Sample records for aristeus antennatus risso

  1. Dioxin compounds in the deep-sea rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) throughout the Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    Rotllant, Guiomar; Abad, Esteban; Sardà, Francisco; Ábalos, Manuela; Company, Joan B.; Rivera, Josep


    Polychlorodibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the more toxic anthropogenic contaminants. They are fat-soluble and accumulate in animal tissues. Exposure to PCDD/Fs can cause several endocrine, reproductive and developmental problems in animals, including human beings. Several studies have demonstrated that fish and invertebrates living in association with sediments are exposed to and accumulate contaminants, but to date there have been no studies of PCDD/Fs contamination in deep-sea regions. Specimens of Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) were collected from depths of 600-2500 m at different points in the Mediterranean Sea, from the western basin off the coast of Barcelona to the central basin off the Peloponnesian Peninsula, with otter trawl gear. Amounts of PCDD/Fs were measured in different animal tissues by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). This is the first study to report the presence of PCDD/Fs in deep-sea organisms dwelling at depths below 600 m. A. antennatus presented levels of PCDD/Fs of the same order of magnitude, or slightly higher, as those found in shallow-water species ( Melicertus kerathurus) with respect to land-generated contamination. This highlights the widespread distribution of these pollutants and the potential threat posed to the biodiversity of fragile and vulnerable ecosystems such as the deep-sea. PCDD/F levels detected in the edible parts (muscle) of the commercial shrimp A. antennatus were clearly below the toxic limit value established by European legislation. Levels followed the trend muscletendency for higher levels of PCDD/F contamination in samples obtained from deeper (2500 m) than from shallower sites (600 m).

  2. Distribution Patterns and Biological Characteristics of Aristeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The blue and red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816), and the stout red shrimp, Aristeus virilis (Bate, 1881), represent two of the most valuable demersal deep waters shrimp species subject to exploitation in Mozambique. This paper analyses the distribution, abundance and biological parameters of these ...

  3. Comparative Reproduction Aspects of the Deep-water Shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus (Decapoda, Aristeidae in the Greek Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean

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    K. Kapiris


    Full Text Available In the eastern Ionian Sea, the deep-water shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus constitute a virgin fishing resource, since their maximum abundance depth exceeds commercial exploitation depths. The two sympatric species share a number of common reproductive features, such as summer reproduction. A slight temporal shift in mating activity, ovarian maturation, and spawning period was observed between species. The most notable difference was the more pronounced seasonality in reproductive activity of Aristeus antennatus compared to that of A. foliacea as evidenced by the frequency of inseminated females and functionally mature males, as well as by the shorter ovarian maturation period. Nevertheless, regarding the whole life span, both sexes of Aristeus antennatus exhibit a more extended reproductive activity in comparison to A. foliacea. No notable differentiation of both species existed in comparison to other Mediterranean regions.

  4. MEDITS-based information on the deep water red shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Aristeidae

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    Angelo Cau


    Full Text Available The application of statistical models on a time series of data arising from the MEDITS International Trawl Survey, an experimental demersal resources survey carried out during six years (1994-1999 in the same season of the year (late spring - early summer using the same fishing gear in a large part of the Mediterranean, has allowed for a study to compare, for the first time, the space-time distribution, abundance, and size structure of the two Aristeids Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus throughout most of the Mediterranean Sea. This research has shown a large variability among the six reference areas, that were arbitrarily defined within the basin. In particular the two shrimps do not seem to present any correlation or yield continuity in the years. The same lack of homogeneity was also observed in the time trend of the abundances and frequencies of each of the two species. These data seem to confirm the intrinsic variability of the species, the cause of which is still unknown and undocumented. Nevertheless, a longitudinal gradient of catches has been observed where A. antennatus is more abundant in the west and A. foliacea in the east of the basin.

  5. Multilocus comparative phylogeography of two aristeid shrimps of high commercial interest (Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea reveals different responses to past environmental changes.

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    Maria Victoria Fernández

    Full Text Available Phylogeographical studies can reveal hidden patterns in the evolutionary history of species. Comparative analyses of closely related species can further help disentangle the relative contributions of processes responsible for such patterns. In this work, the phylogeography of two aristeid species, Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea, was compared through multiple genetic markers. These marine shrimp species are of high commercial importance, and are exploited in the Mediterranean Sea (MED and in Mozambique Channel (MOZ where they occur in partial sympatry. Aristeus antennatus (N = 50 from Western and Eastern Mediterranean (WM and EM, respectively, Atlantic Ocean (AO and MOZ, and Aristaeomorpha foliacea (N = 40 from WM, EM, MOZ North-Western Australia (AUS were analyzed with two nuclear genes (PEPCK and NaK and one mitochondrial (COI gene. Within the study area differences were found between the two species in their phylogeographical patterns, suggesting distinct responses to environmental changes. Monophyly of Aristeus antennatus was found across its distributional range. This pattern contrasted by a deep evolutionary split within Aristaeomorpha foliacea where genetic diversity followed geography distinguishing MED-MOZ and AUS. We propose that the AUS lineage of A. foliacea warrants consideration as a distinct species, with consequent implications in systematics and resource management.

  6. Improving codend selectivity in the fishery of the deep-sea red shrimp Aristeus antennatus in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

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    Giulia Gorelli


    Full Text Available The deep-sea red shrimp Aristeus antennatus is one of the most valuable demersal resources in Catalonia (northeast Spain, and Palamós is the most important harbour for this fishery in the area. Here, a management plan published in 2013 established the use of a 40-mm square-mesh codend (40s, replacing the previously used 50-mm diamond mesh codend (50d. The objective was to decrease the amount of juveniles in the catches, but the regulation did not bring the expected results. In this study, we measured and compared the selectivity of the 40s and the 50d in this fishery. In addition, we experimented with the use of a 50-mm square-mesh codend (50s. According to our results, the 40s had a lower 50% selection length (L50 than the 50d, while the 50s had a substantially higher L50 than the other two. A transition analysis showed an increase in yield per recruit after the second year from a hypothetical implementation of the 50s. Our conclusion is that the 40s does not have a higher selectivity than the 50d, which (at least partially explains the failure to reach the management objective in Palamós. Conversely, the use of a 50s would significantly benefit the fishery, increasing gear selectivity and yield per recruit.

  7. Muscular and hepatic pollution biomarkers in the fishes Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the crustacean Aristeus antennatus in the Blanes Submarine Canyon (NW Mediterranean). (United States)

    Solé, Montserrat; Hambach, Bastian; Cortijo, Verónica; Huertas, David; Fernández, Pilar; Company, Joan B


    Submarine canyons are regarded as a sink for pollutants. In order to determine if this theory applied to deep-sea species from an important fishing ground (the Blanes submarine canyon) located in the NW Mediterranean, we sampled the commercial fish Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the crustacean Aristeus antennatus. Specimens were sampled inside and outside (in the open continental slope) the submarine canyon; both are regarded as potentially affected by exposure to different anthropogenic chemicals. Several pollution biomarkers in muscle (activity of cholinesterases) and liver/hepatopancreas (catalase, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase in fish or mixed function oxygenase (MFO)-related reductases in crustacean, and lipid peroxidation levels) were measured. Chemical analysis of the persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was also performed on the fish and crustacean muscle. Biomarker activities and levels were discussed in relation to pollutant exposure, habitat, and parameters including sex, size, and species. Biochemical responses and chemical analysis of PCBs evidenced interspecies differences as well as sex and size-related ones, mainly in A. antennatus. An indication of higher exposure to pollutants inside the canyon was observed, which was more clearly reflected in the fish than in the crustacean. However, further research is required to confirm this observation.

  8. The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle (United States)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz


    Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL diet of both small (CL diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and diet were significantly linked to temporal changes in water column productivity (e.g., Chl a readings, fluorescence) and to changes in the shrimp biology (lipid content of hepatopancreas, Gonado-somatic Index, GSI). Off Cabrera, we found a higher dependence of fullness and diet with T and S, both variables in turn related to depth. The increase of stomach fullness and dietary energy intake in pre-reproductive females from February to April-June 2004 found off Sóller, coupled with the consumption of

  9. Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus (United States)

    Cartes, J. E.; Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; López-Jurado, J. L.

    salinity close to the bottom, suggesting a link between suprabenthos abundance and changes in the oceanographic condition of water masses close to the bottom. It is suggested that a higher suprabenthos biomass recorded off Sóller in comparison to that off Cabrera in June could, in turn, be related to a seasonal inflow of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in April-June in this area at mid bathyal depths (350-650 m). This trend would be based on: 1) it was evident only at mid-slope depths between 350-750 m, coinciding with the LIW distribution, and 2) it was not recorded among zooplankton (collected throughout the water column). The possible effect of the fluctuations of suprabenthos and zooplankton on higher trophic levels has been explored studying the diet and food consumption rates of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, as indicator species by its dominance in bathyal communities. A. antennatus increased its food consumption from February to April-June 2004 off Sóller, which in the case of large (CL > 40 mm) specimens was found in both areas. In addition, there was a shift of diet from winter to spring-early summer. In this last period, A. antennatus preyed upon euphausiids and mesopelagic decapods and fish, while benthos (e.g. polychaetes and bivalves) decreased in the diet. This indicates an increase in the food consumption and probably in the caloric content of the diet in pre-spawning females in April-June 2004, which is synchronized with the period when gonad development begins in A. antennatus females (May-June). Anyway, macrozooplankton, and not suprabenthos, is crucial as a high energetic food source in the coupling between food intake and reproduction in the red shrimp.

  10. Analysis and standardization of landings per unit effort of red shrimp Aristeus antennatus from the trawl fleet of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean

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    Valeria Mamouridis


    Full Text Available Monthly landings and effort data from the Barcelona trawl fleet (NW Mediterranean were selected to analyse and standardize the landings per unit effort (LPUE of the red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus using generalized additive models. The dataset covers a span of 15 years (1994-2008 and consists of a broad spectrum of predictors: fleet-dependent (e.g. number of trips performed by vessels and their technical characteristics, such as the gross registered tonnage, temporal (inter- and intra-annual variability, environmental (North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO] index and economic (red shrimp and fuel prices variables. All predictors individually have an impact on LPUE, though some of them lose their predictive power when considered jointly. That is the case of the NAO index. Our results show that six variables from the whole set can be incorporated into a global model with a total explained deviance (ED of 43%. We found that the most important variables were effort-related predictors (trips, tonnage, and groups with a total ED of 20.58%, followed by temporal variables, with an ED of 13.12%, and finally the red shrimp price as an economic predictor with an ED of 9.30%. Taken individually, the main contributing variable was the inter-annual variability (ED=12.40%. This high ED value suggests that many factors correlated with inter-annual variability, such as environmental factors (the NAO in specific years and fuel price, could in turn affect LPUE variability. The standardized LPUE index with the effort variability removed was found to be similar to the fishery-independent abundance index derived from the MEDITS programme.

  11. (Risso, 1816) and Aristeus Virilis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subsector consists of joint ventures between the Government of Mozambique and foreign companies form Japan and Spain and Portugal. They have sufficient financial resources to enable them to support a modern fleet, and export their products to the international markets in which they are well established, such as Spain ...

  12. Parapenaeus longirostris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 2, 2011 ... Biologia, ecologia e pesca dos Peneídeos de profundidade Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas) e Aristeus antennatus (Risso) da costa Portuguesa. Dissertaçao Para Provas de Acesso a Categoria de Investigador Auxiliar, Inip, p. 171. Ricker WE (1975). Computation and interpretation of biological statistic.

  13. Risso's dolphins plan foraging dives. (United States)

    Arranz, Patricia; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Southall, Brandon L; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S; Tyack, Peter L


    Humans remember the past and use that information to plan future actions. Lab experiments that test memory for the location of food show that animals have a similar capability to act in anticipation of future needs, but less work has been done on animals foraging in the wild. We hypothesized that planning abilities are critical and common in breath-hold divers who adjust each dive to forage on prey varying in quality, location and predictability within constraints of limited oxygen availability. We equipped Risso's dolphins with sound-and-motion recording tags to reveal where they focus their attention through their externally observable echolocation and how they fine tune search strategies in response to expected and observed prey distribution. The information from the dolphins was integrated with synoptic prey data obtained from echosounders on an underwater vehicle. At the start of the dives, whales adjusted their echolocation inspection ranges in ways that suggest planning to forage at a particular depth. Once entering a productive prey layer, dolphins reduced their search range comparable to the scale of patches within the layer, suggesting that they were using echolocation to select prey within the patch. On ascent, their search range increased, indicating that they decided to stop foraging within that layer and started searching for prey in shallower layers. Information about prey, learned throughout the dive, was used to plan foraging in the next dive. Our results demonstrate that planning for future dives is modulated by spatial memory derived from multi-modal prey sampling (echoic, visual and capture) during earlier dives. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Production of fish finger from sand smelt ( Atherina boyeri , RISSO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, changes of chemical, microbiological load and sensory properties of fish fingers prepared from sand smelt (Atherina boyeri, RISSO 1810) were investigated during storage (for 6 months at -18°C). The fish finger nutritional composition changed with the fish finger process. The changes in moisture, crude protein, ...

  15. Geographic variation in Risso's dolphin echolocation click spectra. (United States)

    Soldevilla, Melissa S; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Cholewiak, Danielle; Hodge, Lynne E W; Oleson, Erin M; Rankin, Shannon


    Discrimination of bioacoustic signals to the species or population level is critical for using passive acoustic monitoring to study cetacean ecology. Risso's dolphins off southern California have distinctive peaks and notches in their echolocation clicks, but it was unknown whether Risso's dolphins from other geographic areas have similarly distinctive click spectra and whether populations are acoustically distinct. This study investigates using clicks for species and population identification by characterizing the spectral structure of Risso's dolphin echolocation clicks recorded over wide-ranging geographic regions including the U.S. waters of the North Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and North Pacific Ocean; and international waters of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. All recordings with Risso's dolphin clicks exhibited the spectral peak and notch pattern described off southern California, indicating the presence of peak banding patterns is useful for species discrimination. Geographic regions were a significant explanatory factor for variability in the frequencies of click spectral peaks, with relatively higher frequency peaks and notches found off Hawaii compared to California waters and off the southeast U.S. compared to the Gulf of Mexico. In the North Atlantic Ocean, a latitudinal cline in frequencies was evident. Potential causes of acoustic variation within and among acoustic encounters are evaluated.

  16. Acoustic behaviour of Risso's dolphins, Grampus griseus, in the Canary Islands, Spain


    Neves, Silvana


    The Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) is a poorly studied species, particularly with respect to its acoustic behaviour. The little we know about Risso's dolphin acoustics shows that they are an interesting case study given that they combine acoustic features that place them inbetween very different delphinids. I investigated the acoustic repertoire of the species showing that Risso's dolphins produce mainly whistles, burst-pulses and click trains. I discussed the possible functions of each...

  17. Risso's dolphins alter daily resting pattern in response to whale watching at the Azores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Fleur; Hartman, Karin L.; Rood, Ente J. J.; Hendriks, Arthur J. E.; Zult, Daan B.; Wolff, Wim J.; Huisman, Jef; Pierce, Graham J.

    P>Behavioral responses of Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) to whale watching vessels were studied off Pico Island, Azores. Dolphin behavior was studied from a land-based lookout, enabling observations of groups in the absence and presence of vessels. The number of whale watching vessels showed a

  18. Hearing abilities and sound reception of broadband sounds in an adult Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). (United States)

    Mooney, T Aran; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Ketten, Darlene R; Jen, I-Fan


    While odontocetes do not have an external pinna that guides sound to the middle ear, they are considered to receive sound through specialized regions of the head and lower jaw. Yet odontocetes differ in the shape of the lower jaw suggesting that hearing pathways may vary between species, potentially influencing hearing directionality and noise impacts. This work measured the audiogram and received sensitivity of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) in an effort to comparatively examine how this species receives sound. Jaw hearing thresholds were lowest (most sensitive) at two locations along the anterior, midline region of the lower jaw (the lower jaw tip and anterior part of the throat). Responses were similarly low along a more posterior region of the lower mandible, considered the area of best hearing in bottlenose dolphins. Left- and right-side differences were also noted suggesting possible left-right asymmetries in sound reception or differences in ear sensitivities. The results indicate best hearing pathways may vary between the Risso's dolphin and other odontocetes measured. This animal received sound well, supporting a proposed throat pathway. For Risso's dolphins in particular, good ventral hearing would support their acoustic ecology by facilitating echo-detection from their proposed downward oriented echolocation beam.

  19. Desenvolvimento de Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae em cafeeiros = Development of Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in coffee trees

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília


    Full Text Available A cochonilha Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 suga a seiva dos botões florais e frutos do cafeeiro, atacando as rosetas desde a floração até a colheita. Embora seja relatada há alguns anos na cafeicultura, são escassas as informações sobre o desenvolvimento dessacochonilha em cafeeiros. Assim, o presente trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos da fase ninfal de P. citri em plantas de café. Ovos dessa cochonilha foram retirados de uma criação em laboratório, isolados em placas de Petri contendo discos foliares de Coffea arabica L., das cultivares Acaiá Cerrado, Mundo Novo e Catuaí Vermelho e de C. canephora Pierre & Froenher, cultivar Apoatã. As placas foram mantidas em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% de umidade relativa e 12h de fotofase. Constatou-se que a cultivar Catuaí Vermelho foi a que proporcionou maior duração do período ninfal das fêmeas, porém, não foram constatadas diferenças na mortalidade. Essa cochonilha se desenvolveu satisfatoriamente em todas as cultivares de café estudadas e os resultados não mostraram diferenças claras de susceptibilidade.The citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 feeds mainly on flowers and fruits of coffee plants from blooming until harvest. Little is known about its development in coffee although its occurrence is already known for several years. This work aims to study the nymph development of this mealybug in coffee plants.Eggs were isolated from a stock culture kept in laboratory and placed inside Petri dishes containing leaf sections in agar. The tested cultivars were Acaia Cerrado, Mundo Novo, Catuai Vermelho (Coffea arabica and Apoatã (C. canephora. Insects were kept in a climatizedchamber at 25ºC, 70 ± 10% humidity and 12-hour photophase. The longest development period in females was obtained in cultivar Catuai Vermelho. No differences in mortality were found among cultivars. Mealybugs developed in all cultivars and the results

  20. Detection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Rift Valley fever virus from Anopheles (Anopheles) coustani, Anopheles (Anopheles) squamosus, and Culex (Culex) antennatus of the Haute Matsiatra region, Madagascar. (United States)

    Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Olive, Marie-Marie; Tantely, Luciano Michael; Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Tata, Etienne; Razainirina, Josette; Jeanmaire, Elisabeth; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Elissa, Nohal


    Following veterinary alerts of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in the districts of Fianarantsoa I and II in November 2008 and in the district of Ambalavao in April 2009, entomological and virological investigations were carried out to identify the mosquito species that could act as RVF virus (RVFV) vectors in the region. A total of 12,785 adult mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 21 species were collected. After identification, mosquitoes were pooled by species, sex, and female status (fed or unfed) and then stored at -80°C. Of 319 pools of unfed monospecific female mosquito tested by real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction, RVFV was detected in 1 pool of Anopheles coustani, 5 pools of An. squamosus, and 2 pools of Culex antennatus mosquitoes. The virus was isolated in mosquito cell lines from two of the five Real Time-RT-polymerase chain reaction (real time-RT-PCR) positive pools of An. squamosus mosquitoes. From the eight RVFV strains detected, partial S, M, and L genome segments sequences were obtained. The phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that the strains circulating in mosquitoes were genetically close to those that circulated in livestock and humans during RVF outbreaks in 2008 and 2009. This study, therefore, provides strong evidence that An. squamosus, An. coustani, and Cx. antennatus could play a role as vectors of the RVFV during the disease outbreaks in 2008-2009. Bioecological, genetic, and RVF transmission studies on these three mosquito species are needed to address this question and thus improve prevention and control of future RVF outbreaks in Madagascar, where these species are present.

  1. A new species of Lysmata Risso, 1816 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Lysmatidae) from the Gulf of Mexico. (United States)

    Prakash, Sanjeevi; Baeza, J Antonio


    A new species of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata baueri n. sp., is described based on a single specimen from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The new species can be distinguished from other morphologically similar species of Lysmata Risso, 1816 by the number of teeth, length and shape of the rostrum, the length of the antennular peduncle relative to the scaphocerite, the number of meral and ischial articles in the second pereiopods, and the number of spines on the flexor margin of the dactyli from the third to fifth pereiopods. Morphological characters demonstrate that L. baueri n. sp., is most closely related to the eastern Pacific L. californica (Stimpson, 1866), L. nayaritensis Wicksten, 2000 and L. porteri (Rathbun, 1907).

  2. Biological control of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) using coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. (United States)

    Afifi, Amal I; El Arnaouty, Said A; Attia, Angel R; Abd Alla, Asmaa El-Metwally


    The coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was used to control the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on the croton ornamental shrubs, Codiaeum variegatum L. at Giza governorate, Egypt. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 50 adults/Croton shrub, were released once on October 27, 2008 in the open field. Obtained results indicated that percentages of reduction among the egg masses, nymphs and adults of P. citri, one month after releasing the predator reached to 41.5, 42.3 and 57.5%, respectively. Two months later, the corresponding rates were 80.6, 86.5 and 91.5%. Finally, after three months of releasing the predator, reduction rates reached to 100% for all stages of the pest. The associated natural enemies in the field were consisted of three predaceous insects and one parasitic species. The insect predators secured were the hemerobiid predator, Sympherobius amicus Navas; the coccinellid predator, Scymnus syriacus (Mars.) and the chrysopid predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). The parasitic species was the encyrtid, Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Timberlake). The aforementioned natural enemies were found feeding on the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri infesting croton shrubs. In the second season, 2009 there is no mealybug, P. citri individuals were found on the croton shrubs.

