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Sample records for arithmetica cicadomorpha cercopidae

  1. Descriptions of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region

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    Andressa Paladini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region. Two new species of Sphenorhina Amyot & Serville, S. pseudoboliviana SP. NOV: from Bolivia and S. plata SP. NOV: from Argentina are described and illustrated.

  2. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios.

  3. Studies on idiocerine leafhoppers with descriptions of Chinaocerus gen. nov. and three new species from China (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae).

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    Dang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    A new leafhopper genus of the tribe Idiocerini (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae), Chinaocerus, is described from the southwest China together with three new species, C. kangdingensis Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province), C. bispinatus Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Yunnan Province) and C. shii Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province). Descriptions and illustrations of these three new species are provided, and a key for their separation is also given.

  4. A trilogia "Arithmetica" de Antônio Bandeira Trajano: um projeto inovador e modernizador para ensinar Aritmética

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Ilka Miglio de; Universidade Tiradentes/UNIT-SE, Campus Aracaju.; Nascimento, Ester Fraga Vilas-Bôas Carvalho do; Oliveira, Marcus Aldenisson de; Doutorando pelo Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação e Saúde na Infância e na Adolescência na Universidade Federal de São Paulo-UNIFESP/Campus Guarulhos. Membro do Grupo de Pesquisa de História da Educação Matemática no Brasil (GHEMAT/SP).

    2015-01-01

    Apresenta-se aqui a análise de uma trilogia Arithmetica. Tais obras circularam por escolas primárias e secundárias do Brasil, no período compreendido entre a segunda metade dos Oitocentos e o início da segunda metade dos Novecentos. Circulação que compreendeu quase um século. Tal análise foca alguns caracteres (roupagens) que proporcionaram a um projeto se materializar, transformando-se em objeto cultural. Dessas roupagens, privilegiar-se-á a metodologia. Ao que tudo indica, essa trilogia dis...

  5. A trilogia "Arithmetica" de Antônio Bandeira Trajano: um projeto inovador e modernizador para ensinar Aritmética

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Ilka Miglio de; Universidade Tiradentes/UNIT-SE, Campus Aracaju.; Nascimento, Ester Fraga Vilas-bôas Carvalho do; Oliveira, Marcus Aldenisson de; Doutorando pelo Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação e Saúde na Infância e na Adolescência na Universidade Federal de São Paulo-UNIFESP/Campus Guarulhos. Membro do Grupo de Pesquisa de História da Educação Matemática no Brasil (GHEMAT/SP).

    2015-01-01

    Apresenta-se aqui a análise de uma trilogia Arithmetica. Tais obras circularam por escolas primárias e secundárias do Brasil, no período compreendido entre a segunda metade dos Oitocentos e o início da segunda metade dos Novecentos. Circulação que compreendeu quase um século. Tal análise foca alguns caracteres (roupagens) que proporcionaram a um projeto se materializar, transformando-se em objeto cultural. Dessas roupagens, privilegiar-se-á a metodologia. Ao que tudo indica, essa trilogia dis...

  6. Susceptibility of twolined spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) life stages to entomophagous arthropods in turfgrass.

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    Nachappa, Punya; Guillebeau, L P; Braman, S K; All, J N

    2006-10-01

    Prosapia bicincta (Say) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), the twolined spittlebug, is an economic pest of turfgrass in the southeastern United States. No data concerning natural enemies of P. bicincta in turfgrass have been reported previously. We compared predation of spittlebug eggs, nymphs, and adults in the laboratory by potential generalist predators commonly found in turfgrass: bigeyed bugs Geocoris uliginosus Say and Geocoris punctipes Say; red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren; wolf spiders (Lycosa sp. Walckenaer); carabid beetles Harpalaus pensylvanicus DeGeer and Calosoma sayi Dejean; and tiger beetles Megacephala carolina carolina L. Eggs were readily consumed by generalist predators. S. invicta consumed 100% of the eggs offered. H. pensylvanicus and C. sayi were also significant predators of P. bicincta eggs. Nymphs live in spittlemasses that protect them from attack by predators, but exposed nymphs were susceptible to attack when mechanically removed from their spittlemasses. S. invicta and M. carolina carolina caused significant mortality of exposed nymphs. P. bicincta adults are aposematic and have the ability to reflex bleed; however, reflex bleeding did not prevent attack by predators. S. invicta and M. carolina carolina killed 100% of the adult spittlebugs offered in laboratory bioassays. Lycosa sp. are less voracious predators of adults. Sound background knowledge about P. bicincta and its potential natural enemy complex is important for the development and implementation of a detailed, site-specific, biologically based pest management program in turfgrass.

  7. The Damage Capacity of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae Adults on Brachiaria ruziziensis Pasture

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    Tiago Teixeira Resende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the damage caused by adult Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae on Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Evard under field conditions. A total of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 M. spectabilis adults per plot were maintained for 6 days. Thereafter, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: chlorophyll content, damage score, dry as well as fresh weights, percentage of shoots’ dry matter, and the forage’s ability to regrow. The chlorophyll content was significantly reduced; the damage score and percentage of dry matter in plants increased depending on the increased insect infestation density after 6 days of exposure. In contrast, no change was observed on the B. ruziziensis fresh and dry weights as well as the regrowth capacity depending on the M. spectabilis infestation densities. Attacks by 8 adult M. spectabilis per clump of B. ruziziensis with an average of 80 tillers for 6 days were sufficient to reduce the chlorophyll content and the functional plant loss index. This density can be a reference for spittlebug integrated management in Brachiaria.

  8. Characterization of resistance to adult spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Brachiaria spp.

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    Aguirre, Lina M; Cardona, César; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Nymphs and adults of several spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species are key pests of forage brachiariagrasses (Brachiaria spp.) in tropical America. To support current breeding programs, a series of experiments aimed at characterizing the mechanisms of resistance to adult feeding damage were carried out. Five genotypes were used: two susceptible checks (CIAT 0606 and CIAT 0654) and three nymph-resistant genotypes (CIAT 36087, CIAT 6294, and SX01NO/0102). Test insects were Aeneolamia varia (F.), A. reducta (Lallemand), and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand). The nymph-resistant genotypes showed tolerance to all spittlebug species tested. Tolerance in these genotypes can be classified as only moderate given the extent of losses (60-80%) caused by both female and male adults. None of the nymph-resistant genotypes had antibiotic effects on adults feeding on foliage. The results also indicated that antixenosis for feeding is not a plausible explanation for lower damage scores and less biomass losses in resistant genotypes. The fact that adult longevity (usually 8 d) was not affected when the adults were forced to feed on roots of a genotype with strong antibiotic resistance to nymphs is regarded as additional evidence that resistances to nymphs and to adults in Brachiaria are largely independent.

  9. Screening of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. strains against Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae/ Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. a Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae

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    Solange Aparecida Vieira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanized harvest of sugarcane results in accumulation of mulch on the soil and promotes favorable temperature and moist to development of sugarcane root spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae. High populations of this pest causes serious damages to plants and high costs with insecticides. This research work tested strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. pathogenic to sugarcane root spittlebug using a new methodology. The selection was carried out in laboratory conditions. Nymphs were sprayed with 2 mL of a suspension containing 5x107 conidia/mL and maintained in roots of sugarcane. The corrected mortality was evaluated five days after pulverization and ranged from 10.5 to 60% and the more pathogenic strains caused mortality from 46.5 to 59.7%.A colheita mecanizada de cana-de-açúcar, sem a queima da palhada, proporciona acúmulo de matériaorgânica no solo tornando o ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento da cigarrinha-da-raiz, Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae. Em elevadas infestações essa praga tem causado prejuízos devido aos grandes danos nas plantas e aos gastos com agrotóxicos. O objetivo da pesquisa foi selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. patogênicos para cigarrinha-da-raiz, usando uma nova metodologia. A seleção foi feita em condições de laboratório, utilizando-se ninfas coletadas a campo que foram pulverizadas com o fungo e mantidas em raiz de mudas de cana-de-açúcar. A mortalidade corrigida ao quinto dia após a inoculação variou de 10,5 a 60%, sendo que os isolados mais patogênicos causaram mortalidades de 46,5 a 59,7%.

