WorldWideScience

Sample records for arizona forest ecosystem

  1. On forest ecosystem health and its Connotations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper cursorily introduced some ideas and approaches of ecosystem health researches. The definition and connotations of forest ecosystem health have also been expatiated. Defining forest ecosystem health has been discussed from the management objective approach, ecosystem approach, and integration approach. To impel the relative researches in China, more attention on the properties of a forest ecosystem should be paid.

  2. Late Holocene geomorphic record of fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests, Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara E. Jenkins; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Diana E. Anderson; Darrell S. Kaufman; Philip A. Pearthree

    2011-01-01

    Long-term fire history reconstructions enhance our understanding of fire behaviour and associated geomorphic hazards in forested ecosystems. We used 14C ages on charcoal from fire-induced debris-flow deposits to date prehistoric fires on Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA. Fire-related debris-flow sedimentation dominates Holocene fan deposition in the study area...

  3. 76 FR 22363 - Kaibab National Forest, Williams Ranger District; Arizona; Bill Williams Mountain Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Forest Service Kaibab National Forest, Williams Ranger District; Arizona; Bill Williams Mountain... forested conditions on and surrounding Bill Williams Mountain by reducing hazardous fuels and moving... approximately 4 miles south-southwest of the city of Williams, Arizona. The Proposed Action includes...

  4. ASPECTS REGARDING LEGAL PROTECTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first legislative concerns for the protection and exploitation of forests are occurring since the eighteenth century. Forest of the country has always been a priority for environmental policy. The institutional framework for forestry organization in Romania is represented mainly by the Ministry of Environment and National Administration of Forests – Romsilva. First Romanian Forest Code was adopted on 19 June 1881. In present, the main law governing the forest is given by Law No. 46 of March 19, 2008 (Forest Code. Forests are resources of interest economic, social, recreational, ecological and biological. Biodiversity conservation of forest ecosystems involves the sustainable management by applying intensive treatments that promote natural regeneration of species of fundamental natural forest type and forest conservation and quasi virgin. The main way to conserve forest ecosystems is represented by the establishment of protected areas of national interest.

  5. Contingent Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes; Michelle Haefele

    2003-01-01

    In recent decades, concerns have arisen about the proper valuation of the world's forests. While some of these concerns have to do with market distortions for timber products or inadequate data on non-timber forest products, an additional challenge is to uncover the economic worth of non- market services provided by forest ecosystems (Kramer et al. 1997). This has...

  6. 75 FR 48305 - Kaibab National Forest; Arizona; Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Forest Service Kaibab National Forest; Arizona; Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project AGENCY: Forest... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project, posted in the Federal...-delivered to Kaibab National Forest, Attn: VANE Minerals Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project, 800 S. 6th...

  7. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  8. Carbon-nitrogen interactions in forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Per; Berg, Bjørn; Currie, W.S.;

    This report is a summary of the main results from the EU project “Carbon – Nitrogen Interactions in Forest Ecosystems” (CNTER). Since carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are bound together in organic matter we studied both the effect of N deposition on C cycling in forest ecosystems, and the effect of C...... accumulation on N storage and release. Based on compiled databases on element pools and fluxes from several hundred forest sites, process studies in long-term nitrogen manipulation experiments and modelling efforts we estimated C sequestration and N retention in European forest soils. Further, we studied...... the impact of forest management on C sequestration, N retention and N leaching....

  9. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aerts Raf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an

  10. Carbon-nitrogen interactions in forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Per; Berg, Bjørn; Currie, W.S.

    This report is a summary of the main results from the EU project “Carbon – Nitrogen Interactions in Forest Ecosystems” (CNTER). Since carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are bound together in organic matter we studied both the effect of N deposition on C cycling in forest ecosystems, and the effect of C...... accumulation on N storage and release. Based on compiled databases on element pools and fluxes from several hundred forest sites, process studies in long-term nitrogen manipulation experiments and modelling efforts we estimated C sequestration and N retention in European forest soils. Further, we studied...

  11. Phenological Response of an Arizona Dryland Forest to Short-Term Climatic Extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Walker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline information about dryland forest phenology is necessary to accurately anticipate future ecosystem shifts. The overarching goal of our study was to investigate the variability of vegetation phenology across a dryland forest landscape in response to climate alterations. We analyzed the influence of site characteristics and climatic conditions on the phenological patterns of an Arizona, USA, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa forest during a five-year period (2005 to 2009 that encompassed extreme wet and dry precipitation regimes. We assembled 80 synthetic Landsat images by applying the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion method (STARFM to 500 m MODIS and 30 m Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM data. We tested relationships between site characteristics and the timing of peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI to assess the effect of climatic stress on the green-up of individual pixels during or after the summer monsoon. Our results show that drought-induced stress led to a fragmented phenological response that was highly dependent on microsite parameters, as both the spatial autocorrelation of peak timing and the number of significant site variables increased during the drought year. Pixels at lower elevations and with higher proportions of herbaceous vegetation were more likely to exhibit dynamic responses to changes in precipitation conditions. Our study demonstrates the complexity of responses within dryland forest ecosystems and highlights the need for standardized monitoring of phenology trends in these areas. The spatial and temporal variability of phenological signals may provide a quantitative solution to the problem of how to evaluate dryland land surface trends across time.

  12. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiro, B. D.; Barr, A. G.; Barr, J. G.; Black, T. A.; Bracho, R.; Brown, M.; Chen, J.; Clark, K. L.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dore, S.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J. D.; Goldstein, A. H.; Goulden, M. L.; Kolb, T. E.; Lavigne, M. B.; Law, B. E.; Margolis, H. A.; Martin, T.; McCaughey, J. H.; Misson, L.; Montes-Helu, M.; Noormets, A.; Randerson, J. T.; Starr, G.; Xiao, J.

    2010-12-01

    Disturbances are important for renewal of North American forests. Here we summarize more than 180 site years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide flux made at forest chronosequences in North America. The disturbances included stand-replacing fire (Alaska, Arizona, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan) and harvest (British Columbia, Florida, New Brunswick, Oregon, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Wisconsin) events, insect infestations (gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, and mountain pine beetle), Hurricane Wilma, and silvicultural thinning (Arizona, California, and New Brunswick). Net ecosystem production (NEP) showed a carbon loss from all ecosystems following a stand-replacing disturbance, becoming a carbon sink by 20 years for all ecosystems and by 10 years for most. Maximum carbon losses following disturbance (g C m-2y-1) ranged from 1270 in Florida to 200 in boreal ecosystems. Similarly, for forests less than 100 years old, maximum uptake (g C m-2y-1) was 1180 in Florida mangroves and 210 in boreal ecosystems. More temperate forests had intermediate fluxes. Boreal ecosystems were relatively time invariant after 20 years, whereas western ecosystems tended to increase in carbon gain over time. This was driven mostly by gross photosynthetic production (GPP) because total ecosystem respiration (ER) and heterotrophic respiration were relatively invariant with age. GPP/ER was as low as 0.2 immediately following stand-replacing disturbance reaching a constant value of 1.2 after 20 years. NEP following insect defoliations and silvicultural thinning showed lesser changes than stand-replacing events, with decreases in the year of disturbance followed by rapid recovery. NEP decreased in a mangrove ecosystem following Hurricane Wilma because of a decrease in GPP and an increase in ER.

  13. Global biological diversity, forests and ecosystem approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent international reports and a paper published on Science stresses the lack of evidence about the reduction in the rate of biodiversity decline as expected as a consequence of political agreements on global environment. This decline is of particular concern not only with respect to the intrinsic value of the nature as such but also because it involves the reduction or loss of ecosystem services. This issue is distinctively relevant for forest ecosystems. The Ecosystem Approach proposed by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity might be a strategy to reverse the negative trend, promoting a fair conservation and sustainable use of natural resources on an operational level.

  14. Hydrologic Modeling of Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This study focused on the hydrologic response, including vegetation water use, of two test regions within the Boreal-Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) region in the Canadian boreal forest, one north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, and the other near Thompson, Manitoba. Fluxes of moisture and heat were studied using a spatially distributed hydrology soil-vegetation-model (DHSVM).

  15. Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megonigal, Patrick [Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Pitz, Scott [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-04-19

    This exploratory research on Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems was motivated by evidence that upland ecosystems emit 36% as much methane to the atmosphere as global wetlands, yet we knew almost nothing about this source. The long-term objective was to refine Earth system models by quantifying methane emissions from upland forests, and elucidate the biogeochemical processes that govern upland methane emissions. The immediate objectives of the grant were to: (i) test the emerging paradigm that upland trees unexpectedly transpire methane, (ii) test the basic biogeochemical assumptions of an existing global model of upland methane emissions, and (iii) develop the suite of biogeochemical approaches that will be needed to advance research on upland methane emissions. We instrumented a temperate forest system in order to explore the processes that govern upland methane emissions. We demonstrated that methane is emitted from the stems of dominant tree species in temperate upland forests. Tree emissions occurred throughout the growing season, while soils adjacent to the trees consumed methane simultaneously, challenging the concept that forests are uniform sinks of methane. High frequency measurements revealed diurnal cycling in the rate of methane emissions, pointing to soils as the methane source and transpiration as the most likely pathway for methane transport. We propose the forests are smaller methane sinks than previously estimated due to stem emissions. Stem emissions may be particularly important in upland tropical forests characterized by high rainfall and transpiration, resolving differences between models and measurements. The methods we used can be effectively implemented in order to determine if the phenomenon is widespread.

  16. Construction and Development of the Dagangshan Forest Ecosystem Research Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Established by the former Ministry of Forestry in 1986, Dagangshan Forest Ecosystem Research Station is one of the 14 national key sites in the field of ecosystem research. In this paper, the basic situation of Dagangshan Forest Ecosystem Station is described, including geographic location, natural conditions, biological resources, research conditions, instruments, achievement, prospects etc.

  17. Radiocesium in a Danish pine forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, M.

    1994-01-01

    During the autumn of 1991, a Scots pine forest, Tisvilde Hegn, was investigated with respect to the distribution of radiocesium on compartments in the forest ecosystem. The sandy acidic soil is poor, with a approximately 5-cm thick layer of organic soil, and clay content is very low, between 0...... of the different components of the forest ecosystem to accumulate radiocesium. OR is defined as the ratio between the content of Cs-137 kg-1 (dry wt.) and the deposition per meter square. In vascular plants, mosses and lichens, OR varied between 0.01 and 0.1 m2/kg. In fungi, it varied between 0.05 and 4.5 m2/kg......, though generally it was between 0.2 and 1 m2/kg. OR (Cs-137 kg-1/dry wt. of meat x Cs-137 m-2) levels in three roe deer samples varied between 0.016 and 0.21 kg-1/dry wt. With an annual harvest of around 70 000 animals, this might be the most important pathway of this radionuclide to man from semi...

  18. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E.; Rabotyagov, Sergey S.

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at 217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and 160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  19. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E; Rabotyagov, Sergey S

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at $217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and $160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  20. Which type of forest management provides most ecosystem services?

    OpenAIRE

    Timo Pukkala

    2016-01-01

    Background: Forest ecosystems are increasingly seen as multi-functional production systems, which should provide, besides timber and economic benefits, also other ecosystem services related to biological diversity, recreational uses and environmental functions of forests. This study analyzed the performance of even-aged rotation forest management (RFM), continuous cover forestry (CCF) and any-aged forestry (AAF) in the production of ecosystem services. AAF allows both even-aged an...

  1. Forest ecosystem health assessment and analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOFengjin; OUYANGHua; ZHANGQiang; FUBojie; ZHANGZhicheng

    2004-01-01

    Based on more than 300 forest sample plots surveying data and forestry statistical data, remote sensing information from the NOAA AVHRR database and the daily meteorological data of 300 stations, we selected vigor, organization and resilience as the indicators to assess large-scale forest ecosystem health in China and analyzed the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health and influencing factors. The results of assessment indicated that the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health showed a decreasing trend along latitude gradients and longitude gradients. The healthy forests are mainly distributed in natural forests, tropical rainforests and seasonal rainforests; secondarily orderly in northeast national forest zone, subtropical forest zonation and southwest forest zonation; while the unhealthy forests were mainly located in warm temperate zone and Xinjiang-Mongolia forest zone. The coefficient of correction between Forest Ecosystem Health Index (FEHI) and annual average precipitation was 0.58 (p<0.01), while the coefficient of correlation between FEHI and annual mean temperatures was 0.49 (p<0.01), which identified that the precipitation and temperatures affect the pattern of FEHI, and the precipitation's effect was stronger than the temperature's. We also measured the correlation coefficient between FEHI and NPP, biodiversity and resistance, which were 0.64, 0.76 and 0.81 (p<0.01) respectively. The order of effect on forest ecosystem health was vigor, organization and resistance.

  2. Forest ecosystem services of Changbai Mountain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Guofan(邵国凡); LI; Jing(李静); WU; Gang(吴钢); XIAO; Han(肖寒); ZHAO; Jingzhu(赵景柱)

    2002-01-01

    The forest ecosystem of the Changbai Mountain is the most typical upland temperate forest ecosystem in eastern Asia. It is also of the most primitive vegetation type that came into being through the natural succession of soil and vegetation following volcanic eruption. The forest ecosystem has great importance for maintaining the structures and functions of the watershed ecosystems of the Songhua River, the Yalu River and the Tumen River. We combined physical assessment method(PAM) with the value assessment method(VAM) to evaluate the forest ecosystem services of the northern slope of the Changbai Mountain, including eco-tourism, forest by-products, timber, soil and water conservation, air purification, and the recycling of nutritive elements. We also assessed the integrated forest ecosystem service and analyzed its dynamics. The service value provided by the Changbai Mountain forest ecosystem amounts up to RMB 3.38×1012 yuan, of which, water conservation is 66%, water conservation and air purification together make up 80%, while the timber value is only 7%. Therefore, developing the ecosystem services besides timber is the best way to exert the integrated value of the forest ecosystem services of Changbai Mountain.

  3. Impacts of forestry on boreal forests: An ecosystem services perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanmies, Tähti; Triviño, María; Le Tortorec, Eric; Mazziotta, Adriano; Snäll, Tord; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2017-04-22

    Forests are widely recognized as major providers of ecosystem services, including timber, other forest products, recreation, regulation of water, soil and air quality, and climate change mitigation. Extensive tracts of boreal forests are actively managed for timber production, but actions aimed at increasing timber yields also affect other forest functions and services. Here, we present an overview of the environmental impacts of forest management from the perspective of ecosystem services. We show how prevailing forestry practices may have substantial but diverse effects on the various ecosystem services provided by boreal forests. Several aspects of these processes remain poorly known and warrant a greater role in future studies, including the role of community structure. Conflicts among different interests related to boreal forests are most likely to occur, but the concept of ecosystem services may provide a useful framework for identifying and resolving these conflicts.

  4. Northern Forest Ecosystem Dynamics Using Coupled Models and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, K. J.; Sun, G.; Knox, R. G.; Levine, E. R.; Weishampel, J. F.; Fifer, S. T.

    1999-01-01

    Forest ecosystem dynamics modeling, remote sensing data analysis, and a geographical information system (GIS) were used together to determine the possible growth and development of a northern forest in Maine, USA. Field measurements and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were used to produce maps of forest cover type and above ground biomass. These forest attribute maps, along with a conventional soils map, were used to identify the initial conditions for forest ecosystem model simulations. Using this information along with ecosystem model results enabled the development of predictive maps of forest development. The results obtained were consistent with observed forest conditions and expected successional trajectories. The study demonstrated that ecosystem models might be used in a spatial context when parameterized and used with georeferenced data sets.

  5. Community and ecosystem ramifications of increasing lianas in neotropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.; Wright, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lianas (woody vines) are increasing in neotropical forests, representing one of the first large-scale structural changes documented for these important ecosystems. The potential ramifications of increasing lianas are huge, as lianas alter both tropical forest diversity and ecosystem functioning. At

  6. Community and ecosystem ramifications of increasing lianas in neotropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.; Wright, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lianas (woody vines) are increasing in neotropical forests, representing one of the first large-scale structural changes documented for these important ecosystems. The potential ramifications of increasing lianas are huge, as lianas alter both tropical forest diversity and ecosystem functioning. At

  7. Carbon-nitrogen interactions in forest ecosystems; final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundersen, P.; Berg, B.; Currie, W.S.; Dise, N.B.; Emmett, B.A.; Gauci, V.; Holmberg, M.; Kjønaas, O.J.; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P.; Salm, van der C.; Schmidt, I.K.; Tietema, A.; Wessel, W.W.; Vestgarden, L.S.; Akselsson, C.; Vries, de W.; Forsius, M.; Kros, H.; Matzner, E.; Moldan, F.; Nadelhoffer, K.J.; Nilsson, L.O.; Reinds, G.J.; Rosengren, U.; Stuanes, A.O.; Wright, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a summary of the main results from the EU project 'Carbon' - Nitrogen Interactions in Forest Ecosystems' (CNTER). Since carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are bound together in organic matter we studied both the effect of N deposition on C cycling in forest ecosystems, and the effect of C ac

  8. WEFES - Web explorer of forest ecosystems services under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Poster Climate change will change the dynamics of forest environmental services. All the change complexity involved is difficult to visualize under an easy and accessible information tool capable to integrate several services that forests can provide. A preliminary Web-Explorer of Forest Ecosystems Services was developed for New Zealand where forest managers and the general public can observe what are the predictions of the different forest environmental services under current and futu...

  9. [Assessing forest ecosystem health I. Model, method, and index system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Dai, Limin; Ji, Lanzhu; Deng, Hongbing; Hao, Zhanqing; Wang, Qingli

    2004-10-01

    Ecosystem health assessment is one of the main researches and urgent tasks of ecosystem science in 21st century. An operational definition on ecosystem health and an all-sided, simple, easy operational and standard index system, which are the foundation of assessment on ecosystem health, are necessary in obtaining a simple and applicable assessment theory and method of ecosystem health. Taking the Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem as an example, an originally creative idea on ecosystem health was put forward in this paper based on the idea of mode ecosystem set and the idea of forest ecosystem health, together with its assessment. This creative idea can help understand what ecosystem health is. Finally, a formula was deduced based on a new effective health assessment method--health distance (HD), which is the first time to be brought forward in China. At the same time, aiming at it's characteristics by status understanding and material health questions, a health index system of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem was put forward in this paper, which is a compound ecosystem based on the compound properties of nature, economy and society. It is concrete enough to measure sub-index, so it is the foundation to assess ecosystem health of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest in next researches.

  10. Interannual Variations in Ecosystem Oxidative Ratio in Croplands, Deciduous Forest, Coniferous Forest, and Early Successional Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Hockaday, W. C.; Gallagher, M. E.; Calligan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) can vary significantly with annual variations in precipitation and temperature. These climate variations can also drive changes in plant carbon allocation patterns. Shifting allocation patterns can lead to variation in net ecosystem biochemical stocks (e.g. kg cellulose, lignin, protein, and lipid/ha), which can in turn lead to shifts in ecosystem oxidative ratio (OR). OR is the molar ratio of O2 released : CO2 fixed during biosynthesis. Major plant biochemicals vary substantially in oxidative ratio, ranging from average organic acid OR values of 0.75 to average lipid OR values of 1.37 (Masiello et al., 2008). OR is a basic property of ecosystem biochemistry, and is also an essential variable needed to constrain the size of the terrestrial biospheric carbon sink (Keeling et al., 1996). OR is commonly assumed to be 1.10 (e.g. Prentice et al., 2001), but small variations in net ecosystem OR can drive large errors in estimates of the size of the terrestrial carbon sink (Randerson et al., 2006). We hypothesized that interannual changes in climate may drive interannual variation in ecosystem OR values. Working at Kellogg Biological Station NSF LTER, we measured the annual average OR of coniferous and deciduous forests, an early successional forest, and croplands under both corn and soy. There are clear distinctions between individual ecosystems (e.g., the soy crops have a higher OR than the corn crops, and the coniferous forests have a higher OR than the deciduous forests), but the ecosystems themselves retained remarkably constant annual OR values between 1998 and 2008.

  11. Ecosystem feedbacks and nitrogen fixation in boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Thomas H; Zackrisson, Olle; Gundale, Michael J; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2008-05-30

    Biological feedback mechanisms regulate fundamental ecosystem processes and potentially regulate ecosystem productivity. To date, no studies have documented the down-regulation of terrestrial nitrogen (N) fixation via an ecosystem-level feedback mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate such a feedback in boreal forests. Rapid cycling of N in early secondary succession forests yielded greater throughfall N deposition, which in turn decreased N fixation by cyanobacterial associates in feather moss carpets that reside on the forest floor. The forest canopy exerts a tight control on biotic N input at a period of high productivity.

  12. Urban forests and pollution mitigation: analyzing ecosystem services and disservices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Francisco J; Kroeger, Timm; Wagner, John E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the concepts of ecosystem services and disservices when assessing the efficacy of using urban forests for mitigating pollution. A brief review of the literature identifies some pollution mitigation ecosystem services provided by urban forests. Existing ecosystem services definitions and typologies from the economics and ecological literature are adapted and applied to urban forest management and the concepts of ecosystem disservices from natural and semi-natural systems are discussed. Examples of the urban forest ecosystem services of air quality and carbon dioxide sequestration are used to illustrate issues associated with assessing their efficacy in mitigating urban pollution. Development of urban forest management alternatives that mitigate pollution should consider scale, contexts, heterogeneity, management intensities and other social and economic co-benefits, tradeoffs, and costs affecting stakeholders and urban sustainability goals.

  13. Evaluating the Impact of Modern Copper Mining on Ecosystem Services in Southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgone, K.; Brusseau, M. L.; Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Coeurdray, M.; Poupeau, F.

    2014-12-01

    Historic mining practices were conducted with little environmental forethought, and hence generated a legacy of environmental and human-health impacts. However, an awareness and understanding of the impacts of mining on ecosystem services has developed over the past few decades. Ecosystem services are defined as benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems, and upon which they are fundamentally dependent for their survival. Ecosystem services are divided into four categories including provisioning services (i.e., food, water, timber, and fiber); regulating services (i.e., climate, floods, disease, wastes, and water quality); supporting services (i.e., soil formation, photosynthesis, and nutrient cycling) and cultural services (i.e., recreational, aesthetic, and spiritual benefits) (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). Sustainable mining practices have been and are being developed in an effort to protect and preserve ecosystem services. This and related efforts constitute a new generation of "modern" mines, which are defined as those that are designed and permitted under contemporary environmental legislation. The objective of this study is to develop a framework to monitor and assess the impact of modern mining practices and sustainable mineral development on ecosystem services. Using the sustainability performance indicators from the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) as a starting point, we develop a framework that is reflective of and adaptive to specific local conditions. Impacts on surface and groundwater water quality and quantity are anticipated to be of most importance to the southern Arizona region, which is struggling to meet urban and environmental water demands due to population growth and climate change. We seek to build a more comprehensive and effective assessment framework by incorporating socio-economic aspects via community engaged research, including economic valuations, community-initiated environmental monitoring, and environmental human

  14. [Niche comparison of dominant entomopathogenic fungi in three forest ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Jun; Huang, Bo; Li, Zeng-Zhi

    2011-05-01

    An investigation was made on the quantitative composition, niche width, and niche overlap of dominant entomopathogenic fungi in three different forest ecosystems, i.e., natural broad-leaved forest, natural secondary broad-leaved forest, and pure Masson' s pine plantation. In the three forest ecosystems, Beauveria bassiana was the first dominant species in natural secondary broad-leaved forest, the second in pure Masson's pine plantation, and the third in natural broad-leaved forest. B. bassiana had the broadest temporal niche width and nutritional niche width, whereas the dominant species Isaria cateinannulata, L. farinose, and I. tenuipes had much smaller niche widths. Meanwhile, B. bassiana had larger temporal niche overlaps but smaller nutritional niche overlaps with other dominant entomopathogenic fungi. It was suggested that in the three forest ecosystems, B. bassiana had the longest occurrence duration, widest host range, and strongest environmental adaptability.

  15. Integrating forest products with ecosystem services: a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Rachel. White

    2012-01-01

    Around the world forests provide a broad range of vital ecosystem services. Sustainable forest management and forest products play an important role in global carbon management, but one of the major forestry concerns worldwide is reducing the loss of forestland from development. Currently, deforestation accounts for approximately 20% of total greenhouse gas emissions....

  16. Complex trophic interactions in kelp forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. A.; Danner, E.M.; Doak, D.F.; Konar, B.; Springer, A.M.; Steinberg, P.D.; Tinker, M. Tim; Williams, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The distributions and abundances of species and populations change almost continuously. Understanding the processes responsible is perhaps ecology’s most fundamental challenge. Kelp-forest ecosystems in southwest Alaska have undergone several phase shifts between alga- and herbivore-dominated states in recent decades. Overhunting and recovery of sea otters caused the earlier shifts. Studies focusing on these changes demonstrate the importance of top-down forcing processes, a variety of indirect food-web interactions associated with the otter-urchin-kelp trophic cascade, and the role of food-chain length in the coevolution of defense and resistance in plants and their herbivores. This system unexpectedly shifted back to an herbivore-dominated state during the 1990s, because of a sea-otter population collapse that apparently was driven by increased predation by killer whales. Reasons for this change remain uncertain but seem to be linked to the whole-sale collapse of marine mammals in the North Pacific Ocean and southern Bering Sea. We hypothesize that killer whales sequentially "fished down" pinniped and sea-otter populations after their earlier prey, the great whales, were decimated by commercial whaling. The dynamics of kelp forests in southwest Alaska thus appears to have been influenced by an ecological chain reaction that encompassed numerous species and large scales of space and time.

  17. Forest ecosystems: Vegetation, disturbance, and economics: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy S.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Capalbo, Susan M.; Houston, Laurie L.; Glick, Patty

    2013-01-01

    Forests cover about 47% of the Northwest (NW–Washington, Oregon, and Idaho) (Smith et al. 2009, fig. 5.1, table 5.1). The impacts of current and future climate change on NW forest ecosystems are a product of the sensitivities of ecosystem processes to climate and the degree to which humans depend on and interact with those systems. Forest ecosystem structure and function, particularly in relatively unmanaged forests where timber harvest and other land use have smaller effects, is sensitive to climate change because climate has a strong influence on ecosystem processes. Climate can affect forest structure directly through its control of plan physiology and life history (establishment, individual growth, productivity, and morality) or indirectly through its control of disturbance (fire, insects, disease). As climate changes, many forest processes will be affected, altering ecosystem services such as timber production and recreation. These changes have socioeconomic implications (e.g. for timber economies) and will require changes to current management of forests. Climate and management will interact to determine the forests of the future, and the scientific basis for adaptation to climate change in forests thus depends significantly on how forests will be affected.

  18. Post-Fire Evapotranspiration and Net Ecosystem Exchange over A Semi-Arid Grassland in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P.; Meyers, T. P.; Heuer, M.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of evapotranspiration (E) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) following a fire disturbance over a semi -arid grassland located on the Audubon Research Ranch in south western Arizona (31.5907N, 110.5104W, elevation 1496 m), USA, and their relationships to environmental variables were examined using continuous measurements of water vapour and CO2 fluxes made from first week of June 2002 to 2009 using the eddy covariance technique. The research ranch was established in 1969 as an ecological research preserve and it is now one of the largest ungrazed, privately managed grassland sites in Arizona. A wild fire occurred in April - May 2002, and burned all the standing vegetation and litter on in research ranch (~38,000 acres) including 500 acres of grassland. The mean annual temperature and precipitation (P) at this site were ~16 deg C and ~370 mm, respectively. More than 60% of the annual P was received during the North American monsoon period (July-September) with the lowest annual P in the drought years of 2004 and 2009. Drastic changes in albedo, vegetation growth and evapotranspiration occurred following the onset of the monsoon season in July. The ecosystem was mostly a carbon sink during monsoon period. Daily total evapotranspiration during July-August increased from 2 mm d-1 in 2002 to >3 mm d-1 in 2007. The mean annual E over the site was during 2003 -2009 was 352 ±75 mm. With the onset of monsoon the ecosystem turned to carbon sink in 2002, with daily total net ecosystem exchange (NEE) varying up to ~<-2 g C m-2, by mid-July to August 2002. It was followed by one of the driest monsoon period on the record (2003) with <50% of normal July-September P. Because of this, the recovery of the ecosystem was delayed. During 2002-2009, the ecosystem was mostly a carbon source except in 2006 an year with high growing season Normalized-difference vegetation index, longest monsoon growing season and the highest annual and July

  19. Forest ecosystem services and eco-compensation mechanisms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  20. Forest Ecosystem Services and Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  1. The impact of forest thinning on the reliability of water supply in central Arizona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Simonit

    Full Text Available Economic growth in Central Arizona, as in other semiarid systems characterized by low and variable rainfall, has historically depended on the effectiveness of strategies to manage water supply risks. Traditionally, the management of supply risks includes three elements: hard infrastructures, landscape management within the watershed, and a supporting set of institutions of which water markets are frequently the most important. In this paper we model the interactions between these elements. A forest restoration initiative in Central Arizona (the Four Forest Restoration Initiative, or 4FRI will result in thinning of ponderosa pine forests in the upper watershed, with potential implications for both sedimentation rates and water delivery to reservoirs. Specifically, we model the net effect of ponderosa pine forest thinning across the Salt and Verde River watersheds on the reliability and cost of water supply to the Phoenix metropolitan area. We conclude that the sediment impacts of forest thinning (up to 50% of canopy cover are unlikely to compromise the reliability of the reservoir system while thinning has the potential to increase annual water supply by 8%. This represents an estimated net present value of surface water storage of $104 million, considering both water consumption and hydropower generation.

  2. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests.

  3. A large-scale forest fragmentation experiment: the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems Project

    OpenAIRE

    Ewers, Robert M.; Didham, Raphael K.; Fahrig, Lenore; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Hector, Andy; Holt, Robert D; Kapos, Valerie; Reynolds, Glen; Sinun, Waidi; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunities to conduct large-scale field experiments are rare, but provide a unique opportunity to reveal the complex processes that operate within natural ecosystems. Here, we review the design of existing, large-scale forest fragmentation experiments. Based on this review, we develop a design for the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project, a new forest fragmentation experiment to be located in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). The SAFE Project repres...

  4. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  5. Spatial patterns of ecosystem carbon residence time in Chinese forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Capacity of carbon sequestration in forest ecosystem largely depends on the trend of net primary production (NPP) and the length of ecosystem carbon residence time. Retrieving spatial patterns of ecosystem carbon residence time is important and necessary for accurately predicting regional carbon cycles in the future. In this study, a data-model fusion method that combined a process-based regional carbon model (TECO-R) with various ground-based ecosystem observations (NPP, biomass, and soil organic carbon) and auxiliary data sets (NDVI, meteorological data, and maps of vegetation and soil texture) was applied to estimate spatial patterns of ecosystem carbon residence time in Chinese forests at steady state. In the data-model fusion, the genetic algorithm was used to estimate the optimal model parameters related with the ecosystem carbon residence time by minimizing total deviation between modeled and observed values. The results indicated that data-model fusion technology could effectively retrieve model parameters and simulate carbon cycling processes for Chinese forest ecosystems. The estimated carbon residence times were highly heterogenous over China, with most of regions having values between 24 and 70 years. The deciduous needleleaf forest and the evergreen needleleaf forest had the highest averaged carbon residence times (73.8 and 71.3 years, respectively), the mixed forest and the deciduous broadleaf forest had moderate values (38.1 and 37.3 years, respectively), and the evergreen broadleaf forest had the lowest value (31.7 years). The averaged carbon residence time of forest ecosystems in China was 57.8 years.

  6. Which type of forest management provides most ecosystem services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forest ecosystems are increasingly seen as multi-functional production systems, which should provide, besides timber and economic benefits, also other ecosystem services related to biological diversity, recreational uses and environmental functions of forests. This study analyzed the performance of even-aged rotation forest management (RFM, continuous cover forestry (CCF and any-aged forestry (AAF in the production of ecosystem services. AAF allows both even-aged and uneven-aged management schedules. The ecosystem services included in the analyses were net present value, volume of harvested timber, cowberry and bilberry yields, scenic value of the forest, carbon balance and suitability of the forest to Siberian jay. Methods: Data envelopment analysis was used to derive numerical efficiency ratios for the three management systems. Efficiency ratio is the sum of weighted outputs (ecosystem services divided by the sum of weighted inputs. The linear programing model proposed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes was used to derive the weights for calculating efficiency scores for the silvicultural systems. Results and conclusions: CCF provided more ecosystem services than RFM, and CCF was more efficient than RFM and AAF in the production of ecosystem services. Multi-objective management provided more ecosystem services (except harvested timber than single-objective management that maximized economic profitability. The use of low discount rate (resulting in low cutting level and high growing stock volume led to better supply of most ecosystems services than the use of high discount rate. RFM where NPV was maximized with high discount rate led to particularly poor provision of most ecosystem services. In CCF the provision of ecosystem services was less sensitive to changes in discount rate and management objective than in RFM. Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, Production efficiency, Multi-objective management, Multi-functional forestry

  7. Changing Forest Values and Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston

    1994-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that we are currently in a period of rapid and significant change in forest values. Some have charged that managing forests in ways that are responsive to diverse and changing forest values is the main challenge faced by public forest managers. To tackle this challenge, we need to address the following questions: (1) What is the nature of...

  8. Dealing with reducing trends in forest ecosystem services through a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Adaptation, forest ecosystem, land use land cover change, REDD, vulnerability, West Africa. ... that contributes actively to global warming (Kanninen et al., 2007). This is ..... Djomga and Gnalalaye villages, a complete extinction of.

  9. Late Holocene geomorphic record of fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests, Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S.E.; Hull, Sieg C.; Anderson, D.E.; Kaufman, D.S.; Pearthree, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term fire history reconstructions enhance our understanding of fire behaviour and associated geomorphic hazards in forested ecosystems. We used 14C ages on charcoal from fire-induced debris-flow deposits to date prehistoric fires on Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA. Fire-related debris-flow sedimentation dominates Holocene fan deposition in the study area. Radiocarbon ages indicate that stand-replacing fire has been an important phenomenon in late Holocene ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and ponderosa pine-mixed conifer forests on steep slopes. Fires have occurred on centennial scales during this period, although temporal hiatuses between recorded fires vary widely and appear to have decreased during the past 2000 years. Steep slopes and complex terrain may be responsible for localised crown fire behaviour through preheating by vertical fuel arrangement and accumulation of excessive fuels. Holocene wildfire-induced debris flow events occurred without a clear relationship to regional climatic shifts (decadal to millennial), suggesting that interannual moisture variability may determine fire year. Fire-debris flow sequences are recorded when (1) sufficient time has passed (centuries) to accumulate fuels; and (2) stored sediment is available to support debris flows. The frequency of reconstructed debris flows should be considered a minimum for severe events in the study area, as fuel production may outpace sediment storage. ?? IAWF 2011.

  10. Ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types: understanding the interactions and suggesting pathways for sustaining multiple ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Turton, Stephen M; Macgregor, Colin J; Pert, Petina L

    2016-10-01

    As ecosystem services supply from tropical forests is declining due to deforestation and forest degradation, much effort is essential to sustain ecosystem services supply from tropical forested landscapes, because tropical forests provide the largest flow of multiple ecosystem services among the terrestrial ecosystems. In order to sustain multiple ecosystem services, understanding ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types and identifying certain ecosystem services that could be managed to leverage positive effects across the wider bundle of ecosystem services are required. We sampled three forest types, tropical rainforests, sclerophyll forests, and rehabilitated plantation forests, over an area of 32,000m(2) from Wet Tropics bioregion, Australia, aiming to compare supply and evaluate interactions and patterns of eight ecosystem services (global climate regulation, air quality regulation, erosion regulation, nutrient regulation, cyclone protection, habitat provision, energy provision, and timber provision). On average, multiple ecosystem services were highest in the rainforests, lowest in sclerophyll forests, and intermediate in rehabilitated plantation forests. However, a wide variation was apparent among the plots across the three forest types. Global climate regulation service had a synergistic impact on the supply of multiple ecosystem services, while nutrient regulation service was found to have a trade-off impact. Considering multiple ecosystem services, most of the rehabilitated plantation forest plots shared the same ordination space with rainforest plots in the ordination analysis, indicating that rehabilitated plantation forests may supply certain ecosystem services nearly equivalent to rainforests. Two synergy groups and one trade-off group were identified. Apart from conserving rainforests and sclerophyll forests, our findings suggest two additional integrated pathways to sustain the supply of multiple ecosystem services from a

  11. A tool for assessing ecological status of forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman Kassim, Abd; Afizzul Misman, Muhammad; Azahari Faidi, Mohd; Omar, Hamdan

    2016-06-01

    Managers and policy makers are beginning to appreciate the value of ecological monitoring of artificially regenerated forest especially in urban areas. With the advent of more advance technology in precision forestry, high resolution remotely sensed data e.g. hyperspectral and LiDAR are becoming available for rapid and precise assessment of the forest condition. An assessment of ecological status of forest ecosystem was developed and tested using FRIM campus forest stand. The forest consisted of three major blocks; the old growth artificially regenerated native species forests, naturally regenerated forest and recent planted forest for commercial timber and other forest products. Our aim is to assess the ecological status and its proximity to the mature old growth artificially regenerated stand. We used airborne LiDAR, orthophoto and thirty field sampling quadrats of 20x20m for ground verification. The parameter assessments were grouped into four broad categories: a. forest community level-composition, structures, function; landscape structures-road network and forest edges. A metric of parameters and rating criteria was introduced as indicators of the forest ecological status. We applied multi-criteria assessment to categorize the ecological status of the forest stand. The paper demonstrates the application of the assessment approach using FRIM campus forest as its first case study. Its potential application to both artificially and naturally regenerated forest in the variety of Malaysian landscape is discussed

  12. Modelling natural disturbances in forest ecosystems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, R.; Fernandes, P.M.; Fonseca, T.F.; Gillet, F.; Jöhnsson, A.M.; Merganičová, K.; Netherer, S.; Arpaci, A.; Bontemps, J.D.; Bugmann, H.; González-Olabarria, J.R.; Lasch, P.; Meredieu, C.; Moreira, F.; Schelhaas, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Natural disturbances play a key role in ecosystem dynamics and are important factors for sustainable forest ecosystem management. Quantitative models are frequently employed to tackle the complexities associated with disturbance processes. Here we review the wide variety of approaches to modelling n

  13. Modelling natural disturbances in forest ecosystems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, R.; Fernandes, P.M.; Fonseca, T.F.; Gillet, F.; Jöhnsson, A.M.; Merganičová, K.; Netherer, S.; Arpaci, A.; Bontemps, J.D.; Bugmann, H.; González-Olabarria, J.R.; Lasch, P.; Meredieu, C.; Moreira, F.; Schelhaas, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Natural disturbances play a key role in ecosystem dynamics and are important factors for sustainable forest ecosystem management. Quantitative models are frequently employed to tackle the complexities associated with disturbance processes. Here we review the wide variety of approaches to modelling n

  14. Application of artificial intelligence to risk analysis for forested ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2001-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances that extract a penalty from human population values. Such value losses (undesirable effects) combined with their likelihoods of occurrence constitute risk. Assessment or prediction of risk for various events is an important aid to forest management. Artificial intelligence (AI)...

  15. Restoring longleaf pine forest ecosystems in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale G. Brockway; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Donald J. Tomczak; E. E. Johnson

    2002-01-01

    Longleafpine (Pinus palustris) forests were historically one of the most extensive ecosystems in North America, covering 38 million ha along the coastal plain from Texas to Virginia and extending into central Florida and the Piedmont and mountains of Alabama and Georgia. Throughout its domain. longleaf pine occurred in forests, woodlands and savannas...

  16. Analysis of litter mesofauna of Poltava region forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of research of litter mesofauna of 48 forest biogeocenoses the regularities of invertebrate communities formation on the species and families levels are determined. The degree of similarity of test plots are analysed by taxonomic structure of the communities. The factors of the litter invertebrate communities formation in forest ecosystems of the Poltava region are revealed.

  17. Advances of Air Pollution Science: From Forest Decline to Multiple-Stress Effects on Forest Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Paoletti; M. Schaub; R. Matyssek; G. Wieser; A. Augustaitis; A. M. Bastrup-Birk; A. Bytnerowicz; M. S. Gunthardt-Goerg; G. Muller-Starck; Y. Serengil

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of...

  18. Parameterisation of Biome BGC to assess forest ecosystems in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sishir; Pietsch, Stephan A.

    2010-05-01

    African forest ecosystems are an important environmental and economic resource. Several studies show that tropical forests are critical to society as economic, environmental and societal resources. Tropical forests are carbon dense and thus play a key role in climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, the response of tropical forests to environmental change is largely unknown owing to insufficient spatially extensive observations. Developing regions like Africa where records of forest management for long periods are unavailable the process-based ecosystem simulation model - BIOME BGC could be a suitable tool to explain forest ecosystem dynamics. This ecosystem simulation model uses descriptive input parameters to establish the physiology, biochemistry, structure, and allocation patterns within vegetation functional types, or biomes. Undocumented parameters for larger-resolution simulations are currently the major limitations to regional modelling in African forest ecosystems. This study was conducted to document input parameters for BIOME-BGC for major natural tropical forests in the Congo basin. Based on available literature and field measurements updated values for turnover and mortality, allometry, carbon to nitrogen ratios, allocation of plant material to labile, cellulose, and lignin pools, tree morphology and other relevant factors were assigned. Daily climate input data for the model applications were generated using the statistical weather generator MarkSim. The forest was inventoried at various sites and soil samples of corresponding stands across Gabon were collected. Carbon and nitrogen in the collected soil samples were determined from soil analysis. The observed tree volume, soil carbon and soil nitrogen were then compared with the simulated model outputs to evaluate the model performance. Furthermore, the simulation using Congo Basin specific parameters and generalised BIOME BGC parameters for tropical evergreen broadleaved tree species were also

  19. Learning in Virtual Forest: A Forest Ecosystem in the Web-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussila, Terttu; Virtanen, Viivi

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Forest is a web-based, open-access learning environment about forests designed for primary-school pupils between the ages of 10 and 13 years. It is pedagogically designed to develop an understanding of ecology, to enhance conceptual development and to give a holistic view of forest ecosystems. Various learning tools, such as concept maps,…

  20. Learning in Virtual Forest: A Forest Ecosystem in the Web-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussila, Terttu; Virtanen, Viivi

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Forest is a web-based, open-access learning environment about forests designed for primary-school pupils between the ages of 10 and 13 years. It is pedagogically designed to develop an understanding of ecology, to enhance conceptual development and to give a holistic view of forest ecosystems. Various learning tools, such as concept maps,…

  1. Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network and Its Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGBing; CUIXianghui; YANGFengwei

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network, estabfished in late 1950's and directly constructed and administered by the Science and Technology Department of State Forestry Administration of China,is a large ecology research network focuses on long-term ecosystem fixed-observation. It embodies 15 sites that represent diverse ecosystems and research priorities, including 6 state-level sites. CFERN Office coordinates communications, network publications, and research-planning activities. CFERN uses the advanced ground and spatial observation technologies such as RS, GPS, GIS to study the structure, functional laws and feedback mechanism of Chinese forest ecosystem, as well as its effects on China's social and economic development. The main tasks carried out by CFERN are: (1) construction of the database on the structure and functions of Chinese forest ecosystem and its ecological environmental factors; (2) the database construction of forest resources, ecological environment, water resources and related social economy in both regional and national scales; (3) the establishment of an evaluation system of forest ecological effects in China's main drainage areas; (4) the estabfishment of a forest environment monitoring network and a dynamic prediction and alarm system.

  2. Ecosystem Services and Forest Management in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna

    The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the impacts of forest management on provision of non-market ecosystem services and identify trade-offs and synergies for forestry decision-making in the Nordic countries. First, existing scientific literature on assessments...... of several non-market ecosystem services in relation to forest management and the extent of their integration into decision support was systematically reviewed in Paper I. The findings suggest an uneven and limited coverage of services in the reviewed literature. Existing assessments are in their majority...... confined to a single research domain and focus on a single non-market ecosystem service. The same trends have been revealed in studies on decision support. In the next three papers impacts of forest management on provision of different ecosystem services were investigated. In Paper II a structured expert...

  3. Ecosystem Services and Forest Management in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna

    of several non-market ecosystem services in relation to forest management and the extent of their integration into decision support was systematically reviewed in Paper I. The findings suggest an uneven and limited coverage of services in the reviewed literature. Existing assessments are in their majority......The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the impacts of forest management on provision of non-market ecosystem services and identify trade-offs and synergies for forestry decision-making in the Nordic countries. First, existing scientific literature on assessments...... confined to a single research domain and focus on a single non-market ecosystem service. The same trends have been revealed in studies on decision support. In the next three papers impacts of forest management on provision of different ecosystem services were investigated. In Paper II a structured expert...

  4. Water cycle investigations in Hungarian forest ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judit Sitkey

    2006-01-01

    From the biological point of view the value of autotrophy plant association is determined by the carbon fixation and the carbon cycle. Among the plant associations of Hungary, forest has the largest biological carbon fixation and carbon cycle. In general,the annual water cycle is the key factor in the organic material production of the Hungarian forests. The most intensive water consumption and organic material production take place from May till July, which period is named main water consumption and respectively main growing period. In Hungary the categories of the forest climate are characterized by main tree species and based on the forest climate covers 8% of the forest area, hornbeam-oak forest climate covers 22%, sessile oak-Turkey oak forest climate covers48% and forest steppe climate covers 22%. Partly in the frame of ICP-Forests, the Department of Ecology in the Forest Research Institute carries out long term, complex ecophysiological investigations on several sample plots (so-called basic plots) throughout the whole country. The organic material production (growth), the nutrient and water cycle, the measurements of air pollutants and meteorological parameters, as well as chemical analyses are all part of the investigations. As a comparison the figure of two basic plotsforest steppe climate in the hydrological year of 2001-2002. In the Hungarian forest 60%-70% of the precipitation is used for interception, evaporation, and in the vegetation season, for the transpiration both in beech and forest steppe climate. From other point of view, only 30%-40% of the open air precipitation infiltrates into the soil and can be utilized by the forest.

  5. Managing Forests for Water in the Anthropocene—The Best Kept Secret Services of Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena F. Creed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water and forests are inextricably linked. Pressures on forests from population growth and climate change are increasing risks to forests and their aquatic ecosystem services (AES. There is a need to incorporate AES in forest management but there is considerable uncertainty about how to do so. Approaches that manage forest ecosystem services such as fiber, water and carbon sequestration independently ignore the inherent complexities of ecosystem services and their responses to management actions, with the potential for unintended consequences that are difficult to predict. The ISO 31000 Risk Management Standard is a standardized framework to assess risks to forest AES and to prioritize management strategies to manage risks within tolerable ranges. The framework consists of five steps: establishing the management context, identifying, analyzing, evaluating and treating the risks. Challenges to implementing the framework include the need for novel models and indicators to assess forest change and resilience, quantification of linkages between forest practice and AES, and the need for an integrated systems approach to assess cumulative effects and stressors on forest ecosystems and AES. In the face of recent international agreements to protect forests, there are emerging opportunities for international leadership to address these challenges in order to protect both forests and AES.

  6. Considerations on forest ecosystems evolution in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru COCÎRȚĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain statistical data on forest ecosystems evolution in Republic of Moldova’s territory in 200 years period are analyzed in the article.  The history of forest fund and ecosystems’ development on the territory between Prut andNistru Rivers and of data presentation methods during different periods of territories’social economical development is summarized. Forest ecosystems development issues instudy and specifically those of forests’ continuity and conservation are extremely important for Republic of Moldova, which is a country with high population density, oldtraditions in agricultural branch and with a major negative attitude towards biological diversity maintaining and forest ecosystems’ viable development. Goals and objectives of the present work are to analyze forest evolution and to identifyhigher priority issues in order to rectify the situation in forest sector in Republic of Moldova. Basic characteristics of forest ecosystems are presented and causes of differences in datainterpretation were described on the basis of statistical data study and analysis during different periods and from different sources, as well as maps dated 1910 and 2004. Certainbasic elements of ecological management in forestry that exist in Republic of Moldova in present are described, such as legal normative base, infrastructure and others. The final part of work contains conclusions and some suggestions on forest ecosystems’viable development in Republic of Moldova according to European and internationalrequirements.

  7. Role of Forest Resources to Local Livelihoods: The Case of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Langat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Kenya are threatened by unsustainable uses and conversion to alternative land uses. In spite of the consequences of forest degradation and biodiversity loss and reliance of communities on forests livelihoods, there is little empirical data on the role of forest resources in livelihoods of the local communities. Socioeconomic, demographic, and forest use data were obtained by interviewing 367 households. Forest product market survey was undertaken to determine prices of various forest products for valuation of forest use. Forest income was significant to households contributing 33% of total household income. Fuel wood contributed 50%, food (27%, construction material (18%, and fodder, and thatching material 5% to household forest income. Absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were not significantly different across study locations and between ethnic groups. However, absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were significantly different among wealth classes. Poor households were more dependent on forests resources. However, in absolute terms, the rich households derived higher forest income. These results provide valuable information on the role of forest resources to livelihoods and could be applied in developing forest conservation policies for enhanced ecosystem services and livelihoods.

  8. 76 FR 51936 - Coconino and Kaibab National Forests, Arizona, Four-Forest Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... forests had widely-spaced large trees with a more open, herbaceous forest floor (Cooper 1960). These... disturbances and are vulnerable to large-scale disturbances such as changing climatic conditions...

  9. 76 FR 50168 - Coconino and Kaibab National Forests, Arizona, Four-Forest Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... century ago the pine forests had widely-spaced large trees with a more open, herbaceous forest floor... climatic conditions (drought), fire, insect, and disease. Purpose and Need for Action In contrast to...

  10. 75 FR 9388 - Prescott National Forest, Bradshaw Ranger District; Arizona; Bradshaw Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: This project is a proposal to improve the health of fire adapted ecosystems while simultaneously reducing hazardous fuels on the Bradshaw Ranger District. The project area encompasses about 55...

  11. Evaluation of the forest ecosystem health in Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Li; Han Hai-rong; Ma Qin-yan; Liu Hong-wen; Xia Wei-wei; Cheng Xiao-qin

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of ecosystem health has become one of the main research topics of ecosystem science, thus more and more assessment methods and frameworks have been put forward in recent years. However, the attention people pay to ecosystem health is actually more about what the social functions the ecosystem affords, which depend on the integrity and maintenance of the ecosystem structure and function, and the intensity of disturbance from outside. Accordingly, this research commenced from three main aspects,selected the evaluation indices, and then established the Evaluation Index System of Beijing Forest Ecosystem Health (EIS-BFEH).In the EIS-BFEH, each of the three foundations contained an easily-operated and standard sub-index system, which compounded the specific natural and social conditions of Beijing and was concrete enough to measure and evaluate. Then with the method of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), the comprehensive index (CI) could be obtained, which represented the health of the forest ecosystem. As a case study, the forest ecosystems in the Badaling area were sampled, evaluated, compared and ranked by use of the EIS-BFEH. The result show that the health of natural forests is much better than that of plantations in the Badaling forest center: the average comprehensive index of the former is 7.9, while the latter is only 6.6. From the results, it could also be found that there are nine units in the healthy state, two units in the subhealthy state, and only one unit of Robinia pseudoacacia in the morbid state.

  12. Storm disturbance in forest ecosystems in Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilisson, T.; Metslaid, M.; Vodde, F.; Jogiste, K.; Kurm, M.

    2005-01-01

    Several storms have damaged Estonian forests in recent years. Individual tree properties such as diameter at breast height (dbh) and tree height affect the type of damage (stem breakage or uprooting) and influence the formation of postdisturbance forest structure. The aim of this study was to analys

  13. Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan D. DeSantis; W. Keith Moser

    2016-01-01

    Forest health will likely be threatened by a number of factors - including fragmentation, fire regime alteration, and a variety of diseases, insects, and invasive plants - along with global climate change (Krist et al. 2007, Tkacz et al. 2008). By itself, global climate change could dramatically and rapidly alter forest composition and structure (Allen and Breshears...

  14. Spatial Aspects of the Provision of Forest Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg

    The research objective of this thesis is to examine the importance of spatial landscape patterns for the provision of forest ecosystem services and the implications for effective land management and policy decisions. This thesis presents four papers providing different approaches to the incorpora......The research objective of this thesis is to examine the importance of spatial landscape patterns for the provision of forest ecosystem services and the implications for effective land management and policy decisions. This thesis presents four papers providing different approaches...... to the incorporation of spatial factors into cost and benefit evaluation of FES provision. Focus is on assessing where forest ecosystem provision should be undertaken, determinants of private stakeholder provision efforts and welfare consequences of changes in the provision level. Provision of carbon sequestration...

  15. First intl symposium on acid precipitation and the forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultberg, H.; Grahn, O.; Pough, F.H.; Parsons, J.D.; McFee, W.W.; Hornbeck, J.W.; Mayer, R.

