoms or QALYs, the probability of the community pharmacist intervention being cost-effective was 0.71, 0.46 and 0.75, respectively (societal perspective. From a healthcare perspective, the probability of the community pharmacist intervention being cost-effective in terms of adherence, QALYs and remission was of 0.71, 0.76 and 0.46, respectively, if WTP is €30,000.A brief community pharmacist intervention addressed to depressed patients initiating antidepressant treatment showed a probability of being cost-effective of 0.71 and 0.75 in terms of improvement of adherence and QALYs, respectively, when compared to usual care. Regular implementation of the community pharmacist intervention is not recommended.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  8. Mental health pharmacists views on shared decision-making for antipsychotics in serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Mediha; Bradley, Eleanor; Holmes, Nikki; Sud, Dolly; Maidment, Ian D

    2016-10-01

    Background People diagnosed with serious mental illnesses (SMIs) such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder are frequently treated with antipsychotics. National guidance advises the use of shared decision-making (SDM) in antipsychotic prescribing. There is currently little data on the opinions of health professionals on the role of SDM. Objective To explore the views and experiences of UK mental health pharmacists regarding the use of SDM in antipsychotic prescribing in people diagnosed with SMI. Setting The study was conducted by interviewing secondary care mental health pharmacists in the UK to obtain qualitative data. Methods Semi-structured interviews were recorded. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted using the method of constant comparison. Main outcome measure Themes evolving from mental health pharmacists on SDM in relation to antipsychotic prescribing in people with SMI. Results Thirteen mental health pharmacists were interviewed. SDM was perceived to be linked to positive clinical outcomes including adherence, service user satisfaction and improved therapeutic relations. Despite more prescribers and service users supporting SDM, it was not seen as being practised as widely as it could be; this was attributed to a number of barriers, most predominantly issues surrounding service user's lacking capacity to engage in SDM and time pressures on clinical staff. The need for greater effort to work around the issues, engage service users and adopt a more inter-professional approach was conveyed. Conclusion The mental health pharmacists support SDM for antipsychotic prescribing, believing that it improves outcomes. However, barriers are seen to limit implementation. More research is needed into overcoming the barriers and measuring the benefits of SDM, along with exploring a more inter-professional approach to SDM. PMID:27450504

  9. Delivery of patient adherence support: a systematic review of the role of pharmacists and doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malin Andersson,1,2 Sara Garfield,1,2 Lina Eliasson,3,4 Christina Jackson,3 David K Raynor5 1The Centre for Medication Safety and Service Quality, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London, 2UCL School of Pharmacy, London, 3Atlantis Healthcare, London, 4Centre for Haematology, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, 5School of Healthcare, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Abstract: We conducted a systematic review of adherence support programs involving doctors and pharmacists. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and CINAHL using the keywords "pharmacist" or "doctor" and "adhere*" or "compli*" and "randomized controlled trials". We found 89 studies involving pharmacists; in contrast, only 14 studies involved doctors. The roles of pharmacists and doctors ranged from providing education and counseling to adjusting treatment. Most interventions that specified a patient group were carried out with patients with chronic conditions (n=79 and only six included short-term treatments. The majority of interventions improved adherence and clinical outcomes to some extent, although the size of effect size was sometimes small. Resource utilization (eg, hospitalization rates, visits to doctors did not change in the majority of studies that reported it. Few studies included cost analyses. All but one study had high risk of performance bias due to the nature of the interventions, which made it impossible to blind the participants. The majority of studies did not report tailoring the interventions to patient needs and the vast majority of papers did not report taking a concordant patient-centered approach or considering patients' own views and experiences when providing adherence support. In addition, the majority of studies did not describe training for the health care professionals involved in providing adherence support. Providing training for doctors and pharmacists to

  10. Evaluating the accuracy of technicians and pharmacists in checking unit dose medication cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Peter J; Saya, Frank G; Lovett, Larry T; Tan, Sandy; Adams, Dale W; Shane, Rita

    2002-06-15

    The accuracy rates of board-registered pharmacy technicians and pharmacists in checking unit dose medication cassettes in the inpatient setting at two separate institutions were examined. Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, both in Los Angeles county, petitioned the California State Board of Pharmacy to approve a waiver of the California Code of Regulations to conduct an experimental program to compare the accuracy of unit dose medication cassettes checked by pharmacists with that of cassettes checked by trained, certified pharmacy technicians. The study consisted of three parts: assessing pharmacist baseline checking accuracy (Phase I), developing a technician-training program and certifying technicians who completed the didactic and practical training (Phase II), and evaluating the accuracy of certified technicians checking unit dose medication cassettes as a daily function (Phase III). Twenty-nine pharmacists and 41 technicians (3 of whom were pharmacy interns) participated in the study. Of the technicians, all 41 successfully completed the didactic and practical training, 39 successfully completed the audits and became certified checkers, and 2 (including 1 of the interns) did not complete the certification audits because they were reassigned to another work area or had resigned. In Phase II, the observed accuracy rate and its lower confidence limit exceeded the predetermined minimum requirement of 99.8% for a certified checker. The mean accuracy rates for technicians were identical at the two institutions (p = 1.0). The difference in mean accuracy rates between pharmacists (99.52%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 99.44-99.58%) and technicians, (99.89%; 95% CI 99.87-99.90%) was significant (p medication cassettes filled by other technicians. PMID:12073859

  11. [A new identity for pharmacists: the Mexican Pharmaceutical Society at the turn of the century (1890-1919)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Solís, Sandra; Aceves Pastrana, Patricia; Morales Cosme, Alba

    2007-01-01

    The Mexican Pharmaceutical Society was founded in 1871. Pharmacists in this Society organized and supported activities to develop their profession, including the preparation of a Mexican pharmacopela, promotion of the interests of pharmacists and improvement of the profession, and the creation of a unified legal framework for its practice. This society played a central role in the institutionalization of pharmacy as a profession and in the expansion of pharmacists into new areas, especially in relation to the transfer of pharmacy training from the National School of Medicine to the School of Chemical Sciences in 1919. when they took on a new identity as chemists.

  12. Comparing the 2000 and 2005 factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, T R; Barham, B L

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine how factors affecting the selling price of feeder calves changed from 2000 to 2005 and to examine the perception that discounts narrow or even disappear as calf supplies decrease and selling prices increase. Data from weekly Arkansas livestock auctions were collected from January 1 to December 31 in 2000 and 2005. Data included calf sex, breed type, color, muscle score, horn status, frame score, fill, condition, health, and BW. Mean selling prices for 2000 and 2005 were $92.91 +/- 15.05 and $118.32 +/- 15.13 (mean +/- SD; $/45.45 kg), respectively. Individual price observations were subtracted from the respective annual means and became the dependent variable. The selling prices for feeder calves sold in groups of 2 to 5 calves and in groups of >/= 6 calves were greater in 2005 than 2000 (P Brahman (P Brahman Cross, Charolais, Charolais x Limousin, Hereford x Limousin, Limousin, Limousin x one-fourth Brahman, Longhorn, Saler and Simmental. Yellow-white face, black-white face, black, and gray feeder calves received an increase in selling price from 2000 to 2005 (P < 0.001). Although fewer horned feeder calves were sold in 2005 (P < 0.01), they received greater discounts in 2005 than 2000 (-$2.86 +/- 0.16 and -$0.51 +/- 0.09; P < 0.001). In 2005, large-framed feeder calves did not receive the premium detected in 2000, but medium-framed feeder calves in 2005 received a greater selling price compared with 2000. Feeder calves with a muscle score of 1 received a greater premium in 2005 compared with 2000 ($2.58 +/- 0.06 and $0.02 +/- 0.09, respectively; P < 0.001). Feeder calves with a muscle score of 2 were discounted in both years, but the discount in 2005 was not as great as in 2000 (P < 0.001). Full and tanked feeder calves received greater discounts in 2005 than in 2000 (P < 0.001). Discounts for fleshy and fat feeder calves were greater in 2005 than in 2000. Most factors affecting the selling price of Arkansas feeder

  13. Comparing the 2000 and 2005 factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, T R; Barham, B L

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine how factors affecting the selling price of feeder calves changed from 2000 to 2005 and to examine the perception that discounts narrow or even disappear as calf supplies decrease and selling prices increase. Data from weekly Arkansas livestock auctions were collected from January 1 to December 31 in 2000 and 2005. Data included calf sex, breed type, color, muscle score, horn status, frame score, fill, condition, health, and BW. Mean selling prices for 2000 and 2005 were $92.91 +/- 15.05 and $118.32 +/- 15.13 (mean +/- SD; $/45.45 kg), respectively. Individual price observations were subtracted from the respective annual means and became the dependent variable. The selling prices for feeder calves sold in groups of 2 to 5 calves and in groups of >/= 6 calves were greater in 2005 than 2000 (P x Hereford, Angus, Angus x Charolais, and Brahman (P Brahman Cross, Charolais, Charolais x Limousin, Hereford x Limousin, Limousin, Limousin x one-fourth Brahman, Longhorn, Saler and Simmental. Yellow-white face, black-white face, black, and gray feeder calves received an increase in selling price from 2000 to 2005 (P < 0.001). Although fewer horned feeder calves were sold in 2005 (P < 0.01), they received greater discounts in 2005 than 2000 (-$2.86 +/- 0.16 and -$0.51 +/- 0.09; P < 0.001). In 2005, large-framed feeder calves did not receive the premium detected in 2000, but medium-framed feeder calves in 2005 received a greater selling price compared with 2000. Feeder calves with a muscle score of 1 received a greater premium in 2005 compared with 2000 ($2.58 +/- 0.06 and $0.02 +/- 0.09, respectively; P < 0.001). Feeder calves with a muscle score of 2 were discounted in both years, but the discount in 2005 was not as great as in 2000 (P < 0.001). Full and tanked feeder calves received greater discounts in 2005 than in 2000 (P < 0.001). Discounts for fleshy and fat feeder calves were greater in 2005 than in 2000. Most factors

  14. Geologic map of the Murray Quadrangle, Newton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2016-07-06

    This map summarizes the geology of the Murray quadrangle in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the area is on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that has the oldest rocks exposed at its center, in Missouri. Physiographically, the Murray quadrangle is within the Boston Mountains, a high plateau region underlain by Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales. Valleys of the Buffalo River and Little Buffalo River and their tributaries expose an approximately 1,600-ft-thick (488-meter-thick) sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. The Buffalo National River, a park that encompasses the Buffalo River and adjacent land that is administered by the National Park Service is present at the northwestern edge of the quadrangle.Mapping for this study was carried out by field inspection of numerous sites and was compiled as a 1:24,000 geographic information system (GIS) database. Locations and elevation of sites were determined with the aid of a global positioning satellite receiver and a hand-held barometric altimeter that was frequently recalibrated at points of known elevation. Hill-shade relief and slope maps derived from a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model as well as orthophotographs were used to help trace ledge-forming units between field traverses within the Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian part of the stratigraphic sequence. Strike and dip of beds were typically measured along stream drainages or at well-exposed ledges. Structure contours, constructed on the top of the Boone Formation and the base of a prominent sandstone unit within the Bloyd Formation, were drawn based on the elevations of field sites on these contacts well as other limiting information for their minimum elevations above hilltops or their maximum elevations below valley bottoms.

  15. Pharmacists’ response to anaphylaxis in the community (PRAC): a randomised, simulated patient study of pharmacist practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Sandra M; Delfante, Brock; de Klerk, Sarah; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate how community pharmacists manage patients with anaphylaxis. Design A randomised, cross-sectional, simulated patient study of community pharmacist practice. Setting 300 metropolitan pharmacies located in Perth Australia, randomised to three groups of 100 pharmacies. Each group corresponded to a different epinephrine autoinjector: original EpiPen, new-look EpiPen or Anapen. Participants 300 pharmacies were visited with 271 simulated patient visits included in the final analysis (88=original EpiPen, 92=new-look EpiPen, 91=Anapen). Outcome measures Primary anaphylaxis preparedness (readiness to treat acute anaphylaxis). Secondary anaphylaxis engagement (willingness to engage the patient in a discussion about their anaphylaxis). Methods Simulated patients approached pharmacists, using a standardised scenario, for assistance with epinephrine autoinjector use and advice about the use of antihistamines in anaphylaxis. Scores for each outcome were obtained based on the number of predefined statements addressed by the pharmacist during the consultation (maximum score=5 for preparedness and 8 for engagement). Results The mean anaphylaxis preparedness score was 2.39 points (SD 1.17). Scores for new-look EpiPen were significantly higher than for original EpiPen and Anapen (2.75 vs 2.38 points, p=0.027; 2.75 vs 2.03 points, pEpiPen were similar to original EpiPen and Anapen (3.11 vs 3.32 points; 3.11 vs 2.90 points, both p=0.42). Engagement was associated with preparedness. For each additional engagement point, preparedness increased by 7% (0.357 points; 95% CI 0.291 to 0.424; p<0.001). Conclusions Pharmacists demonstrated reasonable knowledge of anaphylaxis symptoms and emergency care, but had poor epinephrine autoinjector technique and rarely discussed anaphylaxis action plans. Pharmacists who had a more comprehensive discussion about anaphylaxis with patients, were more prepared for anaphylaxis emergencies. Future research should evaluate the nature and

  16. Medication monitoring and optimization : a targeted pharmacist program for effective and cost-effective improvement of chronic therapy adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boven, Job F.M.; Stuurman-Bieze, Ada G.G.; Hiddink, Eric G.; Postma, Maarten J.; Vegter, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community pharmacies provide a promising platform for monitoring and improving therapy adherence and providing pharmaceutical care. Structured methods and appropriate software are important tools to increase pharmacist effectiveness and improve health outcomes. In 2006, the Medication Mo

  17. Health care consumers’ perspectives on pharmacist integration into private general practitioner clinics in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saw PS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pui San Saw,1 Lisa M Nissen,2,3 Christopher Freeman,2,4 Pei Se Wong,3 Vivienne Mak5 1School of Postgraduate Studies and Research, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia; 5School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Pharmacists are considered medication experts but are underutilized and exist mainly at the periphery of the Malaysian primary health care team. Private general practitioners (GPs in Malaysia are granted rights under the Poison Act 1952 to prescribe and dispense medications at their primary care clinics. As most consumers obtain their medications from their GPs, community pharmacists’ involvement in ensuring safe use of medicines is limited. The integration of a pharmacist into private GP clinics has the potential to contribute to quality use of medicines. This study aims to explore health care consumers’ views on the integration of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia.Methods: A purposive sample of health care consumers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were invited to participate in focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using NVivo 10. Results: A total of 24 health care consumers participated in two focus groups and six semi-structured interviews. Four major themes were identified: 1 pharmacists’ role viewed mainly as supplying medications, 2 readiness to accept pharmacists in private GP clinics, 3 willingness to pay for pharmacy services, and 4 concerns about GPs’ resistance to pharmacist integration. Consumers felt that a pharmacist integrated into a private GP clinic could offer potential benefits such as to provide trustworthy

  18. The role of taking a holiday on South African pharmacists' overall well–being / Elricke van Loggerenberg

    OpenAIRE

    Van Loggerenberg, Elricke

    2010-01-01

    Literature indicates that pharmacists of South Africa experience high levels of stress as a result of their working conditions. Seeing that the definition of subjective well–being (SWB) entails that a person feels positive affect (positive moods) and experience infrequent feelings of negative affect (such as stress), pharmacists have low SWB since they experience high levels of stress. It is thus vital to lessen the stress seeing as this low SWB may entail a danger to the profe...