  3. Evidence of lipofuscin accumulation in the deep-water red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827

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    Full Text Available Lipofuscin, a non-degradable, degenerative fluorescent pigment which accumulates in post-mitotic cells, represents a promising method for ageing marine crustaceans. The presence and accumulation of lipofuscin has been studied in the deep-water red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827 to assess its use as a tool for ageing larger (i.e., older specimens and thus improve knowledge of the growth and longevity of this species. Specimens, gathered during experimental trawl surveys carried out in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea, were stored directly on-board in 10% buffered formaldehyde solution; their brain was thereafter removed, prepared with various current histological techniques and examined with a binocular microscope. Thin sections of the olfactory lobe cell mass were also analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, and the lipofuscin concentration was measured through image analysis. Various indices were computed for each individual by pooling data from many images: number and coverage of the lipofuscin granules per unit area, and mean individual area of the granules. Lipofuscin was detected in all specimens investigated with characteristics (grain typology and dimension strictly resembling those already described in other crustacean species. The present preliminary results encourage further studies to develop and validate a methodology based on the use of lipofuscin for improving the relative ageing of large A. foliacea shrimps.

  4. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae Regarding to host conditioning in citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília


    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  5. The occurrence of the Golden Grey Mullet, Liza aurata (Risso, 1810) in the coastal waters of the Netherlands (Pisces, Perciformes, Mugilidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Groot, de S.J.; Doornbos, G.


    The Golden grey mullet, Liza aurata (Risso, 1810), inhabits the coastal waters of the Netherlands at least since 1939, as was established by re-examining preserved specimens in the collection of the Institute of Taxonomic Zoology (Zoological Museum), Amsterdam. A key to the three Mullet species in

  6. Effort dynamics in a fisheries bioeconomic model: A vessel level approach through Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Merino


    Full Text Available Red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816 is one of the most important resources for the bottom-trawl fleets in the northwestern Mediterranean, in terms of both landings and economic value. A simple bioeconomic model introducing Game Theory for the prediction of effort dynamics at vessel level is proposed. The game is performed by the twelve vessels exploiting red shrimp in Blanes. Within the game, two solutions are performed: non-cooperation and cooperation. The first is proposed as a realistic method for the prediction of individual effort strategies and the second is used to illustrate the potential profitability of the analysed fishery. The effort strategy for each vessel is the number of fishing days per year and their objective is profit maximisation, individual profits for the non-cooperative solution and total profits for the cooperative one. In the present analysis, strategic conflicts arise from the differences between vessels in technical efficiency (catchability coefficient and economic efficiency (defined here. The ten-year and 1000-iteration stochastic simulations performed for the two effort solutions show that the best strategy from both an economic and a conservationist perspective is homogeneous effort cooperation. However, the results under non-cooperation are more similar to the observed data on effort strategies and landings.

  7. Reproductive cycle and population structure of the deep-water shrimp Aristeus antillensis A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1909 (Decapoda: Aristeidae on southeast Brazilian continental slope Ciclo reproductivo y estructura poblacional del camarón de aguas profundas Aristeus antillensis A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1909 (Decapoda: Aristeidae en el talud continental del sureste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto


    Full Text Available The "alistado shrimp" (Aristeus antillensis is one of the targets of the trawling fleet operating since 2002 along the continental slope of the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone between 700 and 800 m depth. Catches of the species occur mainly in two small fishing grounds located on the east coast of Espirito Santo State (19-22°S. This paper aimed to obtain the first biological data for this species along the Brazilian coast. A total of 13,797 individuals were sampled aboard fishing vessels by observers on almost all fishing hauls, corresponding to 10 to 20% of the total catch recorded in the period. Males and females are sexually mature at 25.4 and 40.2 mm carapace length, respectively, based on an analysis of the proportions of individuals with fused petasma (males and spermatophores in the thelycum (females. The proportion of impregnated females was higher than 80% year round, suggesting a continuous reproductive cycle, although preliminary in-formation on gonadal development points to possible seasonal reproduction. In general, mature females, which attain larger sizes than males, domínate the catches (M:F = 0.12:1. However, populational groups including males and juveniles of both sexes occupy the fishing grounds in different periods of the year, probably reflecting migratory movements whose directions and driving forces are not completely understood yet. A depth-stratified population structure by sex and size is hypothesized.La gamba de aguas profundas Aristeus antillensis es uno de los recursos explotados por la flota de arrastre, que está operando desde el año 2002 en el talud continental de la Zona Econômica Exclusiva de Brasil, entre 700 y 800 m de profundidad. Las capturas de esta especie se realizan básicamente en dos pequeños fondos de pesca que se encuentran en la costa este de la región de Espirito Santo (19-22°S. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo obtener los primeros antecedentes biológicos de esta especie en la costa

  8. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília


    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  9. Characterization of Volatile Compounds in the Essential Oil of Sweet Lime (Citrus limetta Risso Caracterización de Compuestos Volátiles en Aceite esencial de Lima Dulce (Citrus limetta Risso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Colecio-Juárez


    Full Text Available The essential oil of citrus fruit contains components pleasant sensory characteristics that are appreciated in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. In the case of sweet lime (Citrus limetta Risso, is necessary to characterize the essential oil components, to identify potential uses of this fruit. The essential oil of sweet lime was obtained from lime flavedo in four different maturation stages. Steam distillation was employed and then compared with hexane extraction. The identification of the components in the essential oil was carried out by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A total of 46 components were found in the essence of lime, among which the highest concentration of compounds present were aldehydes such as limonene. Linalool, sabinene, and bergamol were more abundant than in other varieties. The best extraction method was steam distillation, and the concentrations in stage III from the main terpenic portion were d-limonene with 74.4%, bergamol with 8.23%, and β-pinene with 7.62%.El aceite esencial de frutos cítricos contiene componentes de características sensoriales agradables que son apreciadas en las industrias alimentaria, farmacéutica y de cosméticos. En el caso de la lima dulce (Citrus limetta Risso, es necesaria la caracterización de los componentes de su aceite esencial para identificar usos potenciales de este fruto. El aceite esencial de lima dulce se obtuvo a partir del flavedo de lima en cuatro etapas de maduración diferentes. Se utilizó destilación por arrastre de vapor y se comparó con la extracción con hexano. La identificación de los componentes en el aceite esencial se realizó por cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. Se encontró un total de 46 componentes en el aceite esencial de lima, entre los cuales la mayor concentración de compuestos presentes son aldehídos como el limoneno. Linalol, sabineno y bergamol fueron más abundantes que en otras variedades. El mejor m

  10. Diet and trophic ecology of the lanternfish Electrona risso (Cocco 1829) in the Strait of Messina (central Mediterranean Sea) and potential resource utilization from the Deep Scattering Layer (DSL) (United States)

    Battaglia, Pietro; Andaloro, Franco; Esposito, Valentina; Granata, Antonia; Guglielmo, Letterio; Guglielmo, Rosanna; Musolino, Simona; Romeo, Teresa; Zagami, Giacomo


    The feeding habits of the mesopelagic lanternfish Electrona risso from the Strait of Messina (central Mediterranean Sea) were analyzed for the first time. A total of 326 individuals were collected stranded along the Sicilian coast of the Strait of Messina from October 2012 to May 2013. Specimens ranged from 12.0 to 53.8 mm LS (mean LS = 38.6 ± 8.4 mm). Their stomach content was examined and prey composition and feeding strategy were investigated. The results indicate that E. risso is a specialist predator, which feeds mainly on the small mesopelagic fish Cyclothone braueri (%IRI = 74.06) and in minor proportion on zooplankton, with a prevalence of copepods. The specialized feeding strategy of E. risso is confirmed by the low value of Levins standardized index (Bj = 0.141), which indicated a restricted niche breadth. The value of the index of trophic level (TROPH) for E. risso resulted 4.20. The prey composition suggests that E. risso can be considered a weakly vertical migrating species, that feeds on the DSL crustacean and fish communities below 300 m of depth.

  11. Taux des lipides et des protéines et composition en acides gras du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La composition en protéines, en lipides et celle en acides gras du muscle de 3 espèces de mollusques bivalves (Cardium glaucum, Ruditapes decussatus et Mytilus galloprovincialis) et de la chair de 3 crustacés Péneidés (Penaeus kerathurus, Aristeus antennatus et Parapenaeus longirostris) sont déterminées.

  12. First occurrence of thinlip grey mullet, Liza ramada (Risso, 1827 in the Odra River estuary (NW Poland: genetic identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Panicz


    Full Text Available The presence of exotic fish species in the Baltic Sea and its tributaries poses a serious threat for native ichthyofauna, mainly due to the spread of new pathogens. As the accurate identification of species is essential for an effective assessment of changes related to the appearance of non-native species in an aquatic environment, in this paper we tested the usefulness of biometrics and molecular markers in identifying a specimen from the Mugilidae family found in the Odra estuary. The results demonstrated that unambiguous identification of the specimen using biometric features was impossible due to high morphological similarities shared by grey mullets. Unambiguous identification was possible only due to molecular markers, e.g. rhodopsin gene, which helped to identify the collected fish specimen as Liza ramada (Risso, 1827, the first specimen of this species found in the Odra River estuary. The presence of an L. ramada specimen in the Odra River – which could signal the expansion of non-native species into wider ranges – may be linked to climate change or human activity.

  13. Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils. (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Colica, Carmela; Menichini, Francesco


    The interest in medicinal plant research and in the aroma-therapeutic effects of essential oils in humans has increased in recent years, especially for the treatment of pathologies of relevant social impact such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study was taken up to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the peel essential oils from three Citrus species, C. aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso & Poit. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and they contain mainly limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene, and linalyl acetate. C. aurantifolia oil showed the highest radical scavenging activity on ABTS assay (IC₅₀ value of 19.6 μg/mL), while C. bergamia exhibited a good antioxidant activity evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching test (IC₅₀ = 42.6 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation). C. aurantifolia inhibited more selectively AChE. Obtained data suggest a potential use of Citrus oils as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. The demonstrated antioxidant activity and procholinesterase properties of Citrus essential oils suggested their use as a new potential source of natural antioxidant to added as extra-nutrient for using in food industries as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Aspectos biológicos da fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae oriunda de larvas alimentadas com Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Biological aspects of the adult stage of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae originating from the larvae fed Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerane Celly Dias Bezerra


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar alguns aspectos biológicos da fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen quando as larvas desse predador foram alimentadas com ninfas e fêmeas adultas de Planococcus citri (Risso. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada regulada a 25 ± 1 ºC, 70 ± 10% de UR e fotofase de 12 horas. Os adultos de C. externa cujas larvas foram alimentadas com ninfas nos três ínstares e fêmeas adultas da cochonilha, foram separados por sexo e 25 casais foram individualizados em gaiolas determinando-se a razão sexual, período de pré-oviposição, capacidade de oviposição diária e total durante 40 dias consecutivos, longevidade, período embrionário e viabilidade de ovos. Constatou-se que as ninfas nos três ínstares e fêmeas adultas fornecidas como alimento, não afetaram a razão sexual, período de pré-oviposição, período embrionário e longevidade dos adultos de C. externa. A produção diária e total de ovos por C. externa foi afetada pelo tipo de alimento fornecido ao predador durante a fase de larva, observando-se uma maior produção quando os casais foram alimentados na fase de larva com fêmeas adultas da cochonilha. Analisando-se a produção de ovos, observou-se uma maior concentração de oviposição nos primeiros dez dias do período reprodutivo, decrescendo nas avaliações seguintes. Foram obtidas porcentagens maiores de ovos viáveis e menores de inviáveis e inférteis, porém, não diferiram em função do alimento fornecido ao predador na fase de larva.It was aimed to study some biological aspects in the adult stage of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen when the larvae of predator were fed both nymphs and adult females of Planococcus citri (Risso. The experiment was conducted in climate chamber at 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% of RH and 12-h photophase. The adults of C. externa whose larvae were fed nymphs at the three instars and adult females of mealybug were separated by sex and 25 couples were individualized

  15. Morphological and ultrastructural redescription of Chloromyxum leydigi Mingazzini, 1890 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), type species of the genus, infecting the gall bladder of the marine cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata Risso (Chondrichthyes: Torpedinidae), from the Portuguese Atlantic Coast. (United States)

    Rocha, Sónia; Casal, Graça; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Azevedo, Carlos


    Chloromyxum leydigi Mingazzini, 1890, the type species of Chloromyxum Mingazzini, 1890, is redescribed based on material found in the gall bladder of the cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata Risso collected from the Portuguese Atlantic coast and its sporogonic development is described. Plasmodia and mature spores were floating free in the bile. Plasmodia are polysporic and highly polymorphic in shape and organization. Mature spores are spherical to subspherical with a pointed anterior end, measuring 12.3 +/- 0.5 microm in length and 9.0 +/- 0.5 microm in width. The spore wall is composed of two asymmetric shell valves, each bearing 4-5 elevated surface ridges. A bundle of 40-50 tapering caudal filaments extends from the basal portion of the shell valves. Four pyriform equal-sized polar capsules, measuring about 5.3 x 3.2 microm, are observed at the same level in the anterior pole of the spores, each containing a polar filament coiled in 8-9 (rarely 10) turns. Spore morphology, tissue tropism, host species and sequences of the SSU rRNA gene supported species identification. Since its discovery, this species has been dubiously reported from several cartilaginous hosts, namely due to the poor description of its features.

  16. An optimized high quality male DNA extraction from spermatophores in open thelycum shrimp species. (United States)

    Planella, Laia; Heras, Sandra; Vera, Manuel; García-Marín, José-Luis; Roldán, María Inés


    The crucial step of most of the current genetic studies is the extraction of DNA of sufficient quantity and quality. Several genomic DNA isolation methods have been described to successfully obtain male DNA from shrimp species. However, all current protocols require invasive handling methods with males for DNA isolation. Using Aristeus antennatus as a model we tested a reliable non-invasive differential DNA extraction method to male DNA isolation from spermatophores attached to female thelycum. The present protocol provides high quality and quantity DNA for polymerase chain reaction amplification and male genotyping. This new approach could be useful to experimental shrimp culture to select sires with relevant genetic patterns for selective breeding programs. More importantly, it can be applied to identify the mating pairs and male structure in wild populations of species as A. antennatus, where males are often difficult to capture. Our method could be also valuable for biological studies on other spermatophore-using species, such as myriapods, arachnids and insects. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of Nemesis Risso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nemesi s is one of 12 genera in the family Eudactylinidae and includes about nine species. In this study, we investigated whether there is any population structure among Nemesis lamna individuals infecting the white shark Carcharodon carcharias and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus according to host species or ...

  18. Spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna Risso 1826 (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The selection of a specific site of attachment by a copepod parasite is determined by a set of mostly unknown factors. The spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna on the gill filaments of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias was investigated. The complete set of left gills of 11 hosts was examined and the location, orientation ...

  19. Risso's dolphin at-sea density off California (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  20. Production of fish finger from sand smelt (Atherina boyeri, RISSO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 23, 2011 ... Departmant of Fishing and Fish Processing Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, University of Süleyman Demirel, 32500. Eğirdir, Isparta, Turkey. ... the consumption of food as “heat and eat” has become important. Food sector .... In many of the developed countries, the habits of nourish- ment are changing and ...

  1. Biochemical composition of deep-sea decapod crustaceans with two different benthic life strategies off the Portuguese south coast (United States)

    Rosa, R.; Nunes, M. L.


    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the benthic life strategies of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Penaeidea), Parapenaeus longirostris (Crustacea: Penaeidea) and Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Astacidea) on the basis of biochemical composition (proximate chemical composition, total lipids, glycogen and cholesterol contents), and its response to biological and environmental factors (sex, maturation, reproduction, food availability and depth) into account. The specimens were collected at depths between 200 and 600 m off the Portuguese south coast (Algarve). The nektobenthic species ( A. antennatus and P. longirostris) showed higher protein, lipid, cholesterol and glycogen contents, and lower moisture content in the muscle than the benthic-endobenthic species ( N. norvegicus). Consequently, the energy content of the nektobenthic species was also higher. Principal component analyses were used to assess the relationship between the different biochemical contents and to relate them to the biotic and abiotic factors. Depth seems to have the most important role in the observed trends of the biochemical composition. The increase of the ovarian lipid levels occurs as a result of the maturation process. The highest values were obtained in mature N. norvegicus females. The differences can be due to maternal investment (lipid metabolism of the female is geared to the provision of egg lipid), since N. norvegicus produce large lecithotrophic eggs. The biochemical differences observed in the three species did not seem to be due to distinct trophic strategies, but instead were a consequence of depth, which may have a significant interspecific effect on food intake. It was also evident that reproductive cycle has profound effects upon the biochemistry of the three species. Gonadal maturation has large associated energy costs due to the increase in biosynthetic work. Moreover, the biochemical composition would be influenced by or synchronized with seasonal

  2. A redescription of Puto antennatus Sign. (Homoptera, Coccoidea) with notes on Ceroputo pilosellae Šulc and Macrocerococcus superbus Leon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyne, A.


    In the taxonomy of Coccoidea or scale insects much confusion is due to an insufficient knowledge of the type species of several genera. Especially our knowledge of some of the older genera is very incomplete, as the descriptions of their type species are extremely short and superficial from the

  3. A bio-economic evaluation of the potential for establishing a commercial fishery on two newly developed stocks: The Ionian red shrimp fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Guillen


    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that two deep-water red shrimp species (Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea have the potential to support a viable fishery in the Greek Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean. In this article, we investigate (i the evolution that this newly developed trawl shrimp fishery may undergo when subjected to different management measures, and (ii the most suitable extraction rates considering the uncertainties about the resource. We further analyse the effects that potential future fuel price increases and changes in the market may have on the fishery. Forecasting the biological and economic consequences of management actions, as well as the effects of market changes on inputs and outputs before they are applied, may help managers select the most suitable management options. We approach the problem by means of bio-economic simulation analysis. The results of this study show that fishing effort can increase by 50-100%, increasing the fleet’s profitability without jeopardizing the sustainability of the fishery.

  4. Age and growth of bullet tuna, Auxis rochei (Risso), from the Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to identify the age and growth parameters of bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) in Turkish waters. The fish were caught from the Turkish Mediterranean coasts between December 2008 and December 2009. A total of 186 dorsal fin spines obtained from the specimens were analyzed for ageing and growth studies.

  5. Organization of the vitelline envelope in ovarian follicles of Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810 (Elasmobranchii: Torpediniformes). (United States)

    Prisco, Marina; Del Giudice, Giuseppina; Agnese, Marisa; Ricchiari, Loredana; Campanella, Chiara; Andreuccetti, Piero


    In Torpedo marmorata, the vitelline envelope (VE), an extracellular envelope surrounding the growing oocyte, consists of fibrils and amorphous materials that are deposited in the perivitelline space starting from the initial steps of oocyte growth. SDS-PAGE analysis of the isolated and purified VE reveals that it consists of different glycoproteins. Furthermore, our investigations showed that the 120 and 66 kDa glycoproteins are positive to an antibody directed against gp69/64 of the Xenopus laevis VE and are synthesized under the control of 17beta-estradiol in the liver, that, together follicle cells and the oocyte, is the biosynthetic site of VE components.

  6. Larval Myogenesis in the Articulate Brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata (Risso, 1826)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg


    Brachiopoda is a metazoan phylum with a fossil record dating back to the lower Cambrium and comprises over 12,000 extinct and 400 recent species. Despite some recent progress using mainly palaeontological and molecular datasets, the discussion concerning the phylogenetic position of Brachiopoda r...

  7. Chelon labrosus (Risso, 1827 - the first record from Lake Dąbie (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Czerniejewski


    Full Text Available Keywords: Received 25 March 2008, revised 6 May 2008, accepted 19 May 2008.AbstractWe report on the first occurrence of Chelon labrosus in a Polish estuary. One Ch. labrosus was caught with a fyke net in the northern part of Lake Dąbie (Odra estuary on 14 November 2007. It measured 266.92 mm in overall length and weighed 176.8 g. The fish's metric and meristic characters, age by scale, condition, sex and maturity stage (Maier's scale were determined.