    1977-03-01

    Ion separation of acid air pollutants out of snow causes sudden, deep pH drops in lakes and running waters at an early stage of snowmelting. These pH drops have drastic effects on fish populations and are considered the main cause of changes in the microflora already at an early stage of acidification. Effects of acid precipitation on: salamanders, various aquatic ecosystems, and the soils of forests surrounding the lakes are discussed. Seasonal patterns in acidity of precipitation and their implications for forest stream ecosystems are examined. The acidity of throughfall precipitation is found to increase with the filtering of sulfur and nitrogen from the atmosphere by trees. As a consequence of acidification, losses of nutrients occur in the soils, and the growth patterns of the trees are affected. Methods of dealing with acid rainfall and the damaging effects of forest and aquatic ecosystems are described. (numerous diagrams, drawings, graphs, maps, photos, references, tables)

  16. Fitting rainfall interception models to forest ecosystems of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Návar, José

    2017-05-01

    Models that accurately predict forest interception are essential both for water balance studies and for assessing watershed responses to changes in land use and the long-term climate variability. This paper compares the performance of four rainfall interception models-the sparse Gash (1995), Rutter et al. (1975), Liu (1997) and two new models (NvMxa and NvMxb)-using data from four spatially extensive, structurally diverse forest ecosystems in Mexico. Ninety-eight case studies measuring interception in tropical dry (25), arid/semi-arid (29), temperate (26), and tropical montane cloud forests (18) were compiled and analyzed. Coefficients derived from raw data or published statistical relationships were used as model input to evaluate multi-storm forest interception at the case study scale. On average empirical data showed that, tropical montane cloud, temperate, arid/semi-arid and tropical dry forests intercepted 14%, 18%, 22% and 26% of total precipitation, respectively. The models performed well in predicting interception, with mean deviations between measured and modeled interception as a function of total precipitation (ME) generally 0.66. Model fitting precision was dependent on the forest ecosystem. Arid/semi-arid forests exhibited the smallest, while tropical montane cloud forest displayed the largest ME deviations. Improved agreement between measured and modeled data requires modification of in-storm evaporation rate in the Liu; the canopy storage in the sparse Gash model; and the throughfall coefficient in the Rutter and the NvMx models. This research concludes on recommending the wide application of rainfall interception models with some caution as they provide mixed results. The extensive forest interception data source, the fitting and testing of four models, the introduction of a new model, and the availability of coefficient values for all four forest ecosystems are an important source of information and a benchmark for future investigations in this

  17. Evaluation of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of forest ecosystem services is a hot topic,both in China and at abroad,but it has not yet obtained a consistency of evaluation indicator systems and evaluation methods.Under the framework of evaluation criteria to be implemented for forest ecosystem services,years of consecutive observation data from Long Term Ecological Research Stations affiliated to Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network(CFERN),forest resource inventory and public data were applied to carry out a detailed and dynamic evaluation on the physical quantity and value of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China.The results showed that the above services had the total value and unit value of 1144.9640 billion(1.1449640×10 12 )RMB and 52.074 thousand RMB per hectare per year,respectively during the 9th Five-year Plan(1996―2000),and of 1190.5461 billion RMB and 52.101 thousand RMB per hectare per year,respectively,during the 10th Five-year Plan(2001―2005).For Chinese pine forests,water conservation was 40.40 hundred million cubic meters annually,soil conservation was 67 million tons and C fixation 9 million tons annually,production of healthful negative ions was 1.96×10 20 , absorption of SO2 was 5.02 hundred million kilograms and dust-catching was 759.10 hundred million kilograms. Among the 15 provinces of China with Chinese pine forests,the biggest beneficiary from ecosystem services was Liaoning Province;while Hunan Province was the smallest beneficiary between the 9th Five-year Plan.

  18. Evaluation of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hao; WANG Bing; MA XiangQian; ZHAO GuangDong; LI ShaoNing

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of forest ecosystem services is a hot topic, both in China and at abroad, but it has not yet obtained a consistency of evaluation indicator systems and evaluation methods. Under the framework of evaluation criteda to be implemented for forest ecosystem services, years of consecutive observation data from Long Term Eco-logical Research Stations affiliated to Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network (CFERN), forest resource inventory and public data were applied to carry out a detailed and dynamic evaluation on the physical quantity and value of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China. The results showed that the above services had the total value and unit value of 1144.9640 billion (1.1449640×1012) RMB and 52.074 thousand RMB per hectare per year, respectively during the 9th Five-year Plan (1996-2000), and of 1190.5461 billion RMB and 52.101 thousand RMB per hectare per year, respectively, during the 10th Five-year Plan (2001-2005). For Chinese pine forests, water conservation was 40.40 hundred million cubic meters annually, soil conservation was 67 million tons and C fixation 9 million tons annually, production of healthful negative ions was 1.96×1020, absorption of SO2 was 5.02 hundred million kilograms and dust-catching was 759.10 hundred million kilograms. Among the 15 provinces of China with Chinese pine forests, the biggest beneficiary from ecosystem services was Liaoning Province; while Hunan Province was the smallest beneficiary between the 9th Five-year Plan.

  19. Managing Forest Ecosystem Services for Hydropower Production

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Adrian L.; Dennedy-Frank, P. James; Wolny, Stacie; Johnson, Justin A.; Hamel, Perrine; Narain, Urvashi; Vaidya, Anil

    2016-01-01

    In many countries, hydropower development is rapidly becoming a focus of green growth policies. This represents a significant opportunity for ecosystem services-based land management that integrates environmental and development goals to benefit the hydropower sector and support economic growth. In this study, we present an approach for targeting ecosystem-provision investment in hydropower catchments coupled with hydrologic modeling to quantify the benefits of soil and water conservation act...

  20. [Edge effect and its impacts on forest ecosystem: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Yang, Xin-bing; Liu, Yang

    2011-08-01

    Edge effect is an important concept in ecology and biological conservation, playing an important role in the study of ecological processes such as energy and material flow at ecosystem scale and landscape scale. This paper expatiated the connotation, features, quantitative evaluation (basis of quantitative analysis, strength, impact zone, and models, etc.), and applied aspects of edge effect, summarized the impacts of edge effect on forest ecosystem, analyzed the deficiencies in the study of edge effect, and prospected related research directions, aimed to provide references for forest and protected area management.

  1. Modelling of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R.; Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.

    1998-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident has clearly shown the long-term effects of a radioactive contamination of forest ecosystems. This report is based on a literature review of models which describe the migration of radionuclides, radioactive caesium in particular, in forest ecosystems. The report describes the particularities of the forest ecosystem, the time dynamics of the contamination, the transfer processes and factors influencing caesium migration. This provides a basis for a discussion of different approaches for modelling caesium migration in the forest. It is concluded that the studied dynamic models include the most relevant transfer processes both for the acute and the long-term phase after a radioactive deposition. However, most models are site specific and do not consider some of the factors responsible for the differences in radionuclide behaviour and distribution in different types of forests. Although model improvements are constrained by the availability of experimental data and by the lack of knowledge of the migration mechanisms some possible improvements are discussed. This report is part of the LANDSCAPE project. -An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in the semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. 42 refs, 3 tabs, 9 figs.

  2. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  3. Integrating ecosystem services into national Forest Service policy and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Deal; Lisa Fong; Erin Phelps; Emily Weidner; Jonas Epstein; Tommie Herbert; Mary Snieckus; Nikola Smith; Tania Ellersick; Greg Arthaud

    2017-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept describes the many benefits people receive from nature. It highlights the importance of managing public and private lands sustainably to ensure these benefits continue into the future, and it closely aligns with the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) mission to “sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the Nation’s forests and...

  4. Hessian forest ecosystem study. Forest report 2005. Weather, oaks; Waldoekosystemstudie Hessen. Waldzustandsbericht 2005. Witterung, Eiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, U.; Gawehn, P.; Scheler, B.; Schmidt, M.; Schoenfelder, E.; Eichhorn, J. (comps.) [Hessen-Forst FIV - Forsteinrichtung, Information, Versuchswesen, Hannoversch Muenden (Germany). Fachgebiet fuer Waldoekosystemstudie Hessen/Forsthydrologie

    2005-07-01

    The Hessian Forest Ecosystem Study aims to document and explore changes of forest ecosystems as a result of emissions and climatic influences. Thus, it contributes importantly to a multifunctional and sustainable forest management. Crown condition assessment results show only slight differences compared to the previous year (over all defoliation 2004: 25%, 2005: 26%). Vitality of oak proved a significant increase of defoliation, closely correlated to insect damage in 2005. Crown condition of oak is worse in the Hessian Rhein-Main area compared to the whole country. In contradiction to other species beech shows some regeneration in 2005. Deposition of sulfur and acid components has been on a low level. A high deposition of nitrogen compounds needs further reduction. Long term monitoring of forest ecosystems allows interpretation of climate based effects on forests. (orig.)

  5. Different cesium-137 transfers to forest and stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N; Iwamoto, Aimu; Okada, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of (137)Cs movement across different ecosystems is crucial for projecting the environmental impact and management of nuclear contamination events. Here, we report differential movement of (137)Cs in adjacent forest and stream ecosystems. The food webs of the forest and stream ecosystems in our study were similar, in that they were both dominated by detrital-based food webs and the basal energy source was terrestrial litter. However, the concentration of (137)Cs in stream litter was significantly lower than in forest litter, the result of (137)Cs leaching from litter in stream water. The difference in (137)Cs concentrations between the two types of litter was reflected in the (137)Cs concentrations in the animal community. While the importance of (137)Cs fallout and the associated transfer to food webs has been well studied, research has been primarily limited to cases in a single ecosystem. Our results indicate that there are differences in the flow of (137)Cs through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and that (137)Cs concentrations are reduced in both basal food resources and higher trophic animals in aquatic systems, where primary production is subsidized by a neighboring terrestrial ecosystem.

  6. Comparing approaches to spatially explicit ecosystem service modeling: a case study from the San Pedro River, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius J.; Winthrop, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of ecosystem service modeling tools has grown in recent years, quantitative comparative studies of these tools have been lacking. In this study, we applied two leading open-source, spatially explicit ecosystem services modeling tools – Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) – to the San Pedro River watershed in southeast Arizona, USA, and northern Sonora, Mexico. We modeled locally important services that both modeling systems could address – carbon, water, and scenic viewsheds. We then applied managerially relevant scenarios for urban growth and mesquite management to quantify ecosystem service changes. InVEST and ARIES use different modeling approaches and ecosystem services metrics; for carbon, metrics were more similar and results were more easily comparable than for viewsheds or water. However, findings demonstrate similar gains and losses of ecosystem services and conclusions when comparing effects across our scenarios. Results were more closely aligned for landscape-scale urban-growth scenarios and more divergent for a site-scale mesquite-management scenario. Follow-up studies, including testing in different geographic contexts, can improve our understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these and other ecosystem services modeling tools as they move closer to readiness for supporting day-to-day resource management.

  7. Density-dependent vulnerability of forest ecosystems to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Alessandra; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Palik, Brian J.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn; Battaglia, Mike A.; Asherin, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    1. Climate models predict increasing drought intensity and frequency for many regions, which may have negative consequences for tree recruitment, growth and mortality, as well as forest ecosystem services. Furthermore, practical strategies for minimizing vulnerability to drought are limited. Tree population density, a metric of tree abundance in a given area, is a primary driver of competitive intensity among trees, which influences tree growth and mortality. Manipulating tree population density may be a mechanism for moderating drought-induced stress and growth reductions, although the relationship between tree population density and tree drought vulnerability remains poorly quantified, especially across climatic gradients.2. In this study, we examined three long-term forest ecosystem experiments in two widely distributed North American pine species, ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa (Lawson & C. Lawson) and red pine Pinus resinosa (Aiton), to better elucidate the relationship between tree population density, growth and drought. These experiments span a broad latitude and aridity range and include tree population density treatments that have been purposefully maintained for several decades. We investigated how tree population density influenced resistance (growth during drought) and resilience (growth after drought compared to pre-drought growth) of stand-level growth during and after documented drought events.3. Our results show that relative tree population density was negatively related to drought resistance and resilience, indicating that trees growing at lower densities were less vulnerable to drought. This result was apparent in all three forest ecosystems, and was consistent across species, stand age and drought intensity.4. Synthesis and applications. Our results highlighted that managing pine forest ecosystems at low tree population density represents a promising adaptive strategy for reducing the adverse impacts of drought on forest growth in coming decades

  8. Study on Optimized Pattern of Forest Ecosystem Management in Dagangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis was made based on the relevant information from the results of the orientation study by the Dagangshan Forest Ecosystem Research Station obtained in the past 20 years The conclusions reached from the study are as follows: The biodiversity in the area is constantly on the decline and the categories of forest, forest age and tree species were out of balance. The stumpage had reduced by 18.1% from 77.4 m3/ha to 63.4 m3/ha in this period. The ecological benefits declined and the com...

  9. Bifurcation analysis of a forest-grassland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Lucia; Spiliotis, Konstantinos G.

    2016-06-01

    The nonlinear analysis of a forest-grassland ecosystem is performed as the main system parameters are changed. The model consists of a couple of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which include dynamically the human perceptions of forest/grassland value. The system displays multiple steady states corresponding to different forest densities as well as periodic regimes characterized by oscillations in time. We performed the bifurcation analysis of the system as the parameter relative to the human opinions influence is changed. We found that the main mechanisms which regulate the transitions occurring between different states or the appearance of new steady and dynamic regimes are transcritical, saddle/node and Hopf bifurcations.

  10. An index for the assessment of degraded Mediterranean forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Modica

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Diagnosing the degradation degree of forest ecosystems is the basis for restoration strategies. However, there is no literature documenting how to quantify the forest degradation degree by using synthetic indicators, also because there is not a widely accepted definition for "forest degradation" and "degraded forest". Although there are many definitions of forest degradation that converge on the loss of ecosystem services, still today there are no largely accepted methods that give operational guidance to help in defining it. In the present research, with the aim to assess the degree of forest degradation, an integrated index - FDI, Forest Degradation Index - was developed.Area of study: In this first application, the FDI was applied and validated at stand level in two different Mediterranean forest types in two different case studies: Madonie and Nedrodi regional Parks (Sicily, Italy. The first dominated by sessile oak [Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. subsp. austrotyrrhenica Brullo, Guarino & Siracusa], the second dominated by cork oak (Quercus suber L..Material and methods: FDI is a synthetic index structured starting from representative and relatively easily detectable parameters. Here, we propose a set of six indicators that should be assessed to determine the forest degradation: Structural Index (SI, Canopy Cover (CC, Natural Regeneration Density (NRD, Focal Species of Degradation (FSD, Coarse Woody Debris (CWD, and Soil Depth (SD. FDI, here proposed and discussed, has been based on a MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis approach using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique, and implemented in order to contribute in finding simple indicators useful for forest restoration purposes that have an eco-functional basis.Main results: An integrated index of forest degradation has been defined. FDI values are comprised in the closed interval [0, 10], ranging from class I (Higher ecological functionality to class IV (Lower

  11. Sustainable carbon uptake - important ecosystem service within sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Anić, Mislav; Paladinić, Elvis; Alberti, Giorgio; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2016-04-01

    Even-aged forest management with natural regeneration under continuous cover (i.e. close to nature management) is considered to be sustainable regarding the yield, biodiversity and stability of forest ecosystems. Recently, in the context of climate change, there is a raising question of sustainable forest management regarding carbon uptake. Aim of this research was to explore whether current close to nature forest management approach in Croatia can be considered sustainable in terms of carbon uptake throughout the life-time of Pedunculate oak forest. In state-owned managed forest a chronosequence experiment was set up and carbon stocks in main ecosystem pools (live biomass, dead wood, litter and mineral soil layer), main carbon fluxes (net primary production, soil respiration (SR), decomposition) and net ecosystem productivity were estimated in eight stands of different age (5, 13, 38, 53, 68, 108, 138 and 168 years) based on field measurements and published data. Air and soil temperature and soil moisture were recorded on 7 automatic mini-meteorological stations and weekly SR measurements were used to parameterize SR model. Carbon balance was estimated at weekly scale for the growing season 2011 (there was no harvesting), as well as throughout the normal rotation period of 140 years (harvesting was included). Carbon stocks in different ecosystem pools change during a stand development. Carbon stocks in forest floor increase with stand age, while carbon stocks in dead wood are highest in young and older stands, and lowest in middle-aged, mature stands. Carbon stocks in mineral soil layer were found to be stable across chronosequence with no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Pedunculate Oak stand, assuming successful regeneration, becomes carbon sink very early in a development phase, between the age of 5 and 13 years, and remains carbon sink even after the age of 160 years. Greatest carbon sink was reached in the stand aged 53 years. Obtained results

  12. Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Patrick D. Miles; Aimee Stephens; Dale D. Gormanson; Stephen R. Shifley; Dave Wear; Robert J. Huggett; Ruhong. Li

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports projected changes in forest area, age, volume, biomass, number of trees, and removals from 2010 to 2060 for alternative scenarios that bracket a range of possible future socioeconomic and climate conditions in the Northern United States, which consists of 20 central and northeastern States. As described in Chapter 2, the scenarios incorporate...

  13. Forest ecosystem genomics and adaptation: EVOLTREE conference report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.; Vinceti, B.; Alia, R.; Burczyk, J.; Cavers, S.; Degen, B.; Finkeldey, R.; Fluch, S.; Gömöry, D.; Gugerli, F.; Koelewijn, H.P.; Koskela, J.; Lefèvre, F.; Morgante, M.; Mueller-Starck, G.; Plomion, C.; Taylor, G.; Turok, J.; Savolainen, O.; Ziegenhagen, B.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a summary report of the international conference "Forest ecosystem genomics and adaptation" organized by the EVOLTREE Network of Excellence in San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Madrid), Spain, from 9 to 11 June 2010. Main achievements and results of the network are presented for the eight

  14. Biogeochemistry of vertebrate decomposition in a forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decomposing plants and animals provide critical nutrients for ecosystems, including forests. During vertebrate decay, the rapid release of limiting nutrients, including N, P, C, and S fundamentally transforms the soil environment by stimulating endogenous organisms. The goal of this study was t...

  15. Impacts of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; ZHAO Chun-Yu; JIA Qing-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies and research on climate change impacts on the forest ecosystems in Northeast China. The results show that in the context of global and regional warming, the growing season of coniferous forests has been increasing at an average rate of 3.9 d per decade. Regional warming favors the growth of temperate broad-leaved forests and has a detrimental effect on the growth of boreal coniferous forests. Over the past hundred years, the forest edge of the cool temperate zone in the southern Daxing’anling region has retreated 140 km northward. From 1896 to 1986, the northern boundary of broad-leaved forests in Heilongjiang province has extended northwestward about 290 km. Future climatic changes (until 2060) may lead to the northern deciduous needle forests moving out of China’s territory altogether. The occurrence cycles of pests and diseases have shortened; their distribution ranges have expanded. The life cycle of tent caterpillars (Malacosoma neustria testacea Motschulsky) has shortened from 14-15 years in the past to 8-10 years now. The pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu), which has spread within western Liaoning province and the nearby areas, can now be found in the north and west. Lightning fires in the Daxing’anling region have significantly increased since 1987, and August has become the month when lightning fires occur most frequently. Overall, the net primary productivity (NPP) of forest in Northeast China has increased. The NPP in 1981 was around 0.27 Pg C, and increased to approximately 0.40 Pg C in 2002. With the current climate, the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem acts as a carbon sink, with a carbon sink capacity of 2.7 Mg C hm-2. Although the carbon sink capacity of the forest ecosystems in Northeast China has been weakened since 2003, the total carbon absorption will still increase. The forest ecosystems in Northeast China are likely to remain a significant carbon sink, and will play a

  16. Dominance and Diversity of Bird Community in Floodplain Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Poprach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to assessment of diversity and structure of bird community in floodplain forest ecosystem. Authors present results of analyses data on bird communities obtained at two transects in the Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic in the period 1998–2012. Research of bird communities was carried out using the point-count method. The article deals with qualitative and quantitative representation of breeding bird species, including their relation to habitat type (closed floodplain forest, ecotone. Altogether 63 breeding species were recorded at the Vrapač transect and 67 at the Litovelské luhy transect, respectively. To be able to detect all recorded species, 11 out of 14 years of monitoring were needed at the Vrapač transect and all 8 years of monitoring at the Litovelské luhy transect, respectively. Authors show that the values in dominant bird species change significantly among the particular census dates within one season, mainly with respect to their activity and detectability. Results are discussed in the frame of sustainable forest management in floodplain forest ecosystems. The presented article can promote to discussion aimed to management strategy for floodplain forest ecosystems, which ranks among natural habitat types of Community interest protected under the Natura 2000 European network.

  17. Rapid increase in log populations in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2012-01-01

    Down logs provide important ecosystem services in forests and affect surface fuel loads and fire behavior. Amounts and kinds of logs are influenced by factors such as forest type, disturbance regime, forest man-agement, and climate. To quantify potential short-term changes in log populations during a recent global- climate-change type drought, we sampled logs in mixed-...

  18. Assessment and valuation of forest ecosystem services: State of the science review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth Binder; Robert G. Haight; Stephen Polasky; Travis Warziniack; Miranda H. Mockrin; Robert L. Deal; Greg. Arthaud

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses on the assessment and economic valuation of ecosystem services from forest ecosystems—that is, our ability to predict changes in the quantity and value of ecosystem services as a result of specific forest management decisions. It is aimed at forest economists and managers and intended to provide a useful reference to those interested in developing...

  19. Urban Forest Ecosystem Service Optimization, Tradeoffs, and Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnaruk, E.; Kroll, C. N.; Endreny, T. A.; Hirabayashi, S.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban land area and the proportion of humanity living in cities is growing, leading to increased urban air pollution, temperature, and stormwater runoff. These changes can exacerbate respiratory and heat-related illnesses and affect ecosystem functioning. Urban trees can help mitigate these threats by removing air pollutants, mitigating urban heat island effects, and infiltrating and filtering stormwater. The urban environment is highly heterogeneous, and there is no tool to determine optimal locations to plant or protect trees. Using spatially explicit land cover, weather, and demographic data within biophysical ecosystem service models, this research expands upon the iTree urban forest tools to produce a new decision support tool (iTree-DST) that will explore the development and impacts of optimal tree planting. It will also heighten awareness of environmental justice by incorporating the Atkinson Index to quantify disparities in health risks and ecosystem services across vulnerable and susceptible populations. The study area is Baltimore City, a location whose urban forest and environmental justice concerns have been studied extensively. The iTree-DST is run at the US Census block group level and utilizes a local gradient approach to calculate the change in ecosystem services with changing tree cover across the study area. Empirical fits provide ecosystem service gradients for possible tree cover scenarios, greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of the optimization procedure. Initial results include an evaluation of the performance of the gradient method, optimal planting schemes for individual ecosystem services, and an analysis of tradeoffs and synergies between competing objectives.

  20. New Forestry Principles from Ecosystem Analysis of Pacific Northwest Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F J; Franklin, J F

    1992-08-01

    Forest management practices on Federal lands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have been the center of intense controversy. Conflicting value systems, new information, and new perspectives have fueled the debate over the balance between timber production and preservation of natural ecosystems. In this paper we consider examples from three aspects of forest management: (1) management of forest stands, (2) management of the patchwork of forest stands at the landscape scale, and (3) management of streams and riparian networks. In each of these cases we examine: management practices and perspectives of the recent past, findings from ecosystem research that are leading to change in those practices, resulting changes in management practices, and future research directions. We also suggest a path for future change, including systems for managing in the face of uncertainty. Results of research in natural and managed forest and stream ecosystems have been pivotal in reassessment and redesign of management practices to provide a broader range of management options for society to consider. Results of studies of natural disturbance processes and their effects are used as reference points for management systems intending to sustain biological diversity and ecosystem productivity. Stand management practices, for example, are being modified to retain some live trees and greater amounts of dead woody debris, both standing and down, in areas that would instead be clear-cut under intensive plantation forestry practices. The motivations for these modified practices are to sustain biological diversity, including key wildlife species, and to maintain soil productivity. Models of alternative forest-cutting patterns at a landscape scale are being used to examine their effects on ecosystem structure and function. One result of this analysis has been to shift from the previous system of dispersing cutting units to a system involving greater aggregation of units using designs to

  1. Emerging Diseases in European Forest Ecosystems and Responses in Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna B. Boberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available New diseases in forest ecosystems have been reported at an increasing rate over the last century. Some reasons for this include the increased disturbance by humans to forest ecosystems, changed climatic conditions and intensified international trade. Although many of the contributing factors to the changed disease scenarios are anthropogenic, there has been a reluctance to control them by legislation, other forms of government authority or through public involvement. Some of the primary obstacles relate to problems in communicating biological understanding of concepts to the political sphere of society. Relevant response to new disease scenarios is very often associated with a proper understanding of intraspecific variation in the challenging pathogen. Other factors could be technical, based on a lack of understanding of possible countermeasures. There are also philosophical reasons, such as the view that forests are part of the natural ecosystems and should not be managed for natural disturbances such as disease outbreaks. Finally, some of the reasons are economic or political, such as a belief in free trade or reluctance to acknowledge supranational intervention control. Our possibilities to act in response to new disease threats are critically dependent on the timing of efforts. A common recognition of the nature of the problem and adapting vocabulary that describe relevant biological entities would help to facilitate timely and adequate responses in society to emerging diseases in forests.

  2. Satellite Image-based Estimates of Snow Water Equivalence in Restored Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, T.; Springer, A. E.; O'Donnell, F. C.; Donald, J.; McVay, J.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service plans to conduct forest restoration treatments through the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI) on hundreds of thousands of acres of ponderosa pine forest in northern Arizona over the next 20 years with the goals of reducing wildfire hazard and improving forest health. The 4FRI's key objective is to thin and burn the forests to create within-stand openings that "promote snowpack accumulation and retention which benefit groundwater recharge and watershed processes at the fine (1 to 10 acres) scale". However, little is known about how these openings created by restoration treatments affect snow water equivalence (SWE) and soil moisture, which are key parts of the water balance that greatly influence water availability for healthy trees and for downstream water users in the Sonoran Desert. We have examined forest canopy cover by calculating a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a key indicator of green vegetation cover, using Landsat satellite data. We have then compared NDVI between treatments at our study sites in northern Arizona and have found statistically significant differences in tree canopy cover between treatments. The control units have significantly greater forest canopy cover than the treated units. The thinned units also have significantly greater tree canopy cover than the thin-and-burn units. Winter season Landsat images have also been analyzed to calculate Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), a key indicator of snow water equivalence and snow accumulation at the treated and untreated forests. The NDSI values from these dates are examined to determine if snow accumulation and snow water equivalence vary between treatments at our study sites. NDSI is significantly greater at the treated units than the control units. In particular, the thinned forest units have significantly greater snow cover than the control units. Our results indicate that forest restoration treatments result in increased snow pack

  3. Ecosystem adaptation to scarce nutrient resources: Do forest ecosystems shift from acquisition to recycling of phosphorus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, F.; Kaupenjohann, M.

    2011-12-01

    Friederike Lang(1, Nicole Wellbrock(2, Martin Kaupenjohann(1 (1) Department of Soil Science, TU Berlin, 10587 Berlin, Germany; (2) vTI Eberswalde Agricultural food production is essential to our existence, yet we are using up the Earths stocks of phosphorus (P) for the fertilizer production (Cordell, 2009). Forest ecosystems that developed on marginal soil have developed highly efficient strategies for the uptake, usage and recycling of P, which might inspire solutions for the problem of P scarcity in agriculture. However, these efficient forest strategies are hardly investigated yet. Current literature concepts on the adaptation to low soil-P supply are mainly refined to individual organisms (e.g. the concept of uptake efficiency, Sattelmacher et al., 1994, and utilisation efficiency of plants, Compton and Cole, 1998). At the ecosystem level, however, low mineral-P supply requires an evolution of the system towards closed biogeochemical cycling (the concept of cycling efficiency). At the ecosystem level nutrient efficiency becomes rather a matter of transfer and distribution of resources among species, generations and soil components than of the capability of single organisms to acquire P sources. We plead for introducing the term ecosystem nutrition to cover this topic. Our general hypothesis is that P depletion of soils drives the development of forest ecosystems from geochemical P acquiring systems (mobilisation of P from the mineral phase) to biogeochemical P recycling systems (recycling of P from soil organic matter). We conclude that fundamental knowledge in the area of ecosystem nutrition is essential for forestry to mitigate the consequences of increasing N deposition, climate change and intensification of forest usage, which most likely interfere with essential nutrition strategies of forest ecosystems. Transfer of the knowledge on nutrition strategies and resource management of near-natural ecosystems to/in agricultural systems may finally contribute to

  4. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yu, G.-R.; Zhang, L.-M.; Sun, X.-M.; Wen, X.-F.; Han, S.-J.; Yan, J.-H.

    2010-02-01

    Clouds can significantly affect carbon exchange process between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing the quantity and quality of solar radiation received by ecosystem's surface and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) in a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS) and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS), based on the flux data obtained during June-August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of NEE of forest ecosystems to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) differed under clear skies and cloudy skies. Compared with clear skies, the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max) at CBS under cloudy skies during mid-growing season (from June to August) increased by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. In contrast, Pec,max of the forest ecosystem at DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. When the clearness index (kt) ranged between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE reached its maximum at both CBS and DHS. However, the NEE decreased more dramatically at CBS than at DHS when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicate that cloudy sky conditions are beneficial to net carbon uptake in the temperate forest ecosystem and the subtropical forest ecosystem. Under clear skies, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and air temperature increased due to strong light. These environmental conditions led to greater decrease in gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and greater increase in ecosystem respiration (Re) at CBS than at DHS. As a result, clear sky conditions caused more reduction of NEE in the temperate forest ecosystem than in the subtropical forest ecosystem. The response of NEE of different forest ecosystems to the changes in cloudiness is an important factor that should be included in evaluating regional carbon budgets under climate change

  5. Adjustment of Forest Ecosystem Root Respiration as Temperature Warms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew J. Burton; Jerry M. Melillo; Serita D. Frey

    2008-01-01

    Adjustment of ecosystem root respiration to warmer climatic conditions can alter the autotrophic portion of soil respiration and influence the amount of carbon available for biomass production. We examined 44 published values of annual forest root respiration and found an increase in ecosystem root respiration with increasing mean annual temperature (MAT),but the rate of this cross-ecosystem increase (Q10 = 1.6) is less than published values for short-term responses of root respiration to temperature within ecosystems (Q10 = 2-3). When specific root respiration rates and root biomass values were examined, there was a clear trend for decreasing root metabolic capacity (respiration rate at a standard temperature) with increasing MAT. There also were tradeoffs between root metabolic capacity and root system biomass, such that there were no instances of high growing season respiration rates and high root biomass occurring together. We also examined specific root respiration rates at three soil warming experiments at Harvard Forest, USA, and found decreases in metabolic capacity for roots from the heated plots. This decline could be due to either physiological acclimation or to the effects of co-occurring drier soils on the measurement date. Regardless of the cause, these findings clearly suggest that modeling efforts that allow root respiration to increase exponentially with temperature, with Qt0 values of 2 or more, may over-predict root contributions to ecosystem CO2 efflux for future climates and underestimate the amount of C available for other uses,including net primary productivity.

  6. Water stress and harmful insects in agri-forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solinas

    Full Text Available Present knowledge on ecological services supplied by insects to natural terrestrial ecosystems, allow us to identify many homeostatic mechanisms regulating biological balance as well as life perpetuation of the said ecosystems; at the same time, that knowledge represents a sound referring point to understanding how those mechanisms do work so as to manage them in the anthropized ecosystems (i.e., agriculture and forests, and especially in order to identify in the latter the natural meaning of the so called insect outbreaks, so as to forecast and possibly prevent them; as well as, when needed, to conceive and formulate efficient control strategies having minimal environmental impact. Water factor is crucial with genesis, configuration and conservation of a terrestrial ecosystem (both natural or anthropized as a whole or in its individual components, but especially concerning plant life as well as plant interactions with phytophagous invertebrates, mainly insects. Insect-plant trophic interactions are principally influenced by the water conditions in the ecosystem, and the impact of phytophagous insects on crops is markedly affected. Extremely severe water stress, especially if prolonged, prevent insect life just like plant’s life but a moderate and not so prolonged water stress, while depressing plant vigour, paradoxically can improve development and multiplication of phytophagous arthropods, with severe consequences on woody plants especially, and forest trees markedly.

  7. Water stress and harmful insects in agri-forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solinas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Present knowledge on ecological services supplied by insects to natural terrestrial ecosystems, allow us to identify many homeostatic mechanisms regulating biological balance as well as life perpetuation of the said ecosystems; at the same time, that knowledge represents a sound referring point to understanding how those mechanisms do work so as to manage them in the anthropized ecosystems (i.e., agriculture and forests, and especially in order to identify in the latter the natural meaning of the so called insect outbreaks, so as to forecast and possibly prevent them; as well as, when needed, to conceive and formulate efficient control strategies having minimal environmental impact. Water factor is crucial with genesis, configuration and conservation of a terrestrial ecosystem (both natural or anthropized as a whole or in its individual components, but especially concerning plant life as well as plant interactions with phytophagous invertebrates, mainly insects. Insect-plant trophic interactions are principally influenced by the water conditions in the ecosystem, and the impact of phytophagous insects on crops is markedly affected. Extremely severe water stress, especially if prolonged, prevent insect life just like plant’s life but a moderate and not so prolonged water stress, while depressing plant vigour, paradoxically can improve development and multiplication of phytophagous arthropods, with severe consequences on woody plants especially, and forest trees markedly.

  8. FOREST ECOSYSTEMS AND GLOBAL CHANGE: THE CASE STUDY OF INSUBRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pautasso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems face multiple challenges due to climate change, invasive species, urbanization, land use change and the interactions between these global change drivers. This review provides an overview of such challenges for the case study of Insubria. Insubria is a region on the Southern side of the European Alps, famous for its stunning lakes (e.g., Como, Garda, Lugano, Maggiore, blessed by a relatively mild and humid climate, and shaped by the geologic fault line between the African and European plates. Global change impacts in Insubria pose a threat to its biodiversity and chestnut woodlands, particularly through modified winter forest fire regimes. Insubric biodiversity conservation, in turn, is essential to counteract the effects of climate change. Sustainable management of Insubric forests is made more difficult by rural abandonment, air pollution and invasive exotic species. There is a need to develop reliable long-term bio-indicators and to predict the shift of Insubric species, ecosystems and tree-lines due to rapid climate changes. Insubric studies on forests and global change call for enhanced international collaboration in forest management and research. Interdisciplinary approaches are needed to move from studies of single global change drivers to experiments, scenarios and models taking into account their combination and our responses to global change.

  9. Spatial Aspects of the Provision of Forest Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg

    to the incorporation of spatial factors into cost and benefit evaluation of FES provision. Focus is on assessing where forest ecosystem provision should be undertaken, determinants of private stakeholder provision efforts and welfare consequences of changes in the provision level. Provision of carbon sequestration...... of land for conservation into systematic conservation planning. Finally, the fourth paper uses a choice experiment to test whether people’s WTA for restricted access is influenced by spatial heterogeneity in local forest conditions. In addition, the paper assesses the potential for self-selection bias...

  10. Net ecosystem carbon exchange of a dry temperate eucalypt forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinko-Najera, Nina; Isaac, Peter; Beringer, Jason; van Gorsel, Eva; Ewenz, Cacilia; McHugh, Ian; Exbrayat, Jean-François; Livesley, Stephen J.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2017-08-01

    Forest ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle by sequestering a considerable fraction of anthropogenic CO2, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation. However, there is a gap in our understanding about the carbon dynamics of eucalypt (broadleaf evergreen) forests in temperate climates, which might differ from temperate evergreen coniferous or deciduous broadleaved forests given their fundamental differences in physiology, phenology and growth dynamics. To address this gap we undertook a 3-year study (2010-2012) of eddy covariance measurements in a dry temperate eucalypt forest in southeastern Australia. We determined the annual net carbon balance and investigated the temporal (seasonal and inter-annual) variability in and environmental controls of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE), gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). The forest was a large and constant carbon sink throughout the study period, even in winter, with an overall mean NEE of -1234 ± 109 (SE) g C m-2 yr-1. Estimated annual ER was similar for 2010 and 2011 but decreased in 2012 ranging from 1603 to 1346 g C m-2 yr-1, whereas GPP showed no significant inter-annual variability, with a mean annual estimate of 2728 ± 39 g C m-2 yr-1. All ecosystem carbon fluxes had a pronounced seasonality, with GPP being greatest during spring and summer and ER being highest during summer, whereas peaks in NEE occurred in early spring and again in summer. High NEE in spring was likely caused by a delayed increase in ER due to low temperatures. A strong seasonal pattern in environmental controls of daytime and night-time NEE was revealed. Daytime NEE was equally explained by incoming solar radiation and air temperature, whereas air temperature was the main environmental driver of night-time NEE. The forest experienced unusual above-average annual rainfall during the first 2 years of this 3-year period so that soil water content remained relatively high and the forest

  11. Carbon Stocks and Climate Change: Management Implications in Northern Arizona Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bagdon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have observed climate-driven shifts of forest types to higher elevations in the Southwestern US and predict further migration coupled with large-scale mortality events proportional to increases in radiative forcing. Range contractions of forests are likely to impact the total carbon stored within a stand. This study examines the dynamics of Pinus ponderosa stands under three climate change scenarios in Northern Arizona using the Climate Forest Vegetation Simulator (Climate-FVS model to project changes in carbon pools. A sample of 90 stands were grouped according to three elevational ranges; low- (1951 to 2194 m, mid- (2194 to 2499 m, and high- (2499 to 2682 m. elevation stands. Growth, mortality, and carbon stores were simulated in the Climate-FVS over a 100 year timespan. We further simulated three management scenarios for each elevational gradient and climate scenario. Management included (1 a no-management scenario, (2 an intensive-management scenario characterized by thinning from below to a residual basal area (BA of 18 m2/ha in conjunction with a prescribed burn every 10 years, and (3 a moderate-management scenario characterized by a thin-from-below treatment to a residual BA of 28 m2/ha coupled with a prescribed burn every 20 years. Results indicate that any increase in aridity due to climate change will produce substantial mortality throughout the elevational range of ponderosa pine stands, with lower elevation stands projected to experience the most devastating effects. Management was only effective for the intensive-management scenario; stands receiving this treatment schedule maintained moderately consistent levels of basal area and demonstrated a higher level of resilience to climate change relative to the two other management scenarios. The results of this study indicate that management can improve resiliency to climate change, however, resource managers may need to employ more intensive thinning treatments than

  12. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Carbon Storage in Forest Ecosystems on Hainan Island, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993–2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices. PMID:25229628

  13. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. D. Amiro; A. G. Barr; J. G. Barr; T. A. Black; R. Bracho; al. et.

    2010-01-01

    [1] Disturbances are important for renewal of North American forests. Here we summarize more than 180 site years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide flux made at forest chronosequences in North America. The disturbances included standreplacing fire (Alaska, Arizona, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan) and harvest (British Columbia, Florida, New Brunswick, Oregon...

  14. Study of the radiocesium dynamics in the Fukushima forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Konoplev, Alexei; Takase, Tsugiko; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Zheleznyak, Mark; Kivva, Sergii

    2016-04-01

    Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP on March 11, 2011, has resulted in release into the environment of large amounts of radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) and in radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Up to 2/3 of the most contaminated territory in Fukushima prefecture is covered with forests, and efforts aimed at revitalization of this territory should include, therefore, elaboration of the forestry strategy. In particular, understanding of the radiocesium dynamics in the ecosystem compartments is necessary for the reliable long-term prognosis. Numerous studies revealed and quantified the key processes governing radiocesium redistribution in Fukushima forests at the early stage after the accident, when initially intercepted radiocesium was gradually transported from the trees' crowns to the soil surface and profile with precipitations and litterfall, and the general trend was a decrease of the radiocesium total inventory in the forest biomass. However, at the later stage, the radiocesium activities in the biomass compartments can increase due to its root uptake from the soil profile; the two major processes, radionuclide root uptake and its return to soil, will determine the future radiocesium levels in the forest compartments. Objectives of our study were characterization of the radiocesium distribution at the beginning of the late stage, revealing its dynamics and parameterization of the above-mentioned fluxes for prognosis of the radiocesium long-term redistribution in the typical Fukushima forest ecosystems. The study started at one experimental site (Yamakiya district, Kawamata town, Fukushima Prefecture) in the spring of 2014; to the moment, it has been continuing at several experimental sites in the Fukushima zone characterized by different species composition and soil-landscape conditions. For the typical Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese red pine (Pinus Densiflora) forests, we determined distributions of radiocesium in

  15. Forecasting Urban Forest Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W. N.; Millward, Andrew A.; Nowak, David J.; Robinson, Pamela J.; Ellis, Alexis

    2017-03-01

    The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function. Nine scenarios were simulated for 45 years and model output was analyzed at the ecosystem and municipal scale. Substantial mismatches in ecological processes between spatial scales were found, which can translate into unanticipated loss of function and social inequities if not accounted for in planning and management. At the municipal scale, the effects of Asian longhorned beetle and ice storm disturbance were far less influential on structure and function than changes in management actions. The strategic goals of removing invasive species and increasing tree planting resulted in a decline in carbon storage and leaf biomass. Introducing vulnerability parameters in the modeling increased the spatial heterogeneity in structure and function while expanding the disparities of resident access to ecosystem services. There was often a variable and uncertain relationship between vulnerability and ecosystem structure and function. Vulnerability assessment and analysis can provide strategic planning initiatives with valuable insight into the processes of structural and functional change resulting from management intervention.

  16. Forecasting Urban Forest Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J; Ellis, Alexis

    2017-03-01

    The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function. Nine scenarios were simulated for 45 years and model output was analyzed at the ecosystem and municipal scale. Substantial mismatches in ecological processes between spatial scales were found, which can translate into unanticipated loss of function and social inequities if not accounted for in planning and management. At the municipal scale, the effects of Asian longhorned beetle and ice storm disturbance were far less influential on structure and function than changes in management actions. The strategic goals of removing invasive species and increasing tree planting resulted in a decline in carbon storage and leaf biomass. Introducing vulnerability parameters in the modeling increased the spatial heterogeneity in structure and function while expanding the disparities of resident access to ecosystem services. There was often a variable and uncertain relationship between vulnerability and ecosystem structure and function. Vulnerability assessment and analysis can provide strategic planning initiatives with valuable insight into the processes of structural and functional change resulting from management intervention.

  17. Seasonal variation of carbon exchange of typical forest ecosystems along the eastern forest transect in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The long-term and continuous carbon fluxes of Changbaishan temperate mixed forest (CBS), Qianyanzhou subtropical evergreen coniferous forest (QYZ), Dinghushan subtropical evergreen mixed forest (DHS) and Xishuangbana tropical rainforest (XSBN) have been measured with eddy covariance techniques. In 2003, different responses of carbon exchange to the environment appeared across the four ecosystems. At CBS, the carbon exchange was mainly determined by radiation and temperature. 0℃and 10℃were two important temperature thresholds; the former determined the length of the growing season and the latter affected the magnitude of carbon exchange. The maximum net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CBS occurred in early summer because maximum ecosystem photosynthesis (GPP) occurred earlier than maximum ecosystem respiration (Rθ). During summer, QYZ experienced severe drought and NEE decreased significantly mainly as a result of the depression of GPP. At DHS and XSBN, NEE was higher in the drought season than the wet season, especially the conversion between carbon sink and source occurring during the transition season at XSBN. During the wet season, increased fog and humid weather resulted from the plentiful rainfall, the ecosystem GPP was dispressed. The Q10 and annual respiration of XSBN were the highest among the four ecosystems, while the average daily respiration of CBS during the growing season was the highest. Annual NEE of CBS, QYZ, DHS and XSBN were 181.5, 360.9, 536.2 and -320.0 g·C·m-2·a-1, respectively. From CBS to DHS, the temperature and precipitation increased with the decrease in latitude. The ratio of WEE/Rθincreased with latitude, while Rθ/Gpp, ecosystem light use efficiency (LUE), precipitation use efficiency and average daily GPP decreased gradually. However, XSBN usually escaped such latitude trend probably because of the influence of the south-west monsoon climate which does not affect the other ecosystems. Long-term measurement and more research

  18. Atmospheric variables as driving variables of agricultural and forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mariani

    Full Text Available Atmospheric variables, which represent meteorology if seen in their instantaneous behavior or climatology if seen in their long time behavior, can be considered among the main driving variables of agricultural and forest ecosystems. In other words meteo-climatic variables determine productivity and quality and territorial specificity of agroforestry productions. On the base of this premise some significant examples are shown in order to describe how different modeling approaches (empirical and mechanistic can improve our degree of description of phenomena and the rationality of our approach to management of agro-ecosystem. The need of strict linkage among agrometeorology and other physical and biological sciences referred to agro-forestry ecosystems is also discussed.

  19. Assessing exergy of forest ecosystem using airborne and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkina, Olga; Fabianek, Tomas; Lukes, Petr; Zemek, Frantisek

    2017-04-01

    Interactions of the energy flows of forest ecosystem with environment are formed by a suite of forest structure, functions and pathways of self-control. According to recent thermodynamic theory for open systems, concept of exergy of solar radiation has been applied to estimate energy consumptions on evapotranspiration and biomass production in forest ecosystem or to indicate forest decline and human land use impact on ecosystem stability. However, most of the methods for exergy estimation in forest ecosystem is not stable and its physical meaning remains on the surface. This study was aimed to contribute to understanding the exergy of forest ecosystem using combination of remote sensing (RS) and eddy covariance technologies, specifically: 1/to explore exergy of solar radiation depending on structure of solar spectrum (number of spectral bands of RS data), and 2/to explore the relationship between exergy and flux tower eddy covariance measurements. Two study forest sites were located in Western Beskids in the Czech Republic. The first site was dominated by young Norway spruce, the second site was dominated by mature European beech. Airborne hyperspectral data in VNIR, SWIR and TIR spectral regions were acquired 9 times for study sites during a vegetation periods in 2015-2016. Radiometric, geometric and atmospheric corrections of airborne data were performed. Satellite multispectral Landsat-8 cloud-free 21 scenes were downloaded and atmospherically corrected for the period from April to November 2015-2016. Evapotranspiration and latent heat fluxes were collected from operating flux towers located on study sites according to date and time of remote sensing data acquisition. Exergy was calculated for each satellite and airborne scene using various combinations of spectral bands as: Ex=E^out (K+ln E^out/E^in )+R, where Ein is the incoming solar energy, Eout is the reflected solar energy, R = Ein-Eout is absorbed energy, Eout/Ein is albedo and K is the Kullback increment

  20. Concept and Classification of Coarse Woody Debris in Forest Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Enrong; Wang Xihua; Huang Jianjun

    2006-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is generally considered as dead woody materials in various stages of decomposition,including sound and rotting logs,snags,and large branches.CWD is an important functional and structural component of forested ecosystems and plays an important role in nutrient cycling,long-term carbon storage,tree regeneration,and maintenance of heterogeneous environmental and biological diversity.However,the definition and classification of CWD have been the subject of a long debate in forest ecology.CWD has not been precisely defined.Recently,with the rapid development of landscape ecology in CWD,the USDA Forest Service and the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER)have provided a standardized definition and classification for CWD,which makes data comparison in landscape scale possible.Important characteristics of their definition include:(1) a minimum diameter (or an equivalent crosssection) of CWD≥10 cm at the widest point (the woody debris with a diameter from 1 to 10 cm should be defined as fine woody debris,and the rest is litterfall);and (2) sound and rotting logs,snags,stumps,and large branches (located above the soil),and coarse root debris (larger than 1 cm in diameter).This classification has greatly facilitated CWD studies.Therefore,it has been widely applied in some countries (particularly in North America).However,this classification has long been a source of confusion for forest ecologists in China.Furthermore,different definitions and criteria are still adopted in individual studies,which makes the interpretation and generalization of their work difficult.This article reviewed recent progress in classifying CWD,with an emphasis on introducing the classification system of the USDA Forest Service and the LTER.It is expected that this review will help facilitate the development of standardized definition and classification suitable to forest ecosystems in China.

  1. Sustainable development and use of ecosystems with non-forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-forest trees are components of managed ecosystems including orchards and agroforestry systems and natural ecosystems such as savannas and riparian corridors. Each of these ecosystems includes trees but does not have a complete tree canopy or spatial extent necessary to create a true forest ecosy...

  2. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... alternatives, within the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project area. The purpose of the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project is to implement land management activities that are...

  3. Forest-land conversion, ecosystem services, and economic issues for policy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Smail; David J. Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The continued conversion and development of forest land pose a serious threat to the ecosystem services derived from forested landscapes. We argue that developing an understanding of the full range of consequences from forest conversion requires understanding the effects of such conversion on both components of ecosystem services: products and processes....

  4. Renaturalisation of forest ecosystems: is a reference model really needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocentini S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Renaturalisation is more and more often considered the aim of management when dealing with simplified forests. The term “renaturalisation” has become the keyword of many forest management projects. A reference model or system is often considered essential for forest renaturalisation. This approach is coherent with a school of thought which finds relevant examples in the science and practice of Ecological restoration. The search for a reference system has several practical limitations and, especially, a severe theoretical fault. The definition of a reference system underlies the idea that ecosystem reactions to management can be exactly forecast and thus ecosystems can be guided towards a predefined composition, structure and functionality. This idea stems from a deterministic imprinting which characterises traditional forestry thinking and which is clearly in contrast with the dynamic nature of forest ecosystems. If renaturalisation is seen as a silvicultural and management approach which tends to favour natural evolutionary processes through the system’s ability to autonomously increase its complexity and biodiversity, then the actual system under management is the only possible reference system. An accurate analysis of the evolutionary trends in relation to the actual environmental conditions and landscape matrix should therefore be the basis for the renaturalisation process. Management must proceed as an experiment: the reaction to each intervention must be monitored using appropriate indicators. These are not to be seen as reference limits but as parameters for quantifying changes in the system’s self-regulating processes. In conclusion, renaturalisation has more to do with the way we interact with nature than with a closed project with a clearly defined beginning and end.

  5. Forest biodiversity, carbon and other ecosystem services: relationships and impacts of deforestation and forest degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian D. Thompson; Joice Ferreira; Toby Gardner; Manuel Guariguata; Lian Pin Koh; Kimiko Okabe; Yude Pan; Christine B. Schmitt; Jason Tylianakis; Jos Barlow; Valerie Kapos; Werner A. Kurz; John A. Parrotta; Mark D. Spalding; Nathalie. van Vliet

    2012-01-01

    REDD+ actions should be based on the best science and on the understanding that forests can provide more than a repository for carbon but also offer a wide range of services beneficial to people. Biodiversity underpins many ecosystem services, one of which is carbon sequestration, and individual species’ functional traits play an important role in determining...

  6. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  7. A review of malaria transmission dynamics in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Malaria continues to be a major health problem in more than 100 endemic countries located primarily in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. Malaria transmission is a dynamic process and involves many interlinked factors, from uncontrollable natural environmental conditions to man-made disturbances to nature. Almost half of the population at risk of malaria lives in forest areas. Forests are hot beds of malaria transmission as they provide conditions such as vegetation cover, temperature, rainfall and humidity conditions that are conducive to distribution and survival of malaria vectors. Forests often lack infrastructure and harbor tribes with distinct genetic traits, socio-cultural beliefs and practices that greatly influence malaria transmission dynamics. Here we summarize the various topographical, entomological, parasitological, human ecological and socio-economic factors, which are crucial and shape malaria transmission in forested areas. An in-depth understanding and synthesis of the intricate relationship of these parameters in achieving better malaria control in various types of forest ecosystems is emphasized. PMID:24912923

  8. Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation

  9. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales.

  10. Carbon Budget and its Dynamics over Northern Eurasia Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2016-04-01

    The presentation contains an overview of recent findings and results of assessment of carbon cycling of forest ecosystems of Northern Eurasia. From a methodological point of view, there is a clear tendency in understanding a need of a Full and Verified Carbon Account (FCA), i.e. in reliable assessment of uncertainties for all modules and all stages of FCA. FCA is considered as a fuzzy (underspecified) system that supposes a system integration of major methods of carbon cycling study (land-ecosystem approach, LEA; process-based models; eddy covariance; and inverse modelling). Landscape-ecosystem approach 1) serves for accumulation of all relevant knowledge of landscape and ecosystems; 2) for strict systems designing the account, 3) contains all relevant spatially distributed empirical and semi-empirical data and models, and 4) is presented in form of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS). The ILIS includes a hybrid land cover in a spatially and temporarily explicit way and corresponding attributive databases. The forest mask is provided by utilizing multi-sensor remote sensing data, geographically weighed regression and validation within GEO-wiki platform. By-pixel parametrization of forest cover is based on a special optimization algorithms using all available knowledge and information sources (data of forest inventory and different surveys, observations in situ, official statistics of forest management etc.). Major carbon fluxes within the LEA (NPP, HR, disturbances etc.) are estimated based on fusion of empirical data and aggregations with process-based elements by sets of regionally distributed models. Uncertainties within LEA are assessed for each module and at each step of the account. Within method results of LEA and corresponding uncertainties are harmonized and mutually constrained with independent outputs received by other methods based on the Bayesian approach. The above methodology have been applied to carbon account of Russian forests for 2000

  11. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered.

  12. A large-scale forest fragmentation experiment: the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K; Fahrig, Lenore; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Hector, Andy; Holt, Robert D; Kapos, Valerie; Reynolds, Glen; Sinun, Waidi; Snaddon, Jake L; Turner, Edgar C

    2011-11-27

    Opportunities to conduct large-scale field experiments are rare, but provide a unique opportunity to reveal the complex processes that operate within natural ecosystems. Here, we review the design of existing, large-scale forest fragmentation experiments. Based on this review, we develop a design for the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project, a new forest fragmentation experiment to be located in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). The SAFE Project represents an advance on existing experiments in that it: (i) allows discrimination of the effects of landscape-level forest cover from patch-level processes; (ii) is designed to facilitate the unification of a wide range of data types on ecological patterns and processes that operate over a wide range of spatial scales; (iii) has greater replication than existing experiments; (iv) incorporates an experimental manipulation of riparian corridors; and (v) embeds the experimentally fragmented landscape within a wider gradient of land-use intensity than do existing projects. The SAFE Project represents an opportunity for ecologists across disciplines to participate in a large initiative designed to generate a broad understanding of the ecological impacts of tropical forest modification.

  13. Suggestions on management measures of pine forest ecosystems invaded by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan; LUO You-qing; XIA Nai-bin; WU Hai-wei; SONG Ji-ying

    2008-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle is an important invasive alien species in forests of China and has become one of the most destructive forest diseases. In order to improve the resistance and resilience of pine forest ecosystems against B. xylophilus invasion and make the pine forest ecosystem more timely responsive to PWN invasion,we made some recommendations based on five years of intensive observations. We advocate a set of management measures with the theme "Prevention is priority, but integrated with curative techniques and ecological resilience" on the pine forest ecosystem invaded by B. xylophilus; details of accurate measures are proposed. The aim is to discover the underlying problems of present pine forest ecosystems and to take, correspondingly, administrative measures and strategies, which will encourage the pine forest ecosystem to develop in a benign way.