  19. An evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of Indian pharmacists towards adverse drug reaction reporting: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacovigilance is a useful to assure the safety of medicines and protect consumers from their harmful effects. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as part of their professional obligation and participate in the existent pharmacovigilance programs in their countries. In India, the National PV Program was re-launched in July 2010. Objectives: This survey was conducted in order to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Indian pharmacists with the aim of exploring the pharmacists′ participation in ADR reporting system, identifying the reasons of under reporting and determining the steps that could be adopted to increase reporting rates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the pharmacists in India using a pretested questionnaire with 33 questions (10 questions on knowledge, 6 on attitude, 7 on practice, 7 on future of ADR reporting in India and 3 on benefits of reporting ADRs.. The study was conducted, over a period of 3 months from May 2012 to July 2012. Results: Out of the 600 participants to whom the survey was administered, a total of 400 were filled. The response rate of the survey was 67%. 95% responders were knowledgeable about ADRs. 90% participants had a positive attitude towards making ADRs reporting mandatory for practicing pharmacists. 87.5% participants were interested in participating in the National Pharmacovigilance program, in India. 47.5% respondents had observed ADRs in their practice, and 37% had reported it to the national pharmacovigilance center. 92% pharmacists believed reporting ADRs immensely helped in providing quality care to patients. Conclusion : The Indian pharmacists have poor knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP towards ADR reporting and pharmacovigilance. Pharmacists with higher qualifications such as the pharmacists with a PharmD have better KAP. With additional training on Pharmacovigilance, the Indian Pharmacists

  20. Can a self-management programme delivered by a community pharmacist improve asthma control? A randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Barbanel, D; Eldridge, S; Griffiths, C

    2003-01-01

    Background: No randomised studies have addressed whether self-management for asthma can be successfully delivered by community pharmacists. Most randomised trials of asthma self-management have recruited participants from secondary care; there is uncertainty regarding its effectiveness in primary care. A randomised controlled study was undertaken to determine whether a community pharmacist could improve asthma control using self-management advice for individuals recruited during attendance at...

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs about Chronic Noncancer Pain in Primary Care: a Canadian Survey of Physicians and Pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Lyne Lalonde; Vincent Leroux-Lapointe; Manon Choinière; Elisabeth Martin; David Lussier; Djamal Berbiche; Diane Lamarre; Robert Thiffault; Ghaya Jouini; Sylvie Perreault

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary care providers’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) regarding chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) are a barrier to optimal management. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and identify the determinants of the KAB of primary care physicians and pharmacists, and to document clinician preferences regarding the content and format of a continuing education program (CEP). METHOD: Physicians and pharmacists of 486 CNCP patients participated. Physicians completed the original version of the KnowP...

  2. The Role of Ambulatory Care Pharmacists in an HIV Multidisciplinary Team within a Free and Bilingual Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Ann M. Fugit, Pharm.D., BCPS; Sallie D. Mayer, Pharm.D., MBA, BCPS, CDE; Radha S. Vanmali, Pharm.D., BCACP

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Describe the role and integration of ambulatory care pharmacists in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) clinic within a free and bilingual clinic with regards to types of interventions made during the patient-pharmacist visit. Design: Retrospective, single-centered, chart review. Setting: Free, bilingual clinic in Richmond, VA. Participants: Thirty-two adult patients with diagnosed HIV receiving care in the clinic between June 30, 2010 and January 26, 2011. Main Outcome Measure: T...

  3. Chronology of prescribing error during the hospital stay and prediction of pharmacist's alerts overriding: a prospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni Vanida; Gillaizeau Florence; Colombet Isabelle; Caruba Thibaut; Korb Virginie; Prognon Patrice; Bégué Dominique; Durieux Pierre; Sabatier Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Drug prescribing errors are frequent in the hospital setting and pharmacists play an important role in detection of these errors. The objectives of this study are (1) to describe the drug prescribing errors rate during the patient's stay, (2) to find which characteristics for a prescribing error are the most predictive of their reproduction the next day despite pharmacist's alert (i.e. override the alert). Methods We prospectively collected all medication order lines and p...

  4. Assessment and self-assessment of the pharmacists' competencies using the global competency framework (GbCF in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pharmacists' competence represents a dynamic framework of knowledge, skills and abilities to carry out tasks, and it reflects on improving the quality of life and on patients’ health. One of the documents for the Evaluation and Competency Development of Pharmacists is the Global Competency Framework (GbCF. The aim of this study was to implement the GBCF document into Serbian pharmacies, to perform assessment and self assessment of the competencies. Methods. The assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists’ competencies were performed during the period 2012−13 year in eight community pharmacy chains, in seven cities in Serbia. For assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists competencies the GbCF model was applied, which was adjusted to pharmaceutical practice and legislation in Serbia. External assessment was conducted by teams of pharmacists using the structured observation of the work of pharmacists during regular working hours. Evaluated pharmacists filled out the questionnaire about demographic indicators about the pharmacist and the pharmacy where they work. Results. A total of 123 pharmacists were evaluated. Pharmacists’ Professional Competency Cluster (KK1 had the lowest score (average value 2.98, while the cluster Management and Organizational Competency (KK2 had the highest score (average value 3.15. The competence Recognition of the Diagnosis and Patient Counseling (K8, which belonged to the cluster KK1, had the lowest score (average value for assessment and self-assessment were 2.09, and 2.34, respectively among the all evaluated competencies. Conclusion. GbCF might be considered as an instrument for the competencies' evaluation/selfevaluation and their improvement, accordingly.

  5. Evaluation of a pharmacist intervention on patients initiating pharmacological treatment for depression: a randomized controlled superiority trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Valera, Maria; March Pujol, Marian; Fernández Sánchez, Ana; Peñarrubia María, María Teresa; Travé i Mercadé, Pere; López del Hoyo, Yolanda; Serrano Blanco, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Major depression is associated with high burden, disability and costs. Non-adherence limits the effectiveness of antidepressants. Community pharmacists (CP) are in a privileged position to help patients cope with antidepressant treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of a CP intervention on primary care patients who had initiated antidepressant treatment. Newly diagnosed primary care patients were randomised to usual care (UC) (92) or pharmacist intervention (87). Patients ...

  6. Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 1, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document consists of a sample curriculum model for grade 1 mathematics based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework. The document is divided into five sections: (1) Number Sense, Properties, and Operations; (2) Geometry and Spatial Sense; (3) Measurement; (4) Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability; and (5) Patterns, Algebra, and…

  7. Sample Grade Level Benchmarks, Grades 5-8, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents the application and use of mathematics learning proposed by the Arkansas curriculum frameworks for grades 5-8. The standards are presented in chart form and organized into five strands: (1) number sense, properties, and operations; (2) geometry and spatial sense; (3) measurement; (4) data analysis, statistics, and…

  8. Sample Grade Level Benchmarks, Grades K-4, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents the application and use of mathematics learning proposed by the Arkansas curriculum frameworks for grades K-4. The standards are presented in chart form and organized into five strands: (1) number sense, properties, and operations; (2) geometry and spatial sense; (3) measurement; (4) data analysis, statistics, and…

  9. Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 3, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document consists of a sample curriculum model for grade 3 mathematics based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework. The document is divided into five sections: (1) Number Sense, Properties, and Operations; (2) Geometry and Spatial Sense; (3) Measurement; (4) Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability; and (5) Patterns, Algebra, and…

  10. Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 4, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document consists of a sample curriculum model for grade 4 mathematics based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework. The document is divided into five sections: (1) Number Sense, Properties, and Operations; (2) Geometry and Spatial Sense; (3) Measurement; (4) Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability; and (5) Patterns, Algebra, and…

  11. Sample Curriculum Model, Grade K, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document consists of a sample curriculum model for Kindergarten mathematics based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework. The model is divided into five sections: (1) Number Sense, Properties, and Operations; (2) Geometry and Spatial Sense; (3) Measurement; (4) Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability; and (5) Patterns, Algebra,…

  12. Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 5, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document consists of a sample curriculum model for grade 5 mathematics based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework. The document is divided into five sections: (1) Number Sense, Properties, and Operations; (2) Geometry and Spatial Sense; (3) Measurement; (4) Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability; and (5) Patterns, Algebra, and…

  13. Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 2, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document consists of a sample curriculum model for grade 2 mathematics based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework. The document is divided into five sections: (1) Number Sense, Properties, and Operations; (2) Geometry and Spatial Sense; (3) Measurement; (4) Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability; and (5) Patterns, Algebra, and…

  14. Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 7, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document consists of a sample curriculum model for grade 7 mathematics based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework. The document is divided into five sections: (1) Number Sense, Properties, and Operations; (2) Geometry and Spatial Sense; (3) Measurement; (4) Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability; and (5) Patterns, Algebra, and…

  15. Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 6, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document consists of a sample curriculum model for grade 6 mathematics based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework. The document is divided into five sections: (1) Number Sense, Properties, and Operations; (2) Geometry and Spatial Sense; (3) Measurement; (4) Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability; and (5) Patterns, Algebra, and…

  16. Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 8, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document consists of a sample curriculum model for grade 8 mathematics based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework. The document is divided into five sections: (1) Number Sense, Properties, and Operations; (2) Geometry and Spatial Sense; (3) Measurement; (4) Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability; and (5) Patterns, Algebra, and…

  17. Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

  18. Examination of the rice blast pathogen population diversity in Arkansas, USA – Stable or Unstable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 17 years, isolates of Pyricularia oryzae (= P. grisea) have been recovered from commercial rice fields in Arkansas. Annual samples have typically included 100–500 isolates recovered from 5 to 10 cultivars from 10 different counties with the majority of the isolates being recovered from...

  19. Ready to Lead? A Study of Arkansas and Louisiana Charter School Principals' Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Creshun Anjal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of Arkansas and Louisiana district conversion and open-enrollment charter school principals' background characteristics, leadership skills, and school success. A quantitative methodology was used to test the research questions prescribed in the study. Data was collected using a survey. The…

  20. Pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals in selected north-central and northwestern Arkansas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, B.E.; Galloway, J.M.; Green, W.R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, our attention has focused on the low level detection of many antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and other organic chemicals in water resources. The limited studies available suggest that urban or rural streams receiving wastewater effluent are more susceptible to contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and other organic chemicals at 18 sites on seven selected streams in Arkansas, USA, during March, April, and August 2004. Water samples were collected upstream and downstream from the influence of effluent discharges in northwestern Arkansas and at one site on a relatively undeveloped stream in north-central Arkansas. At least one antibiotic, pharmaceutical, or other organic chemical was detected at all sites, except at Spavinaw Creek near Mayesville, Arkansas. The greatest number of detections was observed at Mud Creek downstream from an effluent discharge, including 31 pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals. The detection of these chemicals occurred in higher frequency at sites downstream from effluent discharges compared to those sites upstream from effluent discharges; total chemical concentration was also greater downstream. Wastewater effluent discharge increased the concentrations of detergent metabolites, fire retardants, fragrances and flavors, and steroids in these streams. Antibiotics and associated degradation products were only found at two streams downstream from effluent discharges. Overall, 42 of the 108 chemicals targeted in this study were found in water samples from at least one site, and the most frequently detected organic chemicals included caffeine, phenol, para-cresol, and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydro naphthalene (AHTN). ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  1. Teacher Pension Incentives, Retirement Behavior, and Potential for Reform in Arkansas. Conference Paper 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; McGee, Josh B.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the Arkansas Teacher Retirement System (ATRS) pension plan and an empirical investigation of the behavioral response to that plan, as well as to a possible reform plan. We begin by describing the plan parameters and discussing the incentives these parameters create. We then estimate the effect of pension…

  2. Teacher Pension Incentives, Retirement Behavior, and Potential for Reform in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; McGee, Josh B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the Arkansas teacher pension plan and empirically gauge the behavioral response to incentives embedded in that plan and to possible reforms. The pattern of pension wealth accrual creates sharp incentives to work until eligible for early or normal retirement, often in one's early fifties, and to separate shortly thereafter. We…

  3. Field evaluation of four spatial repellent devices against Arkansas rice-land mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four commercially available spatial repellent devices were tested in a rice land habitat near Stuttgart, Arkansas after semi-field level assessments had been made at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, ARS, USDA in Gainesville, FL. OFF! Clip-On® (a.i. metofluthrin, S.C....

