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Sample records for aristeus antennatus risso

  1. Dioxin compounds in the deep-sea rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) throughout the Mediterranean Sea

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    Rotllant, Guiomar; Abad, Esteban; Sardà, Francisco; Ábalos, Manuela; Company, Joan B.; Rivera, Josep

    2006-12-01

    Polychlorodibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the more toxic anthropogenic contaminants. They are fat-soluble and accumulate in animal tissues. Exposure to PCDD/Fs can cause several endocrine, reproductive and developmental problems in animals, including human beings. Several studies have demonstrated that fish and invertebrates living in association with sediments are exposed to and accumulate contaminants, but to date there have been no studies of PCDD/Fs contamination in deep-sea regions. Specimens of Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) were collected from depths of 600-2500 m at different points in the Mediterranean Sea, from the western basin off the coast of Barcelona to the central basin off the Peloponnesian Peninsula, with otter trawl gear. Amounts of PCDD/Fs were measured in different animal tissues by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). This is the first study to report the presence of PCDD/Fs in deep-sea organisms dwelling at depths below 600 m. A. antennatus presented levels of PCDD/Fs of the same order of magnitude, or slightly higher, as those found in shallow-water species ( Melicertus kerathurus) with respect to land-generated contamination. This highlights the widespread distribution of these pollutants and the potential threat posed to the biodiversity of fragile and vulnerable ecosystems such as the deep-sea. PCDD/F levels detected in the edible parts (muscle) of the commercial shrimp A. antennatus were clearly below the toxic limit value established by European legislation. Levels followed the trend muscle

  2. Characterisation and standardisation of a red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, (Risso, 1816 fishery off the Alicante gulf (SE Spain

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    Mariano García Rodríguez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus is a target species of a deep trawl fishery in the Gulf of Alicante. This paper describes the fishery by following the activity of this trawl fleet between 1992 and 1999. Principal Components Analysis (PCA of specific catch compositions identified five main components that explained 92% of the variability, and the catches were grouped into three main species: red shrimp, hake and blue whiting. Hierarchical Clustering Grouping of the percentage species catch composition allowed the fleet to be considered as two main groups, according to monthly landings and by differentiating the origin of the catches (slope or shelf. The species composition of the catch and the red shrimp catch rates (CPUE differed between the two fleet groups. The application of Generalised Linear Modelling (GLM to the CPUE series gave consistent indices of abundance. The fleet group, year and season had significant effects on shrimp catch rates, with the fleet group being the most important, and these models explained up to 62% of the total deviance. The abundance indices showed little variation from 1992, although 1994 had the highest value and 1997-1998 the lowest. Comparison with survey indices showed similar trends, while mean uncorrected CPUE differed. Monthly variations of shrimp indices showed a lower abundance in summer, which was attributed to the reproductive patterns of the species. As a result, the use of some fleet grouping techniques is recommended before standardising CPUEs to obtain trends or to calibrate assessment in a fishery.

  3. Population genetic history of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea.

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    Annamaria Marra

    Full Text Available Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from "virgin" deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective 'rescue effect' contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman's coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be

  4. Comparative Reproduction Aspects of the Deep-water Shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus (Decapoda, Aristeidae in the Greek Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean

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    K. Kapiris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the eastern Ionian Sea, the deep-water shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus constitute a virgin fishing resource, since their maximum abundance depth exceeds commercial exploitation depths. The two sympatric species share a number of common reproductive features, such as summer reproduction. A slight temporal shift in mating activity, ovarian maturation, and spawning period was observed between species. The most notable difference was the more pronounced seasonality in reproductive activity of Aristeus antennatus compared to that of A. foliacea as evidenced by the frequency of inseminated females and functionally mature males, as well as by the shorter ovarian maturation period. Nevertheless, regarding the whole life span, both sexes of Aristeus antennatus exhibit a more extended reproductive activity in comparison to A. foliacea. No notable differentiation of both species existed in comparison to other Mediterranean regions.

  5. MEDITS-based information on the deep water red shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Aristeidae

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    Angelo Cau

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of statistical models on a time series of data arising from the MEDITS International Trawl Survey, an experimental demersal resources survey carried out during six years (1994-1999 in the same season of the year (late spring - early summer using the same fishing gear in a large part of the Mediterranean, has allowed for a study to compare, for the first time, the space-time distribution, abundance, and size structure of the two Aristeids Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus throughout most of the Mediterranean Sea. This research has shown a large variability among the six reference areas, that were arbitrarily defined within the basin. In particular the two shrimps do not seem to present any correlation or yield continuity in the years. The same lack of homogeneity was also observed in the time trend of the abundances and frequencies of each of the two species. These data seem to confirm the intrinsic variability of the species, the cause of which is still unknown and undocumented. Nevertheless, a longitudinal gradient of catches has been observed where A. antennatus is more abundant in the west and A. foliacea in the east of the basin.

  6. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

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    Amores, Ángel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

    2013-01-01

    Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (. Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assum...

  7. The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle

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    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz

    2008-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL diet of both small (CL diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and diet were significantly linked to temporal changes in water column productivity (e.g., Chl a readings, fluorescence) and to changes in the shrimp biology (lipid content of hepatopancreas, Gonado-somatic Index, GSI). Off Cabrera, we found a higher dependence of fullness and diet with T and S, both variables in turn related to depth. The increase of stomach fullness and dietary energy intake in pre-reproductive females from February to April-June 2004 found off Sóller, coupled with the consumption of

  8. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

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    Amores, Angel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspension, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity disappearing from the fishing grounds, probably moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accessibility to fishing exploitation. Similar although more intense responses have been observed during the downslope shelf dense water current episodes that occurred in a submarine canyon, northeast of the Iberian peninsula. The proposed mechanism suggesting how the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom current meter and a sediment trap moored near the fishing grounds. The relationship between vorticity and catches is also explored for fish species (Galeus melastomus, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides) and other crustacean (Geryon longipes and Nephrops norvegicus), considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticity episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species.