  10. Theoremata arithmetica nova methodo demonstrata

    CERN Document Server

    Euler, Leonhard; Aycock, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Euler presents a third proof of the Fermat theorem, the one that lets us call it the Euler-Fermat theorem. This seems to be the proof that Euler likes best. He also proves that the smallest power x^n that, when divided by a numer N, prime to x, and that leaves a remainder of 1, is equal to the number of parts of N that are prime to n, that is to say, the number of distinct aliquot parts of N. The translation is presnted from Euler's Latin original into German.

  11. Descriptions of the immature stages and new host plant records of Notozulia entreriana (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) pests of grasses in subtropical areas of the Americas.

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    Foieri, Alvaro; Lenicov, Ana M Marino De Remes; Virla, Eduardo G

    2016-04-11

    Notozulia entreriana (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is one of the most common spittlebugs inhabiting the subtropical region of the America, inflicting important economic damage to grass crops. The immature stages are described and illustrated; the main characteristics that distinguish instars are the body size, color, number of flagellomeres, and number of tibial and metatarsomere spines. A key for identification of nymphs is provided as a tool to develop field studies.  Nine host plants, all belonging to Poaceae, are recorded as breeding and feeding host plants from different localities in northern Argentina.

  12. Description of the immature stages and new host plant records of Deois (Deois) mourei (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), a species newly recorded from Argentina and Paraguay.

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    Foieri, Alvaro; Lenicov, Ana M Marino De Remes; Virla, Eduardo G

    2016-09-06

    Deois (Deois) mourei Cavichioli & Sakakibara (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is recorded for the first time from Argentina and Paraguay. The eggs and immature stages of the species are described and illustrated; the main characters that distinguish instars are body size, color, number of flagellomeres, and number of tibial and metatarsomere spines. A key for identification of nymphs of D. (D.) mourei and a key to differentiate nymphs of the sympatric species D. (D.) mourei and Notozulia entreriana Berg are provided. In addition, a list of host plants of D. (D.) mourei in Argentina is given.

  13. The secondary contact zone of phylogenetic lineages of the Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae: Cercopidae): an example of incomplete allopatric speciation.

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    Lis, Agata; Maryańska-Nadachowska, Anna; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota; Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the phylogeography of the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae: Cercopidae) suggest the existence of a contact zone of its main phylogenetic lineages along mountain chains in Europe and western Asia. This study presents a detailed examination of the population genetics of P. spumarius within the Carpathian Mountains. The main objective was to determine whether the populations inhabiting that area consist of individuals belonging to different genetic units and whether the observed pattern could be an example of secondary contact zone which formed after incomplete allopatric speciation. Specimens from six transects across the Carpathian arc were examined. The mitochondrial phylogeography of the meadow spittlebug in the examined area clearly shows that individuals from both main clades meet and mix there. Representatives of all three main EF1-α clades were also found. The present distribution of the main clades with a zone of overlap along the mountain ranges may suggest that these phylogenetic lineages form a young hybrid zone. Moreover, a limited number of individuals were shown to possess heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA, which gives additional support to intraspecific hybridization. P. spumarius could be used in future work as an excellent model species in investigating population genetics, intraspecific hybridization, and speciation in progress.

  14. New host plants records for the froghopper Notozulia entreriana (Hemiptera: Cercopidae with new data on its occurrence in diverse ecological zones in Argentina

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    Alva FOIERI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Cercopidae afectan a la agricultura y ganadería en la región Neotropical. En el norte y centro de la Argentina causan un deterioro considerable en la calidad de los pastos que sustentan la producción ganadera. No existen en la Argentina estudios que integren aspectos taxonómicos y biológicos de estas chicharritas, registrándose sólo unos pocos aportes taxonómicos que datan de principio del siglo pasado. Notozulia entreriana Berg es una de las especies más abundante de salivazo que habita la región subtropical del país, pero en la Argentina sólo existen registros de tres localidades. A través del estudio de los ejemplares depositados en las colecciones del Museo de La Plata y los obtenidos a campo, se analiza su rango de distribución y plantas hospedadoras asociadas. Se amplía aquí la distribución de N. entreriana a quince provincias argentinas y se dan a conocer por primera vez las plantas hospederas. Sus poblaciones están asociadas a las siguientes monocotiledóneas: caña de azúcar, sorgo de Alepo, gramón y los pastos pangola, guinea y grama rhodes; se verificó que esta especie completa todo su ciclo de vida en el sorgo de Alepo, gramón y grama rhodes.

  15. Spittlebugs in the genus Sphenorhina (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) associated with weedy composite host plants (Asteraceae) that may represent unusual cases of nitrogen fixation%与特殊固氮模式草本菊科寄主植物有关的Sphenorhina属沫蝉(半翅目:沫蝉科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinton THOMPSON

    2013-01-01

    观察了沫蝉科Sphenorhina属与固氮植物有关的热带木本菊科植物Crassocephalum cerpidioides 和Chromolaena ordorata的3种沫蝉.沫蝉可能作为菊科一些固氮植物的间接指示物,该科的固氮作用尚未得到很好研究.%Three species of the spittlebug genus Sphenorhina (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) have been observed in association with Crassocephalum crepidioides and Chromolaena ordorata,weedy tropical species in the family Asteraceae that have been implicated as nitrogen-fixing plants.The spittlebugs may be serving as indirect indicators of nitrogen fixation in some species of Asteraceae,a group in which nitrogen fixation has not been well established.

  16. First karyotype data on the family Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha

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    Natalia Golub

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the first cytogenetic study of the recently proposed family Myerslopiidae the male karyotype of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, 1996 was analyzed using conventional chromosome staining, AgNOR- and C-bandings, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 18S rDNA and (TTAGGn telomeric probes. A karyotype of 2n = 16 + XY, NOR on a medium-sized pair of autosomes, subterminal location of C-heterochromatin, and presence of (TTAGGn telomeric sequence were determined. Additionally, the male internal reproductive system was studied.

  17. Cicadidae types (Hemiptera-Cicadomorpha) housed at the Museo de La Plata entomological collection (Argentina).

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    De Remes Lenicov, Ana M Marino; Maciá, Arnaldo; Pianzola, Bruno

    2015-06-23

    A catalog of the 161 type specimens of species of Hemiptera Cicadidae housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo de La Plata is presented. This collection represents 52 species grouped in 19 genera. For each species the original and current names, bibliographic references, type category, number of specimens, gender, Museo de La Plata code numbers, and transcription of data from labels (country, province, locality, date of collection, collector's name, and hosts) are given. Information about the state of preservation of the specimens in each series and photographs of each type species are also provided.

  18. The genus Hypheodana Metcalf and description of three new species (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae O gênero Hypheodana Metcalf e descrição de três novas espécies (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae

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    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hypheodana Metcalf, 1952, previously considered of uncertain position, is classified in Darninae-Darnini. The following species are treated, together with a re-characterization of the genus: Hypheodana ursus (Fairmaire, 1846, H. cuneata (Fowler, 1894 comb. nov. (formerly in Aspona, H. intermedia (Fowler, 1894 comb. nov. (formerly in Aspona, and also H. proxima sp. nov. (from Costa Rica, H. costata sp. nov. and H. acuta sp. nov. (these two from Mato Grosso, Brazil. All the species are illustrated.O gênero Hypheodana Metcalf, 1952, antes considerado em posição incerta, é classificado em Darninae-Darnini. As seguintes espécies são tratadas, juntamente com uma re-caracterização do gênero: Hypheodana ursus (Fairmaire, 1846, H. cuneata (Fowler, 1894 comb. nov. (antes em Aspona, H. intermedia (Fowler, 1894 comb. nov. (antes em Aspona e, também, H. proxima sp. nov. (da Costa Rica, H. costata sp. nov. e H. costata sp. nov. e H. acuta sp. nov. (estas duas do Mato Grosso, Brasil. Todas as espécies são ilustradas.