  14. Unresolving the "real age" of fine roots in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily; Brunner, Ivano; Herzog, Claude; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Schweigruber, Fritz; Trumbore, Susan; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the turnover time of tree fine roots is crucial for modelling soil organic matter dynamics, but it is one of the biggest challenges in soil ecology and one of the least understood aspects of the belowground carbon cycle. The methods used - ranging from radiocarbon to ingrowth cores and root cameras (minirhizotrons) - yield very diverse pictures of fine root dynamics in forest ecosystems with turnover rates reaching from less than one year to decades. These have huge implications on estimates of carbon allocation to root growth and maintenance and on the persistence of root carbon in soils before it is decomposed or leached. We will present a new approach, involving techniques to study plant anatomy, which unravels the "real age" of fine roots. For a range of forests with diverse water and nutrient limitations located at different latitudes, we investigated the annual growth rings in the secondary xylem of thin transversal sections of fine roots belonging to tree species which form distinct growth rings. In temperate forests we find mean root "ring ages" of 1-2 years while in sub-arctic forests living fine roots can also persist for several years. The robustness of these results were tested by counting the maximum yearly growth rings in tree seedlings of known age and by counting the maximum number of growth rings of fine roots grown in ingrowth cores which were kept in temperate forest soils for one and two years. Radiocarbon estimates of mean "carbon ages", which define the time elapsed since structural carbon was fixed from the atmosphere, instead average around a decade in root systems of temperate forests (mixture of newly produced and older living roots). This dramatic difference may not be related to methodological bias, but to a time lag between C assimilation and production of a portion of fine root tissues due to the storage of older carbon components. The time lag depends very likely on tree species and environmental conditions. We further

  15. A new estimate of carbon for Bangladesh forest ecosystems with their spatial distribution and REDD+ implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukul, Sharif A.; Biswas, Shekhar R.; Rashid, A. Z. M. Manzoor;

    2014-01-01

    in forest ecosystems. Using available published data, we provide here a new and more reliable estimate of carbon in Bangladesh forest ecosystems, along with their geo-spatial distribution. Our study reveals great variability in carbon density in different forests and higher carbon stock in the mangrove...... ecosystems, followed by in hill forests and in inland Sal (Shorea robusta) forests in the country. Due to its coverage, degraded nature, and diverse stakeholder engagement, the hill forests of Bangladesh can be used to obtain maximum REDD+ benefits. Further research on carbon and biodiversity in under......-represented forest ecosystems using a commonly accepted protocol is essential for the establishment of successful REDD+ projects and for the protection of the country’s degraded forests and for addressing declining levels of biodiversity....

  16. A review of impacts by invasive exotic plants on forest ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Devine; Songlin. Fei

    2011-01-01

    Many of our forest ecosystems are at risk due to the invasion of exotic invasive plant species. Invasive plant species pose numerous threats to ecosystems by decreasing biodiversity, deteriorating ecosystem processes, and degrading ecosystem services. Literature on Kentucky's most invasive exotic plant species was examined to understand their potential impacts on...

  17. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Bradford; Nicholas R. Jensen; Grant M. Domke; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior...

  18. Perceptions of climate change risk to forest ecosystems and forest-based communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, T.B.; Parkins, J.R.; McFarlane, B.L. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    A study examining the perceptions of researchers and government experts about the risks posed by climate change to forest ecosystems and forest-based communities was presented. The aim of the study was to provide an indication of institutional behaviours, attitudes and perspectives concerning climate change. Data were collected by questionnaires from participants at a climate change and forestry workshop. Perceived risk to forest ecosystems was assessed by means of a subset of scales previously identified as relevant to climate change. Ten scales were selected to assess perceptions of certainty, controllability, predictability, adaptability, and knowledge of climatic change impacts. Each scale was assessed on the basis of a 7 point rating. Another set of 12 scales was used to assess perceived risk to forest-based communities. Eight statements were used to assess general beliefs about climate change. Social influences were assessed according to age, sex, level of education, place of residence and type of employer. Results indicated that forestry experts were concerned about the impacts of climate change and were not opposed to preparation and adaptation strategies. Respondents indicated that the effects of climate change on forests and forest-based communities are not well understood by the general pubic or forest managers. It was suggested that there was a relatively high level of uncertainty about the effects of climate change, particularly with respect to forest-based communities. The results suggested that a greater awareness of climate change risks is needed, as well as more research and monitoring efforts targeted at reducing levels of uncertainty about future impacts at local scales. If communities can begin to diversify their economies and rely on several key economic drivers, they will be better positioned to absorb future climate change impacts. It was concluded that the presence of human agency can have important implications for the future control of

  19. Soil Organic Matter in Forest Ecosystems of the Forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhortova, Liudmila

    2010-05-01

    Our study was conducted on 17 forest sample plots in the forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia. They were covered by larch/feather moss/shrub and larch/grass forest types growing on cryozems and podburs (Cryosols). The investigation was aimed at estimating soil organic matter storage and structure in forest ecosystems growing along the northern tree line. Such ecosystems have low rates of exchange processes and biological productivity. Estimating soil carbon in these forest types is important for a deeper understanding of their role in biogeochemical cycles and forecasting consequences of climate changes. Soil organic matter was divided into pools by biodegradation resistance level and, hence, different roles of these pools in biological cycles. The soil organic matter was divided into an easily mineralizable (LMOM) fraction, which includes labile (insoluble) (LOM) and mobile (soluble) (MOM) organic compounds, and a stable organic matter fraction that is humus substances bound with soil matrix. The forest-tundra soil carbon was found to total 30.9 to 125.9 tons/ha. Plant residues were the main part of the soil easily mineralizable organic matter and contained from 13.3 to 62.4% of this carbon. Plant residue carbon was mainly allocated on the soil surface, in the forest litter. Plant residues in the soil (dead roots + other "mortmass") were calculated to contribute 10-30% of the plant residues carbon, or 2.5-15.1% of the total soil carbon. Soil surface and in-soil dead plant material included 60-95% of heavily decomposed residues that made up a forest litter fermentation subhorizon and an "other mortmass" fraction of the root detritus. Mobile organic matter (substances dissolved in water and 0.1N NaOH) of plant residues was found to allocate 15-25% of carbon. In soil humus, MOM contribution ranged 14 to 64%. Easily mineralizable organic matter carbon appeared to generally dominate forest-tundra soil carbon pool. It was measured to

  20. Investigating drought-induced forest ecosystem evolution using water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Yang, Z. L.

    2016-12-01

    Forest mortality from drought and heat stress has increased worldwide during the past decades, and is expected to happen more frequently as drought events become more common due to global climate change. How different forest ecosystems respond dynamically to drought events of varying severity is not well understood. As a selective force, drought could drive the evolution of forest ecosystems and thus impact forest drought resilience. In this study, I propose to examine the change of forest ecosystem carbon-water cycle during drought-induced evolution, using ecosystem water use efficiency (eWUE) as a proxy. Based on NASA datasets (e.g. forest canopy height and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence) and other datasets, the relationships between eWUE and a variety of potential factors will be assessed, to understand how different environmental conditions shape the forest ecosystem carbon-water cycle. I will then look at drought resilience, examining how different forest ecosystems respond to different kinds of drought events. Finally, I will analyze how forest ecosystem carbon-water cycle changes during drought phases and how mega drought may drive forest ecosystem evolution. North American forest ecosystems will be used as a testbed here. By studying how eWUE can be used as a proxy measure of evolution, the proposed investigation can advance our knowledge of how forest ecosystem adapt to drought. This study can inform decisions in forest management, enhance model development, improve our ability to assess and respond to drought events, and thus help society better adapt to the changing climate.

  1. The role of forest floor and trees to the ecosystem scale methane budget of boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlatie, Mari; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Peltola, Olli; Haikarainen, Iikka; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Santalahti, Minna; Putkinen, Anuliina; Fritze, Hannu; Urban, Otmar; Machacova, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forests are considered as a sink of atmospheric methane (CH4) due to the activity of CH4 oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) in the soil. This soil CH4 sink is especially strong for upland forest soils, whereas forests growing on organic soils may act as small sources due to the domination of CH4 production by methanogens in the anaerobic parts of the soil. The role of trees to the ecosystem-scale CH4 fluxes has until recently been neglected due to the perception that trees do not contribute to the CH4 exchange, and also due to difficulties in measuring the CH4 exchange from trees. Findings of aerobic CH4 formation in plants and emissions from tree-stems in temperate and tropical forests during the past decade demonstrate that our understanding of CH4 cycling in forest ecosystems is not complete. Especially the role of forest canopies still remain unresolved, and very little is known of CH4 fluxes from trees in boreal region. We measured the CH4 exchange of tree-stems and tree-canopies from pine (Pinus sylvestris), spruce (Picea abies) and birch (Betula pubescens, Betula pendula) trees growing in Southern Finland (SMEAR II station) on varying soil conditions, from upland mineral soils to paludified soil. We compared the CH4 fluxes from trees to forest-floor CH4 exchange, both measured by static chambers, and to CH4 fluxes measured above the forest canopy by a flux gradient technique. We link the CH4 fluxes from trees and forest floor to physiological activity of the trees, such as transpiration, sap-flow, CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE), soil properties such as temperature and moisture, and to the presence of CH4 producing methanogens and CH4 oxidizing methanotrophs in trees or soil. The above canopy CH4 flux measurements show that the whole forest ecosystem was a small source of CH4 over extended periods in the spring and summer 2012, 2014 and 2015. Throughout the 2013-2014 measurements, the forest floor was in total a net sink of CH4, with variation

  2. Managing forests as ecosystems: A success story or a challenge ahead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1997-10-01

    To manage forests as ecosystems, the many values they hold for different users must be recognized, and they must be used so that those assets are not destroyed. Important ecosystem features of forests include nutrient cycling, habitat, succession, and water quality. Over time, the ways in which humans value forests have changed as forest uses have altered and as forests have declined in size and quality. Both ecosystem science and forest ecology have developed approaches that are useful to manage forests to retain their value. A historical perspective shows how changes in ecology, legislation, and technology have resulted in modern forest-management practices. However, current forest practices are still a decade or so behind current ecosystem science. Ecologists have done a good job of transferring their theories and approaches to the forest manager classroom but have done a poor job of translating these concepts into practice. Thus, the future for ecosystem management requires a closer linkage between ecologists and other disciplines. For example, the changing ways in which humans value forests are the primary determinant of forest-management policies. Therefore, if ecologists are to understand how ecosystem science can influence these policies, they must work closely with social scientists trained to assess human values.

  3. Transfer parameter values in temperate forest ecosystems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmon, Philippe; Thiry, Yves; Zibold, Gregor; Rantavaara, Aino; Fesenko, Sergei

    2009-09-01

    Compared to agricultural lands, forests are complex ecosystems as they can involve diverse plant species associations, several vegetative strata (overstorey, shrubs, herbaceous and other annual plant layer) and multi-layered soil profiles (forest floor, hemi-organic and mineral layers). A high degree of variability is thus generally observed in radionuclide transfers and redistribution patterns in contaminated forests. In the long term, the soil compartment represents the major reservoir of radionuclides which can give rise to long-term plant and hence food contamination. For practical reasons, the contamination of various specific forest products has commonly been quantified using the aggregated transfer factor (T(ag) in m(2)kg(-1)) which integrates various environmental parameters including soil and plant type, root distribution as well as nature and vertical distribution of the deposits. Long lasting availability of some radionuclides was shown to be the source of much higher transfer in forest ecosystems than in agricultural lands. This study aimed at reviewing the most relevant quantitative information on radionuclide transfers to forest biota including trees, understorey vegetation, mushrooms, berries and game animals. For both radiocaesium and radiostrontium in trees, the order of magnitude of mean T(ag) values was 10(-3)m(2)kg(-1) (dry weight). Tree foliage was usually 2-12 times more contaminated than trunk wood. Maximum contamination of tree components with radiocaesium was associated with (semi-)hydromorphic areas with thick humus layers. The transfer of radionuclides to mushrooms and berries is high, in comparison with foodstuffs grown in agricultural systems. Concerning caesium uptake by mushrooms, the transfer is characterized by a very large variability of T(ag), from 10(-3) to 10(1)m(2)kg(-1) (dry weight). For berries, typical values are around 0.01-0.1 m(2)kg(-1) (dry weight). Transfer of radioactive caesium to game animals and reindeer and the

  4. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clouds can significantly affect carbon exchange process between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing the quantity and quality of solar radiation received by ecosystem's surface and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE in a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS, based on the flux data obtained during June–August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of NEE of forest ecosystems to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR differed under clear skies and cloudy skies. Compared with clear skies, the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max at CBS under cloudy skies during mid-growing season (from June to August increased by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. In contrast, Pec,max of the forest ecosystem at DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. When the clearness index (kt ranged between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE reached its maximum at both CBS and DHS. However, the NEE decreased more dramatically at CBS than at DHS when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicate that cloudy sky conditions are beneficial to net carbon uptake in the temperate forest ecosystem and the subtropical forest ecosystem. Under clear skies, vapor pressure deficit (VPD and air temperature increased due to strong light. These environmental conditions led to greater decrease in gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP and greater increase in ecosystem respiration (Re at CBS than at DHS. As a result, clear sky conditions caused more reduction of NEE in the temperate forest ecosystem than in the subtropical forest ecosystem. The response of NEE of different forest ecosystems to the changes in

  5. Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schleuning

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes

  6. Tree diversity does not always improve resistance of forest ecosystems to drought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Granier, André; Ratcliffe, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    , biodiversity is known to support a wide range of forest ecosystem functions and services. However, whether biodiversity also improves the resistance of these ecosystems to drought remains unclear. We compared soil drought exposure levels in a total of 160 forest stands within five major forest types across...... in two forest types, suggesting that species interactions in these forests diminished the drought exposure of the ecosystem. However, the other three forest types were unaffected by tree species diversity. We conclude that higher diversity enhances resistance to drought events only in drought......Climate models predict an increase in the intensity and frequency of drought episodes in the Northern Hemisphere. Among terrestrial ecosystems, forests will be profoundly impacted by drier climatic conditions, with drastic consequences for the functions and services they supply. Simultaneously...

  7. Central Appalachians forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Appalachians Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia R. Butler; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; Leslie Brandt; Stephen Handler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Kent Karriker; Jarel Bartig; Stephanie Connolly; William Dijak; Scott Bearer; Steve Blatt; Andrea Brandon; Elizabeth Byers; Cheryl Coon; Tim Culbreth; Jad Daly; Wade Dorsey; David Ede; Chris Euler; Neil Gillies; David M. Hix; Catherine Johnson; Latasha Lyte; Stephen Matthews; Dawn McCarthy; Dave Minney; Daniel Murphy; Claire O’Dea; Rachel Orwan; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Cotton Randall; Jason Reed; Cynthia Sandeno; Tom Schuler; Lesley Sneddon; Bill Stanley; Al Steele; Susan Stout; Randy Swaty; Jason Teets; Tim Tomon; Jim Vanderhorst; John Whatley; Nicholas. Zegre

    2015-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Central Appalachians will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in the Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest-Coniferous Forest-Meadow and Eastern Broadleaf Forest Provinces of Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland for a range of future...

  8. Assessing the ecosystem service potential of Tucson AZ's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2011-12-01

    canopy photos) to asses growth of the trees in the urban environment. These growth rates, and associated ecosystem services (C-sequestration, energy savings, pollution mitigation, etc.) are evaluated using US Forest Service models (Tree Carbon Calculator and i-tree software) to determine how the performance of trees in the Tucson urban environment perform vs. model predictions. We hypothesize that the models overestimate tree performance as Tucson differs in water availability relative to the cities the model was parameterized in (e.g. Glendale), both in terms of soil water holding capacities and also city "water culture." This preliminary study will provide a data collection framework for a citizen science urban forestry project which will provide data to improve environmental decision making related to the interaction of plants, water, and energy balance in this arid city.

  9. 76 FR 46721 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... this project area to improve the health of the ecosystem and reach the desired future condition. DATES...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem... the potential for large-scale, high-intensity wildfires that threaten human life, property, and...

  10. Managing forest ecosystems to conserve fungus diversity and sustain wild mushroom harvests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Pilz; R. Molina

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystem management is the dominant paradigm for managing the forests of the Pacific Northwest. It integrates biological, ecological, geophysical, and silvicultural information to develop adaptive management practices that conserve biological diversity and maintain ecosystem functioning while meeting human needs for the sustainable production of forest products. Fungi...

  11. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Poorter, L.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity, actu

  12. Evaluation on Phyllostachys Pubescens Forest Ecosystem Services Value in Suichang County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyun Hu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect the ecological benefits of Moso bamboo forest (Phyllostachys pubescens, based on the method of “The assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China”, assessing Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services value in Suichang County. Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services value are divided into six groups: water storage, soil conservation, C fixation and O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation in this study. Chinese Fir Plantation as the control was to compare. The results showed that: (1 The total value of Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services in Suichang County was 1260.40 million yuan/a, services values of water storage, soil conservation, C fixation and O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation were respectively 741.00 million yuan/a, 81.00 million yuan/a, 331.00 million yuan/a, 21.6 million yuan/a, 32.2 million yuan/a ,53.6 million yuan/a. (2 The total value of Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services in Suichang County has increased 302.80 million yuan/a, the growth was about 31.62%. (3 In the six groups, all of Moso bamboo ecosystem services value more than the same area of Chinese Fir forest plantation. These provide a reference basis for the similar region to evaluate Moso bamboo ecosystem services value, demonstrating the important contribution of Moso bamboo to the forest ecosystem of Suichang County's sustainable development.

  13. The encyclopedia of southern Appalachian forest ecosystems: A prototype of an online scientific knowledge management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems (ESAFE), a hyperdocument-based encyclopedia system available on the Internet, provides an organized synthesis of existing research on the management and ecology of Southern Appalachian forests ecosystems. The encyclopedia is dynamic, so that new or revised content can be submitted directly through the Internet...

  14. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Poorter, L.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity,

  15. Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation

  16. Towards Operational Detection of Forest Ecosystem Changes in Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tarantino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of the Cross-Correlation Analysis (CCA technique to multi-spatial resolution Earth Observation (EO data for detecting and quantifying changes in forest ecosystems in two different protected areas, located in Southern Italy and Southern India. The input data for CCA investigation were elaborated from the forest layer extracted from an existing Land Cover/Land Use (LC/LU map (time T1 and a more recent (T2, with T2 > T1 single date image. The latter consist of a High Resolution (HR Landsat 8 OLI image and a Very High Resolution (VHR Worldview-2 image, which were analysed separately. For the Italian site, the forest layer (1:5000 was first compared to the HR Landsat 8 OLI image and then to the VHR Worldview-2 image. For the Indian site, the forest layer (1:50,000 was compared to the Landsat 8 OLI image then the changes were interpreted using Worldview-2. The changes detected through CCA, at HR only, were compared against those detected by applying a traditional NDVI image differencing technique of two Landsat scenes at T1 and T2. The accuracy assessment, concerning the change maps of the multi-spatial resolution outputs, was based on stratified random sampling. The CCA technique allowed an increase in the value of the overall accuracy: from 52% to 68% for the Italian site and from 63% to 82% for the Indian site. In addition, a significant reduction of the error affecting the stratified changed area estimation for both sites was obtained. For the Italian site, the error reduction became significant at VHR (±2 ha in respect to HR (±32 ha even though both techniques had comparable overall accuracy (82% and stratified changed area estimation. The findings obtained support the conclusions that CCA technique can be a useful tool to detect and quantify changes in forest areas due to both legal and illegal interventions, including relatively inaccessible sites (e.g., tropical forest with costs remaining rather low. The

  17. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wei

    Full Text Available Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production

  18. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  19. Sinks for inorganic nitrogen deposition in forest ecosystems with low and high nitrogen deposition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wenping; Yu, Guirui; Fang, Huajun; Jiang, Chunming; Yan, Junhua; Zhou, Mei

    2014-01-01

    We added the stable isotope (15)N in the form of ((15)NH4)2SO4 and K(15)NO3 to forest ecosystems in eastern China under two different N deposition levels to study the fate of the different forms of deposited N. Prior to the addition of the (15)N tracers, the natural (15)N abundance ranging from -3.4‰ to +10.9‰ in the forest under heavy N deposition at Dinghushan (DHS), and from -3.92‰ to +7.25‰ in the forest under light N deposition at Daxinganling (DXAL). Four months after the tracer application, the total (15)N recovery from the major ecosystem compartments ranged from 55.3% to 90.5%. The total (15)N recoveries were similar under the ((15)NH4)2SO4 tracer treatment in both two forest ecosystems, whereas the total (15)N recovery was significantly lower in the subtropical forest ecosystem at DHS than in the boreal forest ecosystem at DXAL under the K(15)NO3 tracer treatment. The (15)N assimilated into the tree biomass represented only 8.8% to 33.7% of the (15)N added to the forest ecosystems. In both of the tracer application treatments, more (15)N was recovered from the tree biomass in the subtropical forest ecosystem at DHS than the boreal forest ecosystem at DXAL. The amount of (15)N assimilated into tree biomass was greater under the K(15)NO3 tracer treatment than that of the ((15)NH4)2SO4 treatment in both forest ecosystems. This study suggests that, although less N was immobilized in the forest ecosystems under more intensive N deposition conditions, forest ecosystems in China strongly retain N deposition, even in areas under heavy N deposition intensity or in ecosystems undergoing spring freezing and thawing melts. Compared to ammonium deposition, deposited nitrate is released from the forest ecosystem more easily. However, nitrate deposition could be retained mostly in the plant N pool, which might lead to more C sequestration in these ecosystems.

  20. Ecoregions of Arizona (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Johnson, Colleen Burch; Turner, Dale S.

    2014-01-01

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources; they are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The Arizona ecoregion map was compiled at a scale of 1:250,000. It revises and subdivides an earlier national ecoregion map that was originally compiled at a smaller scale. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity. These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions. At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions. Level IV is a further subdivision of level III ecoregions. Arizona contains arid deserts and canyonlands, semiarid shrub- and grass-covered plains, woodland- and shrubland-covered hills, lava fields and volcanic plateaus, forested mountains, glaciated

  1. Forest management type influences diversity and community composition of soil fungi across temperate forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezia eGoldmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive towards shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L., with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L. or spruce (Picea abies Karst. which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure.We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal OTU richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera.This study extends our knowledge

  2. Forest ecosystems and environments scaling up from shoot module to watershed

    CERN Document Server

    Kohyama, Takashi; Ojima, Dennis S

    2005-01-01

    Coastal East and Southeast Asia are characterized by wet growing seasons, and species-rich forest ecosystems develop throughout the latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. In this region, the Global Change Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia (TEMA) project was carried out as a unique contribution to the international project Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems. TEMA aimed to integrate forest ecosystem processes, from leaf physiology to meteorological budget and prediction of long-term change of vegetation composition and architecture through demographic processes. Special attention was given to watershed processes, where forest ecosystem metabolism affects the properties and biogeochemical budgets of freshwater ecosystems, and where rivers, wetlands, and lakes are subject to direct and indirect effects of environmental change. This volume presents the scaling-up concept for better understanding of ecosystem functioning.

  3. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C.; Carter, Douglas R.; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production.

  4. The roles of a decision support system in applying forest ecosystem management in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Limin; ZHENG; Bofu; Guofan; Shao; ZHOU; Li

    2006-01-01

    Forest ecosystems provide a variety of services and forest ecosystem management (FEM) is an effective approach to maximize the services. Because of the complexity of forest ecosystems, the applications of FEM can be facilitated with decision support systems (DSS) that recognize and incorporate ecological and socio-economic variables. With the rapid development of computation and information technologies, DSS have been advanced in many ways. Traditional forest management within a forestry unit in China is planned on a yearly basis. The planning itself remains primarily a verbal concept as there are no quantitative decision-support tools available to translate the concept into forest management actions. For the purposes of FEM at the management level, a forest management DFF, FORESTAR(R), has been developed under a framework of geographic information system (GIS) and forest models. The paper explained the intelligent modeling mechanisms and demonstrated how the applications of FEM can be strengthened with the applications of FORESTAR(R).

  5. How forest management affects ecosystem services, including timber production and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncker, Philipp S.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Gundersen, Per;

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems deliver multiple goods and services and, traditionally, forest owners tend to have a high interest in goods in the form of merchantable wood. As a consequence, forest management often aims to increase timber production and economic returns through intervention into natural...

  6. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Michael J. Arbaugh; Susan L. Schilling

    1998-01-01

    Industrial air pollution has been identified as one of the primary causes of severe damage to forests of central Europe in the past 30 to 40 years. The mountain forest ecosystems have been affected considerably, resulting in extensive areas of severely deteriorated forest stands (e.g., the Krusne Hory of the Czech Republic or the Izerske and Sudety Mountains along the...

  7. Future monitoring and research needs for forest ecosystems in a changing environment: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In order to identify future monitoring and research needs, a COST Strategic workshop on the role of "Forest ecosystems in a changing environment" assembled nearly 180 scientists from 30 countries in Istanbul on 11-13 March 2008. The workshop specifically tackled the fields of climate change and forests, ozone, atmospheric deposition and critical loads, biodiversity, as well as quality assurance in forest monitoring.

  8. The role of remote sensing in process‐scaling studies of managed forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey G. Masek; Daniel J. Hayes; M. Joseph Hughes; Sean P. Healey; David P. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining forest resources requires a better understanding of forest ecosystem processes, and how management decisions and climate change may affect these processes in the future. While plot and inventory data provide our most detailed information on forest carbon, energy, and water cycling, applying this understanding to broader spatial and temporal domains...

  9. Long-term trends from ecosystem research at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Christopher Eagar; Gene E. Likens; Thomas G. Siccama; Chris E. Johnson; Timothy J. Fahey; Steven P. Hamburg; Richard T. Holmes; Amey S. Bailey; Donald C. Buso

    2007-01-01

    Summarizes 52 years of collaborative, long-term research conducted at the Hubbard Brook (NH) Experimental Forest on ecosystem response to disturbances such as air pollution, climate change, forest disturbance, and forest management practices. Also provides explanations of some of the trends and lists references from scientific literature for further reading.

  10. Terrestrial Liming As a Restoration Technique for Acidified Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Pabian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of liming on soils and forest songbirds as well as vegetation and calcium-rich invertebrate prey variables that were predicted to link birds to changes in soil conditions. We observed increases in soil pH, calcium, and magnesium, as well as in songbird abundances in response to lime application, with continuing increases through five years after liming. We observed an overall increase in snail abundance on limed sites, but an initial peak of a 23 fold increase three years after liming was reduced to an 11 fold increase five years after liming. We observed an increase in forb ground cover on limed sites, but liming had no effect on millipede abundance or other vegetation measures. Of the variables we measured, snail abundance was the most likely mechanism for the response in bird abundances. Because we observed continued benefits of liming up to five years post treatment, we concluded that liming is a very promising technique for restoring forest ecosystems impacted by acidic deposition.

  11. Microbiological assessment of technogenicaly disturbed forest ecosystems in Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogorodskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of soil microbial complexes of forest ecosystems of Central Siberia, disturbed by cutting, fires, emissions of pollutants and mining was investigated. The most appropriate indicators for early diagnosis of the condition and sustainability assessment of soils were the contents of microbial biomass, the intensity of the basal respiration and microbial metabolic quotient. Recorded time quantitative and structural-taxonomic restructuring of ecological trophic groups of microorganisms exhibited orientation of the elementary soil-biological processes and allowed detail to assess the state of soils of disturbed forest ecosystems. Successions of soil microorganisms reflected stages of plant succession after cutting. Structural and functional changes in the microbial soil complexes marked by only one-two years after cutting of coniferous forests. For the grassy stage in deciduous young stands, there was an increase in soil microbial activity that accompanied the development of the sod process. Microbiological processes were balanced and comparable to the control at the stage of closed 30-year-old stands. Post-fire recovery of the microbial soil complexes was determined by fire severity and by the properties of soils and vegetation succession. Functional activity of microbial soil complexes were recovered in one or two years after a low-intensity fires, whereas after high-intensity fires – was not recovered in eight years. Indicative responses of soil microorganisms in the sustainable impact of aggressive pollutants tundra zone of the Norilsk industrial region were registered at the functional and at the structural level. In areas of moderate and weak disturbances of vegetation, there were quantitative changes, whereas strong disturbances and constant exposure to pollutants marked structural and taxonomic adjustment of microbial soil complexes, disturbed dynamic processes of synthesis-mineralization and reduced adaptive capacity saprophytic

  12. Forest type effects on the retention of radiocesium in organic layers of forest ecosystems affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2016-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused serious radiocesium (137Cs) contamination of forest ecosystems over a wide area. Forest-floor organic layers play a key role in controlling the overall bioavailability of 137Cs in forest ecosystems; however, there is still an insufficient understanding of how forest types influence the retention capability of 137Cs in organic layers in Japanese forest ecosystems. Here we conducted plot-scale investigations on the retention of 137Cs in organic layers at two contrasting forest sites in Fukushima. In a deciduous broad-leaved forest, approximately 80% of the deposited 137Cs migrated to mineral soil located below the organic layers within two years after the accident, with an ecological half-life of approximately one year. Conversely, in an evergreen coniferous forest, more than half of the deposited 137Cs remained in the organic layers, with an ecological half-life of 2.1 years. The observed retention behavior can be well explained by the tree phenology and accumulation of 137Cs associated with litter materials with different degrees of degradation in the organic layers. Spatial and temporal patterns of gamma-ray dose rates depended on the retention capability. Our results demonstrate that enhanced radiation risks last longer in evergreen coniferous forests than in deciduous broad-leaved forests.

  13. Effects of productivity on biodiversity in forest ecosystems across the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Watson, James V; Zhou, Mo; Lei, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    In the global campaign against biodiversity loss in forest ecosystems, land managers need to know the status of forest biodiversity, but practical guidelines for conserving biodiversity in forest management are lacking. A major obstacle is the incomplete understanding of the relationship between site primary productivity and plant diversity, due to insufficient ecosystem-wide data, especially for taxonomically and structurally diverse forest ecosystems. We investigated the effects of site productivity (the site's inherent capacity to grow timber) on tree species richness across 19 types of forest ecosystems in North America and China through 3 ground-sourced forest inventory data sets (U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis, Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory, and Chinese Forest Management Planning Inventory). All forest types conformed to a consistent and highly significant (P biodiversity relationship among the 3 data sets we examined makes it possible to quantify the expected tree species richness that a forest stand is capable of sustaining, and a comparison between the actual species richness and the sustainable values can be useful in prioritizing conservation efforts.

  14. The Function and Value of Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Gongbo Nature Reserve, located in Nyingchi of Tibet, is by far the largest construction project of forest reserves that China approves and invests in. This article adopts the shadow project method, and estimates the water conservation function of forest ecosystem of Gongbo Nature Reserve based on the Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China promulgated by State Forestry Administration of China. The results show that the total value of water conservation of forest ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve is 8.485 billion yuan, while the function of water conservation is a small fraction of ecological service function, indicating that there is great ecological value in service function of forest ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve, that is, Gongbo Nature Reserve has vital ecological value.

  15. Hessian forest ecosystem study. Hessian forest ecosystem study 2004: Weather - water balance - gas concentrations; Waldoekosystemstudie Hessen. Waldzustandsbericht 2004: Witterung - Wasserhaushalt - Gaskonzentrationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, U.; Gawehn, P.; Scheler, B.; Schmidt, M.; Kolb, M.; Schoenfelder, E.; Eichhorn, J. (comps.) [Hessen-Forst, Hannoversch Muenden (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Hessian Forest Ecosystem Study aims to document and explore changes to forest ecosystems as a result of emissions and climatic influences. Thus, it contributes importantly to a multifunctional and sustainable forest management. 2003 has been an exceptional warm and dry year. High precipitation during summer 2004 reduced some of the drought induced risks. However, crown condition assessments proved an increase of defoliation, mainly regarding young and old beech. Deposition of sulfur and acid components has been on a low level in 2003/2004. Input of acidity and sulfur caused changes in forest soils, therefore a well balance liming is recommended. A further reduction of nitrogen input in Hessian forests and ozone content of ambient air is required. (orig.)

  16. Microbial responses to experimental warming in a peatland forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluber, L. A.; Hanson, P. J.; Schadt, C. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) experiment is a ten-year ecosystem manipulation experiment examining how peatland forests respond to increased temperature and CO2 levels. This experiment is expected to lead to various changes in ecosystem processes, including microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles that may ultimately alter the overall C balance of these ecosystems. The initial phase of this experiment began over the summer of 2014 by heating deep subsurface peat to +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9.0 °C above ambient plots with a target heating zone of 1.5-2 meters depth. Whole ecosystem warming began the summer of 2015 with the addition of aboveground heating to the same target temperatures. The response of microbial communities to in-situ warming is assessed with qPCR and rRNA amplicon sequencing at eleven discrete depths across the peat profile to a depth of 200 cm. Additionally, metagenomic sequencing is used to characterize microbial metabolic and functional potential on four depths per profile. After one year of deep peat warming, microbial community structure and abundance of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and methanogenic populations showed strong vertical stratification across the peat depth profile yet no clear response to the temperature treatments. In an effort to identify factors that may be limiting decomposition and microbial community change in deep peat, we conducted a microcosm incubation of deep peat (150-200 cm depth) at 6 and 15 °C to mimic ambient and +9 °C SPRUCE conditions. Additional treatments included elevated pH and the addition of N and P. Microcosms were monitored for CO2 and CH4 production, and microbial community dynamics were assessed using qPCR and amplicon sequencing. Increasing temperature elevated both CO2 and CH4 production while elevated pH only resulted in greater CH4 production. The effects of elevating temperature and pH in combination with N, P, or N+P additions were more

  17. Carbon sink in Phoebe bournei artificial forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingdong MA; Chengde LUO; Hong JIANG; Yuejian LIU; Xi LI

    2009-01-01

    Biomass, carbon content, carbon storage and spatial distribution in the 32-year-old Phoebe bournei artificial forest were measured. The mean biomass of the forest stand was 174.33 t/hm2, among which the arbor layer was 166.73 t/hm2, which accounted for 95.6%. Carbon contents of stems, barks, branches, leaves, root, shrub layer, herb layer, lichen layer and litter layer were 0.5769 g C/g, 0.4654 g C/g, 0.5232 g C/g, 0.4958 g C/g, 0.4931 g C/g, 0.4989 g C/g, 0.4733 g C/g, 0.4143 g C/g, 0.3882 g C/g, respectively. The mean carbon content of soil was 0.0139 g C/g, which reduced gradually along with soil depth. Total carbon storage of the P. bournei stand ecosystem was 227.59 t/hm2, among which the arbor layer accounted for 40.13% (91.33 t/hm2), the shrub layer accounted for 0.17% (0.38 t/hm2), the herb layer accounted for 0.76% (1.71 t/hm2), the lichen layer accounted for 0.28% (0.63 t/hm2), and the litter layer accounted for 0.29% (0.66 t/hm2). Carbon content (0-80 cm) of the forest soil was 58.40% (132.88 t/hm2). Spatial distribution ranking of carbon storage was: soil layer (0-80 cm) > arbor layer > herb layer > litter layer > lichen layer > shrub layer. Net production of the forest stand was 8.5706 t/(hm2-a), in which the arbor layer was 6.6691 t/(hm2-a), and it accounted for 77.82%. Net annual carbon sequestration of the P. bournei stand was 4.2536 t/(hm2 a),and the arbor layer was 3.5736 t/(hm2. a), which accountedfor 84.01%.

  18. Evaluating carbon fluxes of global forest ecosystems by using an individual tree-based model FORCCHN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianyong; Shugart, Herman H; Yan, Xiaodong; Cao, Cougui; Wu, Shuang; Fang, Jing

    2017-02-14

    The carbon budget of forest ecosystems, an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, needs to be accurately quantified and predicted by ecological models. As a preamble to apply the model to estimate global carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, we used the CO2 flux measurements from 37 forest eddy-covariance sites to examine the individual tree-based FORCCHN model's performance globally. In these initial tests, the FORCCHN model simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) with correlations of 0.72, 0.70 and 0.53, respectively, across all forest biomes. The model underestimated GPP and slightly overestimated ER across most of the eddy-covariance sites. An underestimation of NEP arose primarily from the lower GPP estimates. Model performance was better in capturing both the temporal changes and magnitude of carbon fluxes in deciduous broadleaf forest than in evergreen broadleaf forest, and it performed less well for sites in Mediterranean climate. We then applied the model to estimate the carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems on global scale over 1982-2011. This application of FORCCHN gave a total GPP of 59.41±5.67 and an ER of 57.21±5.32PgCyr(-1) for global forest ecosystems during 1982-2011. The forest ecosystems over this same period contributed a large carbon storage, with total NEP being 2.20±0.64PgCyr(-1). These values are comparable to and reinforce estimates reported in other studies. This analysis highlights individual tree-based model FORCCHN could be used to evaluate carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems on global scale.

  19. Challenges for tree officers to enhance the provision of regulating ecosystem services from urban forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen J; Doick, Kieron J; Hudson, Malcolm D; Schreckenberg, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Urbanisation and a changing climate are leading to more frequent and severe flood, heat and air pollution episodes in Britain's cities. Interest in nature-based solutions to these urban problems is growing, with urban forests potentially able to provide a range of regulating ecosystem services such as stormwater attenuation, heat amelioration and air purification. The extent to which these benefits are realized is largely dependent on urban forest management objectives, the availability of funding, and the understanding of ecosystem service concepts within local governments, the primary delivery agents of urban forests. This study aims to establish the extent to which British local authorities actively manage their urban forests for regulating ecosystem services, and identify which resources local authorities most need in order to enhance provision of ecosystem services by Britain's urban forests. Interviews were carried out with staff responsible for tree management decisions in fifteen major local authorities from across Britain, selected on the basis of their urban nature and high population density. Local authorities have a reactive approach to urban forest management, driven by human health and safety concerns and complaints about tree disservices. There is relatively little focus on ensuring provision of regulating ecosystem services, despite awareness by tree officers of the key role that urban forests can play in alleviating chronic air pollution, flood risk and urban heat anomalies. However, this is expected to become a greater focus in future provided that existing constraints - lack of understanding of ecosystem services amongst key stakeholders, limited political support, funding constraints - can be overcome. Our findings suggest that the adoption of a proactive urban forest strategy, underpinned by quantified and valued urban forest-based ecosystem services provision data, and innovative private sector funding mechanisms, can facilitate a change to a

  20. Tree diversity does not always improve resistance of forest ecosystems to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Granier, André; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Chećko, Ewa; Forrester, David Ian; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Finér, Leena; Pollastrini, Martina; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Valladares, Fernando; Bonal, Damien; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-10-14

    Climate models predict an increase in the intensity and frequency of drought episodes in the Northern Hemisphere. Among terrestrial ecosystems, forests will be profoundly impacted by drier climatic conditions, with drastic consequences for the functions and services they supply. Simultaneously, biodiversity is known to support a wide range of forest ecosystem functions and services. However, whether biodiversity also improves the resistance of these ecosystems to drought remains unclear. We compared soil drought exposure levels in a total of 160 forest stands within five major forest types across Europe along a gradient of tree species diversity. We assessed soil drought exposure in each forest stand by calculating the stand-level increase in carbon isotope composition of late wood from a wet to a dry year (Δδ(13)CS). Δδ(13)CS exhibited a negative linear relationship with tree species diversity in two forest types, suggesting that species interactions in these forests diminished the drought exposure of the ecosystem. However, the other three forest types were unaffected by tree species diversity. We conclude that higher diversity enhances resistance to drought events only in drought-prone environments. Managing forest ecosystems for high tree species diversity does not necessarily assure improved adaptability to the more severe and frequent drought events predicted for the future.

  1. Restoration of Degraded Salt Affected Lands to Productive Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yash; Singh, Gurbachan; Singh, Bajrang; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil system determines the fluxes of energy and matter in the Earth and is the source of goods, services and resources to the humankind (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). To restore and rehabilitate the soil system is a key strategy to recover the services the soils offers (Celentano et al., 2016; Galati et al., 2016; Parras-Alcantara et al., 2016). Transformation of degraded sodic lands in biodiversity rich productive forest ecosystem is a challenging task before the researchers all over the world. The soils of the degraded sites remain almost unfavorable for the normal growth, development and multiplication of organisms; all our attempts tend to alleviate the soil constraints. Land degradation due to presence of salts in the soil is an alarming threat to agricultural productivity and sustainability, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the world (Tanji, 1990; Qadir et al., 2006). According to the FAO Land and Nutrition Management Service (2008), over 6% of the world's lands are affected by salinity, which accounts for more than 800 million ha in 100 countries. This is due to natural causes, extensive utilization of land (Egamberdieva et al., 2008), poor drainage systems and limited availability of irrigation water which causes salinization in many irrigated soils (Town et al., 2008).In India, about 6.73 million ha are salt affected which spread in 194 districts out of 584 districts in India and represents 2.1% of the geographical area of the country (Mandal et al., 2009).Out of these, 2.8 million ha are sodic in nature and primarily occurring in the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. These lands are degraded in structural, chemical, nutritional, hydrological and microbiological characteristics. The reclamation of salt affected soils with chemical amendments like gypsum and phospho-gypsum are in practice for the cultivation field crops under agricultural production. Forest development on such lands although takes considerable

  2. Review of study on mineralization, saturation and cycle of Nitrogen in forest ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jin-yan; FAN Jing

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important elements that can limit plant growth in forest ecosystems. Studies of nitrogen mineralization, nitrogen saturation and nitrogen cycle in forest ecosystems is very necessary for understanding the productivity of stand, nutrient cycle and turnover of nitrogen of forest ecosystems. Based on comparison and analysis of domestic and international academic references related to studies on nitrogen mineralization, nitrogen saturation and nitrogen cycle in recent 10 years, the current situation and development of the study on these aspects, and the problems existed in current researches were reviewed. At last, some advices were given for future researches.

  3. Global patterns of ecosystem carbon flux in forests: A biometric data-based synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Yang, Yuanhe; Li, Pin; Shen, Haihua; Fang, Jingyun

    2014-09-01

    Forest ecosystems function as a significant carbon sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, our understanding of global patterns of forest carbon fluxes remains controversial. Here we examined global patterns and environmental controls of forest carbon balance using biometric measurements derived from 243 sites and synthesized from 81 publications around the world. Our results showed that both production and respiration increased with mean annual temperature and exhibited unimodal patterns along a gradient of precipitation. However, net ecosystem production (NEP) initially increased and subsequently declined along gradients of both temperature and precipitation. Our results also indicated that ecosystem production increased during stand development but eventually leveled off, whereas respiration was significantly higher in mature and old forests than in young forests. The residual variation of carbon flux along climatic and age gradients might be explained by other factors such as atmospheric CO2 elevation and disturbances (e.g., forest fire, storm damage, and selective harvest). Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) was positively associated with net primary production (NPP), but the Rh-NPP relationship differed between natural and planted forests: Rh increased exponentially with NPP in natural forests but tended toward saturation with increased NPP in planted forests. Comparison of biometric measurements with eddy covariance observations revealed that ecosystem carbon balance derived from the latter generated higher overall NEP estimates. These results suggest that the eddy covariance observations may overestimate the strength of carbon sinks, and thus, biometric measurements need to be incorporated into global assessments of the forest carbon balance.

  4. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; D’Amato, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and carbon stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative management scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial carbon stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem carbon stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide carbon stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest carbon stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining carbon stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.

  5. Hydrological principles for sustainable management of forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irena F. Creed; Gabor Z. Sass; Jim M. Buttle; Julia A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Forested landscapes around the world are changing as a result of human activities, including forest management, fire suppression, mountaintop mining, conversion of natural forests to plantations, and climate change (Brockerhoff et al., 2008; Cyr et al., 2009; Johnston et al., 2010; Miller et al., 2009; Kelly et al., 2010; Palmer et al., 2010). Forests...

  6. Soil bacterial community structure responses to precipitation reduction and forest management in forest ecosystems across Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsmann, Katja; Baudis, Mathias; Gimbel, Katharina; Kayler, Zachary E; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Bruelheide, Helge; Bruehlheide, Helge; Bruckhoff, Johannes; Welk, Erik; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season.

  7. Exploring the willingness to pay for forest ecosystem services by residents of the Veneto Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gatto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forests produce a wide array of goods, both private and public. The demand for forest ecosystem services is increasing in many European countries, yet there is still a scarcity of data on values at regional scale for Alpine areas. A Choice Experiment survey has been conducted in order to explore preferences, uses and the willingness of the Veneto population to pay for ecosystem services produced by regional mountain forests. The results show that willingness to pay is significant for recreation and C-sequestration but not for biodiversity conservation, landscape and other ecosystem services. These findings question the feasibility of developing market-based mechanisms in Veneto at present and cast light on the possible role of public institutions in promoting policy actions to increase the general awareness of forest-related ecosystem services.

  8. Population genetics provides an efficient tool to quantify fragmentation impact in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A method in population genetics (Dutech et al., Am. J. Bot. 92 (2, 252-261, February 2005 is described and discussed as an interesting tool for investigating the effects of fragmentation in forest ecosystems.

  9. The causes of deterioration of Sundarban mangrove forest ecosystem of Bangladesh: conservation and sustainable management issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi S. Islam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarban forest, located in the southwest of Bangladesh, is one of the largestcontinuous blocks of mangrove forests in the world. This mangrove forest ecosystem in Bangladesh isnow in captious position. Negative natural and anthropogenic impacts and overexploitation of naturalresources have caused severe damage to the ecosystem. Growing human population with fewalternative livelihood opportunities poses a serious threat to the mangrove forest. The rapidlyexpanding shrimp farming industry is a significant threat to the mangrove forests of Bangladesh. Dueto illegal cutting, encroachment of forest areas and illegal poaching of wildlife, the mangrove forest islosing biodiversity in an alarming rate. This forest ecosystem also has become vulnerable to pollution,which may have changed the ecosystem's biogeochemistry. Further threats arise from global climatechange, especially sea level rise. This study seeks to identify the root causes of deterioration of theSundarban mangrove forest in Bangladesh. It also recommends the application of sustainablemanagement strategies covering needs for an advanced silvicultural system, improvement of scientificresearch as well as conservation measures.

  10. Carbon budgets of three temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mt., Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG JingYun; LIU GuoHua; ZHU Biao; WANG XiaoKe; LIU ShaoHui

    2007-01-01

    There is a general agreement that forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as significant sinks for atmospheric CO2; however, their magnitude and distribution remain large uncertainties. In this paper, we report the carbon (C) stock and its change of vegetation, forest floor detritus, and mineral soil, annual net biomass increment and litterfall production, and respiration of vegetation and soils between 1992 to 1994, for three temperate forest ecosystems, birch (Betula platyphylla) forest, oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest and pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. We then evaluate the C budgets of these forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that total C density (organic C per hectare) of these forests ranged from 250 to 300 t C ha-1, of which 35―54 t C ha-1 from vegetation biomass C and 209―244 t C ha-1 from soil organic C (1 m depth, including forest floor detritus). Biomass C of all three forests showed a net increase, with 1.33―3.55 t C ha-1 a-1 during the study period. Litterfall production, vegetation autotrophic respiration, and soil heterotrophic respiration were estimated at 1.63―2.34, 2.19―6.93, and 1.81―3.49 t C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Ecosystem gross primary production fluctuated between 5.39 and 12.82 t C ha-1 a-1, about half of which (46%―59%, 3.20―5.89 t C ha-1 a-1) was converted to net primary production. Our results suggested that pine forest fixed C of 4.08 t ha-1 a-1, whereas secondary forests (birch and oak forest) were nearly in balance in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems.

  11. Carbon budgets of three temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mt.,Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There is a general agreement that forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as signifi-cant sinks for atmospheric CO2; however, their magnitude and distribution remain large uncertainties. In this paper, we report the carbon (C) stock and its change of vegetation, forest floor detritus, and mineral soil, annual net biomass increment and litterfall production, and respiration of vegetation and soils between 1992 to 1994, for three temperate forest ecosystems, birch (Betula platyphylla) forest, oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest and pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. We then evaluate the C budgets of these forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that total C density (organic C per hectare) of these forests ranged from 250 to 300 t C ha-1, of which 35―54 t C ha-1 from vegetation biomass C and 209―244 t C ha-1 from soil organic C (1 m depth, including forest floor detritus). Biomass C of all three forests showed a net increase, with 1.33―3.55 t C ha-1 a-1 during the study period. Litterfall production, vegetation autotrophic respiration, and soil heterotrophic respira-tion were estimated at 1.63―2.34, 2.19―6.93, and 1.81―3.49 t C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Ecosystem gross primary production fluctuated between 5.39 and 12.82 t C ha-1 a-1, about half of which (46%―59%, 3.20―5.89 t C ha-1 a-1) was converted to net primary production. Our results suggested that pine forest fixed C of 4.08 t ha-1 a-1, whereas secondary forests (birch and oak forest) were nearly in balance in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems.

  12. Problem of chronobiological cyclic of movement of forest ecosystems properties. Communication 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Proskuryakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of generalization of materials of long-term research, it is shown objectively, steadily, continuously and everywhere manifested action of the law of cyclic recurrence of movement of all properties of forest organisms and ecosystems. The Action of this law should be considered, both in research and in use, conserving biodiversity, productivity and resource values of forests. For this purpose, the conceptual solution to a problem of cyclic analysis of spatial-temporal movement of all properties of forest organisms and ecosystems was proposed during climate change thus allowing forest management at lower costs and risks. This solution is based on chronobiological analysis of spatial-temporal movement of forest plants and their ecosystems. The peculiarities of task solution of ecologically ranked distribution of chronobiological permanent study areas were reviewed in this relation. The interpolation algorithms of their observation results were proposed in order to analyze localization coordinates and spatial-temporal movement of properties of forest organisms and their ecosystems. The possibilities of use of chronobiological analysis for assessment of cyclic changes of sensitivity, direction, velocity and value of transposition of forest organisms and ecosystems’ properties were shown. The proposed solution to a problem will increase steadiness and cost effectiveness of forest use during cyclic climate changes and will allow operating forestry at the maximum efficiency and at lower costs and risks under the highest natural productivity of forest ecosystems thus avoiding the areas of climatic adversities. In addition, this solution will help to observe reduced impact forest use and contribute to preservation of forests’ biodiversity in space and time of fluctuating climate. Likewise, it will contribute to development of new actual trends of theoretical and applied surveys. Among them are monitoring of coordinates’ movement of

  13. Ecosystem services to enhance sustainable forest management in the US: moving from forest service national programmes to local projects in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Nikola Smith; Joe Gates

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as a way of framing and describing the broad suite of benefits that people receive from forests. The USDA Forest Service has been exploring use of an ecosystem services framework to describe forest values provided by federal lands and to attract and build partnerships with stakeholders to implement projects. Recently, the...

  14. Non-market forest ecosystem services and decision support in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna; Strange, Niels; Löf, Magnus;

    2016-01-01

    The need to integrate non-market ecosystem services into decision-making is widely acknowledged. Despite the exponentially growing body of literature, trade-offs between services are still poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of published literature in the Nordic countries (Denmark......, Norway, Sweden and Finland) on the integration of non-market forest ecosystem services into decision-making. The aim of the review was two-fold: (1) to provide an overview of coverage of biophysical and socio-economic assessments of non-market ecosystem services in relation to forest management; (2......) to determine the extent of the integration of biophysical and socio-economic models of these services into decision support models. Our findings reveal the need for wider coverage of non-market ecosystem services and evidence-based modelling of how forest management regimes affect ecosystem services...

  15. A decision framework for identifying models to estimate forest ecosystem services gains from restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Zachary; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Verdone, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Restoring degraded forests and agricultural lands has become a global conservation priority. A growing number of tools can quantify ecosystem service tradeoffs associated with forest restoration. This evolving “tools landscape” presents a dilemma: more tools are available, but selecting appropriate tools has become more challenging. We present a Restoration Ecosystem Service Tool Selector (RESTS) framework that describes key characteristics of 13 ecosystem service assessment tools. Analysts enter information about their decision context, services to be analyzed, and desired outputs. Tools are filtered and presented based on five evaluative criteria: scalability, cost, time requirements, handling of uncertainty, and applicability to benefit-cost analysis. RESTS uses a spreadsheet interface but a web-based interface is planned. Given the rapid evolution of ecosystem services science, RESTS provides an adaptable framework to guide forest restoration decision makers toward tools that can help quantify ecosystem services in support of restoration.

  16. Does Drought Influence the Relationship between Species diversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Boreal Forests?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dans le programme la présentation annoncée est "How do Environmental Conditions Influence the Biodiversity-Ecosystem Functioning Relationship in Boreal Forests?"; Ecosystem functioning is influenced by species composition and environmental conditions. Positive biodiversity effects on forest stand-level water use efficiency (WUES) have been observed under limiting soil water conditions, but whether such a relationship would explain WUEs patterns under non-limiting conditions remains to be addr...

  17. TOWARDS THE LEGAL RECOGNITION AND GOVERNANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Norfolk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of Mozambique, this paper examines the state of forest ecosystem services, the dependency of the population on these systems for their well-being, if an adaptive governance regime is being created which will ensure the resilience of the forest ecosystem services including the legal framework, the institutions operating within this framework, the tools available and their functioning, and how cooperative governance is operating.

  18. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Paul Hennon; Richard O' Hanlon; David D' Amore

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity. We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in...