  4. Drought and deluge: Effects of recent climate variability on groundwater levels in eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.; Schrader, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Arkansas experienced wide extremes in climate variability during the period of 2005 to 2010, recording the largest annual precipitation ever recorded in the State (100.05 inches) in 2009. Many weather stations across the State reported between 80 to 90 inches of rainfall in 2009. For comparison, the average annual precipitation in Little Rock, Arkansas, for the period 1878 to 2010 was 47.1 inches. In contrast, 2005 and 2010 were the 7th and 14th driest years on record in Little Rock with 34.55 and 36.52 inches, respectively; both tied as the hottest years ever recorded in Arkansas. The wettest year on record in Little Rock (2009) was interspersed within these dry years, with a total of 81.79 inches. Fifteen weather stations within the State ranked 2009 as the wettest year on record. Extremes in annual precipitation rates may lead to greater variability in groundwater recharge rates and water use, particularly in the agricultural areas in eastern Arkansas that rely heavily on groundwater produced from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer (hereafter referred to as the alluvial aquifer). How does this variability affect the groundwater system and water use therein? Are the effects of this variability discernable in measured water levels in wells? Czarnecki and Schrader examined these questions and provided some insights, the results of which are presented here.

  5. The Effect of Performance Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…

  6. Child Care Needs of Mothers in Arkansas' Labor Force: A Statistical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

    The major purpose of this paper is to increase employers' awareness of the impact that the rising number of working mothers has had on the need for day care in Arkansas as a whole and in their specific business locales. It is hoped that employers will be motivated to investigate and evaluate the advantages of providing some form of day care…

  7. Human Resources Promotes Diversity and Inclusiveness at the University of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Advancing diversity and inclusiveness on campus is certainly a top priority for many institutions today. The question often is not "Should we promote diversity in our campus community?" but rather "How do we go about doing it?" At the University of Arkansas, the chancellor had long declared that diversity was his first and most important goal.…

  8. 76 FR 36142 - Arkansas; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050, Presidentially Declared... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major...

  9. 76 FR 37360 - Arkansas; Amendment No. 7 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing... Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Amendment No. 7 to Notice of a Major...

  10. The pharmacist and the management of arterial hypertension: the role of blood pressure monitoring and telemonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omboni, Stefano; Sala, Elisa

    2015-02-01

    Randomized controlled trials have documented that a team of health care professionals which includes a physician, a nurse and a community pharmacist may improve the benefit and adherence of anti-hypertensive therapy. If such a health care model relies on blood pressure telemonitoring, it can promote a stronger relationship between health care professionals and patients, and further improve BP control of hypertension. The major benefit of this collaborative approach is to center the patient's management in a tailored way, providing comprehensive and preventive care based on health information technologies. In this review, the authors summarize recent clinical studies that evaluate the role of the community pharmacist in BP measurements, and in hypertension screening and control. The authors also describe the advantages of using blood pressure telemonitoring in home and ambulatory settings to evaluate potential alternatives to primary care in hypertension management.

  11. Opening A New Service Marketing Channel For Medical Products: How Pharmacists Became Immunizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Harrington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical product firms often have limited channels of distribution due to the highly regulated environment in which they operate.  Creating a new channel for delivery of a health product is very difficult because it requires political action and requires strong arguments that there is unmet need for the product.  Determined leadership and action by the intermediaries involved and evidence that the product can be used safely in the new channel are also essential.  Pharmacists, vaccine manufacturers, and public health officials were able to open up a new channel for marketing vaccines by persistent effort over the past 15 years.  This paper describes this effort and illustrates the benefits for consumers, manufacturers, pharmacists, pharmacy chains, and the public health infrastructure.  A series of lessons learned is provided as guideposts for others to use in changing medical product distribution channels.

  12. The effects of introducing a clinical pharmacist on orthopaedic wards in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buck, Thomas Croft; Brandstrup, Lene; Brandslund, Ivan;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects and cost effects of introducing clinical pharmacists on hospital wards. METHODS: Comparative prospective study on four orthopaedic surgical wards in two hospitals. The primary effect variables were 10 target areas widely considered to be indicators of good...... sub-optimal prescriptions were changed, 43% resulted in cost reductions. The reductions achieved could cover 47% of the costs of clinical pharmacy service. CONCLUSION: Clinical pharmacy services offered to four orthopaedic surgical wards resulted in reduction of sub-optimal prescriptions. Every time...... the pharmacist screened seven patients one sub-optimal prescription was found and adjusted. The reduction in medicine costs due to adjusted sub-optimal prescriptions could not cover the whole cost of clinical pharmacy service....

  13. Exploring community pharmacists' experiences of surveying patients for drug utilization research purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Pia; Bergman, Ulrika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient self-reported data are important in drug utilization research, but often logistically difficult to collect. During 2006–2012, 72 Swedish community pharmacies regularly collected such data through structured survey interviews at the pharmacy counter, performed by the dispensing...... eligible patients, due to the immediate increase in work load. The limited availability of staff resources was the most apparent area of improvement. Conclusion Under certain conditions, community pharmacies are feasible as a setting for conducting patient surveys in drug utilization research...... of surveying. Setting 72 Swedish community pharmacies, distributed all over the country. Method (a) A questionnaire was distributed to approximately 400 dispensing pharmacists at the pharmacies conducting the patient surveys; (b) semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with 19 pharmacists at 12...

  14. [Updates on prevention and treatment of melanoma: Pharmacist involvements and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimano, F; Roessle, C; Blanc, C; De Maleissye, M-F; Bauler, S

    2016-09-01

    Melanoma is a skin cancer that represents an actual public health problem. Its incidence is increasing every year. Environmental risk factors have been clearly identified. Early diagnosis of a suspicious skin lesion should be possible by any health professionals because the prognosis is correlated with the evolution of the disease and the presence of metastases. The advent of new therapies in metastatic forms with the development of immunotherapies and kinases inhibitors has significantly changed the management of this disease. New therapies are available in retail pharmacies and involve health professionals out of the hospital. This article is intended for community and hospital pharmacists and summarizes recommendations for primary and secondary prevention. It updates on new targeted therapies. It wants to give advices to the community pharmacists about the effective use of those treatments for melanoma. PMID:26968263

  15. Impact of Antibiotic Shortage on H. Pylori Treatment: A Step-Wise Approach for Pharmacist Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lloyd, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current drug shortage crisis involving multiple oral antibiotics has significantly impacted preferred therapeutic options for treatment of H.pylori infection. Pharmacists may help alleviate the impact of this shortage through a proposed step-wise approach which includes proper inventory management, verification of indication, evaluation of regimen, therapeutic monitoring, and communication with patients and providers regarding alternative therapy or symptomatic relief.

  16. Preferences of Community Pharmacists for Extended Roles in Primary Care: A Survey and Discrete Choice Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Scott; Christine Bond; Jackie Inch; Aileen Grant

    2007-01-01

    Background: Major changes in the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists across the world are occurring. A new Scottish Community Pharmacy contract was introduced in April 2006, following the introduction of a similar contract in England in 2005. This contract encourages greater involvement in medicines management and other clinical cognitive roles, whilst retaining a supply function. Objective: To use a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to examine the strength of preference of community pha...

  17. Evaluating the online platform of a blended-learning pharmacist continuing education degree program

    OpenAIRE

    Wilbur, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Distance-based continuing education opportunities are increasingly embraced by health professionals worldwide.  To evaluate the online component of a blended-learning degree program for pharmacists, we conducted a structured self-assessment and peer-review using an instrument systematically devised according to Moore’s principles of transactional distance.  The web-based platform for fourteen courses were reviewed by both local and external faculty, followed by shared reflection of individual...

  18. Performance-Enhancing Drugs: A New Reality in Sport and A Real Show ground for Pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Janevik-Ivanovska, Emilija; Sterjova, Marija; Popeska, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the increasing need of the pharmacists for supporting athletes in maintaining their health, aiding recovery and providing essential information about the quality use of medicines in the context of their engagement with sport. To know that athletes who are required to use medicines for selected medical conditions are able to obtain a therapeutic use exemption under certain circumstances and also be able to examine how medicines literacy is a crit...

  19. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Services for Dispensing Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Delhi, India: A Mystery Shopper Study

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Nigam, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery sho...

  20. Evaluation of pharmacists' services for dispensing emergency contraceptive pills in Delhi, India: A mystery shopper study

    OpenAIRE

    Pikee Saxena; Archana Mishra; Aruna Nigam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery sho...

  1. Implementing a Pharmacist-Led Medication Management Pilot to Improve Care Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Root, PharmD, MS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this project was to design and pilot a pharmacist-led process to address medication management across the continuum of care within a large integrated health-system.Summary: A care transitions pilot took place within a health-system which included a 150-bed community hospital. The pilot process expanded the pharmacist’s medication management responsibilities to include providing discharge medication reconciliation, a patient-friendly discharge medication list, discharge medication education, and medication therapy management (MTM follow-up.Adult patients with a predicted diagnosis-related group (DRG of congestive heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the medical-surgical and intensive care units who utilized a primary care provider within the health-system were included in the pilot. Forty patients met the inclusion criteria and thirty-four (85% received an intervention from an inpatient or MTM pharmacist. Within this group of patients, 88 drug therapy problems (2.6 per patient were identified and 75% of the drug therapy recommendations made by the pharmacist were accepted by the care provider. The 30-day all-cause readmission rates for the intervention and comparison groups were 30.5% and 35.9%, respectively. The number of patients receiving follow-up care varied with 10 (25% receiving MTM follow-up, 26 (65% completing a primary care visit after their first hospital discharge, and 23 (58% receiving a home care visit.Conclusion: Implementation of a pharmacist-led medication management pilot across the continuum of care resulted in an improvement in the quality of care transitions within the health-system through increased identification and resolution of drug therapy problems and MTM follow-up. The lessons learned from the implementation of this pilot will be used to further refine pharmacy care transitions programs across the health-system.

  2. COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS' INVOLVEMENT IN THE ORDERING AND INTERPRETATION OF LABORATORY TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Showande* and A. O. Olaifa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The focus of this exploratory study was to determine if community pharmacists order laboratory tests, why they order the tests, type of tests they order and what they do with the outcome of such tests. Self-administered pre-tested 34-item semi-structured questionnaires were used to carry out this study among superintendent pharmacists’ of registered pharmacy premises in two south-western states in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics (frequency and percentages, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to appropriately summarize the data obtained. All the respondents who consented to take part had ordered laboratory tests for patients prior to this study. The types of invasive and non-invasive tests ordered, ranged from simple dipstick pregnancy test to more varied tests like: fasting blood glucose 24(36.9%, blood pressure measurement 58(89.2%, malaria parasite test 47(72.3%, full blood count 16(24.6%, widal reaction test 45(69.2%, urinalysis 10(15.4% mantoux test 3(4.6% and hepatitis B & C test 3(4.6%. Some of the perceived benefits derived from interpreting laboratory test results were patient trust and confidence in pharmacists 28(43.1%, job satisfaction and relevance to the community 8(12.3% and revenue generation 5(7.7%. Community pharmacists in the two South-western states of Nigeria ordered various types of invasive and non-invasive laboratory tests and interpreted the outcomes of such tests either alone or in conjunction with physicians. This aspect of the pharmaceutical care continuum could be harnessed to foster the collaboration between pharmacists and physicians and ultimately improve patient care.

  3. Internationally trained pharmacists: their contribution to, and experiences of, working in the Great Britain labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Ziaei, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    Background – In Great Britain (GB), international recruitment has been one of the methods used to tackle the shortage of healthcare professionals. Although research has been conducted on internationally trained nurses and doctors, studies on internationally trained pharmacists (ITPs) is limited. In the first stage of this programme of work, reasons for migration, experiences of work and future intentions of ITPs in GB were explored. Communicative proficiency of ITPs was then explored in the s...

  4. Ask Your Doctor or Pharmacist! On the Effect of Self-Dispensing Physicians on Pharmaceutical Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Bannert, Matthias; Iselin, David

    2015-01-01

    In most developed countries drugs are dispensed to patients through physicians and pharmacists. This paper studies the effects of allowing doctors to directly dispense drugs to patients (self-dispensation) on pharmaceutical coverage. We use a Swiss dataset in our empirical analysis because Switzerland's federalist legislation allows us to study self-dispensing and non-self-dispensing regimes alike. We add location information obtained from Google Geocoding services to our dataset in order to ...

  5. A newly developed assessment tool on collaborative role of doctor–pharmacist in patient medication management

    OpenAIRE

    Mayur Porwal; Lokpal Singh; Arvind Kumar; Vaibhav Rastogi; Kamal K. Maheshwari; Saurabh Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor communication is one of the most important common factor contributing to medication errors. Despite their common history, there are many intellectual and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that eventually affects patient care and health outcomes. Objectives. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the coordination and teamwork between pharmacist and doctor to provide betterment in the care of the patient health. Material a...

  6. Over the counter drugs. The interface between the community pharmacist and patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, C M; C. Bradley

    1996-01-01

    Pharmacists play an important part in primary health care, and their accessibility is a key factor. Their NHS payments relate predominantly to the dispensing of prescribed medicines; to recognise the service element of their advisory role, an NHS funded professional fee could be built into the cost structure for pharmacy medicines. The increased number of medicines available over the counter has highlighted the need for training for counter assistants; it will become compulsory in July 1996, ...