  19. Duas novas espécies de Tunama fennah, 1968 (Homoptera, Cercopidae

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    Gervásio Silva Carvalho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new brazilian species of Tunaima Fennah, 1968 are described: T. brunneoau-rantiaca sp.n. (from São Paulo and Paraná and T. brunneolutea sp.n. (from Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul.

  20. Influence of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stael) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) injury on the quality of cane juice

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    Madaleno, Leonardo L.; Ravaneli, Gisele C.; Presotti, Leandro E.; Mutton, Marcia J.R. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia; Mutton, Miguel A. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal; Fernandes, Odair A. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade

    2008-01-15

    Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stael) is an important pest in Latin America and causes significant reduction in sugarcane productivity. There is no information regarding the effect of this pest on the quality of cane juice used for sugar and alcohol production. This work aimed at evaluating the quality of sugarcane juice from plants attacked by spittlebugs. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 15 replications, and comprised two treatments: control and chemical treatment with thiamethoxam. An average of 9.2 {+-} 4.44 spittlebug nymphs m-1 were found in the plots prior to insecticide application. Nymphs were counted 18, 35, 55, and 82 days after the initial sampling (december/2003). During the mid growing season (July 2004), the juice was extracted from stalks and analyzed for Brix, Pol, RS, pH, fiber, purity, TRS, dextran, starch, and total phenolic compounds. Stalk yield was also measured. Chemical treatment was efficient in reducing spittlebug population, and elevated both stalk yield and juice pH. The accumulated infestation expressed as insect-days was significantly and negatively correlated to yield, Pol, pH, and purity. The concentration of phenolic compounds increased with pest infestation, while dextran and starch levels were not affected. The infestation of 2.4 and 7.3 nymphs m-1 day-1 caused reductions of 8.3% and 29.8% in yield; 1.9% and 5.8% in Pol; 0.4% and 1.1% in pH and 0.4% and 1.2% in purity, respectively, in comparison to areas where the pest population was extremely low (< 0.1 nymphs m-1). (author)

  1. Specific Diversity of Metarhizium Isolates Infecting Aeneolamia spp. (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Sugarcane Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Domínguez, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Carrillo-Benítez, M G; Alatorre-Rosas, R; Rodríguez-Leyva, E; Villanueva-Jiménez, J A

    2016-02-01

    Spittlebugs from the genus Aeneolamia are important pests of sugarcane. Although the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizum anisopliae s.l. for control of this pest is becoming more common in Mexico, fundamental information regarding M. anisopliae in sugarcane plantations is practically non-existent. Using phylogenetic analysis, we determined the specific diversity of Metarhizium spp. infecting adult spittlebugs in sugarcane plantations from four Mexican states. We obtained 29 isolates of M. anisopliae s.str. Haplotype network analysis revealed the existence of eight haplotypes. Eight selected isolates, representing the four Mexican states, were grown at different temperatures in vitro; isolates from Oaxaca achieved the greatest growth followed by isolates from Veracruz, San Luis Potosi and Tabasco. No relationship was found between in vitro growth and haplotype diversity. Our results represent a significant contribution to the better understanding of the ecology of Metarhizum spp. in the sugarcane agroecosystem.

  2. Remarkable morphological features of taxonomic interest in the female genitalia of five Erythrogonia species (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae).

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    Carvalho, Rachel A; Mejdalani, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The female genitalia of the Cicadellidae (leafhoppers) are usually considered more morphologically conservative (i.e., less variable) than the male genitalia at the generic and specific levels. However, various recent publications on the Cicadellinae (sharpshooters) have demonstrated the existence of useful characters in the female genitalia for the recognition of genera and species. Here we describe, illustrate, compare, and discuss peculiar processes, sclerites, and other features of the first pair of valvifers, sternite VIII, and ovipositor valvulae I and II of five species of the sharpshooter genus Erythrogonia (E. calva (Taschenberg, 1884), E. hertha Medler, 1963, E. phoenicea (Signoret, 1853), E. proterva Melichar, 1926, and E. sexguttata (Fabricius, 1803)). This genus includes currently the highest species diversity among the New World Cicadellinae, an agriculturally important subfamily. Comparative notes on other genera of the Cicadellini are added. In agreement with other recent publications, our results challenge the view that the morphology of the female genitalia is almost always conservative in the Cicadellidae.

  3. Phylogeny of the major lineages of Membracoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha) based on 28S rDNA sequences.

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    Dietrich, C H; Rakitov, R A; Holmes, J L; Black, W C

    2001-02-01

    Analysis of sequences from a 3.5-kb region of the nuclear ribosomal 28S DNA gene spanning divergent domains D2-D10 supports the hypothesis, based on fossil, biogeographic, and behavioral evidence, that treehoppers (Aetalionidae and Membracidae) are derived from leafhoppers (Cicadellidae). Maximum-parsimony analysis indicated that treehoppers are the sister group of a lineage comprising the currently recognized cicadellid subfamilies Agalliinae, Megophthalminae, Adelungiinae, and Ulopinae. Based on this phylogenetic estimate, the derivation of treehoppers approximately coincided with shifts in physiology and behavior, including loss of brochosome production and a reversal from active, jumping nymphs to sessile, nonjumping nymphs. Myerslopiidae, traditionally placed as a tribe of the cicadellid subfamily Ulopinae, represented a basal lineage distinct from other extant membracoids. The analysis recovered a large leafhopper lineage comprising a polyphyletic Deltocephalinae (sensu stricto) and its apparent derivatives Koebeliinae, Eupelicinae (polyphyletic), Selenocephalinae, and Penthimiinae. Clades comprising Macropsinae, Neocoelidiinae, Scarinae, Iassinae, Coelidiinae, Eurymelinae + Idiocerinae, Evacanthini + Pagaroniini, Aphrodinae + Ledrinae (in part), Stenocotini + Tartessinae, and Cicadellini + Proconiini were also recovered with moderate to high branch support. Cicadellinae (sensu lato), Ledrinae, Typhlocybinae, and Xestocephalinae were consistently polyphyletic on the most-parsimonious topologies, but constraining these groups to be monophyletic did not significantly increase the length of the cladograms. Relationships among the major lineages received low branch support, suggesting that more data are needed to provide a robust phylogenetic estimate.

  4. Análise de parcimônia de endemismo de cercopídeos neotropicais (Hemiptera, Cercopidae

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    Goldani Ângela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The spittlebugs have an extent distribution in the American continent. Their diversity may determinate endemism areas based on their occurence in different localities. We have used Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity method, which is an important historic biogeography tool for detecting and establishing the relationship among endemics areas. A data matrix was built up based on the occurence registration for the species by 66 genus in whole localities divided in five degrees quadrats in the Neotropical Region, using 49 OGUs (Operative Geografic Units. The presence of the taxa in the areas was coded 1 and the absence 0. The data matrix was analysed based on parsimony analysis through the computer program Hennig 86. Nine endemic areas were stipulated (Mexico + Central America, Venezuelan Savana, Guiana + Suriname, Chaco, Trans-andean, Cerrado, Amazon, Pampa and Atlantic Forest in the first analysis corroborated with ecological and physiographic patterns in each region. The second analysis was made using 48 genera to obtain the relationship among the nine areas stipulated before. In this analysis just one cladogram (3((1,2((8,9(6(7(4,5 was obtained with 192 steps, consistence index 0.80 and retention index 0.85.

