WorldWideScience

Sample records for arithmetic

  1. Arithmetic density

    CERN Document Server

    Garay, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Arithmetic class are closed subsets of the euclidean space which generalise arithmetical conditions encoutered in dynamical systems, such as diophantine conditions or Bruno type conditions. I prove density estimates for such sets using Dani-Kleinbock-Margulis techniques.

  2. Reversible arithmetic logic unit

    OpenAIRE

    zhou, Rigui; Shi, Yang; Zhang, Manqun

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computer requires quantum arithmetic. The sophisticated design of a reversible arithmetic logic unit (reversible ALU) for quantum arithmetic has been investigated in this letter. We provide explicit construction of reversible ALU effecting basic arithmetic operations. By provided the corresponding control unit, the proposed reversible ALU can combine the classical arithmetic and logic operation in a reversible integrated system. This letter provides actual evidence to prove the possib...

  3. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos Gil, José Ignacio; Feliu, E.

    2009-01-01

    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov context, of the higher algebraic Chow groups defined by Bloch. The degree zero group agrees with the arithmetic Chow groups of Burgos. Our new construction is shown to be a contravariant functor and is ...

  4. Zariski decompositions on arithmetic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Moriwaki, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the Zariski decompositions of arithmetic R-divisors of continuous type on arithmetic surfaces and investigate several properties. We also develop the general theory of arithmetic R-divisors on arithmetic varieties.

  5. Arithmetic of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We incorporate the string theory into the number theoretic formulation based on arithmetic geometry. The string theory is generalized p-adically and interpreted on an arithmetic surface. A p-adic multi-loop scattering amplitude is constructed. (orig.)

  6. Introduction to Projective Arithmetics

    CERN Document Server

    Burgin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Science and mathematics help people to better understand world, eliminating many inconsistencies, fallacies and misconceptions. One of such misconceptions is related to arithmetic of natural numbers, which is extremely important both for science and everyday life. People think their counting is governed by the rules of the conventional arithmetic and thus other kinds of arithmetics of natural numbers do not exist and cannot exist. However, this popular image of the situation with the natural numbers is wrong. In many situations, people have to utilize and do implicitly utilize rules of counting and operating different from rules and operations in the conventional arithmetic. This is a consequence of the existing diversity in nature and society. To correctly represent this diversity, people have to explicitly employ different arithmetics. To make a distinction, we call the conventional arithmetic by the name Diophantine arithmetic, while other arithmetics are called non-Diophantine. There are two big families ...

  7. Arithmetic Teichmuller Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rastegar, Arash

    2015-01-01

    By Grothendieck's anabelian conjectures, Galois representations landing in outer automorphism group of the algebraic fundamental group which are associated to hyperbolic smooth curves defined over number-fields encode all the arithmetic information of these curves. The Goal of this paper is to develop an arithmetic Teichmuller theory, by which we mean, introducing arithmetic objects summarizing the arithmetic information coming from all curves of the same topological type defined over number-...

  8. Arithmetic Cohomology Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sugahara, K.; Weng, L

    2015-01-01

    We first introduce global arithmetic cohomology groups for quasi-coherent sheaves on arithmetic varieties, adopting an adelic approach. Then, we establish fundamental properties, such as topological duality and inductive long exact sequences, for these cohomology groups on arithmetic surfaces. Finally, we expose basic structures for ind-pro topologies on adelic spaces of arithmetic surfaces. In particular, we show that these adelic spaces are topologically self-dual.

  9. The arithmetic of trees

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Adriano; Yasaki, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The arithmetic of the natural numbers can be extended to arithmetic operations on planar binary trees. This gives rise to a non-commutative arithmetic theory. In this exposition, we describe this arithmetree, first defined by Loday, and investigate prime trees.

  10. No Arithmetic Cyclic Quadrilaterals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Raymond A.

    2006-01-01

    A quadrilateral is arithmetic if its area is an integer and its sides are integers in an arithmetic progression, and it is cyclic if it can be inscribed in a circle. The author shows that no quadrilateral is both arithmetic and cyclic.

  11. On arithmetic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Oller-Marcén, Antonio M.

    2012-01-01

    An integer $n$ is said to be \\textit{arithmetic} if the arithmetic mean of its divisors is an integer. In this paper, using properties of the factorization of values of cyclotomic polynomials, we characterize arithmetic numbers. As an application, in Section 2, we give an interesting characterization of Mersenne numbers.

  12. Adelic divisors on arithmetic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Moriwaki, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we generalize several fundamental results for arithmetic divisors, such as the continuity of the volume function, the generalized Hodge index theorem, Fujita's approximation theorem for arithmetic divisors and Zariski decompositions for arithmetic divisors on arithmetic surfaces, to the case of the adelic arithmetic divisors.

  13. Reversible arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2010-01-01

    This communication presents the complete design of a reversible arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. The presented ALU is garbage free and uses reversible updates to combine the standard reversible arithmetic...... ALU for a programmable computing device is possible and that the V-shape design is a very versatile approach to the design of quantum networks....... and logical operations in one unit. Combined with a suitable control unit, the ALU permits the construction of an r-Turing complete computing device. The garbage-free ALU developed in this communication requires only 6n elementary reversible gates for five basic arithmetic-logical operations on two n...

  14. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, J. I. Burgos; Feliu, Elisenda

    2012-01-01

    context, of the higher algebraic Chow groups defined by Bloch. For projective varieties the degree zero group agrees with the arithmetic Chow groups defined by Gillet and Soulé, and in general with the arithmetic Chow groups of Burgos. Our new construction is shown to be a contravariant functor and is...... endowed with a product structure, which is commutative and associative....

  15. Curiosities of arithmetic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical mechanical systems with an exponential density of states are considered. The arithmetic analog of parafermions of arbitrary order is constructed and a formula for boson-parafermion equivalence is obtained using properties of the Riemann zeta function. Interactions (nontrivial mixing) among arithmetic gases using the concept of twisted convolutions are also introduced. Examples of exactly solvable models are discussed in detail

  16. Precision Arithmetic: A New Floating-Point Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chengpu

    2006-01-01

    A new deterministic floating-point arithmetic called precision arithmetic is developed to track precision for arithmetic calculations. It uses a novel rounding scheme to avoid excessive rounding error propagation of conventional floating-point arithmetic. Unlike interval arithmetic, its uncertainty tracking is based on statistics and the central limit theorem, with a much tighter bounding range. Its stable rounding error distribution is approximated by a truncated normal distribution. Generic...

  17. An Arithmetic Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Diego

    2011-01-01

    This work introduces a distance between natural numbers not based on their position on the real line but on their arithmetic properties. We prove some metric properties of this distance and consider a possible extension.

  18. Arithmetic on semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Ganea, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    Relations between some theories of semigroups (also known as theories of strings or theories of concatenation) and arithmetic are surveyed. In particular Robinson's arithmetic Q is shown to be mutually interpretable with TC, a weak theory of concatenation introduced by Grzegorczyk. Furthermore, TC is shown to be interpretable in the theory F studied by Tarski and Szmielewa, thus confirming their claim that F is essentially undecidable.

  19. Nonstandard arithmetic and reverse mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Keisler, H. Jerome

    2006-01-01

    We show that each of the five basic theories of second order arithmetic that play a central role in reverse mathematics has a natural counterpart in the language of nonstandard arithmetic. In the earlier paper [3] we introduced saturation principles in nonstandard arithmetic which are equivalent in strength to strong choice axioms in second order arithmetic. This paper studies principles which are equivalent in strength to weaker theories in second order arithmetic.

  20. Kazhdan's Theorem on Arithmetic Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, J S

    2001-01-01

    Define an arithmetic variety to be the quotient of a bounded symmetric domain by an arithmetic group. An arithmetic variety is algebraic, and the theorem in question states that when one applies an automorphism of the field of complex numbers to the coefficients of an arithmetic variety the resulting variety is again arithmetic. This article simplifies Kazhdan's proof. In particular, it avoids recourse to the classification theorems. It was originally completed on March 28, 1984, and distribu...

  1. Reversible arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication presents the complete design of a reversible arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. The presented ALU is garbage free and uses reversible updates to combine the standard reversible arithmetic and logical operations in one unit. Combined with a suitable control unit, the ALU permits the construction of an r-Turing complete computing device. The garbage-free ALU developed in this communication requires only 6n elementary reversible gates for five basic arithmetic-logical operations on two n-bit operands and does not use ancillae. This remarkable low resource consumption was achieved by generalizing the V-shape design first introduced for quantum ripple-carry adders and nesting multiple V-shapes in a novel integrated design. This communication shows that the realization of an efficient reversible ALU for a programmable computing device is possible and that the V-shape design is a very versatile approach to the design of quantum networks. (fast track communication)

  2. Numerical characterization of nef arithmetic divisors on arithmetic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Moriwaki, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a numerical characterization of nef arithmetic R-Cartier divisors of C^0-type on an arithmetic surface. Namely an arithmetic R-Cartier divisor D of C^0-type is nef if and only if D is pseudo-effective and deg(D^2) = vol(D).

  3. An "Arithmetic" Thinker Tackles Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alayne C.

    2006-01-01

    Working from Carolyn Kieran's categorization of "arithmetic" and "algebraic" thinkers, the article describes one eighth-grade "arithmetic" thinker's progress as she attempts to solve one- and two-step equations.

  4. Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…

  5. An Arithmetic Metric

    OpenAIRE

    Dominici, Diego

    2009-01-01

    What is the distance between 11 (a prime number) and 12 (a highly composite number)? If your answer is 1, then ask yourself "is this reasonable?" In this work, we will introduce a distance between natural numbers based on their arithmetic properties, instead of their position on the real line.

  6. Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.

  7. RSFQ logic arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several ways of local timing of the Josephson-junction RSFQ (Rapid Single Flux Quantum) logic elements are proposed, and their peculiarities are discussed. Several examples of serial and parallel pipelined arithmetic blocks using various types of timing are suggested and their possible performance is discussed. Serial devices enable one to perform n-bit functions relatively slowly but using integrated circuits of a moderate integration scale, while parallel pipelined devices are more hardware-wasteful but promise extremely high productivity

  8. Towards an arithmetical logic the arithmetical foundations of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gauthier, Yvon

    2015-01-01

    This book offers an original contribution to the foundations of logic and mathematics, and focuses on the internal logic of mathematical theories, from arithmetic or number theory to algebraic geometry. Arithmetical logic is the term used to refer to the internal logic of classical arithmetic, here called Fermat-Kronecker arithmetic, and combines Fermat’s method of infinite descent with Kronecker’s general arithmetic of homogeneous polynomials. The book also includes a treatment of theories in physics and mathematical physics to underscore the role of arithmetic from a constructivist viewpoint. The scope of the work intertwines historical, mathematical, logical and philosophical dimensions in a unified critical perspective; as such, it will appeal to a broad readership from mathematicians to logicians, to philosophers interested in foundational questions. Researchers and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics will benefit from the author’s critical approach to the foundations of l...

  9. Sets with Prescribed Arithmetic Densities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luca, F.; Pomerance, C.; Porubský, Štefan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2008), s. 67-80. ISSN 1336-913X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/07/0191 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : generalized arithmetic density * generalized asymptotic density * generalized logarithmic density * arithmetic al semigroup * weighted arithmetic mean * ratio set * R-dense set * Axiom A * delta-regularly varying function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Yablo's Paradox And Arithmetical Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Leach-Krouse, Graham

    2011-01-01

    In this short paper, I present a few theorems on sentences of arithmetic which are related to Yablo's Paradox as G\\"odel's first undecidable sentence was related to the Liar paradox. In particular, I consider two different arithemetizations of Yablo's sentences: one resembling G\\"odel's arithmetization of the Liar, with the negation outside of the provability predicate, one resembling Jeroslow's undecidable sentence, with negation inside. Both kinds of arithmetized Yablo sentence are undecida...

  11. Graph colorings, flows and arithmetic Tutte polynomial

    OpenAIRE

    D'Adderio, Michele; Moci, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the notions of arithmetic colorings and arithmetic flows over a graph with labelled edges, which generalize the notions of colorings and flows over a graph. We show that the corresponding arithmetic chromatic polynomial and arithmetic flow polynomial are given by suitable specializations of the associated arithmetic Tutte polynomial, generalizing classical results of Tutte.

  12. Introduction to cardinal arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Holz, M; Weitz, E

    1999-01-01

    This book is an introduction into modern cardinal arithmetic in the frame of the axioms of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory together with the axiom of choice (ZFC). A first part describes the classical theory developed by Bernstein, Cantor, Hausdorff, König and Tarski between 1870 and 1930. Next, the development in the 1970s led by Galvin, Hajnal and Silver is characterized. The third part presents the fundamental investigations in pcf theory which have been worked out by Shelah to answer the questions left open in the 1970s.Reviews:'The authors aim their text at beginners in set theory. They start

  13. Fast Fuzzy Arithmetic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Michael; Kosheleva, Olga

    1997-01-01

    In engineering applications of fuzzy logic, the main goal is not to simulate the way the experts really think, but to come up with a good engineering solution that would (ideally) be better than the expert's control, In such applications, it makes perfect sense to restrict ourselves to simplified approximate expressions for membership functions. If we need to perform arithmetic operations with the resulting fuzzy numbers, then we can use simple and fast algorithms that are known for operations with simple membership functions. In other applications, especially the ones that are related to humanities, simulating experts is one of the main goals. In such applications, we must use membership functions that capture every nuance of the expert's opinion; these functions are therefore complicated, and fuzzy arithmetic operations with the corresponding fuzzy numbers become a computational problem. In this paper, we design a new algorithm for performing such operations. This algorithm is applicable in the case when negative logarithms - log(u(x)) of membership functions u(x) are convex, and reduces computation time from O(n(exp 2))to O(n log(n)) (where n is the number of points x at which we know the membership functions u(x)).

  14. Conceptual Knowledge of Fraction Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Understanding an arithmetic operation implies, at minimum, knowing the direction of effects that the operation produces. However, many children and adults, even those who execute arithmetic procedures correctly, may lack this knowledge on some operations and types of numbers. To test this hypothesis, we presented preservice teachers (Study 1),…

  15. Valuations on arithmetic surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ning

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we give the definition of the height of a valuation and the definition of the big field Cp,G,where p is a prime and G R is an additive subgroup containing 1.We conclude that Cp,G is a field and Cp,G is algebraically closed.Based on this the author obtains the complete classification of valuations on arithmetic surfaces.Furthermore,for any m ≤ n ∈ Z,let Vm,n be an R-vector space of dimension n - m + 1,whose coordinates are indexed from rn to n.We generalize the definition of Cp,G,where p is a prime and G C Vm,n is an additive subgroup containing 1.We also conclude that Cp,G is a field if m ≤ 0 ≤ n.

  16. Valuations on arithmetic surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give the definition of the height of a valuation and the definition of the big field Cp,G, where p is a prime and GR is an additive subgroup containing 1. We conclude that Cp,G is a field and Cp,G is algebraically closed. Based on this the author obtains the complete classification of valuations on arithmetic surfaces. Furthermore, for any m ≤n∈ Z, let Vm,n be an R-vector space of dimension n-m + 1, whose coordinates are indexed from m to n. We generalize the definition of Cp,G, where p is a prime and GVm,n is an additive subgroup containing 1. We also conclude that Cp,G is a field if m ≤0 ≤n.

  17. New properties of arithmetic groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, Vladimir P [Scientific Research Institute for System Studies of RAS (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-25

    New substantial results including the solutions of a number of fundamental problems have been obtained in the last decade or so: the first and rather unexpected examples of arithmetic groups with finite extensions that are not arithmetic were constructed; a criterion for arithmeticity of such extensions was found; deep rigidity theorems were proved for arithmetic subgroups of algebraic groups with radical; a theorem on the finiteness of the number of conjugacy classes of finite subgroups in finite extensions of arithmetic groups was proved, leading to numerous applications, in particular, this theorem made it possible to solve the Borel-Serre problem (1964) on the finiteness of the first cohomology of finite groups with coefficients in an arithmetic group; the problem posed more than 30 years ago on the existence of finitely generated integral linear groups that have infinitely many conjugacy classes of finite subgroups was solved; the arithmeticity question for solvable groups was settled. Similar problems were also solved for lattices in Lie groups with finitely many connected components. This paper is a survey of these results. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  18. New properties of arithmetic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New substantial results including the solutions of a number of fundamental problems have been obtained in the last decade or so: the first and rather unexpected examples of arithmetic groups with finite extensions that are not arithmetic were constructed; a criterion for arithmeticity of such extensions was found; deep rigidity theorems were proved for arithmetic subgroups of algebraic groups with radical; a theorem on the finiteness of the number of conjugacy classes of finite subgroups in finite extensions of arithmetic groups was proved, leading to numerous applications, in particular, this theorem made it possible to solve the Borel-Serre problem (1964) on the finiteness of the first cohomology of finite groups with coefficients in an arithmetic group; the problem posed more than 30 years ago on the existence of finitely generated integral linear groups that have infinitely many conjugacy classes of finite subgroups was solved; the arithmeticity question for solvable groups was settled. Similar problems were also solved for lattices in Lie groups with finitely many connected components. This paper is a survey of these results. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  19. Arithmetic the foundation of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Arithmetic factors into our lives on a daily basis, so it's hard to imagine a world without the six basic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to powers, and finding roots. Readers will get a solid overview of arithmetic, while offering useful examples of how they are used in routine activities, such as social media applications. It reinforces Common Core math standards, including understanding basic math concepts and how they apply to students' daily lives and challenges. A history of arithmetic helps provide a contextual framework for the course of its develop

  20. Periodic orbits in arithmetical chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Length spectra of periodic orbits are investigated for some chaotic dynamical systems whose quantum energy spectra show unexpected statistical properties and for which the notion of arithmetical chaos has been introduced recently. These systems are defined as the unconstrained motions of particles on two dimensional surfaces of constant negative curvature whose fundamental groups are given by number theoretical statements (arithmetic Fuchsian groups). It is shown that the mean multiplicity of lengths l of periodic orbits grows asymptotically like c x el/2/l, l → ∞. Moreover, the constant c (depending on the arithmetic group) is determined. (orig.)

  1. Arakelov theory of noncommutative arithmetic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Borek, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to initiate Arakelov theory in a noncommutative setting. More precisely, we are concerned with noncommutative arithmetic surfaces. We introduce a version of arithmetic intersection theory on noncommutative arithmetic surfaces and we prove an arithmetic Riemann-Roch theorem in this setup.

  2. On the concavity of the arithmetic volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Ikoma, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    In this note, we study the differentiability of the arithmetic volumes along arithmetic R-divisors, and give some equality conditions for the Brunn-Minkowski inequality for arithmetic volumes over the cone of nef and big arithmetic R-divisors.

  3. Remarks on the arithmetic restricted volumes and the arithmetic base loci

    OpenAIRE

    Ikoma, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we collect some fundamental properties of the arithmetic restricted volumes (or the arithmetic multiplicities) of the adelically metrized line bundles. The arithmetic restricted volume has the concavity property and characterizes the arithmetic augmented base locus as the null locus. We also show a generalized Fujita approximation for the arithmetic restricted volume.

  4. Yablo's Paradox And Arithmetical Incompleteness

    CERN Document Server

    Leach-Krouse, Graham

    2011-01-01

    In this short paper, I present a few theorems on sentences of arithmetic which are related to Yablo's Paradox as G\\"odel's first undecidable sentence was related to the Liar paradox. In particular, I consider two different arithemetizations of Yablo's sentences: one resembling G\\"odel's arithmetization of the Liar, with the negation outside of the provability predicate, one resembling Jeroslow's undecidable sentence, with negation inside. Both kinds of arithmetized Yablo sentence are undecidable, and connected to the consistency sentence for the ambient formal system in roughly the same manner as G\\"odel and Jeroslow's sentences. Finally, I consider a sentence which is related to the Henkin sentence "I am provable" in the same way that first two arithmetizations are related to G\\"odel and Jeroslaw's sentences. I show that this sentence is provable, using L\\"ob's theorem, as in the standard proof of the Henkin sentence.

  5. On the Arithmetic of Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Markov, Svetoslav; Hayes, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    An approximate number is an ordered pair consisting of a (real) number and an error bound, briefly error, which is a (real) non-negative number. To compute with approximate numbers the arithmetic operations on errors should be well-known. To model computations with errors one should suitably define and study arithmetic operations and order relations over the set of non-negative numbers. In this work we discuss the algebraic properties of non-negative numbers starting from fa...

  6. Inequalities for semistable families of arithmetic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Shu; Moriwaki, Atsushi

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we will consider a generalization of Bogomolov's inequality and Cornalba-Harris-Bost's inequality to semistable families of arithmetic varieties under the idea that geometric semistability implies a certain kind of arithmetic positivity. The first one is an arithmetic analogue of the relative Bogomolov's inequality proved by the second author. We also establish the arithmetic Riemann-Roch formulae for stable curves over regular arithmetic varieties and generically finite morphi...

  7. Primitive geodesic lengths and (almost) arithmetic progressions

    OpenAIRE

    Lafont, Jean-François; McReynolds, D. B.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate when the set of primitive geodesic lengths on a Riemannian manifold have arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. We prove that in the space of negatively curved metrics, a metric having such arithmetic progressions is quite rare. We introduce almost arithmetic progressions, a coarsification of arithmetic progressions, and prove that every negatively curved, closed Riemannian manifold has arbitrarily long almost arithmetic progressions in its primitive length ...

  8. Neuropsychology of childhood arithmetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, E S

    1989-01-01

    The arithmetic learning disability literature was reviewed and critiqued. Due to the paucity of research in this area, few conclusions may be inferred. In general, the available research has provided tentative hypotheses about the nature of arithmetic disabilities. A variety of psychosocial variables notwithstanding, childhood arithmetic disability may directly result from cerebral dysfunction, poor motivation, and emotional/behavioral disturbance. However, further research is necessary in order to clarify the effects of maturation on arithmetic skills acquisition. Indeed, one approach to identification of the disorder would consider individual differences in neuropsychological development and performance affecting arithmetic achievement. It was concluded that a more comprehensive approach to investigating and diagnosing childhood arithmetic disability is needed. Reformulations and methods of study were articulated. Six related lines of research were outlined. A diagnostic rating scale was suggested which would account for type and severity of disorder. Diagnostic criteria were recommended based on the degree and definition of disability. Needs for remediation research were briefly explored. PMID:2485827

  9. New technological design of arithmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are illogical and irrational rules in numbers writing and pronunciation in almost of languages. A part of the aim is to show the electronic applications possibility of logical and systematic rules which are proposed by Raoelina Andriambololona to write and pronounce numbers; we had studied and created the arithmetic operations representation corresponding in binary basis and in hexadecimal basis. The brand new found concept corresponds as well as the method which uses the matrix product calculation, in according with the writing and the pronunciation of numbers. It was shown how to concept the arithmetic operators in digital electronics; and we proposed and assumed to make headway and to do amelioration for technical conception of calculator and arithmetic unite those are at the basic function of all computers and almost domestic sophisticated machine. The left hand side- right hand side and increasing order writing of number is exploited to build a new computer programming for a scientific calculator.

  10. Trace formulae for arithmetical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For quantum problems on the pseudo-sphere generated by arithmetic groups there exist special trace formulae, called trace formulae for Hecke operators, which permit the reconstruction of wave functions from the knowledge of periodic orbits. After a short discussion of this subject, the Hecke operators trace formulae are presented for the Dirichlet problem on the modular billiard, which is a prototype of arithmetical systems. The results of numerical computations for these semiclassical type relations are in good agreement with the directly computed eigenfunctions. (author) 23 refs.; 2 figs

  11. Counting arithmetic lattices and surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Belolipetsky, Mikhail; Gelander, Tsachik; Lubotzky, Alexander; Shalev, Aner

    2010-01-01

    We give estimates on the number $AL_H(x)$ of arithmetic lattices $\\Gamma$ of covolume at most $x$ in a simple Lie group $H$. In particular, we obtain a first concrete estimate on the number of arithmetic 3-manifolds of volume at most $x$. Our main result is for the classical case $H=PSL(2,R)$ where we compute the limit of $\\log AL_H(x) / x\\log x$ when $x\\to\\infty$. The proofs use several different techniques: geometric (bounding the number of generators of $\\Gamma$ as a function of its covolu...

  12. Predicting Arithmetic Abilities: The Role of Preparatory Arithmetic Markers and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Pieter; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Arithmetic abilities acquired in kindergarten are found to be strong predictors for later deficient arithmetic abilities. This longitudinal study (N = 684) was designed to examine if it was possible to predict the level of children's arithmetic abilities in first and second grade from their performance on preparatory arithmetic abilities in…

  13. An arithmetic Lefschetz-Riemann-Roch theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Shun

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we consider regular arithmetic schemes in the context of Arakelov geometry, endowed with an action of the diagonalisable group scheme associated to a finite cyclic group. For any equivariant and proper morphism of such arithmetic schemes, which is smooth over the generic fibre, we define a direct image map between corresponding higher equivariant arithmetic K-groups and we discuss its transitivity property. Then we use the localization sequence of higher arithmetic K-groups a...

  14. Is the conventional interval-arithmetic correct?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Piegat; Marek Landowski

    2012-01-01

    Interval arithmetic as part of interval mathematics and Granular Computing is unusually important for development of science and engineering in connection with necessity of taking into account uncertainty and approximativeness of data occurring in almost all calculations. Interval arithmetic also conditions development of Artificial Intelligence and especially of automatic thinking, Computing with Words, grey systems, fuzzy arithmetic and probabilistic arithmetic. However, the mostly used con...

  15. Differential forms on arithmetic jet spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Borger, James; Buium, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    We study derivations and differential forms on the arithmetic jet spaces of smooth schemes, relative to several primes. As applications we give a new interpretation of arithmetic Laplacians and we discuss the de Rham cohomology of some specific arithmetic jet spaces.

  16. On Volumes of Arithmetic Line Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Xinyi

    2008-01-01

    We show an arithmetic generalization of the recent work of Lazarsfeld-Mustata which uses Okounkov bodies to study linear series of line bundles. As applications, we derive a log-concavity inequality on volumes of arithmetic line bundles and an arithmetic Fujita approximation theorem for big line bundles.

  17. Heights for line bundles on arithmetic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnel, Joerg

    1995-01-01

    For line bundles on arithmetic varieties we construct height functions using arithmetic intersection theory. In the case of an arithmetic surface, generically of genus g, for line bundles of degree g equivalence is shown to the height on the Jacobian defined by the Theta divisor.

  18. Solutions to Arithmetic Convolution Equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glöckner, H.; Lucht, L.G.; Porubský, Štefan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 6 (2007), s. 1619-1629. ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/04/0381 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : arithmetic functions * Dirichlet convolution * polynomial equations * analytic equations * topological algebras * holomorphic functional calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.520, year: 2007

  19. Arithmetic theory of brick tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new, 'arithmetic', approach to the algebraic theory of brick tilings is developed. This approach enables one to construct a simple classification of brick tilings in Zd and to find new proofs of several classical results on brick packing and tilings in Zd. In addition, possible generalizations of results on integer brick packing to the Euclidean plane R2 are investigated

  20. The Development of Arithmetical Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Background: Arithmetical skills are essential to the effective exercise of citizenship in a numerate society. How these skills are acquired, or fail to be acquired, is of great importance not only to individual children but to the organisation of formal education and its role in society. Method: The evidence on the normal and abnormal…

  1. A Short Survey on Arithmetic Transforms and the Arithmetic Hartley Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Cintra, R. J.; de Oliveira, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Arithmetic complexity has a main role in the performance of algorithms for spectrum evaluation. Arithmetic transform theory offers a method for computing trigonometrical transforms with minimal number of multiplications. In this paper, the proposed algorithms for the arithmetic Fourier transform are surveyed. A new arithmetic transform for computing the discrete Hartley transform is introduced: the Arithmetic Hartley transform. The interpolation process is shown to be the key element of the a...

  2. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Reversible arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkedal Thomsen, Michael; Glück, Robert; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2010-09-01

    This communication presents the complete design of a reversible arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. The presented ALU is garbage free and uses reversible updates to combine the standard reversible arithmetic and logical operations in one unit. Combined with a suitable control unit, the ALU permits the construction of an r-Turing complete computing device. The garbage-free ALU developed in this communication requires only 6n elementary reversible gates for five basic arithmetic-logical operations on two n-bit operands and does not use ancillae. This remarkable low resource consumption was achieved by generalizing the V-shape design first introduced for quantum ripple-carry adders and nesting multiple V-shapes in a novel integrated design. This communication shows that the realization of an efficient reversible ALU for a programmable computing device is possible and that the V-shape design is a very versatile approach to the design of quantum networks.

  3. Memory Updating and Mental Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Cheng-Ching; Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM) as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating num...

  4. The Arithmetic of Supersymmetric Vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Bourget, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We provide explicit formulas for the number of vacua of four-dimensional pure N=1 super Yang-Mills theories on a circle, with any simple gauge algebra and any choice of center and spectrum of line operators. These form a key ingredient in the semi-classical calculation of the number of massive vacua of N=1* gauge theories with gauge algebra su(n) compactified on a circle. Using arithmetic, we express that number in an SL(2,Z) duality invariant manner. We confirm our tally of massive vacua of the N=1* theories by a count of inequivalent extrema of the exact superpotential.

  5. Arithmetical chaos and quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present the formalism to start a quantum analysis for the recent billiard representation introduced by Damour, Henneaux and Nicolai in the study of the cosmological singularity. In particular we use the theory of Maass automorphic forms and recent mathematical results about arithmetical dynamical systems. The predictions of the billiard model give precise automorphic properties for the wavefunction (Maass-Hecke eigenform), the asymptotic number of quantum states (Selberg asymptotics for PSL(2,Z)), the distribution for the level spacing statistics (the Poissonian one) and the absence of scarred states. The most interesting implication of this model is perhaps that the discrete spectrum is fully embedded in the continuous one.

  6. Arithmetic geometry and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Mathematics is very much a part of our culture; and this invaluable collection serves the purpose of developing the branches involved, popularizing the existing theories and guiding our future explorations.More precisely, the goal is to bring the reader to the frontier of current developments in arithmetic geometry and number theory through the works of Deninger-Werner in vector bundles on curves over p-adic fields; of Jiang on local gamma factors in automorphic representations; of Weng on Deligne pairings and Takhtajan-Zograf metrics; of Yoshida on CM-periods; of Yu on transcendence of specia

  7. A Bertini-type theorem for free arithmetic linear series

    OpenAIRE

    Ikoma, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a version of the arithmetic Bertini theorem asserting that there exists a strictly small and generically smooth section of a given arithmetically free graded arithmetic linear series.

  8. Arithmetic of quantum entropy function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum entropy function is a proposal for computing the entropy associated with the horizon of a black hole in the extremal limit, and is related via AdS/CFT correspondence to the dimension of the Hilbert space in a dual quantum mechanics. We show that in N = 4 supersymmetric string theories, quantum entropy function formalism naturally explains the origin of the subtle differences between the microscopic degeneracies of quarter BPS dyons carrying different torsion, i.e. different arithmetical properties. These arise from additional saddle points in the path integral - whose existence depends on the arithmetical properties of the black hole charges - constructed as freely acting orbifolds of the original AdS2 x S2 near horizon geometry. During this analysis we demonstrate that the quantum entropy function is insensitive to the details of the infrared cutoff used in the computation, and the details of the boundary terms added to the action. We also discuss the role of the asymptotic symmetries of AdS2 in carrying out the path integral in the definition of quantum entropy function. Finally we show that even though quantum entropy function is expected to compute the absolute degeneracy in a given charge and angular momentum sector, it can also be used to compute the index. This can then be compared with the microscopic computation of the index.

  9. From Arithmetic Sequences to Linear Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Ryota; Harless, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The first part of the article focuses on deriving the essential properties of arithmetic sequences by appealing to students' sense making and reasoning. The second part describes how to guide students to translate their knowledge of arithmetic sequences into an understanding of linear equations. Ryota Matsuura originally wrote these lessons for…

  10. Weak Theories of Concatenation and Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Horihata, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    We define a new theory of concatenation WTC which is much weaker than Grzegorczyk's well-known theory TC. We prove that WTC is mutually interpretable with the weak theory of arithmetic R. The latter is, in a technical sense, much weaker than Robinson's arithmetic Q, but still essentially undecidable. Hence, as a corollary, WTC is also essentially undecidable.

  11. Some results on uniform arithmetic circuit complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Valence, Mark; Barrington, David A. Mix

    1994-01-01

    polynomial-size unbounded fan-in arithmetic circuits satisfying a natural uniformity constraint (DLOGTIME-uniformity). A 1-input and 1-output arithmetic function over the fieldsF2n may be identified with ann-input andn-output Boolean function when field elements are represented as bit strings. We prove that...

  12. ASIC For Complex Fixed-Point Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petilli, Stephen G.; Grimm, Michael J.; Olson, Erlend M.

    1995-01-01

    Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performs 24-bit, fixed-point arithmetic operations on arrays of complex-valued input data. High-performance, wide-band arithmetic logic unit (ALU) designed for use in computing fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and for performing ditigal filtering functions. Other applications include general computations involved in analysis of spectra and digital signal processing.

  13. Szemeredi's theorem and problems on arithmetic progressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szemeredi's famous theorem on arithmetic progressions asserts that every subset of integers of positive asymptotic density contains arithmetic progressions of arbitrary length. His remarkable theorem has been developed into a major new area of combinatorial number theory. This is the topic of the present survey.

  14. Numerical Magnitude Representations Influence Arithmetic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Julie L.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the quality of first graders' (mean age = 7.2 years) numerical magnitude representations is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to their arithmetic learning. The children's pretest numerical magnitude representations were found to be correlated with their pretest arithmetic knowledge and to be…

  15. Error-correcting codes in computer arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.; Garcia, O. N.

    1972-01-01

    Summary of the most important results so far obtained in the theory of coding for the correction and detection of errors in computer arithmetic. Attempts to satisfy the stringent reliability demands upon the arithmetic unit are considered, and special attention is given to attempts to incorporate redundancy into the numbers themselves which are being processed so that erroneous results can be detected and corrected.

  16. Prevalence of Combined Reading and Arithmetic Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Evelien; Spyer, Ginny; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Sonneville, Leo

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of combined reading and arithmetic disabilities in 799 Dutch schoolchildren using standardized school achievement tests. Scores of arithmetic, word recognition, reading comprehension, and spelling of children in fourth and fifth grade were used. The main interest involved the co-occurrence of word recognition and…

  17. Executive Functions and Strategic Aspects of Arithmetic Performance: The Case of Adults' and Children's Arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Lemaire

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an overview of three important issues regarding working-memory/executive functions (WM/EF, strategies, and cognitive development in the domain of arithmetic. One goal of this overview is to bring some lights on the depth and breadth of the most valuable contributions that André Vandierendonck and his collaborators made on these issues. First, we consider strategic aspects of arithmetic performance and strategic development in arithmetic. Second, the role of WM/EF on arithmetic performance and arithmetic strategies is discussed. Finally, some data are reported on how age-related changes in WM/EF affect strategic development in arithmetic. For each of these issues, we highlight how the works carried out by André Vandierendonck and his colleagues, when integrated in the broader context of research on cognitive arithmetic, contributed to our further understanding of participants' performance and age-related changes in this performance.