  19. [Carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Jin, Jing-Wei; Cheng, Ji-Min; Su, Ji-Shuai; Zhu, Ren-Bin; Ma, Zheng-Rui; Liu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Based on the data of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region forest resources inventory, field investigation and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region, estimated the carbon density and storage of forest ecosystems, and analyzed their spatial distribution characteristics. The results showed that the biomass of each forest vegetation component was in the order of arbor layer (46.64 Mg x hm(-2)) > litterfall layer (7.34 Mg x hm(-2)) > fine root layer (6.67 Mg x hm(-2)) > shrub-grass layer (0.73 Mg x hm(-2)). Spruce (115.43 Mg x hm(-2)) and Pinus tabuliformis (94.55 Mg x hm(-2)) had higher vegetation biomasses per unit area than other tree species. Over-mature forest had the highest arbor carbon density among the forests with different ages. However, the young forest had the highest arbor carbon storage (1.90 Tg C) due to its widest planted area. Overall, the average carbon density of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region was 265.74 Mg C x hm(-2), and the carbon storage was 43.54 Tg C. Carbon density and storage of vegetation were 27.24 Mg C x hm(-2) and 4.46 Tg C, respectively. Carbon storage in the soil was 8.76 times of that in the vegetation. In the southern part of Ningxia region, the forest carbon storage was higher than in the northern part, where the low C storage was mainly related to the small forest area and young forest age structure. With the improvement of forest age structure and the further implementation of forestry ecoengineering, the forest ecosystems in Ningxia region would achieve a huge carbon sequestration potential.

  20. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  1. Problem of chronobiological cyclic of movement of forest ecosystems properties. First Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Proskuryakov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of generalization of materials of long-term research it is shown objectively manifested action of the law of cyclic recurrence of movement of all properties of forest organisms and ecosystems. The Action of this law should be considered, both in research and in use, for conserving biodiversity, productivity and resource values of forests. For this purpose, the conceptual solution to a problem of cyclic analysis of spatial-temporal movement of all properties of forest organisms and ecosystems was proposed as related to climate change thus allowing forest management at lower costs and risks. The possibility of using chronobiological analysis for assessment of cyclic changes of sensitivity, direction, speed and value of transposition of forest organisms and ecosystems’ properties were shown. Likewise, it will contribute to development of new actual trends of theoretical and applied surveys. Among them are monitoring of coordinates’ movement of spatial-temporal localization of properties of forest ecosystems, their productivity and protection role; analysis of cyclic movement of introduction results of forest organisms in new regions; development of reduced impact forest use and creation of new technologies allowing mitigation of adverse cyclic changes of productivity and biological steadiness of forests, their protection, and recreation role. Development of these directions will reduce inefficient labor and time costs for restoration and preservation of biodiversity and forest productivity, as the most important everlasting resource of the Earth.

  2. Human Influences on Tree Diversity and Composition of a Coastal Forest Ecosystem: The Case of Ngumburuni Forest Reserve, Rufiji, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kimaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an ecological survey conducted in Ngumburuni Forest Reserve, a biodiversity rich forest reserve within the coastal forests of Tanzania. The main goal of this study was to determine the influence of uncontrolled anthropogenic activities on tree species diversity and composition within the forest ecosystem. It was revealed that economic activities including logging, charcoaling, and shifting cultivation were the most important disturbing activities affecting ecological functioning and biodiversity integrity of the forest. Further to this, we noted that the values of species diversity, composition, and regeneration potential within the undisturbed forest areas were significantly different from those in heavily disturbed areas. These observations confirm that the ongoing human activities have already caused size quality degradation of useful plants, enhanced species diversification impacts to the forest ecosystem, and possibly negatively affected the livelihoods of the adjacent local communities. Despite these disturbances, Ngumburuni forest reserve still holds important proportions of both endemic and threatened animal and plant species. The study suggests urgent implementation of several conservation measures in order to limit accessibility to the forest resources so as to safeguard the richness and abundance of useful biodiversity stocks in the reserve.

  3. Alternative silvicultural practices in Appalachian forest ecosystems: implications for species diversity, ecosystem resilience, and commercial timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Fox; Carola A. Haas; David W. Smith; David L. Loftis; Shepard M. Zedaker; Robert H. Jones; A.L. Hammett

    2007-01-01

    Increasing demands for timber and non-timber forest products often conflict with demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem processes. To examine tradeoffs between these goals, we implemented six alternative management systems using a stand-level, replicated experiment. The treatments included four silvicultural regeneration methods designed to sustain timber...

  4. Distribution and accumulation of trace amounts in forest ecosystems. Verteilung und Akkumulation von Spurenstoffen in Waldoekosystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamersdorf, N.

    1988-01-01

    The work focuses on the comparison of the contents in trace amounts of individual compartments (needles, the bark of branches and stem, stem wood, different root fractions, organic ground cover, mineral soil) of three spruce forest ecosystems. Moreover a comparison of sites was made by examining spot samples from a spruce forest ecosystem (needles, bark), a beech forest ecosystem (bark, wood), and two forest stands of different leaf trees (beech, English oak; organic ground covers). The following elements were examined in varying intensities in the groups of samples: As, Bi, Pb, Cd, Se, Tl, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sb, Be, Hg, Fe, Mo and V. The analytical effort involved depended for one thing on the wish to complete available knowledge on the distribution of trace amounts in forest ecosystems, and for the other on the desire to verify by means of a damaged spruce stand, whether the accumulation or depletion of trace amounts are in part responsible for forest disease in the north-west German coastal region. In parallel to these investigations, available data regarding the bills for main substances and trace amounts from other research projects were made use of. As a basis for characterizing and judging the trace substance concentrations ascertained in the forest ecosystems, the book gives an overview of the state of knowledge in the form of a bibliography.

  5. A Evaluation of Effects on a Ecosystem and Countermeasures in accordance with Climate Change I- Forest Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha; Jeon, Seong Woo; Choi, Jae Yong; Jeong Hwi Chol; Kim, Jeong Won [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Climate change requests a lot of changes in the existing life style and economic developing system, which form the foundation of modern culture and economic/social development. Especially, in Korea, whose economic basis is mainly dependent on fossil energy, it is expected that the change of policies on climate change have a bigger effect on many-sided fields including ecosystem than other nations. Therefore, even though all of the Government, academic organizations, and private organizations have made efforts to estimate effects of climate change and to prepare countermeasures, the focus has been on forecast and evaluation of the mutual effect between industrial/economic activities and climate change. Forecast of ecosystem change and preservation of ecosystem according to climate change is another political field to promote. However, such a field has not been promoted systematically in Korea. The Institute recognizing such a current state, as part of the policy on ecosystem preservation according to climate change, forecasted the effect on forest ecosystem, analyzed the economic effects according to the effect of forest ecosystem, and started this study to prepare the countermeasures of the Government-level. This study collected and analyzed international trend and necessary data to develop the model, which would be executed in future, and then suggested the selection and development of the model fitted to Korea. There could be differences between Institute's view and the Government/other institutes. However, such differences are caused by the different methods in capturing the effects of various ecosystems. Such various approaching methods will be of great help to estimate the correct effects and to establish the Government's policies as base data. I hope that this study cannot only be applied to analyze the effects of forest ecosystem according to climate change but contribute to enlarging the understanding of various problems according to climate

  6. Integrating science and management to assess forest ecosystem vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Stephen D. Handler; Maria K. Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston

    2016-01-01

    We developed the ecosystem vulnerability assessment approach (EVAA) to help inform potential adaptation actions in response to a changing climate. EVAA combines multiple quantitative models and expert elicitation from scientists and land managers. In each of eight assessment areas, a panel of local experts determined potential vulnerability of forest ecosystems to...

  7. Understanding ecosystem service preferences across residential classifications near Mt. Baker Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Williams; Kelly Biedenweg; Lee Cerveny

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services consistently group together both spatially and cognitively into “bundles”. Understanding socio-economic predictors of these bundles is essential to informing a management approach that emphasizes equitable distribution of ecosystem services. We received 1796 completed surveys from stakeholders of the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (WA, USA)...

  8. Ecosystem services: foundations, opportunities, and challenges for the forest products sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trista M. Patterson; Dana L. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    The ecosystem service concept has been proposed as a meaningful framework for natural resource management. In theory, it holds concomitant benefit and consequence for the forest product sector. However, numerous barriers impede practitioners from developing concrete and enduring responses to emerging ecosystem service markets, policies, and initiatives. Principal among...

  9. Age-dependent changes in ecosystem carbon fluxes in managed forests in Northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Jiquan Chen; Thomas R. Crow

    2007-01-01

    The age-dependent variability of ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes was assessed by measuring the net ecosystem exchange of C (NEE) in five managed forest stands in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study sites ranged in age from 3-year-old clearcut to mature stands (65 years). All stands, except the clearcut, accumulated C over the study period from May to October 2002. Seasonal...

  10. Influence of spring and autumn phenological transitions on forest ecosystem productivit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, A.D.; Black, T.A.; Ciais, P.; Delbart, N.; Moors, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    We use eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) from 21 FLUXNET sites (153 site-years of data) to investigate relationships between phenology and productivity (in terms of both NEP and gross ecosystem photosynthesis, GEP) in temperate and boreal forests. Results are used to e

  11. Using FLUXNET data to improve models of springtime vegetation activity onset in forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melaas, E.; Richardson, A.; Friedl, M.; Dragoni, D.; Gough, C.; Herbst, M.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation phenology is sensitive to climate change and variability, and is a first order control on the carbon budget of forest ecosystems. Robust representation of phenology is therefore needed to support model-based projections of how climate change will affect ecosystem function. A variety of mo

  12. Analyzing the ecosystem carbon and hydrologic characteristics of forested wetland using a biogeochemical process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianbo Cui; Changsheng Li; Carl Trettin

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive biogeochemical model, Wetland-DNDC, was applied to analyze the carbon and hydrologic characteristics of forested wetland ecosystem at Minnesota (MN) and Florida (FL) sites. The model simulates the flows of carbon, energy, and water in forested wetlands. Modeled carbon dynamics depends on physiological plant factors, the size of plant pools,...

  13. Impacts of acid deposition, ozone exposure and weather conditions on forest ecosystems in Europe: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Dobbertin, M.H.; Solberg, S.; Dobben, van H.F.; Schaub, M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, a “Pan-European Programme for Intensive and Continuous Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems” started to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution, climate change and natural stress factors on forest ecosystems. The programme today counts approximately 760 permanent obse

  14. Interannual variability of net ecosystem productivity in forests is explained by carbon flux phenology in autumn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chaoyang; Chen, Xi Jing; Black, T. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of autumn phenology in controlling interannual variability of forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and to derive new phenological metrics to explain the interannual variability of NEP. North America and Europe. Flux data from nine deciduous broadleaf forests (DBF)...

  15. Impacts of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems - emerging research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena Paoletti; Bytnerowicz; Chris Andersen; Algirdas Augustaitis; Marco Ferretti; Nancy Grulke; Madeleine S. Gunthardt-goerg; John Innes; Dale Johnson; Dave Karnosky; Jessada Luangjame; Rainer Matyssek; Steven McNulty; Gerhard Muller-Starck; Robert Musselman; Kevin Percy

    2007-01-01

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure – Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10–16, 2006, Riverside, CA, are summarized. Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3) is still the phytotoxic...

  16. A review of the role of fungi in wood decay of forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are key players in the health, diversity, and productivity of forest ecosystems in Pacific Northwest forests, as mycorrhizal associations, pathogens, decomposers, nontimber resources, and food resources for wildlife. A number of invertebrate species are associated with wood decay fungi, serve as vectors for fungal pathogens, or are fungivorous (consume fungi) and...

  17. Preface: long-term response of a forest watershed ecosystem, clearcutting in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Swank; Jackson Webster

    2014-01-01

    Our North American forests are no longer the wild areas of past centuries; they are an economic and ecological resource undergoing changes from both natural and management disturbances. A watershed-scale and long-term perspective of forest ecosystem responses is requisite to understanding and predicting cause and effect relationships. This book synthesizes...

  18. Armillaria species: Primary drivers of forest ecosystem processes and potential impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Sara M. Ashiglar; Geral I. McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Species of the fungal genus Armillaria are pervasive in forest soils and are associated with widely ranging tree species of diverse forests worldwide (Baumgartner et al., 2011). As primary decay drivers of ecosystem processes, Armillaria species exhibit diverse ecological behaviors, ranging from virulent root and/or butt pathogens of diverse woody hosts, such as timber...

  19. Forest ecosystem changes from annual methane source to sink depending on late summer water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie K. Shoemaker; Trevor F. Keenan; David Y. Hollinger; Andrew D. Richardson

    2014-01-01

    Forests dominate the global carbon cycle, but their role in methane (CH4) biogeochemistry remains uncertain. We analyzed whole-ecosystem CH4 fluxes from 2 years, obtained over a lowland evergreen forest in Maine, USA. Gross primary productivity provided the strongest correlation with the CH4 flux in...

  20. Impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on a boreal forest ecosystem (CLIMEX project).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Jenkins, A.; Wright, R.F.; Beerling, D.J.; Arp, W.J.; Berendse, F.; Beier, C.; Collins, R.; Dam, van D.; Rasmussen, L.; Verburg, P.S.J.; Wills, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of climate change on boreal forest ecosystems, both atmospheric CO2 (to 560 ppmv) and air temperature (by 3°–5°C above ambient) were increased at a forested headwater catchment in southern Norway. The entire catchment (860 m2) is enclosed within a transparent greenhouse, and

  1. Foliar and ecosystem respiration in an old-growth tropical rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly A. Cavaleri; Steven F. Oberbauer; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Foliar respiration is a major component of ecosystem respiration, yet extrapolations are often uncertain in tropical forests because of indirect estimates of leaf area index (LAI).A portable tower was used to directly measure LAI and night-time foliar respiration from 52 vertical transects throughout an old-growth tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In this study, we (...

  2. Ecosystem carbon storage and partitioning in a tropical seasonal forest in Southwestern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Yin, Jiang-Xia; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Despite an increasing number of studies have addressed carbon storage in tropical forests, the regional variation in such storage remains poorly understood. Uncertainty about how much carbon is stored in tropical forests...... is an important limitation for regional-scale estimates of carbon fluxes and improving these estimates requires extensive field studies of both above- and belowground stocks. In order to assess the carbon pools of a tropical seasonal forest in Asia, total ecosystem carbon storage was investigated in Xishuangbanna......, SW China. Averaged across three 1 ha plots, the total carbon stock of the forest ecosystem was 303 t C ha-1. Living tree carbon stocks (both above- and belowground) ranged from 163 to 258 t C ha-1. The aboveground biomass C pool is comparable to the Dipterocarp forests in Sumatra but lower than those...

  3. Anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity: a network structure and ecosystem functioning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca J

    2010-11-27

    Huge areas of diverse tropical forest are lost or degraded every year with dramatic consequences for biodiversity. Deforestation and fragmentation, over-exploitation, invasive species and climate change are the main drivers of tropical forest biodiversity loss. Most studies investigating these threats have focused on changes in species richness or species diversity. However, if we are to understand the absolute and long-term effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forests, we should also consider the interactions between species, how those species are organized in networks, and the function that those species perform. I discuss our current knowledge of network structure and ecosystem functioning, highlighting empirical examples of their response to anthropogenic impacts. I consider the future prospects for tropical forest biodiversity, focusing on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in secondary forest. Finally, I propose directions for future research to help us better understand the effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity.

  4. Divergence of ecosystem services in U.S. National Forests and Grasslands under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Shanlei Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Erika Cohen Mack; Steve McNulty; Heather D. Aldridge; Yang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The 170 National Forests and Grasslands (NFs) in the conterminous United States are public lands that provide important ecosystem services such as clean water and timber supply to the American people. This study investigates the potential impacts of climate change on two key ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield and ecosystem productivity) using the most recent...

  5. Conservation and Sustainable Exploitation of Forest Ecosystem in Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River -Case Study on Gongga Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The deforestation on large scale in the upper reaches of Yangtze River has caused serious problems of ecosystem and environment. Restoration of the degenerated forest ecosystems is one of the main research fields. Taking Gongga Mountain as an example, degeneration features and existing problems of forest ecosystems are analyzed in this paper, and the measures are also proposed.

  6. Northern Forest DroughtNet: A New Framework to Understand Impacts of Precipitation Change on the Northern Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Rustad, L.; Templer, P. H.; Jennings, K.; Phillips, R.; Smith, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent trends and projections for future change for the U.S. northern forests suggest that the region's climate is becoming warmer, wetter, and, ironically, drier, with more precipitation occurring as large events, separated by longer periods with no precipitation. However, to date, precipitation manipulation experiments conducted in forest ecosystems represent only ~5% of all such experiments worldwide, and our understanding of how the mesic-adapted northern forest will respond to greater frequency and intensity of drought in the future is especially poor. Several important challenges have hampered previous research efforts to conduct forest drought experiments and draw robust conclusions, including difficulties in reducing water uptake by deep and lateral tree roots, logistical and financial constraints to establishing and maintaining large-scale field experiments, and the lack of standardized approaches for determining the appropriate precipitation manipulation treatment (e.g., amount and timing of throughfall displacement), designing and constructing the throughfall displacement infrastructure, identifying key response variables, and collecting and analyzing the field data. The overarching goal of this project is to establish a regional research coordination network - Northern Forest DroughtNet - to investigate the impacts of changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation on the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and carbon (C) cycling dynamics of northern temperate forests. Specific objectives include the development of a standard prototype for conducting precipitation manipulation studies in forest ecosystems (in collaboration with the international DroughtNet-RCN) and the implementation of this prototype drought experiment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Here, we present the advances made thus far towards achieving the objectives of Northern Forest DroughtNet, plans for future work, and an invitation to the larger scientific community interested

  7. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to satisf

  8. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to satisf

  9. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to

  10. Seasonal patterns and environmental control of ecosystem respiration in subtropical and temperate forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Guirui; WEN; Xuefa; LI; Qingkang; ZHANG; Leiming; REN

    2005-01-01

    Continuous measurement of carbon dioxide exchange using the eddy covariance (EC) technique was made at two ChinaFLUX forest sites including the young subtropical Pinus plantation (Qianyanzhou) and old temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest (Changbai Mountains) as part of the ChinaFLUX network. Seasonal patterns and environmental control of ecosystem respiration in the subtropical and temperate forests were evaluated by the often-used multiplicative model and Q10 model as a function of temperature and soil water content. The resuits suggested that ( i ) temperature was found to be a dominant factor in the ecosystem respiration, and most of the temporal variability of ecosystem respiration was explained by temperature. However, in the drought-stressed ecosystem, soil water content controlled the temporal variability of ecosystem respiration other than temperature effects, and soil water content became a dominat factor when severe drought affected the ecosystem respiration; (ii) the regression models analysis revealed that in the drier soil, ecosystem respiration was more sensitive to soil moisture than was expressed by the often-used multiplicative model. It was possible to accurately estimate the seasonal variation of ecosystem respiration based on the Q10 model; and (iii)annual ecosystem respiration derived from the often-used multiplicative model was 1209 g C m-2and 1303 g C m-2, and was consistently a little higher than the Q10 model estimates of 1197 g C m-2 and 1268 g C m-2 for Qianyanzhou and Changbai Mountains, respectively.

  11. Nitrogen Additions Affect Root Dynamics in a Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    As with many ecosystems, North American boreal forests are increasingly subjected to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. To examine potential effects on plant growth, we created nitrogen fertilization plots in three sites along an Alaskan fire chronosequence composed of forests aged 5, 17, and 80 years. Each site had been exposed to two years of nitrogen fertilization, with four control plots and four nitrogen plots per site. General observations indicate that aboveground net primary productivity appears to be nitrogen limited in each site. We hypothesized that nitrogen fertilization would positively influence root dynamics as well, with nitrogen additions resulting in an increase in standing root biomass and length. To test our hypothesis, we used a minirhizotron camera to collect sequential images of roots in the top 10 cm of soil in both nitrogen fertilized and control plots in each site. Images were collected monthly during the growing season, with a total of five sampling times between May 2003 and May 2004. We then analyzed the images with WinRhizotron root measurement software. Nitrogen fertilization had varying effects on root biomass among the three sites, with a significant site by N interaction (P = 0.039). A decrease in root biomass was observed in the 5 and 80 year old sites, dropping from 207 g/m2 to 79 g/m2 and from 230 g/m2 to 129 g/m2 for the youngest and oldest sites, respectively. In contrast, root biomass increased from 52 g/m2 to 107 g/m2 in the 17 year old site. (Values are for the top 10 cm of soil only, and likely underestimate total root stocks.) Patterns in standing root lengths diverged from those of root biomass, with a 2.5-fold overall increase under nitrogen fertilization across all sites (P = 0.004). There were no significant differences among sites in nitrogen response. Standing root biomass and length differed from one another in their responses to nitrogen fertilization because nitrogen additions decreased specific root weight (as g

  12. Disturbance, complexity, and succession of net ecosystem production in North America’s temperate deciduous forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Christopher; Curtis, Peter; Hardiman, Brady; Scheuermann, Cynthia; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2016-06-29

    Century-old forests in the U.S. upper Midwest and Northeast power much of North Amer- ica’s terrestrial carbon (C) sink, but these forests’ production and C sequestration capacity are expected to soon decline as fast-growing early successional species die and are replaced by slower growing late successional species. But will this really happen? Here we marshal empirical data and ecological theory to argue that substantial declines in net ecosystem production (NEP) owing to reduced forest growth, or net primary production (NPP), are not imminent in regrown temperate deciduous forests over the next several decades. Forest age and production data for temperate deciduous forests, synthesized from published literature, suggest slight declines in NEP and increasing or stable NPP during middle successional stages. We revisit long-held hypotheses by EP Odum and others that suggest low-severity, high-frequency disturbances occurring in the region’s aging forests will, against intuition, maintain NEP at higher-than- expected rates by increasing ecosystem complexity, sustaining or enhancing NPP to a level that largely o sets rising C losses as heterotrophic respiration increases. This theoretical model is also supported by biological evidence and observations from the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in Michigan, USA. Ecosystems that experience high-severity disturbances that simplify ecosystem complexity can exhibit substantial declines in production during middle stages of succession. However, observations from these ecosystems have exerted a disproportionate in uence on assumptions regarding the trajectory and magnitude of age-related declines in forest production. We conclude that there is a wide ecological space for forests to maintain NPP and, in doing so, lessens the declines in NEP, with signi cant implications for the future of the North American carbon sink. Our intellectual frameworks for understanding forest C cycle dynamics and resilience need to

  13. Temporal-Spatial Pattern of Carbon Stocks in Forest Ecosystems in Shaanxi, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyang Cui

    Full Text Available The precise and accurate quantitative evaluation of the temporal and spatial pattern of carbon (C storage in forest ecosystems is critical for understanding the role of forests in the global terrestrial C cycle and is essential for formulating forest management policies to combat climate change. In this study, we examined the C dynamics of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi, northwest China, based on four forest inventories (1989-1993, 1994-1998, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008 and field-sampling measurements (2012. The results indicate that the total C storage of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi increased by approximately 29.3%, from 611.72 Tg in 1993 to 790.75 Tg in 2008, partially as a result of ecological restoration projects. The spatial pattern of C storage in forest ecosystems mainly exhibited a latitude-zonal distribution across the province, increasing from north (high latitude to south (low latitude generally, which signifies the effect of environmental conditions, chiefly water and heat related factors, on forest growth and C sequestration. In addition, different data sources and estimation methods had a significant effect on the results obtained, with the C stocks in 2008 being considerably overestimated (864.55 Tg and slightly underestimated (778.07 Tg when measured using the mean C density method and integrated method, respectively. Overall, our results demonstrated that the forest ecosystem in Shaanxi acted as a C sink over the last few decades. However, further studies should be carried out with a focus on adaption of plants to environmental factors along with forest management for vegetation restoration to maximize the C sequestration potential and to better cope with climate change.

  14. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-13

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  15. Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services and Benefit Sharing:A Case Study of Qingdao City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The forest ecosystem goods and services and the natural capital stocks that produce them make great contribution to national economy and human welfare both directly and indirectly. This paper evaluates the economic value of natural capital stock and the annual output flow of forest ecosystem goods and services taking Qingdao City and its eight districts as case study. The results of the valuation study showed, that the stock value of forest natural capital of Qingdao was RMB 13.46 billion at the end of 2007...

  16. Integrating beneficiaries into assessment of ecosystem services from managed forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Caputo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forests contribute to human wellbeing through the provision of important ecosystem services. Methods: In this study, we investigated how the perceived importance of ecosystem services may impact the overall benefit provided by managed watersheds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest over a 45-year period, using standardized measures of service capacity weighted by service importance weights derived from a survey of beneficiaries. Results: The capacity of watersheds to regulate water flow and quality was high in all watersheds throughout the study period, whereas cultural services such as scenic beauty declined after harvest. Impacts on greenhouse gas regulation depended on the efficiency with which harvested biomass was used. Surveys revealed that stakeholders placed high value on all ecosystem services, with regulating and cultural services seen as more important than provisioning services. When service metrics were weighted by survey responses and aggregated into a single measure, total service provision followed the same overall trend as greenhouse gas regulation. Where biomass use was less efficient in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, harvesting resulted in an overall “ecosystem service debt”; where use was more efficient, this “ecosystem service debt” was reduced. Beneficiaries’ educational backgrounds significantly affected overall assessment of service provision. Beneficiaries with college or university degrees incurred smaller “ecosystem service debts” and were less negatively affected by harvesting overall. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of including empirical measures of beneficiary preference when attempting to quantify overall provision of ecosystem services to human beneficiaries over time. Keywords: Ecosystem services, Forests, Long-term ecological research, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Regulating services

  17. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a primary tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang Che Ing, A.; Stoy, P. C.; Melling, L.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests are widely recognized as one of the world's most efficient ecosystems for the sequestration and storage of carbon through both their aboveground biomass and underlying thick deposits of peat. As the peat characteristics exhibit high spatial and temporal variability as well as the structural and functional complexity of forests, tropical peat ecosystems can act naturally as both carbon sinks and sources over their life cycles. Nonetheless, few reports of studies on the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange of tropical peat swamp forests are available to-date and their present roles in the global carbon cycle remain uncertain. To quantify CO2 exchange and unravel the prevailing factors and potential underlying mechanism regulating net CO2 fluxes, an eddy covariance tower was erected in a tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. We observed that the diurnal and seasonal patterns of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE)) varied between seasons and years. Rates of NEE declined in the wet season relative to the dry season. Conversely, both the gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were found to be higher during the wet season than the dry season, in which GPP was strongly negatively correlated with NEE. The average annual NEE was 385 ± 74 g C m-2 yr-1, indicating the primary peat swamp forest functioned as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere over the observation period.

  18. Theory into practice: implementing ecosystem management objectives in the USDA Forest Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kelly F; Koontz, Tomas M

    2005-02-01

    In the United States and around the world, scientists and practitioners have debated the definition and merits of ecosystem management as a new approach to natural resource management. While these debates continue, a growing number of organizations formally have adopted ecosystem management. However, adoption does not necessarily lead to successful implementation, and theories are not always put into practice. In this article, we examine how a leading natural resource agency, the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, has translated ecosystem management theory into concrete policy objectives and how successfully these objectives are perceived to be implemented throughout the national forest system. Through document analysis, interviews, and survey responses from 345 Forest Service managers (district rangers, forest supervisors, and regional foresters), we find that the agency has incorporated numerous ecosystem management components into its objectives. Agency managers perceive that the greatest attainment of such objectives is related to collaborative stewardship and integration of scientific information, areas in which the organization has considerable prior experience. The objectives perceived to be least attained are adaptive management and integration of social and economic information, areas requiring substantial new resources and a knowledge base not traditionally emphasized by natural resource managers. Overall, success in implementing ecosystem management objectives is linked to committed forest managers.

  19. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m2 quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems.

  20. FORECO. Countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects: a review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, B.; Synnot, H. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present document reports a literature review of the countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. The review has been prepared as a deliverable for the FORECO research Project. FORECO (Forest Ecosystems: Classification of Restoration Options, Considering Dose Reduction, Long-Term Ecological Quality and Economic Factors) is a project funded by the European Commission (Research Contract n. ERBIC-CT96-0202) in the frame of the Cooperation with third countries and international organizations (INCO-COPERNICUS) and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy. The main aim of FORECO activities with respect to forest ecosystems is the classification of countermeasure options in different forest types, considering the balance between dose reduction, long-term ecological quality and economical factors.

  1. Foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest meta-ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kai; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Changhui; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Chuan; Huang, Chunping; Tan, Yu; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-10-01

    Litter decomposition is a biological process fundamental to element cycling and a main nutrient source within forest meta-ecosystems, but few studies have looked into this process simultaneously in individual ecosystems, where environmental factors can vary substantially. A two-year field study conducted in an alpine forest meta-ecosystem with four litter species (i.e., willow: Salix paraplesia, azalea: Rhododendron lapponicum, cypress: Sabina saltuaria, and larch: Larix mastersiana) that varied widely in chemical traits showed that both litter species and ecosystem type (i.e., forest floor, stream and riparian zone) are important factors affecting litter decomposition, and their effects can be moderated by local-scale environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient availability. Litter decomposed fastest in the streams followed by the riparian zone and forest floor regardless of species. For a given litter species, both the k value and limit value varied significantly among ecosystems, indicating that the litter decomposition rate and extent (i.e., reaching a limit value) can be substantially affected by ecosystem type and the local-scale environmental factors. Apart from litter initial acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) concentration and its ratio to nitrogen concentration (i.e., AUR/N ratio), the initial nutrient concentrations of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were also important litter traits that affected decomposition depending on the ecosystem type.

  2. Nutrient addition effects on tropical dry forests: a mini-review from microbial to ecosystem scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer; Becklund, Kristen; Gei, Maria; Iyengar, Siddarth; Meyer, Rebecca; O'Connell, Christine; Schilling, Erik; Smith, Christina; Waring, Bonnie; Werden, Leland

    2015-06-01

    Humans have more than doubled inputs of reactive nitrogen globally and greatly accelerated the biogeochemical cycles of phosphorus and metals. However, the impacts of increased element mobility on tropical ecosystems remain poorly quantified, particularly for the vast tropical dry forest biome. Tropical dry forests are characterized by marked seasonality, relatively little precipitation, and high heterogeneity in plant functional diversity and soil chemistry. For these reasons, increased nutrient deposition may affect tropical dry forests differently than wet tropical or temperate forests. Here we review studies that investigated how nutrient availability affects ecosystem and community processes from the microsite to ecosystem scales in tropical dry forests. The effects of N and P addition on ecosystem carbon cycling and plant and microbial dynamics depend on forest successional stage, soil parent material and rainfall regime. Responses may depend on whether overall productivity is N- versus P-limited, although data to test this hypothesis are limited. These results highlight the many important gaps in our understanding of tropical dry forest responses to global change. Large-scale experiments are required to resolve these uncertainties.

  3. Nutrient addition effects on tropical dry forests: a mini-review from microbial to ecosystem scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Powers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have more than doubled inputs of reactive nitrogen globally and greatly accelerated the biogeochemical cycles of phosphorus and metals. However, the impacts of increased element mobility on tropical ecosystems remain poorly quantified, particularly for the vast tropical dry forest biome. Tropical dry forests are characterized by marked seasonality, relatively little precipitation, and high heterogeneity in plant functional diversity and soil chemistry. For these reasons, increased nutrient deposition may affect tropical dry forests differently than wet tropical or temperate forests. Here we review studies that investigated how nutrient availability affects ecosystem and community processes from the microsite to ecosystem scales in tropical dry forests. The effects of N and P addition on ecosystem carbon cycling and plant and microbial dynamics depend on forest successional stage, soil parent material and rainfall regime. Responses may depend on whether overall productivity is N- versus P-limited, although data to test this hypothesis are limited. These results highlight the many important gaps in our understanding of tropical dry forest responses to global change. Large-scale experiments are required to resolve these uncertainties.

  4. Forest Ecosystem Services: Issues and Challenges for Biodiversity, Conservation, and Management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vizzarri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although forest ecosystems are fundamental sources of services and global biodiversity, their capacity to maintain these benefits in the future is potentially threatened by anthropogenic impacts such as climate change, land use, and unsustainable management practices. Thus far, studies focusing on forests and their services have gained less attention compared with studies on other biomes. Additionally, management practices may potentially undermine the capacity of forests to sustain biodiversity conservation and services in the future, especially outside protected areas. This study linked the concepts of biodiversity and forest ecosystem services at the national level in Italy. Through a downscaled review, we first analyzed management issues, challenges, and needs within the context of forest ecosystem services. We then carried out a survey on protected areas. The results show that forest biodiversity supports the provision of other services and, hence, needs to be preserved and supported by adaptive management practices. Current research on forest ecosystem services must extend policy trajectories to protected areas (i.e., National Parks as centers of biodiversity and models of the sustainable use of resources.

  5. Changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function during the restoration of a tropical forest in south china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Tropical forests continue to vanish rapidly,but few long-term studies have ever examined if and how the lost forests can be restored.Based on a 45-year restoration study in south China,we found that a tropical rain forest,once completely destroyed,could not recover naturally without deliberate restoration efforts.We identified two kinds of thresholds that must be overcome with human ameliorative measures before the ecosystem was able to recover.The first threshold was imposed primarily by extreme physical conditions such as exceedingly high surface temperature and impoverished soil,while the second was characterized by a critical level of biodiversity and a landscape context that accommodates dispersal and colonization processes.Our three treatment catchments(un-restored barren land,single-species plantation,and mixed-forest stand)exhibited dramatically different changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over 4 decades.The mixed forest,having the highest level of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning,possesses several major properties of tropical rain forest.These findings may have important implications for the restoration of many severely degraded or lost tropical forest ecosystems.

  6. Changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function during the restoration of a tropical forest in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hai; LI ZhiAn; SHEN WeiJun; YU ZuoYue; PENG ShaoLin; LIAO ChongHui; DING MingMao; WU JianGuo

    2007-01-01

    Tropical forests continue to vanish rapidly, but few long-term studies have ever examined if and how the lost forests can be restored. Based on a 45-year restoration study in south China, we found that a tropical rain forest, once completely destroyed, could not recover naturally without deliberate restoration efforts. We identified two kinds of thresholds that must be overcome with human ameliorative measures before the ecosystem was able to recover. The first threshold was imposed primarily by extreme physical conditions such as exceedingly high surface temperature and impoverished soil, while the second was characterized by a critical level of biodiversity and a landscape context that accommodates dispersal and colonization processes. Our three treatment catchments (un-restored barren land, single-species plantation, and mixed-forest stand) exhibited dramatically different changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over 4 decades. The mixed forest, having the highest level of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, possesses several major properties of tropical rain forest.These findings may have important implications for the restoration of many severely degraded or lost tropical forest ecosystems.

  7. [Regional and global estimates of carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity in forest ecosystems: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-wei; Wang, Xiao-ke; Lu, Fei; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-09-01

    As a dominant part of terrestrial ecosystems, forest ecosystem plays an important role in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and global climate change mitigation. From the aspects of zonal climate and geographical distribution, the present carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem were comprehensively examined based on the review of the latest literatures. The influences of land use change on forest carbon sequestration were analyzed, and factors that leading to the uncertainty of carbon sequestration assessment in forest ecosystem were also discussed. It was estimated that the current forest carbon stock was in the range of 652 to 927 Pg C and the carbon sequestration capacity was approximately 4.02 Pg C · a(-1). In terms of zonal climate, the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of tropical forest were the maximum, about 471 Pg C and 1.02-1.3 Pg C · a(-1) respectively; then the carbon stock of boreal forest was about 272 Pg C, while its carbon sequestration capacity was the minimum, approximately 0.5 Pg C · a(-1); for temperate forest, the carbon stock was minimal, around 113 to 159 Pg C and its carbon sequestration capacity was 0.8 Pg C · a(-1). From the aspect of geographical distribution, the carbon stock of forest ecosystem in South America was the largest (187.7-290 Pg C), then followed by European (162.6 Pg C), North America (106.7 Pg C), Africa (98.2 Pg C) and Asia (74.5 Pg C), and Oceania (21.7 Pg C). In addition, carbon sequestration capacity of regional forest ecosystem was summed up as listed below: Tropical South America forest was the maximum (1276 Tg C · a(-1)), then were Tropical Africa (753 Tg C · a(-1)), North America (248 Tg C · a(-1)) and European (239 Tg C · a(-1)), and East Asia (98.8-136.5 Tg C · a(-1)) was minimum. To further reduce the uncertainty in the estimations of the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem, comprehensive application of long-term observation, inventories

  8. The Role of Phytodiversity in Riparian Alder Forests in Supporting the Provision of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariničová Patrícia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nature, ecosystems and biodiversity provide human society with many benefits known as ecosystem services. Functional diversity is an important aspect of biodiversity. In this paper, we applied inductive approach to the identification, mapping and evaluation of ecosystem services of the Aegopodio-Alnetum glutinosae community in Tribeč Mts. The results from 2015 show that the alder floodplain forest represents one of the most productive forest ecosystems with seasonal maximum production of 59.03 g m−2, species diversity of N0 = 40 and functional diversity of FD = 10. The forage potential of this community is medium, the melliferous potential is high and the therapeutic potential was estimated as extremely rich in medicinal plants. From the functional groups for providing ecosystem services, woody plants and hemicryptophytes play the most significant role.

  9. Fuel treatment impacts on estimated wildfire carbon loss from forests in Montana, Oregon, California, and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Scott L.; Boerner, Ralph E.J.; Maghaddas, Jason J.; Maghaddas, Emily E.Y.; Collins, Brandon M.; Dow, Christopher B.; Edminster, Carl; Fiedler, Carl E.; Fry, Danny L.; Hartsough, Bruce R.; Keeley, Jon E.; Knapp, Eric E.; McIver, James D.; Skinner, Carl N.; Youngblood, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Using forests to sequester carbon in response to anthropogenically induced climate change is being considered across the globe. A recent U.S. executive order mandated that all federal agencies account for sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases, highlighting the importance of understanding how forest carbon stocks are influenced by wildfire. This paper reports the effects of the most common forest fuel reduction treatments on carbon pools composed of live and dead biomass as well as potential wildfire emissions from six different sites in four western U.S. states. Additionally, we predict the median forest product life spans and uses of materials removed during mechanical treatments. Carbon loss from modeled wildfire-induced tree mortality was lowest in the mechanical plus prescribed fire treatments, followed by the prescribed fire-only treatments. Wildfire emissions varied from 10–80 Mg/ha and were lowest in the prescribed fire and mechanical followed by prescribed fire treatments at most sites. Mean biomass removals per site ranged from approximately 30–60 dry Mg/ha; the median lives of products in first use varied considerably (from 50 years). Our research suggests most of the benefits of increased fire resistance can be achieved with relatively small reductions in current carbon stocks. Retaining or growing larger trees also reduced the vulnerability of carbon loss from wildfire. In addition, modeled vulnerabilities to carbon losses and median forest product life spans varied considerably across our study sites, which could be used to help prioritize treatment implementation.

  10. Anthropogenic impacts on the stability of the forest ecosystems in Belgrade - comparative analysis of Košutnjak forest and Zvezdarska forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašković Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be analyzed the environmental statusof the two recently protected forest areas in Belgrade -Košutnjak forest and Zvezdarska forest. Due to their specific position inside the urban structure, these park forests are exposed to the high level of pollution and degradation originating from anthropogenic sources. This paper will include all present forms of threats to the stability of these ecosystems, both in their immediate surroundings, as well as within their borders. For clear presentation of the devastating anthropogenic impact,on the protected forest ecosystems remote sensing - NDVI analysis of the appropriate satelite imagesegments will be preformed in order to detect the differences of the state of vegetation covers registrated in 1986 and 2010. According tothe need for efficient management system for the affected natural areas in the urban structure, in the end will be presented concrete protection measures, whose continous aplication can bring to the progradation of their state.

  11. Characterization of Canopy Layering in Forested Ecosystems Using Full Waveform Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Dubayah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Canopy structure, the vertical distribution of canopy material, is an important element of forest ecosystem dynamics and habitat preference. Although vertical stratification, or “canopy layering,” is a basic characterization of canopy structure for research and forest management, it is difficult to quantify at landscape scales. In this paper we describe canopy structure and develop methodologies to map forest vertical stratification in a mixed temperate forest using full-waveform lidar. Two definitions—one categorical and one continuous—are used to map canopy layering over Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire with lidar data collected in 2009 by NASA’s Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS. The two resulting canopy layering datasets describe variation of canopy layering throughout the forest and show that layering varies with terrain elevation and canopy height. This information should provide increased understanding of vertical structure variability and aid habitat characterization and other forest management activities.

  12. Characterization of Canopy Layering in Forested Ecosystems Using Full Waveform Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Amanda S.; Swatantran, Anu; Blair, J. Bryan; Hofton, Michelle A.; Dubayah, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Canopy structure, the vertical distribution of canopy material, is an important element of forest ecosystem dynamics and habitat preference. Although vertical stratification, or "canopy layering," is a basic characterization of canopy structure for research and forest management, it is difficult to quantify at landscape scales. In this paper we describe canopy structure and develop methodologies to map forest vertical stratification in a mixed temperate forest using full-waveform lidar. Two definitions-one categorical and one continuous-are used to map canopy layering over Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire with lidar data collected in 2009 by NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). The two resulting canopy layering datasets describe variation of canopy layering throughout the forest and show that layering varies with terrain elevation and canopy height. This information should provide increased understanding of vertical structure variability and aid habitat characterization and other forest management activities.

  13. A reconnaissance of small mammal communities in Garland and Government prairies, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Carol L. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Small mammals play key ecological roles in grassland ecosystems, yet little is known regarding small mammal communities in large (>50 km2), high-elevation prairies embedded in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in north central Arizona. To provide information on community composition and habitat relationships, we live-trapped small mammals on 6 transects in 2...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Locations, U.S., 2015, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains points depicting the location of market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem services protection in the United States. The data were collected via surveys and desk research conducted by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace from 2008 to 2016 on biodiversity (i.e., imperiled species/habitats; wetlands and streams), carbon, and water markets. Additional biodiversity data were obtained from the Regulatory In-lieu Fee and Bank Information Tracking System (RIBITS) database in 2015. Points represent the centroids (i.e., center points) of market coverage areas, project footprints, or project primary impact areas in which ecosystem service markets or projects operate. National-level markets are an exception to this norm with points representing administrative headquarters locations. Attribute data include information regarding the methodology, design, and development of biodiversity, carbon, and water markets and projects. This dataset was produced by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace for EnviroAtlas in order to support public access to and use of information related to environmental markets. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) o

  15. Influence of different tree-harvesting intensities on forest soil carbon stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Gundersen, Per; Jönsson-Belyazid, Ulrika;

    2015-01-01

    Effective forest governance measures are crucial to ensure sustainable management of forests, but so far there has been little specific focus in boreal and northern temperate forests on governance measures in relation to management effects, including harvesting effects, on soil organic carbon (SOC......) stocks. This paper reviews the findings in the scientific literature concerning the effects of harvesting of different intensities on SOC stocks and fluxes in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems to evaluate the evidence for significant SOC losses following biomass removal. An overview...... of existing governance measures related to SOC is given, followed by a discussion on how scientific findings could be incorporated in guidelines and other governance measures. The currently available information does not support firm conclusions about the long-term impact of intensified forest harvesting...

  16. Winter soil CO2 efflux in two contrasting forest ecosystems on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenfeng Xu; Feifei Zhou; Huajun Yin; Qing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Significant CO2 fluxes from snow-covered soils occur in cold biomes. However, little is known about winter soil respiration on the eastern Tibetan Plateau of China. We therefore measured winter soil CO2 fluxes and estimated annual soil respiration in two contrasting coniferous forest ecosystems (a Picea asperata plantation and a natural forest). Mean winter soil CO2 effluxes were 1.08 lmol m-2 s-1 in the plantation and 1.16 lmol m-2 s-1 in the natural forest. These values are higher than most reported winter soil CO2 efflux values for temperate or boreal forest ecosystems. Winter soil respiration rates were similar for our two forest ecosystems but mean soil CO2 efflux over the growing season was higher in the natural forest than in the plantation. The estimated winter and annual soil effluxes for the natural forest were 176.3 and 1070.3 g m-2, respectively, based on the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature, which were 17.2 and 9.7 % greater than their counterparts in the plantation. The contributions of winter soil respiration to annual soil efflux were 15.4 % for the plantation and 16.5 % for the natural forest and were statistically similar. Our results indicate that winter soil CO2 efflux from frozen soils in the alpine coniferous forest ecosystems of the eastern Tibetan Plateau was considerable and was an important component of annual soil respiration. Moreover, reforestation (natural coniferous forests were deforested and reforested with P. asperata plantation) may reduce soil respiration by reducing soil carbon substrate availability and input.

  17. CARBON BALANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS UNDER GLOBAL WARMING: LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL PREDICTIVE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erland Kolomyts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of application of landscape-ecological methods for evaluation of biotic regulation of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. Methods for constructing analytical and cartographic empirical-statistical models for identification of forest associations and zonal/regional types of forest formations capable of stabilizing the continental biosphere under changing climate are described. Possible biotic regulation of the carbon cycle under known scenarios of future greenhouse warming is suggested. The maps on the carbon content and its changes in the forests of the Oka river basin are presented.

  18. A climate sensitive model of carbon transfer through atmosphere, vegetation and soil in managed forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustau, D.; Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Trichet, P.; Kumari, J.; Rabemanantsoa, T.; Balesdent, J.; Jolivet, C.; Medlyn, B. E.; Cavaignac, S.; Nguyen-The, N.

    2012-12-01

    For predicting the future of the forest carbon cycle in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to account for both the climate and management impacts. Climate effects are significant not only at a short time scale but also at the temporal horizon of a forest life cycle e.g. through shift in atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature and precipitation regimes induced by the enhanced greenhouse effect. Intensification of forest management concerns an increasing fraction of temperate and tropical forests and untouched forests represents only one third of the present forest area. Predicting tools are therefore needed to project climate and management impacts over the forest life cycle and understand the consequence of management on the forest ecosystem carbon cycle. This communication summarizes the structure, main components and properties of a carbon transfer model that describes the processes controlling the carbon cycle of managed forest ecosystems. The model, GO+, links three main components, (i) a module describing the vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges in 3D, (ii) a plant growth module and a (iii) soil carbon dynamics module in a consistent carbon scheme of transfer from atmosphere back into the atmosphere. It was calibrated and evaluated using observed data collected on coniferous and broadleaved forest stands. The model predicts the soil, water and energy balance of entire rotations of managed stands from the plantation to the final cut and according to a range of management alternatives. It accounts for the main soil and vegetation management operations such as soil preparation, understorey removal, thinnings and clearcutting. Including the available knowledge on the climatic sensitivity of biophysical and biogeochemical processes involved in atmospheric exchanges and carbon cycle of forest ecosystems, GO+ can produce long-term backward or forward simulations of forest carbon and water cycles under a range of climate and management scenarios. This

  19. [Water and soil conservation function of typical plantation forest ecosystems in semi-arid region of Western Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ping; Guo, Fang; Luo, Yue-Chu; Wei, Jing; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Gang

    2007-12-01

    From the aspects of surface runoff and soil erosion, this paper quantitatively studied the water and soil conservation function of five plantation forest ecosystems in semi-arid region of Western Liaoning Province. The results showed that various types of test plantation forest ecosystems were all able to reduce surface runoff and soil erosion effectively. In June - September, the monthly mean surface runoff coefficient of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ecosystem, P. tabulaeformis - Hippophae rhamnoides forest ecosystem, H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem, P. simonii forest ecosystem, and P. simonii - H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem was 10.1%, 6.5%, 2.3%, 8.6% and 5.3% of that of barren hill, respectively, and the soil erosion quantity was 2.65%, 0.96%, 0.15%, 2.32% and 0.69% of that of barren hill, respectively. Among the five forest ecosystems, H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem had the least surface runoff and soil erosion, being the best in water and soil conservation function.

  20. Minnesota forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Handler; Matthew J. Duveneck; Louis Iverson; Emily Peters; Robert M. Scheller; Kirk R. Wythers; Leslie Brandt; Patricia Butler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Kelly Barrett; Randy Kolka; Casey McQuiston; Brian Palik; Peter B. Reich; Clarence Turner; Mark White; Cheryl Adams; Anthony D' Amato; Suzanne Hagell; Patricia Johnson; Rosemary Johnson; Mike Larson; Stephen Matthews; Rebecca Montgomery; Steve Olson; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jack Rajala; Jad Daley; Mae Davenport; Marla R. Emery; David Fehringer; Christopher L. Hoving; Gary Johnson; Lucinda Johnson; David Neitzel; Adena Rissman; Chadwick Rittenhouse; Robert. Ziel

    2014-01-01

    Forests in northern Minnesota will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Minnesota's Laurentian Mixed Forest Province to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate changes, and...

  1. Enhanced accumulation and storage of mercury on subtropical evergreen forest floor: Implications on mercury budget in global forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Lu, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Yiping; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-08-01

    Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global cycling of mercury (Hg). In this study, we characterized the Hg cycling at a remote evergreen broadleaf (EB) forest site in southwest China (Mount Ailao). The annual Hg input via litterfall is estimated to be 75.0 ± 24.2 µg m-2 yr-1 at Mount Ailao. Such a quantity is up to 1 order of magnitude greater than those observed at remote temperate/boreal (T/B) forest sites. Production of litter biomass is found to be the most influential factor causing the high Hg input to the EB forest. Given their large areal coverage, Hg deposition through litterfall in EB forests is appropriately 9 ± 5 Mg yr-1 in China and 1086 ± 775 Mg yr-1 globally. The observed wet Hg deposition at Mount Ailao is 4.9 ± 4.5 µg m-2 yr-1, falling in the lower range of those observed at 49 T/B forest sites in North America and Europe. Given the data, the Hg deposition flux through litterfall is approximately 15 times higher than the wet Hg deposition at Mount Ailao. Steady Hg accumulation in decomposing litter biomass and Hg uptake from the environment were observed during 25 months of litter decomposition. The size of the Hg pool in the organic horizon of EB forest floors is estimated to be up to 2-10 times the typical pool size in T/B forests. This study highlights the importance of EB forest ecosystems in global Hg cycling, which requires further assessment when more data become available in tropical forests.

  2. Monoterpene Compositions of Three Forested Ecosystems in the Central Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, A.; Fuentes, J. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J. Q.; Jardine, K.

    2014-12-01

    Monoterpenes play fundamental roles as secondary metabolites in forested ecosystems and as gas and liquid phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in their surrounding atmospheres. While the chemical pathways involved in ozonolysis driven SOA formation from individual monoterpene precursors is known, local and regional chemical transport models are still lacking observations of speciated monoterpenes from forested atmospheres. Here, we present high vertically resolved mixing ratio profiles of speciated monoterpenes from the ambient air of three neighboring forested ecosystems in the central Amazon Basin. Two well-drained plateau primary forests and one seasonally flooded valley forest were sampled during the afternoon hours (13:00 - 16:30) on walkup towers from the initiation of the 2013-14 wet season through the onset of the 2014 dry season (Nov 2013 - Jul 2014). Ambient mixing ratios in all three ecosystems were greatest in the upper canopy with secondary sources of some monoterpenes within the sub-canopies. Relative vertical compositions of monoterpenes did not change significantly throughout the seasons for either ecosystem type. Both ecosystem types were dominated by d-limonene (up to 1.6 ppb) with equally strong mixing ratios of alpha-pinene in the valley compared to the much weaker a-pinene mixing ratios on the plateaus (up to 200 ppt). The highly reactive cis- and trans-beta-ocimene were consistently present in both ecosystems (up to 250 ppt) with the addition of equally high camphene mixing ratios in the valley forest (up to 200 ppt) which is present in the plateau ecosystems in low quantities (50 ppt). With respect to clean atmosphere mixing ratios of 10 ppb ozone, lifetimes are below 2 hours for camphene and below 30 minutes for ocimene, suggesting a potentially large impact on local and possibly regional ozonolysis and subsequent SOA composition.

  3. Characterization of the Montane Huntington Wildlife Forest Ecosystem Using Machine Learning Approaches from Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manqi

    Montane forests are susceptible to various stressors such as land use and climate change. Consequently, research on characterizing montane forest ecosystems should be conducted on a continuous basis for sustainable forest management. In this research, forest type mapping and change analysis, and biomass/carbon stock quantification were performed over a mountainous forest located in the central Adirondack Park, NY, by employing machine learning techniques at the plot level. Multi-temporal Landsat TM data were used to classify forest type cover and to detect forest cover changes for the past 20 years. Forest biomass and carbon stock quantification was then performed using full waveform LiDAR data collected in September 2011. Accuracies from the two case studies were in support of the versatility of machine learning approaches for forest and ecological investigation. Topographic characteristics affected the classification accuracy as well as the forest type change for the past 20 years. LiDAR-derived metrics, especially height-based ones, proved useful for quantifying biomass/carbon stock. Keywords: Landsat TM, full waveform LiDAR, forest classification, forest change analysis, biomass, carbon stock, machine learning

  4. Modeling snag dynamics in northern Arizona mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2007-01-01

    Snags (standing dead trees) are important components of forested habitats that contribute to ecological decay and recycling processes as well as providing habitat for many life forms. As such, snags are of special interest to land managers, but information on dynamics of snag populations is lacking. We modeled trends in snag populations in mixed-conifer and ponderosa...