  7. The effect of a clinical pharmacist discharge service on medication discrepancies in patients with heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Eggink, R.N.; Lenderink, Albert; Widdershoven, Jos; Bemt, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Heart failure patients are regularly admitted to hospital and frequently use multiple medication. Besides intentional changes in pharmacotherapy, unintentional changes may occur during hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a clinical pharmacist discharge service on medication discrepancies and prescription errors in patients with heart failure. Setting: A general teaching hospital in Tilburg, the Netherlands. Method: An open randomized ...

  8. Evaluating the online platform of a blended-learning pharmacist continuing education degree program

    OpenAIRE

    Wilbur, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Background: Distance-based continuing education opportunities are increasingly embraced by health professionals worldwide. Methods: To evaluate the online component of a blended-learning degree program for pharmacists, we conducted a structured self-assessment and peer review using an instrument systematically devised according to Moore's principles of transactional distance. The web-based platform for 14 courses was reviewed by both local and external faculty, followed by shared reflection o...

  9. What's so special about medications: a pharmacist's observations from the POE study.

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, J. D.; Gorman, P. N.

    2001-01-01

    Observations from a multi-site observational study of physician order entry (POE) confirm that implementing POE is problematic, and suggest that implementing medication order entry is particularly difficult. A pharmacist participating in the study group sought to answer the question: What makes medications different? Analysis of themes specific to medication POE in this study's large data set was undertaken using a grounded theory approach. Emerging themes in the data are explored and include...

  10. Evaluation of clinical pharmacist recommendations in the geriatric ward of a Belgian university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Somers A; Robays H; De Paepe P; Van Maele G; Perehudoff K; Petrovic M

    2013-01-01

    Annemie Somers,1 Hugo Robays,1 Peter De Paepe,2 Georges Van Maele,3 Katrina Perehudoff,4 Mirko Petrovic41Department of Pharmacy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 3Department of Medical Statistics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 4Department of Geriatrics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, BelgiumObjective: To evaluate the type, acceptance rate, and clinical relevance of clinical pharmacist recom...

  11. Influences on Non-Medical Prescribing: Nurse and Pharmacist Prescribers in Primary and Community Care

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Since 1994 there have been considerable additions to the range of health care professionals (HCPs) that can prescribe in the United Kingdom (UK). These HCPs include nurses, pharmacists, radiographers, physiotherapists, podiatrists, chiropodists and optometrists. After a period of specific prescribing training these HCPs are often referred to as non-medical prescribers (NMPs). There has been a limited amount of research that has investigated the influences on the prescribing behaviour of NMPs....

  12. Increase in prophylaxis of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis by pharmacist feedback : a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Klop, C.; de Vries, F.; Vinks, T; Kooij, M. J.; Van Staa, T. P.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Egberts, A C G; Bouvy, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to determine whether feedback by pharmacists to prescribers of patients eligible for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis prophylaxis would stimulate the prescribing of osteoporosis prophylaxis. The intervention did not significantly increase the prescribing of bisphosphonates in the total study population, but a significant increase was seen in men and in the elderly. However, the proportion of bisphosphonate-treated patients remained low. Introduction The ai...

  13. Improving medication management for patients: the effect of a pharmacist on post-admission ward rounds

    OpenAIRE

    Fertleman, M; Barnett, N; Patel, T.

    2005-01-01

    

Problem: Medication management in the NHS has been highlighted by the UK Department of Health as an area for improvement. Pharmacist participation on post-take (post-admission) ward rounds was shown to reduce medication errors and reduced prescribing costs in the USA and in UK teaching hospitals, which can contribute to improved medication management. We sought to demonstrate the problem in our hospital by collecting data on prescribing practice from three consecutive general medical post-t...

  14. Microbial air-sampling equipment, part 2: experiences of compounding pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Bill; Cabaleiro, Joe; Latta, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    The most recent changes to Chapter 797 of the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary initiated an intense controversy about the frequency of cleanroom air sampling that is required to prevent the contamination of sterile preparations. For compounders who must purchase an air sampler to use in the cleanroom, choices abound. This article summarizes discussions from compounding pharmacists and their experiences with air sampling devices.

  15. Performance-enhancing drugs: a new reality in sport and real showground for pharmacist

    OpenAIRE

    Janevik-Ivanovska, Emilija; Sterjova, Marija; Popeska, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our paper is to review and to describe the opportunities and obligations for pharmacists regarding doping control in sports, and to present information and resources on drugs and dietary supplements that are popular among athletes for performance enhancement. Doping is controversial mainly because the medical community has not defined where restoration of normative function ends and performance enhancement begins. Those opposed to doping contend that it undermines the traditiona...

  16. Occupational stress, coping, burnout and work engagement of hospital pharmacists in South Africa / Agatha Madeleine Malan

    OpenAIRE

    Malan, Agatha Madeleine

    2005-01-01

    The environment in which hospital pharmacists currently function demands more of them than did any previous period. Employees in pharmacy companies have to cope with the demands that arise from fulfilling various roles, as well as with increased pressures such as managed health care and primary health care. Tracking and addressing their effectiveness in coping with new demands and stimulating their growth in areas that could possibly impact on the standard of pharmacy services ...

  17. COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS' INVOLVEMENT IN THE ORDERING AND INTERPRETATION OF LABORATORY TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Showande* and A. O. Olaifa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The focus of this exploratory study was to determine if community pharmacists order laboratory tests, why they order the tests, type of tests they order and what they do with the outcome of such tests. Self-administered pre-tested 34-item semi-structured questionnaires were used to carry out this study among superintendent pharmacists’ of registered pharmacy premises in two south-western states in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics (frequency and percentages), Mann-Whitney U and Kruska...

  18. Role of pharmacists in optimizing the use of anticancer drugs in the clinical setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ma CSJ

    2014-01-01

    Carolyn SJ Ma Department of Pharmacy Practice, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Honolulu, HI, USA Abstract: Oncology pharmacists, also known as oncology pharmacy specialists (OPSs) have specialized knowledge of anticancer medications and their role in cancer. As essential member of the interdisciplinary team, OPSs optimize the benefits of drug therapy, help to minimize toxicities and work with patients on supportive care issues. The OPSs expanded role as ex...

  19. Developing interprofessional communication skills for pharmacists to improve their ability to collaborate with other professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetsch, Karen; Rowett, Debra

    2016-07-01

    Successful communication between health professionals is a prerequisite for collaborative practice. Clinical pharmacists completed a learning and practice module introducing them to a framework for successful interprofessional communication (IPC) in the course of their postgraduate studies. A face-to-face discussion of a contemporary clinical topic with a health professional was then scheduled, mainly with junior doctors, in their practice setting. An exploratory case study methodology was employed to investigate pharmacists' written reflections on their experience applying their newly acquired IPC skills. Thematic analysis of reflections developed five categories relating to interprofessional collaboration, learning, and education. Themes describing pharmacists' preconceptions about the health professional and scheduled interprofessional encounter, how it allowed them to learn about doctors' and other health professionals' practice and build collaborative relationships were identified. Reflections also elaborated that applying the communication framework and strengthening of collaboration created opportunities for IPE, with added observations about these increasing potential impact on patient care and change of practice. Analysis of anonymous feedback provided by the health professionals yielded similar themes and was integrated for triangulation. Applying successful IPC skills in healthcare settings may increase interprofessional collaboration and create practice models which facilitate interprofessional learning in health profession programmes. PMID:27191638

  20. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Services for Dispensing Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Delhi, India: A Mystery Shopper Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Nigam, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57%) or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%); 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter. PMID:27385872

  1. Evaluation of pharmacists' services for dispensing emergency contraceptive pills in Delhi, India: A mystery shopper study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI, has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57% or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%; 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  2. Pharmacist and Physician Interpretation of Abbreviations for Acetaminophen Intended for Use in a Consumer Icon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant use of multiple acetaminophen medications is associated with overdose. To help patients identify acetaminophen medications and thus avoid concomitant use, an icon with an abbreviation for “acetaminophen” has been proposed for all acetaminophen medications. This study assessed pharmacists’ and physicians’ use and interpretation of abbreviations for “acetaminophen”, to identify abbreviations with other meanings that might cause confusion. Physicians (n = 150 reported use and interpretation of candidate abbreviations Ac and Acm. Pharmacists (n = 150 interpretations of prescription orders using the candidate abbreviations APAP, Ac, Ace and Acm in typed, handwritten or spoken form, were judged for critical confusions likely to cause patient harm. Critical confusion was rare, except for omission by pharmacists of the acetaminophen dose for Hydrocodone/APAP prescriptions (10%. Ac was in common use to indicate “before meals”, and was interpreted as such, but some physicians (8% said they use Ac to indicate anticoagulant drugs. Most pharmacists (54% interpreted Ace as acetaminophen, and none interpreted it as referring to ACE-inhibitors. Acm was rarely used in prescriptions, had no common interfering meanings, and was often (63% interpreted as acetaminophen, especially when prescribed in combination with an opiate (85%. The data validated concerns about abbreviations in prescribing: all abbreviations resulted in some misinterpretations. However, Acm was rarely misinterpreted, was readily associated with “acetaminophen”, and seemed appropriate for use in a graphic icon to help consumers/patients identify acetaminophen medications.

  3. The importance of pharmacist surveillance in a unit dose drug distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosinski, P F

    1978-09-01

    A study was conducted at a Public Health Service Hospital to determine if the pharmacist could provide important services to patient care while simultaneously performing the repetitious acts involved in unit dose drug distribution. During two five-week periods, the pharmacist actively questioned requests by the nursing staff for additional doses of medication to determine why these additional doses were needed. Also, during these periods the pharmacy actively questioned all doses returned in the dose medication carts which, according to doctor's orders, should have been administered to the patient. Results of these studies included the detection of some potentially dangerous deviations from accepted medication administration times (i.e., "twice" a day order given only four hours apart) as well as other problems, such as missed orders, medication "borrowing" which sometimes magnified errors, and underdosing. The conclusions from the studies are that the pharmacist can provide essential services while simultaneously performing the repetitious tasks of filling, checking, and exchanging unit dose medication cassettes. PMID:10238815

  4. Development, validation and implementation of continuous professional development programmes for community pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepu R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, structured continuous professional development modules are not available to update the knowledge and skills of the practicing community pharmacists. A prospective study was designed to develop, validate and implement continuous professional development modules and to assess the impact of training programme on knowledge and skills of community pharmacists. Modules were developed by referring to standard texts and data bases and were validated for the content. The impact of training programme on pharmacists′ knowledge and skills was assessed using suitably designed pre and post training knowledge attitude and practice questionnaires, pre and post training questionnaires for individual continuous professional development training sessions, pre and post training patient counseling skill assessment, blood pressure measurement skill assessment and capillary blood glucose check-up skill assessment check-lists. Data was analyzed by applying suitable statistical methods using InStat version 3.01 statistical software. Fourty eight community pharmacists were enrolled in to the study. A statistically significant (P<0.05 improvement was observed in post training knowledge attitude and practice scores and in post training scores of individual training sessions. A statistically significant (P<0.05 improvement was also observed in post training scores of professional skills such as Patient counseling, capillary blood glucose recording and blood pressure measurement skills. The study findings conclude that continuous training updates the knowledge and skills in practicing the pharmaceutical care in their pharmacies.

  5. Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas (NPS, GRD, GRI, HOSP, HOSP digital map) adapted from the interim Arkansas Geological Survey DGM-HSR-003 by Johnson and Hanson (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer...

  6. Evaluation of Community Pharmacists Performance in Management of Cough, Diarrhea and Common Cold using OTC Medication Requests in Hamadan in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rashidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pharmacists usually encounter requests for over the counter drugs. How a pharmacist performs in evaluating patients' signs and symptoms, treating them, and moreover his or her approach in prescribing over the counter (OTC medications were the main goals of this study. Materials & Methods: In this cross- sectional study, the scenarios of cough, diarrhea and com-mon cold were obtained from questionnaires. These scenarios were then designed by deter-mining key questions. From the overall pharmacies in Hamadan, for each of the three scenar-ios, 46 pharmacies were randomly selected and analyzed. Performance of pharmacists, includ-ing their interventions on over the counter counseling, asking key questions, explaining drugs' side effects and interactions, and their approach of prescribing medications, were measured. Moreover, the influence of pharmacists' gender and type of the pharmacy were determined. Results: In 41 out of 179 visits, pharmacists were not present in the pharmacy (22.9%, mostly in suburban pharmacies. The pharmacists' performances in explaining drug interactions were significantly better in urban pharmacies in comparison with suburban ones. Moreover, subur-ban pharmacies and male pharmacists, in comparison with urban pharmacies and female pharmacists, prescribed more drugs. Conclusion: This study shows that despite the pharmacists asking the key questions ,the major-ity of pharmacists made weak recommendations. In order to improve pharmacists perform-ances, modification of educational system for pharmacy students in addition to the continu-ous and effective supervision of authorities on pharmacists' performance in OTC drugs is suggested. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:164-171

  7. Perceptions, use and attitudes of pharmacy customers on complementary medicines and pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Michael

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary medicines (CMs are popular amongst Australians and community pharmacy is a major supplier of these products. This study explores pharmacy customer use, attitudes and perceptions of complementary medicines, and their expectations of pharmacists as they relate to these products. Methods Pharmacy customers randomly selected from sixty large and small, metropolitan and rural pharmacies in three Australian states completed an anonymous, self administered questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. Results 1,121 customers participated (response rate 62%. 72% had used CMs within the previous 12 months, 61% used prescription medicines daily and 43% had used both concomitantly. Multivitamins, fish oils, vitamin C, glucosamine and probiotics were the five most popular CMs. 72% of people using CMs rated their products as 'very effective' or 'effective enough'. CMs were as frequently used by customers aged 60 years or older as younger customers (69% vs. 72% although the pattern of use shifted with older age. Most customers (92% thought pharmacists should provide safety information about CMs, 90% thought they should routinely check for interactions, 87% thought they should recommend effective CMs, 78% thought CMs should be recorded in customer's medication profile and 58% thought pharmacies stocking CMs should also employ a complementary medicine practitioner. Of those using CMs, 93% thought it important for pharmacists to be knowledgeable about CMs and 48% felt their pharmacist provides useful information about CMs. Conclusions CMs are widely used by pharmacy customers of all ages who want pharmacists to be more involved in providing advice about these products.