  5. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korndorfer, A.P.; Grisoto, E.; Vendramim, J.D., E-mail: korndorfer@hotmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

  6. An annotated catalogue of the Membracidae types in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Olivia; Dos Santos, Guilherme Ide Marques; Lamas, Carlos Einicker

    2014-12-12

    Here presented is an annotated catalogue of the Membracidae types deposited at the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP), with information on 106 primary types and 171 secondary types. These type specimens represent 82 nominal species currently classified in 8 treehopper subfamilies and 17 tribes. According to our estimates, at least 10 primary types and 44 secondary types are missing in the collection. A comprehensive list of literature sources, taxonomic remarks, label data and descriptions on the state of preservation of specimens are given.

  7. Associative nitrogen fixation, C4 photosynthesis, and the evolution of spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) as major pests of neotropical sugarcane and forage grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, V

    2004-06-01

    Neotropical grass-feeding spittlebugs of several genera are important pests of pasture grasses from the southeastern USA to northern Argentina, and of sugarcane from southern Mexico to southern Brazil, causing estimated reductions of up to 70% in yield and estimated monetary losses of 840-2100 million US dollars annually. With few exceptions, the species badly damaged by these spittlebugs are introduced C4 grasses that exhibit associative nitrogen fixation. This study synthesizes evidence that the pest status of many tropical and subtropical grass-feeding spittlebugs is linked to associative N-fixation in their C4 hosts. Recognition that associative N-fixation is a major factor in spittlebug host preferences should deepen understanding of spittlebug agricultural ecology and facilitate efforts to combat spittlebug pests. In particular, spittlebugs should be susceptible to manipulation of xylem transport solutes. However, reduction of nitrate fertilizer rates, increase in ammonium fertilizer rates, or enhancement of associative N-fixation as a consequence of genetic engineering could make hosts more susceptible to spittlebug attack. Because of their predilection for C4 grasses, spittlebugs present a clear counterexample to the hypothesis that herbivores prefer C3 plants to C4 plants. Finally, it appears that declines in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels during recent geological history promoted the proliferation of C4 grasses. This, compounded by human agricultural activities, has driven an ecological and evolutionary radiation of grass-feeding spittlebugs that presents continuing opportunities for the evolution of spittlebug pests.

  8. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application

    OpenAIRE

    KORNDÖRFER, AP; GRISOTO, E; VENDRAMIM, JD

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stål, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816...

  9. Estimativa do nível de dano econômico de Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (hemiptera: cercopidae em cana-de-açúcar Assessment of the economic injury level of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (hemiptera: cercopidae to sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O nível de dano econômico de Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål em cana-de-açúcar foi estimado em experimento em campo, em área colhida em fim de safra (novembro, aplicando-se thiamethoxam nas doses de 150, 200 e 250g i.a.ha-1, quando as populações da praga eram de 1,8 (4/12/02, 7,6 (17/12/02 ou 12,4 cigarrinhas.m-1 (26/12/02. Parcelas testemunhas sem inseticida foram mantidas. Após as aplicações, as infestações de cigarrinha foram estimadas mensalmente e em 26/9/03 o experimento foi colhido. O controle de cigarrinha pela aplicação de inseticida resultou em incremento de produtividade de colmos e de açúcar, em relação à testemunha. Aplicações feitas sob infestações de 1,8 (04/12/02 ou 7,6 (17/12/02 resultaram em maior produtividade do que aplicações feitas com populações de 12,4 cigarrinhas.m-1. Na média, as três doses de thiamethoxam tiveram comportamento semelhante, mas houve interação entre dose e época ou infestação por ocasião das aplicações. Quando as aplicações foram feitas em 4/12/02, sob infestação de 1,8 cigarrinhas.m-1, o tratamento com thiamethoxam a 250g i.a.ha-1 resultou em produtividade de colmos e de açúcar total recuperável superior à do tratamento com 150 g i.a.ha-1, fato atribuído ao maior residual e melhor controle inicial da praga, proporcionado pela dose maior. Pela análise econômica observou-se que thiamethoxam a 250g i.a.ha-1 aplicado com infestação de 1,8 cigarrinhas.m-1 proporcionou o maior lucro, e enquanto aplicado na dose de 250g i.a.ha-1, sob infestação de 12,4 cigarrinhas.m-1, a menor receita líquida. Análises de regressão permitiram estimar o nível de dano econômico da praga, nas condições do presente experimento, entre 3 e 5 cigarrinhas.m-1.The economic injury level of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål to sugarcane was experimentally evaluated in a field area harvested at November. The inseticide thiamethoxam was applied: 150, 200 e 250 g i.a.ha-1. Applications started when the pest populations reached of 1.8 spittlebugs.m-1 (12/04/02, 7.6 spittlebugs.m-1 (12/17/02 or 12.4 spittlebugs.m-1 (12/26/02. Untreated plots were maintained as check. After the insecticide applications, infestations of the sugarcane root froghopper were monthly evaluated till 9/26/03 when the experiment was harvested. Compared with check plots, the pest control resulted in significant increment of sugar productivity. When applied under infestation of 1.8 (12/04/02 or 7.6 (12/17/02 the productivity was resulted higher than control made with populations of 12,4 spittlebugs.m-1. Thiamethoxam was efficient when applied in all of the three doses. It was observed interaction between dose and time of insecticide application. When the applications had been made in 12/04/02, under infestation of 1,8 spittlebugs.m-1, the treatment with thiamethoxam 250 g i.a.ha-1 resulted in stalks and sugar productivities higher than the treatment with 150g i.a.ha-1. This fact was attributed to the greater amount of residue and better initial control of the pest, obtained with the highest dose. The economic analysis of the data showed that thiamethoxam at 250g i.a.ha-1 applied with the infestation of 1.8 spittlebugs.m-1, provided the greatest profit, whereas when applied at the dose of 250g i.a.ha-1, under infestation of 12.4 spittlebugs.m-1, the smallest net income was obtained. Regression analysis allowed the estimation of the economic injury level for the pest, in the present experimental conditions, as ranging from 3 to 5 spittlebugs.m-1.