  5. The palynology of the Sonsela member (Late Triassic, Norian) at Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichgelt, T.; Parker, W.G.; Martz, J.W.; Conran, J.G.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; Kürschner, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent paleontological investigations and lithostratigraphic revisions reveal a marked biotic turnover zone within the continental deposits of the Sonsela member of the Chinle Formation (Late Triassic, Norian) at Petrified Forest National Park, USA. Within the Sonsela member we found three pollen as

  6. Biogeochemical modelling vs. tree-ring data - comparison of forest ecosystem productivity estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Barcza, Zoltán; Hidy, Dóra; Paladinić, Elvis; Kern, Anikó; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are sensitive to environmental changes as well as human-induce disturbances, therefore process-based models with integrated management modules represent valuable tool for estimating and forecasting forest ecosystem productivity under changing conditions. Biogeochemical model Biome-BGC simulates carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes, and it is widely used for different terrestrial ecosystems. It was modified and parameterised by many researchers in the past to meet the specific local conditions. In this research, we used recently published improved version of the model Biome-BGCMuSo (BBGCMuSo), with multilayer soil module and integrated management module. The aim of our research is to validate modelling results of forest ecosystem productivity (NPP) from BBGCMuSo model with observed productivity estimated from an extensive dataset of tree-rings. The research was conducted in two distinct forest complexes of managed Pedunculate oak in SE Europe (Croatia), namely Pokupsko basin and Spačva basin. First, we parameterized BBGCMuSo model at a local level using eddy-covariance (EC) data from Jastrebarsko EC site. Parameterized model was used for the assessment of productivity on a larger scale. Results of NPP assessment with BBGCMuSo are compared with NPP estimated from tree ring data taken from trees on over 100 plots in both forest complexes. Keywords: Biome-BGCMuSo, forest productivity, model parameterization, NPP, Pedunculate oak

  7. Urban forest structure, ecosystem services and change in Syracuse, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. Hoehn; Allison R. Bodine; Eric J. Greenfield; Jarlath. O' Neil-Dunne

    2013-01-01

    The tree population within the City of Syracuse was assessed using a random sampling of plots in 1999, 2001 and 2009 to determine how the population and the ecosystem services these trees provide have changed over time. Ecosystem services and values for carbon sequestration, air pollution removal and changes in building energy use were derived using the i-Tree Eco...

  8. How does wind-throw disturbance affect the carbon budget of an upland spruce forest ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Matthias; Schmid, Hans Peter; Grote, Rüdiger; Mauder, Matthias; Wolpert, Benjamin; Steinbrecher, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Forests, especially in mid-latitudes are generally designated as large carbon sinks. However, stand-replacing disturbance events like fires, insect-infestations, or severe wind-storms can shift an ecosystem from carbon sink to carbon source within short time and keep it as this for a long time. In Addition, extreme weather situations which promote the occurrence of ecosystem disturbances are likely to increase in the future due to climate change. The development and competition of different vegetation types (spruce vs. grass) as well as soil organic matter (SOM), and their contribution to the net ecosystem exchange (NEE), in such disturbed forest ecosystems are largely unknown. In a large wind-throw area (ca. 600 m diameter, due to cyclone Kyrill in January 2007) within a mature upland spruce forest, where dead-wood has not been removed, in the Bavarian Forest National Park (Lackenberg, 1308 m a.s.l., Bavaria, Germany), fluxes of CO2, water vapor and energy have been measured with the Eddy Covariance (EC) method since 2009. Model simulations (MoBiLE) were used to estimate the GPP components from trees and grassland as well as to differentiate between soil and plant respiration, and to get an idea about the long term behavior of the ecosystems carbon exchange. For 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013 estimates of annual Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) showed that the wind-throw was a marked carbon source. However, the few remaining trees and newly emerging vegetation (grass, sparse young spruce, etc.) lead to an already strong Gross Ecosystem Production (GEP). Model simulations conformed well with the measurements. To our knowledge, we present the worldwide first long-term measurements of NEE within a non-cleared wind-throw-disturbed forest ecosystem.

  9. Restoring biodiversity and forest ecosystem services in degraded tropical landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Parrotta

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, an estimated 850 million ha of the world’s tropical forests have been lost or severely degraded, with serious impacts on local and regional biodiversity. A significant proportion of these lands were originally cleared of their forest cover for agricultural development or other economic uses. Today, however, they provide few if any environmental...

  10. Nitrate in shallow groundwater in typical agricultural and forest ecosystems in China, 2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyu Zhang; Zhiwei Xu; Xiaomin Sun; Wenyi Dong; Deborah Ballantine

    2013-01-01

    The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) concentrations from shallow groundwater wells situated in 29 of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network field stations,representing typical agro-and forest ecosystems,were assessed using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2010.Results from this assessment permit a national scale assessment of nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater,and allow linkages between nitrate concentrations in groundwater and broad land use categories to be made.Results indicated that most of the NO3--N concentrations in groundwater from the agro-and forest ecosystems were below the Class 3 drinking water standard stated in the Chinese National Standard:Quality Standard for Ground Water (< 20 mg/L).Over the study period,the average NO3--N concentrations were significantly higher in agro-ecosystems (4.1 ±-0.33 mg/L) than in forest ecosystems (0.5 + 0.04 mg/L).NO3--N concentrations were relatively higher (> 10 mg N/L) in 10 of the 43 wells sampled in the agricultural ecosystems.These elevated concentrations occurred mainly in the Ansai,Yucheng,Linze,Fukang,Akesu,and Cele field sites,which were located in arid and semiarid areas where irrigation rates are high.We suggest that improvements in N fertilizer application and irrigation management practices in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of China are the key to managing groundwater nitrate concentrations.

  11. Net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange over a larch forest in Hokkaido, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huimin Wang; Saigusa, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Susumu; Kondo, Hiroaki [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Science City (Japan); Hirano, Takashi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Toriyama, Atsushi; Fujinuma, Yasumi [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    Larch forests are distributed extensively in the east Eurasian continent and are expected to play a significant role in the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling process. In view of the fact that studies on carbon exchange for this important biome have been very limited, we have initiated a long-term flux observation in a larch forest ecosystem in Hokkaido in northern Japan since 2000. The net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange (NEE) showed large seasonal and diurnal variation. Generally, the larch forest ecosystem released CO{sub 2} in nighttime and assimilated CO{sub 2} in daytime during the growing season from May to October. The ecosystem started to become a net carbon sink in May, reaching a maximum carbon uptake as high as 186 g C m{sup -2} month{sup -1} in June. With the yellowing, senescing and leaf fall, the ecosystem turned into a carbon source in November. During the non-growing season, the larch forest ecosystem became a net source of CO{sub 2}, releasing an average of 16.7 g C m{sup -2} month{sup -1}. Overall, the ecosystem sequestered 141-240 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} in 2001. The NEE was significantly influenced by environmental factors. Respiration of the ecosystem, for example, was exponentially dependent on air temperature, while photosynthesis was related to the incident PAR in a manner consistent with the Michaelis-Menten model. Although the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was scarcely higher than 15 hPa, the CO{sub 2} uptake rate was also depressed when VPD surpassed 10 hPa (Author)

  12. Net ecosystem CO 2 exchange over a larch forest in Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin; Saigusa, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Susumu; Kondo, Hiroaki; Hirano, Takashi; Toriyama, Atsushi; Fujinuma, Yasumi

    Larch forests are distributed extensively in the east Eurasian continent and are expected to play a significant role in the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling process. In view of the fact that studies on carbon exchange for this important biome have been very limited, we have initiated a long-term flux observation in a larch forest ecosystem in Hokkaido in northern Japan since 2000. The net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE) showed large seasonal and diurnal variation. Generally, the larch forest ecosystem released CO 2 in nighttime and assimilated CO 2 in daytime during the growing season from May to October. The ecosystem started to become a net carbon sink in May, reaching a maximum carbon uptake as high as 186 g C m -2 month -1 in June. With the yellowing, senescing and leaf fall, the ecosystem turned into a carbon source in November. During the non-growing season, the larch forest ecosystem became a net source of CO 2, releasing an average of 16.7 g C m -2 month -1. Overall, the ecosystem sequestered 141-240 g C m -2 yr -1 in 2001. The NEE was significantly influenced by environmental factors. Respiration of the ecosystem, for example, was exponentially dependent on air temperature, while photosynthesis was related to the incident PAR in a manner consistent with the Michaelis-Menten model. Although the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was scarcely higher than 15 hPa, the CO 2 uptake rate was also depressed when VPD surpassed 10 hPa.

  13. Ecosystem consequences of tree monodominance for nitrogen cycling in lowland tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, E N Jack; Thomas, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how plant functional traits shape nutrient limitation and cycling on land is a major challenge in ecology. This is especially true for lowland forest ecosystems of the tropics which can be taxonomically and functionally diverse and rich in bioavailable nitrogen (N). In many tropical regions, however, diverse forests occur side-by-side with monodominant forest (one species >60% of canopy); the long-term biogeochemical consequences of tree monodominance are unclear. Particularly uncertain is whether the monodominant plant-soil system modifies nutrient balance at the ecosystem level. Here, we use chemical and stable isotope techniques to examine N cycling in old-growth Mora excelsa and diverse watershed rainforests on the island of Trinidad. Across 26 small watershed forests and 4 years, we show that Mora monodominance reduces bioavailable nitrate in the plant-soil system to exceedingly low levels which, in turn, results in small hydrologic and gaseous N losses at the watershed-level relative to adjacent N-rich diverse forests. Bioavailable N in soils and streams remained low and remarkably stable through time in Mora forests; N levels in diverse forests, on the other hand, showed high sensitivity to seasonal and inter-annual rainfall variation. Total mineral N losses from diverse forests exceeded inputs from atmospheric deposition, consistent with N saturation, while losses from Mora forests did not, suggesting N limitation. Our measures suggest that this difference cannot be explained by environmental factors but instead by low internal production and efficient retention of bioavailable N in the Mora plant-soil system. These results demonstrate ecosystem-level consequences of a tree species on the N cycle opposite to cases where trees enhance ecosystem N supply via N2 fixation and suggest that, over time, Mora monodominance may generate progressive N draw-down in the plant-soil system.

  14. Ecosystem consequences of tree monodominance for nitrogen cycling in lowland tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E N Jack Brookshire

    Full Text Available Understanding how plant functional traits shape nutrient limitation and cycling on land is a major challenge in ecology. This is especially true for lowland forest ecosystems of the tropics which can be taxonomically and functionally diverse and rich in bioavailable nitrogen (N. In many tropical regions, however, diverse forests occur side-by-side with monodominant forest (one species >60% of canopy; the long-term biogeochemical consequences of tree monodominance are unclear. Particularly uncertain is whether the monodominant plant-soil system modifies nutrient balance at the ecosystem level. Here, we use chemical and stable isotope techniques to examine N cycling in old-growth Mora excelsa and diverse watershed rainforests on the island of Trinidad. Across 26 small watershed forests and 4 years, we show that Mora monodominance reduces bioavailable nitrate in the plant-soil system to exceedingly low levels which, in turn, results in small hydrologic and gaseous N losses at the watershed-level relative to adjacent N-rich diverse forests. Bioavailable N in soils and streams remained low and remarkably stable through time in Mora forests; N levels in diverse forests, on the other hand, showed high sensitivity to seasonal and inter-annual rainfall variation. Total mineral N losses from diverse forests exceeded inputs from atmospheric deposition, consistent with N saturation, while losses from Mora forests did not, suggesting N limitation. Our measures suggest that this difference cannot be explained by environmental factors but instead by low internal production and efficient retention of bioavailable N in the Mora plant-soil system. These results demonstrate ecosystem-level consequences of a tree species on the N cycle opposite to cases where trees enhance ecosystem N supply via N2 fixation and suggest that, over time, Mora monodominance may generate progressive N draw-down in the plant-soil system.

  15. Disturbances catalyze the adaptation of forest ecosystems to changing climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Dominik; Rammer, Werner; Seidl, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    The rates of anthropogenic climate change substantially exceed those at which forest ecosystems - dominated by immobile, long-lived organisms - are able to adapt. The resulting maladaptation of forests has potentially detrimental effects on ecosystem functioning. Furthermore, as many forest-dwelling species are highly dependent on the prevailing tree species, a delayed response of the latter to a changing climate can contribute to an extinction debt and mask climate-induced biodiversity loss. However, climate change will likely also intensify forest disturbances. Here, we tested the hypothesis that disturbances foster the reorganization of ecosystems and catalyze the adaptation of forest composition to climate change. Our specific objectives were (i) to quantify the rate of autonomous forest adaptation to climate change, (ii) examine the role of disturbance in the adaptation process, and (iii) investigate spatial differences in climate-induced species turnover in an unmanaged mountain forest landscape (Kalkalpen National Park, Austria). Simulations with a process-based forest landscape model were performed for 36 unique combinations of climate and disturbance scenarios over 1000 years. We found that climate change strongly favored European beech and oak species (currently prevailing in mid- to low-elevation areas), with novel species associations emerging on the landscape. Yet, it took between 357 and 706 years before the landscape attained a dynamic equilibrium with the climate system. Disturbances generally catalyzed adaptation and decreased the time needed to attain equilibrium by up to 211 years. However, while increasing disturbance frequency and severity accelerated adaptation, increasing disturbance size had the opposite effect. Spatial analyses suggest that particularly the lowest and highest elevation areas will be hotspots of future species change. We conclude that the growing maladaptation of forests to climate and the long lead times of autonomous

  16. Drought in forest understory ecosystems – a novel rainfall reduction experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Gimbel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to severely affect precipitation patterns across central Europe. This may reduce water availability during the plant-growing season and hence affect the performance and vitality of forest ecosystems. We established a novel rainfall reduction experiment on nine sites in Germany to investigate drought effects on soil-forest-understory-ecosystems. A realistic, but extreme annual drought with a return period of 40 years, which corresponds to the 2.5% percentile of the annual precipitation, was imposed. At all sites, we were able to reach the target values of rainfall reduction, while other important ecosystem variables like air temperature, humidity and soil temperature remained unaffected due to the novel design of a flexible roof. The first year of drought showed considerable changes in the soil moisture dynamics relative to the control sites, which affected leaf stomatal conductance of understory species as well as evapotranspiration rates of the forest understory.

  17. Zoning by Functions of Small-Scale Forest Ecosystems:A Case Study of Hui-Sun Forest Station in Taiwan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Hsiaofei; Wang Yanglin; Li Zhengguo; Hsueh Ichen

    2006-01-01

    To optimize the spatial structure of an ecosystem,a forest landscape was selected as a research object.Based on the theory of structure and functions of landscape ecology,combined with the analysis of the characteristics of the inner structure in an ecosystem,this paper proposes to establish certain procedures to regulate the spatial structure of this forest landscape and construct a landscape pattern of forest ecosystem functions.Considering the functions of biologic production,environmental services,and cultural support in forest ecosystems,forest landscape zones should consist of areas of forest production,research,experimentation,recreation,and conservation to add value to the forest ecosystem,enhance its functions,and then identify the relevant environmental factors according to the environment featured in the research area.Based on the methods of landscape ecology and ecological planning,this paper develops a zoning project of ecosystem functions suitable for various environments.For this research,the Hui-Sun forest station in Taiwan Province,China was selected to be the experimental area for studying the feasibility of developing a zoning project of forest ecosystem services and the suitability of optimizing the spatial structures of the services.

  18. The new flora of northeastern USA: quantifying introduced plant species occupancy in forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Bethany K; Gray, Andrew N

    2013-05-01

    Introduced plant species have significant negative impacts in many ecosystems and are found in many forests around the world. Some factors linked to the distribution of introduced species include fragmentation and disturbance, native species richness, and climatic and physical conditions of the landscape. However, there are few data sources that enable the assessment of introduced species occupancy in native plant communities over broad regions. Vegetation data from 1,302 forest inventory plots across 24 states in northeastern and mid-western USA were used to examine and compare the distribution of introduced species in relation to forest fragmentation across ecological provinces and forest types, and to examine correlations between native and introduced species richness. There were 305 introduced species recorded, and 66 % of all forested plots had at least one introduced species. Forest edge plots had higher constancy and occupancy of introduced species than intact forest plots, but the differences varied significantly among ecological provinces and, to a lesser degree, forest types. Weak but significant positive correlations between native and introduced species richness were observed most often in intact forests. Rosa multiflora was the most common introduced species recorded across the region, but Hieracium aurantiacum and Epipactus helleborine were dominant in some ecological provinces. Identifying regions and forest types with high and low constancies and occupation by introduced species can help target forest stands where management actions will be the most effective. Identifying seemingly benign introduced species that are more prevalent than realized will help focus attention on newly emerging invasives.

  19. Diversity, stand characteristics and spatial aggregation of tree species in a Bangladesh forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad B.; Steinbauer, Manuel; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-01-01

    in the Reserve Forest were associated with higher species turnover than in the National Park. We suggest anthropogenic disturbance, which occurs in the less strictly protected Reserve Forest, is the main driver for the detected spatial heterogeneity in species composition.......Assessing biodiversity and the spatial structures of forest ecosystems are important for forestry and nature conservation. However, tropical forests of Bangladesh are only sparsely investigated. Here we determined biodiversity (alpha, beta and gamma), spatial species turnover and stand...... characteristics of one of the few remnant tropical forests in Bangladesh. Two differently protected areas of Satchari forest were compared. We recorded tree species composition, in a systematic plot design, measured diameter at breast height for each individual tree (to assess basal area), and calculated decay...

  20. Unconventional gas development and its effect on forested ecosystems in the Northern Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drohan, Patrick; Brittingham, Margaret; Mortensen, David; Barlow, Kathryn; Langlois, Lillie

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide unconventional shale-gas development has the potential to cause substantial landscape disturbance. The northeastern U.S.A. Appalachian Mountains across the states of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, are experiencing rapid landscape change as unconventional gas development occurs. We highlight several years of our research from this region in order to demonstrate the unique effect unconventional development has had on forested ecosystems. Infrastructure development has had a wide-reaching and varied effect on forested ecosystems and their services, which has resulted in temporary disturbances and long-lasting ones altering habitats and their viability. Corridor disturbances, such as pipelines, are the most spatially extensive disturbance and have substantially fragmented forest cover. Core forest disturbance, especially, in upper watershed positions, has resulted in disproportionate disturbances to forested ecosystems and their wildlife, and suggests a need for adaptive land management strategies to minimize and mitigate the effects of gas development. Soil and water resources are most affected by surface disturbances; however, soil protection and restoration strategies are evolving as the gas play changes economically. Dynamic soil properties related to soil organic matter and water availability respond uniquely to unconventional gas development and new, flexible restoration strategies are required to support long-term ecosystem stability. While the focus of management and research to date has been on acute disturbances to forested ecosystems, unconventional gas development is clearly a greater chronic, long-term disturbance factor in the Appalachian Mountains. Effectively managing ecosystems where unconventional gas development is occurring is a complicated interplay between public, private and corporate interests.

  1. Effects of three high-flow experiments on the Colorado River ecosystem downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    Three high-flow experiments (HFEs) were conducted by the U.S. Department of the Interior at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in March 1996, November 2004, and March 2008. These experiments, also known as artificial or controlled floods, were large-volume, scheduled releases of water from Glen Canyon Dam that were designed to mimic some aspects of pre-dam Colorado River seasonal flooding. The goal of these experiments was to determine whether high flows could be used to benefit important physical and biological resources in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park that had been affected by the operation of Glen Canyon Dam. Efforts such as HFEs that seek to maintain and restore downstream resources are undertaken by the U.S. Department of the Interior under the auspices of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 (GCPA; title XVIII, secs. 1801-1809, of Public Law 102-575). Scientists conducted a wide range of monitoring and research activities before, during, and after the experiments. Initially, research efforts focused on whether HFEs could be used to rebuild and maintain Grand Canyon sandbars, which provide camping beaches for hikers and whitewater rafters, create habitats potentially used by native fish and other wildlife, and are the source of windborne sand that may help to protect some archaeological resources from weathering and erosion. As scientists gained a better understanding of how HFEs affect the physical environment, research efforts expanded to include additional investigations about the effects of HFEs on biological resources, such as native fishes, nonnative sports fishes, riverside vegetation, and the aquatic food web. The chapters that follow summarize and synthesize for decisionmakers and the public what has been learned about HFEs to provide a framework for implementing similar future experiments. This report is a product of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP), a Federal initiative authorized to ensure

  2. Modelling carbon cycle of agro-forest ecosystems in Lombardy (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a methodology for the estimation of Gross Primary Production (GPP, Net Primary Production (NPP and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP for the main agricultural and forest ecosystems of the Lombardia Region (Italy. The MOD17 model was parameterized according to the different agro-forestry ecosystems and applied at regional scale by using satellite data with a spatial resolution of 250m. The high spatial resolution along with fine classification agro-forestry ecosystems has allowed to accurately analyze the carbon budget of an extremely fragmented and complex environment such as the Lombardia Region. Modeling results showed the role of the forests in the carbon budget at regional scale and represent important information layer for the spatial analysis and for inferring the inter-annual variability of carbon sequestration due to impacts of extreme events and recent climate change (e.g., drought, heat wave, flooding, fires.

  3. Improving SWAT for simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Xuesong

    2016-11-01

    As a widely used watershed model for assessing impacts of anthropogenic and natural disturbances on water quantity and quality, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has not been extensively tested in simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems. Here, we examine SWAT simulations of evapotranspiration (ET), net primary productivity (NPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and plant biomass at ten AmeriFlux forest sites across the U.S. We identify unrealistic radiation use efficiency (Bio_E), large leaf to biomass fraction (Bio_LEAF), and missing phosphorus supply from parent material weathering as the primary causes for the inadequate performance of the default SWAT model in simulating forest dynamics. By further revising the relevant parameters and processes, SWAT’s performance is substantially improved. Based on the comparison between the improved SWAT simulations and flux tower observations, we discuss future research directions for further enhancing model parameterization and representation of water and carbon cycling for forests.

  4. Comparing soil biogeochemical processes in novel and natural boreal forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quideau, S. A.; Swallow, M. J. B.; Prescott, C. E.; Grayston, S. J.; Oh, S.-W.

    2013-08-01

    Emulating the variability that exists in the natural landscape prior to disturbance should be a goal of soil reconstruction and land reclamation efforts following resource extraction. Long-term ecosystem sustainability within reclaimed landscapes can only be achieved with the re-establishment of biogeochemical processes between reconstructed soils and plants. In this study, we assessed key soil biogeochemical attributes (nutrient availability, organic matter composition, and microbial communities) in reconstructed, novel, anthropogenic ecosystems, covering different reclamation treatments following open-cast mining for oil extraction. We compared the attributes to those present in a range of natural soils representative of mature boreal forest ecosystems in the same area of Northern Alberta. Soil nutrient availability was determined in situ with resin probes, organic matter composition was described with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and soil microbial community structure was characterized using phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Significant differences among natural ecosystems were apparent in nutrient availability and seemed more related to the dominant tree cover than to soil type. When analyzed together, all natural forests differed significantly from the novel ecosystems, in particular with respect to soil organic matter composition. However, there was some overlap between the reconstructed soils and some of the natural ecosystems in nutrient availability and microbial communities, but not in organic matter characteristics. Hence, our results illustrate the importance of considering the range of natural landscape variability and including several soil biogeochemical attributes when comparing novel, anthropogenic ecosystems to the mature ecosystems that constitute ecological targets.

  5. Comparing soil biogeochemical processes in novel and natural boreal forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Quideau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Emulating the variability that exists in the natural landscape prior to disturbance should be a goal of soil reconstruction and land reclamation efforts following resource extraction. Long-term ecosystem sustainability within reclaimed landscapes can only be achieved with the re-establishment of biogeochemical processes between reconstructed soils and plants. In this study, we assessed key soil biogeochemical attributes (nutrient availability, organic matter composition, and microbial communities in reconstructed, novel, anthropogenic ecosystems, covering different reclamation treatments following open-cast mining for oil extraction. We compared the attributes to those present in a range of natural soils representative of mature boreal forest ecosystems in the same area of Northern Alberta. Soil nutrient availability was determined in situ with resin probes, organic matter composition was described with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and soil microbial community structure was characterized using phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Significant differences among natural ecosystems were apparent in nutrient availability and seemed more related to the dominant tree cover than to soil type. When analyzed together, all natural forests differed significantly from the novel ecosystems, in particular with respect to soil organic matter composition. However, there was some overlap between the reconstructed soils and some of the natural ecosystems in nutrient availability and microbial communities, but not in organic matter characteristics. Hence, our results illustrate the importance of considering the range of natural landscape variability and including several soil biogeochemical attributes when comparing novel, anthropogenic ecosystems to the mature ecosystems that constitute ecological targets.

  6. Comparing soil biogeochemical processes in novel and natural boreal forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Quideau

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulating the variability that exists in the natural landscape prior to disturbance should be a goal of soil reconstruction and land reclamation efforts following resource extraction. Long-term ecosystem sustainability within reclaimed landscapes can only be achieved with the re-establishment of biogeochemical processes between reconstructed soils and plants. In this study, we assessed key soil biogeochemical attributes (nutrient availability, organic matter composition, and microbial communities in reconstructed, novel, anthropogenic ecosystems covering different reclamation treatments following open-cast mining for oil extraction. We compared the attributes to those present in a range of natural soils representative of mature boreal forest ecosystems in the same area of northern Alberta. Soil nutrient availability was determined in situ with resin probes, organic matter composition was described with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and soil microbial community structure was characterized using phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Significant differences among natural ecosystems were apparent in nutrient availability and seemed more related to the dominant tree cover than to soil type. When analyzed together, all natural forests differed significantly from the novel ecosystems, in particular with respect to soil organic matter composition. However, there was some overlap between the reconstructed soils and some of the natural ecosystems in nutrient availability and microbial communities, but not in organic matter characteristics. Hence, our results illustrate the importance of considering the range of natural landscape variability, and including several soil biogeochemical attributes when comparing novel, anthropogenic ecosystems to the mature ecosystems that constitute ecological targets.

  7. An Overview: Forest Carbon Accounting (Case Study Ulu Masen Ecosystem Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlinta Anggilia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This thesis is descriptive qualitative research of forest carbon accounting and Ulu Masen Ecosystem of Aceh Province where included in REDD projects for Carbon Trading scenario. The data which is applied in this research are primary data from the field in Ulu Masen Ecosystem Aceh Province and secondary data of International references worldwide related to this issue. The main purpose of this research is to reveal further overview of forest carbon accounting, REDD issues and promote them into publics, accountants, economist as the main role of accountants are not focusing in financial, banking, insurance only but also as social and environment accountants. To probe the Islamic outlook towards these issues and acknowledge local community where REDD projects upcoming to. The research gained information of Aceh Government initiative to have carbon trading of carbon offsets as REDD scheme scenario based on both in Voluntary Carbon Offsets (VCO and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM market. Nowadays, both Aceh Government and Merrill Lynch have committed to get carbon trading for 750,000 hectares of Aceh forests in Ulu Masen Ecosystem in total of US $ 9 Million over next 30 years, right after Aceh Government gain verification audit of carbon storage in the ecosystem internationally.JEL Classification : M0, M41, N55, L31Key words: Forest carbon accounting, carbon trading, REDD, Ulu Masen ecosystem

  8. Temporal Trends of Ecosystem Development on Different Site Types in Reclaimed Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest development after land reclamation in the oil sands mining region of northern Alberta, Canada was assessed using long-term monitoring plots from both reclaimed and natural forests. The metrics of ecosystem development analyzed included measures of plant community structure and composition and soil nutrient availability. Early seral reclamation plots were grouped by site type (dry and moist-rich and age categories, and these were compared with mature natural forests. There were few significant differences in ecosystem metrics between reclamation site types, but natural stands showed numerous significant differences between site types. Over time, there were significant changes in most plant community metrics such as species richness and cover of plant community groups (e.g., forbs, shrubs, and non-native species, but these were still substantially different from mature forests 20 years after reclamation. Available soil nitrogen did not change over time or by reclamation site type but available soil phosphorus did, suggesting that phosphorus may be a more suitable indicator of ecosystem development. The significant temporal changes in these reclaimed ecosystems indicate that studies of ecosystem establishment and development on reclaimed areas should be conducted over the long-term, emphasizing the utility of monitoring using long-term plot networks.

  9. Effects of disturbance and climate change on ecosystem performance in the Yukon River Basin boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Brisco, Brian; Mrnaghan, Kevin; Rover, Jennifer R.; Long, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    A warming climate influences boreal forest productivity, dynamics, and disturbance regimes. We used ecosystem models and 250 m satellite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data averaged over the growing season (GSN) to model current, and estimate future, ecosystem performance. We modeled Expected Ecosystem Performance (EEP), or anticipated productivity, in undisturbed stands over the 2000–2008 period from a variety of abiotic data sources, using a rule-based piecewise regression tree. The EEP model was applied to a future climate ensemble A1B projection to quantify expected changes to mature boreal forest performance. Ecosystem Performance Anomalies (EPA), were identified as the residuals of the EEP and GSN relationship and represent performance departures from expected performance conditions. These performance data were used to monitor successional events following fire. Results suggested that maximum EPA occurs 30–40 years following fire, and deciduous stands generally have higher EPA than coniferous stands. Mean undisturbed EEP is projected to increase 5.6% by 2040 and 8.7% by 2070, suggesting an increased deciduous component in boreal forests. Our results contribute to the understanding of boreal forest successional dynamics and its response to climate change. This information enables informed decisions to prepare for, and adapt to, climate change in the Yukon River Basin forest.

  10. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aromolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Trends in heavy metal concentration in atmospheric depositions on a coastal forest ecosystem (Castelporziano, Rome are analyzed in the present study based on a three-year monitoring field survey over three sites representative of different woodland characteristics in the area. Our results highlight both the influence of transportation processes in the short and medium distance based on the human pressure reflecting urban expansion and infrastructure development on the fringe of Castelporziano pristine forest. Further studies investigating the latent correlation with meteorological variables at various temporal scales are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of environmental conditions in a forest ecosystem subjected to increasing human pressure. Analysis of runoff water quality and the determination of other heavy metals, such as arsenic, may identify additional sources of pollution impacting soil and forest ecosystem.

  11. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests

    OpenAIRE

    Talhelm, Alan F.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Zak, Donald R.; Campany, Courtney E.; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 d...

  12. Copper level and distribution in soils of forest ecosystems of Samara river region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Dubina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The level and regularities of distribution of the copper in the soils of steppe and forest ecosystems of Samara river region were determined. The data on general and mobile forms of copper combination in soils of the studied ecosystems are presented. The interval of copper variation in the soils is indicated. The distribution of copper in soil genetic horizons is shown. The distinction in the copper content in soils of different types of the landscape was revealed.

  13. Vulnerability and impacts of climate change on forest and freshwater wetland ecosystems in Nepal: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Pramod; Kumar, Lalit; Atreya, Kishor; Pant, Krishna Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Climate change (CC) threatens ecosystems in both developed and developing countries. As the impacts of CC are pervasive, global, and mostly irreversible, it is gaining worldwide attention. Here we review vulnerability and impacts of CC on forest and freshwater wetland ecosystems. We particularly look at investigations undertaken at different geographic regions in order to identify existing knowledge gaps and possible implications from such vulnerability in the context of Nepal along with available adaptation programs and national-level policy supports. Different categories of impacts which are attributed to disrupting structure, function, and habitat of both forest and wetland ecosystems are identified and discussed. We show that though still unaccounted, many facets of forest and freshwater wetland ecosystems of Nepal are vulnerable and likely to be impacted by CC in the near future. Provisioning ecosystem services and landscape-level ecosystem conservation are anticipated to be highly threatened with future CC. Finally, the need for prioritizing CC research in Nepal is highlighted to close the existing knowledge gap along with the implementation of adaptation measures based on existing location specific traditional socio-ecological system.

  14. Development of the BIOME-BGC model for the simulation of managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Numerical models are the most appropriate instrument for the analysis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and their interactions with changing environmental conditions. The process-based model BIOME-BGC is widely used in simulation of carbon balance within vegetation, litter and soil of unmanaged ecosystems. For Moso bamboo forests, however, simulations with BIOME-BGC are inaccurate in terms of the growing season and the carbon allocation, due to the oversimplified representation of phenology. Our aim was to improve the applicability of BIOME-BGC for managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystem by implementing several new modules, including phenology, carbon allocation, and management. Instead of the simple phenology and carbon allocation representations in the original version, a periodic Moso bamboo phenology and carbon allocation module was implemented, which can handle the processes of Moso bamboo shooting and high growth during "on-year" and "off-year". Four management modules (digging bamboo shoots, selective cutting, obtruncation, fertilization) were integrated in order to quantify the functioning of managed ecosystems. The improved model was calibrated and validated using eddy covariance measurement data collected at a managed Moso bamboo forest site (Anji) during 2011-2013 years. As a result of these developments and calibrations, the performance of the model was substantially improved. Regarding the measured and modeled fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), relative errors were decreased by 42.23%, 103.02% and 18.67%, respectively.

  15. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in Southwestern Siberia: combined effects of plant species and climate

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Russian boreal forest, which mainly consists of extensive forests in Siberia, is the largest continuous forest region on Earth and represents 70 % of the world's boreal forest. Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C), which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P) availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deeper to ...

  16. Ecosystem carbon density and allocation across a chronosequence of longleaf pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Lisa J; Stokes, Thomas A; Butnor, John R; Johnsen, Kurt H; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A; Martin, Timothy A; Cropper, Wendell P; Anderson, Pete H; Ramirez, Michael R; Lewis, John C

    2017-01-01

    Forests can partially offset greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to climate change mitigation, mainly through increases in live biomass. We quantified carbon (C) density in 20 managed longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests ranging in age from 5 to 118 years located across the southeastern United States and estimated above- and belowground C trajectories. Ecosystem C stock (all pools including soil C) and aboveground live tree C increased nonlinearly with stand age and the modeled asymptotic maxima were 168 Mg C/ha and 80 Mg C/ha, respectively. Accumulation of ecosystem C with stand age was driven mainly by increases in aboveground live tree C, which ranged from <1 Mg C/ha to 74 Mg C/ha and comprised <1% to 39% of ecosystem C. Live root C (sum of below-stump C, ground penetrating radar measurement of lateral root C, and live fine root C) increased with stand age and represented 4-22% of ecosystem C. Soil C was related to site index, but not to stand age, and made up 39-92% of ecosystem C. Live understory C, forest floor C, downed dead wood C, and standing dead wood C were small fractions of ecosystem C in these frequently burned stands. Stand age and site index accounted for 76% of the variation in ecosystem C among stands. The mean root-to-shoot ratio calculated as the average across all stands (excluding the grass-stage stand) was 0.54 (standard deviation of 0.19) and higher than reports for other conifers. Long-term accumulation of live tree C, combined with the larger role of belowground accumulation of lateral root C than in other forest types, indicates a role of longleaf pine forests in providing disturbance-resistant C storage that can balance the more rapid C accumulation and C removal associated with more intensively managed forests. Although other managed southern pine systems sequester more C over the short-term, we suggest that longleaf pine forests can play a meaningful role in regional forest C management. © 2016 by the Ecological Society

  17. Uncertainties in mapping forest carbon in urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Ozelkan, Emre; Singh, Kunwar K; Zhou, Jun; Brown, Marilyn R; Meentemeyer, Ross K

    2017-02-01

    Spatially explicit urban forest carbon estimation provides a baseline map for understanding the variation in forest vertical structure, informing sustainable forest management and urban planning. While high-resolution remote sensing has proven promising for carbon mapping in highly fragmented urban landscapes, data cost and availability are the major obstacle prohibiting accurate, consistent, and repeated measurement of forest carbon pools in cities. This study aims to evaluate the uncertainties of forest carbon estimation in response to the combined impacts of remote sensing data resolution and neighborhood spatial patterns in Charlotte, North Carolina. The remote sensing data for carbon mapping were resampled to a range of resolutions, i.e., LiDAR point cloud density - 5.8, 4.6, 2.3, and 1.2 pt s/m(2), aerial optical NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) imagery - 1, 5, 10, and 20 m. Urban spatial patterns were extracted to represent area, shape complexity, dispersion/interspersion, diversity, and connectivity of landscape patches across the residential neighborhoods with built-up densities from low, medium-low, medium-high, to high. Through statistical analyses, we found that changing remote sensing data resolution introduced noticeable uncertainties (variation) in forest carbon estimation at the neighborhood level. Higher uncertainties were caused by the change of LiDAR point density (causing 8.7-11.0% of variation) than changing NAIP image resolution (causing 6.2-8.6% of variation). For both LiDAR and NAIP, urban neighborhoods with a higher degree of anthropogenic disturbance unveiled a higher level of uncertainty in carbon mapping. However, LiDAR-based results were more likely to be affected by landscape patch connectivity, and the NAIP-based estimation was found to be significantly influenced by the complexity of patch shape.

  18. The 2002 Rodeo-Chediski Wildfire's impacts on southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems, hydrology, and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Cody L. Stropki; Hui Chen; Daniel G. Neary

    2011-01-01

    The Rodeo-Chediski Wildfire burned nearly 462,600 acres in north-central Arizona in the summer of 2002. The wildfire damaged or destroyed ecosystem resources and disrupted the hydrologic functioning within the impacted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in a largely mosaic pattern. Impacts of the wildfire on ecosystem resources, factors important to hydrologic...

  19. Global topics and novel approaches in the study of air pollution, climate change and forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Belyazid, Salim; Calfapietra, Carlo; de Marco, Alessandra; Fenn, Mark; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Grulke, Nancy; He, Shang; Matyssek, Rainer; Serengil, Yusuf; Wieser, Gerhard; Paoletti, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Research directions from the 27th conference for Specialists in Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems (2015) reflect knowledge advancements about (i) Mechanistic bases of tree responses to multiple climate and pollution stressors, in particular the interaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen (N) deposition and drought; (ii) Linking genetic control with physiological whole-tree activity; (iii) Epigenetic responses to climate change and air pollution; (iv) Embedding individual tree performance into the multi-factorial stand-level interaction network; (v) Interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds (molecular, functional and ecological bases); (vi) Estimating the potential for carbon/pollution mitigation and cost effectiveness of urban and peri-urban forests; (vii) Selection of trees adapted to the urban environment; (viii) Trophic, competitive and host/parasite relationships under changing pollution and climate; (ix) Atmosphere-biosphere-pedosphere interactions as affected by anthropospheric changes; (x) Statistical analyses for epidemiological investigations; (xi) Use of monitoring for the validation of models; (xii) Holistic view for linking the climate, carbon, N and O3 modelling; (xiii) Inclusion of multiple environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic) in critical load determinations; (xiv) Ecological impacts of N deposition in the under-investigated areas; (xv) Empirical models for mechanistic effects at the local scale; (xvi) Broad-scale N and sulphur deposition input and their effects on forest ecosystem services; (xvii) Measurements of dry deposition of N; (xviii) Assessment of evapotranspiration; (xix) Remote sensing assessment of hydrological parameters; and (xx) Forest management for maximizing water provision and overall forest ecosystem services. Ground-level O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major concern to forest health. Specific issues about O3 are: (xxi) Developing dose-response relationships and

  20. Willingness to pay for ecosystem conservation in Alaska's Tongass National Forest: a choice modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan E. Hjerpe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems contribute to human welfare in important ways, but because of the nonmarket nature of many of the goods and services produced, both markets and governments fail to optimize their production commensurate with their economic and ecological significance. Despite the recent proliferation of nonmarket environmental valuation in the literature, the incorporation of nonmarket values into public forest decision making has been limited by institutional and methodological barriers. To address this disconnect, we conducted a case study to quantify conservation values for the Tongass National Forest in a manner conducive for public forest planning. A choice experiment featuring proposed forest management alternatives with changes in critical attributes relative to their levels in the status quo was used to generate the requisite data. Econometric analysis suggests that Alaskans have strong preference for conservation management, including both preservation and ecological restoration, over status quo or exploitation management. However, there is significant heterogeneity among Alaskans in terms of bias toward the status quo depending on their socioeconomic characteristics, e.g., gender, age, place of residence, household income, whether or not they have dependent children. The findings of this study can be helpful to forest managers in the preparation of resource management plans consistent with maximization of total economic value of forest ecosystem services.

  1. Assessment of vulnerability of forest ecosystems to climate change and adaptation planning in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, M. A.; Chitale, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding ecosystem level vulnerability of forests and dependence of local communities on these ecosystems is a first step towards developing effective adaptation strategies. As forests are important components of livelihoods system for a large percentage of the population in the Himalayan region, they offer an important basis for creating and safeguarding more climate-resilient communities. Increased frequency, duration, and/or severity of drought and heat stress, changes in winter ecology, and pest and fire outbreaksunder climate change scenarios could fundamentally alter the composition, productivity and biogeography of forests affecting the potential ecosystem services offered and forest-based livelihoods. Hence, forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment to climate change and the development of a knowledgebase to identify and support relevant adaptation strategies is identified as an urgent need. Climate change vulnerability is measured as a function of exposure, sensitivity and the adaptive capacity of the system towards climate variability and extreme events. Effective adaptation to climate change depends on the availability of two important prerequisites: a) information on what, where, and how to adapt, and b) availability of resources to implement the adaptation measures. In the present study, we introduce the concept of two way multitier approach, which can support effective identification and implementation of adaptation measures in Nepal and the framework can be replicated in other countries in the HKH region. The assessment of overall vulnerability of forests comprises of two components: 1) understanding the relationship between exposure and sensitivity and positive feedback from adaptive capacity of forests; 2) quantifying the dependence of local communities on these ecosystems. We use climate datasets from Bioclim and biophysical products from MODIS, alongwith field datasets. We report that most of the forests along the high altitude areas and few

  2. Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems — Emerging Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Paoletti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest EcosystemsForests under Anthropogenic Pressure Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development”, September 1016, 2006, Riverside, CA, are summarized. Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major interest. Challenging issues are how to make O3 standards or critical levels more biologically based and at the same time practical for wide use; quantification of plant detoxification processes in flux modeling; inclusion of multiple environmental stresses in critical load determinations; new concept development for nitrogen saturation; interactions between air pollution, climate, and forest pests; effects of forest fire on air quality; the capacity of forests to sequester carbon under changing climatic conditions and coexposure to elevated levels of air pollutants; enhanced linkage between molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and morphological traits.

  3. Impacts of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems--emerging research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Elena; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Andersen, Chris; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Ferretti, Marco; Grulke, Nancy; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Innes, John; Johnson, Dale; Karnosky, Dave; Luangjame, Jesada; Matyssek, Rainer; McNulty, Steven; Müller-Starck, Gerhard; Musselman, Robert; Percy, Kevin

    2007-03-21

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure--Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, are summarized. Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3) is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major interest. Challenging issues are how to make O3 standards or critical levels more biologically based and at the same time practical for wide use; quantification of plant detoxification processes in flux modeling; inclusion of multiple environmental stresses in critical load determinations; new concept development for nitrogen saturation; interactions between air pollution, climate, and forest pests; effects of forest fire on air quality; the capacity of forests to sequester carbon under changing climatic conditions and coexposure to elevated levels of air pollutants; enhanced linkage between molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and morphological traits.

  4. Imaging spectroscopy for ecological analysis in forest and grassland ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial vegetation is an important component of the Earth’s biosphere and therefore playing an essential role in climate regulation, carbon sequestration, and it provides large variety of services to humans. For a sustainable management of terrestrial ecosystems it is essential to understa

  5. Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Miller, Andy

    2008-02-01

    We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600-1,736 m; middle: 2,058-2,230 m; high: 2,505-2,651 m) for 3 yr (2004-2006) using pheromone-baited Lindgren funnel traps. Trap contents were collected weekly from March to December. We also studied temperature differences among the elevation bands and what role this may play in beetle flight behavior. Bark beetles, regardless of species, showed no consistent elevational trend in abundance among the three bands. The higher abundances of Ips lecontei Swaine, I. calligraphus ponderosae Swaine, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, and D. brevicomis LeConte at low and middle elevations offset the greater abundance of I. knausi Swaine, D. adjunctus Blandford, D. approximatus Dietz, and D. valens LeConte at high elevations. I. pini (Say) and I. latidens LeConte were found in similar numbers across the three bands. Flight periodicity of several species varied among elevation bands. In general, the flight period shortened as elevation increased; flight initiated later and terminated earlier in the year. The timing, number, and magnitude of peaks in flight activity also varied among the elevation bands. These results suggest that abundance and flight seasonality of several bark beetles are related to elevation and the associated temperature differences. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to bark beetle management and population dynamics.

  6. Water balances in intensively monitored forest ecosystems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.

    2007-01-01

    A soil hydrological model based on Darcy's law was used to calculate hydrological fluxes for 245 intensively monitored forest plots in Europe. Local measured input data for the model were rather limited and input was partly based on generic data. To obtain the best results, the model was calibrated

  7. Effects of acid deposition on Dutch forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Leeters, E.E.J.M.; Hendriks, C.M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of elevated sulphur and nitrogen deposition on the solution chemistry of Dutch forest soils are mainly manifested by increased aluminium concentrations, associated with increased concentrations of sulphate and nitrate. Critical aluminium/base cation ratios are often exceeded below 20 cm soil

  8. Effects of acid deposition on Dutch forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Leeters, E.E.J.M.; Hendriks, C.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of elevated sulphur and nitrogen deposition on the solution chemistry of Dutch forest soils are mainly manifested by increased aluminium concentrations, associated with increased concentrations of sulphate and nitrate. Critical aluminium/base cation ratios are often exceeded below 20 cm soil

  9. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey;

    2011-01-01

    We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...

  10. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 1. The setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arland S. Harris; O. Keith Hutchison; William R. Meehan; Douglas N. Swanston; Austin E. Helmers; John C. Hendee; Thomas M. Collins

    1974-01-01

    A description of the discovery and exploration of southeast Alaska sets the scene for a discussion of the physical and biological features of this region. Subjects discussed include geography, climate, vegetation types, geology, minerals, forest products, soils, fish, wildlife, water, recreation, and aesthetic values. This is the first of a series of publications...

  11. The role of the genus Ceanofhus in western forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan G. Conard; Annabelle E. Jaramillo; Kermit Cromack; Sharon Rose

    1985-01-01

    This report was developed from discussions on the role of Ceanothus in western forests that took place at a workshop held November 22-24, 1982, at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. The workshop provided a forum for discussing research relevant to Ceanothus management. Major topics were autecology and synecology;...

  12. Forest owners' willingness to accept contracts for ecosystem service provision is sensitive to additionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2015-01-01

    A key prerequisite to ensure that payment for ecosystem services is effective is that the management measures landowners are paid to undertake are in fact additional to the status quo and hence bring about a change in provision. We investigated Danish forest owners' preferences for conditional...

  13. Modeling forest ecosystem changes resulting from surface coal mining in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Brown; Andrew J. Lister; Mary Ann Fajvan; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Christine Mazzarella

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to assess the effects of surface coal mining on forest ecosystem disturbance and restoration in the Coal River Subbasin in southern West Virginia. Our approach is to develop disturbance impact models for this subbasin that will serve as a case study for testing the feasibility of integrating currently available GIS data layers, remote...

  14. Quantification of Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem Services in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Posch, M.; Reinds, G.J.; Hettelingh, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Important forest ecosystem services are the provision of a habitat for a diversity of plants and wildlife (habitat service), pollutant filtering relevant for an adequate water quality (regulating service) and wood production with the related carbon (C) storage (provisioning/regulating service). Nitr

  15. Short and long-term impacts of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Du, E.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-01-01

    The carbon to nitrogen response of forest ecosystems depends on the possible occurrence of nitrogen limitation versus possible co-limitations by other drivers, such as low temperature or availability of phosphorus. A combination of nitrogen retention estimates and stoichiometric scaling is used to i

  16. Editorial. Introduction to the regional assessments: Climate change, wildfire, and forest ecosystem services in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monique E. Rocca; Chelcy Ford Miniat; Robert J. Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Fires have influenced and shaped vegetation ever since the climate evolved to provide both ignition sources and oxygen (Bowman et al., 2009). Fire has been one of the most frequent and impactful disturbances to ecosystems globally, and thus one of the major regulators of forest composition, function and dynamics (Spurr and Barnes, 1973 and Bond and Keeley, 2005). Any...

  17. Contrasting responses of terrestrial ecosystem production to hot temperature extreme regimes between grassland and forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Observational data during the past several decades show faster increase of hot temperature extremes over land than changes in mean temperature. Towards more extreme temperature is expected to affect terrestrial ecosystem function. However, the ecological impacts of hot extremes on vegetation production remain uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of hot temperature extremes on aboveground net primary production (ANPP by combining MODIS EVI dataset and in situ climatic records during 2000 to 2009 from 12 long-term experimental sites across biomes and climates. Our results showed that higher mean annual maximum temperatures (Tmax greatly reduced grassland production, and yet enhanced forest production after removing the effects of precipitation. Relative decreases in ANPP were 16% for arid grassland and 7% for mesic grassland, and the increase were 5% for forest. We also observed a significant positive relationship between interannual ANPP and Tmax for forest biome (R2 = 0.79, P < 0.001. This line of evidence suggests that hot temperature extreme leads to contrasting ecosystem-level response of vegetation production to warming climate between grassland and forest. Given that many terrestrial ecosystem models use average daily temperature as input, predictions of ecosystem production should consider these contrasting responses to more hot temperature extreme regimes associated with climate change.

  18. Measuring soil frost depth in forest ecosystems with ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; John L. Campbell; James B. Shanley; Stanley. Zarnoch

    2014-01-01

    Soil frost depth in forest ecosystems can be variable and depends largely on early winter air temperatures and the amount and timing of snowfall. A thorough evaluation of ecological responses to seasonally frozen ground is hampered by our inability to adequately characterize the frequency, depth, duration and intensity of soil frost events. We evaluated the use of...

  19. Tree diversity does not always improve resistance of forest ecosystems to drought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Granier, André; Ratcliffe, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict an increase in the intensity and frequency of drought episodes in the Northern Hemisphere. Among terrestrial ecosystems, forests will be profoundly impacted by drier climatic conditions, with drastic consequences for the functions and services they supply. Simultaneously, b...

  20. When does biodiversity matter? Assessing ecosystem services across broad regions using forest inventory and analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Christopher W. Woodall; Christopher M. Oswalt; Basil V. III Iannone; Songlin. Fei

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity is expected to convey numerous functional benefits to forested ecosystems, including increased productivity and resilience. When assessing biodiversity, however, statistics that account for evolutionary relationships among species may be more ecologically meaningful than traditional measures such as species richness. In three broad-scale studies, we...

  1. Patterns of Genetic Variation in Woody Plant Species in the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria L. Sork; Anthony Koop; Marie Ann de la Fuente; Paul Foster; Jay. Raveill

    1997-01-01

    We quantified current patterns of genetic variation of three woody plant species—Carya tomentosa (Juglandaceae), Quercus alba (Fagaceae), and Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae)—distributed throughout the nine Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) study sites and evaluated the data in light of the MOFEP...

  2. Climate change adaptation and mitigation options a guide for natural resource managers in southern forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Kier D. Klepzig

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of climate change and its direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems present a pressing need for better scientific understanding and the development of new science-management partnerships. Understanding the effects of stressors and disturbances (including climatic variability), and developing and testing science-based management options to deal...

  3. Biotic resistance to exotic invasions: its role in forest ecosystems, confounding artifacts, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir; Andrew M. Liebhold; Qinfeng Guo; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Insu Jo; Kimberly Ordonez; Songlin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Biotic resistance, the ability of communities to resist exotic invasions, has long attracted interest in the research and management communities. However, inconsistencies exist in various biotic resistance studies and less is known about the current status and knowledge gaps of biotic resistance in forest ecosystems. In this paper, we provide a brief review of the...

  4. Analyzing the ecosystem carbon dynamics of four European coniferous forests using a biogeochemistry model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churkina, G.; Tenhunen, J.; Thornton, P.; Falge, E.; Elbers, J.A.; Erhard, M.; Grünwald, T.; Kowalski, A.; Rannik, Ü.; Sprinz, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides the first steps toward a regional-scale analysis of carbon (C) budgets. We explore the ability of the ecosystem model BIOME-BGC to estimate the daily and annual C dynamics of four European coniferous forests and shifts in these dynamics in response to changing environmental

  5. Intelligent Model Management in a Forest Ecosystem Management Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Nute; Walter D. Potter; Frederick Maier; Jin Wang; Mark Twery; H. Michael Rauscher; Peter Knopp; Scott Thomasma; Mayukh Dass; Hajime Uchiyama

    2002-01-01

    Decision making for forest ecosystem management can include the use of a wide variety of modeling tools. These tools include vegetation growth models, wildlife models, silvicultural models, GIS, and visualization tools. NED-2 is a robust, intelligent, goal-driven decision support system that integrates tools in each of these categories. NED-2 uses a blackboard...

  6. Anthropogenic Decline of Ecosystem Services Threatens the Integrity of the Unique Hyrcanian (Caspian) Forests in Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ardavan Zarandian; Himlal Baral; Ahmad R. Yavari; Hamid R. Jafari; Nigel E Stork; Ling, Matthew A.; Hamid Amirnejad

    2016-01-01

    The unique Hyrcanian (Caspian) forests of northern Iran provide vital ecosystem services for local and global communities. We assess the status and trends of key ecosystem services in this region where native forest conversion has accelerated to make way for housing and farm development. This is a mountainous forested area that is valuable for both conservation and multiple human uses including recreation and farming. It contains globally significant natural habitats for in situ conservation ...

  7. Mechanisms of carbon, nitrogen and water changes during restoration and succession in tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the objective of finding answers to some fundamental problems in ecology and forestry,Prof.ZHOU Guoyi and his colleagues from the CAS South China Botanical Garden set out to clarify whether the oldgrowth forests are actually carbon sinks;how the forest ecosystems,either successional or rehabilitative,react to the nitrogen deposition scenarios and whether there are different reactions working as mechanisms between the mature and immature forest ecosystems.