  9. Analysis and standardization of landings per unit effort of red shrimp Aristeus antennatus from the trawl fleet of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean

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    Valeria Mamouridis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Monthly landings and effort data from the Barcelona trawl fleet (NW Mediterranean were selected to analyse and standardize the landings per unit effort (LPUE of the red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus using generalized additive models. The dataset covers a span of 15 years (1994-2008 and consists of a broad spectrum of predictors: fleet-dependent (e.g. number of trips performed by vessels and their technical characteristics, such as the gross registered tonnage, temporal (inter- and intra-annual variability, environmental (North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO] index and economic (red shrimp and fuel prices variables. All predictors individually have an impact on LPUE, though some of them lose their predictive power when considered jointly. That is the case of the NAO index. Our results show that six variables from the whole set can be incorporated into a global model with a total explained deviance (ED of 43%. We found that the most important variables were effort-related predictors (trips, tonnage, and groups with a total ED of 20.58%, followed by temporal variables, with an ED of 13.12%, and finally the red shrimp price as an economic predictor with an ED of 9.30%. Taken individually, the main contributing variable was the inter-annual variability (ED=12.40%. This high ED value suggests that many factors correlated with inter-annual variability, such as environmental factors (the NAO in specific years and fuel price, could in turn affect LPUE variability. The standardized LPUE index with the effort variability removed was found to be similar to the fishery-independent abundance index derived from the MEDITS programme.

  10. Risso's dolphins plan foraging dives.

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    Arranz, Patricia; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Southall, Brandon L; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S; Tyack, Peter L

    2018-02-28

    Humans remember the past and use that information to plan future actions. Lab experiments that test memory for the location of food show that animals have a similar capability to act in anticipation of future needs, but less work has been done on animals foraging in the wild. We hypothesized that planning abilities are critical and common in breath-hold divers who adjust each dive to forage on prey varying in quality, location and predictability within constraints of limited oxygen availability. We equipped Risso's dolphins with sound-and-motion recording tags to reveal where they focus their attention through their externally observable echolocation and how they fine tune search strategies in response to expected and observed prey distribution. The information from the dolphins was integrated with synoptic prey data obtained from echosounders on an underwater vehicle. At the start of the dives, whales adjusted their echolocation inspection ranges in ways that suggest planning to forage at a particular depth. Once entering a productive prey layer, dolphins reduced their search range comparable to the scale of patches within the layer, suggesting that they were using echolocation to select prey within the patch. On ascent, their search range increased, indicating that they decided to stop foraging within that layer and started searching for prey in shallower layers. Information about prey, learned throughout the dive, was used to plan foraging in the next dive. Our results demonstrate that planning for future dives is modulated by spatial memory derived from multi-modal prey sampling (echoic, visual and capture) during earlier dives. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Echolocation in the Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus

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    Philips, Jennifer D.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Pawloski, Jeffrey L.; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    2003-01-01

    The Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) is an exclusively cephalopod-consuming delphinid with a distinctive vertical indentation along its forehead. To investigate whether or not the species echolocates, a female Risso's dolphin was trained to discriminate an aluminum cylinder from a nylon sphere (experiment 1) or an aluminum sphere (experiment 2) while wearing eyecups and free swimming in an open-water pen in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. The dolphin completed the task with little difficulty despite being blindfolded. Clicks emitted by the dolphin were acquired at average amplitudes of 192.6 dB re 1 μPa, with estimated sources levels up to 216 dB re 1 μPa-1 m. Clicks were acquired with peak frequencies as high as 104.7 kHz (Mfp=47.9 kHz), center frequencies as high as 85.7 kHz (Mf0=56.5 kHz), 3-dB bandwidths up to 94.1 kHz (MBW=39.7 kHz), and root-mean-square bandwidths up to 32.8 kHz (MRMS=23.3 kHz). Click durations were between 40 and 70 μs. The data establish that the Risso's dolphin echolocates, and that, aside from slightly lower amplitudes and frequencies, the clicks emitted by the dolphin were similar to those emitted by other echolocating odontocetes. The particular acoustic and behavioral findings in the study are discussed with respect to the possible direction of the sonar transmission beam of the species.

  12. Elysia timida (Risso, 1818 three decades of research

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    Giménez–Casalduero, F.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last 30 years, studies on Elysia timida (Risso, 1818 have addressed various aspects related to food sources, photosynthetic efficiency of kleptoplasts, population genetics, chemical ecology and reproductive biology, both in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon. E. timida shows a strong specific interaction with Acetabularia acetabulum, retaining functional chloroplasts for at least 45 days and obtaining extra energy in periods when food resources are scarce. It shows control of parapodia, avoiding pigment photodestruction under oversaturated light conditions. The chemical ecological relationships established between E. timida and its potential predator fish, Thalassoma pavo, have also been evaluated, and it has been found that that the extracts of the mollusc contain repellent and unpalatable polypropionate compounds. Population genetics has demonstrated the genetic divergence between populations showing high and significant values of FST and genetic distances, and at least six privative alleles that are not shared with Mediterranean populations have been detected in lagoon populations. This sacoglossan is a poecilogonic species, and its lagoon populations show a greater reproductive output than Mediterranean populations; they produce a greater number of egg masses and embyros per individual, and the capsules have a wider diameter.

  13. Hearing abilities and sound reception of broadband sounds in an adult Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

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    Mooney, T Aran; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Ketten, Darlene R; Jen, I-Fan

    2015-08-01

    While odontocetes do not have an external pinna that guides sound to the middle ear, they are considered to receive sound through specialized regions of the head and lower jaw. Yet odontocetes differ in the shape of the lower jaw suggesting that hearing pathways may vary between species, potentially influencing hearing directionality and noise impacts. This work measured the audiogram and received sensitivity of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) in an effort to comparatively examine how this species receives sound. Jaw hearing thresholds were lowest (most sensitive) at two locations along the anterior, midline region of the lower jaw (the lower jaw tip and anterior part of the throat). Responses were similarly low along a more posterior region of the lower mandible, considered the area of best hearing in bottlenose dolphins. Left- and right-side differences were also noted suggesting possible left-right asymmetries in sound reception or differences in ear sensitivities. The results indicate best hearing pathways may vary between the Risso's dolphin and other odontocetes measured. This animal received sound well, supporting a proposed throat pathway. For Risso's dolphins in particular, good ventral hearing would support their acoustic ecology by facilitating echo-detection from their proposed downward oriented echolocation beam.