  18. Level statistics in arithmetical and pseudo-arithmetical chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a long-standing riddle in quantum chaos, posed by certain fully chaotic billiards with constant negative curvature whose periodic orbits are highly degenerate in length. Depending on the boundary conditions for the quantum wavefunctions, the energy spectra either have uncorrelated levels usually associated with classical integrability or conform to the 'universal' Wigner-Dyson type although the classical dynamics in both cases is the same. The resolution turns out surprisingly simple. The Maslov indices of orbits within multiplets of degenerate length either yield equal phases for the respective Feynman amplitudes (and thus Poissonian level statistics) or give rise to amplitudes with uncorrelated phases (leading to Wigner-Dyson level correlations). The recent semiclassical explanation of spectral universality in quantum chaos is thus extended to the latter case of 'pseudo-arithmetical' chaos. (fast track communication)

  19. Plain Polynomial Arithmetic on GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for serial code on CPUs, parallel code on GPUs for dense polynomial arithmetic relies on a combination of asymptotically fast and plain algorithms. Those are employed for data of large and small size, respectively. Parallelizing both types of algorithms is required in order to achieve peak performances. In this paper, we show that the plain dense polynomial multiplication can be efficiently parallelized on GPUs. Remarkably, it outperforms (highly optimized) FFT-based multiplication up to degree 212 while on CPU the same threshold is usually at 26. We also report on a GPU implementation of the Euclidean Algorithm which is both work-efficient and runs in linear time for input polynomials up to degree 218 thus showing the performance of the GCD algorithm based on systolic arrays.

  20. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    CERN Document Server

    Desbois, Jean

    2012-01-01

    We pursue the analysis made in [1] on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay a particular attention to the random variable S{n1,n2, ...,n} (m) which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2, ...,nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m->infinity. A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m paths case the SLE information, valid in the 1-path case, on the 0-winding sectors arithmetic area.

  1. Quality of Arithmetic Education for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; de Moor, Jan; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; Withagen, Floortje

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the quality of arithmetic education for children with cerebral palsy. The use of individual educational plans, amount of arithmetic instruction time, arithmetic instructional grouping, and type of arithmetic teaching method were explored in three groups: children with cerebral palsy (CP) in…

  2. Executive Functions and Strategic Aspects of Arithmetic Performance: The Case of Adults' and Children's Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Lemaire

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of three important issues regarding working-memory/executive functions (WM/EF), strategies, and cognitive development in the domain of arithmetic. One goal of this overview is to bring some lights on the depth and breadth of the most valuable contributions that André Vandierendonck and his collaborators made on these issues. First, we consider strategic aspects of arithmetic performance and strategic development in arithmetic. Second, the role of WM/EF on...

  3. Obstacle problem for Arithmetic Asian options

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Monti; Andrea Pascucci

    2009-01-01

    We prove existence, regularity and a Feynman-Ka\\v{c} representation formula of the strong solution to the free boundary problem arising in the financial problem of the pricing of the American Asian option with arithmetic average.

  4. L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, L; Stern, M

    1987-08-01

    The L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L(2)-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  5. L2-cohomology of arithmetic varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, Leslie; Stern, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The L2-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L2-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  6. Recursive formula for arithmetic Asian option prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kyungsub Lee

    2013-01-01

    We derive a recursive formula for arithmetic Asian option prices with finite observation times in semimartingale models. The method is based on the relationship between the risk-neutral expectation of the quadratic variation of the return process and European option prices. The computation of arithmetic Asian option prices is straightforward whenever European option prices are available. Applications with numerical results under the Black-Scholes framework and the exponential L\\'evy model are...

  7. Complete Program Synthesis for Linear Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of programs or their fragments is a way to write programs by providing only their meaning without worrying about the implementation details. It avoids the drawback of writing sequential code, which might be difficult to check, error-prone or tedious. Our contribution is to provide complete program synthesis algorithms with unbounded data types in decidable theories. We present synthesis algorithms for Linear Rational Arithmetic, Linear Integer Arithmetic and Parametrized Linear Inte...

  8. A general purpose arithmetic logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) has been constructed as a single CAMAC unit. This device has been designed to provide both arithmetic and logical operations on two 16-bit data fields. The ALU will be put into practical use in the energy trigger of the L3 experiment at LEP, CERN. Due to its simplicity and flexibility the circuit may have applications in other high energy physics experiments. In this paper we describe the details of this circuit. (orig.)

  9. How to be Brilliant at Mental Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    How to be Brilliant at Mental Arithmetic addresses the twin pillars of mental arithmetic - mental recall and mental agility. Mental recall depends on familiarity with number bonds and plenty of opportunity to practise. Mental agility depends more on confidence with the number system and the four operations. Using the worksheets in this book, students will learn about: tens and units; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; addition shortcuts; product squares; quick recall; number se

  10. Herbrand consistency of some arithmetical theories

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    G\\"odel's second incompleteness theorem is proved for Herbrand consistency of some arithmetical theories with bounded induction, by using a technique of logarithmic shrinking the witnesses of bounded formulas, due to Z. Adamowicz [Herbrand consistency and bounded arithmetic, \\textit{Fundamenta Mathematicae} 171 (2002) 279--292]. In that paper, it was shown that one cannot always shrink the witness of a bounded formula logarithmically, but in the presence of Herbrand consistency, for theories ...

  11. Dynamic mental number line in simple arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaodan; Liu, Jie; Li, Dawei; Liu, Hang; Cui, Jiaxin; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-05-01

    Studies have found that spatial-numerical associations could extend to arithmetic. Addition leads to rightward shift in spatial attention while subtraction leads to leftward shift (e.g., Knops et al. 2009; McCrink et al. 2007; Pinhas & Fischer 2008), which is consistent with the hypothesis of static mental number line (MNL) for arithmetic. The current investigation tested the hypothesis of dynamic mental number line which was shaped by the relative magnitudes of two operands in simple arithmetic. Horizontal and vertical electrooculograms (HEOG and VEOG) during simple arithmetic were recorded. Results showed that the direction of eye movements was dependent on the relative magnitudes of two operands. Subtraction was associated with larger rightward eye movements than addition (Experiment 1), and smaller-operand-first addition (e.g., 2+9) was associated with larger rightward eye movement than larger-operand-first addition (e.g., 9+2) only when the difference of two operands was large (Experiment 2). The results suggest that the direction of the mental number line could be dynamic during simple arithmetic, and that the eyes move along the dynamic mental number line to search for solutions. PMID:26645825

  12. Arithmetic Self-Similarity of Infinite Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Hendriks, Dimitri; Endrullis, Joerg; Dow, Mark; Klop, Jan Willem

    2012-01-01

    We define the arithmetic self-similarity (AS) of a one-sided infinite sequence sigma to be the set of arithmetic progressions through sigma which are a vertical shift of sigma. We classify the AS of several well-known sequences, such as the Thue-Morse sequence, the period doubling sequence, and the regular paperfolding sequence. The latter two are examples of (completely) additive sequences as well as of Toeplitz words. We investigate the intersection of these families. We give a complete characterization of single-gap patterns that yield additive Toeplitz words, and classify their AS. Moreover, we show that every arithmetic progression through a Toeplitz word generated by a one-gap pattern is again a Toeplitz word. Finally, we establish that generalized Morse sequences are specific sum-of-digits sequences, and show that their first difference is a Toeplitz word.

  13. Arithmetic geometry over global function fields

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Ignazio; Trihan, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    This volume collects the texts of five courses given in the Arithmetic Geometry Research Programme 2009–2010 at the CRM Barcelona. All of them deal with characteristic p global fields; the common theme around which they are centered is the arithmetic of L-functions (and other special functions), investigated in various aspects. Three courses examine some of the most important recent ideas in the positive characteristic theory discovered by Goss (a field in tumultuous development, which is seeing a number of spectacular advances): they cover respectively crystals over function fields (with a number of applications to L-functions of t-motives), gamma and zeta functions in characteristic p, and the binomial theorem. The other two are focused on topics closer to the classical theory of abelian varieties over number fields: they give respectively a thorough introduction to the arithmetic of Jacobians over function fields (including the current status of the BSD conjecture and its geometric analogues, and the con...

  14. Learning, Realizability and Games in Classical Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Aschieri, Federico

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation we provide mathematical evidence that the concept of learning can be used to give a new and intuitive computational semantics of classical proofs in various fragments of Predicative Arithmetic. First, we extend Kreisel modified realizability to a classical fragment of first order Arithmetic, Heyting Arithmetic plus EM1 (Excluded middle axiom restricted to Sigma^0_1 formulas). We introduce a new realizability semantics we call "Interactive Learning-Based Realizability". Our realizers are self-correcting programs, which learn from their errors and evolve through time. Secondly, we extend the class of learning based realizers to a classical version PCFclass of PCF and, then, compare the resulting notion of realizability with Coquand game semantics and prove a full soundness and completeness result. In particular, we show there is a one-to-one correspondence between realizers and recursive winning strategies in the 1-Backtracking version of Tarski games. Third, we provide a complete and fully...

  15. Arithmetic in large GF(2(exp n))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kelly

    1993-01-01

    The decoding of Reed Solomon (BCH) codes usually requires large numbers of calculations using GF(2(exp n)) arithmetic. Though efficient algorithms and corresponding circuits for performing basic Galois field arithmetic are known, many of these techniques either become very slow or else require an inordinate amount of circuitry to implement when the size of the Galois field becomes much larger than GF(2(exp 8)). Consequently, most currently available Reed-Solomon decoders are built using small fields, such as GF(2(exp 8)) or GF(2(exp 10)), even though significant coding efficiencies could often be obtained if larger symbol sizes, such as GF(2(exp 16)) or GF(2(exp 32)), were used. Algorithms for performing the basic arithmetic required to decode Reed-Solomon codes have been developed explicitly for use in these large fields. They are discussed in detail.

  16. Design of optimized Interval Arithmetic Multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar B.Shettar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many DSP and Control applications that require the user to know how various numericalerrors(uncertainty affect the result. This uncertainty is eliminated by replacing non-interval values withintervals. Since most DSPs operate in real time environments, fast processors are required to implementinterval arithmetic. The goal is to develop a platform in which Interval Arithmetic operations areperformed at the same computational speed as present day signal processors. So we have proposed thedesign and implementation of Interval Arithmetic multiplier, which operates with IEEE 754 numbers. Theproposed unit consists of a floating point CSD multiplier, Interval operation selector. This architectureimplements an algorithm which is faster than conventional algorithm of Interval multiplier . The costoverhead of the proposed unit is 30% with respect to a conventional floating point multiplier. Theperformance of proposed architecture is better than that of a conventional CSD floating-point multiplier,as it can perform both interval multiplication and floating-point multiplication as well as Intervalcomparisons

  17. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We pursue the analysis made in Desbois and Ouvry (2011 J. Stat. Mech. P05024) on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay particular attention to the random variable Sn1,n2,...,nm(m), which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2,..., and nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m→∞. A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m-path case the SLE information, valid in the one-path case, on the zero-winding sectors arithmetic area

  18. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stéphane

    2012-05-01

    We pursue the analysis made in Desbois and Ouvry (2011 J. Stat. Mech. P05024) on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay particular attention to the random variable Sn1, n2,..., nm(m), which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2,..., and nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m\\to \\infty . A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m-path case the SLE information, valid in the one-path case, on the zero-winding sectors arithmetic area.

  19. Arithmetic algorithms for error-coded operands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avizienis, A.

    1973-01-01

    Arithmetic algorithms for separate and nonseparate codes are considered. The nonseparate AN code is formed when an uncoded operand X is multiplied by the check modulus A to give the coded operand AX. The separate codes are the residue code, and the inverse-residue code, which has significant advantages in fault detection of repeated-use faults. A set of algorithms for low-cost AN-coded operands is discussed together with questions of their implementation in a byte-organized arithmetic processor. Algorithms for inverse-residue coded operands of the STAR computer are also examined.

  20. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    We pursue the analysis made in [1] on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay a particular attention to the random variable S{n1,n2, ...,n} (m) which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2, ...,nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m->infinity. A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m paths case the SLE informatio...

  1. Derivations and Generating Degrees in the Ring of Arithmetical Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexandru Zaharescu; Mohammad Zaki

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we study a family of derivations in the ring of arithmetical functions of several variables over an integral domain, and compute the generating degrees of the ring of arithmetical functions over the kernel of these derivations.

  2. Training of Attention in Children With Low Arithmetical Achievement.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Guarnera; Antonella D’Amico

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of attentional processes in arithmetical skills and examines if training of basic attentive skills may improve also working memory abilities reducing arithmetic difficulties. In order to study the efficacy of attentional treatment in arithmetic achievement and in enhancing working memory abilities a test-treatment-retest quasi experimental design was adopted. The research involved 14 children, attending fourth and fifth grades, with Arithmetical Learning Disabil...

  3. A Mathematical Basis for an Interval Arithmetic Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlender, Gerd; Kulisch, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Basic concepts for an interval arithmetic standard are discussed in the paper. Interval arithmetic deals with closed and connected sets of real numbers. Unlike floating-point arithmetic it is free of exceptions. A complete set of formulas to approximate real interval arithmetic on the computer is displayed in section 3 of the paper. The essential comparison relations and lattice operations are discussed in section 6. Evaluation of functions for interval arguments is studied ...

  4. Training of Attention in Children With Low Arithmetical Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Guarnera; Antonella D’Amico

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of attentional processes in arithmetical skills and examines if training of basic attentive skills may improve also working memory abilities reducing arithmetic difficulties. In order to study the efficacy of attentional treatment in arithmetic achievement and in enhancing working memory abilities a test-treatment-retest quasi experimental design was adopted. The research involved 14 children, attending fourth and fifth grades, with Arithmetical Learning Disabil...

  5. Personal Experience and Arithmetic Meaning in Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Camille L.; Neary, David; Snowden, Julie S.

    2010-01-01

    Arithmetic skills are generally claimed to be preserved in semantic dementia (SD), suggesting functional independence of arithmetic knowledge from other aspects of semantic memory. However, in a recent case series analysis we showed that arithmetic performance in SD is not entirely normal. The finding of a direct association between severity of…

  6. Intersection pairing for arithmetic cycles with degenerate Green currents

    OpenAIRE

    Moriwaki, Atsushi

    1998-01-01

    In this note, we would like to propose a suitable extension of the arithmetic Chow group of codimension one, in which the Hodge index theorem holds. We also prove an arithmetic analogue of Bogomolov's instability theorem for rank 2 vector bundles on arbitrary regular projective arithmetic varieties.

  7. Why mental arithmetic counts: brain activation during single digit arithmetic predicts high school math scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Do individual differences in the brain mechanisms for arithmetic underlie variability in high school mathematical competence? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we correlated brain responses to single digit calculation with standard scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) math subtest in high school seniors. PSAT math scores, while controlling for PSAT Critical Reading scores, correlated positively with calculation activation in the left supramarginal gyrus and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions known to be engaged during arithmetic fact retrieval. At the same time, greater activation in the right intraparietal sulcus during calculation, a region established to be involved in numerical quantity processing, was related to lower PSAT math scores. These data reveal that the relative engagement of brain mechanisms associated with procedural versus memory-based calculation of single-digit arithmetic problems is related to high school level mathematical competence, highlighting the fundamental role that mental arithmetic fluency plays in the acquisition of higher-level mathematical competence. PMID:23283330

  8. Mathematical Fuzzy Logic and Axiomatic Arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    Linz : Johannes Kepler Universität, 2010 - (Cintula, P.; Klement, E.; Stout, L.). s. 63-63 [Linz Seminar on Fuzzy Set Theory /31./. 03.02.2010-07.02.2010, Linz] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : mathematical fuzzy logic * axiomatic arithmetic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Goldbach Conjecture and First-Order Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Revilla, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Using the concepts of Hyperbolic Classification of Natural Numbers, Essential Regions and Goldbach Conjecture Function we prove that the existence of a proof of the Goldbach Conjecture in First-Order Arithmetic would imply the existence of another proof in a certain extension that would not be valid in all states of time associated to natural numbers created by means of adequate dynamic processes.

  10. Circuit lower bounds in bounded arithmetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pich, Ján

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-45. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * circuit lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007214000888

  11. Intuitionistic fixed point theories over Heyting arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Toshiyasu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show that an intuitionistic theory for fixed points is conservative over the Heyting arithmetic with respect to a certain class of formulas. This extends partly the result of mine. The proof is inspired by the quick cut-elimination due to G. Mints.

  12. Backgrounds of arithmetic and geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Miron, Radu

    1995-01-01

    The book is an introduction to the foundations of Mathematics. The use of the constructive method in Arithmetic and the axiomatic method in Geometry gives a unitary understanding of the backgrounds of geometry, of its development and of its organic link with the study of real numbers and algebraic structures.

  13. Approximate counting by hashing in bounded arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 3 (2009), s. 829-860. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * approximate counting * universal hashing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2009

  14. Improved closeness centrality using arithmetic mean approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslan, Nuraimi; Sharif, Shamshuritawati

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we improved the mathematical formulation of closeness centrality measure for weighted network. The proposed measure is used arithmetic mean approach and the performance is successfully better than the existing closeness centrality. This measure can be used as a measure of influential nodes.

  15. Modular arithmetic weight and cyclic shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    This note shows that the modular arithmetic weight of an integer is invariant to the cyclic shifts of its radix-2 form. This result leads to a reduced search for the minimum weight codeword in a cyclic AN-code as well as to a better understanding of previous work.

  16. Non-commutative arithmetic circuits with division

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, Pavel; Wigderson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, Article 14 (2015), s. 357-393. ISSN 1557-2862 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : arithmetic circuits * non-commutative rational function * skew field Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://theoryofcomputing.org/articles/v011a014/

  17. Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142. ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Non-commutative arithmetic circuits with division

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, Pavel; Wigderson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, Article 14 (2015), s. 357-393. ISSN 1557-2862 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : arithmetic circuits * non-commutative rational function * skew field Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://theoryofcomputing.org/ articles /v011a014/

  19. Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy IV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    Berlin : Logos Verlag, 2004 - ( Hendricks , V.; Neuhaus, F.; Pedersen, S.; Scheffler, U.; Wansing, H.), s. 107-115 ISBN 3-8325-0475-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Arithmetic and Cognitive Contributions to Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Paul T.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2013-01-01

    Algebra is a prerequisite for access to STEM careers and occupational success (NMAP, 2008a), yet algebra is difficult for students through high school (US DOE, 2008). Growth in children's conceptual and procedural arithmetical knowledge is reciprocal, although conceptual knowledge has more impact on procedural knowledge than the reverse…

  1. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting of Arithmetic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) is a widely studied phenomenon of human memory, but RIF of arithmetic facts remains relatively unexplored. In 2 experiments, we investigated RIF of simple addition facts (2 + 3 = 5) from practice of their multiplication counterparts (2 x 3 = 6). In both experiments, robust RIF expressed in response times occurred…

  2. Lower bounds on the arithmetic self-intersection number of the relative dualizing sheaf on arithmetic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, Ulf; Müller, Jan Steffen

    2012-01-01

    We give an explicitly computable lower bound for the arithmetic self-intersection number of the dualizing sheaf on a large class of arithmetic surfaces. If some technical conditions are satisfied, then this lower bound is positive. In particular, these technical conditions are always satisfied for minimal arithmetic surfaces with simple multiplicities and at least one reducible fiber, but we have also used our techniques to obtain lower bounds for some arithmetic surfaces with non-reduced fib...

  3. A Modified Feistel Cipher Involving Modular Arithmetic Addition and Modular Arithmetic Inverse of a Key Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anup Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, we have modified the Feistel cipher by taking the plaintext in the form of a pair of square matrices. Here we have introduced the operation multiplication with the key matrices and the modular arithmetic addition in encryption. The modular arithmetic inverse of the key matrix is introduced in decryption. The cryptanalysis carried out in this paper clearly indicate that this cipher cannot be broken by the brute force attack and the known plaintext attack.

  4. Ray system in lasers, nonlinear arithmetic pyramid and nonlinear arithmetic triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Yurkin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes a system of rays declining at small angles in lasers. The correlation between a group of rays and binomial coefficients is shown. The correlation of distribution of rays in the system of numbers placed in a three-dimensional table, the nonlinear arithmetic pyramid is shown. Two types of nonlinear arithmetic triangles are considered. Various types of partitions of integers is described.

  5. Learning, Realizability and Games in Classical Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschieri, Federico

    2010-12-01

    In this dissertation we provide mathematical evidence that the concept of learning can be used to give a new and intuitive computational semantics of classical proofs in various fragments of Predicative Arithmetic. First, we extend Kreisel modified realizability to a classical fragment of first order Arithmetic, Heyting Arithmetic plus EM1 (Excluded middle axiom restricted to Sigma^0_1 formulas). We introduce a new realizability semantics we call "Interactive Learning-Based Realizability". Our realizers are self-correcting programs, which learn from their errors and evolve through time. Secondly, we extend the class of learning based realizers to a classical version PCFclass of PCF and, then, compare the resulting notion of realizability with Coquand game semantics and prove a full soundness and completeness result. In particular, we show there is a one-to-one correspondence between realizers and recursive winning strategies in the 1-Backtracking version of Tarski games. Third, we provide a complete and fully detailed constructive analysis of learning as it arises in learning based realizability for HA+EM1, Avigad's update procedures and epsilon substitution method for Peano Arithmetic PA. We present new constructive techniques to bound the length of learning processes and we apply them to reprove - by means of our theory - the classic result of Godel that provably total functions of PA can be represented in Godel's system T. Last, we give an axiomatization of the kind of learning that is needed to computationally interpret Predicative classical second order Arithmetic. Our work is an extension of Avigad's and generalizes the concept of update procedure to the transfinite case. Transfinite update procedures have to learn values of transfinite sequences of non computable functions in order to extract witnesses from classical proofs.

  6. A Quantum Gate as a Physical Model of an Universal Arithmetical Algorithm without Church's Undecidability and Godel's Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Pankovic, Vladan; Predojevic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    In this work we define an universal arithmetical algorithm, by means of the standard quantum mechanical formalism, called universal qm-arithmetical algorithm. By universal qm-arithmetical algorithm any decidable arithmetical formula (operation) can be decided (realized, calculated. Arithmetic defined by universal qm-arithmetical algorithm called qm-arithmetic one-to-one corresponds to decidable part of the usual arithmetic. We prove that in the qm-arithmetic the undecidable arithmetical formu...

  7. Recursive double-size fixed precision arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Chabot, Christophe; Fousse, Laurent; Giorgi, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    This work is a part of the SHIVA (Secured Hardware Immune Versatile Architecture) project whose purpose is to provide a programmable and reconfigurable hardware module with high level of security. We propose a recursive double-size fixed precision arithmetic called RecInt. Our work can be split in two parts. First we developped a C++ software library with performances comparable to GMP ones. Secondly our simple representation of the integers allows an implementation on FPGA. Our idea is to consider sizes that are a power of 2 and to apply doubling techniques to implement them efficiently: we design a recursive data structure where integers of size 2^k, for k>k0 can be stored as two integers of size 2^{k-1}. Obviously for k<=k0 we use machine arithmetic instead (k0 depending on the architecture).

  8. Dictionary of algebra, arithmetic, and trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2000-01-01

    Clear, rigorous definitions of mathematical terms are crucial to good scientific and technical writing-and to understanding the writings of others. Scientists, engineers, mathematicians, economists, technical writers, computer programmers, along with teachers, professors, and students, all have the need for comprehensible, working definitions of mathematical expressions. To meet that need, CRC Press proudly introduces its Dictionary of Algebra, Arithmetic, and Trigonometry- the second published volume in the CRC Comprehensive Dictionary of Mathematics. More than three years in development, top academics and professionals from prestigious institutions around the world bring you more than 2,800 detailed definitions, written in a clear, readable style, complete with alternative meanings, and related references.From Abelian cohomology to zero ring and from the very basic to the highly advanced, this unique lexicon includes terms associated with arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry, with natural overlap into geom...

  9. Arithmetic Operand Ordering for Equivalence Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Yanling; GE Haitong; YAN Xiaolang; Ren Kun

    2007-01-01

    An information extraction-based technique is proposed for RTL-to-gate equivalence checking. Distances are calculated on directed acyclic graph (AIG). Multiplier and multiplicand are distinguished on multiplications with different coding methods, with which the operand ordering/grouping information could be extracted from a given implementation gate netlist, helping the RTL synthesis engine generate a gate netlist with great similarity. This technique has been implemented in an internal equivalence checking tool, ZD_VIS. Compared with the simple equivalence checking, the speed is accelerated by at least 40% in its application to a class of arithmetic designs, addition and multiplication trees. The method can be easily incorporated into existing RTL-to-gate equivalence checking frameworks, increasing the robustness of equivalence checking for arithmetic circuits.

  10. Recursive double-size fixed precision arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Chabot, Christophe; Dumas, Jean-Guillaume; Fousse, Laurent; Giorgi, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    This work is a part of the SHIVA (Secured Hardware Immune Versatile Architecture) project whose purpose is to provide a programmable and reconfigurable hardware module with high level of security. We propose a recursive double-size fixed precision arithmetic called RecInt. Our work can be split in two parts. First we developped a C++ software library with performances comparable to GMP ones. Secondly our simple representation of the integers allows an implementation on FPGA. Our idea is to co...

  11. Arithmetic Properties of the Ramanujan Function

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Florian Luca; Igor E Shparlinski

    2006-02-01

    We study some arithmetic properties of the Ramanujan function (), such as the largest prime divisor ( ()) and the number of distinct prime divisors (()) of () for various sequences of . In particular, we show that ( ()) ≥ $(\\log n)^{33/31+(1)}$ for infinitely many , and $$P((p)(p^2)(p^3))>(1+(1))\\frac{\\log\\log p\\log\\log\\log p}{\\log\\log\\log\\log p}$$ for every prime with $(p)≠ 0$.

  12. Set Theory and Arithmetic in Fuzzy Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Běhounek, Libor; Haniková, Zuzana

    Cham : Springer, 2015 - (Montagna, F.), s. 63-89 ISBN 978-3-319-06232-7. - (Outstanding Contributions to Logic. 6) R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP103/10/P234; GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : fuzzy set theory * fuzzy logic * naive comprehension * non-classical arithmetic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. Randomness, pseudorandomness and models of arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Pudlák, P.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudorandmness plays an important role in number theory, complexity theory and cryptography. Our aim is to use models of arithmetic to explain pseudorandomness by randomness. To this end we construct a set of models $\\cal M$, a common element $\\iota$ of these models and a probability distribution on $\\cal M$, such that for every pseudorandom sequence $s$, the probability that $s(\\iota)=1$ holds true in a random model from $\\cal M$ is equal to 1/2.

  14. Arithmetic Operators for Pairing-Based Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchat, Jean-Luc; Brisebarre, Nicolas; Detrey, Jérémie; Okamoto, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    Since their introduction in constructive cryptographic applications, pairings over (hyper)elliptic curves are at the heart of an ever increasing number of protocols. Software implementations being rather slow, the study of hardware architectures became an active research area. In this paper, we first study an accelerator for the eta_T pairing over F_3[x]/(x^97 + x^12 + 2). Our architecture is based on a unified arithmetic operator which performs addition, multiplication, and cubing over F_3^9...

  15. Calculation Methodology for Flexible Arithmetic Processing

    OpenAIRE

    García Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Mora Pascual, Jerónimo Manuel; Mora Mora, Higinio; Signes Pont, María Teresa

    2003-01-01

    A new operation model of flexible calculation that allows us to adjust the operation delay depending on the available time is presented. The operation method design uses look-up tables and progressive construction of the result. The increase in the operators’ granularity opens up new possibilities in calculation methods and microprocessor design. This methodology, together with the advances in technology, enables the functions of an arithmetic unit to be implemented on the basis of techniques...

  16. Time-Precision Flexible Arithmetic Unit

    OpenAIRE

    García Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Mora Pascual, Jerónimo Manuel; Mora Mora, Higinio; Signes Pont, María Teresa

    2003-01-01

    A new conception of flexible calculation that allows us to adjust an operation depending on the available time computation is presented. The proposed arithmetic unit is based on this principle. It contains a control operation module that determines the process time of each calculation. The operation method design uses precalculated data stored in look-up tables, which provide, above all, quality results and systematization in the implementation of low level primitives that set parameters for ...

  17. Real closures of models of weak arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil; Kolodziejczyk, L.. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, 1-2 (2013), s. 143-157. ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * real-closed field * recursive saturation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00153-012-0311-x

  18. MCNPX graphics and arithmetic tally upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCNPX tallies and cross-sections are plotted using the MCPLOT package. We report on an assortment of upgrades to MCPLOT that are intended to improve the appearance of two-dimensional tally and cross-section plots. We have also expanded the content and versatility of the MCPLOT 'help' command. Finally, we describe the initial phase of capability implementation to post-process tally data using arithmetic operations. These improvements will enable users to better display and manipulate simulation results. (authors)

  19. Coherent states, pseudodifferential analysis and arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic questions regarding families of coherent states include describing some constructions of such and the way they can be applied to operator theory or partial differential equations. In both questions, pseudodifferential analysis is important. Recent developments indicate that they can contribute to methods in arithmetic, especially modular form theory. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)

  20. Coinductive Formal Reasoning in Exact Real Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Niqui, Milad

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present a method for formally proving the correctness of the lazy algorithms for computing homographic and quadratic transformations -- of which field operations are special cases-- on a representation of real numbers by coinductive streams. The algorithms work on coinductive stream of M\\"{o}bius maps and form the basis of the Edalat--Potts exact real arithmetic. We use the machinery of the Coq proof assistant for the coinductive types to present the formalisation. The form...

  1. A sorting network in bounded arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 4 (2011), s. 341-355. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * sorting network * proof complexity * monotone sequent calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007210001272

  2. A common Misconception about the Categorical Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Raguní, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Although the categorical arithmetic is not effectively axiomatizable, the belief that the incompleteness Theorems can be apply to it is fairly common. Furthermore, the so-called "essential" (or "inherent") semantic incompleteness of the second-order Logic that can be deduced by these same Theorems does not imply the standard semantic incompleteness that can be derived using the Loewenheim-Skolem or the compactness Theorem. This state of affairs has its origins in an incorrect and misinterpret...

  3. Set Theory and Arithmetic in Fuzzy Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Běhounek, Libor; Haniková, Zuzana

    Cham: Springer, 2015 - (Montagna, F.), s. 63-89. (Outstanding Contributions to Logic. 6). ISBN 978-3-319-06232-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP103/10/P234; GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : fuzzy set theory * fuzzy logic * naive comprehension * non-classical arithmetic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  4. Efficient Unified Arithmetic for Hardware Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    SAVAŞ, Erkay; Savas, Erkay; Koç, Çetin Kaya; Koc, Cetin Kaya

    2008-01-01

    The basic arithmetic operations (i.e. addition, multiplication, and inversion) in finite fields, GF(q), where q = pk and p is a prime integer, have several applications in cryptography, such as RSA algorithm, Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm [1], the US federal Digital Signature Standard [2], elliptic curve cryptography [3, 4], and also recently identity based cryptography [5, 6]. Most popular finite fields that are heavily used in cryptographic applications due to elliptic curve based s...

  5. Residues : The gateway to higher arithmetic I

    OpenAIRE

    Siebeneicher, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Residues to a given modulus have been introduced to mathematics by Carl Friedrich Gauss with the definition of congruence in the `Disquisitiones Arithmeticae'. Their extraordinary properties provide the basis for a change of paradigm in arithmetic. By restricting residues to remainders left over by divison Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet - Gauss's successor in G\\"ottingen - eliminated in his `Lectures on number theory' the fertile concept of residues and attributed with the number-theoretic ap...

  6. Arithmetic functions in torus and tree networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2007-12-25

    Methods and systems for performing arithmetic functions. In accordance with a first aspect of the invention, methods and apparatus are provided, working in conjunction of software algorithms and hardware implementation of class network routing, to achieve a very significant reduction in the time required for global arithmetic operation on the torus. Therefore, it leads to greater scalability of applications running on large parallel machines. The invention involves three steps in improving the efficiency and accuracy of global operations: (1) Ensuring, when necessary, that all the nodes do the global operation on the data in the same order and so obtain a unique answer, independent of roundoff error; (2) Using the topology of the torus to minimize the number of hops and the bidirectional capabilities of the network to reduce the number of time steps in the data transfer operation to an absolute minimum; and (3) Using class function routing to reduce latency in the data transfer. With the method of this invention, every single element is injected into the network only once and it will be stored and forwarded without any further software overhead. In accordance with a second aspect of the invention, methods and systems are provided to efficiently implement global arithmetic operations on a network that supports the global combining operations. The latency of doing such global operations are greatly reduced by using these methods.

  7. Alzheimer's disease disrupts arithmetic fact retrieval processes but not arithmetic strategy selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverne, Sandrine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard François

    2003-08-01

    Three groups of healthy younger adults, healthy older adults, and probable AD patients, performed an addition/number comparison task. They compared 128 couples of additions and numbers (e.g., 4 + 9 15) and had to identify the largest item for each problem by pressing one of two buttons located under each item. Manipulations of problem characteristics (i.e., problem difficulty and splits between correct sums and proposed numbers) enabled us to examine strategy selection and specific arithmetic fact retrieval processes. Results showed that arithmetic facts retrieval processes, which were spared with aging, were impaired in AD patients. However, AD patients were able to switch between strategies across trials according to problem characteristics as well as healthy older adults, and less systematically than healthy younger adults. We discuss implications of these findings for further understanding AD-related differences in arithmetic in particular, and problem solving in general. PMID:12907175

  8. Are individual differences in arithmetic fact retrieval related to inhibition?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellon, Elien

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been proposed that inhibition is related to individual differences in mathematical achievement, it is not clear how it is related to specific aspects of mathematical skills, such as arithmetic fact retrieval. The present study therefore investigated the association between inhibition and arithmetic fact retrieval and further examined the unique role of inhibition in individual differences in arithmetic fact retrieval, in addition to numerical magnitude processin...

  9. Sets of integers that do not contain long arithmetic progressions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Bryant, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    In 1946, Behrend gave a construction of dense finite sets of integers that do not contain 3-term arithmetic progressions. In 1961, Rankin generalized Behrend's construction to sets avoiding k-term arithmetic progressions, and in 2008 Elkin refined Behrend's 3-term construction. In this work, we combine Elkin's refinement and Rankin's generalization. Arithmetic progressions are handled as a special case of polynomial progressions. In 1946, Behrend gave a construction of dense finite sets of in...

  10. Implicit Learning of Arithmetic Regularities Is Facilitated by Proximal Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Prather, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Natural number arithmetic is a simple, powerful and important symbolic system. Despite intense focus on learning in cognitive development and educational research many adults have weak knowledge of the system. In current study participants learn arithmetic principles via an implicit learning paradigm. Participants learn not by solving arithmetic equations, but through viewing and evaluating example equations, similar to the implicit learning of artificial grammars. We expand this to the symbo...