  10. Economic injury level for sugarcane caused by the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera:Cercopidae Nível de dano econômico em cana-de-açúcar causado pela cigarrinha das raízes Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera:Cercopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål, is currently one of the most important pests of the sugarcane crop in Brazil. In spite of its economic importance, advances in the management of this pest have been limited by the lack of information on the economic injury level. In this study, the economic injury level for M. fimbriolata was estimated in a field experiment, over areas harvested in September, applying thiamethoxam at 200 g a.i. ha-1 or imidacloprid at 720 g a.i. ha-1. In one of the experiments, insecticide applications were made at pest infestation values of 4.2 (11/12/04, 7.1 (01/11/05, or 16.3 (01/18/05 insects m-1, and in experiment 2 when pest populations were 5.6 (11/12/04, 8.5 (01/11/05, or 15.3 (01/11/05 insects m-1. Control plots without insecticide were maintained. After the applications, spittlebug infestations were estimated monthly, and the experiments were harvested in September 2005. Spittlebug control with the application of insecticides resulted in stalk and sugar yield increases in relation to the control, for both experiments. Applications performed under smaller infestations resulted in higher yields than applications made under higher populations. There were no differences between insecticides in one of the experiments; in the other, however, thiamethoxan contributed to greater yield increases than imidacloprid. Insecticide applications made under lower infestations resulted in greater profits. Regression analyses allowed the estimation of the pest economic injury level to be between 2 to 3 insects m-1 for the conditions of this experiment.A cigarrinha-das-raízes, Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål, é uma das mais importantes pragas da cana-de-açúcar na região Centro-Sul do Brasil. Apesar disso, avanços na implantação de programas de manejo estão sendo limitados pela falta de informações sobre o nível de dano econômico. Neste trabalho, o nível de dano econômico de M. fimbriolata foi estimado em experimento em campo, em áreas colhidas em setembro, aplicando thiamethoxam na dose de 200 g a.i. ha-1 ou imidacloprid na dose de 720 g a.i. ha-1. Em um dos ensaios, as aplicações de inseticidas foram feitas quando as infestações da praga eram de 4.2 (11/12/04, 7.1 (01/11/05 ou 16.3 (01/18/05 insetos m-1 e no ensaio 2, quando as populações da praga eram de 5.6 (11/12/04, 8.5 (01/11/05 ou 15.3 (01/11/05 insetos m-1. Parcelas testemunhas sem inseticida foram mantidas. Após as aplicações, as infestações de cigarrinha foram estimadas mensalmente e os ensaios foram colhidos em setembro de 2005. O controle de cigarrinha pela aplicação de inseticidas resultou incrementos de produtividade de colmos e de açúcar, em relação à testemunha, em ambos os ensaios. Aplicações feitas sob infestações menores resultaram em maiores produtividades do que aplicações feitas com populações mais elevadas. Não houve diferenças entre os inseticidas em um dos ensaios, mas no outro, thiamethoxan contribuiu para maiores incrementos de produtividade do que imidacloprid. Aplicações de inseticidas feitas sob infestações mais baixas resultaram em maiores lucros. Análises de regressão permitiram estimar o nível de dano econômico da praga, nas condições do presente ensaio, entre 2 e 3 insetos m-1.

  11. Lord Brouncker's Forgotten Sequence of Continued Fractions for Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    "Lord Brouncker's continued fraction for pi" is a well-known result. In this article, we show that Brouncker found not only this one continued fraction, but an entire infinite sequence of related continued fractions for pi. These were recorded in the "Arithmetica Infinitorum" by John Wallis, but appear to have been ignored and forgotten by modern…

  12. Les "arithmétiques" de Diophante lecture historique et mathématique

    CERN Document Server

    Rashed, Roshdi

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, only six of thirteen books comprising Diophantus' Arithmetica were known to us. Four other books in an Arabic translation have been discovered recently. We can now understand the organization of this work and its long-lasting impact on mathematics. The present book offers the first historical and mathematical study of the work as it has survived in ten books.

  13. Histoire de l'analyse diophantienne classique d'Abu Kamil à Fermat

    CERN Document Server

    Rashed, Roshdi

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of the history of Diophantine analysis and the theory of numbers from Ab? K?mil to Fermat (9th-17th century). It thus offers an elaborate and detailed overview on a fundamental chapter on classical mathematical thought and its relation to algebra and Diophantus' Arithmetica.

  14. Lord Brouncker's Forgotten Sequence of Continued Fractions for Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    "Lord Brouncker's continued fraction for pi" is a well-known result. In this article, we show that Brouncker found not only this one continued fraction, but an entire infinite sequence of related continued fractions for pi. These were recorded in the "Arithmetica Infinitorum" by John Wallis, but appear to have been ignored and forgotten by modern…

  15. Remarques sur l'expression de la g\\'en\\'eralit\\'e en math\\'ematiques

    CERN Document Server

    Herreman, Alain

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a condition of the expression of generality in mathematics from the application of L\\"owenheim-Skolem theorem to Zermelo's axioms. It gives an example of an "expression problem" from Gauss's Disquisitiones Arithmeticae and caracterizes the used of sets in it. ----- L'article d\\'egage une condition de l'expression de la g\\'en\\'eralit\\'e en math\\'ematiques \\`a partir de l'application du th\\'eor\\`eme de L\\"owenheim-Skolem aux axiomes de Zermelo. Il donne un exemple de "probl\\`eme d'expression" \\`a partir des Disquisitiones Arithmeticae de Gauss, d\\'egageant ainsi une condition du recours aux ensembles.

  16. Publications 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Acerbi- « The Meaning of plasmatikovn in Diophantus’ Arithmetica », Archive for History of Exact Sciences 63 (2009, p. 5-31.- « Transitivity Cannot Explain Perfect Syllogisms », Rhizai 6 (2009, p. 23-42.- « Osservazioni sulle origini aritmetiche della teoria aristotelica del sillogismo ». In M. Alessandrelli, M. Nasti De Vincentis (éds., La logica nel pensiero antico. Atti del colloquio Roma 28-29 novembre 2000. Napoli, Bibliopolis 2009, p. 77-104.- « Une école mathématique alexandri...

  17. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  18. Differential pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae and the control of the sugarcane root spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Tiago

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin isolates in controlling the sugarcane root spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae, nine isolates obtained from a single geographical region were studied. 'Confirmed cumulative' and 'corrected cumulative' spittlebug mortality rates were measured for each of the isolates. Based on the confirmed mortality curve, the isolates URM5946, URM5951 and URM6033 were considered to be potentially the most effective in a biological control program for M. fimbriolata.

  19. The Interpretations and Applications of Boethius's Introduction to the Arithmetic II,1 at the End of the 10th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otisk, Marek

    This paper deals with comments and glosses to the first chapter of the second book of Boethius's Introduction to Arithmetic from the last quarter of the 10th century. Those texts were written by Gerbert of Aurillac (Scholium ad Boethii Arithmeticam Institutionem l. II, c. 1), Abbo of Fleury (commentary on the Calculus by Victorius of Aquitaine, the so-called De numero, mensura et pondere), Notker of Liège (De superparticularibus) and by the anonymous author (De arithmetica Boetii). The main aim of this paper is to show that Boethius's statements about the converting numerical sequences to equality from this work could be interpreted minimally in two different ways. This paper discussed also the application of this topic in other liberal arts (like astronomy, music, grammar etc.) and in playing game called rithmomachia, the medieval philosophers' game.

  20. Vers une analyse sémiotique de la théorie des ensembles : hiérarchies et réflexivité

    OpenAIRE

    Herreman, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Cet article est une contribution à l’étude de l’expression de la généralité et de l’abstraction en mathématique. Il propose dans cette perspective une analyse des conditions de possibilité de la réflexivité. Certaines de ces conditions sont d’abord dégagées à partir d’exemples élémentaires. Une brève analyse des Disquistiones arithmeticae de Gauss permet ensuite de proposer un critère de démarcation sémiotique pour les mathématiques ensemblistes. L’application de ce critère permet ensuite d’e...