  8. The impact of pharmacist certification on the quality of chemotherapy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinya; Sakurai, Hiroomi; Kawasumi, Kenji; Tahara, Makoto; Saito, Shinichiro; Endo, Kazushi

    2016-10-01

    Background In the Japanese healthcare system, board certification not only maintains the quality of daily practice but is also required for hospitals to receive healthcare reimbursement. To date, no data on the effects of the board certification system in Japanese hospitals have been reported. Objective We performed a survey to clarify the impact of pharmacist certification on the quality of chemotherapy. Setting A nationwide mailing survey was conducted in Japan. Method We surveyed oncology pharmacists from 388 cancer designated hospitals (DHs) and 984 randomly selected general hospitals (GHs). Main outcome measure Multivariate analysis of factors for compliance with standard cancer chemotherapy to clarify the impact of pharmacist certification on the quality of chemotherapy. Results The response rate was 70.6 % (274/388) at the DHs and 43.4 % (428/984) at the GHs. Of the 13 different regimens, 66.1 % (181/274) of DHs and 64.7 % (277/428) of GHs reported having experienced either improper doses or intervals of drug administration. The median number of improper regimens was 1 at both the DHs (range 0-15) and GHs (range 0-22). We identified two groups of hospitals, those with two or more improper regimens and those with one improper regimen or less. Univariate analysis showed significant differences in the number of DHs (p < 0.01), performance of more than 10 chemotherapies per day (p < 0.05), presence of more than 400 beds (p < 0.01) and the professional qualifications of oncology pharmacists or medical oncologists. From multivariate analysis, significant differences were observed in certifications from the Japanese Society of Pharmacy Healthcare and Sciences certified Senior Oncology Pharmacist (odds ratio 0.29, p < 0.01) and the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology certified oncologist (odds ratio 0.48, p < 0.01). Conclusion Board certification was more prevalent in the designated (cancer specialist) hospitals than general hospitals and adherence to

  9. Survey of pharmacists and physicians on drug interactions between combined oral contraceptives and broad-spectrum antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters KP

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate physician and pharmacist knowledge on potential drug interactions between combined oral contraceptives (COC and broad-spectrum antibiotics and determine if any difference exists between responses.Methods: Two hundred licensed retail pharmacists and 200 licensed family practice physicians in the states of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland were mailed an anonymous survey between August 2007 and November 2007. The survey consisted of 3 short questions asking practitioners about their current opinion on drug interactions with COCs and whether an alternative form of contraception is needed for patients taking COC and concomitant broad-spectrum antibiotics. The main outcome measure of the survey included: identifying how physicians and pharmacists handle prescribing or dispensing COCs along with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Gender, educational degree, and years in practice were also collected. Results: A total of 182 participants returned the surveys (57% were physicians and 43% were pharmacists. When asked if broad-spectrum antibiotics have a clinically significant interaction with COCs, 82.7% of physicians and 88.5% of pharmacists answered, “yes”. Of the respondents, 84.6% stated that the drug interaction warrants the patient to be advised to use back-up contraception. A total of 90.1% stated that they currently instruct patients to use back-up contraception when prescribing or dispensing antibiotics to a patient who is on COC, with no statistically significant difference existing between the responses of the pharmacists and the physicians.Conclusion: Physicians and pharmacists believe that broad-spectrum antibiotics decrease the effectiveness of COCs. These practitioners warn their patients of this interaction and advise the use of back-up contraception. More education should be provided to practitioners regarding the data concerning COCs and broad spectrum antibiotics and lack of a proven interaction.

  10. Brand perception

    OpenAIRE

    NOSKOVÁ, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor work was to analyze the perception of selected brands from the customer's perspective and from the perspective of brand founder called Regional Agrarian Chamber of the South Bohemian Region. To determine the attitudes of opinion on brand perception by the customer, I developed a questionnaire survey using semantic differential. First hypothesis, which argues that the selection of food plays an important role in regional mark at least half of the respondents, was refut...

  11. Medication therapy management clinic: perception of healthcare professionals in a University medical center setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the overall perception and utilization of the pharmacist managed medication therapy management (MTM clinic services, by healthcare professionals in a large, urban, university medical care setting.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, anonymous survey sent to 195 healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, and pharmacists at The University of Illinois Outpatient Care Center to determine their perception and utilization of the MTM clinic. The survey consisted of 12 questions and was delivered through a secure online application. Results: Sixty-two healthcare professionals (32% completed the survey. 82% were familiar with the MTM clinic, and 63% had referred patients to the clinic. Medication adherence and disease state management was the most common reason for referral. Lack of knowledge on the appropriate referral procedure was the prominent reason for not referring patients to the MTM clinic. Of the providers that were aware of MTM services, 44% rated care as ‘excellent’, 44% as ‘good’, 5% as ‘fair’, and 0% stated ‘poor’. Strengths of MTM clinic identified by healthcare providers included in-depth education to patients, close follow-up, and detailed medication reconciliation provided by MTM clinic pharmacists. Of those familiar with MTM clinic, recommendations included; increase marketing efforts to raise awareness of the MTM clinic service, create collaborative practice agreements between MTM pharmacists and physicians, and ensure that progress notes are more concise.Conclusion: In a large, urban, academic institution MTM clinic is perceived as a valuable resource to optimize patient care by providing patients with in-depth education as it relates to their prescribed medications and disease states. These identified benefits of MTM clinic lead to frequent patient referrals specifically for aid with medication adherence and disease state management.

  12. How organizational context affects bioethical decision-making: pharmacists' management of gatekeeping processes in retail and hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Social science studies of bioethics demonstrate that ethics are highly contextual, functioning differently across local settings as actors make daily decisions "on the ground." Sociological studies that demonstrate the key role organizations play in shaping ethical decision-making have disproportionately focused on physicians and nurses working in hospital settings where they contend with life and death issues. This study broadens our understanding of the contexts of ethical decision-making by empirically examining understudied healthcare professionals - pharmacists - working in two organizational settings, retail and hospital, where they act as gatekeepers to regulated goods and services as they contend with ethical issues ranging from the serious to the mundane. This study asks: How do organizations shape pharmacists' identification, negotiation, and resolution of ethical challenges; in other words, how do organizations shape pharmacists' gatekeeping processes? Based on 95 semi-structured interviews with U.S. pharmacists practicing in retail and hospital pharmacies conducted between September 2009 and May 2011, this research finds that organizations influence ethical decision-making by shaping how pharmacists construct four gatekeeping processes: medical, legal, fiscal, and moral. Each gatekeeping process manifests differently across organizations due to how these settings structure inter-professional power dynamics, proximity to patients, and means of accessing information. Findings suggest new directions for theorizing about ethical decision-making in medical contexts by drawing attention to new ethical actors, new organizational settings, an expanded definition of ethical challenges, and a broader conceptualization of gatekeeping.

  13. Arkansas: a leading laboratory for health care payment and delivery system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Deborah; du Pont, Lammot; Lipson, Mindy

    2014-08-01

    As states' Medicaid programs continue to evolve from traditional fee-for-service to value-based health care delivery, there is growing recognition that systemwide multipayer approaches provide the market power needed to address the triple aim of improved patient care, improved health of populations, and reduced costs. Federal initiatives, such as the State Innovation Model grant program, make significant funds available for states seeking to transform their health care systems. In crafting their reform strategies, states can learn from early innovators. This issue brief focuses on one such state: Arkansas. Insights and lessons from the Arkansas Health Care Payment Improvement Initiative (AHCPII) suggest that progress is best gained through an inclusive, deliberative process facilitated by committed leadership, a shared agreement on root problems and opportunities for improvement, and a strategy grounded in the state's particular health care landscape. PMID:25204031

  14. Arkansas: a leading laboratory for health care payment and delivery system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Deborah; du Pont, Lammot; Lipson, Mindy

    2014-08-01

    As states' Medicaid programs continue to evolve from traditional fee-for-service to value-based health care delivery, there is growing recognition that systemwide multipayer approaches provide the market power needed to address the triple aim of improved patient care, improved health of populations, and reduced costs. Federal initiatives, such as the State Innovation Model grant program, make significant funds available for states seeking to transform their health care systems. In crafting their reform strategies, states can learn from early innovators. This issue brief focuses on one such state: Arkansas. Insights and lessons from the Arkansas Health Care Payment Improvement Initiative (AHCPII) suggest that progress is best gained through an inclusive, deliberative process facilitated by committed leadership, a shared agreement on root problems and opportunities for improvement, and a strategy grounded in the state's particular health care landscape.

  15. Building Partnerships With Rural Arkansas Faith Communities to Promote Veterans’ Mental Health: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Greer; Hunt, Justin; Haynes, Tiffany F.; Bryant, Keneshia; Cheney, Ann M.; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Reaves, Christina; Sullivan, Steve; Lewis, Caleb; Barnes, Bonita; Barnes, Michael; Hudson, Cliff; Jegley, Susan; Larkin, Bridgette; Russell, Shane; White, Penny; Gilmore, LaNissa; Claypoole, Sterling; Smith, Rev. Johnny; Richison, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background The Mental Health–Clergy Partnership Program established partnerships between institutional (Department of Veterans’ Affairs [VA] chaplains, mental health providers) and community (local clergy, parishioners) groups to develop programs to assist rural veterans with mental health needs. Objectives Describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Mental Health–Clergy Partnership Program in three Arkansas towns between 2009 and 2012. Methods Researchers identified three rural Arkansas sites, established local advisory boards, and obtained quantitative ratings of the extent to which partnerships were participatory. Results Partnerships seemed to become more participatory over time. Each site developed distinctive programs with variation in fidelity to original program goals. Challenges included developing trust and maintaining racial diversity in local program leadership. Conclusions Academics can partner with local faith communities to create unique programs that benefit the mental health of returning veterans. Research is needed to determine the effectiveness of community based programs, especially relative to typical “top-down” outreach approaches. PMID:24859098

  16. A new species of Sellaphora (Sellaphoraceae) from Hannaberry Lake, Arkansas, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Enache, Mihaela D.; Potapova, Marina

    2009-01-01

    A new small-size species of Sellaphora was found in sediments from Hannaberry Lake, Arkansas, during the National Lakes Assessment project conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The species was studied with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It differs from previously reported Sellaphora species by its small and delicate frustule with striation irresolvable in light microscopy. Here we present details on its morphology and size variation and report the...

  17. Arkansas and Louisiana Aeromagnetic and Gravity Maps and Data - A Website for Distribution of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankey, Viki; Daniels, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats for aeromagnetic and gravity data used to compile the State aeromagnetic and gravity maps of Arkansas and Louisiana. The digital files include grids, images, ArcInfo, and Geosoft compatible files. In some of the data folders, ASCII files with the extension 'txt' describe the format and contents of the data files. Read the 'txt' files before using the data files.

  18. Molecular Subtype Analyses of Campylobacter spp. from Arkansas and California Poultry Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Hiett, K. L; Stern, N. J.; Fedorka-Cray, P.; Cox, N. A.; Musgrove, M. T.; Ladely, S.

    2002-01-01

    Campylobacter isolates from diverse samples within broiler production and processing environments were typed by using flaA short variable region DNA sequence analysis. Sixteen flocks from four different farms representing two broiler producers in Arkansas and California were analyzed. Fourteen of the flocks (87.5%) were Campylobacter-positive; two remained negative throughout the 6-week rearing period. In general, multiple clones were present within a flock. Additionally, clones found within ...

  19. Atmospheric Contributors to Heavy Rainfall Events in the Arkansas-Red River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkle, Taylor A.; Skylar S. Williams; Pfeiffer, Timothy A.; Basara, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the top 1% 24-hour rainfall events from 1994 to 2013 at eight climatological sites that represent the east to west precipitation gradient across the Arkansas-Red River Basin in North America. A total of 131 cases were identified and subsequently classified on the synoptic-scale, mesoscale, and local-scale to compile a climatological analysis of these extreme, heavy rainfall events based on atmospheric forcings. For each location, the prominent midtropospheric pattern, meso...

  20. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia Species Within Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected from Arkansas United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C

    2015-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases.

  1. Arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. III. Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Skvarla, Michael Joseph; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the third in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and B...

  2. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. II. Sawflies (Insecta: Hymenoptera: " Symphyta ")

    OpenAIRE

    Skvarla, Michael Joseph; Smith, David R.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the second in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and ...

  3. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) therapy for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Joseph, Shine A; Zapantis, Antonia

    2009-01-01

    With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies). They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an "evening before pill". The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy, and developing policy

  4. Project ImPACT: Hypertension Outcomes of a Pharmacist-Provided Hypertension Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Wentz Nemerovski, PharmD, BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of pharmacists, working collaboratively with patients, on blood pressure control, lifestyle goal setting, adherence to antihypertensive therapy, patient knowledge and satisfaction, and modification of cardiovascular risk factors.Methods: Self-declared hypertensive patients met with the pharmacist for blood pressure monitoring, lifestyle goal setting, and education about medications and disease state on four occasions over a 6–month period.Practice innovation: A community pharmacy partnered with an employer wellness plan to provide education and monitoring for patients with hypertension based on home blood pressure readings obtained using monitors that wirelessly transmit information to the pharmacist. Main outcome measure(s: Percentage of patients at blood pressure goal, mean blood pressure, percentage of patients with lifestyle goals, medication adherence, patient knowledge and satisfaction, and modification of cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Patients not at their goal blood pressure at baseline had a significant decrease in blood pressure and a significant increase in achievement of their blood pressure goals. Across the population, no significant changes were seen in the primary outcome, lifestyle goals, medication adherence or modification of cardiovascular risk factors. Patient knowledge increased from baseline and satisfaction with the service was high. Conclusion: Blood pressure control improved in patients not at their treatment goal. All patients increased their knowledge about hypertension and reported high satisfaction with the pharmacy service. Pharmacy services should be offered to patients who are more likely to reap a benefit. Home blood pressure readings are useful to inform clinical decision making and supplement patient consultation within the pharmacy setting.