  11. Arithmetical Difficulties and Low Arithmetic Achievement: Analysis of the Underlying Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Sarmiento, Valentín; Deaño, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the cognitive functioning underlying arithmetical difficulties and explored the predictors of arithmetic achievement in the last three grades of Spanish Primary Education. For this purpose, a group of 165 students was selected and divided into three groups of arithmetic competence: Mathematical Learning Disability group (MLD, n = 27), Low Achieving group (LA, n = 39), and Typical Achieving group (TA, n = 99). Students were assessed in domain-general abilities (working memory and PASS cognitive processes), and numerical competence (counting and number processing) during the last two months of the academic year. Performance of children from the MLD group was significantly poorer than that of the LA group in writing dictated Arabic numbers (d = -0.88), reading written verbal numbers (d = -0.84), transcoding written verbal numbers to Arabic numbers (-0.75) and comprehension of place value (d = -0.69), as well as in simultaneous (d = -0.62) and successive (d = -0.59) coding. In addition, a specific developmental sequence was observed in both groups, the implications of which are discussed. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed simultaneous coding (β = .47, t(155) = 6.18, p processing (β = .23, t(155) = 3.07, p < .01) as specific predictors of arithmetical performance. PMID:27320030

  12. A Geometric Characterization of Arithmetic Varieties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kapil Hari Paranjape

    2002-08-01

    A result of Belyi can be stated as follows. Every curve defined over a number field can be expressed as a cover of the projective line with branch locus contained in a rigid divisor. We define the notion of geometrically rigid divisors in surfaces and then show that every surface defined over a number field can be expressed as a cover of the projective plane with branch locus contained in a geometrically rigid divisor in the plane. The main result is the characterization of arithmetically defined divisors in the plane as geometrically rigid divisors in the plane.

  13. Aztec arithmetic: positional notation and area calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H R; Williams, B J

    1980-10-31

    Texcocan-Aztec peoples in the Valley of Mexico used both picture symbols and lines and dots for numerical notation. Decipherment and analysis of mid-16th-century native pictorial land documents from the Texcocan region indicate that the line-and-dot system incorporated a symbol for zero and used position to ascribe values. Positional line-and-dot notation was used to record areas of agricultural fields, and analysis of the documentary data suggests that areas were calculated arithmetically. These findings demonstrate that neither positional notation nor the zero were unique to the Maya area, and they imply an equally sophisticated mathematical development among the Aztecs. PMID:17841389

  14. Arithmetic, mutually unbiased bases and complementary observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complementary observables in quantum mechanics may be viewed as Frobenius structures in a dagger monoidal category, such as the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces over the complex numbers. On the other hand, their properties crucially depend on the discrete Fourier transform and its associated quantum torus, requiring only the finite fields that underlie mutually unbiased bases. In axiomatic topos theory, the complex numbers are difficult to describe and should not be invoked unnecessarily. This paper surveys some fundamentals of quantum arithmetic using finite field complementary observables, with a view considering more general axiom systems.

  15. Functional verification of floating point arithmetic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For continuous real-time reactivity monitoring of PFBR reactivity safety channel, a FPGA based reactivity meter has been developed by Electronics Division, BARC. Verification of designs involved in Safety Critical systems is very important and necessary. Functional verification of this design is presently carried out by EID, IGCAR. In Reactivity meter, Floating Point Arithmetic Unit (FPAU) is a major and very important sub module, which needs to be completely verified first. Two types of verifications are possible: Functional verification and Formal verification. This paper discusses and shares the experiences of functional verification of FPAU module for all special floating point numbers. (author)

  16. Arithmetic fundamental groups and moduli of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a short note on the algebraic (or sometimes called arithmetic) fundamental groups of an algebraic variety, which connects classical fundamental groups with Galois groups of fields. A large part of this note describes the algebraic fundamental groups in a concrete manner. This note gives only a sketch of the fundamental groups of the algebraic stack of moduli of curves. Some application to a purely topological statement, i.e., an obstruction to the subjectivity of Johnson homomorphisms in the mapping class groups, which comes from Galois group of Q, is explained. (author)

  17. Using fuzzy arithmetic in containment event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of fuzzy arithmetic is proposed for the evaluation of containment event trees. Concepts such as improbable, very improbable, and so on, which are subjective by nature, are represented by fuzzy numbers. The quantitative evaluation of containment event trees is based on the extension principle, by which operations on real numbers are extended to operations on fuzzy numbers. Expert knowledge is considered as state of the base variable with a normal distribution, which is considered to represent the membership function. Finally, this paper presents results of an example calculation of a containment event tree for the CAREM-25 nuclear power plant, presently under detailed design stage at Argentina. (author)

  18. ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS FOR COUNTING PRIME NUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J.DEVASIA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two arithmetic progressions are proposed for listing and counting the prime numbers less than or equal to a given integer. From these progressions, how one can filter out prime numbers is the topic of discussion in this paper. An easy to implement formula is presented to compute the number of primes by eliminating the number of composite numbers in an iterative and recursive manner. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate how the procedure works in an efficient and simple way.

  19. Detecting Children with Arithmetic Disabilities from Kindergarten: Evidence from a 3-Year Longitudinal Study on the Role of Preparatory Arithmetic Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Pieter; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In a 3-year longitudinal study, 471 children were classified, based on their performances on arithmetic tests in first and second grade, as having persistent arithmetic disabilities (AD), persistent low achieving (LA), persistent typical achieving, inconsistent arithmetic disabilities (DF1), or inconsistent low achieving in arithmetic. Significant…

  20. Outer Billiards, Arithmetic Graphs, and the Octagon

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2010-01-01

    Outer Billiards is a geometrically inspired dynamical system based on a convex shape in the plane. When the shape is a polygon, the system has a combinatorial flavor. In the polygonal case, there is a natural acceleration of the map, a first return map to a certain strip in the plane. The arithmetic graph is a geometric encoding of the symbolic dynamics of this first return map. In the case of the regular octagon, the case we study, the arithmetic graphs associated to periodic orbits are polygonal paths in R^8. We are interested in the asymptotic shapes of these polygonal paths, as the period tends to infinity. We show that the rescaled limit of essentially any sequence of these graphs converges to a fractal curve that simultaneously projects one way onto a variant of the Koch snowflake and another way onto a variant of the Sierpinski carpet. In a sense, this gives a complete description of the asymptotic behavior of the symbolic dynamics of the first return map. What makes all our proofs work is an efficient...

  1. Arithmetic intersection on a Hilbert modular surface and the Faltings height

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tonghai

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we prove an explicit arithmetic intersection formula between arithmetic Hirzebruch-Zagier divisors and arithmetic CM cycles in a Hilbert modular surface over $\\mathbb Z$. As applications, we obtain the first `non-abelian' Chowla-Selberg formula, which is a special case of Colmez's conjecture; an explicit arithmetic intersection formula between arithmetic Humbert surfaces and CM cycles in the arithmetic Siegel modular variety of genus two; Lauter's conjecture about the denominat...

  2. Guest Editors' Introduction: Special Section on Computer Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto; Seidel, Peter-Michael; Tang, Ping Tak Peter

    2014-01-01

    The articles in this special issue focus on current trends and developments in the field of computer arithmetic. This is a field that encompasses the definition and standardization of arithmetic system for computers. The field also deals with issues of hardware and software implementations and...

  3. Higher Arithmetic Sequence and Its Implicit Common Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of k-order sequence of first order arithmetic sequence has been defined by mathematical induction based on finite difference theory. It has been proved this sequence is higher arithmetic sequence. Meanwhile the sum formula and the derivation of its implicit common difference have been given.

  4. Higher Arithmetic Sequence and Its Implicit Common Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Qu

    2015-01-01

    The concept of k-order sequence of first order arithmetic sequence has been defined by mathematical induction based on finite difference theory. It has been proved this sequence is higher arithmetic sequence. Meanwhile the sum formula and the derivation of its implicit common difference have been given.

  5. FPGA Based Quadruple Precision Floating Point Arithmetic for Scientific Computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamidi Nagaraju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this project we explore the capability and flexibility of FPGA solutions in a sense to accelerate scientific computing applications which require very high precision arithmetic, based on IEEE 754 standard 128-bit floating-point number representations. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA is increasingly being used to design high end computationally intense microprocessors capable of handling floating point mathematical operations. Quadruple Precision Floating-Point Arithmetic is important in computational fluid dynamics and physical modelling, which require accurate numerical computations. However, modern computers perform binary arithmetic, which has flaws in representing and rounding the numbers. As the demand for quadruple precision floating point arithmetic is predicted to grow, the IEEE 754 Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic includes specifications for quadruple precision floating point arithmetic. We implement quadruple precision floating point arithmetic unit for all the common operations, i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. While previous work has considered circuits for low precision floating-point formats, we consider the implementation of 128-bit quadruple precision circuits. The project will provide arithmetic operation, simulation result, hardware design, Input via PS/2 Keyboard interface and results displayed on LCD using Xilinx virtex5 (XC5VLX110TFF1136 FPGA device.

  6. The behaviour of eigenstates of arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study some problems arising from the theory of Quantum Chaos, in the context of arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds. We show that there is no strong localization (''scarring'') onto totally geodesic submanifolds. Arithmetic examples are given, which show that the random wave model for eigenstates does not apply universally in 3 degrees of freedom. (orig.)

  7. Understanding and Using Principles of Arithmetic: Operations Involving Negative Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Richard W.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has investigated adults' knowledge of principles for arithmetic with positive numbers (Dixon, Deets, & Bangert, 2001). The current study extends this past work to address adults' knowledge of principles of arithmetic with a negative number, and also investigates links between knowledge of principles and problem representation.…

  8. 24 CFR Appendix E to Part 3500 - Arithmetic Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arithmetic Steps E Appendix E to Part 3500 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...—Arithmetic Steps I. Example Illustrating Aggregate Analysis: ASSUMPTIONS: Disbursements: $360 for...

  9. Children's Acquisition of Arithmetic Principles: The Role of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Richard; Alibali, Martha W.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how young learners' experiences with arithmetic equations can lead to learning of an arithmetic principle. The focus was elementary school children's acquisition of the Relation to Operands principle for subtraction (i.e., for natural numbers, the difference must be less than the minuend). In Experiment 1, children…

  10. Genetic Programming with Smooth Operators for Arithmetic Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær; Krink, Thiemo

    This paper introduces the smooth operators for arithmetic expressions as an approach to smoothening the search space in Genetic Programming (GP). Smooth operator GP interpolates between arithmetic operators such as * and /, thereby allowing a gradual adaptation to the problem. The suggested...

  11. The Arithmetic Tie Effect Is Mainly Encoding-based.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenberger, Sven

    2001-01-01

    Examined two possible explanations for the arithmetic tie effect: faster encoding of tie problems versus faster access to arithmetic facts. Found that the tie effect vanished with heterogeneous addition problems, and for seven out of eight participants, the effect vanished with heterogeneous multiplication problems. Concludes that the tie effect…

  12. A novel chaotic encryption scheme based on arithmetic coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, under the combination of arithmetic coding and logistic map, a novel chaotic encryption scheme is presented. The plaintexts are encrypted and compressed by using an arithmetic coder whose mapping intervals are changed irregularly according to a keystream derived from chaotic map and plaintext. Performance and security of the scheme are also studied experimentally and theoretically in detail

  13. Is integer arithmetic fundamental to mental processing?: the mind's secret arithmetic.

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, A.W.; Mitchell, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Unlike the ability to acquire our native language, we struggle to learn multiplication and division. It may then come as a surprise that the mental machinery for performing lightning-fast integer arithmetic calculations could be within us all even though it cannot be readily accessed, nor do we have any idea of its primary function. We are led to this provocative hypothesis by analysing the extraordinary skills of autistic savants. In our view such individuals have privileged access to lower ...

  14. Coinductive Formal Reasoning in Exact Real Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Niqui, Milad

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present a method for formally proving the correctness of the lazy algorithms for computing homographic and quadratic transformations -- of which field operations are special cases-- on a representation of real numbers by coinductive streams. The algorithms work on coinductive stream of M\\"obius maps and form the basis of the Edalat--Potts exact real arithmetic. We use the machinery of the Coq proof assistant for the coinductive types to present the formalisation. The formalised algorithms are only partially productive, i.e., they do not output provably infinite streams for all possible inputs. We show how to deal with this partiality in the presence of syntactic restrictions posed by the constructive type theory of Coq. Furthermore we show that the type theoretic techniques that we develop are compatible with the semantics of the algorithms as continuous maps on real numbers. The resulting Coq formalisation is available for public download.

  15. The arithmetic basis of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under relatively general particle and rocket frame motions, it is shown that, for special relativity, the basic concepts can be formulated and the basic properties deduced using only arithmetic. Particular attention is directed toward velocity, acceleration, proper time, momentum, energy, and 4-vectors in both space-time and Minkowski space, and to relativistic generalizations of Newton's second law. The resulting mathematical simplification is not only completely compatible with modern computer technology, but it yields dynamical equations that can be solved directly by such computers. Particular applications of the numerical equations, which are either Lorentz invariant or are directly related to Lorentz-invariant formulas, are made to the study of a relativistic harmonic oscillator and to the motion of an electric particle in a magnetic field. (author)

  16. On Arithmetic Densities of Sets of Generalized Integers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porubský, Štefan

    Book 4, Volume 1. Kyiv : Institute of Mathematics, NAS of Ukraine, 2008, s. 132-136. ISBN 978-966-02-4891-5. [International Conference on Analytic Number Theory and Spatial Tessellation /4./. Kyiv (UA), 22.09.2008-28.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/07/0191 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : asymptotic density * logarithmic density * weighted means * arithmetical semigroup * arithmetic function * generalized arithmetic density * topological density Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. A novel operation associated with Gauss' arithmetic-geometric means

    OpenAIRE

    Tanimoto, Shinji

    2007-01-01

    The arithmetic mean is the mean for addition and the geometric mean is that for multiplication. Then what kind of binary operation is associated with the arithmetic-geometric mean (AGM) due to C. F. Gauss? If it is possible to construct an arithmetic operation such that AGM is the mean for this operation, it can be regarded as an intermediate operation between addition and multiplication in view of the meaning of AGM. In this paper such an operation is introduced and several of its algebraic ...

  18. Arithmetic Data Cube as a Data Intensive Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Michael A.; Shabano, Leonid

    2003-01-01

    Data movement across computational grids and across memory hierarchy of individual grid machines is known to be a limiting factor for application involving large data sets. In this paper we introduce the Data Cube Operator on an Arithmetic Data Set which we call Arithmetic Data Cube (ADC). We propose to use the ADC to benchmark grid capabilities to handle large distributed data sets. The ADC stresses all levels of grid memory by producing 2d views of an Arithmetic Data Set of d-tuples described by a small number of parameters. We control data intensity of the ADC by controlling the sizes of the views through choice of the tuple parameters.

  19. Frege, Dedekind, and Peano on the foundations of arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Gillies, Donald

    2013-01-01

    First published in 1982, this reissue contains a critical exposition of the views of Frege, Dedekind and Peano on the foundations of arithmetic. The last quarter of the 19th century witnessed a remarkable growth of interest in the foundations of arithmetic. This work analyses both the reasons for this growth of interest within both mathematics and philosophy and the ways in which this study of the foundations of arithmetic led to new insights in philosophy and striking advances in logic. This historical-critical study provides an excellent introduction to the problems of the philosop

  20. Hindman's Theorem: An Ultrafilter Argument in Second Order Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Towsner, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Hindman's Theorem is a prototypical example of a combinatorial theorem with a proof that uses the topology of the ultrafilters. We show how the methods of this proof, including topological arguments about ultrafilters, can be translated into second order arithmetic.

  1. Dependence of arithmetic functions and differential transcendence of Dirichlet series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different kinds of dependence (linear and algebraic) are investigated in the domain of arithmetic functions under addition and convolution, while measures of differential transcendence are derived in the domain of Dirichlet series. (author). 18 refs

  2. Verification of Linear (In)Dependence in Finite Precision Arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3-4 (2014), s. 323 -328. ISSN 1661-8289 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : linear dependence * linear independence * pseudoinverse matrix * finite precision arithmetic * verification * MATLAB file Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. FPGA Based Quadruple Precision Floating Point Arithmetic for Scientific Computations

    OpenAIRE

    Mamidi Nagaraju; Geedimatla Shekar

    2012-01-01

    In this project we explore the capability and flexibility of FPGA solutions in a sense to accelerate scientific computing applications which require very high precision arithmetic, based on IEEE 754 standard 128-bit floating-point number representations. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is increasingly being used to design high end computationally intense microprocessors capable of handling floating point mathematical operations. Quadruple Precision Floating-Point Arithmetic is important...

  4. Neurofunctional Differences Associated with Arithmetic Processing in Turner Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L.

    2005-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by the absence of one X chromosome in a phenotypic female. Individuals with TS are at risk for impairments in mathematics. We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying arithmetic processing in TS. Fifteen subjects with TS and 15 age-matched typically developing controls were scanned using functional MRI while they performed easy (two-operand) and difficult (three-operand) versions of an arithmetic processing task. Both groups a...

  5. Finite Field Arithmetic and its Application in Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Bijan

    2012-01-01

    The groundbreaking idea of public key cryptography and the rapid expansion of the internetin the 80s opened a new research area for finite field arithmetic. The large size of fields incryptography demands new algorithms for efficient arithmetic and new metrics for estimatingfinite field operation performance. The area, power, and timing constraints on hand-heldand embedded devices necessitate accurate models to achieve expected goals. Additionally,cryptosystems need to protect their secrets a...

  6. Torsionfree Sheaves over a Nodal Curve of Arithmetic Genus One

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle; Indranil Biswas

    2008-02-01

    We classify all isomorphism classes of stable torsionfree sheaves on an irreducible nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over $\\mathbb{C}$. Let be a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over $\\mathbb{R}$, with exactly one node, such that does not have any real points apart from the node. We classify all isomorphism classes of stable real algebraic torsionfree sheaves over of even rank. We also classify all isomorphism classes of real algebraic torsionfree sheaves over of rank one.

  7. Finite Field Arithmetic Architecture Based on Cellular Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Won Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various finite field arithmetic structures are introduced for VLSI circuit implementation on cryptosystems and error correcting codes. In this study, we present an efficient finite field arithmetic architecture based on cellular semi-systolic array for Montgomery multiplication by choosing a proper Montgomery factor which is highly suitable for the design on parallel structures. Therefore, our architecture has reduced a time complexity by 50% compared to typical architecture.

  8. Finite and Infinite Arithmetic Progressions Related to Beta-Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let 1<β<2 and ε(x,β be the β-expansion of x∈[0,1. Denote by Aβ(x the set of positions where the digit 1 appears in ε(x,β. We consider the sets of points x such that Aβ(x contains arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions and includes infinite arithmetic progressions, respectively. Their sizes are investigated from the topological, metric, and dimensional viewpoints.

  9. Arithmetic for the unification of quantum mechanics and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper we bring attention to description of complex systems in terms of self-organization processes of prime integer relations. Revealed through the unity of two equivalent forms, arithmetical and geometrical, the description may have the potential for the unification of quantum mechanics and general relativity. Remarkably, based on integers and controlled by arithmetic only such processes can define nonlocal correlations between parts of a complex system and the geometry of their spacetimes.

  10. Crystallization of space: Space-time fractals from fractal arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek; Kuna, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    Fractals such as the Cantor set can be equipped with intrinsic arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) that map the fractal into itself. The arithmetics allows one to define calculus and algebra intrinsic to the fractal in question, and one can formulate classical and quantum physics within the fractal set. In particular, fractals in space-time can be generated by means of homogeneous spaces associated with appropriate Lie groups. The construction is illustrated by explicit examples.

  11. Some studies on arithmetical chaos in classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects of classical and quantum mechanics applied to a class of strongly chaotic systems are studied. The latter consists of single particles moving without external forces on surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature whose corresponding fundamental groups are supplied with an arithmetic structure. It is shown that the arithmetical features of the considered systems lead to exceptional properties of the corresponding spectra of lengths of closed geodesics (periodic orbits). The most significant one is an exponential growth of degeneracies in these geodesic length spectra. Furthermore, the arithmetical systems are distinguished by a structure that appears as a generalization of geometric symmetries. These pseudosymmetries occur in the quantization of the classical arithmetic systems as Hecke operators, which form an infinite algebra of self-adjoint operators commuting with the Hamiltonian. The statistical properties of quantum energies in the arithmetical systems have previously been identified as exceptional. They do not fit into the general scheme of random matrix theory. It is shown with the help of a simplified model for the spectral form factor how the spectral statistics in arithmetical quantum chaos can be understood by the properties of the corresponding classical geodesic length spectra. A decisive role is played by the exponentially increasing multiplicities of lengths. The model developed for the level spacings distribution and for the number variance is compared to the corresponding quantities obtained from quantum energies for a specific arithmetical system. Finally, the convergence properties of a representation for the Selberg zeta function as a Dirichlet series are studied. It turns out that the exceptional classical and quantum mechanical properties shared by the arithmetical systems prohibit a convergence of this important function in the physically interesting domain. (orig.)

  12. Pu600 energy window arithmetic of plutonium isotopes ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of calculating plutonium isotopes ratio using Pu600 energy window (630-670 keV) was put forward by the LLNL. And plutonium isotopes ratio arithmetic on Pu600 energy window was developed in this paper. Some γ energy spectra of two plutonium samples were calculated on this arithmetic, and the results are consistent with the results from PC/FRAM. (authors)

  13. Crystallization of space: Space-time fractals from fractal arithmetics

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Diederik; Kuna, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Fractals such as the Cantor set can be equipped with intrinsic arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) that map the fractal into itself. The arithmetics allows one to define calculus and algebra intrinsic to the fractal in question, and one can formulate classical and quantum physics within the fractal set. In particular, fractals in space-time can be generated by means of homogeneous spaces associated with appropriate Lie groups. The construction is illustrated by explicit examples.

  14. Design of Floating Point Arithmetic Logic Unit with Universal Gate

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha N. Zanjat; Dr.S.D.Chede; Prof.B.J.Chilke

    2014-01-01

    A floating point arithmetic and logic unit design using pipelining is proposed. By using pipeline with ALU design, ALU provides a high performance. With pipelining plus parallel processing concept ALU execute multiple instructions simultaneously. Floating point ALU unit is formed by combination of arithmetic modules (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), Universal gate module. Each module is divided into sub-module. Bits selection determines which operation takes place at a partic...

  15. On the arithmetic of crossratios and generalised Mertens' formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Parkkonen, Jouni; Paulin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    We develop the relation between hyperbolic geometry and arithmetic equidistribution problems that arises from the action of arithmetic groups on real hyperbolic spaces, especially in dimension up to 5. We prove generalisations of Mertens' formula for quadratic imaginary number fields and definite quaternion algebras over the rational numbers, counting results of quadratic irrationals with respect to two different natural complexities, and counting results of representations of (algebraic) int...

  16. Adams operations on higher arithmetic K-theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda

    2010-01-01

    We construct Adams operations on the rational higher arithmetic K-groups of a proper arithmetic variety. The de¿nition applies to the higher arithmetic K-groups given by Takeda as well as to the groups suggested by Deligne and Soulé, by means of the homotopy groups of the homotopy ¿ber of the reg......We construct Adams operations on the rational higher arithmetic K-groups of a proper arithmetic variety. The de¿nition applies to the higher arithmetic K-groups given by Takeda as well as to the groups suggested by Deligne and Soulé, by means of the homotopy groups of the homotopy ¿ber...... of the regulator map. They are compatible with the Adams operations on algebraic K-theory. The de¿nition relies on the chain morphism representing Adams operations in higher algebraic K-theory given previously by the author. It is shown that this chain morphism commutes strictly with the representative...

  17. Is integer arithmetic fundamental to mental processing?: the mind's secret arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A W; Mitchell, D J

    1999-03-22

    Unlike the ability to acquire our native language, we struggle to learn multiplication and division. It may then come as a surprise that the mental machinery for performing lightning-fast integer arithmetic calculations could be within us all even though it cannot be readily accessed, nor do we have any idea of its primary function. We are led to this provocative hypothesis by analysing the extraordinary skills of autistic savants. In our view such individuals have privileged access to lower levels of information not normally available through introspection. PMID:10212449

  18. Conference on Number Theory and Arithmetic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph; Stevens, Glenn; Modular forms and Fermat’s last theorem

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains expanded versions of lectures given at an instructional conference on number theory and arithmetic geometry held August 9 through 18, 1995 at Boston University. Contributor's includeThe purpose of the conference, and of this book, is to introduce and explain the many ideas and techniques used by Wiles in his proof that every (semi-stable) elliptic curve over Q is modular, and to explain how Wiles' result can be combined with Ribet's theorem and ideas of Frey and Serre to show, at long last, that Fermat's Last Theorem is true. The book begins with an overview of the complete proof, followed by several introductory chapters surveying the basic theory of elliptic curves, modular functions, modular curves, Galois cohomology, and finite group schemes. Representation theory, which lies at the core of Wiles' proof, is dealt with in a chapter on automorphic representations and the Langlands-Tunnell theorem, and this is followed by in-depth discussions of Serre's conjectures, Galois deformations, ...

  19. Development of Superconductive Arithmetic and Logic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the very fast switching speed of Josephson junctions, superconductive digital circuit has been a very good candidate fur future electronic devices. High-speed and Low-power microprocessor can be developed with Josephson junctions. As a part of an effort to develop superconductive microprocessor, we have designed an RSFQ 4-bit ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) in a pipelined structure. To make the circuit work faster, we used a forward clocking scheme. This required a careful design of timing between clock and data pulses in ALU. The RSFQ 1-bit block of ALU used in this work consisted of three DC current driven SFQ switches and a half-adder. We successfully tested the half adder cell at clock frequency up to 20 GHz. The switches were commutating output ports of the half adder to produce AND, OR, XOR, or Add functions. For a high-speed test, we attached switches at the input ports to control the high-speed input data by low-frequency pattern generators. The output in this measurement was an eye-diagram. Using this setup, 1-bit block of Alum was successfully tested up to 40 GHz. An RSFQ 4-bit ALU was fabricated and tested. The circuit worked at 5 GHz. The circuit size of the 4-bit ALU was 3 mm X 1.5 mm, fitting in a 5 mm X 5 mm chip.

  20. Training of Attention in Children With Low Arithmetical Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guarnera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of attentional processes in arithmetical skills and examines if training of basic attentive skills may improve also working memory abilities reducing arithmetic difficulties. In order to study the efficacy of attentional treatment in arithmetic achievement and in enhancing working memory abilities a test-treatment-retest quasi experimental design was adopted. The research involved 14 children, attending fourth and fifth grades, with Arithmetical Learning Disabilities (ALD assigned to experimental and control conditions. The numerical comprehension and calculation processes were assessed using the ABCA battery (Lucangeli, Tressoldi, & Fiore, 1998. Attentional abilities were evaluated using a multitask computerized assessment battery Attenzione e Concentrazione (Di Nuovo, 2000. WM abilities were evaluated by Listening span task, Digit span backward, Making verbal trails and Making colour trails. The results showed that intensive computerized attention training increased basic attentive skills and arithmetical performances with respect to numeric system in children with ALD. No effect on working memory abilities was found. Results are also important from a clinical perspective, since they may suggest strategies for planning individualized training programs.

  1. Number processing and arithmetic skills in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixner, Silvia; Leyrer, Martin; Moeller, Korbinian

    2014-01-01

    Though previous findings report that hearing impaired children exhibit impaired language and arithmetic skills, our current understanding of how hearing and the associated language impairments may influence the development of arithmetic skills is still limited. In the current study numerical/arithmetic performance of 45 children with a cochlea implant were compared to that of controls matched for hearing age, intelligence and sex. Our main results were twofold disclosing that children with CI show general as well as specific numerical/arithmetic impairments. On the one hand, we found an increased percentage of children with CI with an indication of dyscalculia symptoms, a general slowing in multiplication and subtraction as well as less accurate number line estimations. On the other hand, however, children with CI exhibited very circumscribed difficulties associated with place-value processing. Performance declined specifically when subtraction required a borrow procedure and number line estimation required the integration of units, tens, and hundreds instead of only units and tens. Thus, it seems that despite initially atypical language development, children with CI are able to acquire arithmetic skills in a qualitatively similar fashion as their normal hearing peers. Nonetheless, when demands on place-value understanding, which has only recently been proposed to be language mediated, hearing impaired children experience specific difficulties. PMID:25566152

  2. A New Fast Modular Arithmetic Method in Public Key Cryptography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bangju; ZHANG Huanguo

    2006-01-01

    Modular arithmetic is a fundamental operation and plays an important role in public key cryptosystem. A new method and its theory evidence on the basis of modular arithmetic with large integer modulus-changeable modulus algorithm is proposed to improve the speed of the modular arithmetic in the presented paper. For changeable modulus algorithm, when modular computation of modulo n is difficult, it can be realized by computation of modulo n-1 and n-2 on the perquisite of easy modular computations of modulo n-1 and modulo n-2. The conclusion is that the new method is better than the direct method by computing the modular arithmetic operation with large modulus. Especially, when computations of modulo n-1 and modulo n-2 are easy and computation of modulo n is difficult, this new method will be faster and has more advantages than other algorithms on modular arithmetic. Lastly, it is suggested that the proposed method be applied in public key cryptography based on modular multiplication and modular exponentiation with large integer modulus effectively

  3. Reading, arithmetic, and task orientation--how are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Ingvar; Sterner, Görel

    2006-12-01

    A sample of 60 children in Grade 3 was followed over one year. In the first year, an extensive battery of assessments was used including aspects of reading, arithmetic, and working memory. Teachers rated the children on 7-point scales on various motivational dimensions summarized to a total score tentatively called task orientation. In the follow-up assessment one year later, the testing and teacher ratings were repeated. The cross-sectional correlations between reading, arithmetic, and task orientation were all high (about +.70). The high correlation between reading and arithmetic decreased significantly when task orientation was partialed out, and it was further reduced when working memory as assessed by backward digit span was added to the controlling factors. Also, teacher ratings of cognitive ability and language development accounted for some of the common variance between reading and arithmetic. The correlation between task orientation and school achievement cannot be causally interpreted in cross-sectional designs. Some support for a "causal" hypothesis, however, was obtained in crosslagged correlation analyses indicating that task orientation in Grade 3 may have a causal impact on the level of performance in reading, and in arithmetic in Grade 4. Most likely, however, there is also a reciprocal relationship. PMID:17849205

  4. Perceiving fingers in single-digit arithmetic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria eBerteletti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate in children the neural underpinnings of finger representation and finger movement involved in single-digit arithmetic problems. Evidence suggests that finger representation and finger-based strategies play an important role in learning and understanding arithmetic. Because different operations rely on different networks, we compared activation for subtraction and multiplication problems in independently localized finger somatosensory and motor areas and tested whether activation was related to skill. Brain activations from children between 8 and 13 years of age revealed that only subtraction problems significantly activated finger motor areas, suggesting reliance on finger-based strategies. In addition, larger subtraction problems yielded greater somatosensory activation than smaller problems, suggesting a greater reliance on finger representation for larger numerical values. Interestingly, better performance in subtraction problems was associated with lower activation in the finger somatosensory area. Our results support the importance of fine-grained finger representation in arithmetical skill and are the first neurological evidence for a functional role of the somatosensory finger area in proficient arithmetical problem solving, in particular for those problems requiring quantity manipulation. From an educational perspective, these results encourage investigating whether different finger-based strategies facilitate arithmetical understanding and encourage educational practices aiming at integrating finger representation and finger-based strategies as a tool for instilling stronger numerical sense.

  5. Optimization Approaches for Designing Quantum Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Bolhassani, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Reversible logic is emerging as a promising alternative for applications in low-power design and quantum computation in recent years due to its ability to reduce power dissipation, which is an important research area in low power VLSI and ULSI designs. Many important contributions have been made in the literatures towards the reversible implementations of arithmetic and logical structures; however, there have not been many efforts directed towards efficient approaches for designing reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). In this study, three efficient approaches are presented and their implementations in the design of reversible ALUs are demonstrated. Three new designs of reversible one-digit arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic has been presented in this article. This paper provides explicit construction of reversible ALU effecting basic arithmetic operations with respect to the minimization of cost metrics. The architectures of the designs have been proposed in which each block is realized using elementary quantum logic gates. Then, reversible implementations of the proposed designs are analyzed and evaluated. The results demonstrate that the proposed designs are cost-effective compared with the existing counterparts. All the scales are in the NANO-metric area.

  6. Relativity of arithmetics as a fundamental symmetry of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Czachor, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Arithmetic operations can be defined in various ways, even if one assumes commutativity and associativity of addition and multiplication, and distributivity of multiplication with respect to addition. In consequence, whenever one encounters `plus' or `times' one has certain freedom of interpreting this operation. This leads to some freedom in definitions of derivatives, integrals and, thus, practically all equations occurring in natural sciences. A change of realization of arithmetics, without altering the remaining structures of a given equation, plays the same role as a symmetry transformation. An appropriate construction of arithmetics turns out to be particularly important for dynamical systems in fractal space-times. Simple examples from classical and quantum, relativistic and nonrelativistic physics are discussed.

  7. Lossless Image Compression Based on Multiple-Tables Arithmetic Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rung-Ching Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to present a lossless image compression method based on multiple-tables arithmetic coding (MTAC method to encode a gray-level image f. First, the MTAC method employs a median edge detector (MED to reduce the entropy rate of f. The gray levels of two adjacent pixels in an image are usually similar. A base-switching transformation approach is then used to reduce the spatial redundancy of the image. The gray levels of some pixels in an image are more common than those of others. Finally, the arithmetic encoding method is applied to reduce the coding redundancy of the image. To promote high performance of the arithmetic encoding method, the MTAC method first classifies the data and then encodes each cluster of data using a distinct code table. The experimental results show that, in most cases, the MTAC method provides a higher efficiency in use of storage space than the lossless JPEG2000 does.

  8. Design and Implementation of Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramanathan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at Implementation of Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit. The real number is represented in Qn.m format where n is the number of bits to the left of the binary point and m is the number of bits to the right of the binary point. The Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit was designed using Verilog HDL. The Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit incorporates adder, multiplier and subtractor. We carried out the simulations in ModelSim and Cadence IUS, used Cadence RTL Compiler for synthesis and used Cadence SoC Encounter for physical design and targeted 180 nm Technology for ASIC implementation. From the synthesis result it is found that our design consumes 1.524 mW of power and requires area 20823.26 μm2 .