  8. New insights into mercury bioaccumulation in deep-sea organisms from the NW Mediterranean and their human health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Samuel; Solé, Montserrat; Fernández-Gómez, Cristal; Díez, Sergi


    A number of studies have found high levels of mercury (Hg) in deep-sea organisms throughout the world's oceans, but the underlying causes are not clear as there is no consensus on the origin and cycling of Hg in the ocean. Recent findings suggested that Hg accumulation may increase with increasing forage depth and pointed to the deep-water column as the origin of most Hg in marine biota, especially its organic methylmercury (MeHg) form. In the present study, we determined the total mercury (THg) levels in 12 deep-sea fish species and a decapod crustacean and investigated their relationship with the species' nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ 15 N) as an indicator of their trophic level, average weight and habitat depth. THg levels ranged from 0.27 to 4.42 μg/g w.w. and exceeded in all, except one species, the recommended 0.5 μg/g w.w. guideline value. While THg levels exhibited a strong relationship with δ 15 N values and to a lesser extent with weight, the habitat depth, characterized as the species' depth of maximum abundance (DMA), had also a significant effect on Hg accumulation. The fish species with a shallower depth range exhibited lower THg values than predicted by their trophic level (δ 15 N) and body mass, while measured THg values were higher than predicted in deeper-dwelling fish. Overall, the present results point out a potential risk for human health from the consumption of deep-sea fish. In particular, for both, the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, which is one of the most valuable fishing resources of the Mediterranean, as well as the commercially exploited fish Mora moro, THg levels considerably exceeded the recommended 0.5 μg/g w.w. limit and should be consumed with caution. -- Highlights: ► High total mercury (THg) levels were detected in Mediterranean deep-sea organisms. ► Uniform contamination pattern was observed across the Mediterranean basin. ► All except one species exceeded recommended consumption limit of 0.5 μg/g w.w. ► THg

  9. Are deep-sea organisms dwelling within a submarine canyon more at risk from anthropogenic contamination than those from the adjacent open slope? A case study of Blanes canyon (NW Mediterranean) (United States)

    Koenig, Samuel; Fernández, Pilar; Company, Joan B.; Huertas, David; Solé, Montserrat


    Due to their geomorphological structure and proximity to the coastline, submarine canyons may act as natural conduit routes for anthropogenic contaminants that are transported from surface waters to the deep-sea. Organisms dwelling in these canyon environments might thus be at risk of experiencing adverse health effects due to higher pollution exposure. To address this question, chemical and biochemical analyses were conducted on two of the most abundant deep-sea fish species in the study area, namely Alepocephalus rostratus and Lepidion lepidion, and the most abundant deep-sea commercial decapod crustacean Aristeus antennatus sampled inside Blanes canyon (BC) and on the adjacent open slope (OS). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels, including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and derivatives, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in muscle tissue of selected samples from 900 m and 1500 m depth. Potential effects resulting from contaminant exposure were determined using hepatic biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), catalase (CAT), carboxylesterase (CbE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels (LP). L. lepidion and A. antennatus tissues exhibited higher POP levels inside BC compared to the OS at 900 m depth. These findings were consistent with biomarker data (i.e. enzymatic response to presence of contaminant agents). Elevated xenobiotic-metabolizing (EROD and PROD) and antioxidant enzymes (CAT and GPX) indicated higher contaminant exposure in both species caught within BC. No difference in POP accumulation between sites was observed in L. lepidion at 1500 m depth, nor in biomarker data, suggesting that the pollution gradient was less pronounced at greater depths. This trend was further corroborated

  10. New insights into mercury bioaccumulation in deep-sea organisms from the NW Mediterranean and their human health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Samuel, E-mail: [Institut de Ciencies del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Institut de Diagnosi Ambiental i Estudis de l' Aigua (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Sole, Montserrat [Institut de Ciencies del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Fernandez-Gomez, Cristal; Diez, Sergi [Institut de Diagnosi Ambiental i Estudis de l' Aigua (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain)


    A number of studies have found high levels of mercury (Hg) in deep-sea organisms throughout the world's oceans, but the underlying causes are not clear as there is no consensus on the origin and cycling of Hg in the ocean. Recent findings suggested that Hg accumulation may increase with increasing forage depth and pointed to the deep-water column as the origin of most Hg in marine biota, especially its organic methylmercury (MeHg) form. In the present study, we determined the total mercury (THg) levels in 12 deep-sea fish species and a decapod crustacean and investigated their relationship with the species' nitrogen stable isotope ratio ({delta}{sup 15}N) as an indicator of their trophic level, average weight and habitat depth. THg levels ranged from 0.27 to 4.42 {mu}g/g w.w. and exceeded in all, except one species, the recommended 0.5 {mu}g/g w.w. guideline value. While THg levels exhibited a strong relationship with {delta}{sup 15}N values and to a lesser extent with weight, the habitat depth, characterized as the species' depth of maximum abundance (DMA), had also a significant effect on Hg accumulation. The fish species with a shallower depth range exhibited lower THg values than predicted by their trophic level ({delta}{sup 15}N) and body mass, while measured THg values were higher than predicted in deeper-dwelling fish. Overall, the present results point out a potential risk for human health from the consumption of deep-sea fish. In particular, for both, the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, which is one of the most valuable fishing resources of the Mediterranean, as well as the commercially exploited fish Mora moro, THg levels considerably exceeded the recommended 0.5 {mu}g/g w.w. limit and should be consumed with caution. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High total mercury (THg) levels were detected in Mediterranean deep-sea organisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uniform contamination pattern was observed across the Mediterranean

  11. Nile damming as plausible cause of extinction and drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp in the western Mediterranean over broad spatial scales (United States)

    Cartes, J. E.; Maynou, F.; Fanelli, E.


    Greatly increased retention of flow in Nile River reservoirs was initiated in 1964, after completion of the Aswan High Dam, which induced important oceanographic changes in the Mediterranean Sea, including deep waters (below a depth of 150 m). Based on an analysis of data series starting in the 1940s/1950s, the giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea has become locally extinct off of the Catalonian coasts (and elsewhere in the northwestern Mediterranean) at depths of 400-900 m, with a simultaneous and significant drop in the catches of red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus, in the second half of the 1960s. The extinction and sharp decline of deep-shrimp populations off Catalonian coast (at ca. 3200 km westwards from Nile Delta) followed the 1964 drop in Nile discharge with a delay of ca. 3-5 yrs (breakpoint analysis applied to data series). The breakpoints detected in the second half of 1960s both in Nile runoff and shrimps’ abundance were independent of climatic events in the study area (e.g. changes in NAO) and occurred before the increase in fishing effort off Catalonian coasts (breakpoint in 1973-1974). The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), inhabited by A. foliacea in the western Basin, had significant temperature (T) and salinity (S) increases in the 1950-1970 period, and Nile damming has contributed about 45% of the total S increase of Western Mediterranean deep-water masses from the 1960s to the late 1990s (Skliris and Lascaratos, 2004). This had to increase, for instance, LIW salinity at its formation site in the eastern Mediterranean. Nile damming was probably a triggering factor for the extinction/drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp off Catalonian coasts.

  12. Discrimination of fast click-series produced by tagged Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) for echolocation or communication. (United States)

    Arranz, P; DeRuiter, S L; Stimpert, A K; Neves, S; Friedlaender, A S; Goldbogen, J A; Visser, F; Calambokidis, J; Southall, B L; Tyack, P L


    Early studies that categorized odontocete pulsed sounds had few means of discriminating signals used for biosonar-based foraging from those used for communication. This capability to identify the function of sounds is important for understanding and interpreting behavior; it is also essential for monitoring and mitigating potential disturbance from human activities. Archival tags were placed on free-ranging Grampus griseus to quantify and discriminate between pulsed sounds used for echolocation-based foraging and those used for communication. Two types of rapid click-series pulsed sounds, buzzes and burst pulses, were identified as produced by the tagged dolphins and classified using a Gaussian mixture model based on their duration, association with jerk (i.e. rapid change of acceleration) and temporal association with click trains. Buzzes followed regular echolocation clicks and coincided with a strong jerk signal from accelerometers on the tag. They consisted of series averaging 359±210 clicks (mean±s.d.) with an increasing repetition rate and relatively low amplitude. Burst pulses consisted of relatively short click series averaging 45±54 clicks with decreasing repetition rate and longer inter-click interval that were less likely to be associated with regular echolocation and the jerk signal. These results suggest that the longer, relatively lower amplitude, jerk-associated buzzes are used in this species to capture prey, mostly during the bottom phase of foraging dives, as seen in other odontocetes. In contrast, the shorter, isolated burst pulses that are generally emitted by the dolphins while at or near the surface are used outside of a direct, known foraging context. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Starving/re-feeding processes induce metabolic modifications in thick-lipped grey mullet (Chelon labrosus, Risso 1827). (United States)

    Pujante, I M; Martos-Sitcha, J A; Moyano, F J; Ruiz-Jarabo, I; Martínez-Rodríguez, G; Mancera, J M


    The effects of starvation and re-feeding on metabolites and tissue composition, GH/IGF-I axis, and digestive enzyme activities in juvenile thick-lipped grey mullet (Chelon labrosus) were evaluated. Fish were divided into three feeding groups (n=72, 82.00±4.09 g initial body mass). The control group was fed 1% of their body mass once a day throughout the experiment with commercial pellets. The other two groups were deprived of feed for 21 days (starved), or re-fed for 7 days after 14 days of food deprivation (re-fed). Full-length cDNAs from pituitary GH and hepatic IGF-I were cloned by screening a cDNA library or by PCR techniques. Furthermore, changes in their mRNA expressions were assessed by real time PCR in specimens maintained under the different feeding patterns. Results showed a negative growth in starved and re-feeding groups. Starvation induced a significant increase in plasma triglycerides as well as a decrease in liver glucose and glycogen. Re-feeding increased plasma glucose, lactate and protein, as well as liver glucose and glycogen. In addition, starvation significantly increased pituitary GH expression, while re-feeding down-regulated it. No significant changes were observed in hepatic IGF-I expression in any dietary treatment. Digestive enzyme activities were not significantly affected either by starvation or by re-feeding. The results of the present work suggest that juveniles of the thick-lipped grey mullet may easily adjust their metabolism under situations characterized by a short-term starvation and re-feeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fish foot prints : Morphology and energetics of the wake behind a continuously swimming mullet (Chelon labrosus risso)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, U.K; van den Heuvel, B.L.E.; Stamhuis, Eize; Videler, J.J


    The structure of the wake behind a continuously swimming mullet was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively by applying two-dimensional particle image velocimetry. A detailed analysis of the flow pattern and of the swimming movements of the fish allowed us to derive a kinematic explanation of the

  15. The gallbladder of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata Risso displays excrescent cholecystocytes with merocrine and apocrine-like secretions. (United States)

    Gilloteaux, J; Ott, Donald W; Oldham-Ott, Carla K


    The gallbladder of Torpedo marmorata exhibits a mucosal surface layer of simple columnar epithelium with very tall cholecystocytes. The apical domain of each cell has few microvilli, but many mucous vesicles that are secreted by exocytosis at the cell apices. The apical regions may also elongate and undergo self-excision while shedding mucus and cell debris into the gallbladder lumen in a manner similar to that described in mammals as a result of sex steroid treatment to induce gallstones and to that found in the cholecystitis associated with cholelithiasis. Numerous small mitochondria, spherical to elongated, are distributed throughout the cells, while the nuclei are often located in the lower third of each cell. In the lower part of the cholecystocytes, large and very densely contrasted lysosomes can be found. All cells are tightly joined by junctional complexes, including long, highly contrasted desmosomes. The fibromuscular layer is made of a loose stroma with a limited muscular component and a poor blood supply. Large diameter blood vessels can only be found in the subserosal layer. It is hypothesized that the obligatorily carnivorous diet of this ureotelic fish has resulted in the evolution of a gallbladder ultrastructure resembling that found in cholecystitis but without the associated cholelithiasis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Expression of VIP and its receptors in the testis of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata (Risso 1880). (United States)

    Agnese, Marisa; Rosati, Luigi; Muriano, Francesco; Valiante, Salvatore; Laforgia, Vincenza; Andreuccetti, Piero; Prisco, Marina


    The aim of this work was to study, by immunoprecipitation, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, and the expression of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and of its receptors (VPAC(1)R and VPAC(2)R) in the testis of a nonmammalian vertebrate, the cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata. We demonstrated that, differently from mammals, VIP and VPAC(2)R were widely distributed in the testicular cells while the VPAC(1)R had a limited distribution. In details, we showed that VIP and VPAC(2)R were present in mitotic and differentiating germ cells as well as in the cells involved in the steroidogenesis, i.e., Leydig, Sertoli cells, and prespermatogonia and spermatogonia. The possibility that VIP is involved in the spermatogenesis and particularly in the steroidogenesis of T. marmorata is discussed.

  17. Cellular localization of PACAP and its receptors in the ovary of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata Risso 1880 (Elasmobranchii: Torpediniformes). (United States)

    Agnese, Marisa; Valiante, Salvatore; Laforgia, Vincenza; Andreuccetti, Piero; Prisco, Marina


    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the glucagon-related family and occurs in two amidated forms, PACAP38 and PACAP27, with 38 and 27 amino acids, respectively. PACAP acts by binding to three different receptors, that are classified by their binding affinity for PACAP and VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide): PAC(1)R (PACAP-specific receptor) exclusively binds PACAP, while VPAC(1)R (VIP/PACAP receptor, subtype 1) and VPAC(2)R (VIP/PACAP receptor, subtype 2) bind both PACAP and VIP. PACAP, first discovered in the brain, was then localized in several peripheral tissues of mammals, including the ovary. Besides mammals, PACAP and its receptors have been reported in fish too; however, less is known about the presence of PACAP in the fish ovary and the studies are limited to teleosts. The aim of our work was to study the distribution of the PACAP/PACAP-Rs system in the ovary of the cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata. Using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry techniques, we demonstrated that PACAP and its receptors are widely represented in the Torpedo ovary in a stage-dependent manner. Moreover, our findings suggest an involvement of this peptide in the whole follicologenesis, probably influencing steroidogenesis, follicle development, and oocyte growth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Expression of vitellogenin receptor in the ovarian follicles during the reproductive cycle of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata Risso 1880. (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppina; Prisco, Marina; Agnese, Marisa; Valiante, Salvatore; Verderame, Mariailaria; Limatola, Ermelinda; Laforgia, Vincenza; Andreuccetti, Piero


    The aim of this investigation was to identify the encoding sequence of vitellogenin receptor gene (vtgr), and its expression during the oogenesis in the spotted ray, Torpedo marmorata, in different phases of reproductive cycle. From an ovarian cDNA of vitellogenic female, we obtained a fragment of 581 bp, which corresponds to a partial sequence encoding the vitellogenin receptor (VTGR) in Torpedo (accession number: gi/193244760). This sequence shows a high identity with the VTGR of other vertebrates, particularly Leucoraja erinacea (89% identity) and Squalus acanthias (84% identity). We also showed that vtgr mRNA expression in the ovary modifies during the oogenesis and throughout the reproductive cycle. Indeed, in immature females, whose ovary contains only previtellogenic follicles, vtgr mRNA occurred in the oocyte cortex as well as within intermediate and pyriform cells. In mature females, whose ovary contains pre- and vitellogenic follicles, vtgr mRNA was detectable not only in the oocyte cortex and in intermediate and pyriform cells but also in small follicle cells present in the follicular epithelium of vitellogenic follicles. In ovulating females, that, as pregnant ones, show pre-and vitellogenic follicles, vtgr mRNA was evident in the oocyte cortex only, whereas in pregnant females, no vtgr mRNA was evident. The role of VTGR in the control of Torpedo vitellogenesis is discussed. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  19. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827 as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

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    Lorenzo Tancioni


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  20. Gonadal disorder in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a biomarker of environmental stress in surface waters. (United States)

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh Dawood; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  1. Shoreline distribution and parasite infection of black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso, 1827 in the lower River Danube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondračková, Markéta; Slováčková, Iveta; Trichkova, T.; Polačik, Matej; Jurajda, Pavel


    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2012), s. 590-596 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Pomphorhynchus laevis * water * size * invasions * habitats * history * fishes * sex Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.902, year: 2012

  2. Comparative Study of Reproductive Development in Wild and Captive-Reared Greater Amberjack Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810.

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    Rosa Zupa

    Full Text Available The greater amberjack Seriola dumerili is a large teleost fish with rapid growth and excellent flesh quality, whose domestication represents an ambitious challenge for aquaculture. The occurrence of reproductive dysfunctions in greater amberjack reared in captivity was investigated by comparing reproductive development of wild and captive-reared individuals. Wild and captive-reared breeders were sampled in the Mediterranean Sea during three different phases of the reproductive cycle: early gametogenesis (EARLY, late April-early May, advanced gametogenesis (ADVANCED, late May-early June and spawning (SPAWNING, late June-July. Fish reproductive state was evaluated using the gonado-somatic index (GSI, histological analysis of the gonads and determination of sex steroid levels in the plasma, and correlated with leptin expression in the liver and gonad biochemical composition. The GSI and sex steroid levels were lower in captive-reared than in wild fish. During the ADVANCED period, when the wild greater amberjack breeders were already in spawning condition, ovaries of captive-reared breeders showed extensive atresia of late vitellogenic oocytes and spermatogenic activity ceased in the testes of half of the examined males. During the SPAWNING period, all captive-reared fish had regressed gonads, while wild breeders still displayed reproductive activity. Liver leptin expression and gonad proximate composition of wild and captive greater amberjack were similar. However, the gonads of captive-reared fish showed different total polar lipid contents, as well as specific lipid classes and fatty acid profiles with respect to wild individuals. This study underlines the need for an improvement in rearing technology for this species, which should include minimum handling during the reproductive season and the formulation of a specific diet to overcome the observed gonadal decrements of phospholipids, DHA (22:6n-3 and ARA (20:4n-6, compared to wild breeders.

  3. Barbus meridionalis Risso, 1827 populations status in the Vişeu River basin (Maramureş Mountains Nature Park

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    Bănăduc Doru


    Full Text Available The ecological state of lotic ecosystems occupied naturally by Barbus meridionalis, in the Vişeu Basin within the Maramureş Mountains Natural Park, vary among good to reduced. The inventoried human activities which negatively influence the ecologic state of the Barbus meridionalis species habitats and populations are the organic and mining pollution, and poaching. The habitats with low and inadequate conditions created a reduced status of the Barbus meridionalis populations; the status of Barbus meridionalis populations is not so much affected in the cases of habitats of average to good condition. Barbus meridionalis is considered a relatively common fish species in the researched watershed despite the fact that its populations ecological status has decreased from 2007-2015, but the restoration potential in the area for improving this species status is high.

  4. Two new fishes for the fauna of Spain: Leuciscus (=Telestes) soufia Risso, 1826 and Leuciscus leuciscus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillenius, D.


    1. According to BERG (1932) Leuciscus soufia has the following distribution: “Nebenflüsse der Donau in Bayern, Inn. Rheingebiet: Hochrhein, Aare, Vierwaldstätter See, Züricher See, Walensee, Thuner See, Bieler See, Neuenburger See; fehlt im Bodensee, ist aber bei Basel vorhanden; fehlt dem Oberrhein

  5. Comparative gonadogenesis and hormonal induction of spawning of cultured and wild mediterranean amberjack (Seriola dumerili, Risso 1810

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    V. Kozul


    Full Text Available The histological characteristics of wild and cultured Mediterranean amberjack gonads were studied during the first four years of their life cycle. No differences were found in the gonad development of both wild and captive males and females during the first and second year. In the third year, wild females showed more advanced oocyte development than captive females. In the fourth year, vitellogenic oocytes were noted for captive females. Fertilised eggs were obtained after a HCG hormone treatment of four- to nine-year old wild specimens. A smaller quantity of mature and fertilised eggs was also obtained through the spawning of hormone-treated four-year old captive broodstock specimens. Eggs in the stage of gastrulation died within eight hours following fertilisation.

  6. Effects of various ecological factors on radiostrontium uptake in two euryhaline teleosts: Mugil auratus Risso and Pleuronectes platessa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard, J.-C.


    The effects of various ecological, biotic and abiotic factors (age, species, salinity, temperature, sediment, calcium overload, food) on the accumulation of 85 Sr were studied in two euryhaline Teleosts. Generally, all the physico-chemical and biotic factors tending to activate metabolism, slightly increased radiostrontium intake. Concentration factors were seldom above one for animals measured in toto. According to the concentration kinetics of 85 Sr, three types of organs were distinguished: bone-type tissues, soft tissues and digestive tract [fr

  7. Geomorphological, trophic and human influences on the bamboo coral Isidella elongata assemblages in the deep Mediterranean: To what extent does Isidella form habitat for fish and invertebrates? (United States)

    Cartes, J. E.; LoIacono, C.; Mamouridis, V.; López-Pérez, C.; Rodríguez, P.


    We analyzed what are the best ecological conditions for megafauna associated with the bamboo coral Isidella elongata based on the geomorphological, physical and trophic information taken in 3 stations (St1, St2, St3) off the southern Catalonian coasts at 620 m depth in June 2011. Results were compared with assemblage compositions recorded in past cruises (May 1992, 1994) at the same 3 stations. St1 was in a fishing ground exploited since the 1940s over a relatively wide slope at ca. 22 km from the nearest canyon head; St2 and St3 were on a narrower slope closer to canyon heads and to the Ebro river mouth than St1. I. elongata had formed (to May 1994, at least) a dense coral forest at St2-St3 (to ca. 255 colonies/ha at St3), and some isolated colonies (to ca. 0.9 colonies/ha) were still collected in 2011. Fish and invertebrate communities significantly differed between St1 and St2/St3, with two macrourid fishes (Trachrhynchus trachyrhynchus and Nezumia aequalis) and two decapods (Plesionika martia and Plesionika acanthonotus) more abundant at St2/St3. The following ecological indicators imply better food conditions for megafauna at St2-St3 and for I. elongata itself: (i) greater density of zooplankton (copepods, euphausiids, and others) as potential prey for planktivores (including I. elongata); (ii) greater biomass and mean weight of epifaunal and infaunal deposit feeders; (iii) higher feeding intensity, F, at St3 for benthos feeders (Phycis blennoides, N. aequalis and Aristeus antennatus). Also, at St2-St3 we found higher near-bottom turbidity (indicating particle resuspension: food for suspension feeders) and finer and more reduced (Eh) sediments. The results let us suggest that corals and accompanying fauna preferently found optimal ecological conditions in the same habitat, while habitat-forming capacity by I. elongata seemed weak to generate these conditions. Coral forests may enhance detritus accumulations around them, improving habitat conditions for benthos

  8. Anthropogenic impact in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral province (Mediterranean Sea): Observations and conservation straits (United States)

    D'Onghia, G.; Calculli, C.; Capezzuto, F.; Carlucci, R.; Carluccio, A.; Grehan, A.; Indennidate, A.; Maiorano, P.; Mastrototaro, F.; Pollice, A.; Russo, T.; Savini, A.; Sion, L.; Tursi, A.


    , Merluccius merluccius and Conger conger while those from trawling mostly consisted of Aristeus antennatus, Aristaeomorpha foliacea and M. merluccius. The information collected during the observers' program and VMS data indicated greater impact due to trawling than longlining. The conservation and effective management of this vulnerable marine ecosystem remain difficult.

  9. Comparative study on the reproductive biology of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus, 1758) and T. marmorata (Risso, 1810) in the central Mediterranean Sea


    Iván Consalvo; Umberto Scacco; Michele Romanelli; Marino Vacchi


    La biología reproductiva de las especies Torpedo torpedo (n = 535) y Torpedo marmorata (n = 385), recolectadas en las aguas costeras del Mar Mediterráneo central italiano, desde septiembre de 2000 hasta octubre de 2001, ha sido estudiada y comparada. Los machos y las hembras alcanzaron la longitud máxima de 445 y 477 mm TL en T. torpedo y de 364 y 553 mm TL en T. marmorata. Las hembras de T. marmorata resultarón ser mayores que las de T. torpedo. El resultado contrario fue obtenido en los mac...