  5. Pharmacist-documented interventions during the dispensing process in a primary health care facility in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hooper

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Richard Hooper1, Abdullah Adam2, Nadir Kheir31Medical Services Department, 2Pharmacy Department, Medical Services, Qatar Petroleum, Doha, Qatar; 3Qatar University, College of Pharmacy, Doha, QatarObjectives: To characterize prescribing error interventions documented by pharmacists in four pharmacies in a primary health care service in Qatar.Methods: The study was conducted in a primary health care service in the State of Qatar in the period from January to March 2008. Pharmacists in four clinics within the service used online, integrated health care software to document all clinical interventions made. Documented information included: patient’s age and gender, drug therapy details, the intervention’s details, its category, and its outcome. Interventions were categorized according to the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Classification of drug-related problems (DRP.Results: The number of patients who had their prescriptions intercepted were 589 (0.71% of the total 82,800 prescriptions received. The intercepted prescriptions generated 890 DRP-related interventions (an average of 1.9% DRPs identified across the four clinics. Fifty-four percent of all interventions were classified as drug choice problems, and 42% had safety problems (dose too high, potential significant interaction. The prescriber accepted the intervention in 53% of all interventions, and the treatment was changed accordingly. Interventions as a result of transcription errors, legality and formulary issues were eliminated from this study through the use of computerized physician order entry (CPOE.Conclusions: Documenting and analyzing interventions should be a routine activity in pharmacy practice setting in primary health care services. Educational outreach visits and other strategies can improve prescribing practices and enhance patient safety.Keywords: pharmacists, interventions, prescribing errors

  6. Addressing the Issue of Chronic, Inappropriate Benzodiazepine Use: How Can Pharmacists Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C. Gallagher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescribing guidelines do not recommend the long-term use of benzodiazepines since their effectiveness with chronic use is out-weighed by risks including dependence, memory and cognitive impairment, hip fractures and traffic accidents. Despite these guidelines, historical data points to an increasing proportion of inappropriate, repeat prescribing of benzodiazepines in Ireland and elsewhere, with up to 33% of patients who use these drugs doing so long-term. The typical long-term benzodiazepine user is an older, socio-economically disadvantaged patient who has been prescribed these medicines by their general practitioner (GP and dispensed them by their community pharmacist. Misuse of benzodiazepines in nursing homes and psychiatric institutions is also of concern, with one Irish study indicating that almost half of all admissions to a psychiatric hospital were prescribed these drugs, usually despite a lack of clear clinical need. Discontinuation of benzodiazepines has proven to be of benefit, as it is followed by improvements in cognitive and psychomotor function, particularly in elderly patients. It is obvious that an inter-professional effort, focusing on the primary care setting, is required to address benzodiazepine misuse and to ensure appropriate pharmaceutical care. Pharmacists must be an integral part of this inter-professional effort, not least because they are uniquely positioned as the health professional with most frequent patient contact. There is already some supporting evidence that pharmacists’ involvement in interventions to reduce benzodiazepine use can have positive effects on patient outcomes. Here, this evidence is reviewed and the potential for pharmacists to play an expanded role in ensuring the appropriate use of benzodiazepines is discussed.

  7. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP therapy for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauson KA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies. They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an “evening before pill”. The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy

  8. Depression during pregnancy: views on antidepressant use and information sources of general practitioners and pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schobben Fred

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of antidepressants during pregnancy has increased in recent years. In the Netherlands, almost 2% of all pregnant women are exposed to antidepressants. Although guidelines have been developed on considerations that should be taken into account, prescribing antidepressants during pregnancy is still a subject of debate. Physicians and pharmacists may have opposing views on using medication during pregnancy and may give contradictory advice on whether or not to take medication for depression and anxiety disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated information sources used by general practitioners (GPs and pharmacists and their common practices. Methods A questionnaire on the use of information sources and the general approach when managing depression during pregnancy was sent out to 1400 health care professionals to assess information sources on drug safety during pregnancy and also the factors that influence decision-making. The questionnaires consisted predominantly of closed multiple-choice questions. Results A total of 130 GPs (19% and 144 pharmacists (21% responded. The most popular source of information on the safety of drug use during pregnancy is the Dutch National Health Insurance System Formulary, while a minority of respondents contacts the Dutch national Teratology Information Service (TIS. The majority of GPs contact the pharmacy with questions concerning drug use during pregnancy. There is no clear line with regard to treatment or consensus between GPs on the best therapeutic strategy, nor do practitioners agree upon the drug of first choice. GPs have different views on stopping or continuing antidepressants during pregnancy or applying alternative treatment options. The debate appears to be ongoing as to whether or not specialised care for mother and child is indicated in cases of gestational antidepressant use. Conclusion Primary health care workers are not univocal concerning therapy for

  9. Validation of the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma instrument among community pharmacists using Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Waqas; Hussein, Maryam S E; Ahmad, Sohail; Mamat, Mohd N; Ismail, Nahlah E

    2015-10-01

    There is no instrument which collectively assesses the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the instrument which measured the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists by producing empirical evidence of validity and reliability of the items using Rasch model (Bond & Fox software®) for dichotomous and polytomous data. This baseline study recruited 33 community pharmacists from Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that all PTMEA Corr were in positive values, where an item was able to distinguish between the ability of respondents. Based on the MNSQ infit and outfit range (0.60-1.40), out of 55 items, 2 items from the instrument were suggested to be removed. The findings indicated that the instrument fitted with Rasch measurement model and showed the acceptable reliability values of 0.88 and 0.83 and 0.79 for knowledge, attitude and perceived practice respectively.

  10. "How dare you question what I use to treat this patient?": Student pharmacists' reflections on the challenges of communicating recommendations to physicians in interdisciplinary health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvir, Paul; Brewer, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of pharmacists practice within interdisciplinary health care teams, leading pharmacy educators to place increased emphasis on the development of interprofessional collaboration skills. In the pharmacist-physician relationship, pharmacists' medication therapy recommendations (MTRs) are a recurrent and significant interprofessional activity, one that can be challenging for both seasoned and student pharmacists. Drawing on in-depth ethnographic interviews with pharmacy preceptors and advanced student pharmacists, we identify and describe an important distinction between pharmacist-initiated MTRs and physician-initiated MTRs as contexts for interprofessional collaboration. We describe and illustrate a range of social, professional, and communication challenges that students experience in each context, as well as some strategies they use to navigate these challenges. Using the theoretical framework of dialectic tensions, we argue that the pharmacist-physician relationship is characterized by a tension between assertiveness and deference. We also offer recommendations to pharmacy preceptors, who can use this article to enhance the experiential education of pharmacists. PMID:24971910

  11. Integrating a pharmacist into the general practice environment: opinions of pharmacist’s, general practitioner’s, health care consumer’s, and practice manager’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Christopher

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacists are viewed as highly trained yet underutilised and there is growing support to extend the role of the pharmacist within the primary health care sector. The integration of a pharmacist into a general practice medical centre is not a new concept however is a novel approach in Australia and evidence supporting this role is currently limited. This study aimed to describe the opinions of local stakeholders in South-East Queensland on the integration of a pharmacist into the Australian general practice environment. Methods A sample of general practitioners, health care consumers, pharmacists and practice managers in South-East Queensland were invited to participate in focus groups or semi-structured interviews. Seeding questions common to all sessions were used to facilitate discussion. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Leximancer software was used to qualitatively analyse responses. Results A total of 58 participants took part in five focus groups and eighteen semi-structured interviews. Concepts relating to six themes based on the seeding questions were identified. These included positively viewed roles such as medication reviews and prescribing, negatively viewed roles such as dispensing and diagnosing, barriers to pharmacist integration such as medical culture and remuneration, facilitators to pharmacist integration such as remuneration and training, benefits of integration such as access to the patient’s medical file, and potential funding models. Conclusions These findings and future research may aid the development of a new model of integrated primary health care services involving pharmacist practitioners.

  12. [Research survey on the information gathering methods, attitudes, and requests from care managers about the pharmaceutical service by pharmacists in home care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanaumi, Yoko; Onda, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Hidehiko; Tanaka, Rie; Tsubota, Kenichi; Matoba, Shunya; Mukai, Yusuke; Arakawa, Yukio; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Care Managers (CMs) were surveyed to clarify the issues involving the promotion of cooperation between care managers and pharmacists in long-term-care and explore solutions. The length of work experience, occupational background, experience of pharmaceutical service; pharmacist visit patients' home for providing medicine and pharmaceutical care into a care plan, degree of understanding on pharmaceutical service, and awareness of work involved in pharmaceutical service were studied to see whether there made differences in the requests from CMs for information on pharmacists and for information gathering methods. The χ(2) test was used to this end. The opinions and requests described by the CMs were validated through text mining. More CMs tended to obtain information and knowledge through training sessions and professional magazines than those who did so through cooperation with pharmacists on a practical level. However, the survey strongly indicated that CMs with high level of understanding and awareness of pharmaceutical service wished to obtain information on pharmacists through cooperation with them on a practical level, and CMs with low level of understanding and awareness of pharmaceutical service wished to obtain such information through training sessions and professional magazines. Results of text mining showed that CMs wished pharmacists to strengthen the cooperation with physicians and provide information on pharmaceutical service. These findings have led to the conclusion that the issues surrounding the promotion of cooperation between CMs and pharmacists centered around "work cooperation on a practical level" and "provision of information to CMs about the roles of pharmacies and pharmacists and their work."

  13. The Role of Ambulatory Care Pharmacists in an HIV Multidisciplinary Team within a Free and Bilingual Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Fugit, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the role and integration of ambulatory care pharmacists in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV clinic within a free and bilingual clinic with regards to types of interventions made during the patient-pharmacist visit. Design: Retrospective, single-centered, chart review. Setting: Free, bilingual clinic in Richmond, VA. Participants: Thirty-two adult patients with diagnosed HIV receiving care in the clinic between June 30, 2010 and January 26, 2011. Main Outcome Measure: Types of interventions documented during the patient-pharmacist visit, categorized as medication review, patient education, or adherence monitoring. Results: Total of 32 patients accounted for 55 patient-pharmacist visits and 296 interventions. The most common interventions were medication review (66.9%, patient education (23.3%, and adherence monitoring (9.8%. Post-hoc analysis suggests Hispanic patients are more likely to be diagnosed with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS (P = 0.01, have current or history of opportunistic infection (OI (P=0.01, and have current or history of OI prophylaxis (P = 0.03. Adherence monitoring was less common amongst the non-Hispanics (7.1% compared to the Hispanic sub-population (16.5%, (P = 0.04. Conclusion: The role of ambulatory care pharmacists in a free and bilingual clinic goes beyond adherence monitoring. Pharmacists can be a valuable part of the patient care team by providing medication review and patient education for HIV and other co-morbidities within free clinics. Further research is warranted to assess outcomes and to further explore the underlying barriers to early HIV diagnosis and adherence within the Hispanic population.

  14. Impact of drugs counselling by an undergraduate pharmacist on cardiac surgical patient’s compliance to medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerafa N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Open heart surgery is a procedure which warrants patient education about the complexity of drug regimens and lifestyle modifications. Patient nonadherence is likely to have a considerable negative impact on the patients’ quality of life post-cardiac surgery.Objective: To evaluate the impact of pharmacist intervention on patients’ adherence to medication and lifestyle changes.Method: This case-controlled study was conducted at the Cardiac Surgical Ward and Outpatients Clinic of Mater Dei Hospital, Malta. Eighty consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass or heart valve surgery were interviewed on their day of discharge using the ‘Past Medical History Questionnaire’. The patients were then randomized to receive pharmacist intervention or usual care. Those who received intervention (40 patients were given a chart with pictorial explanation of the time of day together with a colorful photograph of each tablet prescribed. This group of patients was also counselled to comply to oral analgesia and exercise and also on the avoidance of alcohol and smoking during the recovery period. The control patients received usual care without the pharmacist intervention. All patients were re-interviewed eight weeks after discharge using the ‘Assessing Patient Compliance Questionnaire’. Any differences between the control and experimental groups were analysed using Chi-square, Three-Way Cross tabulation One-Way ANOVA and Two-Way ANOVA tests using the SPSS software version 17.0.Results: A statistically significant difference between the two groups in the mean percentage compliance was registered following pharmacist intervention (p<0.05. Patients in the experimental group had a higher mean percentage compliance score (88% than patients in the control group (66%.Conclusion: The statistically significant difference in the mean percentage compliance between the two groups following pharmacist intervention shows conclusive evidence of the

  15. Should pharmacists have a role in harm reduction services for IDUs? A qualitative study in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobjov, Sigrid; Uusküla, Anneli; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Talu, Ave; Jarlais, Don Des

    2009-11-01

    Despite the high number of injecting drug users (IDUs) in Estonia, little is known about involving pharmacies into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention activities and potential barriers. Similarly, in other Eastern European countries, there is a need for additional sources for clean syringes besides syringe exchange programmes (SEPs), but data on current practices relating to pharmacists' role in harm reduction strategies is scant. Involving pharmacies is especially important for several reasons: they have extended hours of operation and convenient locations compared to SEPs, may provide access for IDUs who have avoided SEPs, and are a trusted health resource in the community. We conducted a series of focus groups with pharmacists and IDUs in Tallinn, Estonia, to explore their attitudes toward the role of pharmacists in HIV prevention activities for IDUs. Many, but not all, pharmacists reported a readiness to sell syringes to IDUs to help prevent HIV transmission. However, negative attitudes toward IDUs in general and syringe sales to them specifically were identified as important factors restricting such sales. The idea of free distribution of clean syringes or other injecting equipment and disposal of used syringes in pharmacies elicited strong resistance. IDUs stated that pharmacies were convenient for acquiring syringes due to their extended opening hours and local distribution. IDUs were positive toward pharmacies, although they were aware of stigma from pharmacists and other customers. They also emphasized the need for distilled water and other injection paraphernalia. In conclusion, there are no formal or legislative obstacles for providing HIV prevention services for IDUs at pharmacies. Addressing negative attitudes through educational courses and involving pharmacists willing to be public health educators in high drug use areas would improve access for HIV prevention services for IDUs.