  9. Uncertainty propagation in fault trees using a quantile arithmetic methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology based on Quantile Arithmetic, the probabilistic analog to Interval Analysis (Dempster 1969), is proposed for the computation of uncertainty propagation in Fault Tree Analysis (Apostolakis 1977). The basic events' continuous probability density functions are represented by equivalent discrete distributions through dividing them into a number of quantiles N. Quantile Arithmetic is then used to perform the binary arithmetical operations corresponding to the logical gates in the Boolean expression for the Top Event of a given Fault Tree. The computational characteristics of the proposed methodology as compared with the exact analytical solutions are discussed for the cases of the summation of M normal variables. It is further compared with the Monte Carlo method through the use of the efficiency ratio defined as the product of the labor and error ratios. (orig./HP)

  10. Computer arithmetic and validity theory, implementation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kulisch, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This is the revised and extended second edition of the successful basic book on computer arithmetic. It is consistent with the newest recent standard developments in the field. The book shows how the arithmetic capability of the computer can be enhanced. The work is motivated by the desire and the need to improve the accuracy of numerical computing and to control the quality of the computed results (validity). The accuracy requirements for the elementary floating-point operations are extended to the customary product spaces of computations including interval spaces. The mathematical properties

  11. Grounding Concepts An Empirical Basis for Arithmetical Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, C S

    2008-01-01

    Grounding Concepts tackles the issue of arithmetical knowledge, developing a new position which respects three intuitions which have appeared impossible to satisfy simultaneously: a priorism, mind-independence realism, and empiricism.Drawing on a wide range of philosophical influences, but avoiding unnecessary technicality, a view is developed whereby arithmetic can be known through the examination of empirically grounded concepts. These are concepts which, owing to their relationship to sensory input, are non-accidentally accurate representations of the mind-independent world. Examination of

  12. Degrading Precision Arithmetics for Low-power FIR Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto; Petricca, Massimo; Re, Marco

    2011-01-01

    dissipation is mandatory. After a review of the possible "standard" optimization techniques, the paper addresses aggressive methodologies where power and area savings are obtained by introducing the concept of "Degrading Precision Arithmetic" (DPA). Three different approaches are discussed: DPA-I, based on...... selective bit freezing, DPA-II, based on VDD voltage scaling, and DPA-III, based on power gating. Some theoreticaVsimuiative analysis of the introduced arithmetic errors and some implementation results are shown. A discussion on the suitability of these methodologies on standard cell technologies and FPGAs...

  13. Algebraic and arithmetic area for $m$ planar Brownian paths

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    The leading and next to leading terms of the average arithmetic area $$ enclosed by $m\\to\\infty$ independent closed Brownian planar paths, with a given length $t$ and starting from and ending at the same point, is calculated. The leading term is found to be $ \\sim {\\pi t\\over 2}\\ln m$ and the $0$-winding sector arithmetic area inside the $m$ paths is subleading in the asymptotic regime. A closed form expression for the algebraic area distribution is also obtained and discussed.

  14. Algebraic and arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leading and next to leading terms of the average arithmetic area (S(m)) enclosed by m→∞ independent closed Brownian planar paths, with a given length t and starting from and ending at the same point, are calculated. The leading term is found to be (S(m)) ∼ (πt/2)lnm and the 0-winding sector arithmetic area inside the m paths is subleading in the asymptotic regime. A closed form expression for the algebraic area distribution is also obtained and discussed

  15. Reason's Nearest Kin Philosophies of Arithmetic from Kant to Carnap

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Michael

    2000-01-01

    How do we account for the truth of arithmetic? And if it does not depend for its truth on the way the world is, what constrains the world to conform to arithmetic? Reason's Nearest Kin is a critical examination of the astonishing progress made towards answering these questions from the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. In the space of fifty years Frege, Dedekind, Russell, Wittgenstein, Ramsey, Hilbert, and Carnap developed accounts of the content of arithmeticthat were brilliantly original both technically and philosophically. Michael Potter's innovative study presents them all as

  16. Matrix inequalities for the difference between arithmetic mean and harmonic mean

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Wenshi; Wu, Junliang

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the refinements and reverses of arithmetic-geometric mean and arithmetic-harmonic mean inequalities for scalars and matrices, in this article, we generalize the scalar and matrix inequalities for the difference between arithmetic mean and harmonic mean. In addition, relevant inequalities for the Hilbert-Schmidt norm and determinant are established.

  17. Facilitating Preservice Teachers' Development of Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching Arithmetic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Olive

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical tasks, centered on arithmetic word problems, are discussed as the basis of an approach to facilitate preservice elementary teachers' development of mathematical knowledge for teaching arithmetic operations. The approach consists of three groups of tasks that allow students to reflect on their initial knowledge, explore arithmetic word…

  18. The Development of Arithmetic Principle Knowledge: How Do We Know What Learners Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Richard W.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews research on learners' knowledge of three arithmetic principles: "Commutativity", "Relation to Operands", and "Inversion." Studies of arithmetic principle knowledge vary along several dimensions, including the age of the participants, the context in which the arithmetic is presented, and most importantly, the type of knowledge…

  19. An arithmetic regularity lemma, an associated counting lemma, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Szemer\\'edi's regularity lemma can be viewed as a rough structure theorem for arbitrary dense graphs, decomposing such graphs into a structured piece (a partition into cells with edge densities), a small error (corresponding to irregular cells), and a uniform piece (the pseudorandom deviations from the edge densities). We establish an \\emph{arithmetic regularity lemma} that similarly decomposes bounded functions $f : [N] \\to \\C$, into a (well-equidistributed, virtual) $s$-step nilsequence, an error which is small in $L^2$ and a further error which is miniscule in the Gowers $U^{s+1}$-norm, where $s \\geq 1$ is a parameter. We then establish a complementary \\emph{arithmetic counting lemma} that counts arithmetic patterns in the nilsequence component of $f$. We provide a number of applications of these lemmas: a proof of Szemer\\'edi's theorem on arithmetic progressions, a proof of a conjecture of Bergelson, Host and Kra, and a generalisation of certain results of Gowers and Wolf. Our result is dependent on the i...

  20. Nonsymbolic, Approximate Arithmetic in Children: Abstract Addition Prior to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Hilary; Beckmann, Lacey; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    Do children draw upon abstract representations of number when they perform approximate arithmetic operations? In this study, kindergarten children viewed animations suggesting addition of a sequence of sounds to an array of dots, and they compared the sum to a second dot array that differed from the sum by 1 of 3 ratios. Children performed this…

  1. Optimal Inequalities for Generalized Logarithmic, Arithmetic, and Geometric Means

    OpenAIRE

    Chu Yu-Ming; Long Bo-Yong

    2010-01-01

    For , the generalized logarithmic mean , arithmetic mean , and geometric mean of two positive numbers and are defined by , for , , for , , and , , for , and , , for , and , , and , respectively. In this paper, we find the greatest value (or least value , resp.) such that the inequality (or , resp.) holds for (or , resp.) and all with .

  2. Embedding adaptive arithmetic coder in chaos-based cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study an adaptive arithmetic coder is embedded in the Baptista-type chaotic cryptosystem for implementing secure data compression. To build the multiple lookup tables of secure data compression, the phase space of chaos map with a uniform distribution in the search mode is divided non-uniformly according to the dynamic probability estimation of plaintext symbols. As a result, more probable symbols are selected according to the local statistical characters of plaintext and the required number of iterations is small since the more probable symbols have a higher chance to be visited by the chaotic search trajectory. By exploiting non-uniformity in the probabilities under which a number of iteration to be coded takes on its possible values, the compression capability is achieved by adaptive arithmetic code. Therefore, the system offers both compression and security. Compared with original arithmetic coding, simulation results on Calgary Corpus files show that the proposed scheme suffers from a reduction in compression performance less than 12% and is not susceptible to previously carried out attacks on arithmetic coding algorithms. (general)

  3. Tame symbols and reciprocity laws on arithmetic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dongwen

    2012-01-01

    We define and study tame symbols for two-dimensional local fields, which are closely related to Kato's residue homomorphisms in Milnor $K$-theory and also explicitly related to Contou-Carrere symbols. As applications we establish several reciprocity laws for tame symbols on arithmetic surfaces.

  4. A Stock Pricing Model Based on Arithmetic Brown Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yong-xin; HAN Wen-xiu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new stock pricing model based on arithmetic Brown motion. The model overcomes the shortcomings of Gordon model completely. With the model investors can estimate the stock value of surplus companies, deficit companies, zero increase companies and bankrupt companies in long term investment or in short term investment.

  5. Deduction arithmetic of continuous measurement the radon daughters potential energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to continuous measurement the radon daughters potential energy, the deduction arithmetic is presented. And the theoretical formula, coefficient, calculation error, method of sampling and measurement, condition of calibration are given. The calculation error of this method is less than 4%. This method is suitable for environmental measurement for it's high sensitivity when sampling with low flow rate. (authors)

  6. Arithmetic procedural knowledge: a cortico-subcortical circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşca, Elena Cecilia

    2009-12-11

    The disturbances of arithmetic procedural knowledge form a heterogeneous picture, in which we can distinguish "memory" impairments and "monitoring" problems. Patients with "memory" disturbances reported in the literature present left parietal lesions, while "monitoring" impairments have been assumed to be due to frontal damage. Procedural knowledge has been less investigated in basal ganglia lesions, in which there has been no analysis of procedural impairments. The present study investigates and compares the patterns of acalculia in two patients, one with a left parietal lesion and the other with a left basal ganglia lesion. The patients were tested on a broad range of neuropsychological abilities, with the main focus on number processing and calculation. The results show many similarities between their deficits, with some difficulties in simple arithmetic, arithmetical rules and mental and written complex calculations. The errors made in complex mental and written calculations were due to memory-based procedural impairments in both patients. These findings, corroborated with other studies reported in the literature, suggest the existence of a fronto-parieto-subcortical circuit responsible for arithmetic complex calculations and that procedural knowledge relies on a visuo-spatial sketchpad that contains a representation of each sub-step of the procedure. PMID:19765552

  7. Toward a Student-Centred Process of Teaching Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Gota

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a way toward a student-centred process of teaching arithmetic, where the content is harmonized with the students' conceptual levels. At school start, one classroom teacher is guided in recurrent teaching development meetings in order to develop teaching based on the students' prerequisites and to successively learn the…

  8. Towards Metamathematics of Weak Arithmetics over Fuzzy Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2011), s. 467-475. ISSN 1367-0751 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : weak arithmetic s * mathematical fuzzy logic * Gödel’s theorem * essential undecidability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.913, year: 2011

  9. Arithmetic and Aging: Impact of Quantitative Knowledge and Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozencwajg, Paulette; Schaeffer, Olivier; Lefebvre, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine how quantitative knowledge ("Gq" in the CHC model) and processing speed ("Gs" in the CHC model) affect scores on the WAIS-III Arithmetic Subtest (Wechsler, 2000) with aging. Two age groups were compared: 30 young adults and 25 elderly adults. For both age groups, "Gq" was an important predictor of…

  10. Operation-Specific Encoding in Single-Digit Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinlin

    2011-01-01

    Solving simple arithmetic problems involves three stages: encoding the problem, retrieving or calculating the answer, and reporting the answer. This study compared the event-related potentials elicited by single-digit addition and multiplication problems to examine the relationship between encoding and retrieval/calculation stages. Results showed…

  11. Numerical Predictors of Arithmetic Success in Grades 1-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Price, Gavin R.; Vaessen, Anniek; Blomert, Leo; Ansari, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Math relies on mastery and integration of a wide range of simpler numerical processes and concepts. Recent work has identified several numerical competencies that predict variation in math ability. We examined the unique relations between eight basic numerical skills and early arithmetic ability in a large sample (N = 1391) of children across…

  12. Unconscious Addition: When We Unconsciously Initiate and Follow Arithmetic Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ric, Francois; Muller, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research shows that people can unconsciously initiate and follow arithmetic rules (e.g., addition). Participants were asked to detect whether a symbol was a digit. This symbol was preceded by 2 digits and a subliminal instruction: "add" or a control instruction. Participants were faster at identifying a symbol as a number when the symbol was…

  13. Effects of Numerical Surface Form in Arithmetic Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrantia, Josetxu; Múñez, David; San Romualdo, Sara; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    Adults' simple arithmetic performance is more efficient when operands are presented in Arabic digit (3 + 5) than in number word (three + five) formats. An explanation provided is that visual familiarity with digits is higher respect to number words. However, most studies have been limited to single-digit addition and multiplication problems. In…

  14. Fragments of bounded arithmetic and the lengths of proofs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudlák, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 4 (2008), s. 1389-1406. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * length proofs * Herbrand´s theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2008

  15. Relational Thinking: Learning Arithmetic in Order to Promote Algebraic Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napaphun, Vishnu

    2012-01-01

    Trends in the curriculum reform propose that algebra should be taught throughout the grades, starting in elementary school. The aim should be to decrease the discontinuity between the arithmetic in elementary school and the algebra in upper grades. This study was conducted to investigate and characterise upper elementary school students…

  16. A codesign case study: implementing arithmetic functions in FPGAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klotchkov, I. V.; Pedersen, Steen

    Different ways of implementing and designing arithmetic functions for 16/32 bit integers in FPGA technology are studied. A comparison of four different design methods is also included. The results are used to increase the overall system performance in a dedicated 3D image analysis prototype system...

  17. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BISWAJYOTI SAHA

    2016-08-01

    For an arithmetical function $f$ with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the $\\sum_{n\\leq N}$ f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan’s totient functions.

  18. Sex Differences in Arithmetical Performance Scores: Central Tendency and Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, R.; Hurks, P. P. M.; Meijs, C.; Wassenberg, R.; Jolles, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze sex differences in arithmetical performance in a large-scale sample of 390 children (193 boys) frequenting grades 1-9. Past research in this field has focused primarily on average performance, implicitly assuming homogeneity of variance, for which support is scarce. This article examined sex differences in…

  19. Neuroanthropological Understanding of Complex Cognition – Numerosity and Arithmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarja Mursic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Humankind has a long evolutionary history. When we are trying to understand human complex cognition, it is as well important to look back to entire evolution. I will present the thesis that our biological predispositions and culture, together with natural and social environment, are tightly connected. During ontogenetically development we are shaped by various factors, and they enabled humans to develop some aspects of complex cognition, such as mathematics.In the beginning of the article I present the importance of natural and cultural evolution in other animals. In the following part, I briefly examine the field of mathematics – numerosity and arithmetic. Presentation of comparative animal studies, mainly made on primates, provides some interesting examples in animals’ abilities to separate between different quantities. From abilities for numerosity in animals I continue to neuroscientific studies of humans and our ability to solve simple arithmetic tasks. I also mention cross-cultural studies of arithmetic skills. In the final part of the text I present the field neuroanthropology as a possible new pillar of cognitive science. Finally, it is important to connect human evolution and development with animal cognition studies, but as well with cross-cultural studies in shaping of human ability for numerosity and arithmetic.

  20. Dark energy as a manifestation of nontrivial arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Czachor, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), as well as the calculus they imply, are non-unique. The examples of four-dimensional spaces, $\\mathbb{R}_+^4$ and $(-L/2,L/2)^4$, are considered where different types of arithmetic and calculus coexist simultaneously. In all the examples there exists a non-Diophantine arithmetic that makes the space globally Minkowskian, and thus the laws of physics are formulated in terms of the corresponding calculus. However, when one switches to the `natural' Diophantine arithmetic and calculus, the Minkowskian character of the space is lost and what one effectively obtains is a Lorentzian manifold. I discuss in more detail the problem of electromagnetic fields produced by a pointlike charge. The solution has the standard form when expressed in terms of the non-Diophantine formalism. When the `natural' formalsm is used, the same solution looks as if the fields were created by a charge located in an expanding universe, with nontrivially accelerating e...

  1. Representations in the Sixteenth-Century Arithmetic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, María José; Maz-Machado, Alexander; León-Mantero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The research on the History of Mathematics and Mathematics Education has on textbook a useful tool to provide diverse types of information; this fact has led to the realization of many different studies focus on them. In this context, this work analyzes eight different sixteenth-century arithmetic books to know the different types of…

  2. Arithmetic Motivic Poincar\\'e series of toric varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Pablos, Helena Cobo

    2010-01-01

    The arithmetic motivic Poincar\\'e series of a variety $V$ defined over a field of characteristic zero, is an invariant of singularities which was introduced by Denef and Loeser by analogy with the Serre-Oesterl\\'e series in arithmetic geometry. They proved that this motivic series has a rational form which specializes to the Serre-Oesterl\\'e series when $V$ is defined over the integers. This invariant, which is known explicitly for a few classes of singularities, remains quite mysterious. In this paper we study this motivic series when $V$ is an affine toric variety. We obtain a formula for the rational form of this series in terms of the Newton polyhedra of the ideals of sums of combinations associated to the minimal system of generators of the semigroup of the toric variety. In particular, we deduce explicitly a finite set of candidate poles for this invariant.

  3. To what extent are arithmetic progressions of fractional parts stochastic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the sequence of residues of division of n members of an arithmetic progression by a real number N, it is proved that the Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter λn tends to 0 as n tends to infinity when the progression step is commensurable with N. In contrast, for the case when the step is incommensurable with N, examples are given in which the stochasticity parameter λn not only does not tend to 0, but even takes some arbitrary large values (infrequently). Too small and too large values of the stochasticity parameter both indicate a small probability that the corresponding sequence is random. Thus, long arithmetic progressions of fractional parts are apparently much less stochastic than for geometric progressions (which provide moderate values of the stochasticity parameter, similar to its values for genuinely random sequences)

  4. Hardware Implementations of GF (2m Arithmetic Using Normal Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki F. Al-Somani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a survey of algorithms used in field arithmetic over GF (2m using normal basis and their hardware implementations. These include the following arithmetic field operations: addition, squaring, multiplication and inversion. This study shows that the type II Sunar-Koc multiplier is the best multiplier with a hardware complexity of m2 AND gates + XOR gates and a time complexity of TA+ (1+ l log2 (m l Tx. The study also show that the Itoh-Tsujii inversion algorithm was the best inverter and it requires almost log2 (m-1 multiplications.

  5. An efficient adaptive arithmetic coding image compression technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an efficient lossless image compression scheme for still images based on an adaptive arithmetic coding compression algorithm. The algorithm increases the image coding compression rate and ensures the quality of the decoded image combined with the adaptive probability model and predictive coding. The use of adaptive models for each encoded image block dynamically estimates the probability of the relevant image block. The decoded image block can accurately recover the encoded image according to the code book information. We adopt an adaptive arithmetic coding algorithm for image compression that greatly improves the image compression rate. The results show that it is an effective compression technology. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. Memristor-based Circuits for Performing Basic Arithmetic Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Merrikh-Bayat, Farnood

    2010-01-01

    In almost all of the currently working circuits, especially in analog circuits implementing signal processing applications, basic arithmetic operations such as multiplication, addition, subtraction and division are performed on values which are represented by voltages or currents. However, in this paper, we propose a new and simple method for performing analog arithmetic operations which in this scheme, signals are represented and stored through a memristance of the newly found circuit element, i.e. memristor, instead of voltage or current. Some of these operators such as divider and multiplier are much simpler and faster than their equivalent voltage-based circuits and they require less chip area. In addition, a new circuit is designed for programming the memristance of the memristor with predetermined analog value. Presented simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and the accuracy of the proposed circuits.

  7. Executable Set Theory and Arithmetic Encodings in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Tarau, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The paper is organized as a self-contained literate Prolog program that implements elements of an executable finite set theory with focus on combinatorial generation and arithmetic encodings. The complete Prolog code is available at http://logic.csci.unt.edu/tarau/research/2008/pHFS.zip . First, ranking and unranking functions for some "mathematically elegant" data types in the universe of Hereditarily Finite Sets with Urelements are provided, resulting in arithmetic encodings for powersets, hypergraphs, ordinals and choice functions. After implementing a digraph representation of Hereditarily Finite Sets we define {\\em decoration functions} that can recover well-founded sets from encodings of their associated acyclic digraphs. We conclude with an encoding of arbitrary digraphs and discuss a concept of duality induced by the set membership relation. In the process, we uncover the surprising possibility of internally sharing isomorphic objects, independently of their language level types and meanings.

  8. Interval arithmetic operations for uncertainty analysis with correlated interval variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Fu, Chun-Ming; Ni, Bing-Yu; Han, Xu

    2016-08-01

    A new interval arithmetic method is proposed to solve interval functions with correlated intervals through which the overestimation problem existing in interval analysis could be significantly alleviated. The correlation between interval parameters is defined by the multidimensional parallelepiped model which is convenient to describe the correlative and independent interval variables in a unified framework. The original interval variables with correlation are transformed into the standard space without correlation, and then the relationship between the original variables and the standard interval variables is obtained. The expressions of four basic interval arithmetic operations, namely addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, are given in the standard space. Finally, several numerical examples and a two-step bar are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. On Jacobian group arithmetic for typical divisors on curves

    OpenAIRE

    Khuri-Makdisi, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    In a previous joint article with F. Abu Salem, we gave efficient algorithms for Jacobian group arithmetic of "typical" divisor classes on C_{3,4} curves, improving on similar results by other authors. At that time, we could only state that a generic divisor was typical, and hence unlikely to be encountered if one implemented these algorithms over a very large finite field. This article pins down an explicit characterization of these typical divisors, for an arbitrary smooth projective curve o...

  10. Self-Similarity in Geometry, Algebra and Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Rastegar, Arash

    2012-01-01

    We define the concept of self-similarity of an object by considering endomorphisms of the object as `similarity' maps. A variety of interesting examples of self-similar objects in geometry, algebra and arithmetic are introduced. Self-similar objects provide a framework in which, one can unite some results and conjectures in different mathematical frameworks. In some general situations, one can define a well-behaved notion of dimension for self-similar objects. Morphisms between self-similar o...

  11. General Dirichlet Series, Arithmetic Convolution Equations and Laplace Transforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glöckner, H.; Lucht, L.G.; Porubský, Štefan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 2 (2009), s. 109-129. ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/07/0191 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : arithmetic function * Dirichlet convolution * polynomial equation * analytic equation * topological algebra * holomorphic functional calculus * implicit function theorem * Laplace transform * semigroup * complex measure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2009 http://arxiv.org/abs/0712.3172

  12. The transition constant for arithmetic hyperbolic reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the results and methods of our papers [1], [2], we show that the degree of the ground field of an arithmetic hyperbolic reflection group does not exceed 25 in dimensions n≥6, and 44 in dimensions 3, 4, 5. This significantly improves our estimates obtained in [2]-[4]. We also use recent results in [5] and [6] to reduce the last bound to 35. We also review and correct the results of [1], §1.

  13. On theories of bounded arithmetic for NC1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 4 (2011), s. 322-340. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * circuit complexity * propositional translation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007210001260

  14. On the arithmetic of fractal dimension using hyperhelices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hyperhelix is a fractal curve generated by coiling a helix around a rect line, then another helix around the first one, a third around the second... an infinite number of times. A way to generate hyperhelices with any desired fractal dimension is presented, leading to the result that they have embedded an algebraic structure that allows making arithmetic with fractal dimensions and to the idea of an infinitesimal of fractal dimension

  15. Arithmetical chaos and violation of universality in energy level statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of strongly chaotic systems revealing a strange arithmetical structure is discussed whose quantal energy levels exhibit level attraction rather than repulsion. As an example, the nearest-neighbour level spacings for Artin's billiard have been computed in a large energy range. It is shown that the observed violation of universality has its root in the existence of an infinite number of hermitian operators (Hecke operators) which commute with the Hamiltonian and generate mongeneric correlations in the eigenfunctions. (orig.)

  16. Automated methods for formal proofs in simple arithmetics and algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Chaieb, Amine

    2008-01-01

    In an LCF-like theorem prover, any proof must be produced from a small set of inference rules. The development of automated proof methods in such systems is extremely important. In this thesis we study the following question: How should we integrate a proof procedure in an LCF-like theorem prover, both in general and in the special case of arithmetics? We investigate three integration paradigms and present several proof procedures. These include universal and weak existe...

  17. Alternating minima and maxima, Nash equilibria and bounded arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudlák, Pavel; Thapen, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 5 (2012), s. 604-614. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : proof complexity * bounded arithmetic * search problems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.504, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016800721100090X

  18. The geometry of efficient arithmetic on elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Kohel, David

    2015-01-01

    The arithmetic of elliptic curves, namely polynomial addition and scalar multiplication, can be described in terms of global sections of line bundles on $E\\times E$ and $E$, respectively, with respect to a given projective embedding of $E$ in $\\mathbb{P}^r$. By means of a study of the finite dimensional vector spaces of global sections, we reduce the problem of constructing and finding efficiently computable polynomial maps defining the addition morphism or isogenies to linear algebra. We dem...

  19. PRICING OF EXOTIC ENERGY DERIVATIVES BASED ON ARITHMETIC SPOT MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    FRED ESPEN BENTH; RODWELL KUFAKUNESU

    2009-01-01

    Based on a non-Gaussian Ornstein–Uhlenbeck model for energy spot, we derive prices for Asian and spread options using Fourier techniques. The option prices are expressed in terms of the Fourier transform of the payoff function and the characteristic functions of the driving noises, being independent increment processes. In many relevant situations, these functions are explicitly available, and fast Fourier transform can be used for efficient numerical valuation. The arithmetic nature of our m...

  20. ARITHMETICAL OPERATIONS OF EXPONENTIAL FUZZY NUMBERS USING THE FUNCTION PRINCIPLE

    OpenAIRE

    SHAN-HUO CHEN; CHIEN-CHUNG WANG; SHU MAN CHANG

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy numbers with exponential membership function are quite common in real world cases. In this paper, we applied Graded Mean Integration Representation Method to compute the representation of exponential fuzzy numbers. Then the Function Principle is applied to generate the arithmetical operations of exponential fuzzy numbers. By the way, some properties of operation under the Function Principle are proved. Finally, an application of the lifetime of the lamps of projectors is proposed.

  1. Topological Aspects of Infinitude of Primes in Arithmetic Progressions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marko, F.; Porubský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-237. ISSN 0010-1354 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/2351 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : coset topology * topological semigroup * topological density * Dirichlet theorem on primes * arithmetical progression * maximal ideal * ring of finite character * residually finite ring * infinitude of primes * pseudoprime Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2014

  2. Some Infinitary Paradoxes and Undecidable Sentences in Peano Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ka-Yue

    2016-01-01

    According to Chaitin, G\\"odel once told him "it doesn't matter which paradox you use [to prove the First Incompleteness Theorem]". In this paper I will present a few infinitary paradoxes and show how to "translate" them to some undecidable sentences in Peano arithmetic, like what G\\"odel did to the Liar paradox. The results partly verify G\\"odel's claim.

  3. A study on arithmetical functions and the prime number theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imm, Yeoh Saw

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, Leibniz triangle and suitable binomial coefficients were used to get the bounds of ψ (x) . Using the generalized convolution and the differentiation on generalized convolution of arithmetical functions, we get to prove Tatuzawa-Izeki identity. Selberg's asymptotic formula is included as a special case, which is the beginning of certain elementary proofs of the Prime Number Theorem. Integration is used on some related inequalities to provide a smoother elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem.

  4. Cognitive Processes that Account for Mental Addition Fluency Differences between Children Typically Achieving in Arithmetic and Children At-Risk for Failure in Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Derek H.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether processing speed, short-term memory, and working memory accounted for the differential mental addition fluency between children typically achieving in arithmetic (TA) and children at-risk for failure in arithmetic (AR). Further, we drew attention to fluency differences in simple (e.g., 5 + 3) and complex (e.g., 16 +…

  5. Critical Path Reduction of Distributed Arithmetic Based FIR Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Badave

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Operating speed, which is reciprocal of critical path computation time, is one of the prominent design matrices of finite impulse response (FIR filters. It is largely affected by both, system architecture as well as technique used to design arithmetic modules. A large computation time of multipliers in conventionally designed multipliers, limits the speed of system architecture. Distributed arithmetic is one of the techniques, used to provide multiplier-free multiplication in the implementation of FIR filter. However suffers from a sever limitation of exponential growth of look up table (LUT with order of filter. An improved distributed arithmetic technique is addressed here to design for system architecture of FIR filter. In proposed technique, a single large LUT of conventional DA is replaced by number of smaller indexed LUT pages to restrict exponential growth and to reduce system access time. It also eliminates the use of adders. Selection module selects the desired value from desired page, which leads to reduce computational time of critical path. Trade off between access times of LUT pages and selection module helps to achieve minimum critical path so as to maximize the operating speed. Implementations are targeted to Xilinx ISE, Virtex IV devices. FIR filter with 8 bit data width of input sample results are presented here. It is observed that, proposed design perform significantly faster as compared to the conventional DA and existing DA based designs.

  6. Quantile arithmetic methodology for uncertainty propagation in fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology based on quantile arithmetic, the probabilistic analog to interval analysis, is proposed for the computation of uncertainties propagation in fault tree analysis. The basic events' continuous probability density functions (pdf's) are represented by equivalent discrete distributions by dividing them into a number of quantiles N. Quantile arithmetic is then used to performthe binary arithmetical operations corresponding to the logical gates in the Boolean expression of the top event expression of a given fault tree. The computational advantage of the present methodology as compared with the widely used Monte Carlo method was demonstrated for the cases of summation of M normal variables through the efficiency ratio defined as the product of the labor and error ratios. The efficiency ratio values obtained by the suggested methodology for M = 2 were 2279 for N = 5, 445 for N = 25, and 66 for N = 45 when compared with the results for 19,200 Monte Carlo samples at the 40th percentile point. Another advantage of the approach is that the exact analytical value of the median is always obtained for the top event

  7. Electro-Photo-Sensitive Memristor for Neuromorphic and Arithmetic Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, P.; Hartmann, F.; Emmerling, M.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Worschech, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present optically and electrically tunable conductance modifications of a site-controlled quantum-dot memristor. The conductance of the device is tuned by electron localization on a quantum dot. The control of the conductance with voltage and low-power light pulses enables applications in neuromorphic and arithmetic computing. As in neural networks, applying pre- and postsynaptic voltage pulses to the memristor allows us to increase (potentiation) or decrease (depression) the conductance by tuning the time difference between the electrical pulses. Exploiting state-dependent thresholds for potentiation and depression, we are able to demonstrate a memory-dependent induction of learning. The discharging of the quantum dot can further be induced by low-power light pulses in the nanowatt range. In combination with the state-dependent threshold voltage for discharging, this enables applications as generic building blocks to perform arithmetic operations in bases ranging from binary to decimal with low-power optical excitation. Our findings allow the realization of optoelectronic memristor-based synapses in artificial neural networks with a memory-dependent induction of learning and enhanced functionality by performing arithmetic operations.

  8. Independence of basic arithmetic operations: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María P. Salguero-Alcañiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cases described in literature evidence that arithmetical operations can function independently, which allows to infer that the cognitive processes involved in the different operations might be different. Objective of that work is to determine the different processes involved in the resolution of arithmetical operations: addition, subtraction and multiplication. Method: Instrument: Assesment of Numeric Processing and Calculation Battery (Salguero & Alameda, 2007, 2011. Subjects. Patients of acquired cerebral injury. Results and conclusions: The patient MNL preserves the addition and the multiplication but he presents altered the subtraction. On the contrary, the patient PP shows alterations in addition and multiplication but he conserves the skills for the subtraction. ISR presents a selective deficit for multiplication with intact addition and substraction. Finally, ACH preserves the addition but presents deficit for substraction and multiplication. This double dissociation confirms the postulates of the anatomical functional model of Dehaene and Cohen (1995, 1997 that consider a double route for the resolution of arithmetical simple operations: linguistic route, for numerical information learned automatically (of memory and would be used for the operations of addition and multiplication, on the other hand the semantic elaboration would be for substraction.

  9. Are Individual Differences in Arithmetic Fact Retrieval in Children Related to Inhibition?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellen, Elien; Fias, Wim; De Smedt, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been proposed that inhibition is related to individual differences in mathematical achievement, it is not clear how it is related to specific aspects of mathematical skills, such as arithmetic fact retrieval. The present study therefore investigated the association between inhibition and arithmetic fact retrieval and further examined the unique role of inhibition in individual differences in arithmetic fact retrieval, in addition to numerical magnitude processing. We administe...

  10. Knowing right from wrong in mental arithmetic judgments: calibration of confidence predicts the development of accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Luke F; Mazzocco, Michèle M M

    2014-01-01

    Does knowing when mental arithmetic judgments are right--and when they are wrong--lead to more accurate judgments over time? We hypothesize that the successful detection of errors (and avoidance of false alarms) may contribute to the development of mental arithmetic performance. Insight into error detection abilities can be gained by examining the "calibration" of mental arithmetic judgments-that is, the alignment between confidence in judgments and the accuracy of those judgments. Calibration may be viewed as a measure of metacognitive monitoring ability. We conducted a developmental longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the calibration of children's mental arithmetic judgments and their performance on a mental arithmetic task. Annually between Grades 5 and 8, children completed a problem verification task in which they rapidly judged the accuracy of arithmetic expressions (e.g., 25 + 50 = 75) and rated their confidence in each judgment. Results showed that calibration was strongly related to concurrent mental arithmetic performance, that calibration continued to develop even as mental arithmetic accuracy approached ceiling, that poor calibration distinguished children with mathematics learning disability from both low and typically achieving children, and that better calibration in Grade 5 predicted larger gains in mental arithmetic accuracy between Grades 5 and 8. We propose that good calibration supports the implementation of cognitive control, leading to long-term improvement in mental arithmetic accuracy. Because mental arithmetic "fluency" is critical for higher-level mathematics competence, calibration of confidence in mental arithmetic judgments may represent a novel and important developmental predictor of future mathematics performance. PMID:24988539

  11. Profiles of children’s arithmetic fact development: A model-based clustering approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbinst, Kiran; Ceulemans, Eva; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study tried to capture profiles of individual differences in children’s arithmetic fact development. We used a model-based clustering approach (Banfield & Raftery, 1993) to delineate profiles of arithmetic fact development, based upon empirically derived differences in parameters of arithmetic fact mastery repeatedly assessed at the start of three subsequent school years, i.e. third, fourth and fifth grade. This cluster analysis revealed three profiles in a random sam...

  12. Study and realisation of the arithmetic unit of an information processing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having defined the arithmetic unit of an information processing machine, and its role, and described the main characteristics of two types of machine (fixed or varying word length), the author of this research thesis reports the study of a decimal adder, describes the operation of a synchronous arithmetic unit for a varying word length machine, reports the technological study of the arithmetic unit (electronic components and circuits, printed circuits), and finally presents multiplication and division subroutines

  13. Knowing Right From Wrong In Mental Arithmetic Judgments: Calibration Of Confidence Predicts The Development Of Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Luke F. Rinne; Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Does knowing when mental arithmetic judgments are right—and when they are wrong—lead to more accurate judgments over time? We hypothesize that the successful detection of errors (and avoidance of false alarms) may contribute to the development of mental arithmetic performance. Insight into error detection abilities can be gained by examining the “calibration” of mental arithmetic judgments—that is, the alignment between confidence in judgments and the accuracy of those judgments. Calibration ...