  1. First finding of a dual-meaning X wave for phloem and xylem fluid ingestion: Characterization of Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) EPG waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuche, Julien; Backus, Elaine A; Thiéry, Denis; Sauvion, Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae), an invasive deltocephaline species introduced into Europe from North America, is the vector of the most important phytoplasma disease in European viticulture, flavescence dorée. In this first electropenetrography (EPG) study of S. titanus, we characterized its feeding waveforms and defined their biological meanings. Four typical waveform phases (pathway, X wave, sustained ingestion, and interruption) and four families within those phases (A, B, C, and N) were characterized using DC EPG technology. We proposed biological meanings for these waveforms based on excreta pH-ingestion correlations, presence of X waves, and comparison with previous AC, DC, and AC-DC EPG waveforms conducted on Cicadomorpha. We observed that sustained (i.e., >10min) ingestion by a deltocephaline leafhopper can occur from both xylem and phloem vascular cells. Waveform C2x represented ingestion of xylem fluid, and two waveforms represented behaviors when stylets were inserted into phloem sieve elements: C2p variant 1 (C2p-1), which may represent salivation (perhaps simultaneous with ingestion), and C2p variant 2 (C2p-2), which represented active ingestion. Furthermore, we found that the EPG-recorded X wave has a dual meaning by occurring prior to sustained ingestion from either phloem or xylem. This X wave was very similar in appearance to the model X wave of sharpshooters, an entirely different leafhopper subfamily, Cicadellinae. All cicadellines are obligate xylem-ingesters. Such a "dual-meaning X wave" will provide insights into how the feeding tactics of S. titanus relate to other sheath-feeding hemipterans, and will provide support for future research to clarify the role of this leafhopper as a vector of plant pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge about useful entomofauna in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo, Puebla State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Zetina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of edible insects belonging to 15 families of six orders of Insecta were recorded in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo in Puebla State, Mexico. They had the following taxonomic distribution among the different families: Lygaeidae, Pentatomidae, Membracidae, Cercopidae, Psocidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Cossidae, Megathymidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Apidae, all with a single recorded species; the families Acrididae, Formicidae and Vespidae with two species in each family. The latter were the most abundant families, and Hymenoptera was the most salient order with five species. Three species were reported as new registers of edible insects for Mexico and also for the world. The nutritive value of insects in terms of macro and micronutrients is discussed.

  3. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Julie M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas], found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families. Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained was supported by statistical tests of

  4. Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed.

  5. Jesuit Geophysical Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udias, Agustin; Stauder, William

    Jesuits have had ah interest in observing and explaining geophysical phenomena since this religious order, the Society of Jesus, was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Three principal factors contributed to this interest: their educational work in colleges and universities, their missionary endeavors to remote lands where they observed interesting and often as yet undocumented natural phenomena, and a network of communication that brought research of other Jesuits readily to their awareness.One of the first and most important Jesuit colleges was the Roman College (today the Gregorian University) founded in 1551 in Rome, which served as a model for many other universities throughout the world. By 1572, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), professor of mathematics at the Roman College, had already initiated an important tradition of Jesuit research by emphasizing applied mathematics and insisting on the need of serious study of mathematics in the program of studies in the humanities. In 1547 he directed a publication of Euclid's work with commentaries, and published several treatises on mathematics, including Arithmetica Practica [1585], Gnomonicae [1581], and Geometrica Practica [1606]. Clavius was also a Copernican and supported his friend Galileo when he announced the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter.

  6. Calculation of the shangyuan jinian elapsed-year-since--grand-epoch of the kaixi calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. X.

    2007-01-01

    Gauss C.F. (1777-1855) pointed out in his Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (1801) that linear congruences came from the problems of calendars: ``This usage arose in the problem of chronology when we seek to determine what Julian year it is whose indiction, golden number, and solar cycle are given.'' The Problem of Zhili Yanji (Design for a Calendar by Means of the Sexagenary Cycle) in Qin Jiushao's Shushu Jiuzhang ( Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections ) (A.D. 1247) recorded the design development of the Kaixi Calendar (1207-1251) which was the unique existent material recorded during this period of more than 1000 years when the algorithm of Shangyuan Jinian Elapsed-Year-since--Grand-Epoch used by ancient and medieval Chinese calendarists until A.D. 1280. It is devoted to restituting the full calculation of this data by analysising original thought on concept about linear congruences for the conditions of the Grand-Epoch, the cycle consonant principle, the concept of the Qiyuan Solar-period, the reason for the Ruyuansui Entry-of-Solar-period, the Dayan method and the counting process for the Yuansu Number-of-Solar-period.

  7. Incidência de Dilobopterus costalimai Young e Acrogonia citrina Marucci & Cavichioli, em pomares cítricos no noroeste paranaense = Incidence of Dilobopterus costalimai Young and Acrogonia citrina Marucci & Cavichioli, in citrus orchards in Northwestern Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maria Orbolato Gonçalves

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available As cigarrinhas das famílias Cicadellidae e Cercopidae são vetores da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa Wells, causadora da Clorose variegada dos citros. Esta doença traz sérios prejuízos à lavoura de citros no Noroeste Paranaense, e é estudada no Brasil desde 1987, quando foi descoberta pela primeira vez na região de Colina, São Paulo. Os vetores transmitem a X. fastidiosa quando se alimentam sugando a seiva do xilema, local onde a bactéria se instala, obstruindo a passagem da seiva. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar aocorrência das cigarrinhas vetoras Dilobopterus costalimai e Acrogonia citrina em pomar comercial de citros. O experimento foi realizado no sítio “Laranjeiras I”, município de Nova Esperança, região noroeste do Paraná, no período de julho de 2004 a agosto de 2006. Foram feitas amostragens mensais, por meio de armadilhas adesivas amarelas (Biocontrole®, nas variedades de laranjeiras [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] Folha Murcha, Valência, Pêra e Natal.Nas variedades Pêra e Valência, a cigarrinha mais capturada foi Dilobopterus costalimai. Os meses de maior ocorrência das espécies foram entre dezembro e maio de cada ano.The sharpshooters of the families Cicadellidae and Cercopidae are vectors of Xylella fastidiosa (Wells, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis. This disease causes severe damage to the Paraná citrus industry, and it has been studied in Brazil since 1987, when it was discovered for the first time in the area of Colina, SP. The vectors transmit X. fastidiosa when they feed on the xylem sap, where the bacteria settles, obstructing the passage of the sap. This workhad the objective of evaluating the occurrence of the vector sharpshooter Dilobopterus costalimai and Acrogonia citrina in a commercial citrus orchard during the period between July 2004 and August 2006. The experiment was accomplished in the Laranjeiras I farm, in the city of Nova Esperança, northwestern Paraná. The collections

  8. Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae against immature stages of Anastrepha fraterculus fruitfly (Diptera : Tephritidae Eficácia de Metarhizium anisopliae a estágios imaturos de Anastrepha fraterculus a mosca das frutas (Diptera : Tephritidae

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    Ricardo Henry Rodrigues Destéfano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Hyphomycetes : Moniliales strain E9, isolated from the pasture spittlebug Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera : Cercopidae, against larvae, prepupae and pupae stage and emergent adults of Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruitfly. The bioassay was carried out simulating field conditions, on autoclaved (AS and non-autoclaved (NAS soil from typical citrus orchards in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil. Various concentrations of conidia were incorporated into the soil the mortality, calculated based on the percentage of adult emergence, was 86% for the highest conidia concentrations: 2.52 x 10(10 for AS and 2.52 x 10(10 for NAS. The lethal concentration (LC50, expressed as conidia concentration, was 8.44 x 10(9 conidia/g of soil (S for AS and 12.23 x 10(9 conidia/g of soil for NAS.O estudo avaliou a eficácia de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, (Hyphomycetes : Moniliales linhagem E9, isolada da cigarrinha das pastagens Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera : Cercopidae, contra larvas, prepupas, pupas e adultos emergentes de Anastreha fraterculus, a mosca Sul Americana das frutas. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos simulando condições de campo em solo autoclavado (AS e não autoclavado (NAS de pomares típicos de citros no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Várias concentrações de conídios foram incorporadas no solo. A mortalidade calculada sobre a porcentagem de adultos emergentes, foi de 86% para as concentrações mais altas de conídios: 2,52 x 10(10 para AS e 2,52 x 10(10 para NAS. A concentração letal (LC50 expressa pela concentração de conídios, foi 8,44 x 10(9 conídios/g de solo para AS e 12,2 x 10(9 conídios/g/S para NAS.