  14. Pulmonary fungal infection caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

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    Elad, Daniel; Morick, Danny; David, Dan; Scheinin, Aviad; Yamin, Gilad; Blum, Shlomo; Goffman, Oz

    2011-05-01

    Neoscytalidium dimidiatum was isolated from two 12-18 cm abscesses in the lung and the mediastinal lymph nodes of a stranded Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). Histopathologic examination of samples of these organs revealed the presence of hyphae and sclerotic body-like fungal elements. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was recovered from the dolphin's organs which also were found to contain numerous Monorygma grimaldii cysts. No histopathological signs of morbillivirus infection were seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of N. dimidiatum infection in a sea mammal.

  15. Morphological variability of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810, along the southern Caspian Sea

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    Huseyn Khayyami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variability of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810, was studied in traditional morphometric measurements in 25 morphological characters from 90 specimens in three fishery areas in the southern Caspian Sea (Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan. Univariate analysis of variance showed significant differences between the means of the three groups for 22 out of 25 standardized morphometric measurements. In discriminant function analysis (DFA, the proportion of individuals correctly classified into their original groups was 100%. Principal component analysis results (PCA for morphometric data indicated that samples of Guilan and Mazandaran showed high degree of overlap and these two regions were highly different from Golestan. The dendrogram derived from cluster analysis showed that the samples of L. aurata from Guilan and Mazandaran had same clade while both were obviously distinct from Golestan.

  16. A new species of Lysmata Risso, 1816 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Lysmatidae) from the Gulf of Mexico.

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    Prakash, Sanjeevi; Baeza, J Antonio

    2017-12-12

    A new species of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata baueri n. sp., is described based on a single specimen from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The new species can be distinguished from other morphologically similar species of Lysmata Risso, 1816 by the number of teeth, length and shape of the rostrum, the length of the antennular peduncle relative to the scaphocerite, the number of meral and ischial articles in the second pereiopods, and the number of spines on the flexor margin of the dactyli from the third to fifth pereiopods. Morphological characters demonstrate that L. baueri n. sp., is most closely related to the eastern Pacific L. californica (Stimpson, 1866), L. nayaritensis Wicksten, 2000 and L. porteri (Rathbun, 1907).

  17. Detection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Rift Valley fever virus from Anopheles (Anopheles) coustani, Anopheles (Anopheles) squamosus, and Culex (Culex) antennatus of the Haute Matsiatra region, Madagascar.

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    Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Olive, Marie-Marie; Tantely, Luciano Michael; Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Tata, Etienne; Razainirina, Josette; Jeanmaire, Elisabeth; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Elissa, Nohal

    2011-06-01

    Following veterinary alerts of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in the districts of Fianarantsoa I and II in November 2008 and in the district of Ambalavao in April 2009, entomological and virological investigations were carried out to identify the mosquito species that could act as RVF virus (RVFV) vectors in the region. A total of 12,785 adult mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 21 species were collected. After identification, mosquitoes were pooled by species, sex, and female status (fed or unfed) and then stored at -80°C. Of 319 pools of unfed monospecific female mosquito tested by real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction, RVFV was detected in 1 pool of Anopheles coustani, 5 pools of An. squamosus, and 2 pools of Culex antennatus mosquitoes. The virus was isolated in mosquito cell lines from two of the five Real Time-RT-polymerase chain reaction (real time-RT-PCR) positive pools of An. squamosus mosquitoes. From the eight RVFV strains detected, partial S, M, and L genome segments sequences were obtained. The phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that the strains circulating in mosquitoes were genetically close to those that circulated in livestock and humans during RVF outbreaks in 2008 and 2009. This study, therefore, provides strong evidence that An. squamosus, An. coustani, and Cx. antennatus could play a role as vectors of the RVFV during the disease outbreaks in 2008-2009. Bioecological, genetic, and RVF transmission studies on these three mosquito species are needed to address this question and thus improve prevention and control of future RVF outbreaks in Madagascar, where these species are present.

  18. Evidence of lipofuscin accumulation in the deep-water red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827

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    V. MEZZASALMA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipofuscin, a non-degradable, degenerative fluorescent pigment which accumulates in post-mitotic cells, represents a promising method for ageing marine crustaceans. The presence and accumulation of lipofuscin has been studied in the deep-water red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827 to assess its use as a tool for ageing larger (i.e., older specimens and thus improve knowledge of the growth and longevity of this species. Specimens, gathered during experimental trawl surveys carried out in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea, were stored directly on-board in 10% buffered formaldehyde solution; their brain was thereafter removed, prepared with various current histological techniques and examined with a binocular microscope. Thin sections of the olfactory lobe cell mass were also analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, and the lipofuscin concentration was measured through image analysis. Various indices were computed for each individual by pooling data from many images: number and coverage of the lipofuscin granules per unit area, and mean individual area of the granules. Lipofuscin was detected in all specimens investigated with characteristics (grain typology and dimension strictly resembling those already described in other crustacean species. The present preliminary results encourage further studies to develop and validate a methodology based on the use of lipofuscin for improving the relative ageing of large A. foliacea shrimps.

  19. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae Regarding to host conditioning in citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  20. The occurrence of the Golden Grey Mullet, Liza aurata (Risso, 1810) in the coastal waters of the Netherlands (Pisces, Perciformes, Mugilidae)

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    Nijssen, H.; Groot, de S.J.; Doornbos, G.