  14. Knowing right from wrong in mental arithmetic judgments: calibration of confidence predicts the development of accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke F Rinne

    Full Text Available Does knowing when mental arithmetic judgments are right--and when they are wrong--lead to more accurate judgments over time? We hypothesize that the successful detection of errors (and avoidance of false alarms may contribute to the development of mental arithmetic performance. Insight into error detection abilities can be gained by examining the "calibration" of mental arithmetic judgments-that is, the alignment between confidence in judgments and the accuracy of those judgments. Calibration may be viewed as a measure of metacognitive monitoring ability. We conducted a developmental longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the calibration of children's mental arithmetic judgments and their performance on a mental arithmetic task. Annually between Grades 5 and 8, children completed a problem verification task in which they rapidly judged the accuracy of arithmetic expressions (e.g., 25 + 50 = 75 and rated their confidence in each judgment. Results showed that calibration was strongly related to concurrent mental arithmetic performance, that calibration continued to develop even as mental arithmetic accuracy approached ceiling, that poor calibration distinguished children with mathematics learning disability from both low and typically achieving children, and that better calibration in Grade 5 predicted larger gains in mental arithmetic accuracy between Grades 5 and 8. We propose that good calibration supports the implementation of cognitive control, leading to long-term improvement in mental arithmetic accuracy. Because mental arithmetic "fluency" is critical for higher-level mathematics competence, calibration of confidence in mental arithmetic judgments may represent a novel and important developmental predictor of future mathematics performance.

  15. Functional Neuroanatomy Involved in Automatic order Mental Arithmetic and Recitation of the Multiplication Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Qun; Saito, Masao

    We used 1.5T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore that which brain areas contribute uniquely to numeric computation. The BOLD effect activation pattern of metal arithmetic task (successive subtraction: actual calculation task) was compared with multiplication tables repetition task (rote verbal arithmetic memory task) response. The activation found in right parietal lobule during metal arithmetic task suggested that quantitative cognition or numeric computation may need the assistance of sensuous convert, such as spatial imagination and spatial sensuous convert. In addition, this mechanism may be an ’analog algorithm’ in the simple mental arithmetic processing.

  16. Vedas and the Development of Arithmetic and Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudeo A. Tularam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Algebra developed in three stages: rhetorical or prose algebra, syncopated or abbreviated algebra and symbolic algebra-known as “school algebra”. School algebra developed rather early in India and the literature now suggests that the first civilization to develop symbolic algebra was the Vedic Indians. Approach: Philosophical ideas of the time influenced the development of the decimal system and arithmetic and that in turn led to algebra. Indeed, symbolic algebraic ideas are deep rooted in Vedic philosophy. The Vedic arithmetic and mathematics were of a high level at an early period and the Hindus used algebraic ideas to generate formulas simplifying calculations. Results: In the main, they developed formulas to understand the physical world satisfying the needs of religion (apara and para vidya. While geometrical focus, logic and proof type are features of Greek mathematics, “boldness of conception, abstraction, symbolism” are essentially in Indian mathematics. From such a history study, a number of implications can be drawn regarding the learning of algebra. Real life, imaginative and creative problems that encourage risk should be the focus in student learning; allowing students freely move between numbers, magnitudes and symbols rather than taking separate static or unchanging view. A move from concrete to pictorial to symbolic modes was present in ancient learning. Real life practical needs motivated the progress to symbolic algebra. The use of rich context based problems that stimulate and motivate students to raise levels higher to transfer knowledge should be the focus of learning. Conclusion/Recommendations: The progress from arithmetic to algebra in India was achieved through different modes of learning, risk taking, problem solving and higher order thinking all in line with current emphasis in mathematics education but at rather early stage in human history.

  17. Oscillatory EEG correlates of arithmetic strategies: A training study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland H. Grabner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long tradition of research on mathematics education showing that children and adults use different strategies to solve arithmetic problems. Neurophysiological studies have recently begun to investigate the brain correlates of these strategies. The existing body of data, however, reflect static end points of the learning process and do not provide information on how brain activity changes in response to training or intervention. In this study, we explicitly address this issue by training participants in using fact retrieval strategies. We also investigate whether brain activity related to arithmetic fact learning is domain-specific or whether this generalizes to other learning materials, such as the solution of figural-spatial problems. Twenty adult students were trained on sets of two-digit multiplication problems and figural-spatial problems. After the training, they were presented with the trained and untrained problems while their brain activity was recorded by means of electroencephalography (EEG . In both problem types, the training resulted in accuracies over 90 % and significant decreases in solution times. Analyses of the oscillatory EEG data also revealed training effects across both problem types. Specifically, we observed training-related activity increases in the theta band (3-6 Hz and decreases in the lower alpha band (8-10 Hz, especially over parieto-occipital and parietal brain regions. These results provide the first evidence that a short term fact retrieval training results in significant changes in oscillatory EEG activity. These findings further corroborate the role of the theta band in the retrieval of semantic information from memory and suggest that theta activity is not only sensitive to fact retrieval in mental arithmetic but also in other domains.

  18. Arithmetic coding as a non-linear dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Nithin; Vaidya, Prabhakar G.; Bhat, Kishor G.

    2009-04-01

    In order to perform source coding (data compression), we treat messages emitted by independent and identically distributed sources as imprecise measurements (symbolic sequence) of a chaotic, ergodic, Lebesgue measure preserving, non-linear dynamical system known as Generalized Luröth Series (GLS). GLS achieves Shannon's entropy bound and turns out to be a generalization of arithmetic coding, a popular source coding algorithm, used in international compression standards such as JPEG2000 and H.264. We further generalize GLS to piecewise non-linear maps (Skewed-nGLS). We motivate the use of Skewed-nGLS as a framework for joint source coding and encryption.

  19. CIMPA Summer School on Arithmetic and Geometry Around Hypergeometric Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Uludağ, A; Yoshida, Masaaki; Arithmetic and Geometry Around Hypergeometric Functions

    2007-01-01

    This volume comprises the Lecture Notes of the CIMPA Summer School "Arithmetic and Geometry around Hypergeometric Functions" held at Galatasaray University, Istanbul in 2005. It contains lecture notes, a survey article, research articles, and the results of a problem session. Key topics are moduli spaces of points on P1 and Picard-Terada-Deligne-Mostow theory, moduli spaces of K3 surfaces, complex hyperbolic geometry, ball quotients, GKZ hypergeometric structures, Hilbert and Picard modular surfaces, uniformizations of complex orbifolds, algebraicity of values of Schwartz triangle functions, and Thakur's hypergeometric function. The book provides a background, gives detailed expositions and indicates new research directions. It is directed to postgraduate students and researchers.

  20. On the periodicity of some Farhi arithmetical functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Qing-Zhong; Ji, Chun-Gang

    2009-01-01

    Let $k\\in\\mathbb{N}$. Let $f(x)\\in \\Bbb{Z}[x]$ be any polynomial such that $f(x)$ and $f(x+1)f(x+2)... f(x+k)$ are coprime in $\\mathbb{Q}[x]$. We call $$g_{k,f}(n):=\\frac{|f(n)f(n+1)... f(n+k)|}{\\text{lcm}(f(n),f(n+1),...,f(n+k))}$$ a Farhi arithmetic function. In this paper, we prove that $g_{k,f}$ is periodic. This generalizes the previous results of Farhi and Kane, and Hong and Yang.

  1. Abelian groups and quadratic residues in weak arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2010), s. 262-278. ISSN 0942-5616 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * abelian group * Fermat's little theorem * quadratic reciprocity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.361, year: 2010 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/malq.200910009/abstract;jsessionid=9F636FFACB84C025FD90C7E6880350DD.f03t03

  2. On the Brauer group of an arithmetic scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an Enriques surface V over a number field k with a k-rational point we prove that the l-component of Br(V)/Br(k) is finite if and only if l≠2. For a regular projective smooth variety satisfying the Tate conjecture for divisors over a number field, we find a simple criterion for the finiteness of the l-component of Br'(V)/Br(k). Moreover, for an arithmetic model X of V we prove a variant of Artin's conjecture on the finiteness of the Brauer group of X. Applications to the finiteness of the l-components of Shafarevich-Tate groups are given

  3. Quantum error correcting codes and 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds, we construct some new homological quantum error correcting codes. They are low density parity check codes with linear rate and distance nε. Their rate is evaluated via Euler characteristic arguments and their distance using Z2-systolic geometry. This construction answers a question of Zémor [“On Cayley graphs, surface codes, and the limits of homological coding for quantum error correction,” in Proceedings of Second International Workshop on Coding and Cryptology (IWCC), Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 5557 (2009), pp. 259–273], who asked whether homological codes with such parameters could exist at all

  4. p-adic path set fractals and arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Abram, William; Lagarias, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a class C(Z_p) of closed sets of the p-adic integers obtained by graph-directed constructions analogous to those of Mauldin and Williams over the real numbers. These sets are characterized as collections of those p-adic integers whose p-adic expansions are describeed by paths in the graph of a finite automaton issuing from a distinguished initial vertex. This paper shows that this class of sets is closed under the arithmetic operations of addition and multiplication by p-...

  5. Scheduling of iterative algorithms on FPGA with pipelined arithmetic unit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šůcha, P.; Pohl, Zdeněk; Hanzálek, Zdeněk

    Washington DC : IEEE Computer Society, 2004, s. 404-412. ISBN 0-7695-2148-7. [IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium 2004 /10./. Toronto (CA), 25.05.2004-28.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00B096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : cyclic scheduling * monoprocessor * iterative algorithms * integer linear programming * FPGA Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZS/pohl-scheduling of iterative algorithms on fpga with pipelined arithmetic unit.pdf

  6. Second grade students understanding of the arithmetic operations

    OpenAIRE

    Slapar, Ana

    2012-01-01

    People face Mathematics at a very early stage in their lives since it is a part of various everyday activities. M. Jurkovič (2009) came to a conclusion in her research that Mathematics in the first grades of elementary schools is one of the most popular subjects, despite of the fact that a lot of pupils have difficulties with it. In my diploma I tried to asses how the pupils who have difficulties with Mathematics understand arithmetic operations of adding and subtracting, which calculati...

  7. Arithmetic progressions that consist only of reduced residues

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A. Tanner III

    2001-01-01

    This paper contains an elementary derivation of formulas for multiplicative functions of m which exactly yield the following numbers: the number of distinct arithmetic progressions of w reduced residues modulo m; the number of the same with first term n; the number of the same with mean n; the number of the same with common difference n. With m and odd w fixed, the values of the first two of the last three functions are fixed and equal for all n relatively prime to m; other similar relations ...

  8. Prime polynomials in short intervals and in arithmetic progressions

    OpenAIRE

    Bank, Efrat; Bary-Soroker, Lior; Rosenzweig, Lior

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we establish function field versions of two classical conjectures on prime numbers. The first says that the number of primes in intervals $(x,x+x^{\\epsilon}]$ is about $x^{\\epsilon}/\\log x$ . The second says that the number of primes $p\\lt x$ in the arithmetic progression $p\\equiv a\\ (\\mathrm{mod}\\ d)$ , for $d\\lt x^{1-\\delta}$ , is about $\\frac{\\pi(x)}{\\phi(d)}$ , where $\\phi$ is the Euler totient function. ¶ More precisely, for short intervals we prove: Let $k$ be a fixe...

  9. An Efficient Image Compression Technique Based on Arithmetic Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Rajendra Kumar Patel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of digital imaging applications, including desktop publishing, multimedia, teleconferencing, and high visual definition has increased the need for effective and standardized image compression techniques. Digital Images play a very important role for describing the detailed information. The key obstacle for many applications is the vast amount of data required to represent a digital image directly. The various processes of digitizing the images to obtain it in the best quality for the more clear and accurate information leads to the requirement of more storage space and better storage and accessing mechanism in the form of hardware or software. In this paper we concentrate mainly on the above flaw so that we reduce the space with best quality image compression. State-ofthe-art techniques can compress typical images from 1/10 to 1/50 their uncompressed size without visibly affecting image quality. From our study I observe that there is a need of good image compression technique which provides better reduction technique in terms of storage and quality. Arithmetic coding is the best way to reducing encoding data. So in this paper we propose arithmetic coding with walsh transformation based image compression technique which is an efficient way of reduction

  10. Disabilities of Arithmetic and Mathematical Reasoning: Perspectives from Neurology and Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, Byron P.; Conway, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews current research on brain-behavior relationships in disabilities of arithmetic and mathematical reasoning from both a neurological and a neuropsychological perspective. Defines developmental dyscalculia and the developmental importance of right versus left hemisphere integrity for the mediation of arithmetic learning and explores…

  11. How Is Phonological Processing Related to Individual Differences in Children's Arithmetic Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Bert; Taylor, Jessica; Archibald, Lisa; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    While there is evidence for an association between the development of reading and arithmetic, the precise locus of this relationship remains to be determined. Findings from cognitive neuroscience research that point to shared neural correlates for phonological processing and arithmetic as well as recent behavioral evidence led to the present…

  12. Arithmetic achievement in children with cerebral palsy or spina bifida meningomyelocele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenks, K.M.; Lieshout, E.C.D.M. van; Moor, J.M.H. de

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether children with a physical disability resulting from central nervous system disorders (CNSd) show a level of arithmetic achievement lower than that of non-CNSd children and whether this is related to poor automaticity of number facts or reduced arithmetic

  13. Arithmetic Achievement in Children with Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether children with a physical disability resulting from central nervous system disorders (CNSd) show a level of arithmetic achievement lower than that of non-CNSd children and whether this is related to poor automaticity of number facts or reduced arithmetic instruction time. Twenty-two children with CNSd…

  14. Statistics of the zeros of $L$-functions and arithmetic correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis determines some of the implications of non-universal and emergent universal statistics on arithmetic correlations and fluctuations of arithmetic functions, in particular correlations amongst prime numbers and the variance of the expected number of prime numbers over short intervals are generalised by associating these concepts to $L$-functions arising from number theoretic objects.

  15. A Collaborative Cross Number Puzzle Game to Enhance Elementary Students' Arithmetic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Hua; Lin, Chiu-Pin; Looi, Chee-Kit; Shao, Yin-juan; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2012-01-01

    In traditional mathematics education, students have typically been asked to solve lots of tedious and uninteresting exercises for developing the arithmetic skills of addition and subtraction. The paper provides an account of learning arithmetic skills in a more interesting way through the collaborative playing of a puzzle game. 83 students in…

  16. Arithmetic Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Influence of Cognitive and Motor Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Becher, Jules G.; Steenbergen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) often show difficulties in arithmetic compared to their typically developing peers. The present study explores whether cognitive and motor variables are related to arithmetic performance of a large group of primary school children with CP. More specifically, the relative influence of non-verbal…

  17. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  18. A Substituting Meaning for the Equals Sign in Arithmetic Notating Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian; Pratt, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explore arithmetic tasks that support both substitutive and basic relational meanings for the equals sign. The duality of meanings enabled children to engage meaningfully and purposefully with the structural properties of arithmetic statements in novel ways. Some, but not all, children were successful at the adapted task and were…

  19. Arithmetic Difficulties in Children with Cerebral Palsy Are Related to Executive Function and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; de Moor, Jan; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although it is believed that children with cerebral palsy are at high risk for learning difficulties and arithmetic difficulties in particular, few studies have investigated this issue. Methods: Arithmetic ability was longitudinally assessed in children with cerebral palsy in special (n = 41) and mainstream education (n = 16) and…

  20. Spontaneous Meta-Arithmetic as the First Step toward School Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Shai; Sfard, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Taking as a point of departure the vision of school algebra as a formalized meta-discourse of arithmetic, we have been following six pairs of 7th-grade students (12-13 years old) as they gradually modify their spontaneous meta-arithmetic toward the "official" algebraic form of talk. In this paper we take a look at the very beginning of…

  1. The Effect of Illustrations in Arithmetic Problem-Solving: Effects of Increased Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Inez E.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.

    2009-01-01

    Arithmetic word problems are often presented accompanied by illustrations. The present study examined how different types of illustrations influence the speed and accuracy of performance of both good (n = 67) and poor arithmeticians (n = 63). Twenty-four arithmetic word problems were presented with four types of illustrations with increasing…

  2. Computational Fluency and Strategy Choice Predict Individual and Cross-National Differences in Complex Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Laski, Elida V.; Shen, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that children's fluency with basic number facts and knowledge of computational strategies, derived from early arithmetic experience, predicts their performance on complex arithmetic problems. First-grade students from United States and Taiwan (N = 152, mean age: 7.3 years) were presented with problems that…

  3. Continuity in Representation between Children and Adults: Arithmetic Knowledge Hinders Undergraduates' Algebraic Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Hattikudur, Shanta; Petersen, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined if solving arithmetic problems hinders undergraduates' accuracy on algebra problems. The hypothesis was that solving arithmetic problems would hinder accuracy because it activates an operational view of equations, even in educated adults who have years of experience with algebra. In three experiments, undergraduates (N = 184)…

  4. Grothendieck's trace map for arithmetic surfaces via residues and higher adeles

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    We establish the reciprocity law along a vertical curve for residues of differential forms on arithmetic surfaces, and describe Grothendieck's trace map of the surface as a sum of residues. Points at infinity are then incorporated into the theory and the reciprocity law is extended to all curves on the surface. Applications to adelic duality for the arithmetic surface are discussed.

  5. Arithmetic performance of children with cerebral palsy: The influence of cognitive and motor factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Smits, D.W.; Ketelaar, M.; Steenbergen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) often show difficulties in arithmetic compared to their typically developing peers. The present study explores whether cognitive and motor variables are related to arithmetic performance of a large group of primary school children with CP. More specificall

  6. Floating-Point Arithmetic on Round-to-Nearest Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Kornerup, Peter; Panhaleux, Adrien

    2012-01-01

    Recently we introduced a class of number representations denoted RN-representations, allowing an un-biased rounding-to-nearest to take place by a simple truncation. In this paper we briefly review the binary fixed-point representation in an encoding which is essentially an ordinary 2's complement representation with an appended round-bit. Not only is this rounding a constant time operation, so is also sign inversion, both of which are at best log-time operations on ordinary 2's complement representations. Addition, multiplication and division is defined in such a way that rounding information can be carried along in a meaningful way, at minimal cost. Based on the fixed-point encoding we here define a floating point representation, and describe to some detail a possible implementation of a floating point arithmetic unit employing this representation, including also the directed roundings.

  7. IMAGE HIDING IN DNA SEQUENCE USING ARITHMETIC ENCODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, biological techniques become more and more popular, as they are applied to many kinds of applications, authentication protocols, biochemistry, and cryptography. One of the most interesting biology techniques is deoxyribo nucleic acid and using it in such domains. Hiding secret data in deoxyribo nucleic acid becomes an important and interesting research topic. Some researchers hide the secret data in transcribed deoxyribo nucleic acid, translated ribo nucleic acid regions, or active coding segments where it doesn't mention to modify the original sequence, but others hide data in non-transcribed deoxyribo nucleic acid, non-translated ribo nucleic acid regions, or active coding segments. Unfortunately, these schemes either alter the functionalities or modify the original deoxyribo nucleic acid sequences. DNA has the ability to store large amount of digital data. This paper presents a method to hide an image in DNA sequence using arithmetic encoding.

  8. Arithmetic on a Distributed-Memory Quantum Multicomputer

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, R; Nemoto, K; Itoh, K M; Meter, Rodney Van; Nemoto, Kae; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of quantum arithmetic algorithms run on a distributed quantum computer (a quantum multicomputer). We vary the node capacity and I/O capabilities, and the network topology. The tradeoff of choosing between gates executed remotely, through ``teleported gates'' on entangled pairs of qubits (telegate), versus exchanging the relevant qubits via quantum teleportation, then executing the algorithm using local gates (teledata), is examined. We show that the teledata approach performs better, and that carry-ripple adders perform well when the teleportation block is decomposed so that the key quantum operations can be parallelized. A node size of only a few logical qubits performs adequately provided that the nodes have two transceiver qubits. A linear network topology performs acceptably for a broad range of system sizes and performance parameters. We therefore recommend pursuing small, high-I/O bandwidth nodes and a simple network. Such a machine will run Shor's algorithm for factoring lar...

  9. International Symposium on Scientific Computing, Computer Arithmetic and Validated Numerics

    CERN Document Server

    DEVELOPMENTS IN RELIABLE COMPUTING

    1999-01-01

    The SCAN conference, the International Symposium on Scientific Com­ puting, Computer Arithmetic and Validated Numerics, takes place bian­ nually under the joint auspices of GAMM (Gesellschaft fiir Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik) and IMACS (International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation). SCAN-98 attracted more than 100 participants from 21 countries all over the world. During the four days from September 22 to 25, nine highlighted, plenary lectures and over 70 contributed talks were given. These figures indicate a large participation, which was partly caused by the attraction of the organizing country, Hungary, but also the effec­ tive support system have contributed to the success. The conference was substantially supported by the Hungarian Research Fund OTKA, GAMM, the National Technology Development Board OMFB and by the J6zsef Attila University. Due to this funding, it was possible to subsidize the participation of over 20 scientists, mainly from Eastern European countries. I...

  10. Arithmetic circuits of the noisy-or models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vomlel, Jiří; Savický, Petr

    Aalborg : Aalborg University, 2008 - (Jaeger, M.; Nielsen, T.), s. 297-304 [the Fourth European Workshop on Probabilistic Graphical Models (PGM'08). Hirtshals (DK), 17.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA201/08/0539; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(XE) Eurocores LogICCCC Project FP005; GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian network * artithmetic circuit * canonical model Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/MTR/vomlel- arithmetic %20circuits%20of%20the%20noisy-or%20models.pdf

  11. On the Brauer group of an arithmetic scheme. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let π: x→Spec A be an arithmetic model of a regular smooth projective variety V over a number field k. We prove the finiteness of H1(Spec A,R1π*Gm) under the assumption that π*Gm=Gm for the etale topology. (This assumption holds automatically if all geometric fibres of π are reduced and connected.) If a prime l does not divide Card([NS(V otimes k-bar)]tors), V(k)≠0, and the Tate conjecture holds for divisors on V, then the l-primary component Br'(X)(l) is finite. We also study finiteness properties of the Brauer group of a Calabi-Yau variety V of dimension ≥2 over a number field

  12. Evaluating the Main Battle Tank Using Fuzzy Number Arithmetic Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Yong

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the descriptions and judgements on weapon systems are usually linguistic and fuzzy,it is more realistic to evaluate weapon systems in the framework of fuzzy sets theory. In thispaper, a new method to evaluate the best main battle tank is proposed. It can be seen that theproposed method is more efficient due to the fact that, by canonical representation of arithmeticoperation on fuzzy numbers, simple arithmetic operations on crisp numbers are used, instead ofcomplicated fuzzy numbers operations. In addition, the final scores of each alternative can berepresented as crisp numbers. As a result, the order of alternatives can be determined withoutthe procedure of ranking fuzzy numbers. Finally, a numerical example to evaluate the best mainbattle tanks is used to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. Low degree polynomial equations arithmetic, geometry and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, J

    1996-01-01

    These are the notes of my lectures at the 1996 European Congress of Mathematicians. Polynomials appear in mathematics frequently, and we all know from experience that low degree polynomials are easier to deal with than high degree ones. It is, however, not clear that there is a well defined class of ``low degree" polynomials. For many questions, polynomials behave well if their degree is low enough, but the precise bound on the degree depends on the concrete problem. It turns out that there is a collection of basic questions in arithmetic, algebraic geometry and topology all of which give the same class of ``low degree" polynomials. The aim of this lecture is to explain these properties and to provide a survey of the known results.

  14. HIGH SPEED POINT ARITHMETIC ARCHITECTURE FOR ECC ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahila Bilal,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Elliptic curve cryptography plays a crucial role in networking and communication security. ECC have evolved in the recent past as an important alternative to established systems like RSA. This paper describes the implementation of an elliptic curve coprocessor based on the FPGA , which can provide a significant speedup for these cryptosystems. The FPGA configuration file is synthesized from VHDL code applying different hardware synthesis products. The implementation of ECC lies in three levels: scalar multiplication, point addition/doubling and finite field modular arithmetic. In this paper, we present a novel fast architecture for the point addition/doubling level in the projective coordinate. The proposed Architecture is based on Binary Field. The Design performs multiplication using Polynomial Basis. Analysis shows that, with reasonable hardware overhead, our architecture can achieve a high speedup for the point addition operation and point Doubling operation.Furthermore, the architecture is parameterized for different data widths to evaluate the optimal resource utilization.

  15. Conference on Arithmetic and Ideal Theory of Rings and Semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, Marco; Geroldinger, Alfred; Olberding, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of both expository and research articles solicited from speakers at the conference entitled "Arithmetic and Ideal Theory of Rings and Semigroups," held September 22–26, 2014 at the University of Graz, Graz, Austria. It reflects recent trends in multiplicative ideal theory and factorization theory, and brings together for the first time in one volume both commutative and non-commutative perspectives on these areas, which have their roots in number theory, commutative algebra, and algebraic geometry. Topics discussed include topological aspects in ring theory, Prüfer domains of integer-valued polynomials and their monadic submonoids, and semigroup algebras. It will be of interest to practitioners of mathematics and computer science, and researchers in multiplicative ideal theory, factorization theory, number theory, and algebraic geometry.

  16. Neighborhood consistency in mental arithmetic: Behavioral and ERP evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verguts Tom

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent cognitive and computational models (e.g. the Interacting Neighbors Model state that in simple multiplication decade and unit digits of the candidate answers (including the correct result are represented separately. Thus, these models challenge holistic views of number representation as well as traditional accounts of the classical problem size effect in simple arithmetic (i.e. the finding that large problems are answered slower and less accurate than small problems. Empirical data supporting this view are still scarce. Methods Data of 24 participants who performed a multiplication verification task with Arabic digits (e.g. 8 × 4 = 36 - true or false? are reported. Behavioral (i.e. RT and errors and EEG (i.e. ERP measures were recorded in parallel. Results We provide evidence for neighborhood-consistency effects in the verification of simple multiplication problems (e.g. 8 × 4. Behaviorally, we find that decade-consistent lures, which share their decade digit with the correct result (e.g. 36, are harder to reject than matched inconsistent lures, which differ in both digits from the correct result (e.g. 28. This neighborhood consistency effect in product verification is similar to recent observations in the production of multiplication results. With respect to event-related potentials we find significant differences for consistent compared to inconsistent lures in the N400 (increased negativity and Late Positive Component (reduced positivity. In this respect consistency effects in our paradigm resemble lexico-semantic effects earlier found in simple arithmetic and in orthographic input processing. Conclusion Our data suggest that neighborhood consistency effects in simple multiplication stem at least partly from central (lexico-semantic' stages of processing. These results are compatible with current models on the representation of simple multiplication facts – in particular with the Interacting Neighbors Model

  17. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens’ arithmetic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the grey matter (GM volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS. Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children’s arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  18. Application of multiple-precision arithmetic to direct numerical computation of inverse acoustic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the paper is to show an effective application of multiple-precision arithmetic to numerical computations of ill-posed problems. Multiple-precision arithmetic enables us to realize virtually numerical computations without rounding errors, and we apply it, without any stabilization methods, to an inverse acoustic scattering problem to obtain remarkable results. We also introduce our new multiple-precision arithmetic environment exflib, which is designed and implemented for fast computation of large scale scientific numerical simulations, and it works with the language C++ and FORTRAN90

  19. Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity and arithmetic Cohen-Macaulayness of complete bipartite subspace arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Teitler, Zach; Torrance, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    We give the Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity of arrangements of (n-2)-planes in P^n whose incidence graph is a sufficiently large complete bipartite graph, and determine when such arrangements are arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay.

  20. Symbolic Numerical Magnitude Processing Is as Important to Arithmetic as Phonological Awareness Is to Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Vanbinst

    Full Text Available In this article, we tested, using a 1-year longitudinal design, whether symbolic numerical magnitude processing or children's numerical representation of Arabic digits, is as important to arithmetic as phonological awareness is to reading. Children completed measures of symbolic comparison, phonological awareness, arithmetic, reading at the start of third grade and the latter two were retested at the start of fourth grade. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations indicated that symbolic comparison was a powerful domain-specific predictor of arithmetic and that phonological awareness was a unique predictor of reading. Crucially, the strength of these independent associations was not significantly different. This indicates that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is as important to arithmetic development as phonological awareness is to reading and suggests that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is a good candidate for screening children at risk for developing mathematical difficulties.

  1. Symbolic Numerical Magnitude Processing Is as Important to Arithmetic as Phonological Awareness Is to Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbinst, Kiran; Ansari, Daniel; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we tested, using a 1-year longitudinal design, whether symbolic numerical magnitude processing or children's numerical representation of Arabic digits, is as important to arithmetic as phonological awareness is to reading. Children completed measures of symbolic comparison, phonological awareness, arithmetic, reading at the start of third grade and the latter two were retested at the start of fourth grade. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations indicated that symbolic comparison was a powerful domain-specific predictor of arithmetic and that phonological awareness was a unique predictor of reading. Crucially, the strength of these independent associations was not significantly different. This indicates that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is as important to arithmetic development as phonological awareness is to reading and suggests that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is a good candidate for screening children at risk for developing mathematical difficulties. PMID:26942935

  2. Philosophy of arithmetic psychological and logical investigations with supplementary texts from 1887–1901

    CERN Document Server

    Husserl, Edmund

    2003-01-01

    In his first book, Philosophy of Arithmetic, Edmund Husserl provides a carefully worked out account of number as a categorial or formal feature of the objective world, and of arithmetic as a symbolic technique for mastering the infinite field of numbers for knowledge. It is a realist account of numbers and number relations that interweaves them into the basic structure of the universe and into our knowledge of reality. It provides an answer to the question of how arithmetic applies to reality, and gives an account of how, in general, formalized systems of symbols work in providing access to the world. The "appendices" to this book provide some of Husserl's subsequent discussions of how formalisms work, involving David Hilbert's program of completeness for arithmetic. "Completeness" is integrated into Husserl's own problematic of the "imaginary", and allows him to move beyond the analysis of "representations" in his understanding of the logic of mathematics. Husserl's work here provides an alternative model of...

  3. Redesigning Arithmetic for Student Success: Supporting Faculty to Teach in New Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerstaff, Susan; Lontz, Barbara; Cormier, Maria Scott; Xu, Di

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes a promising new approach to teaching developmental arithmetic and prealgebra, and presents research findings that demonstrate how a faculty support network helped instructors adopt new teaching strategies and gain confidence in teaching the reformed course.

  4. Small Solutions of Quadratic Equations with Prime Variables in Arithmetic Progressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Ze WANG

    2009-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient solvable condition for diagonal quadratic equation with prime variables in arithmetic progressions is given, and the best qualitative bound for small solutions of the equation is obtained.

  5. Single-digit arithmetic processing – anatomical evidence from statistical voxel-based lesion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula eMihulowicz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Different specific mechanisms have been suggested for solving single-digit arithmetic operations. However, the neural correlates underlying basic arithmetic (multiplication, addition, subtraction are still under debate. In the present study, we systematically assessed single-digit arithmetic in a group of acute stroke patients (n=45 with circumscribed left- or right-hemispheric brain lesions. Lesion sites significantly related to impaired performance were found only in the left-hemisphere damaged group. Deficits in multiplication and addition were related to subcortical/white matter brain regions differing from those for subtraction tasks, corroborating the notion of distinct processing pathways for different arithmetic tasks. Additionally, our results further point to the importance of investigating fiber pathways in numerical cognition.

  6. Symbolic Numerical Magnitude Processing Is as Important to Arithmetic as Phonological Awareness Is to Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbinst, Kiran; Ansari, Daniel; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we tested, using a 1-year longitudinal design, whether symbolic numerical magnitude processing or children’s numerical representation of Arabic digits, is as important to arithmetic as phonological awareness is to reading. Children completed measures of symbolic comparison, phonological awareness, arithmetic, reading at the start of third grade and the latter two were retested at the start of fourth grade. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations indicated that symbolic comparison was a powerful domain-specific predictor of arithmetic and that phonological awareness was a unique predictor of reading. Crucially, the strength of these independent associations was not significantly different. This indicates that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is as important to arithmetic development as phonological awareness is to reading and suggests that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is a good candidate for screening children at risk for developing mathematical difficulties. PMID:26942935

  7. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills – a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Karin eLanderl

    2013-01-01

    Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a two-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7;6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of nume...

  8. Data Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Using Hamming Code and Arithmetic Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Kurapati Sundar Teja; Shanmukha Mallikarjuna Bandaru

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains the implementation of data encryption and decryption algorithm using hamming code and arithmetic operations with the help of Verilog HDL. As the days are passing the old algorithms are not remained so strong cryptanalyst are familiar with them. Hamming code is one of forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper hamming code algorithm was discussed and the implementation of it was done with arithmetic operations. For high security...

  9. Nondigital implementation of the arithmetic of real numbers by means of quantum computer media

    OpenAIRE

    Litvinov, Grigori; Maslov, Viktor; Shpiz, Grigori

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of a model for quantum computer media, a nondigital implementation of the arithmetic of the real numbers is described. For this model, an elementary storage "cell" is an ensemble of qubits (quantum bits). It is found that to store an arbitrary real number it is sufficient to use four of these ensembles and the arithmetic operations can be implemented by fixed quantum circuits.

  10. Asymptotic free probability for arithmetic functions and factorization of Dirichlet series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ilwoo; Gillespie, Timothy; Jorgensen, Palle E. T.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study a free-probabilistic model on the algebra of arithmetic functions by considering their asymptotic behavior. As an application, we concentrate on arithmetic functions arising from certain representations attached to the general linear group GL_n . We then study conditions under which a Dirichlet series may be factored into a product of automorphic L-functions using asymptotic freeness.

  11. Arithmetic of Double Torus Quotients and the Distribution of Periodic Torus Orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Khayutin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    We describe new arithmetic invariants for pairs of torus orbits on inner forms of PGLn and SLn over number fields. These invariants are constructed by studying the double quotient of a linear algebraic group by a maximal torus. Using the new invariants we significantly strengthen results towards the equidistribution of packets of periodic torus orbits on higher rank S-arithmetic quotients. Packets of periodic torus orbits are natural collections of torus orbits coming from a single adelic tor...

  12. Angular dependent rebalance acceleration arithmetic for neutron transport equation in unstructured mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first-order neutron transport equation is solved by the least-squares finite element method based on the discrete ordinates discretization. The angular dependent rebalance (ADR) acceleration arithmetic and its extrapolate method are given. The numerical results of some benchmark problems demonstrate that the arithmetic can shorten the CPU time to 34% ∼ 50% and it is effective even for the strong scattering problem. (authors)

  13. An identity for a class of arithmetical functions of several variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentti Haukkanen

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Johnson [1] evaluated the sum ∑d|n|C(d;r|, where C(n;r denotes Ramanujan's trigonometric sum. This evaluation has been generalized to a wide class of arithmetical functions of two variables. In this paper, we generalize this evaluation to a wide class of arithmetical functions of several variables and deduce as special cases the previous evaluations.