  10. Çinkonun (Zn+2 Gümüş Balığı (Atherina boyeri, Risso, 1810 Üzerine Akut Toksisitesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer BULUT


    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to determine acute toxicity of zinc on sand smelt (Atherina boyeri. In the experiments were used sand smelt which have average length of 4.41±0.068 cm and weights 0.60±0.027 g. The test fish were exposed to following concentrations of zinc (7.78, 12.96, 21.6, 36, 60 and 100 mg/L for 24 hours. In preparation of test solutions zinc sulphate and artesian water which has temperature 19° C, total hardness 350 mg/L CaCO3 and 5.72 mg/L DO. Test fish were placed in plastic containers to replications experimental groups as hourly and daily morphological observations were made and recorded time of death in acute toxicity test. In zinc-acute toxicity test were used static bioassay methods for 24 hour intervals. Data obtained from the zinc acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the Probit Analysis to LC50 and LT50. LC50 zinc concentrations values were ranged between 1.768 mg/L were observed. The longer the duration of zinc showed a decrease in the value of LC50. LC50 value of the application factor is applied (1.768x0.1 to sand smelt zinc maximum acceptable concentration (safe concentration, 0.1768 mg/L Zn+2, respectively. Lethal concentration, depending on the time interval is 1 hour and 5 minutes to 6 hours 27 minutes LT50 values ranged and decreases the concentrations of zinc have been found. During the experiment, the surface concentrations of fish depending on the movements of assembly and also the opposite effect and side swims away from a fast-moving, uncontrolled swimming, to escape out of the water movement, perpendicular to the water, swimming, breathing movements are observed

  11. Reproductive biology and diet of Mustelus punctulatus (Risso, 1826 (Chondrichthyes: Triakidae from the Gulf of Gabès, central Mediterranean Sea

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    Bechir Saïdi


    Full Text Available Specimens of Mustelus punctulatus were collected between January 2002 and December 2005 from commercial fisheries in the Gulf of Gabès (central Mediterranean Sea. Males and females reached a maximum total length (TL of 111 and 122 cm respectively. Males matured between 76 and 88.5 cm TL, with a size at maturity (TL50 of 81.4 cm TL. Females matured between 88 and 100 cm TL with a TL50 of 95.6 cm. Females had an annual reproductive cycle. Mating occurred through late-May and June. Ovulation occurred from early July to mid-August with parturition occurring from mid-May to early June, after a gestation period of 11 months. The size at birth was estimated to be 24.5 to 30.5 cm TL. Positive linear relationships were detected between the TL of mature females and ovarian and uterine fecundities. Mustelus punctulatus is an opportunistic predator that consumes a wide range of demersal and benthic prey items. It preys mainly on crustaceans, teleosts and molluscs. Polychaetes, sipunculids, echinoderms and tunicates are also consumed. The species change their main food item as they grow, from crustaceans to teleosts then to molluscs.

  12. Chloroplast digestion and the development of functional kleptoplasty in juvenile Elysia timida (Risso, 1818 as compared to short-term and non-chloroplast-retaining sacoglossan slugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Marie Jerschabek Laetz

    Full Text Available Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only metazoans known to perform functional kleptoplasty, the sequestration and retention of functional chloroplasts within their digestive gland cells. Remarkably, a few species with this ability can survive starvation periods of 3-12 months likely due to their stolen chloroplasts. There are no reports of kleptoplast transfer from mother slug to either eggs or juveniles, demonstrating that each animal must independently acquire its kleptoplasts and develop the ability to maintain them within its digestive gland. We present here an investigation into the development of functional kleptoplasty in a long-term kleptoplast retaining species, Elysia timida. Laboratory-reared juvenile slugs of different post-metamorphic ages were placed in starvation and compared to 5 known short-term retaining slug species and 5 non-retaining slug species. The subsequent results indicate that functional kleptoplasty is not performed by E. timida until after 15 days post-metamorphosis and that by 25 days, these animals outlive many of the short-term retention species. Digestive activity was also monitored using lysosomal abundance as an indicator, revealing different patterns in starving juveniles versus adults. Starved juveniles were reintroduced to food to determine any differences in digestive activity when starvation ends, resulting in an increase in the number of kleptoplasts, but no overall change in lysosomal activity. By revealing some of the changes that occur during early development in these animals, which begin as non-kleptoplast-retaining and grow into long-term retaining slugs, this investigation provides a basis for future inquiries into the origin and development of this remarkable ability.

  13. Morphometric and molecular characterisation of specimens of Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Lepidapedidae) from the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso) (Teleostei: Moridae) in the western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dallarés, S.; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrasson, M.; Gibson, D. I.; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.


    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2013), s. 243-253 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Grant - others:GAJU(CZ) 04-135/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Northern Atlantic * Lepocrediidae Digenea * genus Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.035, year: 2013

  14. Age, growth and body condition of big-scale sand smelt Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810 inhabiting a freshwater environment: Lake Trasimeno (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzoni M.


    Full Text Available The age, growth and body condition of the big-scale sand smelt (Atherina boyeri population of Lake Trasimeno were investigated. In total, 3998 specimens were collected during the study and five age classes (from 0+ to 4+ were identified. From a subsample of 1017 specimens, there were 583 females, 411 males and 23 juveniles. The equations between total length (TL and weight (W were: log 10W = −2.326 + 3.139log 10TL for males and log 10W = −2.366 + 3.168log 10TL for females. There were highly significant differences between the sexes and for both sexes the value of b (slope of the log (TL-W regression was greater than 3 (3.139 for males and 3.168 for females, indicating positive allometric growth. The parameters of the theoretical growth curve were: TLt = 10.03 cm; k = 0.18 yr-1, t0 = − 0.443 yr and Φ′ = 1.65. Monthly trends of overall condition and the gonadosomatic index (GSI indicated that the reproductive period occurred from March to September. Analysis of back-calculated lengths indicated the occurrence of a reverse Lee’s phenomenon. This could be a symptom of predation or competition, with consequences for young specimens with slower growth and smaller size.

  15. Parasites of the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso, 1810) from the NW Mediterranean Sea and relationship with fish diet and enzymatic biomarkers (United States)

    Dallarés, Sara; Constenla, María; Padrós, Francesc; Cartes, Joan E.; Solé, Montse; Carrassón, Maite


    Specimens of Mora moro were collected in two seasons and three localities of the Balearic Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea) and parasitological, dietary (to prey-species level), enzymatic and histological data were obtained, alongside with environmental information (T, S, O2). The relationships among fish parasite load, condition indices, diet, enzymatic activity of muscular acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), intensity of splenic melano-macrophage centres (MMC) and hepatic granulomas were tested. M. moro showed a rich and abundant parasite fauna, and was a new host record for 17 out of the 18 different endoparasite taxa found. Significant differences were detected among locality-season groups, in turn related to different environmental variables, for Anisakidae gen. sp., Anisakis Type II and Tetraphyllidea fam. gen. sp.; thus, they are proposed as potentially useful as biological tags for geographical discrimination of M. moro in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Detailed relationships were found between parasite taxa and prey ingested (e.g. Anisakidae gen. sp. related with meso-bathypelagic crustaceans; Anisakis Type I with benthopelagic squids). Most parasites were linked to samples with highest levels of near-bottom O2, which is consistent with direct relationships found between near-bottom O2 and zooplankton biomass in the Balearic Basin. Total parasite abundance and the abundance of Tetraphyllidea fam. gen. sp. showed a significant relationship with the activity of AChE and the abundance of Anisakis Type II with LDH. AChE was associated with hepatosomatic index (HSI) and condition factor (K); LDH with gonadosomatic index (GSI), K and fish total length (TL). LDH activity showed differences among sampling groups. Splenic MMC and hepatic granulomas were not associated with fish parasite load. A positive relationship was found between MMC area and fish TL and LDH activity.

  16. Integrated study of Mediterranean deep canyons: Novel results and future challenges (United States)

    Canals, M.; Company, J. B.; Martín, D.; Sànchez-Vidal, A.; Ramírez-Llodrà, E.


    intermediate and deep-water masses, and the associated fluxes of matter and energy are a main driver of deep-sea ecosystems; (iv) deep-sea organisms are highly sensitive to the arrival of external inputs, starting from the lowest food web levels and propagating upwards as time passes, which also relies upon the biology, nutritional needs and life expectancy of each individual species; and (v) innovative knowledge gained through such multidisciplinary research is of the utmost significance for an improved management of deep-sea living resources, such as the highly priced red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, for which a pilot management plan largely based in the findings described here and in related articles has been recently published (BOE, 2013). The researchers involved in such challenging endeavour have learnt tremendously from the results obtained so far and from each other, but are fully aware that there are still many unsolved questions. That is why this introductory article also includes “Future challenges” both in the title and as an individual section at the end, to express that there is still a long way to go.

  17. Continuous osteological characters in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships of the six Euro-Mediterranean mullet species (Mugilidae). (United States)

    Antović, Ivanka


    Sixty-three continuous osteological characters (18 skull continuous characters and the total length of neurocranium, 45 continuous characters of 15 elements of the viscerodermal skeleton) were analyzed and included in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships of the six Euro-Mediterranean mullet species from the South Adriatic Sea: Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758; Liza saliens Risso, 1810; Liza aurata Risso, 1810; Liza ramada Risso, 1826; Chelon labrosus Risso, 1826 and Oedalechilus labeo Cuvier, 1829. The study reveals that Sphyraenidae was separated clearly from Mugilidae, C. labrosus and three Liza species form a common cluster (L. ramada and L. saliens being the closest), while O. labeo and M. cephalus cluster together.

  18. Accelerated Minority Institution Low Frequency OdontoceteHearing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Losey, George


    We have tested the hearing of bottlenose dolphins, Risso's dolphins, and False killer whales using both the behavioral techniques and the envelope following response evoked auditory potential procedure...

  19. Effect of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on vitellogenesis in the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 (Elasmobranchii: Torpediniformes): studies on females and on estrogen-treated males. (United States)

    Prisco, Marina; Marina, Prisco; Valiante, Salvatore; Salvatore, Valiante; Maddalena Di Fiore, Maria; Maria, Maddalena Di Fiore; Raucci, Franca; Franca, Raucci; Del Giudice, Giuseppina; Giuseppina, Del Giudice; Romano, Maurizio; Maurizio, Romano; Laforgia, Vincenza; Vincenza, Laforgia; Limatola, Ermelinda; Ermelinda, Limatola; Andreuccetti, Piero; Piero, Andreuccetti


    The influence of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on vertebrate vitellogenesis is well ascertained. The aim of the present paper is to study the involvement of E(2) and progesterone (P) in the induction and regulation of vitellogenesis in females and experimental E(2)-treated males of Torpedo marmorata. We analyzed females in various stages of the reproductive cycle and E(2) experimentally treated males. The presence of vitellogenin was investigated in the plasma and in the liver by western blot and immunohistochemistry; its site of synthesis was investigated by in situ hybridization. The steroid levels in the plasma were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay. In treated males, E(2) induces in the liver the synthesis of VTG which is then secreted into the bloodstream as a 205-kDa polypeptide, the same that is found in the plasma of non-pregnant vitellogenic females. In females, E(2) is naturally present in the plasma and its level is correlated with VTG synthesis in the liver and with the female reproductive cycle. Indeed, large amounts of E(2) are only found in mature vitellogenic females, whose liver is involved in VTG synthesis and secretion. By contrast, small amounts of E(2) are evident in juveniles whose ovaries are lacking in vitellogenic follicles and in females preparing for ovulation. Low titers are also found in gravid females, whose liver is not engaged in VTG synthesis. We show that P, which is absent in untreated males and juvenile females, is evident in the blood serum of E(2)-treated males and sexually mature females. Interestingly, in treated males P appears in the plasma just 24h after the first injection of E(2) and its titer increases; a week after the last injections, the P level is similar to that recorded in non-gravid vitellogenic females. Finally, it is noteworthy that the highest titer of P was recorded in pregnant females. We demonstrate that in Torpedo vitellogenin synthesis, as in other vertebrates, is under the control of E(2) but also that this synthesis is probably under the control of progesterone.

  20. Parasite communities of the deep-sea fish Alepocephalus rostratus Risso, 1820 in the Balearic Sea (NW Mediterranean) along the slope and relationships with enzymatic biomarkers and health indicators (United States)

    Pérez-i-García, D.; Constenla, M.; Padrós, F.; Soler-Membrives, A.; Solé, M.; Carrassón, M.


    This study examines the parasite communities of Alepocephalus rostratus and its influence on some fish biochemical markers and histological alterations. A. rostratus constitutes the second most important fish species, in terms of biomass, inhabiting the deep slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic Sea, NW Mediterranean). The study revealed eight different parasite species in this host: one coccidian, one digenean, one monogenean, one cestode and four nematodes. The parasite fauna of A. rostratus was partially dominated by larval forms (four of the seven metazoan taxa found), which combined with low species richness corresponds to a parasite fauna pattern more typical of bathypelagic fish species rather than demersal ones. The larval tetraphyllideans and cucullanid nematodes were the predominant species. In relation to depth, differences in abundance of the nematodes Cucullaninae gen. sp. and Hysterothylacium aduncum were found, probably due to the dietary shift in the fish host at greater depth. Thus, Cucullaninae gen. sp. and H. aduncum could be regarded as indicators for discriminating populations of A. rostratus in relation to depth in NW Mediterranean waters. Of the biochemical markers examined, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and lipid peroxidation (LP) levels, only LP showed significant differences between depths. A positive relationship was found between AChE activity and Tetraphyllidea fam. gen. sp., Anisakis physeteris and H. aduncum abundance and a negative one with the abundance of Cucullaninae gen. sp. LDH showed a positive relationship with the abundance of the parasites Paracyclocotyla cherbonnieri and Tetraphyllidea fam. gen. sp. At cyto-histological level, coccidians were detected in the pyloric caeca with a prevalence of 90% in Barcelona, but in the rest of organs almost no alterations were detected. The restricted macroplanktonic diet of A. rostratus, that maintains it distant from the sea-floor for longer periods than other demersal species, probably makes this species less susceptible to sediment-associated impacts including parasitism.

  1. Etude du cycle de la reproduction et la fécondité de muge (Risso, 1810) (Famille Mugilidae) dans les eaux côtières de Tartous (Syrie)


    Saad, A.; Fina, H.


    L’étude de la biologie de 852 poissons de Liza aurata dans les eaux côtières de Tartous a montré que la période de reproduction de cette espèce se situe durant octobre-novembre. La taille à la première maturité est de l’ordre de 34 cm (Lt) pour les femelles âgées de 3 ans. La fécondité absolue augmente avec la taille de poisson.

  2. Short Communication A near mass stranding of cetaceans in St ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 70 false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens and 124 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops sp., and a separate group of 13 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus, assembled close inshore off a known mass-stranding site in St Helena Bay, South Africa, in October 2003. However, only a single Risso's dolphin attempted to ...

  3. 76 FR 37065 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14502 (United States)


    ... importation of muscle, blubber, and teeth samples from Risso's, spinner, and spotted dolphins and short-finned... categorically excluded from the requirement to prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact...

  4. Reemergence of Rift Valley fever, Mauritania, 2010. (United States)

    Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Hampathé; Ba, Yamar; Freire, Caio C M; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Oumar; Elgady, Isselmou O; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A


    A Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in humans and animals occurred in Mauritania in 2010. Thirty cases of RVF in humans and 3 deaths were identified. RVFV isolates were recovered from humans, camels, sheep, goats, and Culex antennatus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates indicated a virus origin from western Africa.

  5. Mosquito Fauna (Diptera: Culicidae of Hamedan County, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zahirnia


    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and determine the larval and adult mosquitoes (Culicidae fauna in Hamedan County, western Iran.It was a cross-sectional study which took place in four area of the Hamedan County. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and adults were dipping, hand catch, night catch and total catch. Larvae and adult mosquitoes collected and were sent to laboratory of Medical Entomology, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran for further identification to species level to determination of fauna. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version19.Three genera and eight species of family Culicidae were collected and identified in Hamedan County, Hamedan Province, West Iran, during May to October 2013. These species included: Culex theileri, Cx. pipiens, Cx. antennatus, Culiseta subochrea, Cs. langiareolata, Anopheles superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. stephensi. The species Cx. antennatus and An. stephensi were reported for the first time in Hamedan County.An. stephensi and Cx. antennatus caught had not been previously recorded in Hamedan Province. Due to vast agricultural activities in the province which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes and since many of them are potential vectors of human and domesticated animal pathogens, their ecology needs to be studied extensively.

  6. Isolation and characterization of fifteen polymorphic microsatellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amplification in two other mealybug species. J. Genet. 91, e75–e78. Online only:]. Introduction. The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) is a cos- mopolitan and polyphagous insect pest mainly of subtrop- ical fruit trees under Mediterranean climate conditions and.

  7. Assessing the Performance of Omni-Directional Receivers for Passive Acoustic Detection of Vocalizing Odontocetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daziens, John


    ...: 2 orca and 2 pilot whale whistles and sperm whale and Risso's dolphin clicks. Several hundred iterations of each signal were broadcast from R/V Point Sur at stations 300 m to 12,000 m from the range's moored three-element...

  8. Mugil cephalus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 22, 2011 ... Research Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. Research Institute (GEBRI), City for ..... Aquaculture, 105: 117-129. Minos G, Katselis G, Kaspiris P, Ondrias I (1994). The differential increase of the morphometrical characters during the growth of the. Grey mullets, Liza ramada (Risso) and ...

  9. Genetic structure of Pseudococcus microcirculus (Hemiptera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    major pests of orchids (Johnson 2009). Most notably, the long-tailed mealy bug Psuedococcus longispinus (Targioni. Tozzetti) and the citrus mealy bug Planococcus citri. (Risso) are polyphagous pests that commonly use orna- mental orchids as hosts. In 1960, the orchid mealy bug. (Pseudococcus microcirculus McKenzie) ...

  10. Phylogenetic position of the cryopelagic codfish genus Arctogadus Drjagin, 1932 based on partial mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, PR; Jordan, AD; Gravlund, P


    ), Gadiculus argenteus Guichenot, Micromesistius poutassou (Risso), Pollachius pollachius (L.), Pollachius virens (L.)] and from 4 gadiform outgroup species. With additional data from GenBank, a dataset of all 12 gadine genera (19 species) was analysed using parsimony and neighbour-joining. Arctogadus appeared...

  11. Cymothoide Isopoden van de Nederlandse kust en de Zuidelijke Noordzee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.


    In het in 1956 uitgegeven deel betreffende de Isopoda in de serie „Fauna van Nederland" (Holthuis, 1956) werden van de familie Cymothoidae twee genera (Aega en Eurydice) voor Nederland genoemd, met drie soorten (Aega rosacea Risso, Aega psora (L.) en Eurydice pulchra Leach). Volgens moderne

  12. Drift pumice in the central Indian Ocean Basin: Geochemical evidence

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.; JaiSankar, S.; Ilangovan, D.

    and Related Rocks. Wiley, New York, pp. 525-548. Risso, C., Scasso, R.A and Aparico A. 2002. Presence of large pumice blocks on Tierra del Fuego and south Shetland Islands shorelines, from 1962 south Sandwich Islands eruption. Marine Geology 186, 413...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 4701 - 4750 of 11090 ... ... Evaluating the effect of some botanical insecticides on the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Abstract PDF ... Vol 6, No 22 (2007), Evaluation of in vitro antiviral activity of a brown alga (Cystoseira myrica) from the Persian Gulf against herpes simplex virus ...

  14. Toothed whales in the northwestern Mediterranean: Insight into their feeding ecology using chemical tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praca, Emilie; Laran, Sophie; Lepoint, Gilles; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Quetglas, Antoni; Belcari, Paola; Sartor, Paolo; Dhermain, Frank; Ody, Denis; Tapie, Nathalie


    Research highlights: →δ 15 N highlights significant different trophic levels. → Similar δ 13 C indicate a habitat superposition or corroborate seasonal migrations. → Congener 180 and tDDT/tPCB show wider migrations for sperm whales. - Abstract: Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales rarely strand in the northwestern Mediterranean. Thus, their feeding ecology, through the analysis of stomach contents, is poorly known. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the segregation/superposition of the diet and habitat of Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales using chemical tracers, namely, stable isotopes (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) and organochlorines. Significantly different δ 15 N values were obtained in Risso's dolphins (11.7 ± 0.7 per mille ), sperm whales (10.8 ± 0.3 per mille ) and pilot whales (9.8 ± 0.3 per mille ), revealing different trophic levels. These differences are presumably due to various proportions of Histioteuthidae cephalopods in each toothed whale's diet. Similar δ 13 C contents between species indicated long-term habitat superposition or corroborated important seasonal migrations. Lower congener 180 concentrations (8.20 vs. 21.73 μg.g -1 lw) and higher tDDT/tPCB ratios (0.93 vs. 0.42) were observed in sperm whales compared with Risso's dolphins and may indicate wider migrations for the former. Therefore, competition between these species seems to depend on different trophic levels and migration patterns.

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 651 - 700 of 1050 ... Vol 36, No 2 (2014), Phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of Nemesis Risso, 1826 species found on different elasmobranch host .... M S DE VILLIERS, S DU PLESSIS, M DU TOIT, T M LESHORO, A B MAKHADO, M S MASON, D MERKLE, D TSHINGANA, V L WARD, P A WHITTINGTON.