    1981-01-01

    The Golden grey mullet, Liza aurata (Risso, 1810), inhabits the coastal waters of the Netherlands at least since 1939, as was established by re-examining preserved specimens in the collection of the Institute of Taxonomic Zoology (Zoological Museum), Amsterdam. A key to the three Mullet species in

  1. Effort dynamics in a fisheries bioeconomic model: A vessel level approach through Game Theory

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    Gorka Merino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816 is one of the most important resources for the bottom-trawl fleets in the northwestern Mediterranean, in terms of both landings and economic value. A simple bioeconomic model introducing Game Theory for the prediction of effort dynamics at vessel level is proposed. The game is performed by the twelve vessels exploiting red shrimp in Blanes. Within the game, two solutions are performed: non-cooperation and cooperation. The first is proposed as a realistic method for the prediction of individual effort strategies and the second is used to illustrate the potential profitability of the analysed fishery. The effort strategy for each vessel is the number of fishing days per year and their objective is profit maximisation, individual profits for the non-cooperative solution and total profits for the cooperative one. In the present analysis, strategic conflicts arise from the differences between vessels in technical efficiency (catchability coefficient and economic efficiency (defined here. The ten-year and 1000-iteration stochastic simulations performed for the two effort solutions show that the best strategy from both an economic and a conservationist perspective is homogeneous effort cooperation. However, the results under non-cooperation are more similar to the observed data on effort strategies and landings.

  2. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  3. Photophore counts in the deep-sea commercial shrimp Aristeus alcocki Ramadan, 1938 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Aristeidae), with a revised key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tin-Yam; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju; Yang, Chien-Hui

    2017-10-06

    The availability of abundant fresh material of Aristeus alcocki Ramadan, 1938 from India allowed the evaluation of the variation in the numbers of photophores on the pereiopods in this species, as well as other diagnostic characters for species discrimination. Although the pereiopodal photophore counts in A. alcocki largely overlap with those of A. semidentatus Bate, 1888, it is found that A. alcocki is unique in the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus by the lower end of the cervical carina considerably farther away from the branchiostegal carina. Molecular genetic analysis confirmed the distinct taxonomic status of the six currently known species in this genus from the Indo-West Pacific and a revised key is provided for distinguishing them.

  4. Reproductive cycle and population structure of the deep-water shrimp Aristeus antillensis A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1909 (Decapoda: Aristeidae on southeast Brazilian continental slope Ciclo reproductivo y estructura poblacional del camarón de aguas profundas Aristeus antillensis A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1909 (Decapoda: Aristeidae en el talud continental del sureste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The "alistado shrimp" (Aristeus antillensis is one of the targets of the trawling fleet operating since 2002 along the continental slope of the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone between 700 and 800 m depth. Catches of the species occur mainly in two small fishing grounds located on the east coast of Espirito Santo State (19-22°S. This paper aimed to obtain the first biological data for this species along the Brazilian coast. A total of 13,797 individuals were sampled aboard fishing vessels by observers on almost all fishing hauls, corresponding to 10 to 20% of the total catch recorded in the period. Males and females are sexually mature at 25.4 and 40.2 mm carapace length, respectively, based on an analysis of the proportions of individuals with fused petasma (males and spermatophores in the thelycum (females. The proportion of impregnated females was higher than 80% year round, suggesting a continuous reproductive cycle, although preliminary in-formation on gonadal development points to possible seasonal reproduction. In general, mature females, which attain larger sizes than males, domínate the catches (M:F = 0.12:1. However, populational groups including males and juveniles of both sexes occupy the fishing grounds in different periods of the year, probably reflecting migratory movements whose directions and driving forces are not completely understood yet. A depth-stratified population structure by sex and size is hypothesized.La gamba de aguas profundas Aristeus antillensis es uno de los recursos explotados por la flota de arrastre, que está operando desde el año 2002 en el talud continental de la Zona Econômica Exclusiva de Brasil, entre 700 y 800 m de profundidad. Las capturas de esta especie se realizan básicamente en dos pequeños fondos de pesca que se encuentran en la costa este de la región de Espirito Santo (19-22°S. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo obtener los primeros antecedentes biológicos de esta especie en la costa

  5. Characterization of Volatile Compounds in the Essential Oil of Sweet Lime (Citrus limetta Risso Caracterización de Compuestos Volátiles en Aceite esencial de Lima Dulce (Citrus limetta Risso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Colecio-Juárez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of citrus fruit contains components pleasant sensory characteristics that are appreciated in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. In the case of sweet lime (Citrus limetta Risso, is necessary to characterize the essential oil components, to identify potential uses of this fruit. The essential oil of sweet lime was obtained from lime flavedo in four different maturation stages. Steam distillation was employed and then compared with hexane extraction. The identification of the components in the essential oil was carried out by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A total of 46 components were found in the essence of lime, among which the highest concentration of compounds present were aldehydes such as limonene. Linalool, sabinene, and bergamol were more abundant than in other varieties. The best extraction method was steam distillation, and the concentrations in stage III from the main terpenic portion were d-limonene with 74.4%, bergamol with 8.23%, and β-pinene with 7.62%.El aceite esencial de frutos cítricos contiene componentes de características sensoriales agradables que son apreciadas en las industrias alimentaria, farmacéutica y de cosméticos. En el caso de la lima dulce (Citrus limetta Risso, es necesaria la caracterización de los componentes de su aceite esencial para identificar usos potenciales de este fruto. El aceite esencial de lima dulce se obtuvo a partir del flavedo de lima en cuatro etapas de maduración diferentes. Se utilizó destilación por arrastre de vapor y se comparó con la extracción con hexano. La identificación de los componentes en el aceite esencial se realizó por cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. Se encontró un total de 46 componentes en el aceite esencial de lima, entre los cuales la mayor concentración de compuestos presentes son aldehídos como el limoneno. Linalol, sabineno y bergamol fueron más abundantes que en otras variedades. El mejor m

  6. Diet and trophic ecology of the lanternfish Electrona risso (Cocco 1829) in the Strait of Messina (central Mediterranean Sea) and potential resource utilization from the Deep Scattering Layer (DSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Pietro; Andaloro, Franco; Esposito, Valentina; Granata, Antonia; Guglielmo, Letterio; Guglielmo, Rosanna; Musolino, Simona; Romeo, Teresa; Zagami, Giacomo