  14. Simplification of integrity constraints with aggregates and arithmetic built-ins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide

    2004-01-01

    Both aggregates and arithmetic built-ins are widely used in current database query languages: Aggregates are second-order constructs such as CNT and SUM of SQL; arithmetic built-ins include relational and other mathematical operators that apply to numbers, such as ... time, simplified versions of such integrity constraints that can be tested before the execution of any update. In this way, virtually no time is spent for optimization or rollbacks at run time. Both set and bag semantics are considered....

  15. Mental arithmetic and non-speech office noise: An exploration of interference-by-content

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Perham; Helen Hodgetts; Simon Banbury

    2013-01-01

    An interference-by-content account of auditory distraction - in which the impairment to task performance derives from the similarity of what is being recalled and what is being ignored - was explored concerning mental arithmetic performance. Participants completed both a serial recall and a mental arithmetic task in the presence of quiet, office noise with speech (OS) and office noise without speech (ONS). Both tasks revealed that the two office noise condition′s significantly impaired perfor...

  16. Generative processing underlies the mutual enhancement of arithmetic fluency and math-grounding number sense

    OpenAIRE

    Stoianov, Ivilin P.

    2014-01-01

    Number skills are popularly bound to arithmetic knowledge in its symbolic form, such as " five + nine = fourteen, " but mounting evidence suggests that these symbolic relations are actually grounded, i.e., computed (see Harnad, 1990) on noisy internal magnitude representations that bear our general understanding of numbers and further improve with math experience (Figure 1). Multiple lines of evidence support the idea of semantics-based arithmetic, including behavioral research on humans (Gal...

  17. Strategies of solving arithmetic word problems in students with learning difficulties in mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Kalan, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving as an important skill is, beside arithmetic, measure and algebra, included in standards of school mathematics (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) (NCTM, 2000) and needed as a necessary skill for successfulness in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). Since solving of human problems is connected to the real life, the arithmetic word problems (in short AWP) are an important kind of mathematics tasks in scho...

  18. Numeral words and arithmetic operations in the Alor-Pantar languages

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, GG; Klamer, M; Schapper, A; Holton, G.; Kratochvil, F.; Robinson, L.

    2014-01-01

    The indigenous numerals of the AP languages, as well as the indigenous structures for arithmetic operations are currently under pressure from Indonesian, and will inevitably be replaced with Indonesian forms and structures. This chapter presents a documentary record of the forms and patterns currently in use to express numerals and arithmetic operations in the Alor-Pantar languages. We describe the structure of cardinal, ordinal and distributive numerals, and how operations of ...

  19. The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on strategic, behavioral, & electrophysiological indices of arithmetic cognition in preadolescent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H Hillman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on arithmetic cognition in forty 9-10 year old children. Measures included a standardized mathematics achievement test to assess conceptual and computational knowledge, self-reported strategy selection, and an experimental arithmetic verification task (including small and large addition problems, which afforded the measurement of event-related brain potentials (ERPs. No differences in math achievement were observed as a function of fitness level, but all children performed better on math concepts relative to math computation. Higher fit children reported using retrieval more often to solve large arithmetic problems, relative to lower fit children. During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d’ scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions. On the electrophysiological level, modulations of early (P1, N170 and late ERP components (P3, N400 were observed as a function of problem size and solution correctness. Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3 and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks. The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

  20. Profiles of children's arithmetic fact development: a model-based clustering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbinst, Kiran; Ceulemans, Eva; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-05-01

    The current longitudinal study tried to capture profiles of individual differences in children's arithmetic fact development. We used a model-based clustering approach to delineate profiles of arithmetic fact development based on empirically derived differences in parameters of arithmetic fact mastery repeatedly assessed at the start of three subsequent school years: third, fourth, and fifth grades. This cluster analysis revealed three profiles in a random sample-slow and variable (n = 8), average (n = 24), and efficient (n = 20)-that were marked by differences in children's development in arithmetic fact mastery from third grade to fifth grade. These profiles did not differ in terms of age, sex, socioeconomic status, or intellectual ability. In addition, we explored whether these profiles varied in cognitive skills that have been associated with individual differences in single-digit arithmetic. The three profiles differed in nonsymbolic and symbolic numerical magnitude processing as well as phonological processing, but not in digit naming or working memory. After also controlling for cluster differences in general mathematics achievement and reading ability, only differences in symbolic numerical magnitude processing remained significant. Taken together, our longitudinal data reveal that symbolic numerical magnitude processing represents an important variable that contributes to individual variability in children's acquisition of arithmetic facts. PMID:25731679

  1. Circular Interval Arithmetic Applied on LDMT for Linear Interval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ehidiamhen Uwamusi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the LDMT Factorization of a general nxn matrix arising from system of interval linear equations. We paid special emphasis on Interval Cholesky Factorization. The basic computational tool used is the square root method of circular interval arithmetic in a sense analogous to Gargantini and Henrici as well as the generalized square root method due to Petkovic which enables the construction of the square root of the resulting diagonal matrix. We also made use of Rump’s method for multiplying two intervals expressed in the form of midpoint-radius respectively. Numerical example of matrix factorization in this regard is given which forms the basis of discussion. It is shown that LDMT even though is a numerically stable method for any diagonally dominant matrix it also can lead to excess width of the solution set. It is also pointed out that in spite of the above mentioned objection to interval LDMT it has in addition , the advantage that in the presence of several solution sets sharing the same interval matrix the LDMT Factorization requires to be computed only once which helps in saving substantial computational time. This may be found applicable in the development of military hard ware which requires shooting at a single point but produces multiple broadcast at all other points

  2. Zeta functions of regular arithmetic schemes at s=0

    CERN Document Server

    Morin, Baptiste

    2011-01-01

    Lichtenbaum conjectured in \\cite{Lichtenbaum} the existence of a Weil-\\'etale cohomology in order to describe the vanishing order and the special value of the Zeta function of an arithmetic scheme $\\mathcal{X}$ at $s=0$ in terms of Euler-Poincar\\'e characteristics. Assuming the (conjectured) finite generation of some motivic cohomology groups we construct such a cohomology theory for regular schemes proper over $\\mathrm{Spec}(\\mathbb{Z})$. In particular, we compute (unconditionally) the right Weil-\\'etale cohomology of number rings and projective spaces over number rings. We state a precise version of Lichtenbaum's conjecture, which expresses the vanishing order (resp. the special value) of the Zeta function $\\zeta(\\mathcal{X},s)$ at $s=0$ as the rank (resp. the determinant) of a single perfect complex of abelian groups $R\\Gamma_{W,c}(\\mathcal{X},\\mathbb{Z})$. Then we relate this conjecture to Soul\\'e's conjecture and to the Tamagawa Number Conjecture. Lichtenbaum's conjecture for projective spaces over the r...

  3. Arithmetic Properties of Mirror Map and Quantum Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study some arithmetic properties of the mirror maps and the quantum Yukawa couplings for some 1-parameter deformations of Calabi-Yau manifolds. First we use the Schwarzian differential equations, which we derived previously, to characterize the mirror map in each case. For algebraic K3 surfaces, we solve the equation in terms of the J-function. By deriving explicit modular relations we prove that some K3 mirror maps are algebraic over the genus zero function field Q(J). This leads to a uniform proof that those mirror maps have integral Fourier coefficients. Regarding the maps as Riemann mappings, we prove that they are genus zero functions. By virtue of the Conway-Norton conjecture (proved by Borcherds using Frenkel-Lepowsky-Meurman's Moonshine module), we find that these maps are actually the reciprocals of the Thompson series for certain conjugacy classes in the Griess-Fischer group. This also gives, as an immediate consequence, a second proof that those mirror maps are integral. We thus conjecture a surprising connection between K3 mirror maps and the Thompson series. For threefolds, we construct a formal nonlinear ODE for the quantum coupling reduced mod p. Under the mirror hypothesis and an integrality assumption, we derive mod p congruences for the Fourier coefficients. For the quintics, we deduce, that the degree d instanton numbers nd are divisible by 53 - a fact first conjectured by Clemens. (orig.)

  4. Advanced topics in the arithmetic of elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    1994-01-01

    In the introduction to the first volume of The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves (Springer-Verlag, 1986), I observed that "the theory of elliptic curves is rich, varied, and amazingly vast," and as a consequence, "many important topics had to be omitted." I included a brief introduction to ten additional topics as an appendix to the first volume, with the tacit understanding that eventually there might be a second volume containing the details. You are now holding that second volume. it turned out that even those ten topics would not fit Unfortunately, into a single book, so I was forced to make some choices. The following material is covered in this book: I. Elliptic and modular functions for the full modular group. II. Elliptic curves with complex multiplication. III. Elliptic surfaces and specialization theorems. IV. Neron models, Kodaira-Neron classification of special fibers, Tate's algorithm, and Ogg's conductor-discriminant formula. V. Tate's theory of q-curves over p-adic fields. VI. Neron's theory of can...

  5. Arithmetic properties of mirror map and quantum coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Bong H.; Yau, Shing-Tung

    1996-02-01

    We study some arithmetic properties of the mirror maps and the quantum Yukawa couplings for some 1-parameter deformations of Calabi-Yau manifolds. First we use the Schwarzian differential equation, which we derived previously, to characterize the mirror map in each case. For algebraic K3 surfaces, we solve the equation in terms of the J-function. By deriving explicit modular relations we prove that some K3 mirror maps are algebraic over the genus zero function field Q( J). This leads to a uniform proof that those mirror maps have integral Fourier coefficients. Regarding the maps as Riemann mappings, we prove that they are genus zero functions. By virtue of the Conway-Norton conjecture (proved by Borcherds using Frenkel-Lepowsky-Meurman's Moonshine module), we find that these maps are actually the reciprocals of the Thompson series for certain conjugacy classes in the Griess-Fischer group. This also gives, as an immediate consequence, a second proof that those mirror maps are integral. We thus conjecture a surprising connection between K3 mirror maps and the Thompson series. For threefolds, we construct a formal nonlinear ODE for the quantum coupling reduced mod p. Under the mirror hypothesis and an integrality assumption, we derive mod p congurences for the Fourier coefficients. For the quintics, we deduce, (at least for 5× d) that the degree d instanton numbers n d are divisible by 53 — a fact first conjectured by Clemens.

  6. Arithmetic properties of mirror map and quantum coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Lian Bong H; Lian, Bong H; Yau, Shing Tung

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: We study some arithmetic properties of the mirror maps and the quantum Yukawa coupling for some 1-parameter deformations of Calabi-Yau manifolds. First we use the Schwarzian differential equation, which we derived previously, to characterize the mirror map in each case. For algebraic K3 surfaces, we solve the equation in terms of the J-function. By deriving explicit modular relations we prove that some K3 mirror maps are algebraic over the genus zero function field {\\bf Q}(J). This leads to a uniform proof that those mirror maps have integral Fourier coefficients. Regarding the maps as Riemann mappings, we prove that they are genus zero functions. By virtue of the Conway-Norton conjecture (proved by Borcherds using Frenkel-Lepowsky-Meurman's Moonshine module), we find that these maps are actually the reciprocals of the Thompson series for certain conjugacy classes in the Griess-Fischer group. This also gives, as an immediate consequence, a second proof that those mirror maps are integral. We thus co...

  7. Differences in Arithmetic Performance between Chinese and German Children Are Accompanied by Differences in Processing of Symbolic Numerical Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnemann, Jan; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lindberg, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills are assumed to be fundamental to arithmetic learning. It is, however, still an open question whether better arithmetic skills are reflected in symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills. To address this issue, Chinese and German third graders were compared regarding their performance in arithmetic tasks and in a symbolic numerical magnitude comparison task. Chinese children performed better in the arithmetic tasks and were faster in deciding which one of two Arabic numbers was numerically larger. The group difference in symbolic numerical magnitude processing was fully mediated by the performance in arithmetic tasks. We assume that a higher degree of familiarity with arithmetic in Chinese compared to German children leads to a higher speed of retrieving symbolic numerical magnitude knowledge.

  8. Arithmetic Operations and Factorization using Asynchronous P Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Murakawa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In the present paper, we consider the asynchronous parallelism in membrane computing, and propose asynchronous P systems that perform two basic arithmetic operations and factorization. Since there is no restrictive assumption for application of rules, sequential and maximal parallel executions are allowed on the asynchronous P system.

    We first propose a P system that computes addition of two binary numbers of m bits.  The P system works in O(m sequential and parallel steps using O(m types of objects. We next propose a P system for multiplication of the two binary numbers of m bits, and show that the P system works in O(m log m parallel steps or O(m3 sequential steps using O(m2 types of objects. Finally, we propose a P system for factorization of a positive integer of $m$ bits using the above P system as a sub-system. The P system computes the factorization in O(m log m parallel steps or O(4m 

  9. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex modulates arithmetic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Roland H; Rütsche, Bruno; Ruff, Christian C; Hauser, Tobias U

    2015-07-01

    The successful acquisition of arithmetic skills is an essential step in the development of mathematical competencies and has been associated with neural activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). It is unclear, however, whether this brain region plays a causal role in arithmetic skill acquisition and whether arithmetic learning can be modulated by means of non-invasive brain stimulation of this key region. In the present study we addressed these questions by applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left PPC during a short-term training that simulates the typical path of arithmetic skill acquisition (specifically the transition from effortful procedural to memory-based problem-solving strategies). Sixty participants received either anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS while practising complex multiplication and subtraction problems. The stability of the stimulation-induced learning effects was assessed in a follow-up test 24 h after the training. Learning progress was modulated by tDCS. Cathodal tDCS (compared with sham) decreased learning rates during training and resulted in poorer performance which lasted over 24 h after stimulation. Anodal tDCS showed an operation-specific improvement for subtraction learning. Our findings extend previous studies by demonstrating that the left PPC is causally involved in arithmetic learning (and not only in arithmetic performance) and that even a short-term tDCS application can modulate the success of arithmetic knowledge acquisition. Moreover, our finding of operation-specific anodal stimulation effects suggests that the enhancing effects of tDCS on learning can selectively affect just one of several cognitive processes mediated by the stimulated area. PMID:25970697

  10. Developmental changes in mental arithmetic: evidence for increased functional specialization in the left inferior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S M; Reiss, A L; Eckert, M A; Menon, V

    2005-11-01

    Arithmetic reasoning is arguably one of the most important cognitive skills a child must master. Here we examine neurodevelopmental changes in mental arithmetic. Subjects (ages 8-19 years) viewed arithmetic equations and were asked to judge whether the results were correct or incorrect. During two-operand addition or subtraction trials, for which accuracy was comparable across age, older subjects showed greater activation in the left parietal cortex, along the supramarginal gyrus and adjoining anterior intra-parietal sulcus as well as the left lateral occipital temporal cortex. These age-related changes were not associated with alterations in gray matter density, and provide novel evidence for increased functional maturation with age. By contrast, younger subjects showed greater activation in the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that they require comparatively more working memory and attentional resources to achieve similar levels of mental arithmetic performance. Younger subjects also showed greater activation of the hippocampus and dorsal basal ganglia, reflecting the greater demands placed on both declarative and procedural memory systems. Our findings provide evidence for a process of increased functional specialization of the left inferior parietal cortex in mental arithmetic, a process that is accompanied by decreased dependence on memory and attentional resources with development. PMID:15716474

  11. Language-specific memory for everyday arithmetic facts in Chinese-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yalin; Yanke, Jill; Campbell, Jamie I D

    2016-04-01

    The role of language in memory for arithmetic facts remains controversial. Here, we examined transfer of memory training for evidence that bilinguals may acquire language-specific memory stores for everyday arithmetic facts. Chinese-English bilingual adults (n = 32) were trained on different subsets of simple addition and multiplication problems. Each operation was trained in one language or the other. The subsequent test phase included all problems with addition and multiplication alternating across trials in two blocks, one in each language. Averaging over training language, the response time (RT) gains for trained problems relative to untrained problems were greater in the trained language than in the untrained language. Subsequent analysis showed that English training produced larger RT gains for trained problems relative to untrained problems in English at test relative to the untrained Chinese language. In contrast, there was no evidence with Chinese training that problem-specific RT gains differed between Chinese and the untrained English language. We propose that training in Chinese promoted a translation strategy for English arithmetic (particularly multiplication) that produced strong cross-language generalization of practice, whereas training in English strengthened relatively weak, English-language arithmetic memories and produced little generalization to Chinese (i.e., English training did not induce an English translation strategy for Chinese language trials). The results support the existence of language-specific strengthening of memory for everyday arithmetic facts. PMID:26265429

  12. Effects of vocalization on cardiovascular and electrodermal responses during mental arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaka, J; Blascovich, J; Swart, L

    1994-10-01

    This study assessed the contribution of vocalization to autonomic responses during mental arithmetic. Specifically this study compared the autonomic responses of subjects during aloud and silent phases of repeated mental arithmetic tasks. The results were consistent for both tasks. As expected, heart rate and skin conductance responses were elevated during the aloud phases. Preejection period and cardiac output reactions, however, were greater during the silent phases. Furthermore, stroke volume declined during the aloud phases, but was maintained near resting levels during the silent phases. There were no phase effects for systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, or total peripheral resistance. The pattern of autonomic responses between aloud and silent phases of mental arithmetic suggest that the relationship between vocalization and autonomic response is not unidirectional but varies depending on the physiological parameter under investigation. PMID:7876036

  13. A VHDL Implementation of Direct, Pipelined and Distributed Arithmetic FIR Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucharitha. L

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital filters are typically used to modify or alter the attributes of a signal in the time or frequency domain. In this project, various FIR filter structures will be studied and implemented in VHDL. Basic arithmetic blocks to carry out DSP on FPGAs will be discussed. The very popular LUT based approach for arithmetic circuit implementation will be presented. The conventional PDSP MAC and Distributed arithmetic MAC units will be implemented and their performance will be compared. Usage of Pipelining in multipliers for improving the speed will also be discussed. The ModelSim XE simulator will be used to simulate the design at various stages. Xilinx synthesis tool (XST will be used to synthesize the design for spartan3E family FPGA (XC3S500E. Xilinx Placement {&} Routing tools will be used for backend, design optimization and I/O routing

  14. Data Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Using Hamming Code and Arithmetic Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurapati Sundar Teja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the implementation of data encryption and decryption algorithm using hamming code and arithmetic operations with the help of Verilog HDL. As the days are passing the old algorithms are not remained so strong cryptanalyst are familiar with them. Hamming code is one of forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper hamming code algorithm was discussed and the implementation of it was done with arithmetic operations. For high security some arithmetic operations are added with hamming code process. A 3-bit data will be encrypted as 14-bit and using decryption process again we will receives 3-bit original data. The implemented design was tested on Spartan3A FPGA kit.

  15. Study on judgment arithmetic for the symmetric attribute of plutonium material in sealed container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symmetric attribute is an important attribute of plutonium component in nuclear weapon. When the shape of radioactive source with uniform distribution is symmetric on axial direction, measured values of activity in the symmetric direction comply with the normal distribution. Based on this principle, a kind of judgment's arithmetic that can judge the attribute of plutonium in the container is established combining Shapiro Wilk small sample normal distribution test method and F-distribution test method of deleting singular valve with location method of singular value. Experimental data of three models has been analyzed using this judgment's arithmetic. The results show that this judgment's arithmetic can determine accurately the symmetric of plutonium component. (authors)

  16. Design of Parity Preserving Logic Based Fault Tolerant Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshith Saligram

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reversible Logic is gaining significant consideration as the potential logic design style for implementationin modern nanotechnology and quantum computing with minimal impact on physical entropy .FaultTolerant reversible logic is one class of reversible logic that maintain the parity of the input and theoutputs. Significant contributions have been made in the literature towards the design of fault tolerantreversible logic gate structures and arithmetic units, however, there are not many efforts directed towardsthe design of fault tolerant reversible ALUs. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU is the prime performing unit inany computing device and it has to be made fault tolerant. In this paper we aim to design one such faulttolerant reversible ALU that is constructed using parity preserving reversible logic gates. The designedALU can generate up to seven Arithmetic operations and four logical operations.

  17. High performance integer arithmetic circuit design on FPGA architecture, implementation and design automation

    CERN Document Server

    Palchaudhuri, Ayan

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the optimized implementations of several arithmetic datapath, controlpath and pseudorandom sequence generator circuits for realization of high performance arithmetic circuits targeted towards a specific family of the high-end Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). It explores regular, modular, cascadable, and bit-sliced architectures of these circuits, by directly instantiating the target FPGA-specific primitives in the HDL. Every proposed architecture is justified with detailed mathematical analyses. Simultaneously, constrained placement of the circuit building blocks is performed, by placing the logically related hardware primitives in close proximity to one another by supplying relevant placement constraints in the Xilinx proprietary “User Constraints File”. The book covers the implementation of a GUI-based CAD tool named FlexiCore integrated with the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) for design automation of platform-specific high-performance arithmetic circuits from us...

  18. Design of Parity Preserving Logic Based Fault Tolerant Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshith Saligram1

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible Logic is gaining significant consideration as the potential logic design style for implementation in modern nanotechnology and quantum computing with minimal impact on physical entropy .Fault Tolerant reversible logic is one class of reversible logic that maintain the parity of the input and the outputs. Significant contributions have been made in the literature towards the design of fault tolerant reversible logic gate structures and arithmetic units, however, there are not many efforts directed towards the design of fault tolerant reversible ALUs. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU is the prime performing unit in any computing device and it has to be made fault tolerant. In this paper we aim to design one such fault tolerant reversible ALU that is constructed using parity preserving reversible logic gates. The designed ALU can generate up to seven Arithmetic operations and four logical operations

  19. Contribution to the design of a micro-programmed floating point arithmetical operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended for a presentation of the implementation of an arithmetical operator. Fast microprocessor together with microprogramming techniques were used for development. For clarity, this report is shared in three parts following the different steps of design and development. The first part relates the preliminary study stage, setting down the outlines of the project: tentative data, choice of components and architecture of operator. The second part is devoted to the development step. It deals with implementation aid systems and computation algorithms for arithmetical functions. Results and conclusions are the subject of the third part. (author)

  20. Peacock's "History of Arithmetic", an Attempt to reconcile empiricism to universality

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Richard, Marie-José

    2010-01-01

    Lorsque l'algébriste Whig anglican George Peacock (1791-1858) présente sa nouvelle conception de l'algèbre symbolique en 1830, il a déjà écrit une "History of Arithmetic", impressionnante mais peu connue, publiée dans l'Encyclopaedia Metropolitana en 1846. Cet article analyse les orientations philosophiques qui nourrissent cette "History of Arithmetic", et en quoi elles affirment déjà sa conception de l'algèbre comme une étape dans le processus de symbolisation des opérations. En tant que tut...

  1. Developing an effective multimedia in education for special education (MESE): An introduction to arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Kusnendar, Jajang; Rahmadhani

    2016-02-01

    This research aims to develop and test the effectiveness of multimedia in education for special education (MESE) of students with cognitive disabilities in introducing Arithmetic. Students with cognitive disabilities are those who have a level of intelligence under the normal ones. They think concretely and tend to have a very limited memory, switched concentration and forgot easily. The mastery of words is minimal, and also requires a long time to learn. These limitations will interfere in introduction learning to Arithmetic, with the material of numbers 1 to 10. The study resulted that MESE is worth to be used and enhanced the ability of the students.

  2. Reducibility of cocycles under a Brjuno-R\\"ussmann arithmetical condition

    CERN Document Server

    Chavaudret, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The arithmetics of the frequency and of the rotation number play a fun- damental role in the study of reducibility of analytic quasi-periodic cocycles which are sufficiently close to a constant. In this paper we show how to generalize previous works by L.H.Eliasson which deal with the diophantine case so as to implement a Brjuno-Russmann arithmetical condition both on the frequency and on the rotation number. Our approach adapts the Poschel-Russmann KAM method, which was previously used in the problem of linearization of vector fields, to the problem of reducing cocycles.

  3. Arithmetic error codes - Cost and effectiveness studies for application in digital system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avizienis, A.

    1971-01-01

    The application of error-detecting or error-correcting codes in digital computer design requires studies of cost and effectiveness tradeoffs to supplement the knowledge of their theoretical properties. General criteria for cost and effectiveness studies of error codes are developed, and results are presented for arithmetic error codes with the low-cost check modulus 2 super a - 1. Both separate (residue) and nonseparate (AN) codes are considered. The class of multiple arithmetic error codes is developed as an extension of low-cost single codes.

  4. Compensating arithmetic ability with derived fact strategies in Broca's aphasia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanendran, Kalaiyashni; Dowker, Ann; Demeyere, Nele

    2016-04-01

    We investigated derived fact strategy use in RR, an aphasic patient with severely impaired working memory (no phonological loop), and 16 neurologically healthy matched controls. Participants were tested on derived fact strategy use in multi-digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. RR's accuracy only differed from controls in multiplication. He was as quick as controls in addition and subtraction when able to use the strategies, though significantly slower in addition, division, and multiplication without strategies. Our findings suggest the phonological loop is non-essential for multi-digit arithmetic, and derived fact strategies can help speed up arithmetic in individuals with impaired working memory. PMID:26647359

  5. On the structure of arithmetic sums of Cantor sets with constant ratios of dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate conditions which imply that the topological structure of the arithmetic sum of two Cantor sets with constant ratios of dissection at each step is either: a Cantor set, a finite union of closed intervals, or three mixed models (L, R and M-Cantorval). We obtain general results that apply in particular for the case of homogeneous Cantor sets, thus generalizing the results of Mendes and Oliveira. The method used here is new in this context. We also produce results regarding the arithmetic sum of two affine Cantor sets of a special kind

  6. Working Memory as a Predictor of Written Arithmetical Skills in Children: The Importance of Central Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted in an attempt to further our understanding of how working memory contributes to written arithmetical skills in children. Aim: The aim was to pinpoint the contribution of different central executive functions and to examine the contribution of the two subcomponents of children's written arithmetical skills.…

  7. Comparing the Use of the Interpersonal Computer, Personal Computer and Pen-and-Paper When Solving Arithmetic Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholado, Cristián; Diaz, Anita; Tagle, Arturo; Nussbaum, Miguel; Infante, Cristián

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the differences in student learning outcomes and classroom behaviour when using the interpersonal computer, personal computer and pen-and-paper to solve arithmetic exercises. In this multi-session experiment, third grade students working on arithmetic exercises from various curricular units were divided into three…

  8. Working Memory and Arithmetic Calculation in Children: The Contributory Roles of Processing Speed, Short-Term Memory, and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Derek H.

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive underpinnings of arithmetic calculation in children are noted to involve working memory; however, cognitive processes related to arithmetic calculation and working memory suggest that this relationship is more complex than stated previously. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relative contributions of processing…

  9. Contributions of Domain-General Cognitive Resources and Different Forms of Arithmetic Development to Pre-Algebraic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Powell, Sarah R.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Vernier, Emily; Namkung, Jessica M.; Vukovic, Rose K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of domain-general cognitive resources and different forms of arithmetic development to individual differences in pre-algebraic knowledge. Children (n = 279, mean age = 7.59 years) were assessed on 7 domain-general cognitive resources as well as arithmetic calculations and word problems…

  10. Can Children Construct Inverse Relations in Arithmetic? Evidence for Individual Differences in the Development of Conceptual Understanding and Computational Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla K.; Bryant, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Understanding conceptual relationships is an important aspect of learning arithmetic. Most studies of arithmetic, however, do not distinguish between children's understanding of a concept and their ability to identify situations in which it might be relevant. We compared 8- to 9-year-old children's use of a computational shortcut based on the…

  11. 40 CFR 62.15210 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of 40 CFR part 60, section 4.3, to calculate the daily geometric average concentrations of sulfur... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic... convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units? (a) Use the equation...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1755 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic...-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units? (a) Use the equation in § 60.1935... calculate the 4-hour or 24-hour daily block averages (as applicable) for concentrations of carbon monoxide....

  13. Program of arithmetic improvement by means of cognitive enhancement: an intervention in children with special educational needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaño, Manuel Deaño; Alfonso, Sonia; Das, Jagannath Prasad

    2015-03-01

    This study reports the cognitive and arithmetic improvement of a mathematical model based on the program PASS Remedial Program (PREP), which aims to improve specific cognitive processes underlying academic skills such as arithmetic. For this purpose, a group of 20 students from the last four grades of Primary Education was divided into two groups. One group (n=10) received training in the program and the other served as control. Students were assessed at pre and post intervention in the PASS cognitive processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing), general level of intelligence, and arithmetic performance in calculus and solving problems. Performance of children from the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group in cognitive process and arithmetic. This joint enhancement of cognitive and arithmetic processes was a result of the operationalization of training that promotes the encoding task, attention and planning, and learning by induction, mediation and verbalization. The implications of this are discussed. PMID:25594486

  14. Reinvention of early algebra : developmental research on the transition from arithmetic to algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerom, B.A. van

    2002-01-01

    In chapter 1 we give our reasons for carrying out this developmental research project on the transition from arithmetic to algebra, which includes the design of an experimental learning strand on solving equations. Chapter 2 describes the theoretical background of the book: current views on the teac

  15. Working Memory in Nonsymbolic Approximate Arithmetic Processing: A Dual-Task Study with Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenidou-Dervou, Iro; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; van der Schoot, Menno

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children have been proven to possess nonsymbolic approximate arithmetic skills before learning how to manipulate symbolic math and thus before any formal math instruction. It has been assumed that nonsymbolic approximate math tasks necessitate the allocation of Working Memory (WM) resources. WM has been consistently shown to be an…

  16. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  17. On the history of van der Waerden's theorem on arithmetic progressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom C. Brown

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this expository note, we discuss the celebrated theorem known as ``van der Waerden's theorem on arithmetic progressions", the history of work on upper and lower bounds for the function associated with this theorem, a number of generalizations, and some open problems.

  18. Arithmetic memory networks established in childhood are changed by experience in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Lincoln, Amanda; Cortinas, Christina; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2015-01-01

    Adult bilinguals show stronger access to multiplication tables when using the language in which they learned arithmetic during childhood (LA+) than the other language (LA-), implying language-specific encoding of math facts. However, most bilinguals use LA+ throughout their life, confounding the impact of encoding and use. We tested if using arithmetic facts in LA- could reduce this LA- disadvantage. We measured event related brain potentials while bilingual teachers judged the correctness of multiplication problems in each of their languages. Critically, each teacher taught arithmetic in either LA+ or LA-. Earlier N400 peak latency was observed in both groups for the teaching than non-teaching language, showing more efficient access to these facts with use. LA+ teachers maintained an LA+ advantage, while LA- teachers showed equivalent N400 congruency effects (for incorrect versus correct solutions) in both languages. LA- teachers also showed a late positive component that may reflect conflict monitoring between their LA+ and a strong LA-. Thus, the LA- disadvantage for exact arithmetic established in early bilingual education can be mitigated by later use of LA-. PMID:25445361

  19. On the relation between the mental number line and arithmetic competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Tanja; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at investigating whether it is indeed the spatial magnitude representation that links number line estimation performance to other basic numerical and arithmetic competencies. Therefore, estimations of 45 fourth-graders in both a bounded and a new unbounded number line estimation task (with only a start-point and a unit given) were correlated with their performance in a variety of tasks including addition, subtraction, and number magnitude comparison. Assuming that both number line tasks assess the same underlying mental number line representation, unbounded number line estimation should also be associated with other basic numerical and arithmetic competencies. However, results indicated that children's estimation performance in the bounded but not the unbounded number line estimation task was correlated significantly with numerical and arithmetic competencies. We conclude that unbounded and bounded number line estimation tasks do not assess the same underlying spatial-numerical representation. Rather, the observed association between bounded number line estimation and numerical/arithmetic competencies may be driven by additional numerical processes (e.g., proportion judgement, addition/subtraction) recruited to solve the task. PMID:24547767

  20. Syntactic Awareness and Arithmetic Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Christian; Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Bisschop, Elaine; Villarroel, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Arithmetic word problem (AWP) solving is a highly demanding task for children with learning disabilities (LD) since verbal and mathematical information have to be integrated. This study examines specifically how syntactic awareness (SA), the ability to manage the grammatical structures of language, affects AWP solving. Three groups of children in…

  1. Realization of two-dimensional transformations by the arithmetical module of an intelligent graphics terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and software of the arithmetical module for the multi-microprocessor intelligent graphics terminal designed for realization of the world coordinate two-dimensional transformation are described. The module performs the operations like coordinate system displacement, scaling and rotation as well as transformations for window/viewport separation

  2. Inhibiting Interference from Prior Knowledge: Arithmetic Intrusions in Algebra Word Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khng, Kiat Hui; Lee, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    In Singapore, 6-12 year-old students are taught to solve algebra word problems with a mix of arithmetic and pre-algebraic strategies; 13-17 year-olds are typically encouraged to replace these strategies with letter-symbolic algebra. We examined whether algebra problem-solving proficiency amongst beginning learners of letter-symbolic algebra is…

  3. Spatial Skills as a Predictor of First Grade Girls' Use of Higher Level Arithmetic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Elida V.; Casey, Beth M.; Yu, Qingyi; Dulaney, Alana; Heyman, Miriam; Dearing, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Girls are more likely than boys to use counting strategies rather than higher-level mental strategies to solve arithmetic problems. Prior research suggests that dependence on counting strategies may have negative implications for girls' later math achievement. We investigated the relation between first-grade girls' verbal and spatial skills and…

  4. Spontaneous Meta-Arithmetic as a First Step toward School Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Shai; Sfard, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Taking as the point of departure the vision of school algebra as a formalized meta-discourse of arithmetic, we have been following five pairs of 7th grade students as they progress in algebraic discourse during 24 months, from their informal algebraic talk to the formal algebraic discourse, as taught in school. Our analysis follows changes that…

  5. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  6. The Influence of Mathematical Ability and Morning Nutrition on Mental Arithmetic in Preadolescents: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of eating or skipping breakfast on ERP correlates of mental arithmetic were studied in preadolescents differing in experience (age) and mathematical skills. Participants, randomly assigned to treatment [eat (B) or skip (SB) breakfast (each, n = 41)], were sub-grouped by age [8.8 yrs (B: ...

  7. Linguistic and Spatial Skills Predict Early Arithmetic Development via Counting Sequence Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Koponen, Tuire; Räsänen, Pekka; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a longitudinal sample of Finnish children (ages 6-10), two studies examined how early linguistic (spoken vs. written) and spatial skills predict later development of arithmetic, and whether counting sequence knowledge mediates these associations. In Study 1 (N = 1,880), letter knowledge and spatial visualization, measured in…

  8. Cross-Cultural Investigation into Cognitive Underpinnings of Individual Differences in Early Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodic, Maja; Zhou, Xinlin; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Wei, Wei; Malykh, Sergei; Ismatulina, Victoria; Sabirova, Elena; Davidova, Yulia; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated 626 5-7-year-old children in the UK, China, Russia, and Kyrgyzstan on a cognitive test battery measuring: (1) general skills; (2) non-symbolic number sense; (3) symbolic number understanding; (4) simple arithmetic--operating with numbers; and (5) familiarity with numbers. Although most inter-population differences were…

  9. On Tool Support for Duration Calculus on the Basis of Presburger Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Brekling, Aske Wiid

    ongoing work, we report on our experiences with implementing the model-checking algorithm in [12], which reduces model checking to checking formulas of Presburger arithmetic. The model-checking algorithm generates Presburger formulas that may have sizes being exponential in the chop depth of the Duration...