  16. The Uruguayan Armed Forces and the Challenge of 21st Century Peacekeeping Operations (United States)


    Presidente Uruguayo (Montevideo: Linardy y Risso, 2003), 119-120, 202. 47 Poder Legislativo de la República Oriental del Uruguay, “Diario de Sesiones de...Figure 3 shows that during the Cold War, this model allowed Brazil, Chile and Colombia to align against Argentina, Peru and Venezuela.138 Checkerboards...located between powerful countries.139 ARGENTINA CHILE URUGUAY BRAZIL The South American Geopolitics during Cold War PARAGUAY BOLIVIA PERU ECUADOR

  17. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Andrea Beatriz Mendes-Bonato1 Claudicéia Risso-Pascotto1 Maria Suely Pagliarini1 Cacilda Borges Do Valle2. Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, State University of Maringá, 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná, Brazil; Embrapa Beef Cattle, P.O. Box 154, 79002-970 Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, ...

  18. Fronts and Fine-Scale Distribution of Three Cetacean Species within the Dynamic Mid-Atlantic Bight Shelf Break System (United States)

    LaBrecque, E.; Lawson, G. L.; Halpin, P. N.


    The Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf break region is a highly dynamic and productive area that provides a wide range of habitat to many marine species over every trophic level. At least 23 cetacean species occur in the MAB shelf break region and their distributions are thought to be influenced by the MAB shelf break front. This research characterizes the spatial distribution of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) through multi-dimensional scaling (MDS), classification tree analysis and random forest analysis of marine mammal line-transect survey data, multi-frequency active acoustic data and fine-scale in situ hydrographic data. Multi-frequency active acoustic data were broadly classified into proxies of middle trophic level groups through frequency response methods. Surface temperature fronts were observed in all sections of the shelf break region. The strongest surface fronts were within 15 km of the shelf break ( 150 meter isobath) on 10 of the 19 cross shelf transects. MDS presented clear environmental distinction between common dolphins and Risso's dolphins and sperm whales. Environmental separation between Risso's dolphins and sperm whales was evident but less distinct. In both the classification tree and random forest analyzes, the common dolphin models had the least error (0.33 and 0.28 respectively). Depths less than 145 meters and area within 10 km shelf-side of the shelf break were the primary variables that described common dolphin habitat. Risso's dolphin habitat was selected as the area between 20 km shelf-side to 20 km offshore of the strongest surface thermal gradient. Offshore salinity and distances greater than 26 km to density fronts were the primary variables selected to describe sperm whale habitat. When mapped back into geographic space, these three cetacean species occupy different fine-scale habitats within the dynamic Mid-Atlantic Bight shelf break system.

  19. Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Mesopelagic: Odontocete Foraging Ecology and Anti-predator Behavior of Prey (United States)

    Benoit-Bird, K. J.


    We explored the behavior of Risso's dolphins foraging in scattering layers off California using an integrated approach comprising echosounders deployed in a deep-diving autonomous underwater vehicle, ship based acoustics, visual observations, direct prey sampling, and animal-borne tags on deep-diving predators. We identified three distinct prey layers: a persistent layer around 425 m, a vertically migrating layer around 300 m, and a layer intermittently present near 50 m, all of which were used by individual tagged animals. Active acoustic measurements demonstrated that Risso's dolphins dove to discrete prey layers throughout the day and night with only slightly higher detection rates at night. Dolphins were detected in all three layers during the day with over half of detections in the middle layer, 20% of detections in the deepest layer, and 10% falling outside the main layers. Dolphins were found less frequently in areas where the shallow, intermittent layer was absent, suggesting that this layer, while containing the smallest prey and the lowest densities of squid, was an important component of their foraging strategy. The deepest layer was targeted equally both during the day and at night. Using acoustic data collected from the AUV, we found layers were made up of distinct, small patches of animals of similar size and taxonomy adjacent to contrasting patches. Squid made up over 70% of the patches in which dolphins were found and more than 95% of those in deep water. Squid targeted by dolphins in deep water were also relatively large, indicating significant benefit from these relatively rare, physically demanding dives. Within these patches, prey formed tighter aggregations when Risso's dolphins were present. Careful integration of a suite of traditional and novel tools is providing insight into the ecology and dynamics of predator and prey in the mesopelagic.

  20. A review of mosquitoes associated with Rift Valley fever virus in Madagascar. (United States)

    Tantely, Luciano M; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier


    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonotic disease occurring throughout Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Madagascar. The disease is caused by a Phlebovirus (RVF virus [RVFV]) transmitted to vertebrate hosts through the bite of infected mosquitoes. In Madagascar, the first RVFV circulation was reported in 1979 based on detection in mosquitoes but without epidemic episode. Subsequently, two outbreaks occurred: the first along the east coast and in the central highlands in 1990 and 1991 and the most recent along the northern and eastern coasts and in the central highlands in 2008 and 2009. Despite the presence of 24 mosquitoes species potentially associated with RVFV transmission in Madagascar, little associated entomological information is available. In this review, we list the RVFV vector, Culex antennatus, as well as other taxa as candidate vector species. We discuss risk factors from an entomological perspective for the re-emergence of RVF in Madagascar. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. The length-weight relationships of three sharks and five batoids in the Lebanese marine waters, eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Lteif


    Full Text Available Length-weight relationships were estimated for 8 elasmobranchs (3 sharks and 5 batoids in the Lebanese marine waters, eastern Mediterranean. The values of parameter b ranged between 1.752 ± 0.4508 and 3.337 ± 0.2321. Sex influenced the length-weight relationships for the shark Centrophorus uyato (Rafinesque 1801 and the batoid Torpedo marmorata (Risso 1810. These relationships should be used only with the observed length ranges.

  2. Records of new and rare elasmobranchs from Taiwan. (United States)

    Hsu, Hua Hsun; Joung, Shoou Jeng; Ebert, David A; Lin, Chia Yen


    Five new records of elasmobranchs collected from eastern Taiwan fish markets, Da-xi and Cheng-gong, are presented. Samples were caught by deepsea longliners and bottom trawlers which operate in northeastern waters off Taiwan between 2004 and 2012. These five new species records include the smalltooth sandtiger, Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810) (Lamniformes: Odontaspididae), salamander shark, Parmaturus pilosus Garman, 1906 (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae), leadhued skate Notoraja tobitukai (Hiyama, 1940) (Rajiformes: Arhynchobatidae), giant skate Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama, 1958) (Rajiformes: Rajidae), and the pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), Diagnostic characteristics for each species are given and a key to the genera Parmaturus and Dipturus from Taiwan is presented.

  3. Determination of trace elements in the seeds of fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in Arak, I.R. Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourimani Reza; Meighani Elham; Fathivand Aliasghar


    In this study, four fruit's seed samples as Punica granatum L., Citrus medica var. limonum, Malus domestica L. and Citrus vulgaris Risso were prepared from Arak's markets. They were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation method (INAA). In this method, Tehran research reactor as a neutron source and relative INAA method has been used as the analysis method and to record gamma ray spectrum, the high purity germanium detector was used. Pomegranate seeds had the highest number of essential elements. Apple seeds and sour orange seeds contain the highest levels of Mg and K, Respectively. (author)

  4. Spatial variation of deep diving odontocetes' occurrence around a canyon region in the Ligurian Sea as measured with acoustic techniques (United States)

    Giorli, Giacomo; Neuheimer, Anna; Au, Whitlow


    Understanding the distribution of animals is of paramount importance for management and conservation, especially for species that are impacted by anthropogenic threats. In the case of marine mammals there has been a growing concern about the impact of human-made noise, in particular for beaked whales and other deep diving odontocetes. Foraging (measured via echolocation clicks at depth) was studied for Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) using three passive acoustics recorders moored to the bottom of the ocean in a canyon area in the Ligurian Sea between July and December 2011. A Generalized Linear Model was used to test whether foraging was influenced by location and day of the year, including the possibility of interactions between predictors. Contrary to previous studies conducted by visual surveys in this area, all species were detected at all locations, suggesting habitat overlapping. However, significant differences were found in the occurrence of each species at different locations. Beaked and sperm whales foraged significantly more in the northern and western locations, while long-finned pilot whales and Risso's dolphins hunted more in the northern and eastern location.

  5. Trophic niche overlap between flatfishes in a nursery area on the Portuguese coast

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    Henrique N. Cabral


    Full Text Available The diets and the trophic niche overlap between seven flatfish species were studied in a coastal nursery adjoining to the Tagus estuary (Portugal. Fish were sampled monthly, from March to November 1999, using a beach seine. Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque, 1810, Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum, 1792 and Arnoglossus thori Kyle, 1913, fed mainly on crustaceans. The diets of Buglossidium luteum (Risso, 1810 and Dicologoglossa cuneata (Moreau, 1881 were mainly composed of Bivalvia and Polychaeta, while for Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus, 1758 the main food items were Mysidacea and Teleostei. The diet of Pegusa lascaris (Risso, 1810 was mainly composed by Cumacea, Bivalvia, Decapoda and Amphipoda. Based on diet similarities two main groups were identified: one composed of A. imperialis, A. laterna, A. thori and S. rhombus, and the other grouping B. luteum, P. lascaris and D. cuneata. For the most common flatfishes, a similar pattern of diet seasonal variation was found, such that Amphipoda presented higher indices values in the period from March to June, while from July to November, Decapoda were more abundant. Although high values of diet overlap were obtained among some of the species, the main items in the diet of flatfishes are probably the most abundant prey in this coastal area, which suggests a generalist and opportunistic utilization of these food resources. Furthermore, niche overlap between these species is probably minimized by differences in resource use in other niche dimensions, namely time and space.

  6. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

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    Evandro Leite de Souza


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activity. Among the products that evidenced antimould activity, citral and eugenol showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations, which was 1% and 4%, respectively, for the most of the tested mould strains.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de cepas de fungos filamentosos isolados de alimento a alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas nos ensaios antimicrobianos foram: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger e Penicillium spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os óleos essenciais de L. Alba N.R. Brown, P. boldus Molina, L. microphylla Phill, C. limon Risso e C. citratus Stapf. e os fitoconstituintes citral, eugenol e mirceno mostraram destacada atividade antifúngica. Dentre os produtos que apresentaram atividade antifúngica, o citral e eugenol mostraram as menores CIM's, as quais foram 1% e 4%, respectivamente, para a maioria das cepas fúngicas testadas.

  7. The energy ratio mapping algorithm: a tool to improve the energy-based detection of odontocete echolocation clicks. (United States)

    Klinck, Holger; Mellinger, David K


    The energy ratio mapping algorithm (ERMA) was developed to improve the performance of energy-based detection of odontocete echolocation clicks, especially for application in environments with limited computational power and energy such as acoustic gliders. ERMA systematically evaluates many frequency bands for energy ratio-based detection of echolocation clicks produced by a target species in the presence of the species mix in a given geographic area. To evaluate the performance of ERMA, a Teager-Kaiser energy operator was applied to the series of energy ratios as derived by ERMA. A noise-adaptive threshold was then applied to the Teager-Kaiser function to identify clicks in data sets. The method was tested for detecting clicks of Blainville's beaked whales while rejecting echolocation clicks of Risso's dolphins and pilot whales. Results showed that the ERMA-based detector correctly identified 81.6% of the beaked whale clicks in an extended evaluation data set. Average false-positive detection rate was 6.3% (3.4% for Risso's dolphins and 2.9% for pilot whales).


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    Ali Suman


    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan sumber daya udang di Indonesia dilakukan pada wilayah perairan laut dangkal dan status pengusahaannya sudah dalam tahapan jenuh (over-fishing. Apabila kondisi ini dibiarkan dalam jangka panjang tanpa adanya usaha pengelolaan yang berkelanjutan, maka akan menyebabkan kelestarian sumber daya udang akan terancam dan bahkan bisa punah. Salah satu hal yang harus dilakukan dalam mengantisipasinya adalah mencari daerah penangkapan baru di perairan laut dalam, berupa sumber daya udang yang potensial dan belum pernah dimanfaatkan (untapped resources. Komposisi jenis udang laut dalam di perairan Indonesia lebih dari sekitar 38 jenis dengan jenis udang yang mendominasi adalah Plesiopenaeus edwardsianus dan Aristeus virilis serta alat tangkap yang disarankan untuk pemanfaatannya adalah bubu laut dalam tipe silinder. Potensi penangkapan udang laut dalam di Kawasan Barat Indonesia (KBI sebagai 640 ton per tahun dan di Kawasan Timur Indonesia (KTI sebagai 2.840 ton per tahun. Agar pengelolaan sumber daya udang laut dalam dapat dilakukan berkelanjutan, maka harus dikelola dari awal pemanfaatannya. Strategi pengelolaan yang harus dilakukan adalah membatasi upaya penangkapan pada tingkat upaya sekitar 285 armada bubu laut dalam di KBI dan sekitar 1.250 armada bubu laut dalam di KTI. Selain itu harus dilakukan penutupan musim dan daerah penangkapan serta dilakukan penetapan kuota penangkapan. The utilization of Indonesia’s shrimps resources are commonly taking from shallow marine water while its status is currently on overfishing stage. In the long run without appropriate management will threat its sutainability and may be worsen to become extinct. A possible anticipition is finding a new fishing ground at deep sea area for potential deep sea shrimps as untapped resource. Deep sea shrimps species composition have been identified for more than 38 species with mainly dominated by Plesiopenaeus edwardsianus and Aristeus virili. Recommended fihing gear

  9. Composition and diversity patterns of megafauna discards in the deep-water shrimp trawl fishery off Brazil. (United States)

    Perez, J A A; Pereira, B N; Pereira, D A; Schroeder, R


    Composition and spatial diversity patterns of retained and discarded catches in the deep-water shrimp (family Aristeidae) trawling fishery off Brazil were assessed by observers on-board commercial operations in 2005 and 2006. These trawls caught 19,440 kg and 180,076 individuals of which 76·0 and 65·2%, respectively, were discarded at sea. Finfishes represented 54% of the numerical catch but were almost fully discarded (98%). Crustaceans represented 40% of the numerical catch and were mostly retained (80%). The scarlet shrimp Aristaeopsis edwardsiana comprised approximately half of the retained catch. The remainder of the retained proportion comprised mainly the red giant shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea, the alistado shrimp Aristeus antillensis and small quantities of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi and gulf hake Urophycis mystacea. Discards comprised 108 species including 72 fish species, 19 crustaceans and 10 cephalopods. The large-scaled lanternfish Neoscopelus macrolepidotus was dominant in the discards, followed by the benthopelagic fishes Monomitopus agassizii, Synagrops bellus, Dibranchus atlanticus and Gadella imberbis and various macrurid species. This fishery was restricted to a limited bathymetric range (700-800 m), where discrete megafauna assemblages exist and may have been significantly affected. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Morphology and systematic position of Cingula tumidula G.O. Sars, 1878 Gastropoda: Rissoidae). (United States)

    Nekhaev, Ivan O


    Rissoidae is a family of small to minute marine gastropods distributed worldwide. The generic composition of the family was revised by Ponder (1984) based on characters of external morphology and internal anatomy. However, species level taxonomy within the family is still based mainly on conchological characters, which are less informative and usually not sufficient for resolving the systematic relationships of species. Northern Atlantic representatives of the family were revised by Warén (1974; 1996) and Bouchet & Warén (1993) based on shape and sculpture of both proto- and teleoconch, and were suggested to be members of several genera, widely distributed in boreal or even tropical Atlantic environments. These include Alvania Risso, 1826; Onoba H. & A. Adams, 1852; Obtusella Cossmann, 1921 and a few more. However, it was recently demonstrated that some these genera are not monophyletic (Criscione et al. 2016).

  11. Redução do teor de limoneno e bergapteno do óleo essencial de bergamota adsorvido em sílica gel pelo CO2 - supercrítico

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    Araújo Júlio Maria de Andrade


    Full Text Available Testou-se a utilização do CO2 supercrítico na extração seletiva de compostos oxigenados (linalol e acetato de linalila contidos no óleo essencial de bergamota (Citrus bergamia Risso, var. bergamia, adsorvido em sílica gel contendo baixo teor de limoneno e bergapteno. A densidade do dióxido de carbono e a temperatura de extração foram otimizadas, e os extratos obtidos foram analisados por cromatografia. Nas condições estudadas, observou-se uma redução de 72% no teor de limoneno e 92,5% para o bergapteno, sendo extraídos 52% de linalol e 69,4% de acetato de linalila.

  12. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

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    Michele eNavarra


    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  13. Acanthocephalan fish parasites (Rhadinorhynchidae Lühe, 1912) as potential biomarkers: Molecular-chemical screening by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (United States)

    Kleinertz, S.; Eckhardt, K.-U.; Theisen, S.; Palm, H. W.; Leinweber, P.


    The present study represents the first molecular-chemical screening by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry applied on fish parasites. A total of 71 fishes from Balinese fish markets, 36 Auxis rochei (Risso, 1810) and 35 A. thazard (Lacepède, 1800), were studied for their acanthocephalan parasites. This is the first record of Rhadinorhynchus zhukovi in Balinese waters, Indonesia, and we describe for the first time A. rochei and A. thazard as R. zhukovi hosts. Using this method, small scale variations within the chemical compounds of acanthocephalans could be detected. Using this methodology it will be possible to generate additional, pollutant specific information from aquatic habitats in future with the potential of a new bioindicator application for parasite/host origin and/or environmental pollution.

  14. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) population paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pointin, Fabien; Payne, Mark R.


    We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827)) populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly...... understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point towards a single population. A paradox therefore arises in attempting to reconcile these two sets...... of information. Here we analyse 1100 observations of blue whiting larvae from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) from 1948-2005 using modern statistical techniques. We show a clear spatial separation between a northern spawning area, in the Rockall Trough, and a southern one, off the Porcupine Seabight. We...

  15. Species Diversity, Abundance, and Host Preferences of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Two Different Ecotypes of Madagascar With Recent RVFV Transmission. (United States)

    Jean Jose Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina; Elissa, Nohal; Cardinale, Eric; Boyer, Sebastien


    Mosquito diversity and abundance were examined in six Madagascan villages in either arid (Toliary II district) or humid (Mampikony district) ecotypes, each with a history of Rift Valley fever virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps without CO2 (LT) placed near ruminant parks and animal-baited net trap (NT) baited with either zebu or sheep/goat were used to sample mosquitoes, on two occasions between March 2011 and October 2011. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles) was the most abundant species, followed by Culex antennatus (Becker) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis (Theobald/de Meillon). These three species comprised more than half of all mosquitoes collected. The NT captured more mosquitoes in diversity and in abundance than the LT, and also caught more individuals of each species, except for An. squamosus/cydippis. Highest diversity and abundance were observed in the humid and warm district of Mampikony. No host preference was highlighted, except for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presenting a blood preference for zebu baits. The description of species diversity, abundance, and host preference described herein can inform the development of control measures to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in Madagascar. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. Identification of phlebotomine sandfly bloodmeals from Baringo District, Kenya, by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (United States)

    Ngumbi, P M; Lawyer, P G; Johnson, R N; Kiilu, G; Asiago, C


    Direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to identify the sources of bloodmeals in phlebotomine sandflies from Baringo District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. Some bloodmeals had been stored for over 4 years before being analysed. Among 356 sandflies identified, 62.9% were Phlebotomus martini, 14.8% Sergentomyia antennatus, 10% S.schwetzi, 6% S.clydei, 1.9% S.adleri, 1.6% P.duboscqi, 1.4% S.africanus and 0.8% S.bedfordi. Out of 224 P.martini bloodmeals, host source was identified for 69. The order of host preference for P.martini was: goat 28.5%, rabbit 22.7%, human 8.9% and others 8.9%. Evidence of mixed feeding was shown by four species comprising sixteen specimens, twelve of which were P.martini. The most effective methods for trapping bloodfed P. martini were sticky paper traps in termite hills, followed by light-traps. Of the 224 P.martini trapped, 58.9% were collected with traps in termite hills, and 22.7% with light traps. Roles of the three most popular hosts for P.martini should be investigated to ascertain whether they act as reservoirs in the transmission of Leishmania donovani causing visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya.

  17. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: a review of their biodiversity, distribution and medical importance. (United States)

    Mint Mohamed Lemine, Aichetou; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Hasni Ebou, Moina; Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ould Bouraya, Issa Nabiyoullahi; Brengues, Cecile; Trape, Jean-François; Basco, Leonardo; Bogreau, Hervé; Simard, Frédéric; Faye, Ousmane; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali


    Although mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important disease vectors, information on their biodiversity in Mauritania is scarce and very dispersed in the literature. Data from the scientific literature gathered in the country from 1948 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Overall 51 culicid species comprising 17 Anopheles spp., 14 Aedes spp., 18 Culex spp. and two Mansonia spp. have been described in Mauritania among which Anopheles arabiensis, Aedes vexans, Culex poicilipes and Culex antennatus are of epidemiological significance. Anopheles arabiensis is widely distributed throughout the country and its geographic distribution has increased northwards in recent years, shifting its northern limit form 17°32'N in the 1960s to 18°47'N today. Its presence in the central region of Tagant highlights the great ecological plasticity of the species. Conversely, the distribution of Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and Anopheles melas has shrunk compared to that of the 1960s. Anopheles rhodesiensis and An. d'thali are mainly confined in the mountainous areas (alt. 200-700 m), whereas Anopheles pharoensis is widely distributed in the Senegal River basin. Culex poicilipes and Cx. antenattus were naturally found infected with Rift valley fever virus in central and northern Mauritania following the Rift valley outbreaks of 1998 and 2012. Recently, Ae. aegypti emerged in Nouakchott and is probably responsible for dengue fever episodes of 2015. This paper provides a concise and up-to-date overview of the existing literature on mosquito species known to occur in Mauritania and highlights areas where future studies should fill a gap in knowledge about vector biodiversity. It aims to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes particularly in the field of medical entomology to inform evidence-based decision-making for vector control and management strategies.