    2016-07-01

    The feeding habits of the mesopelagic lanternfish Electrona risso from the Strait of Messina (central Mediterranean Sea) were analyzed for the first time. A total of 326 individuals were collected stranded along the Sicilian coast of the Strait of Messina from October 2012 to May 2013. Specimens ranged from 12.0 to 53.8 mm LS (mean LS = 38.6 ± 8.4 mm). Their stomach content was examined and prey composition and feeding strategy were investigated. The results indicate that E. risso is a specialist predator, which feeds mainly on the small mesopelagic fish Cyclothone braueri (%IRI = 74.06) and in minor proportion on zooplankton, with a prevalence of copepods. The specialized feeding strategy of E. risso is confirmed by the low value of Levins standardized index (Bj = 0.141), which indicated a restricted niche breadth. The value of the index of trophic level (TROPH) for E. risso resulted 4.20. The prey composition suggests that E. risso can be considered a weakly vertical migrating species, that feeds on the DSL crustacean and fish communities below 300 m of depth.

  7. First occurrence of thinlip grey mullet, Liza ramada (Risso, 1827 in the Odra River estuary (NW Poland: genetic identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Panicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of exotic fish species in the Baltic Sea and its tributaries poses a serious threat for native ichthyofauna, mainly due to the spread of new pathogens. As the accurate identification of species is essential for an effective assessment of changes related to the appearance of non-native species in an aquatic environment, in this paper we tested the usefulness of biometrics and molecular markers in identifying a specimen from the Mugilidae family found in the Odra estuary. The results demonstrated that unambiguous identification of the specimen using biometric features was impossible due to high morphological similarities shared by grey mullets. Unambiguous identification was possible only due to molecular markers, e.g. rhodopsin gene, which helped to identify the collected fish specimen as Liza ramada (Risso, 1827, the first specimen of this species found in the Odra River estuary. The presence of an L. ramada specimen in the Odra River – which could signal the expansion of non-native species into wider ranges – may be linked to climate change or human activity.

  8. Consecutive repetition of lordosis-kyphosis in silverside Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810 collected from a wild population in Homa Lagoon, Izmir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Laith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of severe consecutive repetition of lordosis-kyphosis involving three flexions was reported in a specimen of the atherinid fish Atherina boyeri Risso. The values for the angles lay between the lines passing through the sides of the vertebral column and enclosing the curvatures, and the depth of the curvatures of the angles was obtained. Also, the ratio of the vertebral column to the fish total length of deformed and normal specimens of this species was calculated. Possible causes for these anomalies are discussed.

  9. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway pathology is a fatal, autosomal, recessive genetic disease characterized by extensive lung inflammation. After induction by TNF-α, elevated concentrations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-6, IL-1β) and chemokines (i.e. IL-8) are released from airway epithelial cells. In order to reduce the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients, new therapies have been developed and in this respect, medicinal plant extracts have been studied. In this article we have investigated the possible use of bergamot extracts (Citrus bergamia Risso) and their identified components to alter the expression of IL-8 associated with the cystic fibrosis airway pathology. Methods The extracts were chemically characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector), GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography). Both bergamot extracts and main detected chemical constituents were assayed for their biological activity measuring (a) cytokines and chemokines in culture supernatants released from cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells treated with TNF-α by Bio-Plex cytokine assay; (b) accumulation of IL-8 mRNA by real-time PCR. Results The extracts obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) epicarps contain components displaying an inhibitory activity on IL-8. Particularly, the most active molecules were bergapten and citropten. These effects have been confirmed by analyzing mRNA levels and protein release in the CF cellular models IB3-1 and CuFi-1 induced with TNF-α or exposed to heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions These obtained results clearly indicate that bergapten and citropten are strong inhibitors of IL-8 expression and could be proposed for further studies to verify possible anti-inflammatory properties to reduce lung inflammation in CF patients. PMID:21496221

  10. Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Colica, Carmela; Menichini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The interest in medicinal plant research and in the aroma-therapeutic effects of essential oils in humans has increased in recent years, especially for the treatment of pathologies of relevant social impact such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study was taken up to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the peel essential oils from three Citrus species, C. aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso & Poit. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and they contain mainly limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene, and linalyl acetate. C. aurantifolia oil showed the highest radical scavenging activity on ABTS assay (IC₅₀ value of 19.6 μg/mL), while C. bergamia exhibited a good antioxidant activity evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching test (IC₅₀ = 42.6 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation). C. aurantifolia inhibited more selectively AChE. Obtained data suggest a potential use of Citrus oils as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. The demonstrated antioxidant activity and procholinesterase properties of Citrus essential oils suggested their use as a new potential source of natural antioxidant to added as extra-nutrient for using in food industries as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Aspectos biológicos da fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae oriunda de larvas alimentadas com Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Biological aspects of the adult stage of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae originating from the larvae fed Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerane Celly Dias Bezerra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar alguns aspectos biológicos da fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen quando as larvas desse predador foram alimentadas com ninfas e fêmeas adultas de Planococcus citri (Risso. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada regulada a 25 ± 1 ºC, 70 ± 10% de UR e fotofase de 12 horas. Os adultos de C. externa cujas larvas foram alimentadas com ninfas nos três ínstares e fêmeas adultas da cochonilha, foram separados por sexo e 25 casais foram individualizados em gaiolas determinando-se a razão sexual, período de pré-oviposição, capacidade de oviposição diária e total durante 40 dias consecutivos, longevidade, período embrionário e viabilidade de ovos. Constatou-se que as ninfas nos três ínstares e fêmeas adultas fornecidas como alimento, não afetaram a razão sexual, período de pré-oviposição, período embrionário e longevidade dos adultos de C. externa. A produção diária e total de ovos por C. externa foi afetada pelo tipo de alimento fornecido ao predador durante a fase de larva, observando-se uma maior produção quando os casais foram alimentados na fase de larva com fêmeas adultas da cochonilha. Analisando-se a produção de ovos, observou-se uma maior concentração de oviposição nos primeiros dez dias do período reprodutivo, decrescendo nas avaliações seguintes. Foram obtidas porcentagens maiores de ovos viáveis e menores de inviáveis e inférteis, porém, não diferiram em função do alimento fornecido ao predador na fase de larva.It was aimed to study some biological aspects in the adult stage of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen when the larvae of predator were fed both nymphs and adult females of Planococcus citri (Risso. The experiment was conducted in climate chamber at 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% of RH and 12-h photophase. The adults of C. externa whose larvae were fed nymphs at the three instars and adult females of mealybug were separated by sex and 25 couples were individualized