  10. ERP correlates of mental arithmetic in preadolescents: influence of ability and effects of morning nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of morning nutritional status on ERP correlates of mental arithmetic were studied in preadolescents differing in experience (age) and mathematical skills. Children [right-handed; IQ > 80), randomly assigned to treatment [eat (B) or skip (SB) breakfast (each, n = 41)], were sub-grouped by...

  11. A continuous measuring apparatus base on deduction arithmetic for environmental radon and radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous measuring for environmental radon and radon progeny is the premise to calculate the radiation dose from radon precisely. An intelligent measuring apparatus for environmental radon and radon progeny using scintillation cell and filter-sampling technique with deduction arithmetic is described. The measuring theory, structures of the apparatus and some measuring data of standard radon chamber and offices are given detail. (authors)

  12. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  13. Eye Gaze Reveals a Fast, Parallel Extraction of the Syntax of Arithmetic Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Elisa; Maruyama, Masaki; Dehaene, Stanislas; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics shares with language an essential reliance on the human capacity for recursion, permitting the generation of an infinite range of embedded expressions from a finite set of symbols. We studied the role of syntax in arithmetic thinking, a neglected component of numerical cognition, by examining eye movement sequences during the…

  14. Multiple Paths to Mathematics Practice in Al-Kashi's "Key to Arithmetic"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taani, Osama

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss one of the most distinguishing features of Jamshid al-Kashi's pedagogy from his "Key to Arithmetic", a well-known Arabic mathematics textbook from the fifteenth century. This feature is the multiple paths that he includes to find a desired result. In the first section light is shed on al-Kashi's life…

  15. The weekly measurement deviations of indoor radon concentration from the annual arithmetic mean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difference between weekly measurements and the annual arithmetic mean of radon concentration CRn,Indoor was studied in the Czech Republic. The deviations were analysed for 1537 weekly measurements which were consecutively obtained in 29 rooms over a period of 1 year and the annual arithmetic mean was calculated for each particular room. The relationship of the deviations to three meteorological parameters (i.e. outside temperature, atmospheric pressure, and weekly rainfall) and to the sequential number of a calendar week was studied. The effect of atmospheric pressure and weekly rainfall was not significant. The deviation between a weekly measurement and the annual arithmetic mean depended significantly on outside weekly average temperatures. If the average outside weekly temperature was below 10 deg. C, the radon concentration was systematically higher than that of the annual arithmetic mean. The deviation variability was lower up to a temperature of 10 deg. C. If the weekly average outdoor temperature was higher than 10 deg. C, the uncertainty of a weekly measurement of radon concentration was also higher. (author)

  16. Informal Numeracy Skills: The Structure and Relations among Numbering, Relations, and Arithmetic Operations in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Validating the structure of informal numeracy skills is critical to understanding the developmental trajectories of mathematics skills at early ages; however, little research has been devoted to construct evaluation of the Numbering, Relations, and Arithmetic Operations domains. This study was designed to address this knowledge gap by examining…

  17. Young Children Reinvent Arithmetic: Implications of Piaget's Theory. Second Edition. Early Childhood Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Constance

    This book describes and develops an innovative program of teaching arithmetic in the early elementary grades. The educational strategies employed are based on Jean Piaget's constructivist scientific ideas of how children develop logico-mathematical thinking. The book is written in collaboration with a classroom teacher and premised on the…

  18. The Arithmetical Machine Zero + 1 in Mathematics Laboratory: Instrumental Genesis and Semiotic Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschietto, Michela

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of two teaching experiments carried out in the context of the mathematics laboratory in a primary school (grades 3 and 4) with the use of the pascaline Zero + 1, an arithmetical machine. The teaching experiments are analysed by coordinating two theoretical frameworks, i.e. the instrumental approach and the Theory…

  19. Hardware realizations of arithmetic with complex integer numbers on PLD-base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opanasenko V. N.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hardware realizations of arithmetic with complex integer numbers were proposed. The generators of sine and cosine with different frequency were used to make behavior stand. Real verification was made by block Spartan–3–400 Evaluation Kit, which connect up PCI of personal computer.

  20. An image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through a series of studies on arithmetic coding and arithmetic encryption, a novel image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding is proposed. The contexts produced in the process of image compression are modified by keys in order to achieve image joint compression encryption. Combined with the bit-plane coding technique, the discrete wavelet transform coefficients in different resolutions can be encrypted respectively with different keys, so that the resolution selective encryption is realized to meet different application needs. Zero-tree coding is improved, and adaptive arithmetic coding is introduced. Then, the proposed joint compression-encryption algorithm is simulated. The simulation results show that as long as the parameters are selected appropriately, the compression efficiency of proposed image joint compression-encryption algorithm is basically identical to that of the original image compression algorithm, and the security of the proposed algorithm is better than the joint encryption algorithm based on interval splitting. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  1. Identifying Strategies in Arithmetic with the Operand Recognition Paradigm: A Matter of Switch Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenot, Catherine; Castel, Caroline; Danjon, Juliette; Fayol, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Determining adults' and children's strategies in mental arithmetic constitutes a central issue in the domain of numerical cognition. However, despite the considerable amount of research on this topic, the conclusions in the literature are not always coherent. Therefore, there is a need to carry on the investigation, and this is the reason why we…

  2. Efficient Solving of Large Non-linear Arithmetic Constraint Systems with Complex Boolean Structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fränzle, M.; Herde, C.; Teige, T.; Ratschan, Stefan; Schubert, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 209-236. ISSN 1574-0617 Grant ostatní: AVACS(DE) SFB/TR 14 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval-based arithmetic constraint solving * SAT modulo theories Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. The effects of auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of children with ADHD and nondisabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, H; Courtney, M E; Szeibel, P J; Koplewicz, H S

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact of extra-task stimulation on the academic task performance of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty boys with ADHD and 20 nondisabled boys worked on an arithmetic task during high stimulation (music), low stimulation (speech), and no stimulation (silence). The music "distractors" were individualized for each child, and the arithmetic problems were at each child's ability level. A significant Group x Condition interaction was found for number of correct answers. Specifically, the nondisabled youngsters performed similarly under all three auditory conditions. In contrast, the children with ADHD did significantly better under the music condition than speech or silence conditions. However, a significant Group x Order interaction indicated that arithmetic performance was enhanced only for those children with ADHD who received music as the first condition. The facilitative effects of salient auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of the children with ADHD provide some support for the underarousal/optimal stimulation theory of ADHD. PMID:8732885

  4. Arithmetic Facts Storage Deficit: The Hypersensitivity-to-Interference in Memory Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Dyscalculia, or mathematics learning disorders, is currently known to be heterogeneous (Wilson & Dehaene, 2007). While various profiles of dyscalculia coexist, a general and persistent hallmark of this math learning disability is the difficulty in memorizing arithmetic facts (Geary, Hoard & Hamson, 1999; Jordan & Montani, 1997; Slade…

  5. Neural Correlates in Exceptional Mental Arithmetic--About the Neural Architecture of Prodigious Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Weber, Jochen; Willmes, Klaus; Herrmann, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Prodigies are individuals with exceptional mental abilities. How is it possible that some of these people mentally calculate exponentiations with high accuracy and speed? We examined CP, a mental calculation prodigy, and a control group of 11 normal calculators for moderate mental arithmetic tasks. CP has additionally been tested for exceptionally…

  6. A simplified proof of arithmetical completeness theorem for provability logic GLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beklemishev, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simplified proof of Japaridze’s arithmetical completeness theorem for the well-known polymodal provability logic GLP. The simplification is achieved by employing a fragment J of GLP that enjoys a more convenient Kripke-style semantics than the logic considered in the papers by Ignatiev

  7. Numeral words and arithmetic operations in the Alor-Pantar languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapper, Antoinette; Holton, Gary; Klamer, Marian; Kratochvíl, František; Robinson, Laura; Klamer, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The indigenous numerals of the AP languages, as well as the indigenous structures for arithmetic operations are currently under pressure from Indonesian, and will inevitably be replaced with Indonesian forms and structures. This chapter presents a documentary record of the forms and patterns current

  8. The foundations of arithmetic a logico-mathematical enquiry into the concept of number

    CERN Document Server

    Frege, Gottlob

    1986-01-01

    The Foundations of Arithmetic is undoubtedly the best introduction to Frege's thought; it is here that Frege expounds the central notions of his philosophy, subjecting the views of his predecessors and contemporaries to devastating analysis. The book represents the first philosophically sound discussion of the concept of number in Western civilization. It profoundly influenced developments in the philosophy of mathematics, general ontology, and mathematics.

  9. The Interpretations and Applications of Boethius's Introduction to the Arithmetic II, 1 at the End of the 10th Century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otisk, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2014), s. 33-56. ISSN 2038-3657 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Boethius * arithmetic * Gerbert of Aurillac * Abbo of Fleury * Notker of Liège Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  10. RELATING ARITHMETICAL TECHNIQUES OF PROPORTION TO GEOMETRY: THE CASE OF INDONESIAN TEXTBOOKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayanti, Dyana

    2015-01-01

    . Considering 6 common Indonesian textbooks in use, we describe how proportion is explained and appears in examples and exercises, using an explicit reference model of the mathematical organizations of both themes. We also identify how the proportion themes of the geometry and arithmetic domains are linked. Our......The purpose of this study is to investigate how textbooks introduce and treat the theme of proportion in geometry (similarity) and arithmetic (ratio and proportion), and how these themes are linked to each other in the books. To pursue this aim, we use the anthropological theory of the didactic...... results show that the explanation in two domains has different approach, but basically they are mathematically related....

  11. A hand full of numbers: a role for offloading in arithmetics learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnneliseJúlioCosta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Finger counting has been associated to arithmetic learning in children. We examined children with (n = 14 and without (n = 84 mathematics learning difficulties with ages between 8 to 11 years. Deficits in finger gnosia were found in association to mathematical difficulties. Finger gnosia is particularly relevant for the performance in word problems requiring active manipulation of small magnitudes in the range between 1 and 10. Moreover, the deficits in finger gnosia cannot be attributed to a shortage in working memory capacity but rather to a specific inability to use fingers to transiently represent magnitudes, tagging to be counted objects and reducing the cognitive load necessary to solve arithmetic problems. Since finger gnosia is more related to symbolic than to nonsymbolic magnitude processing, finger-related representation of magnitude seems to be an important link for learning the mapping of analog onto discrete symbolic magnitudes.

  12. Arithmetic gravity and Yang-Mills theory: An approach to adelic physics via algebraic spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This work is a dissertation thesis written at the WWU Muenster (Germany), supervised by Prof. Dr. Raimar Wulkenhaar. We present an approach to adelic physics based on the language of algebraic spaces. Relative algebraic spaces X over a base S are considered as fundamental objects which describe space-time. This yields a formulation of general relativity which is covariant with respect to changes of the chosen domain of numbers S. With regard to adelic physics the choice of S as an excellent Dedekind scheme is of interest (because this way also the finite prime spots, i.e. the p-adic degrees of freedom are taken into account). In this arithmetic case, it turns out that X is a Neron model. This enables us to make concrete statements concerning the structure of the space-time described by X. Furthermore, some solutions of the arithmetic Einstein equations are presented. In a next step, Yang-Mills gauge fields are incorporated.

  13. DEBT AMORTIZATION AND SIMPLE INTEREST: THE CASE OF PAYMENTS IN AN ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis José Daudt Lyra Darrigue Faro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the argument that, necessarily, compound interest implies anatocism, the Brazilian Judiciary has been determining that, specially for the case of  debt amortization in accordance with the so called Tabela Price, when we have constant payments, the use of simple interest. With the same determination occurring in the case of the Constant Amortization Scheme, when the payments follow arithmetic progressions.  However, as simple interest lacks the property of time subdivision, it is shown that as in the case of constant payments, the adoption of simple interest in the case of payments following an arithmetic progression results in amortization schemes that are financially inconsistent. In the sense that the determination of the outstanding principal in accordance with the prospective, retrospective and of recurrence methods lead to conflicting  results. To this end, four different variations of the use of simple interest are numerically analyzed.

  14. To what extent are stochastic the arithmetical progressions of the fractional parts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the residues of the division of the n members of an arithmetical progression by a real number N is proved the tending to 0 of the Kolmogorov's stochasticity parameter λn, when n tends to infinity, providing that the progression step is commensurable with N. On the contrary, when the step is incommensurable with N, the paper describes some examples, where the stochasticity parameter λn does not tend to zero, and even attains (infrequently) some arbitrary large values. Both the too small and the too large values of the stochasticity parameter show the small probability of the randomness of the sequence, for which they have been counted. Thus, the long arithmetical progressions' stochasticity degree is much smaller than that of the geometrical progressions (which provide temperate values of the stochasticity parameter, similarly to its value for the genuinely random sequences). (author)

  15. Cryptanalysis of a chaos-based cryptosystem with an embedded adaptive arithmetic coder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyse a new chaos-based cryptosystem with an embedded adaptive arithmetic coder, which was proposed by Li Heng-Jian and Zhang J S (Li H J and Zhang J S 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 050508). Although this new method has a better compression performance than its original version, it is found that there are some problems with its security and decryption processes. In this paper, it is shown how to obtain a great deal of plain text from the cipher text without prior knowledge of the secret key. After discussing the security and decryption problems of the Li Heng-Jian et al. algorithm, we propose an improved chaos-based cryptosystem with an embedded adaptive arithmetic coder that is more secure. (general)

  16. Effects of cold-pressor and mental arithmetic on pupillary light reflex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic pupillary light reflex (PLR) is a simple neurological test that can be useful for assessment of autonomic disorders. In this study, we investigated the changes in PLR induced by mental arithmetic task and cold pressor trials which are often applied in research as model systems to elicit autonomic responses. PLR was recorded before, during and after mental arithmetic and cold pressor tasks in 20 healthy adults (ten males and ten females). Stress-induced sympathetic activation was evident as shown in the increased blood pressure during both tasks. Although the pupillary constriction amplitude did not show significant changes, both constriction time and redilation time changed during the tasks. A significant gender effect was observed in cold pressor that suggested more sympathetic activation in males and faster parasympathetic activation in females in response to light stimulation under cold pressor. (paper)

  17. Additive angular dependent rebalance acceleration arithmetic for neutron transport equation in optically thick diffusive region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first-order neutron transport equation was solved by the least-squares finite element method based on the discrete ordinates discretization. For the traditional source iteration method is very slowly for the optically thick diffusive medium, sometime even divergent especially for the scattering ratio is close to unity, so the acceleration method should be proposed. There is only diffusive synthetical acceleration (DSA) for the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) and almost no one for the least- squares finite element method. The additive angular dependent rebalance (AADR) acceleration arithmetic and its extrapolate method were given, in which the additive modification was used. It was applied to solve the transport equation with fixed source, fission source, in optically thick diffusive regions and with unstructured-mesh. The numerical results of benchmark problems demonstrate that the arithmetic can shorten the CPU time about 1.5-2 times and give high precise. (authors)

  18. A New Arithmetic Coding System Combining Source Channel Coding and MAP Decoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yu-ye; SUN Jun; WANG Jia

    2007-01-01

    A new arithmetic coding system combining source channel coding and maximum a posteriori decoding were proposed.It combines source coding and error correction tasks into one unified process by introducing an adaptive forbidden symbol.The proposed system achieves fixed length code words by adaptively adjusting the probability of the forbidden symbol and adding tail digits of variable length.The corresponding improved MAP decoding metric was derived.The proposed system can improve the performance.Simulations were performed on AWGN channels with various noise levels by using both hard and soft decision with BPSK modulation.The results show its performance is slightly better than that of our adaptive arithmetic error correcting coding system using a forbidden symbol.

  19. Fleeting footsteps tracing the conception of arithmetic and algebra in ancient China

    CERN Document Server

    Yong, Lam Lay

    2004-01-01

    The Hindu-Arabic numeral system (1, 2, 3,...) is one of mankind''sgreatest achievements and one of its most commonly usedinventions. How did it originate? Those who have written about thenumeral system have hypothesized that it originated in India; however,there is little evidence to support this claim. This book provides considerable evidence to show that theHindu-Arabic numeral system, despite its commonly accepted name,has its origins in the Chinese rod numeral system. This system waswidely used in China from antiquity till the 16th century. It was usedby officials, astronomers, traders and others to perform addition,subtraction, multiplication, division and other arithmetic operations,and also used by mathematicians to develop arithmetic andalgebra. Based on this system, numerous mathematical treatises werewritten.

  20. DNA based arithmetic function: a half adder based on DNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Fei; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2016-02-14

    Biomolecular programming utilizes the reactions and information stored in biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for computational purposes. DNA has proven itself an excellent candidate for building logic operating systems due to its highly predictable molecular behavior. In this work we designed and realized an XOR logic gate and an AND logic gate based on DNA strand displacement reactions. These logic gates utilize ssDNA as input and output signals. The XOR gate and the AND gate were used as building blocks for constructing a half adder logic circuit, which is a primary step in constructing a full adder, a basic arithmetic unit in computing. This work provides the field of DNA molecular programming with a potential universal arithmetic tool. PMID:26814628

  1. Arithmetic Encoding Based Dynamic Source Routing for Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Koul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile stations forming a temporary network without the aid of any centralized coordinator. Routing messages are an essential component of Mobile Adhoc Networks, as each packet needs to be passed quickly through intermediate nodes from source to destination. Internal threats due to changes in the node behaviour that target the routing discovery or maintenance phase of the routing protocol and security challenges can however lead to insecure communication in MANETS. We proposed a model that found the improper behaviour of the nodes and eliminated them. Also it provided secure routing mechanism of sharing messages between source and destination by modifying and making use of Arithmetic encoding that not only saved the bandwidth but also provided the security by crypting the data. The reason we chose Arithmetic coding was because it typically enabled very high coding efficiency and provided better security.

  2. Weak task-related modulation and stimulus representations during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tenison, Caitlin; Menon, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a disability that impacts math learning and skill acquisition in school-age children. Here we investigate arithmetic problem solving deficits in young children with DD using univariate and multivariate analysis of fMRI data. During fMRI scanning, 17 children with DD (ages 7–9, grades 2 and 3) and 17 IQ- and reading ability-matched typically developing (TD) children performed complex and simple addition problems which differed only in arithmetic complexity. Wh...

  3. The problem of the least prime number in an arithmetic progression and its applications to Goldbach's conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shaohua

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the least prime number in an arithmetic progression is one of the most important topics in Number Theory. In [11], we are the first to study the relations between this problem and Goldbach's conjecture. In this paper, we further consider its applications to Goldbach's conjecture and refine the result in [11]. Moreover, we also try to generalize the problem of the least prime number in an arithmetic progression and give an analogy of Goldbach's conjecture.

  4. Justifications-on-demand as a device to promote shifts of attention associated with relational thinking in elementary arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Marta; Mason, John

    2009-01-01

    Student responses to arithmetical questions that can be solved by using arithmetical structure can serve to reveal the extent and nature of relational, as opposed to computational thinking. Here, student responses to probes which require them to justify-on-demand are analysed using a conceptual framework which highlights distinctions between different forms of attention. We analyse a number of actions observed in students in terms of forms of attention and shifts between them: in the short-te...

  5. On the available partial respects in which an axiomatization for real valued arithmetic can recognize its consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Willard, Dan E.

    2006-01-01

    Gödel’s Second Incompleteness Theorem states axiom systems of sufficient strength are unable to verify their own consistency. We will show that axiomatizations for a computer’s floating point arithmetic can recognize their cut-free consistency in a stronger respect than is feasible under integer arithmetics. This paper will include both new generalizations of the Second Incompleteness Theorem and techniques for evading it.

  6. Bilingual Education in the Primary School: Curriculum Study and Experimental Research on Language of Acquisition Effects in the Arithmetic Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Canavesio, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning in a foreign language: the CLIL approach in Europe, in Italy, in Trentino. Monitoring a CLIL pilot programme at Primary school in Italy: Context Analysis and Curriculum Study. Arithmetic facts and language of acquisition effects in Primary school children: Experiment 1,2,3 and 4. Arithmetic facts in Primary school children:Does the language of acquisition really matter? Experiment 5 and 6.

  7. DNA based arithmetic function: a half adder based on DNA strand displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Fei; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Biomolecular programming utilizes the reactions and information stored in biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for computational purposes. DNA has proven itself an excellent candidate for building logic operating systems due to its highly predictable molecular behavior. In this work we designed and realized an XOR logic gate and an AND logic gate based on DNA strand displacement reactions. These logic gates utilize ssDNA as input and output signals. The XOR gate and the AND gate were used as building blocks for constructing a half adder logic circuit, which is a primary step in constructing a full adder, a basic arithmetic unit in computing. This work provides the field of DNA molecular programming with a potential universal arithmetic tool.Biomolecular programming utilizes the reactions and information stored in biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for computational purposes. DNA has proven itself an excellent candidate for building logic operating systems due to its highly predictable molecular behavior. In this work we designed and realized an XOR logic gate and an AND logic gate based on DNA strand displacement reactions. These logic gates utilize ssDNA as input and output signals. The XOR gate and the AND gate were used as building blocks for constructing a half adder logic circuit, which is a primary step in constructing a full adder, a basic arithmetic unit in computing. This work provides the field of DNA molecular programming with a potential universal arithmetic tool. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed descriptions of DNA logic gate design, materials and methods, and additional data analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08497k

  8. A Modern Advanced Hill Cipher Involving a Permuted Key and Modular Arithmetic Addition Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.U.K. Sastry

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have devoted our attention to the study of a block cipher by generalizing advanced Hill cipher by including a permuted key. In this analysis we find that the iteration process, the mix operation and the modular arithmetic operation involved in the cipher mixes the binary bits of the key and the plaintext in a thorough manner. The avalanche effect and the cryptanalysis markedly indicate that the cipher is a strong one.

  9. Extensions of linear regression models based on set arithmetic for interval data

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Fernández, Angela; García-Bárzana, Marta; Colubi, Ana; Kontoghiorghes, Erricos J.

    2012-01-01

    Extensions of previous linear regression models for interval data are presented. A more flexible simple linear model is formalized. The new model may express cross-relationships between mid-points and spreads of the interval data in a unique equation based on the interval arithmetic. Moreover, extensions to the multiple case are addressed. The associated least-squares estimation problem are solved. Empirical results and a real-life application are presented in order to show the applicability ...

  10. Computer Arithmetic Algorithms for Mega-Digit Floating Point Numbers' Precision

    OpenAIRE

    Musbah J. Aqel; Mohammed H. Saleh

    2007-01-01

    IEEE standard 754 floating point is the most common representation used for floating point numbers, and many computer arithmetic algorithms are developed for basic operations on this standard. In this study, new computer algorithms are proposed to increase the precision range and to solve some problems that are available while using these algorithms. However, these algorithms provide an optional range of required accuracy (Mega-Digit precision) to meet new computer's applications.

  11. The Arithmetic of Elliptic Fibrations in Gauge Theories on a Circle

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Thomas W.; Kapfer, Andreas; Klevers, Denis

    2015-01-01

    The geometry of elliptic fibrations translates to the physics of gauge theories in F-theory. We systematically develop the dictionary between arithmetic structures on elliptic curves as well as desingularized elliptic fibrations and symmetries of gauge theories on a circle. We show that the Mordell-Weil group law matches integral large gauge transformations around the circle in Abelian gauge theories and explain the significance of Mordell-Weil torsion in this context. We also use Higgs trans...

  12. p-adic Arithmetic and Parallel Symbolic Computation: An Implementation for Solving Linear Systems Over Rationals

    OpenAIRE

    C. Limongelli; R. Pirastu

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe the use of truncated p-adic expansion of handling rational numbers by parallel algorithms for symbolic computation. As a case study we propose a parallel implementation for solving linear systems over the rationals. The parallelization is based on a multiple homomorphic image technique and the result is recovered by a parallel version of the Chinese remainder algorithm. Using a MIMD machine, we compare the proposed implementation with the classical modular arithmetic,...

  13. Tensor Arithmetic, Geometric and Mathematic Principles of Fluid Mechanics in Implementation of Direct Computational Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Alexander; Khramushin, Vasily

    2016-02-01

    The architecture of a digital computing system determines the technical foundation of a unified mathematical language for exact arithmetic-logical description of phenomena and laws of continuum mechanics for applications in fluid mechanics and theoretical physics. The deep parallelization of the computing processes results in functional programming at a new technological level, providing traceability of the computing processes with automatic application of multiscale hybrid circuits and adaptive mathematical models for the true reproduction of the fundamental laws of physics and continuum mechanics.

  14. Higher complexity search problems for bounded arithmetic and a formalized no-gap theorem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thapen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, 7-8 (2011), s. 665-680. ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk LC505; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * proof complexity * search problems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.341, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l19kr20362065t86/

  15. A computer program based on quasi-newton arithmetic for the simulation of Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to predict the distribution and chemical behaviors of U, Pu, nitric acid in the Purex process of spent fuel reprocessing, a computer program is developed. The mathematical model of the program is based on quasi-Newton arithmetic. The distribution profiles of 1 A and 2 D are calculated by the computer program, and the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results. A conclusion can be drown that the program shows better astringency and precision

  16. Suppression of limit cycles in second-order companion form digital filters with saturation arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A condition for second-order companion form digital filters with time variant nondeterministic saturation overflow arithmetic to be free of limit cycles was previously given by Ooba. The condition corresponds to a region which is a subset of the stability triangle. In the present paper, time invariant deterministic saturation nonlinearities are considered. It is shown that, with such nonlinearities, the system is free of limit cycles in whole of the stability triangle

  17. The film optical parameter fitting from soft x ray reflectance using Genetic Arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical constants, thickness and surface roughness are important parameters of film. Genetic Arithmetic (GA) is used to get these optical parameters from soft x ray reflectance fitting. The theory and steps of GA are introduced here. The reflectance data from theory calculation and experiment measuring are analyzed, the results indicate that GA has high accuracy and fast calculation speed in film optical parameter fitting. (authors)

  18. Asymmetrical Language Switching Costs in Chinese-English Bilinguals' Number Naming and Simple Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.

    2005-01-01

    Meuter and Allport (1999) demonstrated greater RT (response time) costs for bilinguals to switch to their first language (L1) from their second language (L2) relative to switching to L2 from L1. Here, analyses of digit naming and simple arithmetic (from 2+2 to 9+9 and from 2x2 to 9x9) by Chinese-English bilinguals demonstrated that these…

  19. Modeling ancient and modern arithmetic practices : addition and multiplication with Arabic and Roman numerals

    OpenAIRE

    Schlimm, Dirk; Neth, Hansjörg

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the task of mental arithmetic with external representations in different number systems we model algorithms for addition and multiplication with Arabic and Roman numerals. This demonstrates that Roman numerals are not only informationally equivalent to Arabic ones but also computationally similar - a claim that is widely disputed. An analysis of our models' elementary processing steps reveals intricate trade-offs between problem representation, algorithm, and interactive resources....

  20. Undecidable propositions with Diophantine form arisen from every axiom and every theorem of Peano Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, T.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the MRDP theorem, we introduce the ideas of the proof equation of a formula and universal proof equation of Peano Arithmetic (PA); and then, combining universal proof equation and G\\"odel's Second Incompleteness Theorem, it is proved that, if PA is consistent, then for every axiom and every theorem of PA, we can construct a corresponding undecidable proposition with Diophantine form. Finally, we present an approach that transforms seeking a proof of a mathematical (set theoretical, n...

  1. Analysing teachers' belief system referring to the teaching and learning of arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Bräunling, Katinka; Eichler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we want to discuss the structure of teachers' belief systems. Firstly, we discuss teachers' belief systems from a theoretical perspective including characteristics of beliefs systems like its cluster structure, the central-ity of beliefs or the hierarchy of beliefs. Afterwards, we analyse the beliefs of one primary teacher emphasising particularly the structural aspects of this teacher's system of beliefs concerning the teaching and learning of arithmetic. Finally, we discuss p...

  2. Dutch arithmetic, samurai and warships: teaching of Western mathematics in pre-Meiji Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Heeffer, Albrecht

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the scarce occasions in which Japan came into contact with Western arithmetic and algebra before the Meiji restoration of 1868. It concentrates on the reception of Dutch works during the last decades of the Tokugawa shogunate and the motivations to study and translate these books. While some studies based on Japanese sources have already been published on this period, this paper draws from Dutch sources and in particular on witness accounts from Dutch officers at the Naga...

  3. GSFAP Adaptive Filtering Using Log Arithmetic for Resource-Constrained Embedded Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Milan; Schier, Jan; Gregg, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-31. ISSN 1539-9087 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7H09005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : FPGA * DSP * logarithmic arithmetic * affine projection Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/ZS/tichy-0341115.pdf

  4. Frequency up-conversion and arbitrary sum arithmetic of lights with orbital angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Frequency sum of two light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in quasi-phase matching crystals was reported for the first time. The situations in which one light carried OAM and the other is in Gaussian mode and both beams carried OAM were studied in detail. An arbitrary sum arithmetic of lights with OAM was demonstrated in the conversion process. Our study is very promising in constructing hybrid OAM-based optical communication networks and all optical switching.

  5. Potential Infinity, Abstraction Principles and Arithmetic (Leśniewski Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Urbaniak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts with an explanation of how the logicist research program can be approached within the framework of Leśniewski’s systems. One nice feature of the system is that Hume’s Principle is derivable in it from an explicit definition of natural numbers. I generalize this result to show that all predicative abstraction principles corresponding to second-level relations, which are provably equivalence relations, are provable. However, the system fails, despite being much neater than the construction of Principia Mathematica (PM. One of the key reasons is that, just as in the case of the system of PM, without the assumption that infinitely many objects exist, (renderings of most of the standard axioms of Peano Arithmetic are not derivable in the system. I prove that introducing modal quantifiers meant to capture the intuitions behind potential infinity results in the (renderings of axioms of Peano Arithmetic (PA being valid in all relational models (i.e. Kripke-style models, to be defined later on of the extended language. The second, historical part of the paper contains a user-friendly description of Leśniewski’s own arithmetic and a brief investigation into its properties.

  6. Analysis of Brain Cognitive State for Arithmetic Task and Motor Task Using Electroencephalography Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kalpana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To localize the brain dynamics for cognitive processes from EEG signature has been a challenging taskfrom last two decades. In this paper we explore the spatial-temporal correlations of brain electricalneuronal activity for cognitive task such as Arithmetic and Motor Task using 3D cortical distributionmethod. Ten healthy right handed volunteers participated in the experiment. EEG signal was acquiredduring resting state with eyes open and eyes closed; performing motor task and arithmetic calculations.The signal was then computed for three dimensional cortical distributions on realistic head model withMNI152 template using standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA. Thiswas followed by an appropriate standardization of the current density, producing images of electricneuronal activity without localization bias. Neuronal generators responsible for cognitive state such asArithmetic Task and Motor Task were localized. The result was correlated with the previous neuroimaging(fMRI study investigation. Hence our result directed that the neuronal activity from EEG signal can bedemonstrated in cortical level with good spatial resolution. 3D cortical distribution method, thus, may beused to obtain both spatial and temporal information from EEG signal and may prove to be a significanttechnique to investigate the cognitive functions in mental health and brain dysfunctions. Also, it may behelpful for brain/human computer interfacing.

  7. PaCAL: A Python Package for Arithmetic Computations with Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Korze?

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present PaCAL, a Python package for arithmetical computations on random variables. The package is capable of performing the four arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as computing many standard functions of random variables. Summary statistics, random number generation, plots, and histograms of the resulting distributions can easily be obtained and distribution parameter ?tting is also available. The operations are performed numerically and their results interpolated allowing for arbitrary arithmetic operations on random variables following practically any probability distribution encountered in practice. The package is easy to use, as operations on random variables are performed just as they are on standard Python variables. Independence of random variables is, by default, assumed on each step but some computations on dependent random variables are also possible. We demonstrate on several examples that the results are very accurate, often close to machine precision. Practical applications include statistics, physical measurements or estimation of error distributions in scienti?c computations.

  8. Multiple Paths to Mathematics Practice in Al-Kashi's Key to Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taani, Osama

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, I discuss one of the most distinguishing features of Jamshid al-Kashi's pedagogy from his Key to Arithmetic, a well-known Arabic mathematics textbook from the fifteenth century. This feature is the multiple paths that he includes to find a desired result. In the first section light is shed on al-Kashi's life and his contributions to mathematics and astronomy. Section 2 starts with a brief discussion of the contents and pedagogy of the Key to Arithmetic. Al-Kashi's multiple approaches are discussed through four different examples of his versatility in presenting a topic from multiple perspectives. These examples are multiple definitions, multiple algorithms, multiple formulas, and multiple methods for solving word problems. Section 3 is devoted to some benefits that can be gained by implementing al-Kashi's multiple paths approach in modern curricula. For this discussion, examples from two teaching modules taken from the Key to Arithmetic and implemented in Pre-Calculus and mathematics courses for preservice teachers are discussed. Also, the conclusions are supported by some aspects of these modules. This paper is an attempt to help mathematics educators explore more benefits from reading from original sources.

  9. Finger gnosis predicts a unique but small part of variance in initial arithmetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasner, Mirjam; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Martignon, Laura; Roesch, Stephanie; Moeller, Korbinian

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies indicated that finger gnosis (i.e., the ability to perceive and differentiate one's own fingers) is associated reliably with basic numerical competencies. In this study, we aimed at examining whether finger gnosis is also a unique predictor for initial arithmetic competencies at the beginning of first grade-and thus before formal math instruction starts. Therefore, we controlled for influences of domain-specific numerical precursor competencies, domain-general cognitive ability, and natural variables such as gender and age. Results from 321 German first-graders revealed that finger gnosis indeed predicted a unique and relevant but nevertheless only small part of the variance in initial arithmetic performance (∼1%-2%) as compared with influences of general cognitive ability and numerical precursor competencies. Taken together, these results substantiated the notion of a unique association between finger gnosis and arithmetic and further corroborate the theoretical idea of finger-based representations contributing to numerical cognition. However, the only small part of variance explained by finger gnosis seems to limit its relevance for diagnostic purposes. PMID:26895483

  10. Heuristics and representational change in two-move matchstick arithmetic tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Öllinger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insight problems are problems where the problem solver struggles to find a solution until * aha! * the solution suddenly appears. Two contemporary theories suggest that insight problems are difficult either because problem solvers begin with an incorrect representation of the problem, or that problem solvers apply inappropriate heuristics to the problem. The relative contributions of representational change and inappropriate heuristics on the process of insight problem solving was studied with a task that required the problem solver to move two matchsticks in order to transform an incorrect arithmetic statement into a correct one. Problem solvers (N = 120 worked on two different types of two-move matchstick arithmetic problems that both varied with respect to the effectiveness of heuristics and to the degree of a necessary representational change of the problem representation. A strong influence of representational change on solution rates was found whereas the influence of heuristics hadminimal effects on solution rates. That is, the difficulty of insight problems within the two-move matchstick arithmetic domain is governed by the degree of representational change required. A model is presented that details representational change as the necessary condition for ensuring that appropriate heuristics can be applied on the proper problem representation.