  18. Rapid and high throughput molecular identification of diverse mosquito species by high resolution melting analysis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Yvonne Ukamaka Ajamma


    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are a diverse group of invertebrates, with members that are among the most important vectors of diseases. The correct identification of mosquitoes is paramount to the control of the diseases that they transmit. However, morphological techniques depend on the quality of the specimen and often unavailable taxonomic expertise, which may still not be able to distinguish mosquitoes among species complexes (sibling and cryptic species. High resolution melting (HRM analyses, a closed-tube, post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR method used to identify variations in nucleic acid sequences, has been used to differentiate species within the Anopheles gambiae and Culex pipiens complexes. We validated the use of PCR-HRM analyses to differentiate species within Anopheles and within each of six genera of culicine mosquitoes, comparing primers targeting cytochrome b (cyt b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1, intergenic spacer region (IGS and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI gene regions. HRM analyses of amplicons from all the six primer pairs successfully differentiated two or more mosquito species within one or more genera (Aedes (Ae. vittatus from Ae. metallicus, Culex (Cx. tenagius from Cx. antennatus, Cx. neavei from Cx. duttoni, cryptic Cx. pipiens species, Anopheles (An. gambiae s.s. from An. arabiensis and Mansonia (Ma. africana from Ma. uniformis based on their HRM profiles. However, PCR-HRM could not distinguish between species within Aedeomyia (Ad. africana and Ad. furfurea, Mimomyia (Mi. hispida and Mi. splendens and Coquillettidia (Cq. aurites, Cq. chrysosoma, Cq. fuscopennata, Cq. metallica, Cq. microannulatus, Cq. pseudoconopas and Cq. versicolor genera using any of the primers. The IGS and COI barcode region primers gave the best and most definitive separation of mosquito species among anopheline and culicine mosquito genera, respectively, while the other markers may serve to confirm identifications of closely related sub

  19. Private (Brown Eyes: Ethnicity, Genre and Gender in Crime Fiction in the Gloria Damasco novels and the Chicanos Comic Series.

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    Carmen Méndez García


    Full Text Available The representation of women in crime fiction has traditionally been a complicated one. Consistently forced into secondary characters (assistants, girlfriends, or damsels in distress the most active role a female character could aspire to was that of the femme fatale, a pit of perdition, an unwelcome distraction for a man looking for truth and justice. This traditional approach to the genre has been challenged in the last decades by women acting as detectives, trusted with solving their cases in a hostile male world. Similarly, the traditional white male protagonist has been contested by fictions where ethnic minorities are not just consigned to the criminal world, but where detectives are members of ethnic groups, and can use their knowledge of the community to solve the case. This essay focuses on the crossroads of ethnic and women’s detective fiction, specifically the Gloria Damasco series by Chicana writer Lucha Corpi and the graphic novel Chicanos (Trillo and Risso, 1996. Both protagonists (Gloria Damasco, a Chicana clairvoyant detective, and “poor, ugly, and a detective” Alejandrina Yolanda Jalisco must face both the dangers of investigating criminal cases and discrimination in their professional surroundings due to their gender and ethnicity. By contrasting these texts, the essay elucidates the importance of specific cultural products, their connection to (and defiance of canonical forms of the genre, and their rejection of generic and gender expectations.

  20. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination. (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G


    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Age and growth of Aphia minuta (Pisces, Gobiidae from the central Adriatic Sea

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    M. La Mesa


    Full Text Available Aphia minuta (Risso, 1810 is by far the most common pelagic gobiid of the Adriatic Sea and it is seasonally exploited by some local small-scale fishing fleets. Despite this, very few data on its biology in this area have been reported to date. Accordingly, age and growth of A. minuta were investigated by counting microincrements (daily rings in the sagittal otoliths of 262 specimens caught in the central Adriatic between May 1996 and March 1997. Age of fish from 14 to 55 mm total length ranged between 42 and 275 days, confirming the short life span of this species. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters estimated by the age-length data pairs for the whole population were: L = 68.7 mm; K = 1.55 year-1; t0 = 0.077 year. The analysis of the monthly length-frequency distributions showed the simultaneous presence in late spring-early summer of two main cohorts which, together with the back-calculated hatch date distribution, indicated a more extended spawning period than previously reported in the literature. Because the fishery for A. minuta in the central Adriatic exploits the spawning stock it should be monitored and, if necessary, regulated.

  2. Interactions of light intensity, insecticide concentration, and time on the efficacy of systemic insecticides in suppressing populations of the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Williams, Kimberly A; Byrne, Frank J; Kemp, Kenneth E


    The impact of light intensity on the uptake and persistence of the systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuran, were evaluated in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.) and yellow sage (Lantana camara L.). Insecticide residues were measured in leaves sampled from the treated plants at four time intervals after treatment to determine the relationship between insecticide concentration and efficacy against two insect pests: sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri Risso. The insecticides were evaluated at their respective label rate and at the comparable label rate of the other insecticide under two different light environments: ambient and shade. The uptake of dinotefuran into yellow sage was more rapid at both treatment rates than both rates of imidacloprid, resulting in higher percent mortality of whitefly nymphs (89.8-100) compared with imidacloprid (14.1-89.2) across all 4 wk. Additionally, plants that received both rates of dinotefuran had fewer whitefly pupae (whitefly nymphs (89.5-99.6) compared with imidacloprid (14.1-89.2) across all 4 wk. However, despite efficient uptake, the efficacy of both systemic insecticides was less for citrus mealybug where percent mortality values were <50% among all the treatments across the 4 wk. The use of the two systemic insecticides evaluated in regards to pest management in horticultural cropping systems is discussed.


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    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the functional response of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 1850 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae fed with Planococcus citri Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae reared on a pumpkin hybrid (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moscata (Cucurbitaceae, seedlings of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Rutaceae and potato (Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae at two temperatures. The predation rate of C. montrouzieri was measured using Petri dishes of 15 cm diameter with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 adults of P. Citri. One third instar larva, one fourfh instar and one newly emerged adult (without differentiation of sex of C. montrouzieri were added to each plate. The study was conducted in climatic chambers at temperatures of 25 and 30 º C and photophase of 12 hours. The predation rate was evaluated after 24 hours of prey exposition to the predator, by counting the number of preys trapped in the different treatments and control. The statistical design was completely randomized with four treatments x 6 subplots with 7 repetitions, the two temperatures. The values obtained were subjected to analysis of variance, to relate the number of scales preyed by larvae and adults of C. montrouzieri set up in different substrates. The amount of prey consumed by larvae and adults of the predator increased with increasing the prey density until it reaches a plateau, characterizing functional response type II. In general, the number of scales preyed by larvae and adults of C. montrouzieri was higher on potato and under temperature of 30 °C.

  4. A survey of mealybugs infesting South-Brazilian wine vineyards

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    Wilson J. Morandi Filho


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are important pests of the grapevine Vitis spp. and are responsible for direct and indirect damage to production. The main mealybug species present in wine grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil were identified and their incidence evaluated. Bunch-samples (n = 50 from 131 vineyards located in the Serra Gaúcha Region (RS of Brazil were analyzed at harvest, and the occurrence of mealybugs in the roots was evaluated at the time of eradication of plants for replanting. Mealybugs were reared in laboratory until adulthood for species determination. The species Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1983, Dysmicoccus sp., Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813, Pl. minor(Maskell, 1897, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, 1875 and Pseudococcus sp. were identified in bunches. Dysmicoccus sp., D. umbambae Granara de Willink, 2009, Pl. citri and Pseudococcus sp. were found in the roots. Pl. citri (31.4% and Dysmicoccus sp. (22.7% were the most common species found in wine grape bunches in the Serra Gaúcha Region.

  5. Spillover of the Atlantic bluefin tuna offspring from cages in the Adriatic Sea: A multidisciplinary approach and assessment.

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    Tomislav Džoić

    Full Text Available During routine monitoring of commercial purse seine catches in 2011, 87 fingerling specimens of scombrids were collected in the southern Adriatic Sea. Sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA control region locus inferred that specimens belonged to the Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758 (N = 29, bullet tuna, Auxis rochei (Risso, 1810 (N = 30 and little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus, Rafinesque, 1810 (N = 28. According to previously published growth parameters, the age of the collected specimens was estimated at approximately 30-40 days, suggesting they might have been spawned in the Adriatic Sea, contrary to the current knowledge. A coupled modelling system with hydrodynamic (ROMS and individual based model (IBM-Ichthyop was set up to determine the location of the spawning event. Numerical simulations with the IBM model, both backward and forward in time, indicate commercial tuna cages in the middle Adriatic coastal area as possible spawning location. The two other non-commercial species likely opportunistically use the positive environmental (abiotic and biotic conditions to spawn in the same area.

  6. Top predator absence enhances leaf breakdown in an intermittent stream. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís


    Current biodiversity loss is characterized by the extinction of top predators, but small-bodied freshwater fish are often overlooked in research and conservation management even when threatened because they usually lack commercial value. Therefore, the ecosystem impacts of their possible loss remain mostly unknown. We assessed whether the presence/absence of an endangered predatory fish (Barbus meridionalis (A. Risso, 1827)) in an intermittent stream affects leaf fungal biomass and leaf quality (i.e. leaf carbon:nitrogen ratio and leaf toughness), macroinvertebrate assemblages colonizing leaf packs, and leaf breakdown rates. We conducted a leaf bag experiment comparing a control reach with a population of B. meridionalis with an adjacent upstream fishless reach. In the fishless reach, leaf fungal biomass and microbially mediated breakdown rate were lower compared to the control reach. This was probably caused by the lack of the bottom-up stimulation through nutrient recycling by fish. Shredders and scrapers were found at higher abundance and biomass in the fishless compared to the control reach, and the whole macroinvertebrate community composition changed with fish absence. Consequently, macroinvertebrate mediated leaf breakdown was faster in the fishless than in the control reach, not only compensating for the lower microbially mediated leaf breakdown in the fishless reach, but accelerating the overall leaf breakdown rate. Our study contributes to understand the potential cascading effects produced by the extirpation of endangered small-bodied fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

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    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  8. The 1 Repetition Maximum Mechanics of a High-Handle Hexagonal Bar Deadlift Compared With a Conventional Deadlift as Measured by a Linear Position Transducer. (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Lazar, Adrina; Risso, Fabrice G; Liu, Tricia M; Stage, Alyssa A; Birmingham-Babauta, Samantha A; Torne, Ibett A; Stokes, John J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Davis, DeShaun L; Orjalo, Ashley J; Callaghan, Samuel J


    Lockie, RG, Moreno, MR, Lazar, A, Risso, FG, Liu, TM, Stage, AA, Birmingham-Babauta, SA, Torne, IA, Stokes, JJ, Giuliano, DV, Davis, DL, Orjalo, AJ, and Callaghan, SJ. The 1 repetition maximum mechanics of a high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift compared with a conventional deadlift as measured by a linear position transducer. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 150-161, 2018-The high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift (HHBD), a variation of the conventional deadlift (CD), is said to reduce the lift range of motion, which may change the mechanics of the lift. However, no research has investigated this. This study compared the mechanics between a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) CD and HHBD. Thirty-one strength-trained subjects (21 men, 10 women) completed a 1RM CD and HHBD. A linear position transducer measured lift distance, duration, and work; and peak and mean power, velocity, and force. The presence of a sticking region (SR) was determined for each lift. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculated differences between 1RM CD and HHBD mechanics. A one-way ANOVA compared the mechanics of each lift between subjects who exhibited an SR or not, and the SR between the CD and HHBD. Significance was set at p mechanics between subjects with or without an SR, and no differences in SR region distance or duration between the CD and HHBD. Greater force can be generated in the HHBD, which could have implications for strength-training adaptations over time.

  9. Decapod Crustaceans on the Coast of Gökova Bay (the southeastern Aegean Sea.

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    A. Suat Ateş


    Full Text Available Gökova Körfezi (güneydoğu Ege Denizi kıyıları dekapod krustaseleri. Mevcut çalışma Gökova Körfezi (güneydoğu Ege Denizi kıyılarında bulunan dekapod krustaseler üzerinedir. Alandaki deneysel bentoz örneklemeleri sırasında toplam 51 türe (17 Caridea, 11 Anomura, 1 Thalassinidea, ve 22 Brachyura ait 358 birey toplanmıştır. Brachyuran yengeçler toplam 22 tür ve %43,13’lük oluşum frekansıyla alandaki dekapod topluluğunun baskın parçasıydı. Caridean karides, Lysmata seticaudata (Risso, 1816 %19,83’lük baskınlık değeriyle en dominant türdü

  10. Spillover of the Atlantic bluefin tuna offspring from cages in the Adriatic Sea: A multidisciplinary approach and assessment (United States)


    During routine monitoring of commercial purse seine catches in 2011, 87 fingerling specimens of scombrids were collected in the southern Adriatic Sea. Sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA control region locus inferred that specimens belonged to the Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758) (N = 29), bullet tuna, Auxis rochei (Risso, 1810) (N = 30) and little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus, Rafinesque, 1810 (N = 28). According to previously published growth parameters, the age of the collected specimens was estimated at approximately 30–40 days, suggesting they might have been spawned in the Adriatic Sea, contrary to the current knowledge. A coupled modelling system with hydrodynamic (ROMS) and individual based model (IBM—Ichthyop) was set up to determine the location of the spawning event. Numerical simulations with the IBM model, both backward and forward in time, indicate commercial tuna cages in the middle Adriatic coastal area as possible spawning location. The two other non-commercial species likely opportunistically use the positive environmental (abiotic and biotic) conditions to spawn in the same area. PMID:29190825

  11. Postmortem evidence of interactions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with other dolphin species in south-west England. (United States)

    Barnett, J; Davison, N; Deaville, R; Monies, R; Loveridge, J; Tregenza, N; Jepson, P D


    Reports of violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the coastal waters of the UK are well documented. Examination of stranded cetaceans by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network and the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme has indicated that seven animals, of four other species, found stranded in south-west England, had pathology consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction, including two juvenile and two adult common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), one juvenile pilot whale (Globicephala melas), one juvenile Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and one adult striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Although recorded traumatic lesions were often not as severe as those found in harbour porpoises, it is probable that the interactions did contribute to stranding and/or death in all four of the juvenile animals examined. Furthermore, analysis of photographs taken before establishment of the Marine Strandings Network revealed rake (teeth) marks consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction on one stranded common dolphin in 1992. A number of causes have been suggested for these interactions in harbour porpoises stranded in the UK and it is possible that any combination of these factors may also be implicated in the cases described in this report.

  12. Prion search and cellular prion protein expression in stranded dolphins. (United States)

    Di Guardo, G; Cocumelli, C; Meoli, R; Barbaro, K; Terracciano, G; Di Francesco, C E; Mazzariol, S; Eleni, C


    The recent description of a prion disease (PD) case in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prompted us to carry out an extensive search for the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain and in a range of lymphoid tissues from 23 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), 5 bottlenose dolphins and 2 Risso s dolphins (Grampus griseus) found stranded between 2007 and 2012 along the Italian coastline. Three striped dolphins and one bottlenose dolphin showed microscopic lesions of encephalitis, with no evidence of spongiform brain lesions being detected in any of the 30 free-ranging cetaceans investigated herein. Nevertheless, we could still observe a prominent PrPC immunoreactivity in the brain as well as in lymphoid tissues from these dolphins. Although immunohistochemical and Western blot investigations yielded negative results for PrPSc deposition in all tissues from the dolphins under study, the reported occurrence of a spontaneous PD case in a wild dolphin is an intriguing issue and a matter of concern for both prion biology and intra/inter-species transmissibility, as well as for cetacean conservation medicine.

  13. Inhibition of Spinal Oxidative Stress by Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction Attenuates the Development of Morphine Induced Tolerance and Hyperalgesia in Mice.

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    Filomena Lauro

    Full Text Available Citrus Bergamia Risso, commonly known as Bergamot, is a fruit whose Essential Oil and Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction have numerous medicinal properties. It is also an excellent antioxidant and in this study, for the first time, its potential effect on morphine induced tolerance in mice has been investigated. Our studies revealed that development of antinociceptive tolerance to repeated doses of morphine in mice is consistently associated with increased formation of superoxide, malondialdehyde and tyrosine-nitrated proteins in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord such as the enzyme glutamine synthase. Nitration of this protein is intimately linked to inactivation of its biological function and resulting increase of glutamate levels in the spinal cord. Administration of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (5-50 mg/kg attenuated tolerance development. This effect was accompanied by reduction of superoxide and malondialdehyde production, prevention of GS nitration, re-establishment of its activity and of glutamate levels. Our studies confirmed the main role of free radicals during the cascade of events induced by prolonged morphine treatment and the co-administration of natural derivatives antioxidant such as Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction can be an important therapeutic approach to restore opioids analgesic efficacy.

  14. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou population paradox?

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    Fabien Pointin

    Full Text Available We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827 populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point towards a single population. A paradox therefore arises in attempting to reconcile these two sets of information. Here we analyse 1100 observations of blue whiting larvae from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR from 1948-2005 using modern statistical techniques. We show a clear spatial separation between a northern spawning area, in the Rockall Trough, and a southern one, off the Porcupine Seabight. We further show a difference in the timing of spawning between these sites of at least a month, and meaningful differences in interannual variability. The results therefore support the two-population hypothesis. Furthermore, we resolve the paradox by showing that the acoustic observations cited in support of the single-population model are not capable of resolving both populations, as they occur too late in the year and do not extend sufficiently far south to cover the southern population: the confusion is the result of a simple observational artefact. We conclude that blue whiting in the North Atlantic comprises two populations.

  15. Classification of echolocation clicks from odontocetes in the Southern California Bight. (United States)

    Roch, Marie A; Klinck, Holger; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Mellinger, David K; Qui, Simon; Soldevilla, Melissa S; Hildebrand, John A


    This study presents a system for classifying echolocation clicks of six species of odontocetes in the Southern California Bight: Visually confirmed bottlenose dolphins, short- and long-beaked common dolphins, Pacific white-sided dolphins, Risso's dolphins, and presumed Cuvier's beaked whales. Echolocation clicks are represented by cepstral feature vectors that are classified by Gaussian mixture models. A randomized cross-validation experiment is designed to provide conditions similar to those found in a field-deployed system. To prevent matched conditions from inappropriately lowering the error rate, echolocation clicks associated with a single sighting are never split across the training and test data. Sightings are randomly permuted before assignment to folds in the experiment. This allows different combinations of the training and test data to be used while keeping data from each sighting entirely in the training or test set. The system achieves a mean error rate of 22% across 100 randomized three-fold cross-validation experiments. Four of the six species had mean error rates lower than the overall mean, with the presumed Cuvier's beaked whale clicks showing the best performance (<2% error rate). Long-beaked common and bottlenose dolphins proved the most difficult to classify, with mean error rates of 53% and 68%, respectively.

  16. Static inflation and deflation pressure–volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H.; Ferrigno, Massimo; Moore, Colby; Early, Greg; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; Wenzel, Frederic; Joy, Ruth; Moore, Michael J.


    SUMMARY Excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), gray seal (Halichoerus grypush), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (MAV, N=15), the elastic properties (pressure–volume curves, N=24) of the respiratory system and the total lung capacity (TLC). Our data indicate that mass-specific TLC (sTLC, l kg–1) does not differ between species or groups (odontocete vs phocid) and agree with that estimated (TLCest) from body mass (Mb) by applying the equation: TLCest=0.135 Mb0.92. Measured MAV was on average 7% of TLC, with a range from 0 to 16%. The pressure–volume curves were similar among species on inflation but diverged during deflation in phocids in comparison with odontocetes. These differences provide a structural basis for observed species differences in the depth at which lungs collapse and gas exchange ceases. PMID:22031747

  17. Solubility of nitrogen in marine mammal blubber depends on its lipid composition. (United States)

    Koopman, Heather N; Westgate, Andrew J


    Understanding the solubility of nitrogen gas in tissues is a crucial aspect of diving physiology, especially for air-breathing tetrapods. Adipose tissue is of particular interest because of the high solubility of nitrogen in lipids. Surprisingly, nothing is known about nitrogen solubility in the blubber of any marine mammal. We tested the hypothesis that N(2) solubility is dependent on the lipid composition of blubber; most blubber is composed of triacylglycerols, but some toothed whales deposit large amounts of waxes in blubber instead. The solubility of N(2) in the blubber of 13 toothed whale species ranged from 0.062 to 0.107 ml N(2) ml(-1) oil. Blubber with high wax ester content had higher N(2) solubility, observed in the beaked (Ziphiidae) and small sperm (Kogiidae) whales, animals that routinely make long, deep dives. We also measured nitrogen solubility in the specialized cranial acoustic fat bodies associated with echolocation in a Risso's dolphin; values (0.087 ml N(2) ml(-1) oil) were 16% higher here than in its blubber (0.074 ml N(2) ml(-1) oil). As the acoustic fats of all Odontocetes contain waxes, even if the blubber does not, these tissues may experience greater interaction with N(2). These data have implications for our understanding and future modeling of diving physiology in Odontocetes, as our empirically derived values for nitrogen solubility in toothed whale adipose were up to 40% higher than the numbers traditionally assumed in marine mammal diving models.