  12. Molecular and morphological characterisation of two species of the genus Ellipsomyxa Køie, 2003 (Ceratomyxidae) from the gall-bladder of Liza saliens (Risso) off Tunisian coasts of the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Aouatef; Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Mansour, Lamjed

    2016-07-01

    During examination of some species of the family Mugilidae, two coelozoic myxozoans were observed in the gall-bladder of the leaping mullet, Liza saliens (Risso). Spore morphology allowed us to allocate them to the genus Ellipsomyxa Køie, 2003, one of which is described here as new. Ellipsomyxa kalthoumi n. sp. was observed forming globular pseudoplasmodia and free spores floating in the bile. Mature spores are ellipsoidal, measuring 13-21 × 10-15 (17.2 × 13.2) µm and possessing two equal spherical polar capsules, 5-6 (5.5) µm in diameter, opening subterminally in opposite directions, with nine polar filament coils. Morphological data and molecular analysis of the small subunit rDNA sequences helped identify this parasite as a new species of Elliposmyxa. The second species identified as E. mugilis (Sitjà-Bobadilla & Alvarez-Pellitero, 1993) has oval spores with rounded ends, measuring 10-11 × 7-9 (10.5 × 8.0) µm and possessing two polar subspherical capsules, 2.7-3.0 (2.8) µm in diameter, opening subterminally in opposite directions. Spore morphometry and molecular study of the small subunit (SSU) of the rRNA gene identified this species as E. mugilis described from the same host in the Western Mediterranean off Spain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Elliposmyxa as a monophyletic clade and showed that E. mugilis, E. syngnathi Køie & Karlsbakk, 2009, E. adlardi Whipps & Font, 2012 and E. gobii Køie, 2003 group in a subclade containing the Tunisian isolate of E. mugilis whereas E. kalthoumi n. sp. appears in a second subclade together with four Australian species, E. maniliensis Heiniger & Adlard, 2014, E. apogoni Heiniger & Adlard, 2014, E. nigropunctatis Heiniger & Adlard, 2014 and E. arothroni Heiniger & Adlard, 2014.

  13. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of the demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, A.; Rueda, L.; Monserrat, S.; Guijarro, B.; Pasqual, C.; Massutí, E.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean mean surface vorticity from gridded multi-mission satellite altimetry data was explored in the Western Mediterranean basin for the period 2000-2010, with the aim of comparing its variability with several species of the deep water fishery in the area. Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed off northern Mallorca Island displayed a good correlation with surface vorticity. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspensions, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity by moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accesibility to fishing exploitation. This relationship between vorticity and catches also holds for other species , considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticy episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species. The way the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is also investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom currentmeter and a sediment trap sited in the fishing grounds.

  14. Production of fish finger from sand smelt (Atherina boyeri, RISSO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... Departmant of Fishing and Fish Processing Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, University of Süleyman Demirel, 32500. Eğirdir, Isparta, Turkey. ... the consumption of food as “heat and eat” has become important. Food sector .... In many of the developed countries, the habits of nourish- ment are changing and ...

  15. Phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of Nemesis Risso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nemesi s is one of 12 genera in the family Eudactylinidae and includes about nine species. In this study, we investigated whether there is any population structure among Nemesis lamna individuals infecting the white shark Carcharodon carcharias and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus according to host species or ...

  16. Spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna Risso 1826 (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The selection of a specific site of attachment by a copepod parasite is determined by a set of mostly unknown factors. The spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna on the gill filaments of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias was investigated. The complete set of left gills of 11 hosts was examined and the location, orientation ...

  17. Risso's dolphin at-sea density off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  18. Bycatch of crustacean and fish bottom trawl fisheries from southern Portugal (Algarve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esmeralda Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of two research projects for analysing bycatch and discards, we quantified catch composition, catch rates, bycatch and discards in two important commercial bottom trawl fisheries (crustacean and fish trawls off the southern coast of Portugal (Algarve. Stratified sampling by onboard observers took place from February 1999 to March 2001 and data were collected from 165 tows during 52 fishing trips. Commercial target species included crustaceans: blue and red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus, deep-water rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris, Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus; and fishes: seabreams (Diplodus spp. and Pagellus spp., horse mackerels (Trachurus spp. and European hake (Merluccius merluccius. The trawl fisheries are characterised by considerable amounts of bycatch: 59.5% and 80.4% of the overall total catch for crustacean and fish trawlers respectively. A total of 255 species were identified, which belonged to 15 classes of organisms (137 vertebrates, 112 invertebrates and 6 algae. Crustacean trawlers had higher bycatch biodiversity. Bony fish (45.6% and 37.8% followed by crustaceans (14.6% and 11.5% were the dominant bycatch components of both crustacean and fish trawlers respectively. The influence of a number of factors (e.g. depth, fishing gear, tow duration and season on bycatch and discards is discussed.