  8. Vegetation indicators of transformation in the urban forest ecosystems of "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyvolova, Anna; Trifonova, Tatiana; Bykova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems in the city are at the same time a component of its natural environment and part of urban developmental planning. It imposes upon urban forests a large functional load, both environmental (formation of environment, air purification, noise pollution reducing, etc.) and social (recreational, educational) which defines the special attitude to their management and study. It is not a simple task to preserve maximum accessibility to the forest ecosystems of the large metropolises with a minimum of change. The urban forest vegetates in naturally formed soil, it has all the elements of a morphological structure (canopy layers), represented by natural species of the zonal vegetation. Sometimes it is impossible for a specialist to distinguish between an urban forest and a rural one. However, the urban forests are changing, being under the threat of various negative influences of the city, of which pollution is arguably the most significant. This article presents some indicators of structural changes to the plant communities, which is a response of forest ecosystems to an anthropogenic impact. It is shown that the indicators of the transformation of natural ecosystems in the city can be a reduction of the projective cover of moss layer, until its complete absence (in the pine forest), increasing the role of Acer negundo (adventive species) in the undergrowth, high variability of floristic indicators of the ground herbaceous vegetation, and a change in the spatial arrangement of adventive species. The assessment of the impact of the urban environment on the state of vegetation in the "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Natural-Historical Park was conducted in two key areas least affected by anthropogenic impacts under different plant communities represented by complex pine and birch forests and in similar forest types in the Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve. The selection of pine forests as a model is due to the fact that, according to some scientists, pine (Pinus

  9. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  10. ADVANCED EARTH OBSERVATION APPROACH FOR MULTISCALE FOREST ECOSYSTEM SERVICES MODELING AND MAPPING (MIMOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chirici

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade ecosystem services (ES have been proposed as a method for quantifying the multifunctional role of forest ecosystems. Their spatial distribution on large areas is frequently limited by the lack of information, because field data collection with traditional methods requires much effort in terms of time and cost.  In this contribution we propose a methodology (namely, MultIscale Mapping Of ecoSystem servicEs - MIMOSE based on the integration of remotely sensed images and field observation to produce a wall-to-wall geodatabase of forest parcels accompanied with several information useful as a basis for future trade-off analysis of different ES. Here, we present the application of the MIMOSE approach to a study area of 443,758 hectares  coincident with administrative Molise Region in Central Italy. The procedure is based on a local high resolution forest types map integrated with information on the main forest management approaches. Through the non-parametric k-Nearest Neighbors techniques, we produced a growing stock volume map integrating a local forest inventory with a multispectral satellite IRS LISS III imagery. With the growing stock volume map we derived a forest age map for even-aged forest types. Later these information were used to automatically create a vector forest parcels map by multidimensional image segmentation that were finally populated with a number of information useful for ES spatial estimation. The contribution briefly introduce to the MIMOSE methodology presenting the preliminary results we achieved which constitute the basis for a future implementation of ES modeling.

  11. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Zeller, B.; Derrien, D.; Barsukov, P.; Nikitich, P.

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the most limiting nutrients in many ecosystems and mineral reserves available for fertilizer production are forecasted to last for no more than 100 yrs. Crop requirements for P are often lower in forests than in agriculture and P fertilization to forest ecosystems is not very common on a global scale. In southern Siberia, expected climate change would lead to higher overall precipitation, higher temperatures and subsequently to changes in land use (i.e. agricultural land could increase on detriment of forests). In the present work we evaluated P status in four forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia including 1 site with lowland Populus tremula, and 3 upland sites in the Salair mountains with Populus tremula, Abies siberica or with small forest openings. The upland sites feature twice higher productivity than the lowland sites and it was suggested that thick snow cover on those sites would enable winter activity of microbial communities leading to faster soil degradation processes and higher nutrient availability. We thus wanted to test whether biological processes in the upland sites were of larger impact on P status than in the lowland sites. We combined 32P isotopic dilution techniques (for diffusive P), chemical extractions (for total P, organic P) and fumigation/incubation/respiration methods (for microbial P) to test this hypothesis. Additional soil analyses (C, N and othes) were performed. Results will be interpreted in the light of the exising knowledge on botany, climate, pedology and expected implications for future land use, would this occur to change.

  12. Seasonal Variation in the Carbon Isotope Ratio of Ecosystem Respiration in Two Coniferous Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, N. G.; Bowling, D.; Schauer, A.; Irvine, J.; Bond, B. J.; Law, B.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    We examined weekly variation in the stable carbon isotope signature of ecosystem respiration (δ 13CR) using the Keeling plot approach at two forests in Oregon USA: a wet (>2300 mm annual precipitation) 20-year-old Pseudotsuga menziesii plantation located in the Coast Range near the Pacific Ocean, and a dry ( ˜520 mm annual precipitation) 250-year-old Pinus ponderosa forest located on the eastern slope of the Cascade Mountains. The two forests experience similar regional weather patterns with wet winters and dry summers, but the coastal site has milder temperatures and greater soil and atmospheric water content. Air was sampled on 51 and 42 separate nights at the Pinus and Pseudotsuga forests, respectively, between 2001 and 2002. Both forests exhibited greater intra-annual variation in δ 13CR than has been previously observed in C3 ecosystems (>8.0 ‰ over the year). Mean annual δ 13CR matched that expected based on annual precipitation, averaging -25.4 ‰ at the Pinus forest and -26.2 ‰ at the Pseudotsuga forest. Variability in δ 13CR at both sites was highest during seasons when rainfall was abundant (autumn, winter and spring) and lowest during summer drought. During the period of drought, soil temperature was positively correlated with δ 13CR at both forests. When all seasons were analyzed, δ 13CR was negatively correlated with soil water content at both forests. The Pseudotsuga forest was more strongly coupled to soil and atmospheric water content than the Pinus forest. This difference could be related to availability of a deep water source at the Pinus forest that buffers it from drought effects. δ 13CR at the Pinus forest was significantly but weakly related to canopy conductance suggesting that δ 13CR is coupled to canopy gas exchange. δ 13CR was significantly correlated between the two forests after removal of outliers associated with extreme, site-specific meteorological events (i.e. local freezes), demonstrating that δ 13CR is coupled

  13. Michigan forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Handler; Matthew J. Duveneck; Louis Iverson; Emily Peters; Robert M. Scheller; Kirk R. Wythers; Leslie Brandt; Patricia Butler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Amy Clark Eagle; Joshua G. Cohen; Rich Corner; Peter B. Reich; Tim Baker; Sophan Chhin; Eric Clark; David Fehringer; Jon Fosgitt; James Gries; Christine Hall; Kimberly R. Hall; Robert Heyd; Christopher L. Hoving; Ines Ibáñez; Don Kuhr; Stephen Matthews; Jennifer Muladore; Knute Nadelhoffer; David Neumann; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Matt Sands; Randy Swaty; Leiloni Wonch; Jad Daley; Mae Davenport; Marla R. Emery; Gary Johnson; Lucinda Johnson; David Neitzel; Adena Rissman; Chadwick Rittenhouse; Robert. Ziel

    2014-01-01

    Forests in northern Michigan will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate during the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Michigan's eastern Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate...

  14. Modelling Net Ecosystem Exchange and LUE in Mediterranean Oak Forest by Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, Gianluca; Papale, Dario

    2011-01-01

    Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) is a key factor defining CO2 fluxes between atmosphere and ecosystems and CO2 flux measurements at individual eddy covariance flux sites provide valuable information on the seasonal dynamics of NEE. In this work, we developed and validated a satellite-based Light Use Efficiency (LUE) model to estimate NEE for a typical oak forest located in Central Italy. Satellite data were acquired by Moderate resolution spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor installed on board Terra satellite. Oak forest studied is coppice managed; 2 eddy-covariance towers are located inside two forests parcels having different ages. We proposed to estimate LUE like function of mean brightness temperature, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI). Empirical multiple regressions models (MR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were parameterized and validated using subset of data acquired by both the stations. Daily, 8-day and monthly temporal resolutions were investigated and accuracy estimation in space and time was performed.

  15. Evaluating the Contribution of Climate Forcing and Forest Dynamics to Accelerating Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in the Northeastern U.S.: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, J. William [Harvard University, SEAS; Foster, David R. [Harvard University, Harvard Forest; Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard University, OEB

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes work to improve quantitative understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem processes that control carbon sequestration in unmanaged forests It builds upon the comprehensive long-term observations of CO2 fluxes, climate and forest structure and function at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA. This record includes the longest CO2 flux time series in the world. The site is a keystone for the AmeriFlux network. Project Description The project synthesizes observations made at the Harvard Forest HFEMS and Hemlock towers, which represent the dominant mixed deciduous and coniferous forest types in the northeastern United States. The 20+ year record of carbon uptake at Harvard Forest and the associated comprehensive meteorological and biometric data, comprise one of the best data sets to challenge ecosystem models on time scales spanning hourly, daily, monthly, interannual and multi-decadal intervals, as needed to understand ecosystem change and climate feedbacks.

  16. Variation in phenolic root exudates and rhizosphere carbon cycling among tree species in temperate forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsloot, Marie; Bauerle, Taryn; Kessler, André; Wickings, Kyle

    2017-04-01

    Temperate forest tree species composition has been highly dynamic over the past few centuries and is expected to only further change under current climate change predictions. While aboveground changes in forest biodiversity have been widely studied, the impacts on belowground processes are far more challenging to measure. In particular, root exudation - the process through which roots release organic and inorganic compounds into the rhizosphere - has received little scientific attention yet may be the key to understanding root-facilitated carbon cycling in temperate forest ecosystems. The aim of this study was to analyze the extent by which tree species' variation in phenolic root exudate profiles influences soil carbon cycling in temperate forest ecosystems. In order to answer this question, we grew six temperate forest tree species in a greenhouse including Acer saccharum, Alnus rugosa, Fagus grandifolia, Picea abies, Pinus strobus, and Quercus rubra. To collect root exudates, trees were transferred to hydroponic growing systems for one week and then exposed to cellulose acetate strips in individual 800 mL jars with a sterile solution for 24 hours. We analyzed the methanol-extracted root exudates for phenolic composition with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determined species differences in phenolic abundance, diversity and compound classes. This information was used to design the subsequent soil incubation study in which we tested the effect of different phenolic compound classes on rhizosphere carbon cycling using potassium hydroxide (KOH) traps to capture soil CO2 emissions. Our findings show that tree species show high variation in phenolic root exudate patterns and that these differences can significantly influence soil CO2 fluxes. These results stress the importance of linking belowground plant traits to ecosystem functioning. Moreover, this study highlights the need for research on root and rhizosphere processes in order to improve

  17. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps.

  18. Application of BIOME-BGC to Managed Forest Ecosystems in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, S. A.; Petritsch, R.; Hasenauer, H.

    2007-05-01

    European forests have been severely modified by humans resulting in a reduction of forest covered land area, a change in tree species distribution and the deterioration of forest soils. One option to assess forest management impacts on the cycling of carbon, nitrogen and water is the use of BGC-Models. Such models are considered as diagnostic tools for studying sustainability of forest ecosystems and have been used for climate change impact studies on forest growth and carbon sequestration issues. In our efforts to develop an appropriate diagnostic tool to assess the dynamics of carbon, nitrogen, water and energy flux for sustainable forest ecosystem management and climate change studies, we have selected BIOME-BGC. The main reason was that the general model structure is flexible enough to integrate large scale, regional as well as forest stand level information. During the last years we worked on the following extensions: (1) Tested and extended algorithms to interpolate daily climate input data as they are needed to run the model for any location within the country; (2) We developed a set of species specific parameters for all major tree species in Central Europe: Norway spruce (two variants highland and lowlands), Scots pine, Stone pine, larch, common beech and oak forests. These parameters sets are important since in BIOME-BGC vegetation is distinguished in biomes or plant functional types but the impacts of forest management (e.g. changes in stand density) may differ substantially among the tree species assigned to a single biome. (3) We extended the model to cover the full variation ranging from conditions including temperature extremes at the timberline to periodic ground water access or flooding in lowlands. (4) We adapted the spinup procedure to ensure unbiased predictions on forest status in the absence of past and present management impacts. (5) Explicitly addressed the effects of past and present forest management as they may differ by species and

  19. Soil organic matter cycling in novel and natural boreal forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, C. E.; Mercier Quideau, S.

    2013-12-01

    The uplands of the western boreal forest of Canada are characterized by a mosaic of pure and mixed stands of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). In addition to natural ecosystems, the region is now home to novel ecosystems; i.e., ecosystems composed of reclaimed stands formed from trees planted on constructed anthropogenic soils. To understand potential differences in functioning of these novel ecosystems, we must first better understand the functioning of their natural counterparts. Here we present results on both the characterization and cycling of soil organic matter in novel and natural ecosystems found in the Athabasca oil sands region. Soil organic matter from 42 long term monitoring sites was evaluated for long chain (≥ C21) n-alkane composition. The survey showed that n-alkanes were more concentrated and had distinct signatures in natural compared to novel ecosystems. Mineral soils from reclaimed stands showed a distinct microbial community structure from natural aspen and spruce stands, as was demonstrated using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) as microbial biomarkers following addition of 13C-glucose in a laboratory incubation. Further probing by compound specific analysis of the 13C-enriched PLFAs determined that microbial incorporation of 13C-glucose was different among soils. In a field incubation using 15N labeled aspen litter added to the forest floor of reclaimed, harvested and mature natural aspen stands, the microbial community readily incorporated the tracer and nitrogen was cycled to the above-ground vegetation on all sites. In addition, the amendment of leaf litter to the forest floor also increased soil moisture and soil microbial biomass on both the reclaimed and harvested sites. Utilizing stable isotope tracers in addition to a multi-faceted experimental approach has provided insightful results on the development of soil biogeochemical cycling in novel ecosystems.

  20. Importance of Forest Ecosystem Services to Secondary School Students: a Case from the North-West Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Torkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Forest managers are facing challenges in balancing the demands for forest social services raised by the general public and forest productive services. Knowing local people’s attitudes, taking into account their needs and respecting their opinions, introducing social aspects should become a management priority to ensure success of conservational activities and sustainable use of natural resources. This study investigates the attitudes of one category from the general public which is secondary school students related to forest ecosystem services in order to determine and present a useful basis for further research of people’s attitudes towards forests and forest management. Materials and Methods: In 2013 and 2014 410 Slovenian students from secondary schools in the Vipava valley and Goriška area in northwestern Slovenia completed a questionnaire testing for the influence of gender and frequency of forest experiences on attitudes to forest ecosystem services. Students’ attitudes to forest ecosystem services were investigated via 15 statements about provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. The gathered data was analysed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, using ANOVA, Tukey post-hoc test, Spearman’s product moment correlation and the nonparametric Mann–Whitney (U test. Results and Conclusions: Students acknowledged the high benefits of ecosystem services provided by forests, though not all forest ecosystem services hold the same importance to secondary school students. Students placed the highest importance on supporting services; especially on the value of forests as habitats for animal and plant species. Also the importance of forests for clean air production was emphasized. Students with more frequent experiences in the forest environment placed more importance on cultural services as well as regulating services, especially for clean water and air production. Gender

  1. Diversity, Stand Characteristics and Spatial Aggregation of Tree Species in a Bangladesh Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Beierkuhnlein

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing biodiversity and the spatial structures of forest ecosystems are important for forestry and nature conservation. However, tropical forests of Bangladesh are only sparsely investigated. Here we determined biodiversity (alpha, beta and gamma, spatial species turnover and stand characteristics of one of the few remnant tropical forests in Bangladesh. Two differently protected areas of Satchari forest were compared. We recorded tree species composition, in a systematic plot design, measured diameter at breast height for each individual tree (to assess basal area, and calculated decay in similarity of tree species composition with geographical distance. The distance-decay was assessed separately for the whole study area and for two subsamples from Satchari National Park and Satchari Reserve Forest. Satchari National Park (strictly protected had, despite its smaller area, a higher Alpha and Gamma diversity, but a lower Beta diversity than Satchari Reserve Forest. Variation in species composition was not significant between the two differently protected areas. Basal area increased significantly with protection status although tree individuals were of equal size in both areas. Plots in the Reserve Forest were associated with higher species turnover than in the National Park. We suggest anthropogenic disturbance, which occurs in the less strictly protected Reserve Forest, is the main driver for the detected spatial heterogeneity in species composition.

  2. Forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis for northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria K. Janowiak; Louis R. Iverson; David J. Mladenoff; Emily Peters; Kirk R. Wythers; Weimin Xi; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Stephen D. Handler; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Linda R. Parker; Amy J. Amman; Brian Bogaczyk; Christine Handler; Ellen Lesch; Peter B. Reich; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Sami Khanal; Feng Liu; Tara Bal; Dustin Bronson; Andrew Burton; Jim Ferris; Jon Fosgitt; Shawn Hagan; Erin Johnston; Evan Kane; Colleen Matula; Ryan O' Connor; Dale Higgins; Matt St. Pierre; Jad Daley; Mae Davenport; Marla R. Emery; David Fehringer; Christopher L. Hoving; Gary Johnson; David Neitzel; Michael Notaro; Adena Rissman; Chadwick Rittenhouse; Robert. Ziel

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems across the Northwoods will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in the Laurentian Mixed Forest Province of northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan under a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate...

  3. Spatial and temporal trends of drought effects in a heterogeneous semi-arid forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Sibold, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Drought has long been recognized as a driving mechanism in the forests of western North America and drought-induced mortality has been documented across genera in recent years. Given the frequency of these events are expected to increase in the future, understanding patterns of mortality and plant response to severe drought is important to resource managers. Drought can affect the functional, physiological, structural, and demographic properties of forest ecosystems. Remote sensing studies have documented changes in forest properties due to direct and indirect effects of drought; however, few studies have addressed this at local scales needed to characterize highly heterogeneous ecosystems in the forest-shrubland ecotone. We analyzed a 22-year Landsat time series (1985–2012) to determine changes in forest in an area that experienced a relatively dry decade punctuated by two years of extreme drought. We assessed the relationship between several vegetation indices and field measured characteristics (e.g. plant area index and canopy gap fraction) and applied these indices to trend analysis to uncover the location, direction and timing of change. Finally, we assessed the interaction of climate and topography by forest functional type. The Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), a measure of canopy water content, had the strongest correlation with short-term field measures of plant area index (R2 = 0.64) and canopy gap fraction (R2 = 0.65). Over the entire time period, 25% of the forested area experienced a significant (p-value < 0.05) negative trend in NDMI, compared to less than 10% in a positive trend. Coniferous forests were more likely to be associated with a negative NDMI trend than deciduous forest. Forests on southern aspects were least likely to exhibit a negative trend while north aspects were most prevalent. Field plots with a negative trend had a lower live density, and higher amounts of standing dead and down trees compared to plots with no

  4. Forest report 2003. Forest ecosystem study for Hessen. Forest, water, weather; Waldzustandsbericht 2003. Waldoekosystemstudie Hessen. Wald und Wasser - Witterung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, U.; Gawehn, P.; Rockel, A.; Scheler, B.; Schoenfelder, E.; Eichhorn, J. (comps.) [Hessen-Forst, Hannoversch Muenden (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Between 1984 an 1992 defoliation increased in Hesse. From the year 2000 on, vitality of trees remained unchanged. Since 2001, crown situation starts getting better. Mainly young Fagus sylvatica shows quite good vitality in 2003. However, the overall level of tree vitality still can not be compared to the year 1984. The Rhein-Main area has to be considered as overstrained. Acid deposition has clearly improved, e.g. sulphur. However, nitrogen compounds namely NH4 shows no indication of a clear reduction in forest ecosystems of Hesse. Ozon levels are increasing steadily. The summer of 2003 was extremely warm and dry. Responses of vegetation and soils may occur in 2004. (orig.) [German] Nach einem raschen Anstieg der mittleren Kronenverlichtung zwischen 1984 (11%) und 1992 (25%) war etwa bis 2000 eine Stagnation der Entwicklung zu verzeichnen. In den letzten Jahren mehren sich in Hessen Anzeichen einer Verbesserung des Waldzustandes. Guenstig ist die Entwicklung der juengeren Baeume. Hier ist vor allem die Buche zu nennen. Der Anteil der seit dem letzten Jahr abgestorbenen Baeume ist sehr gering. Noch ist aber die Vitalitaet des hessischen Waldes von 1984 insgesamt nicht wieder erreicht (2003: 21% gegenueber 11%, 1984). Die Region Rhein-Main ist hinsichtlich des Zustandes des Waldes nach wie vor besonders belastet. Trotz heute wesentlich geringerer Saeure- und Schwefeleintraege in den hessischen Wald wirken die jahrzehntelangen hohen Immissionen erheblich nach. Dies glit vor allem fuer die Beschaffenheit des Bodensickerwassers, einer wesentlichen Ernaehrungsgrundlage der Waldbaeume. Nahezu unveraendert hoch ist der Stickstoffeintrag (Kronentraufe) in hessische Waelder. Auch die Ozongehalte der bodennahen Luft lassen keine Tendenz zur Verringerung erkennen. Spitzenwerte der Jahre 1994/1995 wurden jedoch nicht erreicht. Weitere Anstrengungen zur Immissionsminderung sind erforderlich. Fuer den Sommer 2003 wurde die hoechste Durchschnittstemperatur seit 1984 gemessen

  5. A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D; Corre, Marife D; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Klasen, Stephan; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tarigan, Suria; Tölle, Merja H; Tscharntke, Teja; Wiegand, Kerstin

    2016-08-11

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal

  6. Reviewing the strength of evidence of biodiversity indicators for forest ecosystems in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tian; Nielsen, Anders Busse; Hedblom, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    With a growing number of forest biodiversity indicators being applied in forest policy documents and even more being suggested by the scientific community, there is a need to evaluate, review and critically assess the strength of evidence for individual indicators, their interrelationships...... and potential overlaps and gaps. Biodiversity indicators proposed for forest ecosystems in Europe were reviewed with the overarching aim of providing advice on strategic selection and combination of indictors. The objectives were to (1) establish interrelationships between indicators and their indicandum (i.......e. the indicated aspect of biodiversity); (2) assess the strength of scientific evidence for individual indicators; and (3) identify a set of indicators with confirmed validity for further scientific testing and inclusion in long-term reporting and decision-making regarding forest biodiversity. Ten indicator...

  7. The environmental behaviour of polychlorinated phenols and its relevance to cork forest ecosystems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Iain; Carvalho, Mariana; Silva Pereira, Cristina; Hursthouse, Andrew; Morrison, Calum; Tatner, Paul; Martins, Isabel; San Romão, M Vitória; Leitão, Maria

    2007-10-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used as a herbicide, biocide and preservative worldwide since the 1930s and as a result, extensive and prolonged contamination exists. The environmental impact increases when its many degradation products are taken into consideration. A number of chloroanisols and their related chlorophenols have been found in cork slabs collected from Portuguese oak tree forests before stopper manufacturing, and contamination by PCP and polychlorinated anisole (PCA) has been detected in Canadian forests. It is suggested that the use of polychlorinated phenols, in particular PCP, is thought to be a cause of the cork taint problem in wine, a major socio-economic impact not only for industry but on sensitive and highly biodiverse ecosystems. It also highlights particular issues relating to the regional regulation of potentially toxic chemicals and global economics world wide. To fully understand the impact of contamination sources, the mechanisms responsible for the fate and transport of PCP and its degradation products and assessment of their environmental behaviour is required. This review looks at the current state of knowledge of soil sorption, fate and bioavailability and identifies the challenges of degradation product identification and the contradictory evidence from field and laboratory observations. The need for a systematic evaluation of PCP contamination in relation to cork forest ecosystems and transfer of PCP between trophic levels is emphasised by discrepancies in bioaccumulation and toxicity. This is essential to enable long term management of not only transboundary contaminants, but also the sustainable management of socially and economically important forest ecosystems.

  8. Response of the boreal forest ecosystem to climatic change and its silvicultural implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellomaeki, S.; Haenninen, H.; Karjalainen, T. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry] [and others

    1996-12-31

    During the next 100 years, the mean annual temperature is expected to be 1-6 deg C higher than at present. It is also expected to be accompanied by a lengthening of the thermal growing season and increased precipitation. Consequently, climatic change will increase the uncertainty of the management of forest ecosystems in the future. In this context, this research project aimed to outline the ecological and silvicultural implications of climatic change with regard to (1) how the expected climatic change might modify the functioning and structure of the boreal forest ecosystem, and (2) how the silvicultural management of the forest ecosystem should be modified in order to maintain sustainable forest yield under changing climatic conditions. The experimental component of the project concerned first the effect that elevating temperature and elevating concentration of atmospheric carbon have on the ontogenetic development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) and on the subsequent increase in frost damage during winter. The second part of the study looked the effect of elevating temperature and elevating concentration of atmospheric carbon on the growth of Scots pine through photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, nutrient supply, and changes in crown structure. This experiment was utilised in several subprojects of the overall project

  9. Habitat creation and biodiversity maintenance in mangrove forests: teredinid bivalves as ecosystem engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Ian W; Michie, Laura; Taylor, Ben W

    2014-01-01

    Substantial amounts of dead wood in the intertidal zone of mature mangrove forests are tunnelled by teredinid bivalves. When the tunnels are exposed, animals are able to use tunnels as refuges. In this study, the effect of teredinid tunnelling upon mangrove forest faunal diversity was investigated. Mangrove forests exposed to long emersion times had fewer teredinid tunnels in wood and wood not containing teredinid tunnels had very few species and abundance of animals. However, with a greater cross-sectional percentage surface area of teredinid tunnels, the numbers of species and abundance of animals was significantly higher. Temperatures within teredinid-attacked wood were significantly cooler compared with air temperatures, and animal abundance was greater in wood with cooler temperatures. Animals inside the tunnels within the wood may avoid desiccation by escaping the higher temperatures. Animals co-existing in teredinid tunnelled wood ranged from animals found in terrestrial ecosystems including centipedes, crickets and spiders, and animals found in subtidal marine ecosystems such as fish, octopods and polychaetes. There was also evidence of breeding within teredinid-attacked wood, as many juvenile individuals were found, and they may also benefit from the cooler wood temperatures. Teredinid tunnelled wood is a key low-tide refuge for cryptic animals, which would otherwise be exposed to fishes and birds, and higher external temperatures. This study provides evidence that teredinids are ecosystem engineers and also provides an example of a mechanism whereby mangrove forests support intertidal biodiversity and nurseries through the wood-boring activity of teredinids.

  10. Avian, salamander, and forest floor mercury concentrations increase with elevation in a terrestrial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jason M; Driscoll, Charles T; Rimmer, Christopher C; McFarland, Kent P

    2014-01-01

    High-elevation ecosystems of the northeastern United States are vulnerable to deposition and environmental accumulation of atmospheric pollutants, yet little work has been done to assess mercury (Hg) concentrations in organisms occupying montane ecosystems. The authors present data on Hg concentrations in ground-foraging insectivorous songbirds, a terrestrial salamander, and forest floor horizons sampled along a forested elevational gradient from 185 m to 1273 m in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA. Mean Hg concentrations in Catharus thrushes and the salamander Plethodon cinereus increased with elevation, as did Hg concentrations in all forest floor horizons. Mean Hg concentrations in organic soils at approximately 1200 m elevation (503.5 ± 17.7 ng/g, dry wt) were 4.4-fold greater than those at approximately 200 m. Montane ecosystems of the northeastern United States, and probably elsewhere, are exposed to higher levels of atmospheric Hg deposition as reflected in accumulation patterns in the forest floor and associated high-elevation fauna. This information can be used to parameterize and test Hg transport and bioaccumulation models of landscape-specific patterns and may serve as a monitoring tool for decision makers considering future controls on Hg emissions. Further investigation is needed into the potential effects of increased Hg concentrations on high-elevation fauna. © 2013 SETAC.

  11. Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish spruce forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Johanson, K.J.; Fawaris, B.H.; Nielsen, S.P.; Horrill, A.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; Barbayiannis, N.; Veresoglou, D.S.; Dawson, D.E.; Colgan, P.A.; McGarry, A.T

    2000-03-01

    An assessment of the distribution of Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish forest was carried out and showed more than 95% of the {sup 137}Cs in the system to be of Chernobyl origin. The data show that approximately 87% of total fallout is found in soils, 6% in the bryophyte layer and 7% in standing biomass of trees. The mean deposition of {sup 137}Cs in the system (including soils, bryophytes, understorey vegetation, fungi, trees, moose and roe deer) was 54 kBq m{sup -2}. Fungi, understorey vegetation and ruminant populations collectively contained approximately 1% of total radiocaesium in the system. However, actual concentrations in these sample types were higher than in any other category, mostly exceeding the limit of 1500 Bq kg{sup -1} for consumption of wild produce in Sweden. These categories represent the principal foodstuffs responsible for radiation transfer to man from the system and though negligible in total biomass there is potential for significant dose transfer to individuals who are regular consumers of wild forest produce.

  12. Cellulose Dynamics during Foliar Litter Decomposition in an Alpine Forest Meta-Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamics and relative drivers of cellulose degradation during litter decomposition, a field experiment was conducted in three individual ecosystems (i.e., forest floor, stream, and riparian zone of an alpine forest meta-ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Four litter species (i.e., willow: Salix paraplesia, azalea: Rhododendron lapponicum, cypress: Sabina saltuaria, and larch: Larix mastersiana that had varying initial litter chemical traits were placed separately in litterbags and then incubated on the soil surface of forest floor plots or in the water of the stream and riparian zone plots. Litterbags were retrieved five times each year during the two-year experiment, with nine replicates each time for each treatment. The results suggested that foliar litter lost 32.2%–89.2% of the initial dry mass depending on litter species and ecosystem type after two-year’s incubation. The cellulose lost 60.1%–96.8% of the initial mass with degradation rate in the order of stream > riparian zone > forest floor. Substantial cellulose degradation occurred at the very beginning (i.e., in the first pre-freezing period of litter decomposition. Litter initial concentrations of phosphorus (P and lignin were found to be the dominant chemical traits controlling cellulose degradation regardless of ecosystems type. The local-scale environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability were important moderators of cellulose degradation rate. Although the effects of common litter chemical traits (e.g., P and lignin concentrations on cellulose degradation across different individual ecosystems were identified, local-scale environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient availability were found to be of great importance for cellulose degradation. These results indicated that local-scale environmental factors should be considered apart from litter quality for generating a reliable predictive framework for the drivers

  13. Thermal Imaging of Forest Canopy Temperatures: Relationships with Biological and Biophysical Drivers and Ecosystem Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, C. J.; Kim, Y.; Hanson, C. V.; Law, B. E.; Kwon, H.; Schulze, M.; Pau, S.; Detto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is a primary environmental control on plant processes at a range of spatial and temporal scales, affecting enzymatic reactions, ecosystem biogeochemistry, and species distributions. Although most focus is on air temperature, the radiative or skin temperature of plants is more relevant. Canopy skin temperature dynamics reflect biophysical, physiological, and anatomical characteristics and interactions with environmental drivers, and can be used to examine forest responses to stresses like droughts and heat waves. Direct measurements of plant canopy temperatures using thermocouple sensors have been challenging and offer limited information. Such measurements are usually conducted over short periods of time and a limited spatial extent of the canopy. By contrast, thermal infrared (TIR) imaging allows for extensive temporal and spatial measurement of canopy temperature regimes. We present results of TIR imaging of forest canopies at a range of well-studied forest sites in the United States and Panama. These forest types include temperate rainforests, a semi­arid pine forest, and a semi­deciduous tropical forest. Canopy temperature regimes at these sites are highly variable spatially and temporally and display frequent departures from air temperature, particularly during clear sky conditions. Canopy tissue temperatures are often warmer (daytime) and colder (nighttime) than air temperature, and canopy structure seems to have a large influence on the thermal regime. Additionally, comparison of canopy temperatures to eddy covariance fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy reveals relationships not apparent using air temperature. Initial comparisons between our forest canopy temperatures and remotely sensed skin temperature using Landsat and MODIS data show reasonably good agreement. We conclude that temporal and spatial changes in canopy temperature and its relationship to biological and environmental factors can improve our understanding of how

  14. Benefits of riparian forest for the aquatic ecosystem assessed at a large geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Looy K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Claimed benefits of riparian forest cover for the aquatic ecosystem include purification, thermal control, organic matter input and habitat provision, which may improve physicochemical and biotic quality. However, these beneficial effects might be flawed by multiple stressor conditions of intensive agriculture and urbanization in upstream catchments. We examined the relationship between riparian forest cover and physicochemical quality and biotic integrity indices in extensive large scale datasets. Measurements of hydromorphological conditions and riparian forest cover across different buffer widths for 59 × 103 river stretches covering 230 × 103 km of the French river network were coupled with data for physicochemical and biotic variables taken from the national monitoring network. General linear and quantile regression techniques were used to determine responses of physicochemical variables and biological integrity indices for macroinvertebrates and fish to riparian forest cover in selections of intermediate stress for 2nd to 4th order streams. Significant responses to forest cover were found for the nutrient variables and biological indices. According to these responses a 60% riparian forest cover in the 10 m buffer corresponds to good status boundaries for physicochemical and biotic elements. For the 30 m buffer, the observed response suggests that riparian forest coverage of at least 45% corresponds with good ecological status in the aquatic ecosystem. The observed consistent responses indicate significant potential for improving the quality of the aquatic environment by restoring riparian forest. The effects are more substantial in single-stressor environments but remain significant in multi-stressor environments.

  15. Forest floor depth mediates understory vigor in xeric Pinus palustris ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiers, J Kevin; O'Brien, Joseph J; Will, Rodney E; Mitchell, Robert J

    2007-04-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands and savannas are among the most frequently burned ecosystems in the world with fire return intervals of 1-10 years. This fire regime has maintained high levels of biodiversity in terms of both species richness and endemism. Land use changes have reduced the area of this ecosystem by >95%, and inadequate fire frequencies threaten many of the remnants today. In the absence of frequent fire, rapid colonization of hardwoods and shrubs occurs, and a broad-leaved midstory develops. This midstory encroachment has been the focus of much research and management concern, largely based on the assumption that the midstory reduces understory plant diversity through direction competition via light interception. The general application of this mechanism of degradation is questionable, however, because midstory density, leaf area, and hardwood species composition vary substantially along a soil moisture gradient from mesic to extremely xeric sites. Reanalysis of recently reported data from xeric longleaf pine communities suggests that the development of the forest floor, a less conspicuous change in forest structure, might cause a decline in plant biodiversity when forests remain unburned. We report here a test of the interactions among fire, litter accumulation, forest floor development, and midstory canopy density on understory plant diversity. Structural equation modeling showed that within xeric sites, forest floor development was the primary factor explaining decreased biodiversity. The only effects of midstory development on biodiversity were those mediated through forest floor development. Boundary line analysis of functional guilds of understory plants showed sensitivity to even minor development of the forest floor in the absence of fire. These results challenge the prevailing management paradigm and suggest that within xeric longleaf pine communities, the primary focus of managed fire regime should be directed toward the

  16. Carbon allocation patterns in boreal and hemiboreal forest ecosystems along the gradient of soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriiska, Kaie; Uri, Veiko; Frey, Jane; Napa, Ülle; Kabral, Naima; Soosaar, Kaido; Rannik, Kaire; Ostonen, Ivika

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. Changes in C allocation alter ecosystems carbon sequestration and plant-soil-atmosphere gas exchange, hence having an impact on the climate. Currently, there is lack of reliable indicators that show the direction of C accumulation patterns in forest ecosystems on regional scale. The first objective of our study was to determine the variability of carbon allocation in hemiboreal coniferous forests along the gradient of soil fertility in Estonia. We measured C stocks and fluxes, such as litter, fine root biomass and production, soil respiration etc. in 8 stands of different site types - Scots pine (Cladonia, Vaccinium, Myrtillus, Fragaria) and Norway spruce (Polytrichum, Myrtillus, Oxalis, Calamagrostis alvar). The suitability of above- and belowground litter production (AG/BG) ratio was analysed as a carbon allocation indicator. The second aim of the study was to analyse forest C allocation patterns along the north-south gradient from northern boreal Finland to hemiboreal Estonia. Finally, C sequestration in silver birch and grey alder stands were compared with coniferous stands in order to determine the impact of tree species on carbon allocation. Preliminary results indicate that estimated AG/BG ratio (0.5 ... 3.0) tends to decrease with increasing soil organic horizon C/N ratio, indicating that in less fertile sites more carbon is allocated into belowground through fine root growth and in consequence the soil organic carbon stock increases. Similar trends were found on the north-south forest gradient. However, there was a significant difference between coniferous and broadleaf stands in C allocation patterns. Net ecosystem exchange in Estonian coniferous stands varied from -1.64 ... 3.95 t C ha-1 yr-1, whereas older stands tended to be net carbon sources.

  17. Long-term nitrogen addition decreases carbon leaching in nitrogen-rich forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC plays a critical role in the carbon (C cycle of forest soils, and has been recently connected with global increases in nitrogen (N deposition. Most studies on effects of elevated N deposition on DOC have been carried out in N-limited temperate regions, with far fewer data available from N-rich ecosystems, especially in the context of chronically elevated N deposition. Furthermore, mechanisms for excess N-induced changes of DOC dynamics have been suggested to be different between the two kinds of ecosystems, because of the different ecosystem N status. The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine how long-term N addition affects DOC dynamics below the primary rooting zones (the upper 20 cm soils in typically N-rich lowland tropical forests. We have a primary assumption that long-term continuous N addition minimally affects DOC concentrations and effluxes in N-rich tropical forests. Experimental N addition was administered at the following levels: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Results showed that seven years of N addition significantly decreased DOC concentrations in soil solution, and chemo-physical controls (solution acidity change and soil sorption rather than biological controls may mainly account for the decreases, in contrast to other forests. We further found that N addition greatly decreased annual DOC effluxes from the primary rooting zone and increased water-extractable DOC in soils. Our results suggest that long-term N deposition could increase soil C sequestration in the upper soils by decreasing DOC efflux from that layer in N-rich ecosystems, a novel mechanism for continued accumulation of soil C in old-growth forests.

  18. Long-term nitrogen addition decreases carbon leaching in a nitrogen-rich forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC plays a critical role in the carbon (C cycle of forest soils, and has been recently connected with global increases in nitrogen (N deposition. Most studies on effects of elevated N deposition on DOC have been carried out in N-limited temperate regions, with far fewer data available from N-rich ecosystems, especially in the context of chronically elevated N deposition. Furthermore, mechanisms for excess N-induced changes of DOC dynamics have been suggested to be different between the two kinds of ecosystems, because of the different ecosystem N status. The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine how long-term N addition affects DOC dynamics below the primary rooting zones (the upper 20 cm soils in typically N-rich lowland tropical forests. We have a primary assumption that long-term continuous N addition minimally affects DOC concentrations and effluxes in N-rich tropical forests. Experimental N addition was administered at the following levels: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Results showed that seven years of N addition significantly decreased DOC concentrations in soil solution, and chemo-physical controls (solution acidity change and soil sorption rather than biological controls may mainly account for the decreases, in contrast to other forests. We further found that N addition greatly decreased annual DOC effluxes from the primary rooting zone and increased water-extractable DOC in soils. Our results suggest that long-term N deposition could increase soil C sequestration in the upper soils by decreasing DOC efflux from that layer in N-rich ecosystems, a novel mechanism for continued accumulation of soil C in old-growth forests.

  19. Seasonal variation of carbon uptake in a primary forest ecosystem in southwestern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S.; Gonçalves, J. F.; Cirino, G. G.; Artaxo, P.

    2013-05-01

    Tropical rainforests possess a large carbon stock and their dynamics are strongly dependent on climatic factors. Carbon assimilation by tropical forests can be meaningfully altered by seasonal changes in rainfall regime. Considering the interactions of the plant-atmosphere system, this study evaluated the effect of the precipitation seasonality on the photosynthesis of a primary forest, located in the state of Rondônia (Rebio Jaru), southwest of the Amazon, Brazil. Precipitation data from Instituto Nacional de Metereologia (INMET) from five years (2006-2010) were analyzed and the NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) of CO2 was calculated for ten years (1999-2009) using data from the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon (LBA). Furthermore, leaves gas exchanges were measured in 48 individual in three forest strata (canopy, sub-canopy and understory) using a infrared gas analyzer (IRGA model LI-6400, Li-cor, USA) during two distinct precipitation periods: at the end of the wet (May) and dry (Sept.) seasons. The climatological data exhibited an accentuated dry season between the months of June and August. The lower water availability inhibited the forest primary production and altered the CO2 assimilation observed in the variation in the NEE values (Fig. 1). The NEE values were larger in the dry season and showed a smaller carbon uptake in the ecosystem, when compared with the values from the wet season. In the period that succeeds the dry season, the photosynthetic rates measured in canopy leaves were 44,49% lower than the values measured in the period prior to the dry season. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the accentuated dry season strongly controls the seasonal photosynthesis variation in the studied area, decreasing the carbon uptake into the ecosystem. Fig. 1: Seasonal cycle of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of CO2 between the forest and atmosphere, in Rebio Jaru (1999-2009, monthly averages).

  20. Divergence of ecosystem services in U.S. National Forests and Grasslands under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Sun, Ge; Sun, Shanlei; Caldwell, Peter V.; Cohen, Erika C.; McNulty, Steven G.; Aldridge, Heather D.; Zhang, Yang

    2016-04-01

    The 170 National Forests and Grasslands (NFs) in the conterminous United States are public lands that provide important ecosystem services such as clean water and timber supply to the American people. This study investigates the potential impacts of climate change on two key ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield and ecosystem productivity) using the most recent climate projections derived from 20 Global Climate Models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that future climate change may result in a significant reduction in water yield but an increase in ecosystem productivity in NFs. On average, gross ecosystem productivity is projected to increase by 76 ~ 229 g C m-2 yr-1 (8% ~ 24%) while water yield is projected to decrease by 18 ~ 31 mm yr-1 (4% ~ 7%) by 2100 as a result of the combination of increased air temperature (+1.8 ~ +5.2 °C) and precipitation (+17 ~ +51 mm yr-1). The notable divergence in ecosystem services of water supply and carbon sequestration is expected to intensify under higher greenhouse gas emission and associated climate change in the future, posing greater challenges to managing NFs for both ecosystem services.

  1. Using Lidar and Radar measurements to constrain predictions of forest ecosystem structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Alexander S; Saatchi, Sassan S; Chazdon, Robin L; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2011-06-01

    Insights into vegetation and aboveground biomass dynamics within terrestrial ecosystems have come almost exclusively from ground-based forest inventories that are limited in their spatial extent. Lidar and synthetic-aperture Radar are promising remote-sensing-based techniques for obtaining comprehensive measurements of forest structure at regional to global scales. In this study we investigate how Lidar-derived forest heights and Radar-derived aboveground biomass can be used to constrain the dynamics of the ED2 terrestrial biosphere model. Four-year simulations initialized with Lidar and Radar structure variables were compared against simulations initialized from forest-inventory data and output from a long-term potential-vegtation simulation. Both height and biomass initializations from Lidar and Radar measurements significantly improved the representation of forest structure within the model, eliminating the bias of too many large trees that arose in the potential-vegtation-initialized simulation. The Lidar and Radar initializations decreased the proportion of larger trees estimated by the potential vegetation by approximately 20-30%, matching the forest inventory. This resulted in improved predictions of ecosystem-scale carbon fluxes and structural dynamics compared to predictions from the potential-vegtation simulation. The Radar initialization produced biomass values that were 75% closer to the forest inventory, with Lidar initializations producing canopy height values closest to the forest inventory. Net primary production values for the Radar and Lidar initializations were around 6-8% closer to the forest inventory. Correcting the Lidar and Radar initializations for forest composition resulted in improved biomass and basal-area dynamics as well as leaf-area index. Correcting the Lidar and Radar initializations for forest composition and fine-scale structure by combining the remote-sensing measurements with ground-based inventory data further improved

  2. EO Underpinning the Quality of Ecosystem Services with Geospatial Data- The Case of Sustainable Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite Eyre, Charles

    2010-12-01

    Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an exciting and expanding opportunity for sustainably managed forests. PES are derived from a range of ecosystem benefits from forests including climate change mitigation through afforestation and avoided deforestation, green power generation, wetland and watershed rehabilitation, water quality improvement, marine flood defence and the reduction in desertification and soil erosion. Forests are also the ancestral home to many vulnerable communities which need protection. Sustainable forest management plays a key role in many of these services which generates a potentially critical source of finance. However, for forests to realise revenues from these PES, they must meet demanding standards of project validation and service verification. They also need geospatial data to manage and monitor operational risk. In many cases the data is difficult to collect on the ground - in some cases impossible. This will create a new demand for data that must be impartial, timely, area wide, accurate and cost effective. This presentation will highlight the unique capacity of EO to provide these geospatial inputs required in the generation of PES from forestry and demonstrate products with practical examples.

  3. A case for using Plethodontid salamanders for monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem integrity of North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, H.H.; Droege, S.

    2001-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders of the family P!ethodontidae have unique attributes that make them excellent indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity in forested habitats. Their longevity, small territory size, site fidelity, sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, tendency to occur in high densities, and low sampling costs mean that counts of plethodontid salamanders provide numerous advantages over counts of other North American forest organisms for indicating environmental change. Furthermore, they are tightly linked physiologically to microclimatic and successional processes that influence the distribution and abundance of numerous other hydrophilic but difficult-to-study forest-dwelling plants and animals. Ecosystem processes such as moisture cycling, food-web dynamics, and succession, with their related structural and microclimatic variability, all affect forest biodiversity and have been shown to affect salamander populations as well. We determined the variability associated with sampling for plethodontid salamanders by estimating the coefficient of variation (CV) from available time-series data. The median coefficient of variation indicated that variation in counts of individuals among studies was much lower in plethodonticis (27%) than in lepidoptera (93%), passerine birds (57%), small mammals (69%), or other amphibians (37-46%), which means plethodontid salamanders provide an important statistical advantage over other species for monitoring long-term forest health.

  4. Climate change, forest management and nitrogen deposition influence on carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems in Russia: simulation modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Alexander; Kudeyarov, Valery; Shanin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Russian land ecosystems occupy more than 1/9th global land area. Therefore its carbon budget is an essential contribution to the global carbon budget. The first rough estimate of carbon balance on Russian territory was made on comparison data on total soil respiration (Kudeyarov et. al., 1995) and NPP calculated on data on biological productivity of different ecosystems over Russia. The carbon balance was evaluated as a C-sink. Further estimates of Russian C budget by V.Kudeyarov et al., (2007) and I.Kurganova et al., (2010) were more correct and included soil microbial flux, and non-respiratory processes: fossil fuel, agriculture, forest fires and post-fire emissions, insect damage, etc. According to estimates the total C-sink of Russian territory for early nineties was about -0.8-1.0 Pg C per year. The later IIASA account developed by A.Shvidenko et al. (2010) has provided current estimates of C fluxes and storages in Russia and showed that its terrestrial ecosystems served as a net carbon sink of -0.5-0.7 PgC yr-1 during the last decade. Taking into account big uncertainties of determination of carbon balance constituents one can say that results by IIASA and our Institute are rather close. Resulting effect of two processes (sequestration and CO2 emission) can be analysed by mathematical modelling only. Corresponding system of models of organic matter dynamics in forest ecosystems EFIMOD was developed in our Institute last decade and applied in Russia and other countries for evaluation of impacts of climate changes, forest management and forest fires. The comparative simulations of carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the mixed forest ecosystems of Central Russia from different climatic zones and site conditions have been made. Three large forest areas with the total square of about 17,000 km2 distinct in environmental conditions were chosen. We used the data of the forest inventory for model initialization. Four simulation scenarios (without disturbances, with

  5. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey;

    2011-01-01

    We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...... as well as the vertical OH-reactivity profile. We have used SOSA; a one dimensional vertical chemistry-transport model (Boy et al., 2011a) together with measurements from Hyytiala, SMEAR II station, Southern Finland, conducted in August 2008. Model simulations only account for similar to 30......-50% of the total measured OH sink, and in our opinion, the reason for missing OH-reactivity is due to unmeasured unknown BVOCs, and limitations in our knowledge of atmospheric chemistry including uncertainties in rate constants. Furthermore, we found that the OH-reactivity correlates with both organic...

  6. Butterfly response and successional change following ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy E. M. Waltz; W. Wallace Covington

    2001-01-01

    The Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) can be useful indicators of ecosystem change as a result of a disturbance event. We monitored changes in butterfly abundance in two restoration treatment units paired with adjacent untreated forest at the Mt. Trumbull Resource Conservation Area in northern Arizona. Restoration treatments included thinning trees to density levels...

  7. Forest ecosystem monitoring in Tuscany (Italy: past activities, present status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio LEONZIO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987 the Region of Tuscany has been actively monitoring crown status in its forests, in order to protect them from atmospheric pollution, biotic factors and environmental change. Over this period the Region has performed periodical inventories on crown condition in publicly-owned forests (Level I network and established a network of permanent plots (MON.I.TO., Level II – III to study long-term changes occurring in forest ecosystems. Some of these permanent plots were later included in the national programme CONECOFOR, managed by the Ministry for Policy in Agriculture and Forest. Currently a further development of MON.I.TO. is being implemented, called MONITO III – TOpModel, the aim of which is to broaden the information potential of the monitoring system to include carbon stocks and biodiversity evaluation. This paper provides an up-to-date report on the status of the various surveys and recommends a closer connection between MON.I.TO. and the other regional information systems, especially the Regional Forest Inventory, in order to produce information that may be useful in forest planning and in Sustainable Forest Management.

  8. Integrated research approach to the evaluation of the danger of airborne pollutants to forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F.; Smidt, S. [Federal Forest Research Centre, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The protection of the Alpine area, which, between Vienna and Nice, provides a home to thirteen million people, should be given highest priority not only because of the (commercial and other) benefits that the area offers and that are sometimes over-exploited for tourism, but also because the Alpine area is one of the largest coherent ecoregions of Europe and a Noah`s ark for endangered species and ecosystems. The present report focuses on two aspects of the dangers to forest ecosystems: on the threats caused by the input of ozone and nitrogen. (author)

  9. Moss-cyanobacteria associations as biogenic sources of nitrogen in boreal forest ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin eRousk; Jones, Davey L; Thomas H Deluca

    2013-01-01

    The biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) is a major pathway for available N entering ecosystems. In N-limited boreal forests, a significant amount of N2 is fixed by cyanobacteria living in association with mosses, contributing up to 50% to the total N input. In this review, we synthesize reports on the drivers of N2 fixation in feather moss-cyanobacteria associations to gain a deeper understanding of their role for ecosystem-N-cycling. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associ...

  10. Effects of active forest fire on terrestrial ecosystem production and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannigrahi, Srikanta; Rahmat, Shahid; Bhatt, Sandeep; Rana, Virendra

    2017-04-01

    The forest fire is one of the most catalysing agents which degrade an ecosystems leading to the loss of net and gross primary productivity (NPP & GPP) and carbon sequestration service. Additionally, it can suppress the efficiency of service providing capacity of an ecosystem throughout the time and space. Remote sensing-based forest fire estimation in a diverse ecosystem is very much essential for mitigating the biodiversity and productivity losses due to the forest fire. Satellite-based Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been calculated for the pre-fire and fire years to identify the burn severity hotspot across all eco-regions in the Lower Himalaya region. Several burn severity indices: Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), Burnt Area Index (BAI), Normalized Multiband Drought Index (NMDI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Enhance Vegetation Index (EVI) have been used in this study to quantify the spatial and temporal changes (delta) of the selected indices. Two Light Use Efficiency (LUE) models: Carnegie- Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) and Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) have been used to quantify the terrestrial Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in the pre-fire and fire years across all biomes of the region. A novel approach has been preceded in this field to demonstrate the correlation between forest fire density (FFD) and NPP. A strong positive correlation was found between burn severity indices and predicted NPP: BAI and NPP (r = 0.49), NBR and NPP: (r = 0.58), EVI and NPP: (r = 0.72), SAVI and NPP: (r = 0.67), whereas, a negative association has noted between the NMDI and NPP: (r = -0.36) during the both studied years. Results have shown that the NPP is highly correlated with the forest fire density (R2 = 0.75, RMSE = 5.03 gC m-2 month-1). The estimated LST of the individual fire days has witnessed a sharp temperature increase by > 6oC - 9oC in comparison to the non-fire days clearly indicates high fire risk (in

  11. Timing of the compensation of winter respiratory carbon losses provides explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity of forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haeni, M.; Zweifel, R.; Eugster, W.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate predictions of net ecosystem productivity (NEPc) of forest ecosystems are essential for climate change decisions and requirements in the context of national forest growth and greenhouse gas inventories. However, drivers and underlying mechanisms determining NEPc (e.g. climate, nutrients......, and Australia, using different NEPc integration methods. We found cDOY to be a particularly powerful predictor for NEPc of temperate evergreen needle-leaf forests (R2 = 0.58) and deciduous broadleaf forests (R2 = 0.68). In general, the latest cDOY correlated with the lowest NEPc. The explanatory power of c...

  12. Long-Term Post-Disturbance Forest Recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Analyzed Using Landsat Time Series Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng R. Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Forest recovery from past disturbance is an integral process of ecosystem carbon cycles, and remote sensing provides an effective tool for tracking forest disturbance and recovery over large areas. Although the disturbance products (tracking the conversion from forest to non-forest type derived using the Landsat Time Series Stack-Vegetation Change Tracker (LTSS-VCT algorithm have been validated extensively for mapping forest disturbances across the United States, the ability of this approach to characterize long-term post-disturbance recovery (the conversion from non-forest to forest has yet to be assessed. In this study, the LTSS-VCT approach was applied to examine long-term (up to 24 years post-disturbance forest spectral recovery following stand-clearing disturbances (fire and harvests in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE. Using high spatial resolution images from Google Earth, we validated the detectable forest recovery status mapped by VCT by year 2011. Validation results show that the VCT was able to map long-term post-disturbance forest recovery with overall accuracy of ~80% for different disturbance types and forest types in the GYE. Harvested areas in the GYE have higher percentages of forest recovery than burned areas by year 2011, and National Forests land generally has higher recovery rates compared with National Parks. The results also indicate that forest recovery is highly related with forest type, elevation and environmental variables such as soil type. Findings from this study can provide valuable insights for ecosystem modeling that aim to predict future carbon dynamics by integrating fine scale forest recovery conditions in GYE, in the face of climate change. With the availability of the VCT product nationwide, this approach can also be applied to examine long-term post-disturbance forest recovery in other study regions across the U.S.