  16. [Development of an Informative System for Consumers and Pharmacists Aimed at the Proper Use of Kampo OTCs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi; Nakajima, Yayoi; Saito, Mitsuo; Yuda, Yasukatsu

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicines must be used according to an individual's physical characteristics and symptoms to avoid lack of efficacy, adverse reactions or interactions with other drugs. As category-2 over-the-counter drugs (OTCs), Kampo OTCs are not targets of active explanations by pharmacists, and consumers usually decide to use OTCs by themselves on the basis of drug label information. However, information on the label is occasionally brief. To promote the proper use of Kampo OTCs, we herein propose an informative tool based on the Australian Shelf-Talker (information on the proper use of OTCs with a self-check questionnaire for consumers), the Self-Check Card (SCC). We also prepared the informative material, Information to the Pharmacist (IP), directed at pharmacists regarding these Kampo OTCs. We created SCCs and IPs for 16 prescriptions in the 5 most demanded categories (cold, cough/sore throat, urination problems, women's diseases, and shoulder stiffness or joint/nerve pain). The SCC with questions in a simplified language specifies individuals who should avoid the drug, or those who should consult a pharmacist before purchase, according to the safety information on the respective drug labels. The IP provides information to pharmacists on safety issues and those concerning recognition of the consumer's symptoms and physical characteristics needed for the selection of appropriate Kampo OTCs. Such SCCs and IPs are now in use in 2 pharmacies to know pharmacists' suggestions about improvements and consumer's opinions and degree of satisfaction. We believe these risk-benefit communication tools, SCC and IP, will contribute to improve the proper use of Kampo OTCs. PMID:26831805

  17. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajorek B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP pressure control in patients with hypertension. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. Method: A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. Community pharmacists were recruited to one of three study groups: Group A (Control – usual care, Group B (Intervention, or Group C (Short Intervention. Pharmacists in Groups B and C delivered a service comprising screening and monitoring of BP, as well as addressing poor BP control through therapeutic adjustment and adherence strategies. Pharmacists in Group C delivered the shortened version of the service. Results: Significant changes to key outcome measures were observed in Group C: reduction in systolic and diastolic BPs at the 3-month visit (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively, improvement in medication adherence scores (P=0.01, and a slight improvement in quality of life (EQ-5D-3L Index scores (P=0.91. There were no significant changes in Group B (the full intervention, and no differences in comparison to Group A (usual care. Pharmacists fed-back that patient recruitment was a key barrier to service implementation, highlighting the methodological implications of screening. Conclusion: A collaborative, pharmacist-led hypertension management service can help monitor BP, improve medication adherence, and optimise therapy in a step-wise approach. However, blood pressure screening can effect behaviour change in patients, presenting methodological challenges in the evaluation of services in this context.

  18. The effect of pharmacist-led interventions in optimising prescribing in older adults in primary care: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O Riordan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate studies of pharmacist-led interventions on potentially inappropriate prescribing among community-dwelling older adults receiving primary care to identify the components of a successful intervention. Data sources: An electronic search of the literature was conducted using the following databases from inception to December 2015: PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE (through Ovid, Trip, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ISI Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database (Theses in Great Britain, Ireland and North America. Review methods: Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised studies involving a pharmacist-led intervention compared to usual/routine care which aimed to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults in primary care. Methodological quality of the included studies was independently assessed. Results: A comprehensive literature search was conducted which identified 2193 studies following removal of duplicates. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Four studies involved a pharmacist conducting a medication review and providing feedback to patients or their family physician. One randomised controlled trial evaluated the effect of a computerised tool that alerted pharmacists when elderly patients were newly prescribed potentially inappropriate medications. Four studies were associated with an improvement in prescribing appropriateness. Conclusion: Overall, this review demonstrates that pharmacist-led interventions may improve prescribing appropriateness in community-dwelling older adults. However, the quality of evidence is low. The role of a pharmacist working as part of a multidisciplinary primary care team requires further investigation to optimise prescribing in this group of

  19. The effect of pharmacist-led interventions in optimising prescribing in older adults in primary care: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, David O; Walsh, Kieran A; Galvin, Rose; Sinnott, Carol; Kearney, Patricia M; Byrne, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate studies of pharmacist-led interventions on potentially inappropriate prescribing among community-dwelling older adults receiving primary care to identify the components of a successful intervention. Data sources: An electronic search of the literature was conducted using the following databases from inception to December 2015: PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE (through Ovid), Trip, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ISI Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database (Theses in Great Britain, Ireland and North America). Review methods: Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised studies involving a pharmacist-led intervention compared to usual/routine care which aimed to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults in primary care. Methodological quality of the included studies was independently assessed. Results: A comprehensive literature search was conducted which identified 2193 studies following removal of duplicates. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Four studies involved a pharmacist conducting a medication review and providing feedback to patients or their family physician. One randomised controlled trial evaluated the effect of a computerised tool that alerted pharmacists when elderly patients were newly prescribed potentially inappropriate medications. Four studies were associated with an improvement in prescribing appropriateness. Conclusion: Overall, this review demonstrates that pharmacist-led interventions may improve prescribing appropriateness in community-dwelling older adults. However, the quality of evidence is low. The role of a pharmacist working as part of a multidisciplinary primary care team requires further investigation to optimise prescribing in this group of patients. PMID

  20. Methods and applications of electrical simulation in ground-water studies in the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River Valleys, Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Reed, J.E.; Wells, C.J.; Swafford, B.F.

    1970-01-01

    The Arkansas River Multiple-Purpose Plan will provide year-round navigation on the Arkansas River from near its mouth to Muskogee, Okla., and on the Verdigris River from Muskogee to Catoosa, Okla. The altered regimen in the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers will affect ground-water conditions in the adjacent alluvial aquifers. In 1957 the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers entered into a cooperative agreement for a comprehensive ground-water study of the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River valleys. At the request of the Corps of Engineers, the Geological Survey agreed to provide (1) basic ground-water data before, during, and after construction of the Multiple-Purpose Plan and (2) interpretation and projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions. The data collected were used by the Corps of Engineers in preliminary foundation and excavation estimates and by the Geological Survey as the basis for defining the hydrologic properties of, and the ground-water conditions in, the aquifer. The projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions were used by the Corps of Engineers in the planning, design, construction, and operation of the Multiple-Purpose Plan. Analysis and projections of ground-water conditions were made by use of electrical analog models. These models use the analogy between the flow of electricity in a resistance-capacitance circuit and the flow of a liquid in a porous and permeable medium. Verification provides a test of the validity of the analog to perform as the aquifer would, within the range of historic forces. The verification process consists of simulating the action of historic forces which have acted upon the aquifer and of duplicating the aquifer response with the analog. The areal distribution of accretion can be treated as an unknown and can be determined by analog simulation of the piezometric surface in an aquifer. Comparison of accretion with depth to piezometric surface below land surface shows that

  1. Medication problems are frequent and often serious in a Danish emergency department and may be discovered by clinical pharmacists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer Mogensen, Christian; Thisted, Anette Rehn; Olsen, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Transferring a patient from one health-care sector to another implies a risk of medication errors. It is of interest to evaluate whether a specialist in clinical pharmacy is beneficial for the patients in the emergency departments (ED). The aim of the present study was to report the incidence......, categories and seriousness of medication problems discovered by clinical pharmacists in an ED and to evaluate if it is possible for pharmacists to identify those groups of patients who are most at risk of medication problems....

  2. Community pharmacist attitudes towards collaboration with general practitioners: development and validation of a measure and a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Connie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community Pharmacists and General Practitioners (GPs are increasingly being encouraged to adopt more collaborative approaches to health care delivery as collaboration in primary care has been shown to be effective in improving patient outcomes. However, little is known about pharmacist attitudes towards collaborating with their GP counterparts and variables that influence this interprofessional collaboration. This study aims to develop and validate 1 an instrument to measure pharmacist attitudes towards collaboration with GPs and 2 a model that illustrates how pharmacist attitudes (and other variables influence collaborative behaviour with GPs. Methods A questionnaire containing the newly developed “Attitudes Towards Collaboration Instrument for Pharmacists” (ATCI-P and a previously validated behavioural measure “Frequency of Interprofessional Collaboration Instrument for Pharmacists” (FICI-P was administered to a sample of 1215 Australian pharmacists. The ATCI-P was developed based on existing literature and qualitative interviews with GPs and community pharmacists. Principal Component Analysis was used to assess the structure of the ATCI-P and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to assess the internal consistency of the instrument. Structural equation modelling was used to determine how pharmacist attitudes (as measured by the ATCI-P and other variables, influence collaborative behaviour (as measured by the FICI-P. Results Four hundred and ninety-two surveys were completed and returned for a response rate of 40%. Principal Component Analysis revealed the ATCI-P consisted of two factors: ‘interactional determinants’ and ‘practitioner determinants’, both with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .90 and .93 respectively. The model demonstrated adequate fit (χ2/df = 1.89, CFI = .955, RMSEA = .062, 90% CI [.049-.074] and illustrated that ‘interactional determinants’ was

  3. An Optimization of Pharmacist Roles in Monitoring and Evaluating Patient Safety Incidents

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    Wara Kusharwanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists can contribute within patient care by optimizing the use of drugs and minimizing adverse drugs effect with identifying the presence of Medication Related Problems (MRPs and providing a solution to prevent the MRPs through clinical pharmacy services. Aims of this research is to integrate clinical pharmacy activities with patient safety activities in order to optimize the roles of pharmacists both in monitoring and evaluation of patient safety incidents. This study was a quasi-experimental study with prospective data collection which was conducted in May–July 2012 with 5173 hospitalized patients as subjects. The results showed that there were 150 MRPs occurred in 142 patients. The existing MRPs are grouped in 5 categories of incidents, the KPC (2.67%, KNC (16.67%, KTC (58.66%, KTD (22%, and (0% sentinel. Each MRPs was followed by recommendations which are measured its level of acceptance, and had rate accepted without changes. Thus, risk grading matrix mapping was done. Based on this research, integration of clinical pharmacy activities with patient safety activities was done with report system mechanism. Report including MRP, incident categories, clinical impacts, recommendation, and risk grading matrix.

  4. Prevention, education and information: the role of the community pharmacist in the management of headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccone, M; Baratta, F; Allais, G; Brusa, P

    2014-05-01

    Headaches are among the most common disorders of the nervous system. On a global level, it is estimated that the prevalence of headache disorder in adults is 47 %. A proper treatment of headaches requires training of health care personnel, careful diagnosis and recognition of the condition, appropriate treatment with cost-effective drugs, simple changements in lifestyle and patient education. Unfortunately, a large number of people suffering from headache disorders are not diagnosed and treated. The unsatisfied needs in migraine can be faced by involving the pharmacist in the management of the pathology. To really understand which are the activities and the potential of community pharmacies in the management of patients with headache or migraine we took into account studies conducted around the world during the last 5 years. Based on the data collected it is clear that the role of the community pharmacist may be crucial in managing patients with headache or migraine but only if he receives an adequate and continuous education both on the management of therapies and maintains a stable relationship with the medical doctor and/or patient. In Piedmont a specific study to identify migraine sufferers has involved the community pharmacies in the administration of a questionnaire, specially crafted by the Italian Headache Foundation (FICEF non-profit association).