  19. Citrus bergamia Risso & Poiteau juice protects against renal injury of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Ada; Taviano, Maria F; Pergolizzi, Simona; Campolo, Loredana; De Pasquale, Rita; Miceli, Natalizia

    2010-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of treatment with Citrus bergamia juice (1 mL/day, for 30 days) against hypercholesterolemic diet-induced renal injury in rat.C. bergamia juice provoked a significant reduction in the plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL, and an increase in HDL levels, versus hyperlipidemic controls (p juice administration significantly decreased MDA levels elevations compared with hyperlipidemic controls (4.10 +/- 0.10 nmol/mg protein and 4.78 +/- 0.15 nmol/mg protein, respectively).Histological observations of the kidney supported the biochemical data and indicated a protective effect of C. bergamia juice on the development of renal damage in hypercholesterolemic rats.The antioxidant potential of C. bergamia juice was examined in two in vitro systems: in the DPPH test the juice showed a noticeable effect on scavenging free radicals (IC(50) = 25.01 +/- 0.70 +/-L); in the reducing power assay it showed a strong activity, too (1.44 +/- 0.01 ASE/mL).These findings suggest that C. bergamia juice has a protective role in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced renal damage, which may be attributed to its antioxidant properties. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Larval Myogenesis in the Articulate Brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata (Risso, 1826)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    Brachiopoda is a metazoan phylum with a fossil record dating back to the lower Cambrium and comprises over 12,000 extinct and 400 recent species. Despite some recent progress using mainly palaeontological and molecular datasets, the discussion concerning the phylogenetic position of Brachiopoda r...

  1. Are deep-sea organisms dwelling within a submarine canyon more at risk from anthropogenic contamination than those from the adjacent open slope? A case study of Blanes canyon (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Samuel; Fernández, Pilar; Company, Joan B.; Huertas, David; Solé, Montserrat

    2013-11-01

    Due to their geomorphological structure and proximity to the coastline, submarine canyons may act as natural conduit routes for anthropogenic contaminants that are transported from surface waters to the deep-sea. Organisms dwelling in these canyon environments might thus be at risk of experiencing adverse health effects due to higher pollution exposure. To address this question, chemical and biochemical analyses were conducted on two of the most abundant deep-sea fish species in the study area, namely Alepocephalus rostratus and Lepidion lepidion, and the most abundant deep-sea commercial decapod crustacean Aristeus antennatus sampled inside Blanes canyon (BC) and on the adjacent open slope (OS). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels, including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and derivatives, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in muscle tissue of selected samples from 900 m and 1500 m depth. Potential effects resulting from contaminant exposure were determined using hepatic biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), catalase (CAT), carboxylesterase (CbE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels (LP). L. lepidion and A. antennatus tissues exhibited higher POP levels inside BC compared to the OS at 900 m depth. These findings were consistent with biomarker data (i.e. enzymatic response to presence of contaminant agents). Elevated xenobiotic-metabolizing (EROD and PROD) and antioxidant enzymes (CAT and GPX) indicated higher contaminant exposure in both species caught within BC. No difference in POP accumulation between sites was observed in L. lepidion at 1500 m depth, nor in biomarker data, suggesting that the pollution gradient was less pronounced at greater depths. This trend was further corroborated

  2. New insights into mercury bioaccumulation in deep-sea organisms from the NW Mediterranean and their human health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Samuel, E-mail: koenig@icm.csic.es [Institut de Ciencies del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Institut de Diagnosi Ambiental i Estudis de l' Aigua (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Sole, Montserrat [Institut de Ciencies del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Fernandez-Gomez, Cristal; Diez, Sergi [Institut de Diagnosi Ambiental i Estudis de l' Aigua (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain)

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have found high levels of mercury (Hg) in deep-sea organisms throughout the world's oceans, but the underlying causes are not clear as there is no consensus on the origin and cycling of Hg in the ocean. Recent findings suggested that Hg accumulation may increase with increasing forage depth and pointed to the deep-water column as the origin of most Hg in marine biota, especially its organic methylmercury (MeHg) form. In the present study, we determined the total mercury (THg) levels in 12 deep-sea fish species and a decapod crustacean and investigated their relationship with the species' nitrogen stable isotope ratio ({delta}{sup 15}N) as an indicator of their trophic level, average weight and habitat depth. THg levels ranged from 0.27 to 4.42 {mu}g/g w.w. and exceeded in all, except one species, the recommended 0.5 {mu}g/g w.w. guideline value. While THg levels exhibited a strong relationship with {delta}{sup 15}N values and to a lesser extent with weight, the habitat depth, characterized as the species' depth of maximum abundance (DMA), had also a significant effect on Hg accumulation. The fish species with a shallower depth range exhibited lower THg values than predicted by their trophic level ({delta}{sup 15}N) and body mass, while measured THg values were higher than predicted in deeper-dwelling fish. Overall, the present results point out a potential risk for human health from the consumption of deep-sea fish. In particular, for both, the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, which is one of the most valuable fishing resources of the Mediterranean, as well as the commercially exploited fish Mora moro, THg levels considerably exceeded the recommended 0.5 {mu}g/g w.w. limit and should be consumed with caution. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High total mercury (THg) levels were detected in Mediterranean deep-sea organisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uniform contamination pattern was observed across the Mediterranean

  3. New insights into mercury bioaccumulation in deep-sea organisms from the NW Mediterranean and their human health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Samuel; Solé, Montserrat; Fernández-Gómez, Cristal; Díez, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have found high levels of mercury (Hg) in deep-sea organisms throughout the world's oceans, but the underlying causes are not clear as there is no consensus on the origin and cycling of Hg in the ocean. Recent findings suggested that Hg accumulation may increase with increasing forage depth and pointed to the deep-water column as the origin of most Hg in marine biota, especially its organic methylmercury (MeHg) form. In the present study, we determined the total mercury (THg) levels in 12 deep-sea fish species and a decapod crustacean and investigated their relationship with the species' nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ 15 N) as an indicator of their trophic level, average weight and habitat depth. THg levels ranged from 0.27 to 4.42 μg/g w.w. and exceeded in all, except one species, the recommended 0.5 μg/g w.w. guideline value. While THg levels exhibited a strong relationship with δ 15 N values and to a lesser extent with weight, the habitat depth, characterized as the species' depth of maximum abundance (DMA), had also a significant effect on Hg accumulation. The fish species with a shallower depth range exhibited lower THg values than predicted by their trophic level (δ 15 N) and body mass, while measured THg values were higher than predicted in deeper-dwelling fish. Overall, the present results point out a potential risk for human health from the consumption of deep-sea fish. In particular, for both, the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, which is one of the most valuable fishing resources of the Mediterranean, as well as the commercially exploited fish Mora moro, THg levels considerably exceeded the recommended 0.5 μg/g w.w. limit and should be consumed with caution. -- Highlights: ► High total mercury (THg) levels were detected in Mediterranean deep-sea organisms. ► Uniform contamination pattern was observed across the Mediterranean basin. ► All except one species exceeded recommended consumption limit of 0.5 μg/g w.w. ► THg

  4. Nile damming as plausible cause of extinction and drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp in the western Mediterranean over broad spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, J. E.; Maynou, F.; Fanelli, E.