  13. Mapping regional forest fire probability using artificial neural network model in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Satir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are one of the most important factors in environmental risk assessment and it is the main cause of forest destruction in the Mediterranean region. Forestlands have a number of known benefits such as decreasing soil erosion, containing wild life habitats, etc. Additionally, forests are also important player in carbon cycle and decreasing the climate change impacts. This paper discusses forest fire probability mapping of a Mediterranean forestland using a multiple data assessment technique. An artificial neural network (ANN method was used to map forest fire probability in Upper Seyhan Basin (USB in Turkey. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP approach based on back propagation algorithm was applied in respect to physical, anthropogenic, climate and fire occurrence datasets. Result was validated using relative operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Coefficient of accuracy of the MLP was 0.83. Landscape features input to the model were assessed statistically to identify the most descriptive factors on forest fire probability mapping using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Landscape features like elevation (R = −0.43, tree cover (R = 0.93 and temperature (R = 0.42 were strongly correlated with forest fire probability in the USB region.

  14. Natural disturbance impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity in temperate and boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Dominik; Seidl, Rupert

    2016-08-01

    In many parts of the world forest disturbance regimes have intensified recently, and future climatic changes are expected to amplify this development further in the coming decades. These changes are increasingly challenging the main objectives of forest ecosystem management, which are to provide ecosystem services sustainably to society and maintain the biological diversity of forests. Yet a comprehensive understanding of how disturbances affect these primary goals of ecosystem management is still lacking. We conducted a global literature review on the impact of three of the most important disturbance agents (fire, wind, and bark beetles) on 13 different ecosystem services and three indicators of biodiversity in forests of the boreal, cool- and warm-temperate biomes. Our objectives were to (i) synthesize the effect of natural disturbances on a wide range of possible objectives of forest management, and (ii) investigate standardized effect sizes of disturbance for selected indicators via a quantitative meta-analysis. We screened a total of 1958 disturbance studies published between 1981 and 2013, and reviewed 478 in detail. We first investigated the overall effect of disturbances on individual ecosystem services and indicators of biodiversity by means of independence tests, and subsequently examined the effect size of disturbances on indicators of carbon storage and biodiversity by means of regression analysis. Additionally, we investigated the effect of commonly used approaches of disturbance management, i.e. salvage logging and prescribed burning. We found that disturbance impacts on ecosystem services are generally negative, an effect that was supported for all categories of ecosystem services, i.e. supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural services (P < 0.001). Indicators of biodiversity, i.e. species richness, habitat quality and diversity indices, on the other hand were found to be influenced positively by disturbance (P < 0.001). Our analyses thus

  15. Effects of Repeated Fires in the Forest Ecosystems of the Zabaikalye Region, Southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; Petkov, A.; Barrett, K.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Ivanova, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is the main ecological disturbance controlling forest development in the boreal forests of Siberia and contributing substantially to the global carbon cycle. The warmer and dryer climate observed recently in the boreal forests is considered to be responsible for extreme fire weather, resulting in higher fire frequency, larger areas burned, and an increase of fire severity. Because of the increase of fire activity, boreal forests in some regions may not be able to reach maturity before they re-burn, which means less carbon will be stored in the ecosystem and more will remain in the atmosphere. Moreover, if one fire occurs within a few years of another, some stands will not re-grow at all, and even more carbon will accumulate in the atmosphere. Zabaikalye region located in the south of Siberia is characterized by the highest fire activity in Russia. With a use of the satellite-based fire product we found that there are about 7.0 million hectares in the region burned repeatedly during the last decade. We have investigated a number of sites in-situ in light-coniferous (Scots pine and larch) forests and evaluated the impacts of repeated fires on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration. Substantial decrease of carbon stocks, change of the vegetation structure and composition, and soil erosion were observed in many areas disturbed by repeated fires. At drier sites located in the southern regions repeated fires prohibited successful regeneration and resulted in forest conversion to grassland. Detection and monitoring of changes in the areas of Siberia where repeated fires have caused a major shift in ecosystem structure and function is required for the development of sustainable forest management strategies to mitigate climate change. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program.

  16. Global patterns and predictors of stem CO2 efflux in forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyan; He, Yujie; Aubrey, Doug P; Zhuang, Qianlai; Teskey, Robert O

    2016-04-01

    Stem CO2 efflux (ES) plays an important role in the carbon balance of forest ecosystems. However, its primary controls at the global scale are poorly understood and observation-based global estimates are lacking. We synthesized data from 121 published studies across global forest ecosystems and examined the relationships between annual ES and biotic and abiotic factors at individual, biome, and global scales, and developed a global gridded estimate of annual ES . We tested the following hypotheses: (1) Leaf area index (LAI) will be highly correlated with annual ES at biome and global scales; (2) there will be parallel patterns in stem and root CO2 effluxes (RA) in all forests; (3) annual ES will decline with forest age; and (4) LAI coupled with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) will be sufficient to predict annual ES across forests in different regions. Positive linear relationships were found between ES and LAI, as well as gross primary production (GPP), net primary production (NPP), wood NPP, soil CO2 efflux (RS), and RA . Annual ES was correlated with RA in temperate forests after controlling for GPP and MAT, suggesting other additional factors contributed to the relationship. Annual ES tended to decrease with stand age. Leaf area index, MAT and MAP, predicted 74% of variation in ES at global scales. Our statistical model estimated a global annual ES of 6.7 ± 1.1 Pg C yr(-1) over the period of 2000-2012 with little interannual variability. Modeled mean annual ES was 71 ± 43, 270 ± 103, and 420 ± 134 g C m(2) yr(-1) for boreal, temperate, and tropical forests, respectively. We recommend that future studies report ES at a standardized constant temperature, incorporate more manipulative treatments, such as fertilization and drought, and whenever possible, simultaneously measure both aboveground and belowground CO2 fluxes.

  17. Forestland prediction of China based on forest ecosystem services for the first half of 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ren-cai; CHEN Chun-di; DENG Hong-bing; ZHAO Jing-zhu

    2008-01-01

    A new model was developed to predict forestland demand of China during the years of 2010-2050 in terms of the concept of forest ecosystem services. On the basis of the relationship between forest ecosystem services and classified forest management, we hypothesized that the ecological-forest provides ecological services, whereas commercial-forest supplies wood and timber production, and the influences of the growth of population, social-economic development target, forest management methods and the technology changes on forest resources were also taken into account. The prediction reveals that the demand of total forestland of China will be 244.8, 261.2 and 362.2 million ha by the year 2010, 2020 and 2050, respectively. The results demonstrated that China will be confronted with a shortage of forest resources, especially with lack of ecological-oriented forests, in the future. It is suggested that sustainable management of forest resources must be reinforced and more attention should be drown no enhancing the service function of forest ecosystem.

  18. Light Competition and Carbon Partitioning-Allocation in an improved Forest Ecosystem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collalti, Alessio; Santini, Monia; Valentini Valentini, Riccardo

    2010-05-01

    In Italy about 100.000 km2 are covered by forests. This surface is the 30% of the whole national land and this shows how the forests are important both for socio-economic and for environmental aspects. Forests changes affect a delicate balance that involve not only vegetation components but also bio-geochemical cycles and global climate. The knowledge of the amount of Carbon sequestered by forests represents a precious information for their sustainable management in the framework of climate changes. Primary studies in terms of model about this important issue, has been done through Forest Ecosystem Model (FEM), well known and validated as 3PG (Landsberg et Waring, 1997; Sands 2004). It is based on light use efficiency approach at the canopy level. The present study started from the original model 3PG, producing an improved version that uses many of explicit formulations of all relevant ecophysiological processes but makes it able to be applied for natural forests. The mutual interaction of forest growth and light conditions causes vertical and horizontal differentiation in the natural forest mosaic. Only ecophysiological parameters which can be either directly measured or estimates with reasonable certainty are used. The model has been written in C language and has been created considering a tri-dimensional cell structure with different vertical layers depending on the forest type that has to be simulated. This 3PG 'improved' version enable to work on multi-layer and multi-species forests type with cell resolution of one hectare for the typical Italian forest species. The multi-layer version is the result of the implementation and development of Lambert-Beer law for the estimation of intercepted, absorbed and transmitted light through different storeys of the forest. It is possible estimates, for each storey, a Par value (Photosynthetic Active Radiation) through Leaf Area Index (LAI), Light Extinction Coefficient and cell Canopy Cover using a "Big Leaf" approach

  19. Past and future effects of atmospheric deposition on the forest ecosystem at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: simulations with the dynamic model ForSAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim Belyazid; Scott Bailey; Harald. Sverdrup

    2010-01-01

    The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study presents a unique opportunity for studying long-term ecosystem responses to changes in anthropogenic factors. Following industrialisation and the intensification of agriculture, the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) has been subject to increased loads of atmospheric deposition, particularly sulfur and nitrogen. The deposition of...

  20. Near isometric biomass partitioning in forest ecosystems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Dafeng; Wang, Jun; Shen, Weijun; Le, Xuan; Ganter, Philip; Ren, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Based on the isometric hypothesis, belowground plant biomass (MB) should scale isometrically with aboveground biomass (MA) and the scaling exponent should not vary with environmental factors. We tested this hypothesis using a large forest biomass database collected in China. Allometric scaling functions relating MB and MA were developed for the entire database and for different groups based on tree age, diameter at breast height, height, latitude, longitude or elevation. To investigate whether the scaling exponent is independent of these biotic and abiotic factors, we analyzed the relationship between the scaling exponent and these factors. Overall MB was significantly related to MA with a scaling exponent of 0.964. The scaling exponent of the allometric function did not vary with tree age, density, latitude, or longitude, but varied with diameter at breast height, height, and elevation. The mean of the scaling exponent over all groups was 0.986. Among 57 scaling relationships developed, 26 of the scaling exponents were not significantly different from 1. Our results generally support the isometric hypothesis. MB scaled near isometrically with MA and the scaling exponent did not vary with tree age, density, latitude, or longitude, but increased with tree size and elevation. While fitting a single allometric scaling relationship may be adequate, the estimation of MB from MA could be improved with size-specific scaling relationships.

  1. Reconstructing the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests via an Autoecological Niche Approach: Reconsidering the Ecosystem Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto-Torres, David A.; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R.

    2016-01-01

    We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) of individual species of two taxonomic groups (plants and birds) in order to reconstruct the climatic distribution of Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs) in Mexico and to analyze their boundaries with other terrestrial ecosystems. The reconstruction for TDFs' distribution was analyzed considering the prediction and omission errors based upon the combination of species, obtained from the overlap of individual models (only plants, only birds, and all species comb...

  2. Possibilities of usage of aboveground invertebrates for indication of gradations of edaphotope moistening in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By using the variance analysis the absence of a correlation between the different gradations of soil humidity and the number of dominant taxons of litter invertebrates, the ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, separate life-forms of the ground beetles and the indices of species diversity is demonstrated. The most sensitive indicator of soil humidity gradations in forest ecosystems is the mixophytophages part in the ground beetles’ complex.

  3. Interannual influence of spring phenological transitions on the water use efficiency of forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiaxin; Wang, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has significantly influenced the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems through water cycles. Understanding the phenological regulation mechanisms underlying coupled carbon-water cycles is important for improving ecological assessments and projecting terrestrial ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. In this study, we present an analysis of the interannual relationships among flux-based spring phenological transitions (referred as photosynthetic onset) and water use efficiency (WUE) in North America and Europe using 166 site-years of data from 22 flux sites, including 10 deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) and 12 evergreen needleleaf forest (ENF) ecosystems. We found that the WUE responses to variations in spring phenological transitions differed substantially across plant functional types (PFTs) and growth periods. During the early spring (defined as one month from spring onset) in the DBF ecosystem, photosynthetic onset dominated changes in WUE by dominating gross primary production (GPP), with one day of advanced onset increasing the WUE by 0.037 gC kg-1H2O in early spring. For the ENF sites, although advanced photosynthetic onset also significantly promoted GPP, earlier onset did not have a significant positive impact on WUE in early spring because it was not significantly correlated to evapotranspiration (ET), which is a more dominant factor for WUE than GPP across the ENF sites. Statistically significant correlations were not observed between interannual variability in photosynthetic onset and WUE for either the DBF or ENF ecosystems following a prolonged period after photosynthetic onset. For the DBF sites, the interannual variability of photosynthetic onset provided a better explanation of the variations in WUE (ca. 51.4%) compared with climatic factors, although this was only applicable to the early spring. For the ENF sites, photosynthetic onset variations did not provide a better explanation of the interannual WUE variations

  4. Simulating the impacts of land use in northwest Europe on Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE): the role of arable ecosystems, grasslands and forest plantations in climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mohamed; Saunders, Matthew; Hastings, Astley; Williams, Mike; Smith, Pete; Osborne, Bruce; Lanigan, Gary; Jones, Mike B

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we compared measured and simulated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) values from three wide spread ecosystems in the southeast of Ireland (forest, arable and grassland), and investigated the suitability of the DNDC (the DeNitrification-DeComposition) model to estimate present and future NEE. Although, the field-DNDC version overestimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C, forest-DNDC under-estimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C. The results suggest that the field/forest DNDC models can successfully estimate changes in seasonal and annual NEE from these ecosystems. Differences in NEE were found to be primarily land cover specific. The annual NEE was similar for the grassland and arable sites, but due to the contribution of exported carbon, the soil carbon increased at the grassland site and decreased at the arable site. The NEE of the forest site was an order of magnitude larger than that of the grassland or arable ecosystems, with large amounts of carbon stored in woody biomass and the soil. The average annual NEE, GPP and Reco values over the measurement period were -904, 2379 and 1475 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), -189, 906 and 715 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and -212, 1653 and 1444 g C m(-2) (grasslands), respectively. The average RMSE values were 3.8 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), 0.12 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and 0.21 g C m(-2) (grasslands). When these models were run with climate change scenarios to 2060, predictions show that all three ecosystems will continue to operate as carbon sinks. Further, climate change may decrease the carbon sink strength in the forest plantations by up to 50%. This study supports the use of the DNDC model as a valid tool to predict the consequences of climate change on NEE from different ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Coupled Nature of C and N Cycles in Forest Ecosystems: Evidence, Implications and Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollinger, S. V.; Aber, J. D.; Sievering, H.

    2001-12-01

    Cycles of carbon and nitrogen in forest ecosystems are mutually and interactively linked through a shared set of biological processes. A large number of field studies across diverse biomes have documented strong and generalizable relationships between foliar nitrogen concentrations and rates of net photosynthesis. This trend reflects the fact that the majority of N in plant canopies is found in the proteins responsible for CO2 capture (e.g. rubisco). In soils, the accumulation and availability of nitrogen is, in turn, affected by the quality and N content of litter inputs from vegetation. Taken together, these patterns reflect the broadly-coupled nature of terrestrial C and N cycles and suggest that human alteration of any aspect of one cycle can have important implications for the other. Nevertheless, the exact nature of C-N interactions in natural ecosystems can depend on a variety of factors including historical disturbance patterns, the effects of carbon quality on decomposition and N turnover, and the resulting differences in plant-soil feedbacks among species and functional groups. All of these factors greatly complicate efforts to characterize present-day patterns of C and N fluxes across real forested landscapes. Further, human-induced increases in atmospheric CO2 and N deposition hold the potential for either tightening the linkages between C and N cycles, or causing them to become uncoupled. This presentation will build on basic concepts to address several broad questions regarding C-N interactions in forests, both as they occur naturally and as they may be affected by elevated CO2 or N deposition: 1) What evidence is available from the field to demonstrate the coupled nature of C-N cycles in native forest ecosystems? 2) How are C-N interactions in forests influenced by the growth and allocation strategies of different species and/or functional groups? 3) To what degree are current C and N cycles reflected in the chemistry of forest foliage, and 4) Is

  6. Declining plant nitrogen supply and carbon accumulation in ageing primary boreal forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Mona N.; Yarwood, Stephanie A.; Trumbore, Susan; Högberg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forest soils are commonly characterized by a low plant nitrogen (N) supply. A high tree below-ground allocation of carbon (C) to roots and soil microorganisms in response to the shortage of N may lead to high microbial immobilisation of N, thus aggravating the N limitation. We studied the N supply at a Swedish boreal forest ecosystem chronosequence created by new land rising out of the sea due to iso-static rebound. The youngest soils develop with meadows by the coast, followed by a zone of dinitrogen fixing alder trees, and primary boreal conifer forest on ground up to 560 years old. With increasing ecosystem age, the proportion of microbial C out of the total soil C pool from the youngest to the oldest coniferous ecosystem was constant (c. 1-1.5%), whereas immobilised N (microbial N out of total soil N) increased and approached the levels commonly observed in similar boreal coniferous forests (c. 6-7 %), whereas gross N mineralization declined. Simultaneously, plant foliar N % decreased and the natural abundance of N-15 in the soil increased. More specifically, the difference in N-15 between plant foliage and soil increased, which is related to greater retention of N-15 relative to N-14 by ectomycorrhizal fungi as N is taken up from the soil and some N is transferred to the plant host. In the conifer forest, where these changes were greatest, we found increased fungal biomass in the F- and H-horizons of the mor-layer, in which ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to dominate (the uppermost horizon with litter and moss is dominated by saprotrophic fungi). Hence, we propose that the decreasing N supply to the plants and the subsequent decline in plant production in ageing boreal forests is linked to high tree belowground C allocation to C limited ectomycorrhizal fungi (and other soil microorganisms), a strong sink for available soil N. Data on organic matter C-14 suggested that the largest input of recently fixed plant C occurred in the younger coniferous forest

  7. Ecosystem Respiration in an Undisturbed, Old-Growth, Temperate Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. E.; Walcroft, A. S.; McSeveny, T. M.; Rogers, G. N.; Whitehead, D.

    2008-12-01

    Old-growth forests are usually close to carbon neutral, and climate change may push them towards becoming net carbon sources. Ecosystem carbon exchange and its component fluxes, were measured in a temperate rainforest in South Westland, New Zealand. The forest, which receives over 3 m of rain a year, is dominated by 400 year-old podocarp trees, and is on a low nutrient, acidic, peat soil. Nighttime respiration measurements using eddy covariance were problematic due to katabatic induced CO2 drainage flows near the ground and low turbulence. Instead of the friction velocity filtering technique, we used the maximum eddy flux within a few hours of sunset to derive a function relating nighttime ecosystem respiration to soil temperature. The function was then used to calculate respiration for the nighttime periods. Soil respiration was measured at regular intervals during the growing season. Soil temperature was regulated by incoming radiation and changes in the soil heat capacity. The water table was typically only 160 mm below the ground surface. Soil respiration (mean = 2.9 μmol m-2 s-1) increased strongly with both an increase in soil temperature and an increase in the depth to the water table, and accounted for approximately 50% of ecosystem respiration. Changes in the water table depth caused by altered rainfall regime, evaporation and drainage are likely to have a significant effect on the soil respiration rate and carbon balance of this old-growth forest. Foliage and stem respiration were also measured and integrated to the canopy scale using a model. The model was then used to decompose ecosystem respiration measurements into its components. A combination of measured and modelled data indicates that the ecosystem is a net source for carbon (-0.34 kg C m&-2 yr-1).

  8. Building on Two Decades of Ecosystem Management and Biodiversity Conservation under the Northwest Forest Plan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick A. DellaSala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1994 Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP shifted federal lands management from a focus on timber production to ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. The plan established a network of conservation reserves and an ecosystem management strategy on ~10 million hectares from northern California to Washington State, USA, within the range of the federally threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina. Several subsequent assessments—and 20 years of data from monitoring programs established under the plan—have demonstrated the effectiveness of this reserve network and ecosystem management approach in making progress toward attaining many of the plan’s conservation and ecosystem management goals. This paper (1 showcases the fundamental conservation biology and ecosystem management principles underpinning the NWFP as a case study for managers interested in large-landscape conservation; and (2 recommends improvements to the plan’s strategy in response to unprecedented climate change and land-use threats. Twenty years into plan implementation, however, the U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management, under pressure for increased timber harvest, are retreating from conservation measures. We believe that federal agencies should instead build on the NWFP to ensure continuing success in the Pacific Northwest. We urge federal land managers to (1 protect all remaining late-successional/old-growth forests; (2 identify climate refugia for at-risk species; (3 maintain or increase stream buffers and landscape connectivity; (4 decommission and repair failing roads to improve water quality; (5 reduce fire risk in fire-prone tree plantations; and (6 prevent logging after fires in areas of high conservation value. In many respects, the NWFP is instructive for managers considering similar large-scale conservation efforts.

  9. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-06-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition.

  10. [Energy flux and energy balance closure of intensively managed lei bamboo forest ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-fei; Jiang, Hong; Zhou, Guo-mo; Sun, Cheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-04-01

    By using open-path eddy covariance system and meteorological instruments, an observation was conducted on the sensitive heat flux, latent heat flux, net radiation, soil heat flux, air temperature, ground temperature, and precipitation in a intensively managed Lei bamboo forest ecosystem in 2011, with the diurnal and monthly variations of energy flux as well as the distribution pattern of each energy component analyzed, and the Bowen ratio and energy balance closure calculated. The yearly net radiation of the forest ecosystem was 2928. 92 MJ m-2, and the latent heat flux, sensitive heat flux, and soil heat flux were 1384.90, 927.54, and -28.27 MJ m-2, respectively. Both the daily and the monthly variations of the energy components showed a single peak curve. The sensible and latent heat fluxes were 31.7% and 47.3% of the net radiation, respectively, indicating that latent heat flux was the main form of energy loss. The Bowen ratio followed the "U"-shaped pattern, and fluctuated from 0. 285 to 2. 062, suggesting that soil was a heat source. The yearly energy balance closure of the forest ecosystem was 0. 782, and the monthly average was 0.808.

  11. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapletal, Milos, E-mail: milos.zapletal@ekotoxa.cz [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Silesian University at Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Masarykova 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Cudlin, Pavel [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Chroust, Petr [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Urban, Otmar; Pokorny, Radek [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Edwards-Jonasova, Magda [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Czerny, Radek; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Vecera, Zbynek; Mikuska, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Veveri 97, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic); Paoletti, Elena [Institute of Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Daily ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest in Czech Republic was measured using the gradient method in July and August 2008. Results were in good agreement with a deposition flux model. The mean daily stomatal uptake of ozone was around 47% of total deposition. Average deposition velocity was 0.39 cm s{sup -1} and 0.36 cm s{sup -1} by the gradient method and the deposition model, respectively. Measured and modelled non-stomatal uptake was around 0.2 cm s{sup -1}. In addition, net ecosystem production (NEP) was measured by using Eddy Covariance and correlations with O{sub 3} concentrations at 15 m a.g.l., total deposition and stomatal uptake were tested. Total deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone significantly decreased NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: > We estimate ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest using the gradient method and model. > The mean stomatal uptake of ozone is approximately 47% of the total deposition. > We measure net ecosystem production (NEP) using Eddy Covariance. > We test whether elevated total deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} imply a reduction of NEP. > Deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} decrease NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Net ecosystem production of a Norway spruce forest decreases with increasing deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone.

  12. Direct quantification of long-term rock nitrogen inputs to temperate forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Scott L; Houlton, Benjamin Z; Dahlgren, Randy A

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks contain large reservoirs of fixed nitrogen (N), but questions remain over the importance of rock N weathering inputs in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we provide direct evidence for rock N weathering (i.e., loss of N from rock) in three temperate forest sites residing on a N-rich parent material (820-1050 mg N kg(-1); mica schist) in the Klamath Mountains (northern California and southern Oregon), USA. Our method combines a mass balance model of element addition/ depletion with a procedure for quantifying fixed N in rock minerals, enabling quantification of rock N inputs to bioavailable reservoirs in soil and regolith. Across all sites, -37% to 48% of the initial bedrock N content has undergone long-term weathering in the soil. Combined with regional denudation estimates (sum of physical + chemical erosion), these weathering fractions translate to 1.6-10.7 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1) of rock N input to these forest ecosystems. These N input fluxes are substantial in light of estimates for atmospheric sources in these sites (4.5-7.0 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1)). In addition, N depletion from rock minerals was greater than sodium, suggesting active biologically mediated weathering of growth-limiting nutrients compared to nonessential elements. These results point to regional tectonics, biologically mediated weathering effects, and rock N chemistry in shaping the magnitude of rock N inputs to the forest ecosystems examined.

  13. Understory flora and community physiognomy of planted forests in the degraded purple soil ecosystem, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUZhan-yuan; YUEYong-jie; GUOJian-fen; CHENGuang-shui; XIEJin-sheng; HEZong-ming; YANGYu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The flora and community physiognomy of degraded plantation ecosystems on purple soil were investigated in Ninghua County of Fujian Province, China to understand the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem processes.. Four different restoration communities (labeled as ecological restoration treatment I, II, Ill and IV) were selected by space-time replacement method according to the erosion intensity in degraded purple soil ecosystem. The results showed that there were totally 86 plant species belonging to 78 genera and 43 families in the degraded purple soil ecosystem. Of the 15 types of distribution area in spermatophyte genus, 12 types were found in the purple soil ecosystem. Along restoration gradient from low to high, plant growth type and life form spectra became abundant more and more, and the spermatophyte genera for each distribution area type and genera numbers for different foliage characters increased as well. It is concluded that the plant flora and physiognomy in ecological restoration process become more complex and diverse, indicating that the forest ecosystem on purple soil tends to be more stable.

  14. Possibilities of a Personal Laser Scanning System for Forest Mapping and Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlian Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A professional-quality, personal laser scanning (PLS system for collecting tree attributes was demonstrated in this paper. The applied system, which is wearable by human operators, consists of a multi-constellation navigation system and an ultra-high-speed phase-shift laser scanner mounted on a rigid baseplate and consisting of a single sensor block. A multipass-corridor-mapping method was developed to process PLS data and a 2,000 m2 forest plot was utilized in the test. The tree stem detection accuracy was 82.6%; the root mean square error (RMSE of the estimates of tree diameter at breast height (DBH was 5.06 cm; the RMSE of the estimates of tree location was 0.38 m. The relative RMSE of the DBH estimates was 14.63%. The results showed, for the first time, the potential of the PLS system in mapping large forest plots. Further research on mapping accuracy in various forest conditions, data correction methods and multi-sensoral positioning techniques is needed. The utilization of this system in different applications, such as harvester operations, should also be explored. In addition to collecting tree-level and plot-level data for forest inventory, other possible applications of PLS for forest ecosystem services include mapping of canopy gaps, measuring leaf area index of large areas, documenting and visualizing forest routes feasible for recreation, hiking and berry and mushroom picking.

  15. Possibilities of a personal laser scanning system for forest mapping and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinlian; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Juha; Yu, Xiaowei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Wang, Yunsheng

    2014-01-10

    A professional-quality, personal laser scanning (PLS) system for collecting tree attributes was demonstrated in this paper. The applied system, which is wearable by human operators, consists of a multi-constellation navigation system and an ultra-high-speed phase-shift laser scanner mounted on a rigid baseplate and consisting of a single sensor block. A multipass-corridor-mapping method was developed to process PLS data and a 2,000 m2 forest plot was utilized in the test. The tree stem detection accuracy was 82.6%; the root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimates of tree diameter at breast height (DBH) was 5.06 cm; the RMSE of the estimates of tree location was 0.38 m. The relative RMSE of the DBH estimates was 14.63%. The results showed, for the first time, the potential of the PLS system in mapping large forest plots. Further research on mapping accuracy in various forest conditions, data correction methods and multi-sensoral positioning techniques is needed. The utilization of this system in different applications, such as harvester operations, should also be explored. In addition to collecting tree-level and plot-level data for forest inventory, other possible applications of PLS for forest ecosystem services include mapping of canopy gaps, measuring leaf area index of large areas, documenting and visualizing forest routes feasible for recreation, hiking and berry and mushroom picking.

  16. Bacterial weathering and its contribution to nutrient cycling in temperate forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroz, Stéphane; Oger, Phil; Lepleux, Cendrella; Collignon, Christelle; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Turpault, Marie-Pierre

    2011-11-01

    Unlike farmland, forests growing on acidic soils are among the terrestrial ecosystems that are the least influenced or amended by man. Forests which developed on acidic soils are characterized by an important stock of inorganic nutrients entrapped in poorly weatherable soil minerals. In this context, the mineral-weathering process is of great importance, since such minerals are not easily accessible to tree roots. To date, several bacterial genera have been noted for their ability to weather minerals and, in the case of some of them, to improve tree nutrition. Nevertheless, few studies have focused their analyses on mineral-weathering bacterial communities in relation to geochemical cycles and soil characteristics, their ecological origin, associated tree species and forest management practices. Here we discuss the heterogeneity of the mineral-weathering process in forest soils and present what is known concerning the taxonomic and functional characteristics of mineral-weathering bacteria, as well as the different locations where they have been isolated in forest soils. We also discuss the biotic and abiotic factors that may influence the distribution of these bacteria, such as the effect of tree species or forest management practices.

  17. Influence of forest management systems on natural resource use and provision of ecosystem services in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Ayron M; Rurai, Masegeri T; Almedom, Astier M

    2016-09-15

    Social, religious and economic facets of rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa are heavily dependent on natural resources, but improper resource management, drought, and social instability frequently lead to their unsustainable exploitation. In rural Tanzania, natural resources are often governed locally by informal systems of traditional resource management (TRM), defined as cultural practices developed within the context of social and religious institutions over hundreds of years. However, following independence from colonial rule, centralized governments began to exercise jurisdictional control over natural resources. Following decades of mismanagement that resulted in lost ecosystem services, communities demanded change. To improve resource protection and participation in management among stakeholders, the Tanzanian government began to decentralize management programs in the early 2000s. We investigated these two differing management approaches (traditional and decentralized government) in Sonjo communities, to examine local perceptions of resource governance, management influences on forest use, and their consequences for forest and water resources. While 97% of households understood the regulations governing traditionally-managed forests, this was true for only 39% of households for government-managed forests, leading to differences in forest use. Traditional management practices resulted in improved forest condition and surface water quality. This research provides an essential case study demonstrating the importance of TRM in shaping decision frameworks for natural resource planning and management.

  18. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia: effects of microbiological and physicochemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C), which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P) availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deep to increase access to mineral P. Improved understanding and quantification of the processes controlling P availability in surface and deep soil layers of Siberian forest ecosystems are thus...

  19. An ecosystem-scale model for the spread of a host-specific forest pathogen in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, J.A.; Dietze, M.C.; Crabtree, R.L.; Kendall, K.; Six, D.; Moorcroft, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of nonnative pathogens is altering the scale, magnitude, and persistence of forest disturbance regimes in the western United States. In the high-altitude whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) is an introduced fungal pathogen that is now the principal cause of tree mortality in many locations. Although blister rust eradication has failed in the past, there is nonetheless substantial interest in monitoring the disease and its rate of progression in order to predict the future impact of forest disturbances within this critical ecosystem. This study integrates data from five different field-monitoring campaigns from 1968 to 2008 to create a blister rust infection model for sites located throughout the GYE. Our model parameterizes the past rates of blister rust spread in order to project its future impact on highaltitude whitebark pine forests. Because the process of blister rust infection and mortality of individuals occurs over the time frame of many years, the model in this paper operates on a yearly time step and defines a series of whitebark pine infection classes: susceptible, slightly infected, moderately infected, and dead. In our analysis, we evaluate four different infection models that compare local vs. global density dependence on the dynamics of blister rust infection. We compare models in which blister rust infection is: (1) independent of the density of infected trees, (2) locally density-dependent, (3) locally density-dependent with a static global infection rate among all sites, and (4) both locally and globally density-dependent. Model evaluation through the predictive loss criterion for Bayesian analysis supports the model that is both locally and globally density-dependent. Using this best-fit model, we predicted the average residence times for the four stages of blister rust infection in our model, and we found that, on average, whitebark

  20. Assimilating satellite-based canopy height within an ecosystem model to estimate aboveground forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joetzjer, E.; Pillet, M.; Ciais, P.; Barbier, N.; Chave, J.; Schlund, M.; Maignan, F.; Barichivich, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Hérault, B.; von Poncet, F.; Poulter, B.

    2017-07-01

    Despite advances in Earth observation and modeling, estimating tropical biomass remains a challenge. Recent work suggests that integrating satellite measurements of canopy height within ecosystem models is a promising approach to infer biomass. We tested the feasibility of this approach to retrieve aboveground biomass (AGB) at three tropical forest sites by assimilating remotely sensed canopy height derived from a texture analysis algorithm applied to the high-resolution Pleiades imager in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems Canopy (ORCHIDEE-CAN) ecosystem model. While mean AGB could be estimated within 10% of AGB derived from census data in average across sites, canopy height derived from Pleiades product was spatially too smooth, thus unable to accurately resolve large height (and biomass) variations within the site considered. The error budget was evaluated in details, and systematic errors related to the ORCHIDEE-CAN structure contribute as a secondary source of error and could be overcome by using improved allometric equations.

  1. Pervasive Drought Legacy Effects in Forest Ecosystems and their Carbon Cycle Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, W.; Schwalm, C.; Biondi, F.; Camarero, J. J.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Ogle, K.; Shaw, J.; Shevliakova, E.; Williams, P.; Wolf, A.; Ziaco, E.; Pacala, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but central for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with basic plant physiological understanding. We examine the recovery of tree stem growth after severe drought at 1,338 forest sites globally comprising 49,339 site-years and compare it to simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We find pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1-4 years after severe drought, and that legacy effects are most prevalent in dry ecosystems, Pinaceae, and species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, no or limited legacy effects are simulated in current climate-vegetation models after drought. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes.

  2. The role of stoichiometric flexibility in modelling forest ecosystem responses to nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerholt, Johannes; Zaehle, Sönke

    2015-12-01

    The response of the forest carbon (C) balance to changes in nitrogen (N) deposition is uncertain, partly owing to diverging representations of N cycle processes in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we examined how different assumptions about the degree of flexibility of the ecosystem's C : N ratios contribute to this uncertainty, and which of these assumptions best correspond to the available data. We applied these assumptions within the framework of a DGVM and compared the results to responses in net primary productivity (NPP), leaf N concentration, and ecosystem N partitioning, observed at 22 forest N fertilization experiments. Employing flexible ecosystem pool C : N ratios generally resulted in the most convincing model-data agreement with respect to production and foliar N responses. An intermediate degree of stoichiometric flexibility in vegetation, where wood C : N ratio changes were decoupled from leaf and root C : N ratio changes, led to consistent simulation of production and N cycle responses to N addition. Assuming fixed C : N ratios or scaling leaf N concentration changes to other tissues, commonly assumed by DGVMs, was not supported by reported data. Between the tested assumptions, the simulated changes in ecosystem C storage relative to changes in C assimilation varied by up to 20%.

  3. Evidence and implications of recent and projected climate change in Alaska's forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, Jane M.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Rupp, T. Scott; Chapin, Stuart III; Trainor, Sarah F.; Barrett, Tara M.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; McGuire, A. David; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Hennon, Paul E.; Beever, Erik A.; Conn, Jeff S.; Crone, Lisa K.; D'Amore, David V.; Fresco, Nancy; Hanley, Thomas A.; Kielland, Knut; Kruse, James J.; Patterson, Trista; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Verbyla, David L.; Yarie, John

    2011-01-01

    The structure and function of Alaska's forests have changed significantly in response to a changing climate, including alterations in species composition and climate feedbacks (e.g., carbon, radiation budgets) that have important regional societal consequences and human feedbacks to forest ecosystems. In this paper we present the first comprehensive synthesis of climate-change impacts on all forested ecosystems of Alaska, highlighting changes in the most critical biophysical factors of each region. We developed a conceptual framework describing climate drivers, biophysical factors and types of change to illustrate how the biophysical and social subsystems of Alaskan forests interact and respond directly and indirectly to a changing climate. We then identify the regional and global implications to the climate system and associated socio-economic impacts, as presented in the current literature. Projections of temperature and precipitation suggest wildfire will continue to be the dominant biophysical factor in the Interior-boreal forest, leading to shifts from conifer- to deciduous-dominated forests. Based on existing research, projected increases in temperature in the Southcentral- and Kenai-boreal forests will likely increase the frequency and severity of insect outbreaks and associated wildfires, and increase the probability of establishment by invasive plant species. In the Coastal-temperate forest region snow and ice is regarded as the dominant biophysical factor. With continued warming, hydrologic changes related to more rapidly melting glaciers and rising elevation of the winter snowline will alter discharge in many rivers, which will have important consequences for terrestrial and marine ecosystem productivity. These climate-related changes will affect plant species distribution and wildlife habitat, which have regional societal consequences, and trace-gas emissions and radiation budgets, which are globally important. Our conceptual framework facilitates

  4. Case Study on Ecosystem Biodiversity Conservation Using the Solutions Adopted by a Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Banu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the production unit U.P. X "Comarnic", which is located in the Western Carpathians, Banat Mountains, respectively Anina Mountains. In this forestry unit included in SUP E (Nature Reserves for full protection under the law are not proposed any works, so that th biodiversity conservation is 100% in the whole forestry unit. The actual composition of the forestry unit remains unchanged, being the same as the goal composition. There are no side effects on forest ecosystems and there is not any influence on the environment. This forestry unit is included in SUP M (Forest subject to special conservation; aim pursued: conservation goals, and the proposed works are logging hygiene, thus the desired effect is to maintain the same forest ecosystem without affecting in any way its biodiversity conservation. The actual composition is approximately the same goal composition. The main species remains the beech and only the hornbeam species mixture enters the group of various hardwood. Goal composition was set according to the type of resort and forest type, in order to do few interventions, limiting all such negative effects on the environment.

  5. The Vulnerability of Forest Ecosystems of Armenia to the Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, S.

    2009-05-01

    Climate changes characterized as global warming can lead to irreversible effects on regional and global scales, such as drought, pest attacks, diseases, excessive forest fires, and climate driven extinction of numerous animal and plant species. We assess the issues that the development of forestry in Armenia faces, where the climate change is causing the landscape zone borders in the territory to shift. This will have a significant impact on the most vulnerable tree species in Armenia. An increase in climate aridity and intensification of desertification can be expected under the projected escalated temperatures and reduced precipitation. For example, we can consider average annual temperature of the Ijevan meteorological station (located in forestry region) for the period of 1936-2008. We analyze the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Armenia to climatic and anthropogenic factors for the period of 1936-2008. Temperature and precipitation data from 25 meteorological stations in the territory of Armenia is studied for the period of 1936-2008. The dynamic of average temperature annual anomalies are revealed. The deviations of temperature and precipitation from the norms (average for 1961-1990) are evaluated for the period of study. We discuss the reasons for the abrupt increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation. Based on the dataset, the possible near future impact of global climate change on the Armenian forest ecosystems is discussed, and measures on the adaptation to the adverse consequences that climate change has on forests are offered.

  6. The role of fungi in the transfer and cycling of radionuclides in forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M. E-mail: msteiner@bfs.de; Linkov, I.; Yoshida, S

    2002-07-01

    Fungi are one of the most important components of forest ecosystems, since they determine to a large extent the fate and transport processes of radionuclides in forests. They play a key role in the mobilization, uptake and translocation of nutrients and are likely to contribute substantially to the long-term retention of radiocesium in organic horizons of forest soil. This paper gives an overview of the role of fungi regarding the transfer and cycling of nutrients and radionuclides, with special emphasis on mycorrhizal symbiosis. Common definitions of transfer factors, soil-fungus and soil-green plant, including their advantages and limitations, are reviewed. Experimental approaches to quantify the bioavailability of radionuclides in soil and potential long-term change are discussed.

  7. Geochemistry of vanadium in soils of forest ecosystems of the Prysamar’ja Dniprovske region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Tsvetkova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Content and distribution of total and mobile forms of trace element Vanadium in the soils of forest and forb-fescue-stipa steppe ecosystems within the Prysamar’ja Dniprovske were studied. It was ascertained, that the gross content of Vanadium in these soils vary from 49 in the pinery-sod soil to 210 mg×kg–1 in chernozem improved by forest.The conent of mobile forms vary from 3 in chernozem to 20 mg×kg–1 in flood pratal-forest soil. Percentage of Vanadium mobility in studied soils was from 1.6 in top horizon of chernozem to 30 % in the mother rock of pinery-sod soil.

  8. Carbon fluxes in tropical forest ecosystems: the value of Eddy-covariance data for individual-based dynamic forest gap models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedig, Edna; Cuntz, Matthias; Huth, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The effects of climatic inter-annual fluctuations and human activities on the global carbon cycle are uncertain and currently a major issue in global vegetation models. Individual-based forest gap models, on the other hand, model vegetation structure and dynamics on a small spatial (1000 years). They are well-established tools to reproduce successions of highly-diverse forest ecosystems and investigate disturbances as logging or fire events. However, the parameterizations of the relationships between short-term climate variability and forest model processes are often uncertain in these models (e.g. daily variable temperature and gross primary production (GPP)) and cannot be constrained from forest inventories. We addressed this uncertainty and linked high-resolution Eddy-covariance (EC) data with an individual-based forest gap model. The forest model FORMIND was applied to three diverse tropical forest sites in the Amazonian rainforest. Species diversity was categorized into three plant functional types. The parametrizations for the steady-state of biomass and forest structure were calibrated and validated with different forest inventories. The parameterizations of relationships between short-term climate variability and forest model processes were evaluated with EC-data on a daily time step. The validations of the steady-state showed that the forest model could reproduce biomass and forest structures from forest inventories. The daily estimations of carbon fluxes showed that the forest model reproduces GPP as observed by the EC-method. Daily fluctuations of GPP were clearly reflected as a response to daily climate variability. Ecosystem respiration remains a challenge on a daily time step due to a simplified soil respiration approach. In the long-term, however, the dynamic forest model is expected to estimate carbon budgets for highly-diverse tropical forests where EC-measurements are rare.

  9. Vulnerability to climate-induced changes in ecosystem services of boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Maria; Rankinen, Katri; Aalto, Tuula; Akujärvi, Anu; Nadir Arslan, Ali; Liski, Jari; Markkanen, Tiina; Mäkelä, Annikki; Peltoniemi, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forests provide an array of ecosystem services. They regulate climate, and carbon, water and nutrient fluxes, and provide renewable raw material, food, and recreational possibilities. Rapid climate warming is projected for the boreal zone, and has already been observed in Finland, which sets these services at risk. MONIMET (LIFE12 ENV/FI/000409, 2.9.2013 - 1.9.2017) is a project funded by EU Life programme about Climate Change Indicators and Vulnerability of Boreal Zone Applying Innovative Observation and Modeling Techniques. The coordinating beneficiary of the project is the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Associated beneficiaries are the Natural Resources Institute Finland, the Finnish Environment Institute and the University of Helsinki. In the MONIMET project, we use state-of-the-art models and new monitoring methods to investigate the impacts of a warming climate on the provision of ecosystem services of boreal forests. This poster presents results on carbon storage in soil and assessment of drought indices, as a preparation for assessing the vulnerability of society to climate-induced changes in ecosystem services. The risk of decreasing provision of ecosystem services depends on the sensitivity of the ecosystem as well as its exposure to climate stress. The vulnerability of society, in turn, depends on the risk of decreasing provision of a certain service in combination with society's demand for that service. In the next phase, we will look for solutions to challenges relating to the quantification of the demand for ecosystem services and differences in spatial extent and resolution of the information on future supply and demand.

  10. Ecosystem services and opportunity costs shift spatial priorities for conserving forest biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schröter

    Full Text Available Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone or partially restricted (partial use zone. Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2% and the non-use zone (+3.2%. Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%, which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1% of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.

  11. Variability in the Effectiveness of Two Ornithological Survey Methods between Tropical Forest Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas Edward; Nightingale, Josh; Baddams, Jack; Monkhouse, Joseph; Kaban, Aronika; Sastranegara, Hafiyyan; Mulyani, Yeni; Blackburn, George Alan; Simcox, Wilf

    2017-01-01

    Birds are a frequently chosen group for biodiversity monitoring as they are comparatively straightforward and inexpensive to sample and often perform well as ecological indicators. Two commonly used techniques for monitoring tropical forest bird communities are point counts and mist nets. General strengths and weaknesses of these techniques have been well-defined; however little research has examined how their effectiveness is mediated by the ecology of bird communities and their habitats. We examine how the overall performance of these methodologies differs between two widely separated tropical forests-Cusuco National Park (CNP), a Honduran cloud forest, and the lowland forests of Buton Forest Reserves (BFR) located on Buton Island, Indonesia. Consistent survey protocols were employed at both sites, with 77 point count stations and 22 mist netting stations being surveyed in each location. We found the effectiveness of both methods varied considerably between ecosystems. Point counts performed better in BFR than in CNP, detecting a greater percentage of known community richness (60% versus 41%) and generating more accurate species richness estimates. Conversely, mist netting performed better in CNP than in BFR, detecting a much higher percentage of known community richness (31% versus 7%). Indeed, mist netting proved overall to be highly ineffective within BFR. Best Akaike's Information Criterion models indicate differences in the effectiveness of methodologies between study sites relate to bird community composition, which in turn relates to ecological and biogeographical influences unique to each forest ecosystem. Results therefore suggest that, while generalized strengths and weaknesses of both methodologies can be defined, their overall effectiveness is also influenced by local characteristics specific to individual study sites. While this study focusses on ornithological surveys, the concept of local factors influencing effectiveness of field methodologies may

  12. Interacting factors driving a major loss of large trees with cavities in a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Blanchard, Wade; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Banks, Sam; Likens, Gene E; Franklin, Jerry F; Laurance, William F; Stein, John A R; Gibbons, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Large trees with cavities provide critical ecological functions in forests worldwide, including vital nesting and denning resources for many species. However, many ecosystems are experiencing increasingly rapid loss of large trees or a failure to recruit new large trees or both. We quantify this problem in a globally iconic ecosystem in southeastern Australia--forests dominated by the world's tallest angiosperms, Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans). Tree, stand and landscape-level factors influencing the death and collapse of large living cavity trees and the decay and collapse of dead trees with cavities are documented using a suite of long-term datasets gathered between 1983 and 2011. The historical rate of tree mortality on unburned sites between 1997 and 2011 was >14% with a mortality spike in the driest period (2006-2009). Following a major wildfire in 2009, 79% of large living trees with cavities died and 57-100% of large dead trees were destroyed on burned sites. Repeated measurements between 1997 and 2011 revealed no recruitment of any new large trees with cavities on any of our unburned or burned sites. Transition probability matrices of large trees with cavities through increasingly decayed condition states projects a severe shortage of large trees with cavities by 2039 that will continue until at least 2067. This large cavity tree crisis in Mountain Ash forests is a product of: (1) the prolonged time required (>120 years) for initiation of cavities; and (2) repeated past wildfires and widespread logging operations. These latter factors have resulted in all landscapes being dominated by stands ≤72 years and just 1.16% of forest being unburned and unlogged. We discuss how the features that make Mountain Ash forests vulnerable to a decline in large tree abundance are shared with many forest types worldwide.

  13. Towards the integration of research and monitoring at forest ecosystems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danielewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The main aim of the work was to summarize availability, quality and comparability of on-going European Research and Monitoring Networks (ERMN, based on the results of a COST FP0903 Action questionnaire carried out in September 2010 and May 2012.Area of study: The COST Action FP0903 involves 29 European countries and 4 non-COST institutions from USA, Morocco and Tunisia. In this study, the total of 22 replies to the questionnaire from 18 countries were included.Materials and methods: Based on the feedback from the Action FP0903 countries, the most popular European Networks were identified. Thereafter, the access to the network database, available quality assurance/quality control procedures and publication were described. Finally, the so-called “Supersites” concept, defined as a “highly instrumented research infrastructure, for both research and monitoring of soil-plant-atmosphere interactions” was discussed.Main results: The result of the survey indicate that the vast majority of the Action FP0903 countries participate in the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forest (ICP Forest. The multi-disciplinary International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems (ICPIM is the second most widespread forest programme. Research highlights: To fully understand biochemical cycles in forest ecosystems, long-term monitoring is needed. Hence, a network of “Supersites”, is proposed. The application of the above infrastructure can be an effective way to attain a better integration of research and monitoring networks at forest sites in Europe.Keywords: Supersites; European Research Monitoring Networks; Harmonization; Forest.

  14. Edaphic controls on ecosystem-level carbon allocation in two contrasting Amazon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Eliana M.; Peñuela-Mora, María. Cristina; Sierra, Carlos A.; Lloyd, Jon; Phillips, Oliver L.; Moreno, Flavio H.; Navarrete, Diego; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín.; Álvarez, Esteban; Quesada, Carlos A.; Grande-Ortíz, Maria Angeles; García-Abril, Antonio; Patiño, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Studies of carbon allocation in forests provide essential information for understanding spatial and temporal differences in carbon cycling that can inform models and predict possible responses to changes in climate. Amazon forests play a particularly significant role in the global carbon balance, but there are still large uncertainties regarding abiotic controls on the rates of net primary production (NPP) and the allocation of photosynthetic products to different ecosystem components. We evaluated three different aspects of stand-level carbon allocation (biomass, NPP, and its partitioning) in two amazon forests on different soils (nutrient-rich clay soils versus nutrient-poor sandy soils) but otherwise growing under similar conditions. We found differences in carbon allocation patterns between these two forests, showing that the forest on clay soil had a higher aboveground and total biomass as well as a higher aboveground NPP than the sandy forest. However, differences between the two forest types in terms of total NPP were smaller, as a consequence of different patterns in the carbon allocation of aboveground and belowground components. The proportional allocation of NPP to new foliage was relatively similar between them. Our results of aboveground biomass increments and fine-root production suggest a possible trade-off between carbon allocation to fine roots versus aboveground compartments, as opposed to the most commonly assumed trade-off between total aboveground and belowground production. Despite these differences among forests in terms of carbon allocation, the leaf area index showed only small differences, suggesting that this index is more indicative of total NPP than its aboveground or belowground components.

  15. Ecological and geochemical impacts of exotic earthworm dispersal in forest ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Melanie; Fugere, Martine; Lapointe, Line; Vellend, Mark; Bradley, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    In Eastern Canada, native earthworm species did not survive the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended over 11,000 years ago. Accordingly, the 17 known Lumbricidae species in the province of Québec were introduced in recent centuries by European settlers. Given that natural migration rates are no more than 5-10 m yr-1, exotic earthworm dispersal across the landscape is presumed to be mediated by human activities, although this assertion needs further validation. In agroecosystems, earthworms have traditionally been considered beneficial soil organisms that facilitate litter decomposition, increase nutrient availability and improve soil structure. However, earthworm activities could also increase soil nutrient leaching and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, in natural forest ecosystems, exotic earthworms may reduce organic forest floors provoking changes in watershed hydrology and loss of habitat for some faunal species. Over the past decade, studies have also suggested a negative effect of exotic earthworms on understory plant diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Finally, there are no studies to our knowledge that have tested the effects of Lumbricidae species on the production of N2O (an important greenhouse gas) in forest ecosystems. We report on a series of field, greenhouse and laboratory studies on the human activities responsible for the dispersal of exotic earthworms, and on their ecological / geochemical impacts in natural forest ecosystems. Our results show: (1) Car tire treads and bait discarded by fishermen are important human vectors driving the dispersal of earthworms into northern temperate forests; (2) Exotic earthworms significantly modify soil physicochemical properties, nutrient cycling, microbial community structure and biomass; (3) Earthworm abundances in the field correlate with a decrease in understory plant diversity; (4) Lumbricus terrestris, an anecic earthworm species and favorite bait of fishermen, reduces seed germination and

  16. Natural status of the forest biogeocenosis ecosystems in the Carpathians and its bioindication on the base of nematode complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Павлович Козловський

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are soil Nematoda complexes forming in primeval ecosystems. They have the same regularities in energy consumption by the community independently of the territorial location. Additional characteristics of species diversity and structural organization of Nematoda communities exist within the realms of biogeocenosis type. It allows determining the natural status of the forest ecosystems

  17. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: The case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesc Baró; Lydia Chaparro; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Johannes Langemeyer; David J. Nowak; Jaume. Terradas

    2014-01-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change...

  18. Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe; 2: atmospheric deposition and its impacts on soil solution chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Reinds, G.J.; Vel, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of air pollution and other stress factors on forests, a Pan-European programme for intensive and continuous monitoring of forest ecosystems has been implemented in 1994. Results of this intensive monitoring programme presented in this paper are

  19. Interactive effects of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems in the United States: current understanding and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Mark Fenn; Steven McNulty; Fengming Yuan; Afshin Pourmokhtarian; Charles Driscoll; Tom Meixner

    2013-01-01

    A review of the current status of air pollution and climate change (CC) in the United States from a perspective of their impacts on forest ecosystems is provided. Ambient ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition have important and widespread ecological impacts in U.S. forests. Effects of sulphurous (S) air pollutants and other trace pollutants have...

  20. Effect of acidic deposition on productivity of forest ecosystem and estimation of its economic losses in southern suburbs of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with principle sand methods of ecology,this paper studied the effects of acidic deposition on productivity and volume increment of masson pine and Cinnamomum campora forest which are widely distributed in southern suburbs of Chongqing. Based on the field data and measurements, a multivariable stepwise regression model was established to analyze the effects of multiple environmental factors on the productivity of the forest ecosystems. This model was used to assess the volume and economic losses of these two forest ecosystems caused by acidic deposition. The results showed that, among the environmental factors, pH value of precipitation, soil depth, soil organic contents and slope are the dominant ones influencing the growth of masson pine forest. It is also shown that the acidic deposition has no clear relation to the growth of C.Campora forest, so development of such broad-leaved forest is suitable in the area.