  9. Pachycondyla obscuricornis as natural enemy of the spittlebug Deois flavopicta Pachycondyla obscuricornis como inimigo natural da cigarrinha-das-pastagens Deois flavopicta

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    Edison Ryoiti Sujii

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential control of the ant Pachycondyla obscuricornis Emery (Hymenoptera Formicidae on populations of nymphs of the spittlebug, Deois flavopicta Stal (Hemiptera Cercopidae. Foraging behavior and prey consumption rate of P. obscuricornis were evaluated. Field data revealed that P. obscuricornis does not show aggressive behavior against individuals of the same species, when they are not carrying a prey; they can patrol distances larger than 10 m searching for prey, and they can build their nest as close as 1 m from each other. The ant has a solitary patrolling habit, there is no recruitment behavior, and individuals dislocate fast, browsing on soil and vegetation for prey. Predation rate on spittlebug nymphs increased relative to the spittlebug abundance, reaching 93.8% of captured prey. Pachycondyla obscuricornis is a voracious predator and may control the population of spittlebugs in cultivated pastures.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se a formiga Pachycondyla obscuricornis Emery (Hymenoptera Formicidae pode atuar no controle biológico de populações de ninfas da cigarrinha-das-pastagens, Deois flavopicta Stal (Hemiptera Cercopidae. Foram estudados o comportamento de caça da formiga e sua taxa de consumo da presa. Pachycondyla obscuricornis não apresenta comportamento agressivo em relação a indivíduos da mesma espécie, quando estes não carregam presas; pode deslocar-se por distâncias superiores a 10 m em busca de presas e pode nidificar a até 1 m de ninhos da mesma espécie. A formiga apresentou hábito de caça solitário, ausência de recrutamento, e deslocamento rápido pela vegetação. A taxa de predação aumentou com a abundância da cigarrinha, chegando a representar 93,8% das presas capturadas. Pachycondyla obscuricornis é predadora voraz e representa potencial agente de controle de populações da cigarrinha-das-pastagens em pastagens cultivadas.

  10. Impact of the Spittlebug Mahanarva spectabilis on Signal Grass

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    Tiago Teixeira Resende

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the damage in Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Edvard according to the density of and exposure time to adults of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera:Cercopidae. Each plant was kept with 0, 12, 18, or 24 adults of M. spectabilis for five or ten days. Then, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: content and loss of chlorophyll, visual damage score, shoot dry mass, and the capability for regrowth. In fact, plants exposed to the highest level of infestation for 10 days showed an 80.97% loss of chlorophyll, which is 25% higher than that shown by the plants exposed for five days. The damage score also increased with infestation levels. In the levels of 12 and 18 adults per plant, the damage score increased with increasing time of exposure. The dry mass content was higher in plants exposed to 24 insects for 10 days, suggesting that the attack of spittlebugs caused premature drying of the plant. These effects caused significant reduction in the number of tillers of infested plants. Our results indicate that exposure to adults of M. spectabilis causes significant damage and affects the development and persistence of B. ruziziensis plants.

  11. Seasonal abundance of Draeculacephala minerva and other Xylella fastidiosa vectors in California almond orchards and vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Kent M; Wistrom, Christina M; Shapland, Elaine B; Sisterson, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    Almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa and transmitted by xylem-feeding insects. Reports of increased incidence of ALS-diseased trees in California prompted surveys in three almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb]-growing regions, from June 2003 to September 2005, to determine insect vector species composition and abundance. For comparison, sampling in and near vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley, California, also was completed. Sampling in or near almond orchards collected >42,000 Cicadomorpha of which 4.8% were xylem feeders, including 1912 grass sharpshooter, Draeculacephala minerva Ball; five Xyphon fulgida Nottingham; and a single spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius L. The most abundant vector was D. minerva. Season-long sampling indicated that D. minerva was a year-round resident in and/or near almonds in the Sacramento Valley, but not in the San Joaquin Valley. Similarly, D. minerca was rare in vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley, but was abundant in irrigated pastures near vineyards. D. minerva was most frequently collected along orchard margins, and peak densities were observed in summer, the period of time when bacterial titers are reported to increase in infected trees. Screening of D. minerva for presence of X.fastidiosa found that 1.1% of insects collected near almond orchards and 4.5% of insects collected from pastures tested positive. The X. fastidiosa subspecies and genotype detected in insects collected from orchards matched those collected from ALS-diseased almond trees in the same orchard. Of the few X. fulgida and P. spumarius collected, none tested positive for X. fastidiosa. Results are discussed with respect to X. fastidiosa vector control and detection methods.

  12. Morphostructural analysis of the male reproductive system and DNA barcoding in Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 (Homoptera, Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, D G M; Viscuso, R; D'Urso, V; Gibilras, S; Sardella, A; Marletta, A; Pappalardo, A M

    2015-12-01

    Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 is an allochthonous leafhopper infesting an invasive grass, Pennisetum setaceum, in Sicily and in mainland Europe; therefore, this species could compete with populations of native species, thus contributing to the loss of biodiversity. Considering the ecological implications of B. brevis, investigations on all its biological aspects represent, therefore, a premise for further studies in applied sciences. Based on the lacking ultrastructural data about the reproductive systems of the Auchenorrhyncha, we carried out morphostructural investigations on the male reproductive system of B. brevis. Further, a first report of DNA barcoding analysis (amplification and sequencing of Cytochrome Oxidase I gene) has also been performed to characterize B. brevis compared to other congeneric species. From a morphological point of view, the male reproductive system of B. brevis has an organization comparable to the general anatomical features of most of the Auchenorrhyncha species; however, comparing our data with those concerning the different groups of Cicadomorpha, some considerations are discussed. As for the histological and ultrastructural investigations, our results show a secretory activity of the various examined structures, mainly in the lateral ejaculatory ducts and in the accessory glands. The latter, in particular, show morphostructural differences comparing the distal tract to the proximal one; moreover, the histochemical techniques showed the possible presence of a lipid component in the peculiar cytoplasmic granules found in the gland cells. The significance of these findings in the accessory glands is discussed. Finally, the ultrastructural features found in the seminal vesicles are different from those of the lateral ejaculatory ducts and are indicative of the different roles played by these structures in the organization of the spermatozoa bundles.

  13. Histopathological events and detection of Metarhizium anisopliae using specific primers in infected immature stages of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, I J; Destéfano, R H R; Bresil, C; Messias, C L

    2011-02-01

    The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is used on a large scale in Brazil as a microbial control agent against the sugar cane spittlebugs, Mahanarva posticata and M. fimbriolata (Hemiptera., Cercopidae). We applied strain E9 of M. anisopliae in a bioassay on soil, with field doses of conidia to determine if it can cause infection, disease and mortality in immature stages of Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly. All the events were studied histologically and at the molecular level during the disease cycle, using a novel histological technique, light green staining, associated with light microscopy, and by PCR, using a specific DNA primer developed for M. anisopliae capable to identify Brazilian strains like E9. The entire infection cycle, which starts by conidial adhesion to the cuticle of the host, followed by germination with or without the formation of an appressorium, penetration through the cuticle and colonisation, with development of a dimorphic phase, hyphal bodies in the hemocoel, and death of the host, lasted 96 hours under the bioassay conditions, similar to what occurs under field conditions. During the disease cycle, the propagules of the entomopathogenic fungus were detected by identifying DNA with the specific primer ITSMet: 5' TCTGAATTTTTTATAAGTAT 3' with ITS4 (5' TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC 3') as a reverse primer. This simple methodology permits in situ studies of the infective process, contributing to our understanding of the host-pathogen relationship and allowing monitoring of the efficacy and survival of this entomopathogenic fungus in large-scale applications in the field. It also facilitates monitoring the environmental impact of M. anisopliae on non-target insects.