  5. A Model for Partnering First-Year Student Pharmacists With Community-Based Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrea L.; Shawl, Lauren; Motl Moroney, Susannah E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To design, integrate, and assess the effectiveness of an introductory pharmacy practice experience intended to redefine first-year student pharmacists’ views on aging and medication use through their work with a healthy, community-based older-adult population. Design. All students (N = 273) completed live skills training in an 8-hour boot camp provided during orientation week. Teams were assigned an independently living senior partner, completed 10 visits and reflections, and documented health-related information using an electronic portfolio (e-portfolio). Assessment. As determined by pre- and post-experience survey instruments, students gained significant confidence in 7 skill areas related to communication, medication interviews, involving the partner in health care, and applying patient-care skills. Student reflections, in-class presentations, and e-portfolios documented that personal attitudes toward seniors changed over time. Senior partners enjoyed mentoring and interacting with students and many experienced health improvements as a result of the interaction. Conclusions. The model for partnering first-year student pharmacists with community-based older adults improved students’ skills and fostered their connections to pharmacist roles and growth as person-centered providers. PMID:22761526

  6. Role of pharmacists in optimizing the use of anticancer drugs in the clinical setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma CSJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carolyn SJ Ma Department of Pharmacy Practice, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Honolulu, HI, USA Abstract: Oncology pharmacists, also known as oncology pharmacy specialists (OPSs have specialized knowledge of anticancer medications and their role in cancer. As essential member of the interdisciplinary team, OPSs optimize the benefits of drug therapy, help to minimize toxicities and work with patients on supportive care issues. The OPSs expanded role as experts in drug therapy extends to seven major key elements of medication management that include: selection, procurement, storage, preparation/dispensing, prescribing/dosing/transcribing, administration and monitoring/evaluation/education. As front line caregivers in hospital, ambulatory care, long-term care facilities, and community specialty pharmacies, the OPS also helps patients in areas of supportive care including nausea and vomiting, hematologic support, nutrition and infection control. This role helps the patient in the recovery phase between treatment cycles and adherence to chemotherapy treatment schedules essential for optimal treatment and outcome. Keywords: oncology pharmacist, oncology pharmacy specialist, medication management, chemotherapy

  7. A Narrative Review of Diabetes Intervention Studies to Explore Diabetes Care Opportunities for Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamala Ayadurai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a review of current diabetes intervention studies in type 2 diabetes and identified opportunities for pharmacists to deliver quality diabetes care. Methods. A search on randomised controlled trials (RCT on diabetes management by healthcare professionals including pharmacists published between 2010 and 2015 was conducted. Results and Discussion. Diabetes management includes multifactorial intervention which includes seven factors as outlined in diabetes guidelines, namely, glycaemic, cholesterol and blood pressure control, medication, lifestyle, education, and cardiovascular risk factors. Most studies do not provide evidence that the intervention methods used included all seven factors with exception of three RCT which indicated HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin reduction range of 0.5% to 1.8%. The varied HbA1C reduction suggests a lack of standardised and consistent approach to diabetes care. Furthermore, the duration of most studies was from one month to two years; therefore long term outcomes could not be established. Conclusion. Although pharmacists’ contribution towards improving clinical outcomes of diabetes patients was well documented, the methods used to deliver structured, consistent evidence-based care were not clearly stipulated. Therefore, approaches to achieving long term continuity of care are uncertain. An intervention strategy that encompass all seven evidence-based factors will be useful.

  8. Japanese Community Pharmacists' Dispensing Influences Medicine Price Reduction more than Prescription Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Masayuki; Tashiro, Takao

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the economic efficiency of the separation of prescription and dispensation medicines between doctors in medical institutions and pharmacists in pharmacies. The separation system in Japanese prefectures was examined with publicly available data (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, 2012-2014; retrieved from http://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/medias/year). We investigated whether the separation system reduces the number of medicines or the medication cost of a prescription because of separating the economic management between prescribing and dispensing and the effect of mutual observation between doctors and pharmacists. It is optional for Japanese medical institutions to participate in the separation system. Consequently, the spreading rate of the separation system in each administrative district is highly variable. We examined the separation system effect using the National Healthcare Insurance data for three years, 2012-2014. We tested whether the separation system ratio for each prefecture was significantly correlated to the medication price or the number of medicines on a prescription. If spreading the separation system influenced the price of prescribed daily medications or the number of medicines, the correlation would be significant. As a result, the medication price was significantly negatively correlated with the separation system ratio, but the number of medicines was not significant. Therefore, the separation system was effective in reducing daily medication cost but had little influence on reducing the number of daily medicines. This was observed over three years in Japan. PMID:27157157

  9. Effectiveness of a Pharmacist-Led Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic in Rural Perry County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Charles; Ford, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC) in Perry County, Alabama, provides free pharmacist-led services. Clinic goals include improving health outcomes and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of the CRRC in rural Perry County, Alabama. The reduction of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, blood pressure and body mass index, was evaluated to measure a decrease from baseline to last clinic date. Methods. This retrospective chart review identified 130 patients with at least two blood pressure and BMI measurements from baseline to June 30, 2010. The patients' paper files were used to collect baseline data and most recent measurements, which were recorded on a data collection sheet. Results. There was a statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure of 4.08 mmHg, 3.25 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, and 0.42 kg/m2 reduction in mean BMI. At their last visit prior to June 30, 2010, 59% of hypertensive patients and 35% of diabetic patients were meeting their blood pressure goals. Conclusion. Pharmacist-led management of patients with cardiovascular risk factors significantly reduced blood pressure and allowed more patients to meet their hypertension treatment goals. Despite being modest, reductions in blood pressure and BMI help reduce overall cardiovascular risks. PMID:27525302

  10. [Pharmacists' Behavior in Clinical Practice: Results from a Questionnaire Survey of Pharmacy Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Akiko; Akagawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hitomi; Kato, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was performed to obtain pharmacy students' impressions of pharmacists' behavior, to classify these based on professionalism, and to analyze the relationship between these experiences and students' satisfaction with their clinical practice in Japan. The questionnaire was answered by 327 5th-year pharmacy school students upon completing clinical practice at community pharmacies from 2011 to 2012. They rated their satisfaction with their clinical practice using a 6-point Likert scale, and provided descriptions of their experience such as, "This health provider is professional", or "What a great person he/she is as a health provider". We counted the words and then categorized the responses into 10 traits, as defined by the American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy-American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Council of Deans Task Force on Professionalism 1999, using text mining. We analyzed the relationship between their experiences with respectful persons, and satisfaction, using the Mann-Whitney U-test (significance leveltext mining analysis after excluding unsuitable responses. The word most used was "patient" (121 times). Many students noted their impression that the pharmacists had answered patients' questions. Of the 10 trait categories, "professional knowledge and skills" was mentioned most often (151 students). PMID:26831812

  11. [Pharmacists in transition. Academy and Pharmacy in Mexico from 1833 to 1865].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cosme, Alba Dolores; Viesca-Treviño, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    From the second half of the 19th century, health disciplines went through an institutional and professional restructuring, which progressively altered the guild order that had characterized them to that point. In the case of Pharmacy, this process implied the generation of officially recognized spaces, as the chairs of Pharmacy and Medical Substance, founded during the Establecimiento de Ciencias Médicas (Establishment of Medical Sciences) (1833). In those spaces it was sought to institutionalize knowledge and modern practices related to Pharmacy. In this work we look over the first academic experience of the pharmaceutical community in that new space of instruction, based on the records belonging to the students enrolled in the Establecimiento de Ciencias Médicas from 1833 to 1865, year of the enrollment of the last generation. The information contained in those 163 records displays the way the pharmaceutical field was transformed, after the aforementioned restructuring. The reader will notice the diverse normativity, which regulated the joining of pharmacists to academic life (of which, until then, they were excluded). He will also realize how, among the first students enrolled in the Establecimiento de Ciencias Médicas, said normativity was broke in order to adapt it to the known ways of students and professors. Progressively, the guild instruction would be ousted by the institutional instruction (for example, the years of practice in the drugstores were rejected), so that the guild ways of teaching were changing to turn the pharmacist into an individual of institutional instruction.

  12. Drug advertising directed to pharmacists in Brazil: information or sales promotion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Calmon Reis de Souza Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of drug advertising reveal important social and cultural values and attitudes at a certain point in history. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how pharmaceutical industry communicates with pharmacists in Brazil, using drug promotion as a valuable tool. The point of departure was the analysis of a series of drug advertisements published in three Brazilian technical journals targeted at pharmacists and other health professionals. For the present study, the focus was on the content of the messages directed to pharmacists, in order to critically analyze the role attributed to these professionals as portrayed by the ads, and to discuss it in the context of pharmaceutical care. The collection and analysis of the data followed Anvisa's methodology. Pharmacists' social responsibility includes the reduction of preventable drug-related morbidity and mortality, but the information provided by the ads only refers to sales growth and profitability. Pharmacists are portrayed as salesmen, rather than health professionals, and encouraged to sell pharmaceutical drugs which are being heavily advertised to medical doctors. Consequences for pharmaceutical care are discussed.Análises de propaganda de medicamentos revelam importantes valores socioculturais e atitudes em um determinado contexto histórico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar como a indústria farmacêutica se comunica com os farmacêuticos no Brasil, tendo a promoção farmacêutica como instrumento. O ponto de partida foi a análise de uma série de propagandas de medicamentos publicadas em três revistas técnicas dirigidas a farmacêuticos e outros profissionais de saúde. Para o presente estudo, o foco foi no conteúdo linguístico das mensagens, a fim de possibilitar uma reflexão crítica sobre o papel dos farmacêuticos no contexto da assistência farmacêutica, a partir das mensagens veiculadas pelos anúncios. A coleta e análise dos dados seguiu metodologia proposta

  13. Notes from the Field: Cluster of Tuberculosis Cases Among Marshallese Persons Residing in Arkansas - 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfeldt, Laura Lester; Patil, Naveen; Haselow, Dirk T; Williams, Sandy Hainline; Wheeler, J Gary; Mukasa, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    During early September 2014, the Arkansas Department of Health identified an increased number of tuberculosis (TB) cases among a unique population in a well-circumscribed geographical area in northwest Arkansas. The Compact of Free Association Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-239, amended in 2003 by Public Law 108-188) established the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as an independent nation, and persons from the RMI can travel freely (with valid RMI passport) to and from the United States as nonimmigrants without visas (1). Marshallese started settling in northwest Arkansas during the early 1990s because of employment and educational opportunities (2). According to the 2010 Census, an estimated 4,300 Marshallese resided in Arkansas (2), mostly within one county which ranked 6th in the United States for counties with the highest percentage of Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (3). It is estimated that this number has been growing steadily each year since the 2010 Census; however, obtaining an accurate count is difficult. The RMI is a TB high-incidence country, with a case-rate of 212.7 per 100,000 persons for 2014, whereas the case-rate was 3.1 per 100,000 persons in Arkansas and 2.9 per 100,000 persons in the United States (4,5). Screening for either active TB or latent TB infection (LTBI) is not required for Marshallese entry to the United States (1). PMID:27560201

  14. The Natural Divisions of Arkansas: A Three Week Unit. Classroom Guide. Recommended for High School Level Social Studies, Earth Science and Biological Science Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Thomas L.

    This unit is designed to (1) acquaint the student with Arkansas, (2) provide information on what an environment (natural system) is, and (3) provide information on how people relate to the environment as a whole. Natural systems and natural divisions (geographical areas) of Arkansas are described. Included in several sections are questions to…

  15. "There Were High Hopes and High Projections:" Examining the Social Construction of Target Populations in the Policy Design of the Arkansas Lottery Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kristopher

    2013-01-01

    Lottery policies have been created by many states to generate additional funds to support public initiatives, such as higher education scholarships. In 2009, Arkansas adopted a lottery to generate higher education scholarships. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the Arkansas state lottery policy design process to better…

  16. Approach of pharmacists and herbalists while offering guidance on potentially malignant oral lesions: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Gouraha

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Apart from pharmacists, the new probable off-clinical counselors (herbalists and pharmacy assistants have been identified as potential factors of patient diagnostic delay in oral cancer. Educational strategies to improve advice and referral for these identified groups should be designed.

  17. Interdisciplinary collaboration in the provision of a pharmacist-led discharge medication reconciliation service at an Irish teaching hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holland, Deirdre M

    2015-04-01

    Medication reconciliation is a basic principle of good medicines management. With the establishment of the National Acute Medicines Programme in Ireland, medication reconciliation has been mandated for all patients at all transitions of care. The clinical pharmacist is widely credited as the healthcare professional that plays the most critical role in the provision of medication reconciliation services.

  18. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the elderly: role of the pharmacist in a multidisciplinary health care team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Samuel GrossmanDepartment of Veterans Affairs, New York Harbor Healthcare System, New York, NY, USA; Diabetes Care On-The-Go Inc, Brooklyn, NY, USA; Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA; Arnold and Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy of Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY, USA; Garden State Association of Diabetes Educators, Edison, NJ, USAAbstract: Intensive glycemic control using insulin therapy may be appropriate for many healthy older adults to reduce premature mortality and morbidity, improve quality of life, and reduce health care costs. However, frail elderly people are more prone to develop complications from hypoglycemia, such as confusion and dementia. Overall, older persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD than from intermittent hyperglycemia; therefore, diabetes management should always include CVD prevention and treatment in this patient population. Pharmacists can provide a comprehensive medication review with subsequent recommendations to individualize therapy based on medical and cognitive status. As part of the patient’s health care team, pharmacists can provide continuity of care and communication with other members of the patient’s health care team. In addition, pharmacists can act as educators and patient advocates and establish patient-specific goals to increase medication effectiveness, adherence to a medication regimen, and minimize the likelihood of adverse events.Keywords: glycemic control, hyperglycemia, continuity of care, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, elderly, type 2 diabetes, pharmacist

  19. [Evaluation of Research Experience Based on the Type of Degree Completed for the Development of Pharmacist-Scientists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Mai; Hashida, Tohru

    2016-01-01

      "Pharmacist-scientists" are needed in the clinical setting. However, research competency, including logical thinking, differs among pharmacists. This difference stems from the varying experience of research during university and graduate school. Thus, to ascertain the research experience within different educational systems, we evaluated pharmacists in Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital. In most instances, there was a direct correlation between the duration of research (in the laboratory at university or graduate school), and research experience gained, such as independent thinking and presentations at seminars or academic conferences. Respondents who graduated from the recently introduced 6-year pharmaceutical science course had less research experience than those who graduated with a combination 4-year degree and subsequent master's course. Conversely, the number of presentations at academic conferences and the number of published papers postgraduation were independent of research experience during university and graduate school. These results indicate that there is a considerable difference in the research experience during university and graduate school among pharmacists, and this is likely to impact their pharmaceutical skills. PMID:26725680

  20. Antibiotics dispensing for URTIs by community pharmacists and general medical practitioners in Penang, Malaysia: A comparative study using simulated patients

    OpenAIRE

    Alabid, Alamin Hassan M.A.; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Malaysia, doctors in private clinics (often called dispensing doctors) are permitted to dispense medicines. This potentially may compromise rational dispensing of medicines in general and antibiotics in particular. Aim: This study explored, assessed and compared dispensing of antibiotics between Community Pharmacist (CP) and General Practitioners (GPs) regarding symptomatic diagnosis, antibiotic categories, adherence to therapeutic doses and promotion of generic antibiotics...