  1. Terrestrial ecosystems response to climate and climate change: plant migration and the future of forested systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J.; Sahajpal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change alters ecosystem structure and type. A robust understanding of climate-ecosystem relationships can be used to forecast ecosystem structure and distribution from climate change. However, current efforts to forecast future carbon sequestration rates often oversimplify or overlook the role of plant migration and focus on potential vegetation. The difficulty in accounting for landscape complexity, disturbance rates, species-specific interactions, and dispersal properties leads to this oversimplification or non-inclusion of migration when forecasting. Forest gap models can capture many of these processes, but are limited in the size of the domain they simulate because of computational time. For large scale simulations a gap model is often used to represent a much larger domain, potentially failing to capture a number of ecosystem processes as a 30m by 30m gap model may be used to represent a 0.5 x 0.5 degree site. Another method to model migration is to simply leave a fraction of every seed type in every site, which only generates scenarios that represent maximum migration rates. As a solution to these problems we introduced a migration function to the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. ED is an individual tree based model that uses a size and age-structured approximation for the first moment of the stochastic ecosystem model. Hence it can simulate large domains without being too computational intensive. However, explicit locations of individual trees in a site are unknown, just the total number of trees in the site. Therefore, we developed a method to pseudo-spatially model migration. A simple simulator was built and it was shown that over a large number of runs expected migration rates can be reproduced. The simulator was placed into ED and climate change scenarios run. With fitted species-specific dispersal kernels the role that plant migration will play in the future of forested systems in North America was identified. Issues that still need to be

  2. Anthropogenic effects on forest ecosystems at various spatio-temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Michael

    2002-03-27

    The focus in this review of long-term effects on forest ecosystems is on human impact. As a classification of this differentiated and complex matter, three domains of long-term effects with different scales in space and time are distinguished: Exploitation and conversion history of forests in areas of extended human settlement, Long-range air pollution and acid deposition in industrialized regions, Current global loss of forests and soil degradation. There is an evident link between the first and the third point in the list. Cultivation of primary forestland--with its tremendous effects on land cover--took place in Europe many centuries ago and continued for centuries. Deforestation today is a phenomenon predominantly observed in the developing countries, yet it threatens biotic and soil resources on a global scale. Acidification of forest soils caused by long-range air pollution from anthropogenic emission sources is a regional to continental problem in industrialized parts of the world. As a result of emission reduction legislation, atmospheric acid deposition is currently on the retreat in the richer industrialized regions (e.g., Europe, U.S., Japan); however, because many other regions of the world are at present rapidly developing their polluting industries (e.g., China and India), "acid rain" will most probably remain a serious ecological problem on regional scales. It is believed to have caused considerable destabilization of forest ecosystems, adding to the strong structural and biogeochemical impacts resulting from exploitation history. Deforestation and soil degradation cause the most pressing ecological problems for the time being, at least on the global scale. In many of those regions where loss of forests and soils is now high, it may be extremely difficult or impossible to restore forest ecosystems and soil productivity. Moreover, the driving forces, which are predominantly of a demographic and socioeconomic nature, do not yet seem to be lessening in

  3. Tree species, tree genotypes and tree genotypic diversity levels affect microbe-mediated soil ecosystem functions in a subtropical forest

    OpenAIRE

    Purahong, Witoon; Durka, Walter; Fischer, Markus; Dommert, Sven; Schöps, Ricardo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Tree species identity and tree genotypes contribute to the shaping of soil microbial communities. However, knowledge about how these two factors influence soil ecosystem functions is still lacking. Furthermore, in forest ecosystems tree genotypes co-occur and interact with each other, thus the effects of tree genotypic diversity on soil ecosystem functions merit attention. Here we investigated the effects of tree species, tree genotypes and genotypic diversity levels, alongside soil physicoch...

  4. Fire in upper Midwestern oak forest ecosystems: an oak forest restoration and management handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich; David W. Peterson

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the literature to synthesize what is known about the use of fire to maintain and restore oak forests, woodlands, and savannas of the upper Midwestern United States, with emphasis on Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Included are (1) known physical and ecological effects of fire on oaks from acorn through seedling, established sapling, and mature stages of...

  5. Forest Dynamics at the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project viewed through stocking diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Larsen; John M. Kabrick; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Stocking diagrams come in two forms, the Gingrich diagram and the density management diagram. While they both present the same information about a forest stand, they each provide a different perspective on the data being displayed. Density management diagrams have been around since the 1930s and the Gingrich diagram has been around since the 1960s, but applications of...

  6. Carbon account of forest ecosystems as a fuzzy system: a case study for Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, A.; Shchepashchenko, D.; Kraxner, F.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    We consider practicality of a verified account of Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget for forest ecosystems (FCA) that supposes reliable assessment of uncertainties, i.e. understanding "uncertainty of uncertainties". The FCA is a fuzzy (underspecified) system, of which membership function is inherently stochastic. Thus, any individually used method of FCA is not able to estimate structural uncertainties and usually reported "within method" uncertainties are inevitably partial. Attempting at estimation of "full uncertainties" of the studied system we follow the requirements of applied systems analysis integrating the major methods of terrestrial ecosystems carbon account, assessing the uncertainties "within method" for intermediate and final indicators of FCA with their following mutual constrains. Landscape-ecosystem approach (LEA) 1) serves for strict systems designing the account, 2) contains all relevant spatially distributed empirical and semi-empirical data and models, and 3) is presented in form of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS). By-pixel parametrization of forest cover is provided by utilizing multi-sensor remote sensing data (12 RS products used) within GEO-wiki platform and other relevant information based on special optimization algorithms. Major carbon fluxes within the LEA (NPP, HR, disturbances etc.) are estimated based on fusion of empirical data with process-based elements by sets of regionally distributed models. Uncertainties within LEA are assessed for each module and at each step of the account. "Within method" results and uncertainties (including LEA, process-based models, eddy covariance, and inverse modelling) are harmonized based on the Bayesian approach. The above methodology have been applied to carbon account of Russian forests for 2000-2010; uncertainties of the FCA for individual years were estimated in limits of 25%. We discussed strengths and weaknesses of the approach, system requirements to different methods of FCA, information

  7. Estimation of fog deposition on epiphytic bryophytes in a subtropical montane forest ecosystem in northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Chieh; Lai, I.-Ling; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong

    The fog meteorology, fog chemistry and fog deposition on epiphytic bryophytes were investigated from July 2000 to June 2001 in the Yuanyang Lake forest ecosystem. The elevation of the site ranges from 1650 to 2420 m, at which the high frequency of fog occurrence throughout the year has been thought to be of benefit to the establishment of the primary Taiwan yellow cypress forest [ Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder] and to the extensive growth of the epiphytic bryophytes. A weather station including a visibility sensor and an active fog collector was installed for fog meteorological and chemical study. The fog deposition rate on epiphytic bryophytes was estimated by measuring the increase rate in plant weight when exposed to fog. Average fog duration of 4.7 and 11.0 h per day was measured in summer months (June to August) and the rest of the year, respectively. November 2000 was the foggiest month in which the average fog duration reached 14.9 h per day. The ionic composition of fog water revealed that the area was less polluted than expected from literature data. The in situ exposure experiments done with the dominant epiphytic bryophytes showed an average fog deposition rate of 0.63 g H 2O g -1 d. w. h -1, which approximated 0.17 mm h -1 at the stand scale. The nutrient fluxes estimated for February 2001 showed that for all ions, more than 50% of the ecosystem input was through fog deposition. These results demonstrate the importance of epiphytic bryophytes and fog deposition in nutrient cycling of this subtropical montane forest ecosystem. The incorporation of fog study in the long-term ecosystem research projects is necessary in this area.

  8. The spatial extent of change in tropical forest ecosystem services in the Amazon delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Barbosa, C. C.; Atkinson, P.; Dearing, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas hold major economic potential due their strategic location, close to seas and inland waterways, thereby supporting intense economic activity. The increasing pace of human development activities in coastal deltas over the past five decades has also strained environmental resources and produced extensive economic and sociocultural impacts. The Amazon delta is located in the Amazon Basin, North Brazil, the largest river basin on Earth and also one of the least understood. A considerable segment of the population living in the Amazon delta is directly dependent on the local extraction of natural resources for their livelihood. Areas sparsely inhabited may be exploited with few negative consequences for the environment. However, increasing pressure on ecosystem services is amplified by large fluxes of immigrants from other parts of the country, especially from the semi-arid zone in Northeast Brazil to the lowland forests of the Amazon delta. Here we present partial results from a bigger research project. Therefore, the focus will be on presenting an overview of the current state, and the extent of changes on forest related ecosystem services in the Amazon delta over the last three decades. We aggregated a multitude of datasets, from a variety of sources, for example, from satellite imagery such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climate datasets at meteorological station level from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) and social and economic statistics data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the Brazilian Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA). Through analysis of socioeconomic and satellite earth observation data we were able to produce and present spatially-explicit information with the current state and transition in forest cover and its impacts to forest

  9. Harnessing ecosystem models and multi-criteria decision analysis for the support of forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfslehner, Bernhard; Seidl, Rupert

    2010-12-01

    The decision-making environment in forest management (FM) has changed drastically during the last decades. Forest management planning is facing increasing complexity due to a widening portfolio of forest goods and services, a societal demand for a rational, transparent decision process and rising uncertainties concerning future environmental conditions (e.g., climate change). Methodological responses to these challenges include an intensified use of ecosystem models to provide an enriched, quantitative information base for FM planning. Furthermore, multi-criteria methods are increasingly used to amalgamate information, preferences, expert judgments and value expressions, in support of the participatory and communicative dimensions of modern forestry. Although the potential of combining these two approaches has been demonstrated in a number of studies, methodological aspects in interfacing forest ecosystem models (FEM) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) are scarcely addressed explicitly. In this contribution we review the state of the art in FEM and MCDA in the context of FM planning and highlight some of the crucial issues when combining ecosystem and preference modeling. We discuss issues and requirements in selecting approaches suitable for supporting FM planning problems from the growing body of FEM and MCDA concepts. We furthermore identify two major challenges in a harmonized application of FEM-MCDA: (i) the design and implementation of an indicator-based analysis framework capturing ecological and social aspects and their interactions relevant for the decision process, and (ii) holistic information management that supports consistent use of different information sources, provides meta-information as well as information on uncertainties throughout the planning process.

  10. Habitat creation and biodiversity maintenance in mangrove forests: teredinid bivalves as ecosystem engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W. Hendy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of dead wood in the intertidal zone of mature mangrove forests are tunnelled by teredinid bivalves. When the tunnels are exposed, animals are able to use tunnels as refuges. In this study, the effect of teredinid tunnelling upon mangrove forest faunal diversity was investigated. Mangrove forests exposed to long emersion times had fewer teredinid tunnels in wood and wood not containing teredinid tunnels had very few species and abundance of animals. However, with a greater cross-sectional percentage surface area of teredinid tunnels, the numbers of species and abundance of animals was significantly higher. Temperatures within teredinid-attacked wood were significantly cooler compared with air temperatures, and animal abundance was greater in wood with cooler temperatures. Animals inside the tunnels within the wood may avoid desiccation by escaping the higher temperatures. Animals co-existing in teredinid tunnelled wood ranged from animals found in terrestrial ecosystems including centipedes, crickets and spiders, and animals found in subtidal marine ecosystems such as fish, octopods and polychaetes. There was also evidence of breeding within teredinid-attacked wood, as many juvenile individuals were found, and they may also benefit from the cooler wood temperatures. Teredinid tunnelled wood is a key low-tide refuge for cryptic animals, which would otherwise be exposed to fishes and birds, and higher external temperatures. This study provides evidence that teredinids are ecosystem engineers and also provides an example of a mechanism whereby mangrove forests support intertidal biodiversity and nurseries through the wood-boring activity of teredinids.

  11. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations contribute to ecosystem-N-budget of boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemaa, Maija; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Merilä, Päivi; Mäkipää, Raisa; Smolander, Aino

    2014-05-01

    Bryophytes frequently dominate the ground vegetation on the forest floor in boreal region. Northern ecosystems are often nitrogen limited, and therefore biological nitrogen (N2) fixation of bryophyte-associated microbes is an important source of new N. In this study we estimated the N stock of bryophyte layer and the N input rate by N2 fixation of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations at the ecosystem level. We studied 12 intensively monitored forest ecosystem plots (ICP Forests Level II) along a latitudinal gradient in Finland during 2009-2013. The total biomass and N stock of the bryophytes varied 700-2000 kg ha-1 and 9-23 kg ha-1, respectively. N2 fixation rate associated to bryophytes increased towards the north and was at highest 1-2 kg N ha-1 year-1 (based on the bryophyte biomass in the monitoring plots). This N input was at the same level as the N deposition in the northern Finland (1.5 kg N ha-1 year-1). In comparison, via needle litterfall and other tree litter c.a. 5 kg N ha-1 is annually returned to the nutrient cycle. In southern Finland, very low rates of N2 fixation were found probably because of inhibition by the anthropogenic N deposition. The upper parts of the bryophyte shoots showed 2-3 times higher N2-fixing rate than the lower parts, but differences between Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi were minor. However, Dicranum species showed much lower N2 fixation rates compared to these two species. The moisture level of bryophytes and light/temperature conditions regulated strongly the rate of N2-fixing activity. The results showed that the bryophyte layer significantly contributes to the N input and plays an important role in controlling the N and C balances of boreal forests.

  12. Soil and water related forest ecosystem services and resilience of social ecological system in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekalign, Meron; Muys, Bart; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In the central highlands of Ethiopia, deforestation and forest degradation are occurring and accelerating during the last century. The high population pressure is the most repeatedly mentioned reason. However, in the past 30 years researchers agreed that the absence of institutions, which could define the access rights to particular forest resources, is another underlying cause of forest depletion and loss. Changing forest areas into different land use types is affecting the biodiversity, which is manifested through not proper functioning of ecosystem services. Menagesha Suba forest, the focus of this study has been explored from various perspectives. However the social dimension and its interaction with the ecology have been addressed rarely. This research uses a combined theoretical framework of Ecosystem Services and that of Resilience thinking for understanding the complex social-ecological interactions in the forest and its influence on ecosystem services. For understanding the history and extent of land use land cover changes, in-depth literature review and a GIS and remote sensing analysis will be made. The effect of forest conversion into plantation and agricultural lands on soil and above ground carbon sequestration, fuel wood and timber products delivery will be analyzed with the accounting of the services on five land use types. The four ecosystem services to be considered are Supporting, Provisioning, Regulating, and Cultural services as set by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. A resilience based participatory framework approach will be used to analyze how the social and ecological systems responded towards the drivers of change that occurred in the past. The framework also will be applied to predict future uncertainties. Finally this study will focus on the possible interventions that could contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the forest. An ecosystem services trade-off analysis and an environmental valuation of the water

  13. Net Ecosystem Fluxes of Hydrocarbons from a Ponderosa Pine Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, R. C.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Ortega, J. V.; Smith, J. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Shen, S.; Martinez, L.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Deventer, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Light (C2-C4) alkenes, light alkanes and isoprene (C5H8) are non-methane hydrocarbons that play important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. Natural terrestrial fluxes of the light hydrocarbons are poorly characterized, with global emission estimates based on limited field measurements. In 2014, net fluxes of these compounds were measured at the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory, a semi-arid ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and site of the prior BEACHON campaigns. Three field intensives were conducted between June 17 and August 10, 2014. Net ecosystem flux measurements utilized a relaxed eddy accumulation system coupled to an automated gas chromatograph. Summertime average emissions of ethene and propene were up to 90% larger than those observed from a temperate deciduous forest. Ethene and propene fluxes were also correlated to each other, similar to the deciduous forest study. Emissions of isoprene were small, as expected for a coniferous forest, and these fluxes were not correlated with either ethene or propene. Unexpected emissions of light alkanes were also observed, and these showed a distinct diurnal cycle. Understory flux measurements allowed for the partitioning of fluxes between the surface and the canopy. Full results from the three field intensives will be compared with environmental variables in order to parameterize the fluxes for use in modeling emissions.

  14. Participatory Goal Programming in Forest Management: An Application Integrating Several Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Aldea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a procedure for integrating several ecosystem services into forest management by using the well-known multi-criteria approach called goal programming. It shows how interactions with various stakeholders are essential in order to choose the goal programming model applied, as well as some of its basic components (variant, targets, preferential weights, etc.. This methodology has been applied to a real forest management case where five criteria have been selected: timber production, wild edible mushroom production, carbon sequestration, net present value of the underlying investment, and a criterion associated with the sustainability of forest management defined by the idea of a normal forest. Given the characteristics of some of these criteria, such as mushroom production, the model has been developed in two scenarios: one deterministic and another with a Monte Carlo analysis. The results show a considerable degree of conflict between the proposed criteria. By applying several goal programming models, different Paretian efficient solutions were obtained. In addition, some results in Monte Carlo analysis for several criteria show notable variations. This fact is especially notable for the mushroom production criterion. Finally, the proposed approach seems attractive and can be directly applied to other forest management situations.

  15. Estimate of productivity in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>We measured soil, stem and branch respiration of trees and shrubs, foliage photosynthesis and respiration in ecosystem of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain by LI-6400 CO2 analysis system. Measurement of forest microclimate was conducted simultaneously and a model was found for the relationship of soil, stem, leaf and climate factors. CO2 flux of different components in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest was estimated based on vegetation characteristics. The net ecosystem exchange was measured by eddy covariance technique. And we studied the effect of temperature and photosynthetic active radiation on ecosystem CO2 flux. Through analysis we found that the net ecosystem exchange was affected mainly by soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis. Annual net ecosystem exchange ranged from a minimum of about -4.671μmol·m-2·s-1 to a maximum of 13.80μmol·m-2·s-1, mean net ecosystem exchange of CO2 flux was -2.0μmol·m-2·s-1 and 3.9μmol·m-2·s-1 in winter and summer respectively (mean value during 24 h). Primary productivity of tree, shrub and herbage contributed about 89.7%, 3.5% and 6.8% to the gross primary productivity of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest respectively. Soil respiration contributed about 69.7% CO2 to the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem, comprising about 15.2% from tree leaves and 15.1% from branches. The net ecosystem exchange in growing season and non-growing season contributed 56.8% and 43.2% to the annual CO2 efflux respectively. The ratio of autotrophic respiration to gross primary productivity (Ra:GPP) was 0.52 (NPP:GPP=0.48). Annual carbon accumulation underground accounted for 52% of the gross primary productivity, and soil respiration contributed 60% to gross primary productivity. The NPP of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest was 769.3 gC·m-2·a-1. The net ecosystem exchange of this forest ecosystem (NEE) was 229.51 gC·m-2·a-1. The NEE of this forest ecosystem

  16. Ecosystem fluxes of hydrogen in a mid-latitude forest driven by soil microorganisms and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Laura K; Commane, Róisín; Keenan, Trevor F; Klosterman, Stephen T; Munger, J William; Templer, Pamela H; Tang, Jianwu; Wofsy, Steven C; Prinn, Ronald G

    2017-02-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2 ) is an atmospheric trace gas with a large microbe-mediated soil sink, yet cycling of this compound throughout ecosystems is poorly understood. Measurements of the sources and sinks of H2 in various ecosystems are sparse, resulting in large uncertainties in the global H2 budget. Constraining the H2 cycle is critical to understanding its role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. We measured H2 fluxes at high frequency in a temperate mixed deciduous forest for 15 months using a tower-based flux-gradient approach to determine both the soil-atmosphere and the net ecosystem flux of H2 . We found that Harvard Forest is a net H2 sink (-1.4 ± 1.1 kg H2  ha(-1) ) with soils as the dominant H2 sink (-2.0 ± 1.0 kg H2  ha(-1) ) and aboveground canopy emissions as the dominant H2 source (+0.6 ± 0.8 kg H2  ha(-1) ). Aboveground emissions of H2 were an unexpected and substantial component of the ecosystem H2 flux, reducing net ecosystem uptake by 30% of that calculated from soil uptake alone. Soil uptake was highly seasonal (July maximum, February minimum), positively correlated with soil temperature and negatively correlated with environmental variables relevant to diffusion into soils (i.e., soil moisture, snow depth, snow density). Soil microbial H2 uptake was correlated with rhizosphere respiration rates (r = 0.8, P soil H2 and carbon cycling. Results from this study should be incorporated into modeling efforts to predict the response of the H2 soil sink to changes in anthropogenic H2 emissions and shifting soil conditions with climate and land-use change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Variability in the Effectiveness of Two Ornithological Survey Methods between Tropical Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas Edward; Nightingale, Josh; Baddams, Jack; Monkhouse, Joseph; Kaban, Aronika; Sastranegara, Hafiyyan; Mulyani, Yeni; Blackburn, George Alan; Simcox, Wilf

    2017-01-01

    Birds are a frequently chosen group for biodiversity monitoring as they are comparatively straightforward and inexpensive to sample and often perform well as ecological indicators. Two commonly used techniques for monitoring tropical forest bird communities are point counts and mist nets. General strengths and weaknesses of these techniques have been well-defined; however little research has examined how their effectiveness is mediated by the ecology of bird communities and their habitats. We examine how the overall performance of these methodologies differs between two widely separated tropical forests–Cusuco National Park (CNP), a Honduran cloud forest, and the lowland forests of Buton Forest Reserves (BFR) located on Buton Island, Indonesia. Consistent survey protocols were employed at both sites, with 77 point count stations and 22 mist netting stations being surveyed in each location. We found the effectiveness of both methods varied considerably between ecosystems. Point counts performed better in BFR than in CNP, detecting a greater percentage of known community richness (60% versus 41%) and generating more accurate species richness estimates. Conversely, mist netting performed better in CNP than in BFR, detecting a much higher percentage of known community richness (31% versus 7%). Indeed, mist netting proved overall to be highly ineffective within BFR. Best Akaike's Information Criterion models indicate differences in the effectiveness of methodologies between study sites relate to bird community composition, which in turn relates to ecological and biogeographical influences unique to each forest ecosystem. Results therefore suggest that, while generalized strengths and weaknesses of both methodologies can be defined, their overall effectiveness is also influenced by local characteristics specific to individual study sites. While this study focusses on ornithological surveys, the concept of local factors influencing effectiveness of field methodologies

  18. Ecosystem services of boreal forests - Carbon budget mapping at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akujärvi, Anu; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Liski, Jari

    2016-10-01

    The carbon (C) cycle of forests produces ecosystem services (ES) such as climate regulation and timber production. Mapping these ES using simple land cover -based proxies might add remarkable inaccuracy to the estimates. A framework to map the current status of the C budget of boreal forested landscapes was developed. The C stocks of biomass and soil and the annual change in these stocks were quantified in a 20 × 20 m resolution at the regional level on mineral soils in southern Finland. The fine-scale variation of the estimates was analyzed geo-statistically. The reliability of the estimates was evaluated by comparing them to measurements from the national multi-source forest inventory. The C stocks of forests increased slightly from the south coast to inland whereas the changes in these stocks were more uniform. The spatial patches of C stocks were larger than those of C stock changes. The patch size of the C stocks reflected the spatial variation in the environmental conditions, and that of the C stock changes the typical area of forest management compartments. The simulated estimates agreed well with the measurements indicating a good mapping framework performance. The mapping framework is the basis for evaluating the effects of forest management alternatives on C budget at high resolution across large spatial scales. It will be coupled with the assessment of other ES and biodiversity to study their relationships. The framework integrated a wide suite of simulation models and extensive inventory data. It provided reliable estimates of the human influence on C cycle in forested landscapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying Forest Ecosystem Services Tradeoff—Coupled Ecological and Economic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.; Ling, P. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of the effect of carbon-related forestland management activities on ecosystem services is difficult, because knowledge about the dynamics of coupled social-ecological systems is lacking. Different forestland management activities, such as various amount, timing, and methods of harvesting, and natural disturbances events, such as wind and fires, create shocks and uncertainties to the forest carbon dynamics. A spatially explicit model, Landis-ii, was used to model the forest succession for different harvest management scenarios at the Grandfather District, North Carolina. In addition to harvest, the model takes into account of the impact of natural disturbances, such as fire and insects, and species competition. The result shows the storage of carbon in standing biomass and in wood product for each species for each scenario. In this study, optimization is used to analyze the maximum profit and the number of tree species that each forest landowner can gain at different prices of carbon, roundwood, and interest rates for different harvest management scenarios. Time series of roundwood production of different types were estimated using remote sensing data. Econometric analysis is done to understand the possible interaction and relations between the production of different types of roundwood and roundwood prices, which can indicate the possible planting scheme that a forest owner may make. This study quantifies the tradeoffs between carbon sequestration, roundwood production, and forest species diversity not only from an economic perspective, but also takes into account of the forest succession mechanism in a species-diverse region. The resulting economic impact on the forest landowners is likely to influence their future planting decision, which in turn, will influence the species composition and future revenue of the landowners.

  20. Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannicci, Stefano; Burrows, Damien; Fratini, Sara; Smith, Thomas J.; Offenberg, Joachim; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2008-01-01

    The last 20 years witnessed a real paradigm shift concerning the impact of biotic factors on ecosystem functions as well as on vegetation structure of mangrove forests. Before this small scientific revolution took place, structural aspects of mangrove forests were viewed to be the result of abiotic processes acting from the bottom-up, while, at ecosystem level, the outwelling hypothesis stated that mangroves primary production was removed via tidal action and carried to adjacent nearshore ecosystems where it fuelled detrital based food-webs. The sesarmid crabs were the first macrofaunal taxon to be considered a main actor in mangrove structuring processes, thanks to a number of studies carried out in the Indo-Pacific forests in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Following these classical papers, a number of studies on Sesarmidae feeding and burrowing ecology were carried out, which leave no doubts about the great importance of these herbivorous crabs in structuring and functioning Old world ecosystems. Although Sesarmidae are still considered very important in shaping mangrove structure and functioning, recent literature emphasizes the significance of other invertebrates. The Ocypodidae have now been shown to have the same role as Sesarmidae in terms of retention of forest products and organic matter processing in New world mangroves. In both New and Old world mangroves, crabs process large amounts of algal primary production, contribute consistently to retention of mangrove production and as ecosystem engineers, change particle size distribution and enhance soil aeration. Our understanding of the strong impact of gastropods, by means of high intake rates of mangrove products and differential consumption of propagules, has changed only recently. The role of insects must also be stressed. It is now clear that older techniques used to assess herbivory rates by insects strongly underestimate their impact, both in case of leaf eating and wood boring species and that

  1. Dynamics of novel forests of Castilla elastica in Puerto Rico: from species to ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca da Silva, Jéssica

    2015-08-01

    Novel forests (NFs)-forests that contain a combination of introduced and native species-are a consequence of intense anthropogenic disturbances and the natural resilience of disturbed ecosystems. The extent to which NFs have similar forest function as comparable native secondary forests is a matter of debate in the scientific community. Little is known about the performance of individual species in those forests. This study focuses on the functional attributes of Castilla elastica NFs in Puerto Rico and on the differences between introduced and native species growing side by side in these forests. Rates of processes measured here were later compared with data from literature about NSFs. I hypothesize that juvenile plants of C. elastica in NFs have higher survival rate than those of native species and that C. elastica trees have faster biomass fluxes than native trees. To test the hypotheses, I measured survival rates of juvenile plants and tree growth and characterized the aboveground litter fluxes and storage. Although juvenile plants of native species displayed higher survival rates than those of C. elastica (53% vs. 28%), the latter was dominant in the understory (96%). Stand biomass growth rate was 2.0 ± 0.4 (average ± one standard deviation) Mg·ha(-1)·year(-1) for the whole forest, and Guarea guidonia, a native species, exhibited the highest tree growth. Total litter fall was 9.6 ± 0.5 Mg·ha(-1)·year(-1), and mean litter standing stock was 4.4 ± 0.1 Mg·ha(-1). Castilla elastica litter fall decomposed twice as fast as that of native species (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 3.03 ± 1 k·year(-1)). Literature comparisons show that the present NFs differ in some rates of processes from NSFs. This study brings unique and detailed supporting data about the ecological dynamics under mature novel forest stands. Further comprehensive studies about NFs are important to strengthen the body of knowledge about the wide range of variation of emerging tropical ecosystems. Due to the

  2. Urban forest ecosystem analysis using fused airborne hyperspectral and lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Mike Gerard

    Urban trees are strategically important in a city's effort to mitigate their carbon footprint, heat island effects, air pollution, and stormwater runoff. Currently, the most common method for quantifying urban forest structure and ecosystem function is through field plot sampling. However, taking intensive structural measurements on private properties throughout a city is difficult, and the outputs from sample inventories are not spatially explicit. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to develop methods for mapping urban forest structure and function using fused hyperspectral imagery and waveform lidar data at the individual tree crown scale. Urban forest ecosystem services estimated using the USDA Forest Service's i-Tree Eco (formerly UFORE) model are based largely on tree species and leaf area index (LAI). Accordingly, tree species were mapped in my Santa Barbara, California study area for 29 species comprising >80% of canopy. Crown-scale discriminant analysis methods were introduced for fusing Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS) data with a suite of lidar structural metrics (e.g., tree height, crown porosity) to maximize classification accuracy in a complex environment. AVIRIS imagery was critical to achieving an overall species-level accuracy of 83.4% while lidar data was most useful for improving the discrimination of small and morphologically unique species. LAI was estimated at both the field-plot scale using laser penetration metrics and at the crown scale using allometry. Agreement of the former with photographic estimates of gap fraction and the latter with allometric estimates based on field measurements was examined. Results indicate that lidar may be used reasonably to measure LAI in an urban environment lacking in continuous canopy and characterized by high species diversity. Finally, urban ecosystem services such as carbon storage and building energy-use modification were analyzed through combination of aforementioned

  3. Ecosystem Carbon Stock Loss after Land Use Change in Subtropical Forests in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Fan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Converting secondary natural forests (SFs to Chinese fir plantations (CFPs represents one of the most important (8.9 million ha land use changes in subtropical China. This study estimated both biomass and soil C stocks in a SF and a CFP that was converted from a SF, to quantify the effects of land use change on ecosystem C stock. After the forest conversion, biomass C in the CFP (73 Mg·ha−1 was significantly lower than that of the SF (114 Mg·ha−1. Soil organic C content and stock decreased with increasing soil depth, and the soil C stock in the 0–10 cm layer accounted for more than one third of the total soil C stock over 0–50 cm, emphasizing the importance of management of the top soil to reduce the soil C loss. Total ecosystem C stock of the SF and the CFP was 318 and 200 Mg·ha−1, respectively, 64% of which was soil C for both stands (205 Mg·ha−1 for the SF and 127 Mg·ha−1 for the CFP. This indicates that land use change from the SF to the CFP significantly decreased ecosystem C stock and highlights the importance of managing soil C.

  4. Strong top-down control in southern California kelp forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Cottenie, Karl; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2006-05-26

    Global-scale changes in anthropogenic nutrient input into marine ecosystems via terrestrial runoff, coupled with widespread predator removal via fishing, have created greater urgency for understanding the relative role of top-down versus bottom-up control of food web dynamics. Yet recent large-scale studies of community regulation in marine ecosystems have shown dramatically different results that leave this issue largely unresolved. We combined a multiyear, large-scale data set of species abundances for 46 species in kelp forests from the California Channel Islands with satellite-derived primary production and found that top-down control explains 7- to 10-fold more of the variance in abundance of bottom and mid-trophic levels than does bottom-up control. This top-down control was propagated via a variety of species-level direct and indirect responses to predator abundance. Management of top-down influences such as fishing may be more important in coastal marine ecosystems, particularly in kelp forest systems, than is commonly thought.

  5. Adaptation of forest ecosystems to air pollution and climate change: a global assessment on research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serengil Y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution are two of the anthropogenic stressors that require international collaboration. Influence mechanisms and combating strategies towards them have similarities to some extent. Impacts of air pollution and climate change have long been studied under IUFRO Research Group 7.01 and state of the art findings are presented at biannual meetings. Monitoring, modelling, assessment of multiple stressors, ecophysiology, and nutrient cycles have been thoroughly studied aspects of climate change and air pollution research for a long time under the umbrella of IUFRO RG 7.01. Recently, social and economic issues together with water relations are gaining more attention in parallel with science requirements on adaptation. In this paper, we summarise the main research needs emphasized at the recent 24th IUFRO RG 7.01 Conference titled “Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change”. One important conclusion of the conference was the need for information on nutritional status of forest stands for sustainable forest management. It has been suggested to maintain long-term monitoring programs and to account for the effects of extreme years, and past and present management practices. Long-term monitoring can also help to understand the effects of forestry treatments on the nutrient and water budgets of the ecosystems which may enable to improve management practices like water saving silviculture.

  6. Species interactions regulate the collapse of biodiversity and ecosystem function in tropical forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Tom P; Lees, Alexander C; Seddon, Nathalie; Macgregor, Hannah E A; Darski, Bianca; Aleixo, Alexandre; Bonsall, Michael B; Tobias, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    Competitive interactions among species with similar ecological niches are known to regulate the assembly of biological communities. However, it is not clear whether such forms of competition can predict the collapse of communities and associated shifts in ecosystem function in the face of environmental change. Here, we use phylogenetic and functional trait data to test whether communities of two ecologically important guilds of tropical birds (frugivores and insectivores) are structured by species interactions in a fragmented Amazonian forest landscape. In both guilds, we found that forest patch size, quality, and degree of isolation influence the phylogenetic and functional trait structure of communities, with small, degraded, or isolated forest patches having an increased signature of competition (i.e., phylogenetic and functional trait overdispersion in relation to null models). These results suggest that local extinctions in the context of fragmentation are nonrandom, with a consistent bias toward more densely occupied regions of niche space. We conclude that the loss of biodiversity in fragmented landscapes is mediated by niche-based competitive interactions among species, with potentially far-reaching implications for key ecosystem processes, including seed dispersal and plant damage by phytophagous insects.

  7. Understanding the Factors Influencing Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowner Interest in Supplying Ecosystem Services in Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Tian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Private forests provide a range of ecosystem services for society including provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services. Sustaining the supply of such services depends on the interest of nonindustrial private forest (NIPF landowners in managing their forests for such services. Assessing factors that influence NIPF landowner intentions would be useful in identifying potential suppliers of ecosystem services and in designing and implementing outreach and education programs to elevate the interests of less interested landowners. Using data collected from a mail survey of NIPF landowners on the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee, this study examined how landowner interest in supplying ecosystem services was influenced by socio-demographic characteristics, economic and market factors, land management objectives, and ownership motivations. To that end, a multivariate logistic regression model was employed to analyze the supply of three types of ecosystem services: carbon storage (regulating service, water quality (provisioning service, and aesthetics (cultural service. Results revealed that landowner interest in managing forests for ecosystem services were significantly related to socio-demographic factors, management and ownership characteristics, and availability of financial incentives. These findings will improve the understanding of the market segment of landowners as related to ecosystem services. The findings may facilitate the development of market protocols and outreach programs that promote payments for ecosystem services in Tennessee and elsewhere.

  8. Long-term decrease in satellite vegetation indices in response to environmental variables in an iconic desert riparian ecosystem: the Upper San Pedro, Arizona, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Scott, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River is one of the few remaining undammed rivers that maintain a vibrant riparian ecosystem in the southwest United States. However, its riparian forest is threatened by diminishing groundwater and surface water inputs, due to either changes in watershed characteristics such as changes in riparian and upland vegetation, or human activities such as regional groundwater pumping. We used satellite vegetation indices to quantify the green leaf density of the groundwater-dependent riparian forest from 1984 to 2012. The river was divided into a southern, upstream (mainly perennial flow) reach and a northern, downstream (mainly intermittent and ephemeral flow) reach. Pre-monsoon (June) Landsat normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values showed a 20% drop for the northern reach (P  0·05). NDVI and enhanced vegetation index values were positively correlated (P factor in reducing river flows. Climate change, regional groundwater pumping, changes in the intensity of monsoon rain events and lack of overbank flooding are feasible explanations for deterioration of the riparian forest in the northern reach.

  9. N-15 tracing helps explaining N leaching losses from contrasting forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staelens, J.; Rütting, T.; Huygens, D.; Müller, C.; Verheyen, K.; Boeckx, P.

    2009-04-01

    Despite chronically enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition to forest ecosystems in Europe and NE America, considerable N retention by forests has been observed, reducing N leaching losses. Organic and mineral soil layers typically immobilize more N than the aboveground biomass, but it is unclear which factors determine N retention in forest ecoystems. However, this knowledge is crucial to assess the impact of changing anthropogenic N emissions on future N cycling and N loss of forests. For coniferous and deciduous forest stands at comparable sites, it is known that both N deposition onto the forest floor as well as N loss by leaching below the rooting zone are significantly higher in coniferous stands. In addition, the N loss in coniferous stands is often more enhanced than can be explained by the higher N input only. This suggests lower N retention by coniferous stands, and may be related to differences in litter and soil characteristics, microbial activity, and N uptake by plant roots. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effect of forest type on N retention using 15N tracing techniques: a field tracer experiment and a combination of in situ isotope pool dilution and a tracing model. The N dynamics were examined for two adjacent forest stands (pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)) on a well-drained sandy soil and with a similar stand history, located in a region with high N deposition (Belgium). Input-output N budgets were established by quantifying atmospheric deposition and leaching below the rooting zone, and confirmed the above finding of higher N deposition and disproportionately higher N loss for the pine stand compared to the oak stand. First, the fate of inorganic N within the ecosystems was studied by spraying three pulses of dissolved 15N, either as ammonium or as nitrate, onto the forest floor in 12 plots of 25 m2. The organic and mineral soil layers, tree roots, soil water percolate, ferns, and tree foliage were sampled

  10. Kinetic energy of throughfall in a highly diverse forest ecosystem in the humid subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Christian; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    After decades of research it is generally accepted that vegetation is a key factor in controlling soil erosion. Therefore, in ecosystems where erosion is a serious problem, afforestation is a common measure against erosion. Most of the studies in the last decades focused on agricultural systems and less attention was paid to natural systems. To understand the mechanisms preventing soil erosion in natural systems the processes have to be studied in detail and gradually. The first step and central research question is on how the canopies of the tree layer alter the properties of rainfall and generate throughfall. Kinetic energy is a widely used parameter to estimate the erosion potential of open field rainfall and throughfall. In the past, numerous studies have shown that vegetation of a certain height enhances the kinetic energy under the canopy (Chapman 1948, Mosley 1982, Vis 1986, Hall & Calder 1993, Nanko et al. 2006, Nanko et al. 2008) in relation to open field rainfall. This is mainly due to a shift in the drop size distribution to less but larger drops possessing a higher amount of kinetic energy. In vital forest ecosystems lower vegetation (shrubs, herbs) as well as a continuous litter layer protects the forest soil from the impact of large drops. The influence of biodiversity, specific forest stands or single species in this process system is still in discussion. In the present study calibrated splash cups (after Ellison 1947, Geißler et al. under review) have been used to detect differences in kinetic energy on the scale of specific species and on the scale of forest stands of contrasting age and biodiversity in a natural forest ecosystem. The splash cups have been calibrated experimentally using a laser disdrometer. The results show that the kinetic energy of throughfall produced by the tree layer increases with the age of the specific forest stand. The average throughfall kinetic energy (J m-2) is about 2.6 times higher in forests than under open field

  11. Estimates of changes of structural parameters of forest ecosystems in decoding high resolution satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Rozhkov

    2016-05-01

    distribution in the long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems status ( for example of the forest restoration process after fire impact. The rate of forest recovery was determined within the burned fragment with an area of 6.98 sq. km

  12. Ecosystem Carbon Stock Influenced by Plantation Practice: Implications for Planting Forests as a Measure of Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chengzhang; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha−1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age (plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation. PMID:20523733

  13. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhang Liao

    Full Text Available Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C. We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests. Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age ( or = 25 years, stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen, tree species origin (native vs. exotic of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt, and study regions (tropic vs. temperate. The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

  14. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chengzhang; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming; Li, Bo

    2010-05-27

    Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1) in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age ( or = 25 years), stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen), tree species origin (native vs. exotic) of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

  15. Untangling positive and negative biotic interactions: views from above and below ground in a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Rebecca A; Reich, Peter B; Palik, Brian J

    2010-12-01

    In ecological communities, the outcome of plant-plant interactions represents the net effect of positive and negative interactions occurring above and below ground. Untangling these complex relationships can provide a better understanding of mechanisms that underlie plant-plant interactions and enhance our ability to predict population, community, and ecosystem effects of biotic interactions. In forested ecosystems, tree seedlings interact with established vegetation, but the mechanisms and outcomes of these interactions are not well understood. To explore such mechanisms, we manipulated above- and belowground interactions among tree seedlings, shrubs, and trees and monitored seedling survival and growth of six species (Pinus banksiana, Betula papyrifera, P. resinosa, Quercus rubra, P. strobus, and Acer rubrum) in mature pine-dominated forest in northern Minnesota, USA. The forest had a moderately open canopy and sandy soils. Understory manipulations were implemented in the forest interior and in large gaps and included removal of shrubs (no interactions), tieback of shrubs (belowground), removal of shrubs with addition of shade (aboveground), and unmanipulated shrubs (both below- and aboveground). We found that shrubs either suppressed or facilitated seedling survival and growth depending on the seedling species, source of interaction (e.g., above- or belowground), and ecological context (e.g., gap or forest interior). In general, shrubs strongly influenced survival and growth in gaps, with more modest effects in the forest interior. In gaps, the presence of shrub roots markedly decreased seedling growth and survival, supporting the idea that belowground competition may be more important in dry, nutrient-poor sites. Shrub shade effects were neutral for three species and facilitative for the other three. Facilitation was more likely for shade-tolerant species. In the forest interior, shrub shade negatively affected seedling survival for the most shade

  16. Influence of physiological phenology on the seasonal pattern of ecosystem respiration in deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Richardson, Andrew D; Mahecha, Miguel D; Cremonese, Edoardo; Delpierre, Nicolas; Galvagno, Marta; Law, Beverly E; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ceccherini, Guido; Chen, Jiquan; Gobron, Nadine; Koffi, Ernest; Munger, J William; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Robustelli, Monica; Tomelleri, Enrico; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental and biotic drivers of respiration at the ecosystem level is a prerequisite to further improve scenarios of the global carbon cycle. In this study we investigated the relevance of physiological phenology, defined as seasonal changes in plant physiological properties, for explaining the temporal dynamics of ecosystem respiration (RECO) in deciduous forests. Previous studies showed that empirical RECO models can be substantially improved by considering the biotic dependency of RECO on the short-term productivity (e.g., daily gross primary production, GPP) in addition to the well-known environmental controls of temperature and water availability. Here, we use a model-data integration approach to investigate the added value of physiological phenology, represented by the first temporal derivative of GPP, or alternatively of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, for modeling RECO at 19 deciduous broadleaved forests in the FLUXNET La Thuile database. The new data-oriented semiempirical model leads to an 8% decrease in root mean square error (RMSE) and a 6% increase in the modeling efficiency (EF) of modeled RECO when compared to a version of the model that does not consider the physiological phenology. The reduction of the model-observation bias occurred mainly at the monthly time scale, and in spring and summer, while a smaller reduction was observed at the annual time scale. The proposed approach did not improve the model performance at several sites, and we identified as potential causes the plant canopy heterogeneity and the use of air temperature as a driver of ecosystem respiration instead of soil temperature. However, in the majority of sites the model-error remained unchanged regardless of the driving temperature. Overall, our results point toward the potential for improving current approaches for modeling RECO in deciduous forests by including the phenological cycle of the canopy.

  17. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-08-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and tropospheric ozone (O3 ) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3 . Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r(2) = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m(-2) ) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (∆NPP/∆N) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2 . Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content.

  18. The role of disturbance in the regeneration of the forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Carvalho Araújo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a review about the role of disturbance in the regeneration of the forest ecosystems. Several hipotheses are actually raised to explain the diversity in the tropics, and the role of disturbance is one them. Thus, the present work addresses the concept of disturbance and the importance of the scale to find spacial and temporal patterns, mechanisms that account species coexistence in the regeneration of these ecosystems and finally, the role of fire as a disturbance agent changing the vegetation communities. The review seeks to interlink old concepts with current and divergent applications in development, with an extensive discussion about the central theme. It concludes of a new way to try to understand the great diversity in the tropics, the key role of natural regeneration in response to disturbance.

  19. Impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on a boreal forest ecosystem (CLIMEX project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breemen, N. van; Jenkins, A.; Wright, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    a transparent greenhouse, and the upper 20% of the catchment area is partitioned such that it receives no climate treatment and serves as an untreated control. Both the control and treatment areas inside the greenhouse receive deacidified rain. Within 3 years, soil nitrogen (N) mineralization has increased......To evaluate the effects of climate change on boreal forest ecosystems, both atmospheric CO2 (to 560 ppmv) and air temperature (by 3 degrees-5 degrees C above ambient) were increased at a forested headwater catchment in southern Norway. The entire catchment (860 m(2)) is enclosed within...... and the growing season has been prolonged relative to the control area. This has helped to sustain an increase in plant growth relative to the control and has also promoted increased N export in stream water. Photosynthetic capacity and carbon-nitrogen ratio of new leaves of most plant species did not change...

  20. Ophiocordyceps unilateralis: A keystone species for unraveling ecosystem functioning and biodiversity of fungi in tropical forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Harry C; Elliot, Simon L; Hughes, David P

    2011-09-01

    Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) is a specialized parasite that infects, manipulates and kills formicine ants, predominantly in tropical forest ecosystems. We have reported previously, based on a preliminary study in remnant Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais (Brazil), that O. unilateralis represents a species complex. On each of the four species of infected carpenter ant (Camponotus) collected, the fungus-characterized macroscopically by a single stalk arising from the dorsal neck region on which the sexual structures (stromatal plates) are borne laterally-can readily be distinguished both microscopically and functionally. Here, we describe and discuss the biology, life cycle and infection strategies of O. unilateralis s.l. and hypothesize that there may be hundreds of species within the complex parasitizing formicine ants worldwide. We then address the diversity within related hypocrealean fungi, with particular reference to symbionts (mutualists through to parasites), and argue that the widely-quoted total of extant fungi (1.5 million species) may be grossly underestimated.

  1. Reconstructing the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests via an Autoecological Niche Approach: Reconsidering the Ecosystem Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Torres, David A; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R

    2016-01-01

    We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) of individual species of two taxonomic groups (plants and birds) in order to reconstruct the climatic distribution of Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs) in Mexico and to analyze their boundaries with other terrestrial ecosystems. The reconstruction for TDFs' distribution was analyzed considering the prediction and omission errors based upon the combination of species, obtained from the overlap of individual models (only plants, only birds, and all species combined). Two verifications were used: a primary vegetation map and 100 independent TDFs localities. We performed a Principal Component (PCA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA) to evaluate the variation in the environmental variables and ecological overlap among ecosystems. The modeling strategies showed differences in the ecological patterns and prediction areas, where the "all species combined" model (with a threshold of ≥10 species) was the best strategy to use in the TDFs reconstruction. We observed a concordance of 78% with the primary vegetation map and a prediction of 98% of independent locality records. Although PCA and DA tests explained 75.78% and 97.9% of variance observed, respectively, we observed an important overlap among the TDFs with other adjacent ecosystems, confirming the existence of transition zones among them. We successfully modeled the distribution of Mexican TDFs using a number of bioclimatic variables and co-distributed species. This autoecological niche approach suggests the necessity of rethinking the delimitations of ecosystems based on the recognition of transition zones among them in order to understand the real nature of communities and association patterns of species.

  2. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity-ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C; Muhie Dawud, Seid; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-03-24

    There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, 'complementarity' and 'selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the 'jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity-multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems.

  3. Experimental warming does not enhance soil respiration in a semiarid temperate forest-steppe ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lellei-Kovacs, E.; Kovacs-Lang, E.; Kalapos, T.;

    2008-01-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on soil respiration was studied in a field experiment on 4 m x 5 m plots in the semiarid temperate Pannonian sand forest-steppe. This ecosystem type has low productivity and soil organic matter content, and covers large areas, yet data on soil carbon fluxes......) moisture content by 0.45 vol%. Drought treatment decreased soil moisture content by an average of 0.81 vol%. Soil respiration rate tended to decrease by 7-15% and 13-15% in response to heat and drought treatment, respectively, although the changes were not statistically significant. Nocturnal warming...

  4. High-Resolution Forest Canopy Height Estimation in an African Blue Carbon Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, David; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Lee, Seung-Kuk; Simard, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the most productive and carbon dense ecosystems that are only found at tidally inundated coastal areas. Forest canopy height is an important measure for modeling carbon and biomass dynamics, as well as land cover change. By taking advantage of the flat terrain and dense canopy cover, the present study derived digital surface models (DSMs) using stereophotogrammetric techniques on high-resolution spaceborne imagery (HRSI) for southern Mozambique. A mean-weighted ground surface elevation factor was subtracted from the HRSI DSM to accurately estimate the canopy height in mangrove forests in southern Mozambique. The mean and H100 tree height measured in both the field and with the digital canopy model provided the most accurate results with a vertical error of 1.18-1.84 m, respectively. Distinct patterns were identified in the HRSI canopy height map that could not be discerned from coarse shuttle radar topography mission canopy maps even though the mode and distribution of canopy heights were similar over the same area. Through further investigation, HRSI DSMs have the potential of providing a new type of three-dimensional dataset that could serve as calibration/validation data for other DSMs generated from spaceborne datasets with much larger global coverage. HSRI DSMs could be used in lieu of Lidar acquisitions for canopy height and forest biomass estimation, and be combined with passive optical data to improve land cover classifications.

  5. Long-term ecological research on Italian forest ecosystems: perspectives and conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo MARCHETTO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the contents of the present volume devoted to forest research in Italy, within the National Programme for Forest Ecosystem Monitoring (CONECOFOR, part of the Level II forest monitoring, and other linked regional and provincial monitoring activities. The coordination of the project, through a National Focal Centre and a Task Force for the Integrated and Combined Evaluation of results, made up of the foremost Italian experts working in the field, is outlined. No clear signals of strong negative impacts emerge from the papers, although the results of several studies indicate nitrogen and ozone as possible causes of disturbances in a number of plots. The effects of the deposition of acidity are largely buffered by the nature of the soils, while nitrate is leached from the plots where runoff is analysed, indicating N saturation of soils. This paper describes the main activities of the Task Force as regards data validation and elaboration, aimed at providing reliable information leading to sustainable forest management in Italy as well as making a useful contribution to international activities in a Pan-European context.

  6. Biosphere/Atmosphere interactions: Integrated research in a European coniferous forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, G.; Dlugi, R.; Steinbrecher, R.; Clement, B.; Daiber, R.; Eijk, J. v.; Gäb, S.; Haziza, M.; Helas, G.; Herrmann, U.; Kessel, M.; Kesselmeier, J.; Kotzias, D.; Kourtidis, K.; Kurth, H.-H.; McMillen, R. T.; Roider, G.; Schürmann, W.; Teichmann, U.; Torres, L.

    For the determination of regionally averaged fluxes and budgets of atmospheric trace constituents, the ultimate goal of the European Environment Research EUROTRAC, several ecosystems must be investigated, each representative of larger areas. One of the most wide-spread vegetation type is the coniferous forest, in which several compartments exist such as soil, trunk space, canopy and 'free' atmosphere above, which differ considerably in biology, chemistry and meteorology, but increase strongly by feedback processes caused by turbulent mixing and chemical reactions. To understand forest/atmosphere relations in detail, measurements are needed which provide concentrations, emission and deposition data of various chemical compounds as well as micrometeorological quantities. These measurements have to be carried out simultaneously in all storeys of a forest over extended periods and must be highly resolved with respect to time and space. In a first step detailed small-scale studies must be performed. This paper describes the scientific approach for integrated multi-disciplinary studies at Schachtenau, a research site in Central Europe's largest continuous forest, and presents first results from joint experiments.

  7. Review on the decomposition and influence factors of coarse woody debris in forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; DAI Li-min; GU Hui-yan; ZHONG Lei

    2007-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important and particular component of forest ecosystems and is extremely important to forest health. This review describes the decomposition process, decomposition model and influence factors. CWD decomposition is a complex and continuous process and characterizes many biological and physical processes, including biological respiration, leaching, and fragmentation.All these processes have closed relationships between each other and work synergistically. During decomposition, there are many controlling factors mainly including site conditions (temperature, humidity, and O2/CO2 concentration), woody substrate quality (diameter, species and compound) and organism in CWD. The decomposition rate is generally expresses through a constant k which indicate the percent mass,volume or density loss over time, and can be determined by long-term monitoring, chronosequence approach and the radio between input and the total mass. Now using mathematical models to simulate decomposition patterns and estimate the decomposition rate is widely applied, especially the exponential model. We brought forward that managing and utilizing for the CWD in forest was a primary objective on all forest lands. And it is should be intensified to integrate many related research subjects and to carry a comprehensive, long-term and multi-scale research which mainly focus on seven sections.

  8. High-Resolution Forest Canopy Height Estimation in an African Blue Carbon Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, David; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Lee, Seung-Kuk; Simard, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the most productive and carbon dense ecosystems that are only found at tidally inundated coastal areas. Forest canopy height is an important measure for modeling carbon and biomass dynamics, as well as land cover change. By taking advantage of the flat terrain and dense canopy cover, the present study derived digital surface models (DSMs) using stereophotogrammetric techniques on high-resolution spaceborne imagery (HRSI) for southern Mozambique. A mean-weighted ground surface elevation factor was subtracted from the HRSI DSM to accurately estimate the canopy height in mangrove forests in southern Mozambique. The mean and H100 tree height measured in both the field and with the digital canopy model provided the most accurate results with a vertical error of 1.18-1.84 m, respectively. Distinct patterns were identified in the HRSI canopy height map that could not be discerned from coarse shuttle radar topography mission canopy maps even though the mode and distribution of canopy heights were similar over the same area. Through further investigation, HRSI DSMs have the potential of providing a new type of three-dimensional dataset that could serve as calibration/validation data for other DSMs generated from spaceborne datasets with much larger global coverage. HSRI DSMs could be used in lieu of Lidar acquisitions for canopy height and forest biomass estimation, and be combined with passive optical data to improve land cover classifications.

  9. Seasonal leaf dynamics for tropical evergreen forests in a process-based global ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weirdt, M.; Verbeeck, H.; Maignan, F.; Peylin, P.; Poulter, B.; Bonal, D.; Ciais, P.; Steppe, K.

    2012-09-01

    The influence of seasonal phenology on canopy photosynthesis in tropical evergreen forests remains poorly understood, and its representation in global ecosystem models is highly simplified, typically with no seasonal variation of canopy leaf properties taken into account. Including seasonal variation in leaf age and photosynthetic capacity could improve the correspondence of global vegetation model outputs with the wet-dry season CO2 patterns measured at flux tower sites in these forests. We introduced a leaf litterfall dynamics scheme in the global terrestrial ecosystem model ORCHIDEE based on seasonal variations in net primary production (NPP), resulting