  18. Hearing Loss in Stranded Odontocete Dolphins and Whales (United States)

    Mann, David; Hill-Cook, Mandy; Manire, Charles; Greenhow, Danielle; Montie, Eric; Powell, Jessica; Wells, Randall; Bauer, Gordon; Cunningham-Smith, Petra; Lingenfelser, Robert; DiGiovanni, Robert; Stone, Abigale; Brodsky, Micah; Stevens, Robert; Kieffer, George; Hoetjes, Paul


    The causes of dolphin and whale stranding can often be difficult to determine. Because toothed whales rely on echolocation for orientation and feeding, hearing deficits could lead to stranding. We report on the results of auditory evoked potential measurements from eight species of odontocete cetaceans that were found stranded or severely entangled in fishing gear during the period 2004 through 2009. Approximately 57% of the bottlenose dolphins and 36% of the rough-toothed dolphins had significant hearing deficits with a reduction in sensitivity equivalent to severe (70–90 dB) or profound (>90 dB) hearing loss in humans. The only stranded short-finned pilot whale examined had profound hearing loss. No impairments were detected in seven Risso's dolphins from three different stranding events, two pygmy killer whales, one Atlantic spotted dolphin, one spinner dolphin, or a juvenile Gervais' beaked whale. Hearing impairment could play a significant role in some cetacean stranding events, and the hearing of all cetaceans in rehabilitation should be tested. PMID:21072206

  19. Lancefield group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae infection responsible for fish mortalities in Japan. (United States)

    Nomoto, R; Munasinghe, L I; Jin, D-H; Shimahara, Y; Yasuda, H; Nakamura, A; Misawa, N; Itami, T; Yoshida, T


    A Lancefield serological group C Streptococcus sp. was isolated from cultured amberjack, Seriola dumerili Risso, and yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck and Schlegel, immunized with Lactococcus garvieae commercial vaccines in Japan. The isolated bacteria were Gram-positive cocci, auto-aggregating in saline, morphologically long chains in growth medium, catalase negative and alpha-haemolytic on blood agar. An almost complete gene sequence of the 16S rDNA of two isolates was determined and compared with that of bacterial strains in the database. The isolates were identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae based on the results of the 16S rDNA sequence, the bacteriological properties and the Lancefield serological grouping. Oligonucleotide primers specifically designed for the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region of S. dysgalactiae amplified a gene from all the fish isolates, as well as the type strains alpha-haemolytic S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae ATCC430738 and beta-haemolytic S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis ATCC35666, but not those of S. equi ATCC33398, Lactococcus garvieae ATCC43921 and L. garvieae KG9408. The severe necrotic lesions of the caudal peduncle seen in experimentally infected fish were similar to those seen in naturally infected fish.

  20. Hearing loss in stranded odontocete dolphins and whales.

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    David Mann

    Full Text Available The causes of dolphin and whale stranding can often be difficult to determine. Because toothed whales rely on echolocation for orientation and feeding, hearing deficits could lead to stranding. We report on the results of auditory evoked potential measurements from eight species of odontocete cetaceans that were found stranded or severely entangled in fishing gear during the period 2004 through 2009. Approximately 57% of the bottlenose dolphins and 36% of the rough-toothed dolphins had significant hearing deficits with a reduction in sensitivity equivalent to severe (70-90 dB or profound (>90 dB hearing loss in humans. The only stranded short-finned pilot whale examined had profound hearing loss. No impairments were detected in seven Risso's dolphins from three different stranding events, two pygmy killer whales, one Atlantic spotted dolphin, one spinner dolphin, or a juvenile Gervais' beaked whale. Hearing impairment could play a significant role in some cetacean stranding events, and the hearing of all cetaceans in rehabilitation should be tested.

  1. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae) of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys (United States)


    Background During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft’s filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. Methods We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride) and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group). Results We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus) albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus) sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm) sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia browni. Ur. nepenthes

  2. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys

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    Le Goff Gilbert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft’s filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. Methods We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group. Results We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia

  3. Pollution de l'étang de l'Olivier (Bouches-du-Rhône par du lindane en septembre 1967 ; mortalité de la faune

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    Full Text Available La mortalité de la faune de l'étang de l'Olivier, constatée au cours d'une crise de dystrophie estivale, a été aggravée par un épandage de lindane exécuté en vue de la démoustication. Les observations ont été effectuées dès l'apparition du phénomène. L'étang de l'Olivier (225 ha est situé au Nord d'Istres à 55 km de Marseille. On sait que les eaux des fonds de cet étang (hypolimnion présentent au cours de la période estivale un déficit presque permanent en oxygène avec dégagement de H2S, contribuant ainsi à l'installation d'une stratification des couches d'eau de densités différentes. Plusieurs travaux ont déjà signalé les crises dystrophiques de cet étang, suivies d'une mortalité de sa faune (SCHACHTER, SENEZ, GILLERON, 1954. SCHACHTER 1958. La mortalité de la faune constatée le 20 septembre à la suite d'une nouvelle phase de dystrophie a été malencontreusement amplifiée le 21 septembre par un épandage de lindane exécuté sur le pourtour de l'étang, en vue de la démoustication. Nous avons pu assister, dès le début, au déclanchement de ce phénomène à allure catastrophique. Le 20 septembre, un grand nombre de poissons fut rejeté sur les rives ; la surface de l'étang était parsemée de nombreux cadavres et d'individus agités de soubresauts. La surface des eaux de l'étang était couverte par endroits par un grand nombre de poissons comportant des athérines (Atherina boyeri R des nuages (Mugil cephalus L, Liza aurata (RISSO, Liza ramada (RISSO des chevennes, des carpes, des sandres. Sur les bords de l'étang les petites anguilles se regroupaient au milieu de la végétation flottante (Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ruppia maritima, Chaetomorpha sp., Zostera nana en sortant la tête de l'eau, les branchies congestionnées ; les grosses anguilles, localisées au milieu des rochers, venaient également respirer en surface. Elles présentaient des plaques rouges sanguinolentes, souvent constatées sur

  4. Larval fish distribution and their relationship with environmental factors in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (central Mediterranean during two years of sampling

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    Adriana Profeta


    The results of this study could have implications for the management of marine resources, because the investigated area has already been identified as a nursery area for many pelagic and coastal fishes and a natural habitat for many species of high commercial interest. Fig. 1. Results of CCA analysis for larval fish species and sampled stations during June 2006. Two first axes (CCA1 and CCA2 are represented. Species abbreviations in alphabetical order: An_a (Anthias anthias, Ap_i (Apogon imberbis, Ar_k (Arnoglossus kessleri, Ar_h (Argyropelecus hemigymnus, Ar_l (Arnoglossus laterna, Ar_r (Arnoglossus rueppelii, Ar_t (Arnoglossus thori, Be_g (Benthosema glaciale, Bl_o (Blennius ocellaris, Bo_b (Boops boops, Bo_p (Bothus podas, Ca_a (Capros aper, Ca_p (Callyonimus maculatus, Ce_m (Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Ce_m1(Cepola macrophtalma, Ci_l (Citharus linguatula, Co_j (Coris julis, Co_n (Ophidion barbatum, Cy_b (Cyclothone braueri, Cy_p (Cyclothone pygmaea, En_e (Engraulis encrasicolus, Di_a (Diplodus annularis, Di_h (Diaphus holti, Di_r (Diaphus rafinesquei, El_r (Electrona rissoi, Go_n (Gobius niger, He_d (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Hy_b (Hygophum benoiti, Hy_h (Hygophum hygomii, La_c (Lampanyctus crocodilus, La_p (Lampanyctus pusillus, Le_c (Lepidotrigla cavillone, Le_j (Lestidiops jayakari, Lo_d (Lobianchia dofleini, Ma_m (Maurolicus muelleri, Ma_s (Macrorhamphosus scolopax, Me_m (Merluccius merluccius, Mi_p (Micromesistius poutassou, My_p (Myctophum punctatum, Mu_s (Mullus surmuletus, Ne_s (Nemichthys scolopaceus, No_b (Notoscopelus bolini, No_e (Notoscopelus elongatus, No_r (Arctozenus risso, Ob_m (Oblada melanura, Pa_s (Paralepis speciosa. Sc_p (Scorpaena porcus, Sc_s (Scorpaena scrofa, Se_c (Serranus cabrilla, Se_h (Serranushepatus, Sp_f (Spicara maena, Sp_s (Spicara smaris, Sy sp. (Symphurus nigrescens, Sy_v, (Symphurus ligulatus, St_b (Stomias boa boa, Tr_d (Trachinus draco, Tr_me (Trachurus mediterraneus, Tr_t (Trachurus trachurus, Ur_s (Uranoscopus scaber

  5. Rational Basis for the Use of Bergamot Essential Oil in Complementary Medicine to Treat Chronic Pain. (United States)

    Rombolà, L; Amantea, D; Russo, R; Adornetto, A; Berliocchi, L; Tridico, L; Corasaniti, M T; Sakurada, S; Sakurada, T; Bagetta, G; Morrone, L A


    In complementary medicine, aromatherapy uses essential oils to improve agitation and aggression observed in dementia, mood, depression, anxiety and chronic pain. Preclinical research studies have reported that the essential oil obtained from bergamot (BEO) fruit (Citrus bergamia, Risso) modifies normal and pathological synaptic plasticity implicated, for instance, in nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Interestingly, recent results indicated that BEO modulates sensitive perception of pain in different models of nociceptive, inflammatory and neuropathic pain modulating endogenous systems. Thus, local administration of BEO inhibited the nociceptive behavioral effect induced by intraplantar injection of capsaicin or formalin in mice. Similar effects were observed with linalool and linalyl acetate, major volatile components of the phytocomplex, Pharmacological studies showed that the latter effects are reversed by local or systemic pretreatment with the opioid antagonist naloxone hydrochloride alike with naloxone methiodide, high affinity peripheral μ-opioid receptor antagonist. These results and the synergistic effect observed following systemic or intrathecal injection of an inactive dose of morphine with BEO or linalool indicated an activation of peripheral opioid system. Recently, in neuropathic pain models systemic or local administration of BEO or linalool induced antiallodynic effects. In particular, in partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) model, intraplantar injection of the phytocomplex or linalool in the ipsilateral hindpaw, but not in the contralateral, reduced PSNL-induced extracellularsignal- regulated kinase (ERK) activation and mechanical allodynia. In neuropathic pain high doses of morphine are needed to reduce pain. Interestingly, combination of inactive doses of BEO or linalool with a low dose of morphine induced antiallodynic effects in mice. Peripheral cannabinoid and opioid systems appear to be involved in the antinociception produced by

  6. Protective effects of an extract from Citrus bergamia against inflammatory injury in interferon-γ and histamine exposed human keratinocytes. (United States)

    Graziano, Adriana C E; Cardile, Venera; Crascì, Lucia; Caggia, Sivia; Dugo, Paola; Bonina, Francesco; Panico, Annamaria


    The present work evaluated the anti-inflammatory/antioxidant activity of a well characterized extract from Citrus bergamia Risso and Poiteau (CBE), containing neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin and other flavonoids, on human NCTC 2544 keratinocytes treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and histamine (H). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detectors was used to characterize and quantify phenolic compounds in CBE. Anti-inflammatory/antioxidant ability on keratinocytes was determined through evaluation of inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by Western blot, production of nitric oxide (NO) with Griess reagent and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorescent quantitative analysis with 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). Cell viability was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Antioxidant activity was also measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were quantified using 1.9-dimethyl methylene blue (DMB). CBE exhibited high antioxidant activity confirmed by elevated ORAC values related to high capacity in oxygen radical scavenging. The assays on keratinocytes demonstrated that CBE does not inhibit cell proliferation and is shown to significantly reduce dose-dependently ICAM-1, iNOS, NO, ROS and GAG production in cells exposed to IFN-γ and H. Our study demonstrates that the pools of compounds of an extract from C. bergamia efficiently block the proinflammatory actions induced by IFN-γ and H on human keratinocytes. CBE may be used for topic employment in some inflammatory diseases of the skin and to represent an important opportunity for the essential oil processing industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy


    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  8. Incidental spawning of some scombrids in Adriatic or not?

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    Vanja Cikes Kec


    Full Text Available During routine monitoring of commercial purse seine catches in 2011, 87 fingerling specimens of scombrids were collected in the southern Adriatic Sea. Sequencing of mitochondrial control region locus inferred that specimens belonged to the Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758 (N=29, bullet tuna, Auxis rochei (Risso, 1810 (N=30 and little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus, Rafinesque, 1810 (N=28. Due to previously published growth parameters, age of collected specimens was estimated to be approximately 30 days. In order to determine possible location of the spawning event coupled modelling system ROMS-ICHTHYOP was run. Realistic ROMS simulations were made to provide current and density fields for the ICHTHYOP model. ROMS model was forced with realistic surface air-sea fluxes calculated from fine resolution ALADIN model, river inflows, tides and external dynamics. ICHTHYOP was run in the backward mode for 30 days using published investigations on the studied species and its early stage dynamics, such as their growth and developmental stage thermal dependence, lethal temperatures, etc. Apart simulations with coupled modelling system, detailed analysis of prevailing meteorological and oceanographic conditions was made using all available data. Comparison to climatology of the area approved that 2011 had unusually prolonged warm and dry summer season. Occasional inflows of hot and dry air from the northern Africa additionally warm up Adriatic atmosphere. Under these conditions sea surface temperature was up to 2 standard deviations above normal. In the deeper layers, high temperature and salinity were recorded. According to performed simulations it seems that tuna species spawn within the commercial tuna cages (this is not the first evidence of natural spawning within commercial tuna farming facility in the Adriatic, while the other two species most probably opportunistically use positive environmental (abiotic and biotic conditions and

  9. Dolphins in a Scaled-Down Mediterranean: The Gulf of Corinth's Odontocetes. (United States)

    Bearzi, G; Bonizzoni, S; Santostasi, N L; Furey, N B; Eddy, L; Valavanis, V D; Gimenez, O

    The Gulf of Corinth is a 2400-km 2 semi-enclosed inland system (a mediterraneus) in central Greece. Its continental shelf areas, steep bottom relief, and waters up to 500-900m deep offer suitable habitat to neritic and pelagic species. We used photographic capture-recapture, distribution modelling, and direct observations to investigate the abundance, status, habitat preferences, movements, and group size of four odontocete species regularly observed in the Gulf, based on five years (2011-2015) of survey effort from small boats. Striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) are more abundant (1324 individuals, 95%CI 1158-1515) than was determined from previous estimates. Striped dolphins appear to be confined to the Gulf, where they favour deep and oligotrophic waters, and were encountered in single-species and mixed-species groups. Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) (22 individuals, 95%CI 16-31), individuals with intermediate pigmentation (possibly striped/common dolphin hybrids) (55, 95%CI 36-83), and a single Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) were only encountered in mixed-species groups with striped dolphins. Short-beaked common dolphins constitute a discrete conservation unit (subpopulation), and based on the current estimate, would qualify as Critically Endangered according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (39 animals, 95%CI 33-47) occur in single-species groups; they prefer continental shelf waters and areas near fish farms in the northern sector, and several animals appear to move into and out of the Gulf. Additionally, we contribute records of marine fauna and an assessment of the fishing fleet operating in the Gulf. Our study shows that the importance of this vulnerable marine environment has been underestimated, and management action must be taken to mitigate human impact and ensure long-term protection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  10. Mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses of the Delphinidae with an emphasis on the Globicephalinae

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    de Stephanis Renaud


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous DNA-based phylogenetic studies of the Delphinidae family suggest it has undergone rapid diversification, as characterised by unresolved and poorly supported taxonomic relationships (polytomies for some of the species within this group. Using an increased amount of sequence data we test between alternative hypotheses of soft polytomies caused by rapid speciation, slow evolutionary rate and/or insufficient sequence data, and hard polytomies caused by simultaneous speciation within this family. Combining the mitogenome sequences of five new and 12 previously published species within the Delphinidae, we used Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods to estimate the phylogeny from partitioned and unpartitioned mitogenome sequences. Further ad hoc tests were then conducted to estimate the support for alternative topologies. Results We found high support for all the relationships within our reconstructed phylogenies, and topologies were consistent between the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood trees inferred from partitioned and unpartitioned data. Resolved relationships included the placement of the killer whale (Orcinus orca as sister taxon to the rest of the Globicephalinae subfamily, placement of the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus within the Globicephalinae subfamily, removal of the white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris from the Delphininae subfamily and the placement of the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis as sister taxon to the rest of the Delphininae subfamily rather than within the Globicephalinae subfamily. The additional testing of alternative topologies allowed us to reject all other putative relationships, with the exception that we were unable to reject the hypothesis that the relationship between L. albirostris and the Globicephalinae and Delphininae subfamilies was polytomic. Conclusion Despite their rapid diversification, the increased sequence data yielded by mitogenomes enables the

  11. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks. (United States)

    Randhawa, Haseeb S


    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime.

  12. Characteristic metabolism of free amino acids in cetacean plasma: cluster analysis and comparison with mice.

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    Kazuki Miyaji

    Full Text Available From an evolutionary perspective, the ancestors of cetaceans first lived in terrestrial environments prior to adapting to aquatic environments. Whereas anatomical and morphological adaptations to aquatic environments have been well studied, few studies have focused on physiological changes. We focused on plasma amino acid concentrations (aminograms since they show distinct patterns under various physiological conditions. Plasma and urine aminograms were obtained from bottlenose dolphins, pacific white-sided dolphins, Risso's dolphins, false-killer whales and C57BL/6J and ICR mice. Hierarchical cluster analyses were employed to uncover a multitude of amino acid relationships among different species, which can help us understand the complex interrelations comprising metabolic adaptations. The cetacean aminograms formed a cluster that was markedly distinguishable from the mouse cluster, indicating that cetaceans and terrestrial mammals have quite different metabolic machinery for amino acids. Levels of carnosine and 3-methylhistidine, both of which are antioxidants, were substantially higher in cetaceans. Urea was markedly elevated in cetaceans, whereas the level of urea cycle-related amino acids was lower. Because diving mammals must cope with high rates of reactive oxygen species generation due to alterations in apnea/reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion processes, high concentrations of antioxidative amino acids are advantageous. Moreover, shifting the set point of urea cycle may be an adaptation used for body water conservation in the hyperosmotic sea water environment, because urea functions as a major blood osmolyte. Furthermore, since dolphins are kept in many aquariums for observation, the evaluation of these aminograms may provide useful diagnostic indices for the assessment of cetacean health in artificial environments in the future.

  13. Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae.

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    Hofit Kol-Maimon

    Full Text Available Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret. These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1 DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1 The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2 we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.

  14. Cetacean response to environmental and anthropogenic drivers of change: Results of a 25-year distribution study in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Airoldi, Sabina; Lanfredi, Caterina; Podestà, Michela; Zanardelli, Margherita


    Marine mammals are in many situations one of the most studied component of marine ecosystems. Their habitat requirements may be used to detect and describe the impacts of changes in the environmental conditions or in the human-induced pressures affecting the area where they live. The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution patterns of the most frequent cetacean species occurring in the area of the Pelagos Sanctuary (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) and their potential correlations with both environmental and anthropogenic drivers of changes. Two different types of data were used: sighting data from ship-board surveys and strandings data collected along the Ligurian coast by the Italian Stranding Network, spanning from 1986 to 2014. Sighting data were collected during summer surveys conducted from June to September, between 1990 and 2014 in an area of approximately 29,000 km2, within the Pelagos Sanctuary for over 115,000 km surveyed under favorable conditions. A total of 4,683 sightings of the five most common cetacean species were collected: 3,305 (70.5%) striped dolphins, 814 (17.3%) fin whales, 169 (3.6%) Risso's dolphins, 347 (7.4%) sperm whales and 48 (1.02%) Cuvier's beaked whales. The species time series of both encounter and stranding rates have been investigated in the light of potential drivers of changes. The results suggest that the area may be suffering from some ecosystem change which is causing the observed changes in the distribution pattern of the five species. Potential disturbance from human activities, namely fishery and maritime traffic, could not be excluded.

  15. Feeding strategies and ecological roles of three predatory pelagic fish in the western Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    Navarro, Joan; Sáez-Liante, Raquel; Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel


    Knowing the feeding ecology of marine predators is pivotal to developing an understanding of their ecological role in the ecosystem and determining the trophic relationships between them. Despite the ecological importance of predatory pelagic fish species, research on these species in the Mediterranean Sea is limited. Here, by combining analyses of stomach contents and stable isotope values, we examined the feeding strategies of swordfish, Xiphias gladius, little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus and Atlantic bonito, Sarda sarda, in the western Mediterranean Sea. We also compared the trophic niche and trophic level of these species with published information of other sympatric pelagic predators present in the ecosystem. Results indicated that, although the diet of the three species was composed mainly by fin-fish species, a clear segregation in their main feeding strategies was found. Swordfish showed a generalist diet including demersal species such as blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou, and European hake, Merluccius merluccius, and pelagic fin-fish such as barracudina species (Arctozenus risso and Lestidiops jayakari) or small pelagic fish species. Little tunny and Atlantic bonito were segregated isotopically between them and showed a diet basically composed of anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, and round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, and sardines, Sardina pilchardus, respectively. This trophic segregation, in addition to potential segregation by depth, is likely a mechanism that allows their potential coexistence within the same pelagic habitat. When the trophic position of these three predatory pelagic fish species is compared with other pelagic predators such as bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, and dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus, present in the western Mediterranean Sea, we found that they show similar intermediate trophic position in the ecosystem. In conclusion, the combined stomach and isotopic results highlight, especially for little tunny and Atlantic

  16. Automated classification of dolphin echolocation click types from the Gulf of Mexico. (United States)

    Frasier, Kaitlin E; Roch, Marie A; Soldevilla, Melissa S; Wiggins, Sean M; Garrison, Lance P; Hildebrand, John A


    Delphinids produce large numbers of short duration, broadband echolocation clicks which may be useful for species classification in passive acoustic monitoring efforts. A challenge in echolocation click classification is to overcome the many sources of variability to recognize underlying patterns across many detections. An automated unsupervised network-based classification method was developed to simulate the approach a human analyst uses when categorizing click types: Clusters of similar clicks were identified by incorporating multiple click characteristics (spectral shape and inter-click interval distributions) to distinguish within-type from between-type variation, and identify distinct, persistent click types. Once click types were established, an algorithm for classifying novel detections using existing clusters was tested. The automated classification method was applied to a dataset of 52 million clicks detected across five monitoring sites over two years in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Seven distinct click types were identified, one of which is known to be associated with an acoustically identifiable delphinid (Risso's dolphin) and six of which are not yet identified. All types occurred at multiple monitoring locations, but the relative occurrence of types varied, particularly between continental shelf and slope locations. Automatically-identified click types from autonomous seafloor recorders without verifiable species identification were compared with clicks detected on sea-surface towed hydrophone arrays in the presence of visually identified delphinid species. These comparisons suggest potential species identities for the animals producing some echolocation click types. The network-based classification method presented here is effective for rapid, unsupervised delphinid click classification across large datasets in which the click types may not be known a priori.