  14. Survey of potential sharpshooter and spittlebug vectors of Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines at the São Francisco River Valley, Brazil

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    Rudiney Ringenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey of potential sharpshooter and spittlebug vectors of Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines at the São Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Pierce's disease of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is a serious problem in some regions of North America, not yet reported in Brazil. In this study, a survey of potential sharpshooter (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae and spittlebug (Hemiptera, Cercopidae vectors of X. fastidiosa was conducted in vineyards at the São Francisco River Valley, a major grape growing region in Brazil. Four vineyards of Vitis vinifera L. were sampled fortnightly from June/2005 to June/2007, using yellow sticky cards, each placed at two different heights (45 cm aboveground and 45 cm above the crop canopy in 10 sampling localities. A total of 4,095 specimens of sharpshooters were collected, nearly all from 3 Proconiini species, Homalodisca spottii Takiya, Cavichioli & McKamey, 2006 (96.8% of the specimens, Tapajosa fulvopunctata (Signoret, 1854 (3.1%, and Tretogonia cribrata Melichar, 1926 (1 specimen. Hortensia similis (Walker, 1851 (2 specimens was the only Cicadellini species. Only 1 cercopid specimen, belonging to Aeneolamia colon (Germar, 1821, was trapped. Even though they are not considered potential Xylella vectors, 2 Gyponini leafhoppers were collected: Curtara samera DeLong & Freytag, 1972 (11 specimens and Curtara inflata DeLong & Freytag, 1976 (1 specimen. Homalodisca spottii was observed feeding and mating on green branches of grapevines, in addition to egg masses. Because of its prevalence on the crop canopy, occurrence throughout the year (with peaks from February to August, and ability to colonize grapevines, H. spottii could be an important vector if a X. fastidiosa strain pathogenic to grapevines becomes introduced at the São Francisco River Valley.

  15. Cuatro efemérides matemáticas a la sombra de los griegos Thābit ibn Qurra, Gerolamo Cardano, Pierre de Fermat y las Disquisitiones de Gauss

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    Durán Guardeño, Antonio J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Usando como hilo conductor la recuperación y superación del legado matemático -y científico- griego, se analizarán en esta colaboración cuatro importantes efemérides matemáticas: la muerte de Thābit ibn Qurra (901, los nacimientos de Gerolamo Cardano (1501 y Pierre de Fermat (1601 y la publicación de las Disquisitiones Arithmeticae de Karl F. Gauss (1801. Con esta perspectiva, consideraremos las contribuciones de Thābit al primer renacimiento de la ciencia y filosofía griegas que se produjo a partir del siglo VIH de manos de los árabes. Gerolamo Cardano aparecerá como actor de otro Renacimiento -este lo solemos escribir con mayúscula-: el italiano; que en este caso culminó con la recuperación para la Europa Occidental de la matemática, filosofía y ciencia griegas, además del arte. La figura de Pierre de Fermat se mostrará decisiva en la creación durante el siglo XVII de las dos herramientas matemáticas que suponen, tras dos mil años de historia, la superación conceptual y operativa de la matemática griega: la geometría analítica y el cálculo diferencial. Aunque en otra medida que Thābit, Cardano y Fermat, las Disquisitiones también pueden conectarse con el espíritu del mundo griego; fue, de hecho, el mismo Gauss quien lo invocó para darle realce y significado a uno de los principales resultados de su libro -el estudio de los polígonos regulares que admiten ser construidos con regla y compás-: «Es ciertamente atónito que nada nuevo se haya añadido a esta teoría desde los tiempos de Euclides hace ya 2.000 años».

  16. 关于停止使用"同翅目Homoptera" 目名的建议%A proposal to stop using the insect order name "Homoptera"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱萍

    2005-01-01

    长期以来,在我国昆虫学界,"同翅目Homoptera"和半翅目Hemiptera一直被作为2个并列的昆虫目被广泛使用.传统的"同翅目"被分为3亚目10总科,即鞘喙亚目Coleorrhyncha(包括膜翅蝽总科Peloridioidea)、胸喙亚目Sternorrhyncha(包括木虱总科Psylloidea、粉虱总科Aleyrodoidea、蚧总科Coccoidea和蚜总科Aphidoidea)和头喙亚目Auchenorrhyncha[包括蜡蝉子亚目Fulgoromorpha(包括蜡蝉总科Fulgoroidea)和蝉子亚目Cicadomorpha(包括蝉总科Cicadoidea、沫蝉总科Cercopoidea、叶蝉总科Cicadelloidea和角蝉总科Membracoidea)].近年来,形态学及分子学特征数据的支序分析研究表明,木虱总科、粉虱总科、蚧总科、蚜总科、蜡蝉总科、蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科都是单系群;鞘喙亚目、胸喙亚目、蝉子亚目及蜡蝉子亚目也都是单系群,其相互之间的系统发育关系为:胸喙亚目+(蝉子亚目+(蜡蝉子亚目+(鞘喙亚目+异翅亚目(蝽类)))),它们共同组成了单系的半翅目Hemiptera.系统发育分析表明,在半翅目中,鞘喙亚目与异翅亚目具有最近的亲缘关系,蜡蝉子亚目与鞘喙亚目+异翅亚目是姊妹群,蝉子亚目是蜡蝉子亚目+(鞘喙亚目+异翅亚目)的姐妹群,胸喙亚目是半翅目中最早和最原始的一个分枝.因此传统的"同翅目"并不是一个自然的单系类群,而是一个人为的并系类群.目前,在国际昆虫学界,"同翅目"作为一个人为的并系类群已得到公认和普遍接受,并已不再作为昆虫纲的一个有效目被使用.然而,"同翅目"作为昆虫纲的一个有效目在国内一直被广泛使用,为此,作者建议我国的昆虫学工作者今后应停止使用"同翅目"这一人为的并系目名而使用单系的半翅目目名,即将长期以来一直置于"同翅目"的木虱、粉虱、蚧虫、蚜虫、蝉、沫蝉、叶蝉、角蝉及蜡蝉类昆虫与蝽类昆虫一起作为半翅目的成员对待.

  17. Aerodynamic Optimization Design for Large Upswept Afterbody of Transport Aircraft Based on FFD Technology%基于FFD技术的大型运输机上翘后体气动优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元元; 张彬乾; 郭兆电; 董强

    2013-01-01

    利用非均匀有理B样条(NURBS)基函数属性建立了任意空间的自由变形(FFD)参数化方法,进一步结合无限插值(TFI)变形网格技术、二阶振荡粒子群优化(PSO)算法以及计算流体力学(CFD)数值模拟技术,构建了通用的气动外形优化设计系统.采用该系统对C17运输机上翘后体进行气动优化设计,在满足后体最大宽度、高度以及上翘角不减小的情况下,巡航状态减阻2.6%,压差阻力减小19.8%.流态分析显示,优化后体阻力减小的主要原因是后体截面近圆度的增加以及近圆度沿机身轴线的变化量的减小使得后体周向逆压梯度减小所致.研究结果表明本文建立的基于FFD技术的气动优化设计系统对于大型运输机上翘后体的气动优化设计具有较好的实用性.%A free-form deformation parameterization (FFD) method is established based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) basis function.Furthermore,by coupling the transfinite interpolation (TFI) grid deformation technology and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method with improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) arithmetic,a general aerodynamic optimization design system is constructed.Then,the aerodynamic optimization design system is applied to designing a large upswept afterbody of transport aircraft C17 on the restrictions of nondecreasing maximum structure height,width and upswept angle.The optimized afterbody decreases the total drag by 2.6% and pressure drag by 19.8% respectively.A comparison analysis of the aerodynamic shape and flow pattern reveals that the key factors for the optimized afterbody to decrease the pressure drag greatly are the increased near-roundness of the afterbody cross-section and decreased near-roundness change ratio along the fuselage axis.The two factors enable the adverse pressure gradient along the circumferential direction to become smaller,which can suspend aferbody separation and weaken afterbody vortex strength