  11. Spatial complexity of character-based writing systems and arithmetic in primary school: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodic, Maja; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Kolienko, Tatiana; Malykh, Sergey; Bogdanova, Olga; Zueva, Dina Y; Gynku, Elena I; Wan, Sirui; Zhou, Xinlin; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found an association between spatial and mathematical abilities. We hypothesized that this link may partially explain the consistently observed advantage in mathematics demonstrated by East Asian children. Spatial complexity of the character-based writing systems may reflect or lead to a cognitive advantage relevant to mathematics. Seven hundered and twenty one 6-9-year old children from the UK and Russia were assessed on a battery of cognitive skills and arithmetic. The Russian children were recruited from specialist linguistic schools and divided into four different language groups, based on the second language they were learning (i.e., English, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese). The UK children attended regular schools and were not learning any second language. The testing took place twice across the school year, once at the beginning, before the start of the second language acquisition, and once at the end of the year. The study had two aims: (1) to test whether spatial ability predicts mathematical ability in 7-9 year-old children across the samples; (2) to test whether acquisition and usage of a character-based writing system leads to an advantage in performance in arithmetic and related cognitive tasks. The longitudinal link from spatial ability to mathematics was found only in the Russian sample. The effect of second language acquisition on mathematics or other cognitive skills was negligible, although some effect of Chinese language on mathematical reasoning was suggested. Overall, the findings suggest that although spatial ability is related to mathematics at this age, one academic year of exposure to spatially complex writing systems is not enough to provide a mathematical advantage. Other educational and socio-cultural factors might play a greater role in explaining individual and cross-cultural differences in arithmetic at this age. PMID:25859235

  12. Arithmetic Brownian motion subordinated by tempered stable and inverse tempered stable processes

    CERN Document Server

    Wyłomańska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade the subordinated processes have become popular and found many practical applications. Therefore in this paper we examine two processes related to time-changed (subordinated) classical Brownian motion with drift (called arithmetic Brownian motion). The first one, so called normal tempered stable, is related to the tempered stable subordinator, while the second one - to the inverse tempered stable process. We compare the main properties (such as probability density functions, Laplace transforms, ensemble averaged mean squared displacements) of such two subordinated processes and propose the parameters' estimation procedures. Moreover we calibrate the analyzed systems to real data related to indoor air quality.

  13. Goldbach Conjecture and the least prime number in an arithmetic progression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shaohua

    2008-01-01

    In this Note, we try to study the relations between the Goldbach Conjecture and the least prime number in an arithmetic progression. We give a new weakened form of the Goldbach Conjecture. We prove that this weakened form and a weakened form of the Chowla Hypothesis imply that every sufficiently large even integer may be written as the sum of two distinct primes. R\\'{e}sum\\'{e} La conjecture de Goldbach et le plus petit nombre premier dans une progression arithm\\'{e}tique Dans ce document, no...

  14. Tensor Arithmetic, Geometric and Mathematic Principles of Fluid Mechanics in Implementation of Direct Computational Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of a digital computing system determines the technical foundation of a unified mathematical language for exact arithmetic-logical description of phenomena and laws of continuum mechanics for applications in fluid mechanics and theoretical physics. The deep parallelization of the computing processes results in functional programming at a new technological level, providing traceability of the computing processes with automatic application of multiscale hybrid circuits and adaptive mathematical models for the true reproduction of the fundamental laws of physics and continuum mechanics.

  15. Arithmetic of Calabi-Yau Varieties and Rational Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schimmrigk, R

    2003-01-01

    It is proposed that certain techniques from arithmetic algebraic geometry provide a framework which is useful to formulate a direct and intrinsic link between the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds and the underlying conformal field theory. Specifically it is pointed out how the algebraic number field determined by the fusion rules of the conformal field theory can be derived from the number theoretic structure of the cohomological Hasse-Weil L-function determined by Artin's congruent zeta function of the algebraic variety. In this context a natural number theoretic characterization arises for the quantum dimensions in this geometrically determined algebraic number field.

  16. An Arithmetical Hierarchy of the Law of Excluded Middle and Related Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akama, Yohji; Berardi, Stefano; Hayashi, Susumu;

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this paper is Relative Constructivism. We are concerned with classifying non-constructive principles from the constructive viewpoint.We compare, up to provability in Intuitionistic Arithmetic, sub-classical principles like Markov's Principle, (a function-free version of) Weak König......'s Lemma, Post's Theorem, Excluded Middle for simply Existential and simply Universal statements, and many others.Our motivations are rooted in the experience of one of the authors with an extended program extraction and of another author with bound extraction from classical proofs....

  17. A method for deriving lower bounds for the complexity of monotone arithmetic circuits computing real polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work suggests a method for deriving lower bounds for the complexity of polynomials with positive real coefficients implemented by circuits of functional elements over the monotone arithmetic basis {x+y, x · y} ∪ {a · x | a ∈ R+}. Using this method, several new results are obtained. In particular, we construct examples of polynomials of degree m-1 in each of the n variables with coefficients 0 and 1 having additive monotone complexity m(1-o(1))n and multiplicative monotone complexity m(1/2-o(1))n as mn→∞. In this form, the lower bounds derived here are sharp. Bibliography: 72 titles.

  18. On numerical behavior of the Arnoldi algorithm in finite precision arithmetic for matrices with close eigenvalues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Okša, G.; Rozložník, Miroslav

    Ostrava : Institute of Geonics AS CR, 2011 - (Blaheta, R.; Starý, J.). s. 88-91 ISBN 978-80-86407-19-7. [SNA ’11. Seminar on Numerical Analysis. 24.01.2011-28.01.2011, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : iterative method * Arnoldi process * finite precision arithmetic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.ugn.cas.cz/events/2011/sna/sna-sbornik-final.pdf

  19. Application of fuzzy arithmetic for estimation of free gas reserves in traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : We calculate volume of gas reserves by using two methods: probability and possibility methods. To do this we use equation. Single valued estimates are not appropriate because of inherent (and large) uncertainties associated with these estimates. Application of monte Carlo method, which is a method of statistical trials, and the method of fuzzy arithmetic allow us to obtain range of values estimates of free gas reserves instead of single valued average estimates. Tp perform Monte Carlo analysis, probability distributions of input variables must be assumed. For all variables in equation we assumed normal distrubutions

  20. Implications of an arithmetical symmetry of the commutant for modular invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We point out the existence of an arithmetical symmetry for the commutant of the modular matrices S and T. This symmetry holds for all affine simple Lie algebras at all levels and implies the equality of certain coefficients in any modular invariant. Particularizing to SU(3)k, we classify the modular invariant partition functions when k+3 is an integer coprime with 6 and when it is a power of either 2 or 3. Our results imply that no detailed knowledge of the commutant is needed to undertake a classification of all modular invariants. (orig.)

  1. Instruction based Built-in-Testing of Instruction Select Multiplexer in Arithmetic Logic Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the complexity of microprocessor, an efficient testing is a crucial point and serious challenge in safety systems. A new instruction opcode for ALU based Built-In-Test (BIT) is proposed in this paper. With this novel method stuck-at-fault in Multiplexer (MUX) for Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) can be determined. A model that consists of the command and faulty states is developed. According to the designed state model, an algorithm and pseudo program that tests the stuck-at-fault in MUX is implemented and described in this paper.

  2. CMIS arithmetic and multiwire news for QCD on the connection machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our collaboration has been running Wilson fermion QCD simulations on various Connection Machines for over a year and a half. During this time, we have continually optimized our code for operations found in the fermion matrix inversion. Our current version of the matrix inversion is written almost entirely in CMIS (Connection Machine Instruction Set), and utilizes both high-speed arithmetic and multiwire 'news' (nearest-neighbor communications). We present details of how these and other features of our code are implemented on the CM-2. (orig.)

  3. Finiteness of the number of arithmetic groups generated by reflections in Lobachevsky spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After results of the author (1980, 1981) and Vinberg (1981), the finiteness of the number of maximal arithmetic groups generated by reflections in Lobachevsky spaces remained unknown in dimensions 2≤n≤9 only. It was proved recently (2005) in dimension 2 by Long, Maclachlan and Reid and in dimension 3 by Agol. Here we use the results in dimensions 2 and 3 to prove the finiteness in all remaining dimensions 4≤n≤9. The methods of the author (1980, 1981) are more than sufficient for this using a very short and very simple argument

  4. The Influence of verbalization on the pattern of cortical activation during mental arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarnhofer Sabrina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study at 3 T was to investigate the influence of the verbal-visual cognitive style on cerebral activation patterns during mental arithmetic. In the domain of arithmetic, a visual style might for example mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate results, and a verbal style might mean, that numbers and (intermediate results are verbally repeated. In this study, we investigated, first, whether verbalizers show activations in areas for language processing, and whether visualizers show activations in areas for visual processing during mental arithmetic. Some researchers have proposed that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and the left angular gyrus (AG, two areas involved in number processing, show some domain or modality specificity. That is, verbal for the left AG, and visual for the left and right IPS. We investigated, second, whether the activation in these areas implied in number processing depended on an individual's cognitive style. Methods 42 young healthy adults participated in the fMRI study. The study comprised two functional sessions. In the first session, subtraction and multiplication problems were presented in an event-related design, and in the second functional session, multiplications were presented in two formats, as Arabic numerals and as written number words, in an event-related design. The individual's habitual use of visualization and verbalization during mental arithmetic was assessed by a short self-report assessment. Results We observed in both functional sessions that the use of verbalization predicts activation in brain areas associated with language (supramarginal gyrus and auditory processing (Heschl's gyrus, Rolandic operculum. However, we found no modulation of activation in the left AG as a function of verbalization. Conclusions Our results confirm that strong verbalizers use mental speech as a form of mental

  5. Transcranial random noise stimulation mitigates increased difficulty in an arithmetic learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Tudor; Krause, Beatrix; Terhune, Devin B; Twose, Olivia; Page, Thomas; Humphreys, Glyn; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2016-01-29

    Proficiency in arithmetic learning can be achieved by using a multitude of strategies, the most salient of which are procedural learning (applying a certain set of computations) and rote learning (direct retrieval from long-term memory). Here we investigated the effect of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method previously shown to enhance cognitive training, on both types of learning in a 5-day sham-controlled training study, under two conditions of task difficulty, defined in terms of item repetition. On the basis of previous research implicating the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in early and late stages of arithmetic learning, respectively, sham-controlled tRNS was applied to bilateral prefrontal cortex for the first 3 days and to the posterior parietal cortex for the last 2 days of a 5-day training phase. The training involved learning to solve arithmetic problems by applying a calculation algorithm; both trained and untrained problems were used in a brief testing phase at the end of the training phase. Task difficulty was manipulated between subjects by using either a large ("easy" condition) or a small ("difficult" condition) number of repetition of problems during training. Measures of attention and working memory were acquired before and after the training phase. As compared to sham, participants in the tRNS condition displayed faster reaction times and increased learning rate during the training phase; as well as faster reaction times for both trained and untrained (new) problems, which indicated a transfer effect after the end of training. All stimulation effects reached significance only in the "difficult" condition when number of repetition was lower. There were no transfer effects of tRNS on attention or working memory. The results support the view that tRNS can produce specific facilitative effects on numerical cognition--specifically, on arithmetic learning. They also highlight the importance of

  6. Constant-coefficient FIR filters based on residue number system arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Negovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter based on the residue number system (RNS is presented. We chose to implement it in the (RNS, because the RNS offers high speed and low power dissipation. This architecture is based on the single RNS multiplier-accumulator (MAC unit. The three moduli set {2n+1,2n,2n-1}, which avoids 2n+1 modulus, is used to design FIR filter. A numerical example illustrates the principles of residue encoding, residue arithmetic, and residue decoding for FIR filters.

  7. The role of task format, mathematics knowledge, and creative thinking on the arithmetic problem posing of prospective elementary school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shukkwan S.; Silver, Edward A.

    1997-05-01

    A Test of Arithmetic Problem Posing was developed by the authors to examine the arithmetic problem-posing behaviours of sixty-three prospective elementary school teachers. Results of analysis were then used to examine task format (i.e., the presence or absence of specific numerical information) on subjects' problem posing and the relationship between subjects' problem posing and their mathematics knowledge and verbal creativity. The major findings were that the test effectively evaluated arithmetic problem posing, and that most subjects were able to pose solvable and complex problems. In addition, problem-posing performance was better when the task contained specific numerical information than when it did not, and that problem-posing performance was significantly related to mathematical knowledge but not to verbal creativity.

  8. Theory of ratios in Nicomachus' Arithmetica and series of arithmetical problems in Pachymeres' Quadrivium: Reflections about a possible relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megremi Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The voluminous Treatise of the four mathematical sciences of Georgios Pachymeres is the most renowned quadrivium produced in Byzantium. Among its specific features, historians of mathematics have pointed out, is the inclusion of Diophantus, besides Nicomachus and Euclid, in the sources for the arithmetical section and, accordingly, the incorporation of series of problems and problem-solving in its contents. The present paper investigates the “Diophantine portion” of Pachymeres' treatise and it shows that it is structured according to two criteria intrinsically characterized by seriality: on one hand, the arrangement in which the problems are presented in book I of Diophantus' Arithmetica; on the other hand, for those problems of which the enunciation involves ratio, the order in which Nicomachus discusses the kinds of ratios in his Arithmetical introduction. Furthermore, it analyses the solutions that Pachymeres offers and argues that Nicomachus' Arithmetical introduction provides the necessary tools for pursuing them.

  9. The problem of the least prime number in an arithmetic progression and its applications to Goldbach's conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the least prime number in an arithmetic progression is one of most important topics in Number Theory. In [11], we are the first to study the relations between this problem and Goldbach's conjecture. In this paper, we further consider its applications to Goldbach's conjecture and refine the result in [11]. From our work, one will see that the problem of the least prime number in an arithmetic progression is more significative than Goldbach's conjecture, more precisely, the weakened form of Chowla's hypothesis will implies Goldbach's conjecture. By the aforementioned results, undoubtedly, our real interest is the problem of the least prime number in an arithmetic progression. Naturally, what do the general forms of this problem look like? In this paper, we also try to consider this problem and further generalize Goldbach's conjecture.

  10. A Survey on the Permanence of Finnish Students’ Arithmetical Skills and the Role of Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Tossavainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the permanence of the basic arithmetical skills of Finnish students by investigating how a group (N=463 of the eighth and eleventh year students and the university students of humanities perform in problems that are slightly modified versions of certain PISA 2003 mathematics test items. The investigation also aimed at finding out what the impact of motivation-related constructs, for example, students’ achievement goal orientations, is and what their perceived competence beliefs and task value on their performance in mathematics are. According to our findings, the younger students’ arithmetical skills have declined through the course of ten years but the older students’ skills have become generic to a greater extent. Further, three motivational clusters could be identified accounting for 7.5 per cent of students’ performance in the given assignments. These results are compatible with the outcomes of the recent assessments of the Finnish students’ mathematical skills and support the previous research on the benefits of learning orientation combined with the high expectation of success and the valuing of mathematics learning.

  11. Applying an e-PBL Platform to Develop a Storytelling-Based Arithmetic Card Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Li Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is a very important learning subject. Mathematical knowledge can be learned by traditional or distance learning, but the mathematical problem solving ability is hard to improve without experiences through practice. Therefore, developing an interesting learning game to enhance students’ problem solving ability is the major concern in this paper. Since the storytelling strategy has been proved to be useful to enhance the students thinking ability, we develop a storytelling-based arithmetic card game to encourage and guide students to speak out their thinking process of problem solving, where the e-Project-Based Learning (e-PBL platform has been applied to brainstorm the characteristics of the game and construct the storytelling script. Thus, the misconceptions can be easily diagnosed. To evaluate the performance of our approach, 40 5-grade primary school students have participated in the storytelling-based arithmetic card game experiment. The experimental result shows that the storytelling-based learning can enhance the mathematical problem solving ability via playing the game.

  12. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills – a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KarinLanderl

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a two-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7;6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year. Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development.

  13. Reduction of overestimation in interval arithmetic simulation of biological wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Andreas; Kletting, Marco; Aschemann, Harald; Hofer, Eberhard P.

    2007-02-01

    A novel interval arithmetic simulation approach is introduced in order to evaluate the performance of biological wastewater treatment processes. Such processes are typically modeled as dynamical systems where the reaction kinetics appears as additive nonlinearity in state. In the calculation of guaranteed bounds of state variables uncertain parameters and uncertain initial conditions are considered. The recursive evaluation of such systems of nonlinear state equations yields overestimation of the state variables that is accumulating over the simulation time. To cope with this wrapping effect, innovative splitting and merging criteria based on a recursive uncertain linear transformation of the state variables are discussed. Additionally, re-approximation strategies for regions in the state space calculated by interval arithmetic techniques using disjoint subintervals improve the simulation quality significantly if these regions are described by several overlapping subintervals. This simulation approach is used to find a practical compromise between computational effort and simulation quality. It is pointed out how these splitting and merging algorithms can be combined with other methods that aim at the reduction of overestimation by applying consistency techniques. Simulation results are presented for a simplified reduced-order model of the reduction of organic matter in the activated sludge process of biological wastewater treatment.

  14. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen eVan Beek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.

  15. The Arithmetic of Elliptic Fibrations in Gauge Theories on a Circle

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Thomas W; Klevers, Denis

    2015-01-01

    The geometry of elliptic fibrations translates to the physics of gauge theories in F-theory. We systematically develop the dictionary between arithmetic structures on elliptic curves as well as desingularized elliptic fibrations and symmetries of gauge theories on a circle. We show that the Mordell-Weil group law matches integral large gauge transformations around the circle in Abelian gauge theories and explain the significance of Mordell-Weil torsion in this context. We also use Higgs transitions and circle large gauge transformations to introduce a group law for genus-one fibrations with multi-sections. Finally, we introduce a novel arithmetic structure on elliptic fibrations with non-Abelian gauge groups in F-theory. It is defined on the set of exceptional divisors resolving the singularities and divisor classes of sections of the fibration. This group structure can be matched with certain integral non-Abelian large gauge transformations around the circle when studying the theory on the lower-dimensional ...

  16. Brain-mechanistic responses to varying difficulty levels of approximate solutions to arithmetic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yanhui; Jiang, Yiqi; Chao, Xiaomei; Wu, Qihan; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Approximate strategies are crucial in daily human life. The studies on the "difficulty effect" seen in approximate complex arithmetic have long been neglected. Here, we aimed to explore the brain mechanisms related to this difficulty effect in the case of complex addition, using event-related potential-based methods. Following previous path-finding studies, we used the inequality paradigm and different split sizes to induce the use of two approximate strategies for different difficulty levels. By comparing dependent variables from the medium- and large-split conditions, we anticipated being able to dissociate the effects of task difficulty based on approximate strategy in electrical components. In the fronto-central region, early P2 (150-250 ms) and an N400-like wave (250-700 ms) were significantly different between different difficulty levels. Differences in P2 correlated with the difficulty of separation of the approximate strategy from the early physical stimulus discrimination process, which is dominant before 200 ms, and differences in the putative N400 correlated with different difficulties of approximate strategy execution. Moreover, this difference may be linked to speech processing. In addition, differences were found in the fronto-central region, which may reflect the regulatory role of this part of the cortex in approximate strategy execution when solving complex arithmetic problems. PMID:27072753

  17. [Effects of long term mental arithmetic on physiological parameters, subjective indices and task performances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shimpei; Miyake, Shinji

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of long term mental arithmetic on physiological parameters, subjective indices and task performances to investigate the psychophysiological changes induced by mental tasks. Fifteen male university students performed six successive trials of a ten-minute mental arithmetic task. They took a five-minute resting period before and after the tasks. CFF (Critical Flicker Fusion frequency) and subjective fatigue scores using a visual analog scale, POMS (Profiles of Mood States) and SFF (Subjective Feelings of Fatigue) were obtained after each task and resting period. The voices of participants who were instructed to speak five Japanese vowels ('a', 'i', 'u', 'e', 'o') were recorded after each block to investigate a chaotic property of vocal signals that is reported to be changed by fatigue. Subjective workload ratings were also obtained by the NASA-TLX (National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index) after the task. Physiological signals of ECG (Electrocardiogram), PTG (Photoelectric Plethysmogram), SCL (Skin Conductance Level), TBV (Tissue Blood Volume) and Respiration were recorded for all experimental blocks. The number of answers, correct rates and average levels of task difficulty for each ten-minute task were used as task performance indices. In this experiment, the task performance did not decrease, whereas subjective fatigue increased. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system was suggested by physiological parameters. PMID:17380727

  18. A CABAC codec of H.264AVC with secure arithmetic coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neji, Nihel; Jridi, Maher; Alfalou, Ayman; Masmoudi, Nouri

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an optimized H.264/AVC coding system for HDTV displays based on a typical flow with high coding efficiency and statics adaptivity features. For high quality streaming, the codec uses a Binary Arithmetic Encoding/Decoding algorithm with high complexity and a JVCE (Joint Video compression and encryption) scheme. In fact, particular attention is given to simultaneous compression and encryption applications to gain security without compromising the speed of transactions [1]. The proposed design allows us to encrypt the information using a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG). Thus we achieved the two operations (compression and encryption) simultaneously and in a dependent manner which is a novelty in this kind of architecture. Moreover, we investigated the hardware implementation of CABAC (Context-based adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding) codec. The proposed architecture is based on optimized binarizer/de-binarizer to handle significant pixel rates videos with low cost and high performance for most frequent SEs. This was checked using HD video frames. The obtained synthesis results using an FPGA (Xilinx's ISE) show that our design is relevant to code main profile video stream.

  19. Conceptual Integration of Arithmetic Operations With Real-World Knowledge: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthormsen, Amy M; Fisher, Kristie J; Bassok, Miriam; Osterhout, Lee; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J

    2016-04-01

    Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials (ERPs)-N400 and P600 effects. Here, we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving task, when participants generated labeled answers to semantically aligned and misaligned arithmetic problems (e.g., 6 roses + 2 tulips = ? vs. 6 roses + 2 vases = ?), the second object label in misaligned problems yielded an N400 effect for addition (but not division) problems. In a verification task, when participants judged arithmetically correct but semantically misaligned problem sentences to be "unacceptable," the second object label in misaligned sentences elicited a P600 effect. Thus, depending on task constraints, misaligned problems can show either of two ERP signatures of conceptual disruption. These results show that well-educated adults can integrate mathematical and semantic relations on the rapid timescale of within-domain ERP effects by a process akin to analogical mapping. PMID:25864403

  20. Non-formal mechanisms in mathematical cognitive development: The case of arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W; Goldstone, Robert L; van der Maas, Han L J; Landy, David H

    2016-04-01

    The idea that cognitive development involves a shift towards abstraction has a long history in psychology. One incarnation of this idea holds that development in the domain of mathematics involves a shift from non-formal mechanisms to formal rules and axioms. Contrary to this view, the present study provides evidence that reliance on non-formal mechanisms may actually increase with age. Participants - Dutch primary school children - evaluated three-term arithmetic expressions in which violation of formally correct order of evaluation led to errors, termed foil errors. Participants solved the problems as part of their regular mathematics practice through an online study platform, and data were collected from over 50,000 children representing approximately 10% of all primary schools in the Netherlands, suggesting that the results have high external validity. Foil errors were more common for problems in which formally lower-priority sub-expressions were spaced close together, and also for problems in which such sub-expressions were relatively easy to calculate. We interpret these effects as resulting from reliance on two non-formal mechanisms, perceptual grouping and opportunistic selection, to determine order of evaluation. Critically, these effects reliably increased with participants' grade level, suggesting that these mechanisms are not phased out but actually become more important over development, even when they cause systematic violations of formal rules. This conclusion presents a challenge for the shift towards abstraction view as a description of cognitive development in arithmetic. Implications of this result for educational practice are discussed. PMID:26795071

  1. Non-Archimedean L-functions and arithmetical Siegel modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This book is devoted to the arithmetical theory of Siegel modular forms and their L-functions. The central object are L-functions of classical Siegel modular forms whose special values are studied using the Rankin-Selberg method and the action of certain differential operators on modular forms which have nice arithmetical properties. A new method of p-adic interpolation of these critical values is presented. An important class of p-adic L-functions treated in the present book are p-adic L-functions of Siegel modular forms having logarithmic growth (which were first introduced by Amice, Velu and Vishik in the elliptic modular case when they come from a good supersingular reduction of ellptic curves and abelian varieties). The given construction of these p-adic L-functions uses precise algebraic properties of the arihmetical Shimura differential operator. The book could be very useful for postgraduate students and for non-experts giving a quick access to a rapidly developping domain of algebraic number theory: ...

  2. Implementation of an Arithmetic Logic Using Area Efficient Carry Lookahead Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Dubey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An arithmetic logic unit acts as the basic building blocks or cell of a central processing unit of a c omputer. And it is a digital circuit comprised of the basic electronics components, which is used to perform va rious function of arithmetic and logic and integral opera tions further the purpose of this work is to propos e the design of an 8-bit ALU which supports 4-bit multipl ication. Thus, the functionalities of the ALU in th is study consist of following main functions like addi tion also subtraction, increment, decrement, AND, O R, NOT, XOR, NOR also two complement generation Multip lication. And the functions with the adder in the airthemetic logic unit are implemented using a Carr y Look Ahead adder joined by a ripple carry approac h. The design of the following multiplier is achieved using the Booths Algorithm therefore the proposed A LU can be designed by using verilog or VHDL and can al so be designed on Cadence Virtuoso platform

  3. A Rigorous Extension of the Sch\\"onhage-Strassen Integer Multiplication Algorithm Using Complex Interval Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Steinke, Thomas; 10.4204/EPTCS.24.19

    2010-01-01

    Multiplication of n-digit integers by long multiplication requires O(n^2) operations and can be time-consuming. In 1970 A. Schoenhage and V. Strassen published an algorithm capable of performing the task with only O(n log(n)) arithmetic operations over the complex field C; naturally, finite-precision approximations to C are used and rounding errors need to be accounted for. Overall, using variable-precision fixed-point numbers, this results in an O(n(log(n))^(2+Epsilon))-time algorithm. However, to make this algorithm more efficient and practical we need to make use of hardware-based floating-point numbers. How do we deal with rounding errors? and how do we determine the limits of the fixed-precision hardware? Our solution is to use interval arithmetic to guarantee the correctness of results and determine the hardware's limits. We examine the feasibility of this approach and are able to report that 75,000-digit base-256 integers can be handled using double-precision containment sets. This clearly demonstrates...

  4. Strategy Choice in Solving Arithmetic Word Problems: Are There Differences between Students with Learning Disabilities, G-V Poor Performance, and Typical Achievement Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Espinel, Ana Isabel Garcia

    2002-01-01

    A study was designed to test whether there are differences between Spanish children (ages 7-9) with arithmetic learning disabilities (n=60), garden-variety (G-V) poor performance (n=44), and typical children (n=44) in strategy choice when solving arithmetic word problems. No significant differences were found between children with dyscalculia and…

  5. 40 CFR 60.1265 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the appropriate averaging times and units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1265 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the appropriate... Reference Method 19 in appendix A of this part, section 4.1, to calculate the 4-hour or 24-hour daily...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2943 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the appropriate averaging times and units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic... SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Monitoring § 60.2943 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic... emissions at 7 percent oxygen. (b) Use Equation 2 in § 60.2975 to calculate the 12-hour rolling averages...

  7. Enhancing performance in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic using transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias U. Hauser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to accurately process numerical magnitudes and solve mental arithmetic is of highest importance for schooling and professional career. Although impairments in these domains in disorders such as developmental dyscalculia (DD are highly detrimental, remediation is still sparse. In recent years, transcranial brain stimulation methods such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS have been suggested as a treatment for various neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. The posterior parietal cortex (PPC is known to be crucially involved in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. In this study, we evaluated whether tDCS has a beneficial effect on numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. Due to the unclear lateralization, we stimulated the left, right as well as both hemispheres simultaneously in two experiments. We found that left anodal tDCS significantly enhanced performance in a number comparison and a subtraction task, while bilateral and right anodal tDCS did not induce any improvements compared to sham. Our findings demonstrate that the left PPC is causally involved in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. Furthermore, we show that these cognitive functions can be enhanced by means of tDCS. These findings encourage to further investigate the beneficial effect of tDCS in the domain of mathematics in healthy and impaired humans.

  8. Young Girls' Arithmetic and Spatial Skills: The Distal and Proximal Roles of Family Socioeconomics and Home Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Eric; Casey, Beth M.; Ganley, Colleen M.; Tillinger, Miriam; Laski, Elida; Montecillo, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed girls' (N=127) early numerical and spatial reasoning skills, within the context of a critical environment in which these cognitive skills develop, namely their homes. Specifically, proximal links between distal family socioeconomic conditions and first-grade girls' arithmetic and spatial skills were examined (mean…

  9. Beyond Hemispheric Dominance: Brain Regions Underlying the Joint Lateralization of Language and Arithmetic to the Left Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific…

  10. Complex Number Representation in RCBNS Form for Arithmetic Operations and Conversion of the Result into Standard Binary Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Zaini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available paper introduces a novel method for complex number representation. The proposed Redundant Complex Binary Number System (RCBNS is developed by combining a Redundant Binary Number and a complex number in base (-1+j. Donald [1] and Walter Penny [2,3] represented complex numbers using base –j and (-1+j in the classified algorithmic models. A Redundant Complex Binary Number System consists of both real and imaginary-radix number systems that form a redundant integer digit set. This system is formed by using complex radix of (-1+j and a digit set of á= 3, where á assumes a value of -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3. The arithmetic operations of complex numbers with this system treat the real and imaginary parts as one unit. The carry-free addition has the advantage of Redundancy in number representation in the arithmetic operations. Results of the arithmetic operations are in the RCBNS form. The two methods for conversion from the RCBNS form to the standard binary number form have been presented. In this paper the RCBNS reduces the number of steps required to perform complex number arithmetic operations, thus enhancing the speed.

  11. Factor Structure of the Norwegian Version of the WAIS-III in a Clinical Sample: The Arithmetic Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Jens; Bosnes, Ole; Johansen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) lend partial support to the four-factor model proposed in the test manual. However, the Arithmetic subtest has been especially difficult to allocate to one factor. Using the new Norwegian WAIS-III version, we tested factor models differing in the number of…

  12. Cognitive and Linguistic Predictors of Basic Arithmetic Skills: Evidence from First-Language and Second-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of both cognitive and linguistic predictors in basic arithmetic skills (i.e., addition and subtraction) in 69 first-language (L1) learners and 60 second-language (L2) learners from the second grade of primary schools in the Netherlands. All children were tested on non-verbal intelligence, working memory,…

  13. Mastery of the Counting Principles in Toddlers: A Crucial Step in the Development of Budding Arithmetic Abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Pieter; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Counting abilities have been described as determinative precursors for a good development of later arithmetic abilities. Mastery of the stable order, the one-one-correspondence and the cardinality principles can be seen as essential features for the development of counting abilities. Mastery of the counting principles in kindergarten was assessed…

  14. Representing Numbers as Continued Fractions and an N-Spire. tns Document to Do Some Basic Continued Fraction Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinbach, L. Carl

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates a TI N-Spire .tns file created by the author for generating continued fraction representations of real numbers and doing arithmetic with them. The continued fraction representation provides an alternative to the decimal representation. The .tns file can be used as tool for studying continued fractions and their properties as…

  15. Using the multi-bit feature of memristors for register files in signed-digit arithmetic units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the outstanding features of memristors is their principle possibility to store more than one binary value in a single memory cell. Due to their further benefits of non-volatility, fast access times, low energy consumption, compactness and compatibility with CMOS logic, memristors are excellent devices for storing register values nearby arithmetic units. In particular, the capability to store multi-bit values allows one to realise procedures for high-speed arithmetic circuits, which are not based on usual binary but on ternary values. Arithmetic units based on three-state number representation allow carrying out an addition in two steps, i.e., in O(1), independent of the operands word length n. They have been well-known in literature for a long time but have not been brought into practice because of the lack of appropriate devices to store more than two states in one elementary register or main memory cell. The disadvantage of this number representation is that a corresponding arithmetic unit would require a doubling of the memory capacity. Using memristors for the registers can avoid this drawback. Therefore, this paper presents a conceptual solution for a three-state adder based on tri-stable memristive devices. The principal feasibility of such a unit is demonstrated by SPICE simulations and the performance increase is evaluated in comparison with a ripple-carry and a carry-look-ahead adder. (paper)

  16. Four (Algorithms) in One (Bag): An Integrative Framework of Knowledge for Teaching the Standard Algorithms of the Basic Arithmetic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Ira; Koichu, Boris; Peled, Irit; Zaslavsky, Orit

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present an integrative framework of knowledge for teaching the standard algorithms of the four basic arithmetic operations. The framework is based on a mathematical analysis of the algorithms, a connectionist perspective on teaching mathematics and an analogy with previous frameworks of knowledge for teaching arithmetic…

  17. Early Place-Value Understanding as a Precursor for Later Arithmetic Performance--A Longitudinal Study on Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, K.; Pixner, S.; Zuber, J.; Kaufmann, L.; Nuerk, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    It is assumed that basic numerical competencies are important building blocks for more complex arithmetic skills. The current study aimed at evaluating this interrelation in a longitudinal approach. It was investigated whether first graders' performance in basic numerical tasks in general as well as specific processes involved (e.g., place-value…

  18. On sums of multiplicative functions over numbers all of whose prime divisors belong to given arithmetic progressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changa, M. E.

    2005-04-01

    The method of complex integration is used to derive asymptotic formulae for sums of multiplicative functions over numbers all of whose prime divisors belong to given arithmetic progressions. Generally, the principal term in such a formula takes the form of a sum with an increasing number of terms. However, under certain condition on the parameters of the problem, it becomes a finite sum.

  19. On sums of multiplicative functions over numbers all of whose prime divisors belong to given arithmetic progressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of complex integration is used to derive asymptotic formulae for sums of multiplicative functions over numbers all of whose prime divisors belong to given arithmetic progressions. Generally, the principal term in such a formula takes the form of a sum with an increasing number of terms. However, under certain condition on the parameters of the problem, it becomes a finite sum

  20. Pricing bounds for discrete arithmetic Asian options under Lévy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, D.; Liang, L. Z. J.; Tempere, J.; De Schepper, A.

    2010-11-01

    Analytical bounds for Asian options are almost exclusively available in the Black-Scholes framework. In this paper we derive bounds for the price of a discretely monitored arithmetic Asian option when the underlying asset follows an arbitrary Lévy process. Explicit formulas are given for Kou’s model, Merton’s model, the normal inverse Gaussian model, the CGMY model and the variance gamma model. The results are compared with the comonotonic upper bound, existing numerical results, Monte carlo simulations and in the case of the variance gamma model with an existing lower bound. The method outlined here provides lower and upper bounds that are quick to evaluate, and more accurate than existing bounds.