  17. Acoustic effects of the ATOC signal (75 Hz, 195 dB) on dolphins and whales

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    Au, W.W.; Nachtigall, P.E.; Pawloski, J.L. [Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, Hawaii 96734 (United States)


    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) program of Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, will broadcast a low-frequency 75-Hz phase modulated acoustic signal over ocean basins in order to study ocean temperatures on a global scale and examine the effects of global warming. One of the major concerns is the possible effect of the ATOC signal on marine life, especially on dolphins and whales. In order to address this issue, the hearing sensitivity of a false killer whale ({ital Pseudorca crassidens}) and a Risso{close_quote}s dolphin ({ital Grampus griseus}) to the ATOC sound was measured behaviorally. A staircase procedure with the signal levels being changed in 1-dB steps was used to measure the animals{close_quote} threshold to the actual ATOC coded signal. The results indicate that small odontocetes such as the {ital Pseudorca} and {ital Grampus} swimming directly above the ATOC source will not hear the signal unless they dive to a depth of approximately 400 m. A sound propagation analysis suggests that the sound-pressure level at ranges greater than 0.5 km will be less than 130 dB for depths down to about 500 m. Several species of baleen whales produce sounds much greater than 170{endash}180 dB. With the ATOC source on the axis of the deep sound channel (greater than 800 m), the ATOC signal will probably have minimal physical and physiological effects on cetaceans. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  18. Eastern Ionian Sea paleoceanographic conditions during the Plio - Pleistocene as revealed through the study of fish otoliths (United States)

    Agiadi, K.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Girone, A.; Karakitsios, V.; Dermitzakis, M. D.


    Fish otoliths from the SE Zakynthos and SW Kephallonia islands (Eastern Ionian Sea) provide new evidence for the reconstruction of the paleoceanographic conditions during the Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene interval. The forty - six fish taxa identified in the sediments of the study areas are separated in tropical, subtropical, temperate and subpolar ecological groups occupying surface, intermediate and deep water layers, based on their modern geographic and bathymetric distributions. During the Late Pliocene, the presence of Chlorophthalmus agassizi in the Eastern Ionian Sea probably denotes temperate oligotrophic conditions. At about 1.96 Ma B.P the high contribution of the bathypelagic Electrona risso, whose modern contribution is limited by the 10-15° C isotherms and productivity greater than 50gC/m2y (Whitehead et al., 1984), is combined with the increased presence of the deeper water species Maurolicus muelleri and Benthosema glaciale, which are mostly known from the high temperate - subpolar zones of today's oceans (Whitehead et al., 1984; Mytilineou et al., 2005). The nutrient-rich intermediate water layers at this time thus overlie colder deep waters, much like today (Malanotte-Rizzoli et al., 1997). In addition, the high abundance of representatives of the genus Diaphus could imply warmer surface conditions (Whitehead et al., 1984). The situation around 1.93 Ma, throughout the water column, is much more homogenous, signified by the introduction of Hygophum hygomii in the deeper water layers, as well as the decrease in relative abundance of Benthosema glaciale, perhaps due to a certain increase in deep water temperate. However, the most dominant species by far in the assemblage remains Ceratoscopelus maderensis, a purely temperate meso-bahtypelagic species (D'Onghia et al., 2004). At around 1.9Ma, there is a marked increase in the relative abundance of tropical taxa, namely Diaphus taaningi and Bregmaceros sp., which occupy the upper 500 meters of the

  19. Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: Implications for management (United States)

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Donovan, Greg; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Vázquez, José Antonio; Burt, Louise


    Systematic, effective monitoring of animal population parameters underpins successful conservation strategy and wildlife management, but it is often neglected in many regions, including much of the Mediterranean Sea. Nonetheless, a series of systematic multispecies aerial surveys was carried out in the seas around Italy to gather important baseline information on cetacean occurrence, distribution and abundance. The monitored areas included the Pelagos Sanctuary, the Tyrrhenian Sea, portions of the Seas of Corsica and Sardinia, the Ionian Seas as well as the Gulf of Taranto. Overall, approximately 48,000 km were flown in either spring, summer and winter between 2009-2014, covering an area of 444,621 km2. The most commonly observed species were the striped dolphin and the fin whale, with 975 and 83 recorded sightings, respectively. Other sighted cetacean species were the common bottlenose dolphin, the Risso's dolphin, the sperm whale, the pilot whale and the Cuvier's beaked whale. Uncorrected model- and design-based estimates of density and abundance for striped dolphins and fin whales were produced, resulting in a best estimate (model-based) of around 95,000 striped dolphins (CV=11.6%; 95% CI=92,900-120,300) occurring in the Pelagos Sanctuary, Central Tyrrhenian and Western Seas of Corsica and Sardinia combined area in summer 2010. Estimates were also obtained for each individual study region and year. An initial attempt to estimate perception bias for striped dolphins is also provided. The preferred summer 2010 uncorrected best estimate (design-based) for the same areas for fin whales was around 665 (CV=33.1%; 95% CI=350-1260). Estimates are also provided for the individual study regions and years. The results represent baseline data to develop efficient, long-term, systematic monitoring programmes, essential to evaluate trends, as required by a number of national and international frameworks, and stress the need to ensure that surveys are undertaken regularly and

  20. Especificidade alimentar: em busca de um caráter taxonômico para a diferenciação de duas espécies crípticas de cochonilhas do gênero Planococcus (Hemíptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Ana Luiza Viana de Sousa


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar uma possível especificidade alimentar de duas espécies crípticas de cochonilhas do gênero Planococcus, refletida em seu desenvolvimento em frutos de cacaueiro, cafeeiro e citros. A cochonilha Planococcus minor (Maskell, obtida de frutos de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. cv. Comum, e Planococcus citri (Risso, de lavoura de café (Coffea arabica L. cv. Mundo Novo e de mudas de citros (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cv. Bahia, foram criadas em abóboras (Cucurbita maxima L., em laboratório. Rosetas com frutos de café foram mantidas sobre uma lâmina de 5 mm de ágar-água em placas de Petri, vedadas com filme plástico de polietileno. Em frutos de citros e cacau foram utilizadas gaiolas plásticas cilíndricas (1,5 cm x 3,0 cm, vedadas com voile na parte superior, as quais foram fixadas nos frutos por meio de um elástico. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos em câmaras climatizadas a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se de 30 repetições. Para as cochonilhas provenientes de cafeeiro, o substrato café proporcionou o maior período ninfal de fêmeas (20,8 dias e maior longevidade (31,7 dias. Para fêmeas oriundas de cacau, o substrato cacau promoveu o menor período ninfal (21,1 dias e maior longevidade (25,0 dias. Para aquelas oriundas de citros, o substrato cacau promoveu o menor período ninfal (18,4 dias, e o substrato citros, a maior longevidade (32,0 dias. As maiores porcentagens de mortalidade (50% foram obtidas das ninfas oriundas de frutos de cacau e citros, criadas em café e cacau, e as menores foram das ninfas oriundas de frutos de café, independentemente do substrato em que foram criadas. A cochonilha P. minor mostra uma associação mais estreita com o cacau e, eventualmente, café, em relação ao citros, o que explicaria sua maior ocorrência em cacau. No entanto, P. citri não evidencia nenhuma especificidade para os três substratos testados.

  1. Role of D-Limonene in Autophagy Induced by Bergamot Essential Oil in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells (United States)

    Russo, Rossella; Cassiano, Maria Gilda Valentina; Ciociaro, Antonella; Adornetto, Annagrazia; Varano, Giuseppe Pasquale; Chiappini, Carlotta; Berliocchi, Laura; Tassorelli, Cristina; Bagetta, Giacinto; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana


    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso et Poiteau) essential oil (BEO) is a well characterized, widely used plant extract. BEO exerts anxiolytic, analgesic and neuroprotective activities in rodents through mechanisms that are only partly known and need to be further investigated. To gain more insight into the biological effects of this essential oil, we tested the ability of BEO (0.005–0.03%) to modulate autophagic pathways in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. BEO-treated cells show increased LC3II levels and appearance of dot-like formations of endogenous LC3 protein that colocalize with the lysosome marker LAMP-1. Autophagic flux assay using bafilomycin A1 and degradation of the specific autophagy substrate p62 confirmed that the observed increase of LC3II levels in BEO-exposed cells is due to autophagy induction rather than to a decreased autophagosomal turnover. Induction of autophagy is an early and not cell-line specific response to BEO. Beside basal autophagy, BEO also enhanced autophagy triggered by serum starvation and rapamycin indicating that the underlying mechanism is mTOR independent. Accordingly, BEO did not affect the phosphorylation of ULK1 (Ser757) and p70S6K (Thr389), two downstream targets of mTOR. Furthermore, induction of autophagy by BEO is beclin-1 independent, occurs in a concentration-dependent manner and is unrelated to the ability of BEO to induce cell death. In order to identify the active constituents responsible for these effects, the two most abundant monoterpenes found in the essential oil, d-limonene (125–750 µM) and linalyl acetate (62.5–375 µM), were individually tested at concentrations comparable to those found in 0.005–0.03% BEO. The same features of stimulated autophagy elicited by BEO were reproduced by d-limonene, which rapidly increases LC3II and reduces p62 levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Linalyl acetate was ineffective in replicating BEO effects; however, it greatly enhanced LC3 lipidation triggered by d

  2. Evidências científicas para a indicação popular de algumas espécies da família Rutaceae no tratamento de doenças respiratórias na região Sudeste do Brasil

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    Renata Correia Campello PRUDENTE, Regina Braga de MOURA


    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas medicinais como forma de tratamento vem sendo bastante empregada pela população brasileira, sendo a maioria através do uso empírico. Diversas patologias têm sido tratadas através da utilização popular de plantas medicinais, sendo uma das principais as doenças do trato respiratório. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar se existem evidências científicas para o uso popular das espécies de Rutaceae: Citrusaurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle, Citrus aurantiumL., Citrus limonum Risso, Citrus medica L., Citrussinensis Osbeck e Ruta graveolens L. na regiãoSudeste, para problemas respiratórios. Foram considerados artigos sobre estudos farmacológicos envolvendo doenças respiratórias, assim como sobre a ação anti-inflamatória e anti-bacteriana das espécies. A revisão mostrou que a presença de flavonóides, hidrocarbonetos terpênicos e monoterpênicos nos extratos e nos óleos essenciais dessas plantas causam um efeito anti-inflamatório, através da inibição de mediadores pró-inflamatórios iNOS e COX-2; e atividade anti-bacteriana, analisada por meio do método de difusão em disco. O trabalho mostrou que apesar do intenso uso da população da região Sudeste do Brasil de espécies medicinais da família Rutaceae para tratamento de doenças do trato respiratório, ainda existem poucos estudos que evidenciem cientificamente as ações farmacológicas, justificando assim a grande necessidade de estudos clínicos para tratamentos feitos com a utilização das espécies estudadas.

  3. Mercury speciation and selenium in toothed-whale muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Itai, Takaaki; Yasutake, Akira; Iwasaki, Toshihide; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Masaaki; Murata, Katsuyuki; Man Chan, Hing; Domingo, José L.; Marumoto, Masumi


    Mercury accumulates at high levels in marine mammal tissues. However, its speciation is poorly understood. The main goal of this investigation was to establish the relationships among mercury species and selenium (Se) concentrations in toothed-whale muscles at different mercury levels. The concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (I-Hg) and Se were determined in the muscles of four toothed-whale species: bottlenose dolphins (n=31), Risso's dolphins (n=30), striped dolphins (n=29), and short-finned pilot whales (n=30). In each species, the MeHg concentration increased with increasing T-Hg concentration, tending to reach a plateau. In contrast, the proportion of MeHg in T-Hg decreased from 90–100% to 20–40%. The levels of T-Hg and Se showed strong positive correlations. Se/I-Hg molar ratios rapidly decreased with the increase of I-Hg and reached almost 1 in all species. These results suggested that the demethylated MeHg immediately formed Se/I-Hg equimolar complex of mercury selenide (HgSe) in their muscles. In addition, an X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (XAFS) of a bottlenose dolphin muscle confirmed that the dominant chemical form of the Se/I-Hg equimolar complex was HgSe. HgSe was mainly localized in cells near the endomysium using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). These results suggested that the demethylated MeHg finally deposits within muscle cells of bottlenose dolphin as an inert HgSe. - Highlights: • T-Hg, MeHg, I-Hg and Se were determined in the muscles of four toothed-whales. • MeHg increased with increasing T-Hg and tended to reach a plateau in all species. • Se/I-Hg molar ratios rapidly decreased with increase of I-Hg and reached almost 1. • XAFS of bottlenose dolphin muscle confirmed that HgSe was dominant chemical form. • EPMA of bottlenose dolphin muscle showed that HgSe deposited in muscle cells.

  4. By the Light of the Moon: North Pacific Dolphins Optimize Foraging with the Lunar Cycle (United States)

    Simonis, Anne Elizabeth

    The influence of the lunar cycle on dolphin foraging behavior was investigated in the productive, southern California Current Ecosystem and the oligotrophic Hawaiian Archipelago. Passive acoustic recordings from 2009 to 2015 were analyzed to document the presence of echolocation from four dolphin species that demonstrate distinct foraging preferences and diving abilities. Visual observations of dolphins, cloud coverage, commercial landings of market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) and acoustic backscatter of fish were also considered in the Southern California Bight. The temporal variability of echolocation is described from daily to annual timescales, with emphasis on the lunar cycle as an established behavioral driver for potential dolphin prey. For dolphins that foraged at night, the presence of echolocation was reduced during nights of the full moon and during times of night that the moon was present in the night sky. In the Southern California Bight, echolocation activity was reduced for both shallow- diving common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and deeper-diving Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) during times of increased illumination. Seasonal differences in acoustic behavior for both species suggest a geographic shift in dolphin populations, shoaling scattering layers or prey switching behavior during warm months, whereby dolphins target prey that do not vertically migrate. In the Hawaiian Archipelago, deep-diving short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and shallow-diving false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) also showed reduced echolocation behavior during periods of increased lunar illumination. In contrast to nocturnal foraging in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, false killer whales in the main Hawaiian Islands mainly foraged during the day and the lunar cycle showed little influence on their nocturnal acoustic behavior. Different temporal patterns in false killer whale acoustic behavior between the main and northwestern Hawaiian

  5. Antalya İlinde Portakal Bahçelerinde Gözlenen Önemli Zararlı ve Yararlı Böcek Popülasyonları

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    Vildan GÖL


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, 2014 yılında, Antalya ilinde bulunan iki portakal bahçesinde önemli zararlı ve yararlı böcek popülasyonları belirlenmiştir. Bahçelerde ağırlıklı olarak portakal bulunması nedeniyle örneklemeler de bu tür üzerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışma süresince zararlılara karşı herhangi bir mücadele yöntemi uygulanmamıştır. Çalışmada örneklerin toplanması için gözle kontrol yöntemi, yaprak, sürgün, meyve örnekleme yöntemi, darbe ve tuzakla yakalama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda zararlı türler olarak Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae, Empoasca decipiens (Paoli, Asymmetrasca decedens (Paoli (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell (Hem.: Aleyrodidae, Aphis craccivora (Koch (Hem.: Aphididae, Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hem.: Margarodidae, Coccus hesperidum (Linnaeus, Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock (Hem.: Coccidae, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, Aonidiella citrina (Coquillet, Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock (Hem.: Diaspididae, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hem.: Pseudococcidae, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae ve Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae saptanmıştır. Bunlardan E. decipiens (Paoli, A. decedens (Paoli, A. floccosus (Maskell, A. aurantii (Maskell ve Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock en yaygın türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca 2 takıma bağlı 7 avcı ve asalak tür saptanmıştır. Bu türler: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Coccinella septempunctata L., Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Rhyzobius lophantae (Blaisdell, Oenopia conglobata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Aphytis melinus DeBach ve Comperiella bifasciata (Coleoptera: Aphelinidae’ dır. Çalışmada ayrıca zararlı iki cicadellid türü ile A. floccosus, A. aurantii, P. pergandii, C. capitata‘nın ve doğal düşmanlardan C. carnea’nın, coccinellidlerin, A. melinus ve E. citrina

  6. Empirical testing of Kotler's high-performance factors to increase sales growth

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    Oren Dayan


    Full Text Available Purpose and/or objectives: The primary objective of this study is to empirically test Kotler's (2003 high-performance model which ensures an increase in sales growth. More specifically, the study explores the influence of process variables (as measured by marketing strategies, resources management (as measured by the management of labour, materials, machines, information technology and energy and organisational variables (as measured by TQM and organisational culture on sales growth in the food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing industries. Problem investigated Various research studies suggest that the managers of firms are continuously challenged in their attempts to increase their sales (Morre, 2007; Pauwels, Silva Risso, Srinivasan & Hanssens, 2004: 142-143; Gray & Hayes, 2007: 1. Kotler (2003 suggests a model that leads to a high performing business. The question is posed as to whether this model can be used to increase sales growth in all businesses. This study seeks to develop a generic model to increase sales growth across industries by using an adapted version of Kotler's (2003 high-performance model. The study investigates the application of this adapted model on the food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing industries. Design and/or methodology and/or approach: An empirical causal research design that includes 770 marketing and product development practitioners from multinational food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing firms, was used in this study. A response rate of 76.1% was achieved as only 571 useable questionnaires were returned. The internal reliability and discriminant validity of the measuring instrument were assessed by the calculation of Cronbach alpha coefficients and the conducting an exploratory factor analysis respectively. Structural Equation Modelling SEM was used to statistically test the relationships between the independent variables (marketing strategies, resource management, TQM and

  7. İzmir İç Körfezi İhtiyoplankton Kompozisyonu.

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    Dilek Türker Çakır


    Full Text Available Ege Denizi’ndeki en önemli balıkçılık alanlarından biri olan İzmir Körfezi’nde geçmiş yıllarda meydana gelen kirliliğin neden olduğu biyolojik çeşitlilikte olumsuz yönde değişmeler olmuştur. 2001 büyük kanal projesinin devreye girmesi ile meydana gelmiş olumsuz değişimler tersine dönmeye başlamıştır. Bu değişimler üzerine çok çeşitli araştırmalar yapılmış ve halen yapılmaktadır. Bu çalışma “Büyük Kanal Projesinin Aktif Hale Geçirilmesinin İzmir Körfezi Sularında Alt Besinsel Seviyeler Üzerine Etkileri (YDABAG 102Y116” adlı proje kapsamında yürütülmüş olup İzmir İç Körfezi’nde yaşayan balıkların yumurta ve larvalarının tür çeşitliliği, bolluğu, dağılımları ve mortaliteleri araştırılmıştır. İhtiyoplankton örnekleri 19.12.2002-26.12.2003 tarihleri arasında 15’er günlük periyotlarda 3 istasyondan toplanmış olup ağız çapı 51 cm, uzunluğu 2.5 m ve 200 μm göz açıklığında UNESCO-WP2 model plankton kepçesi ile vertikal olarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma süresince toplam 9613.8 adet/m2 yumurta, 568.4 adet/m2 larva tespit edilmiştir. Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792, Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758, Diplodus sp., Symphodus melops (Linnaeus, 1758, Callionymus pusillus Delaroche, 1809, Callionymus sp., Gobius niger Linnaeus, 1758, Gobius paganellus Linnaeus, 1758, Arnoglossus sp., Buglossidium luteum (Risso, 1810 türlerinin yumurta ve/veya larvaları tayin edilmiştir. E. encrasicolus türüne ait yumurta, prelarva ve postlarva dominanttır. Bu türün yumurtalarında %12.05 oranında mortalite belirlenmiştir

  8. Editorial

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    Eloisa Bordoli, Dra.


    transmisión, la epimeleia heautou en clase”. El autor a partir de la recuperación de las nociones foucaultianas de epimeleia heautou y parrhesia analiza críticamente la inclusión de algunos conceptos freudianos en los programas de Formación Docente en Uruguay. El artículo de Mora, “Pensando las luchas como campo de saber”, es un ensayo que se inscribe en un enfoque de la cultura corporal para abordar las interrelaciones que se producen entre las ciencias del deporte, la Educación Física y las luchas. Esta sección se cierra con el texto de Jorge Rettich, “Didáctica y experiencia en la Modernidad: una relación a partir de la instrumentalización del lenguaje”. El autor ubica al lenguaje como un instrumento de la didáctica y la experiencia con el objetivo de discutir una posible reconfiguración de la enseñanza. En la sección de nota de investigación se encuentra el trabajo de Andrés Risso, “La formación en enseñanza, una mirada a partir de las teorías pedagógicas”. Desde una perspectiva teórica de la enseñanza, se presenta un avance exploratorio en torno a los vínculos que se operan entre la formación de quienes enseñan y las teorías pedagógicas. Finalmente, la nota de investigación de Croci, “Entre el saber diagnóstico y el no saber del maestro ignorante: una experiencia”, presenta algunos de los hallazgos de una investigación etnográfica en un liceo de la zona metropolitana. Específicamente, analiza - desde los aportes críticos de Foucault y de Rancière - la experiencia de un estudiante con diagnóstico de “dificultades de aprendizaje” en un taller de escritura de invención en la asignatura de Literatura. En la sección de reseñas se presentan dos libros. Pablo Martinis refiere a la producción de Eloísa Bordoli, “La construcción de la relación pedagógica en la escuela uruguaya. Sujetos, saber y gobierno de los niños”, publicado por la FHCE en  2015. El libro recoge una investigación de la autora en torno

  9. Selected Abstracts of the 19th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP; Naples (Italy; January 19-21, 2017

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    --- Various Authors