    2011-11-01

    Greatly increased retention of flow in Nile River reservoirs was initiated in 1964, after completion of the Aswan High Dam, which induced important oceanographic changes in the Mediterranean Sea, including deep waters (below a depth of 150 m). Based on an analysis of data series starting in the 1940s/1950s, the giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea has become locally extinct off of the Catalonian coasts (and elsewhere in the northwestern Mediterranean) at depths of 400-900 m, with a simultaneous and significant drop in the catches of red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus, in the second half of the 1960s. The extinction and sharp decline of deep-shrimp populations off Catalonian coast (at ca. 3200 km westwards from Nile Delta) followed the 1964 drop in Nile discharge with a delay of ca. 3-5 yrs (breakpoint analysis applied to data series). The breakpoints detected in the second half of 1960s both in Nile runoff and shrimps’ abundance were independent of climatic events in the study area (e.g. changes in NAO) and occurred before the increase in fishing effort off Catalonian coasts (breakpoint in 1973-1974). The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), inhabited by A. foliacea in the western Basin, had significant temperature (T) and salinity (S) increases in the 1950-1970 period, and Nile damming has contributed about 45% of the total S increase of Western Mediterranean deep-water masses from the 1960s to the late 1990s (Skliris and Lascaratos, 2004). This had to increase, for instance, LIW salinity at its formation site in the eastern Mediterranean. Nile damming was probably a triggering factor for the extinction/drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp off Catalonian coasts.

  5. Genetic diversity of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810 in the coastal regions of Golstan province, using microsatellite marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ghodsi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Golden grey mullet (Liza aurata is a commercially valuable fish with great demand due to its delicious taste in southern coastal parts of the Caspian Sea. Genetic diversity of marine resources is of vital importance in their management and protection, as this is the first prerequisite for maintaining the consistency of populations in an inconsistent environmental conditions. In this study, we have used six microsatellite locations to investigate the level of genetic variation of Liza aurata in Gomishan and Miyankale regions in Golestan province. The results showed no conspicuous genetic variations in these two regions using Fst, Rst and AMOVA and accordingly a relatively high level of gene flow was found among the populations. Genetic variations in Gomishan (mean number of alleles per locus, Na=14.667, mean effective number of alleles, Ne=10.355, observed heterozygosity, Ho=0.905 and expected heterozygosity, He=0.894 and Miyankale (Na=15, Ne=10.223, Ho=0.863 and He=0.892 were not statistically different. There were evidences for genetic bottleneck in the populations. Protection and restoration of habitats can help to increase the population size and decrease risk of vulnerability of the species in the future.

  6. Parasites of juvenile golden grey mullet Liza aurata Risso, 1810 in Sarıkum Lagoon Lake at Sinop, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Türkay

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile golden grey mullet, Liza aurata were collected from Sarıkum Lagoon Lake which connected to the Black Sea at Sinop, Turkey and examined for parasitic fauna. A total of 219 fish were investigated throughout a 1-year period. Parasite species recovered were Trichodina lepsii, T. puytoraci, Gyrodactylus sp., Ligophorus cephali, Ligophorus mediterraneus, Solostamenides mugilis, Ascocotyle sp. (metacercaria) and Ergasilus lizae. Overall infection prevalence (%) and mean intensity values were 95.9% and 412.65 ± 85.31 parasites per infected fish, respectively. Infection prevalence and mean intensity values for each parasite species in relation to season and fish size were also determined and discussed. While Ligophorus cephali and L. mediterraneus are new records for Turkish parasite fauna, the juvenile Liza aurata is a new host record for Ligophorus cephali and L. mediterraneus.

  7. Gonadal disorder in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a biomarker of environmental stress in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh Dawood; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  8. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827 as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tancioni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  9. Feeding ecology of Liza ramada (Risso, 1810) (Pisces, Mugilidae) in a south-western estuary of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P. R.

    2003-05-01

    The feeding activity of the Liza ramada population inhabiting the Mira estuary (Portugal) is reduced during the winter and summer months. At the beginning of the spawning migration (i.e. November) an increase in the amount of food ingested was noticed. In the upper estuary, the feeding behaviour is independent of the tidal cycle, although there is some evidence of a daily rhythm in the food consumption rate, with a reduction during the night. No significant correlation was found between the quantity of particulate organic matter and the concentration of microalgae present in the stomach contents, and it seems that the bulk of the organic matter ingested by the thin-lipped grey mullets comes from a different origin than planktonic or benthic microalgae. The L. ramada population showed a positive selection for sediment particles between 55 and 250 μm in diameter. In general, the diet composition of this species showed a low diversity of food items. A total of 52 food items were identified in the stomach contents, the Bacillariophyceae being the dominant group. The genera Melosira and Ciclotella were the most common and abundant food items, although the genera Navicula, Nitzschia and Surirella were also classified as preferential food items. It was found that the volume of ploughed sediment that resulted from the feeding activity of the thin-lipped grey mullets, and the correspondent disturbed area increased exponentially with the length of the fish.

  10. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Dawood Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas. PMID:25664693

  11. Effects of various ecological factors on radiostrontium uptake in two euryhaline teleosts: Mugil auratus Risso and Pleuronectes platessa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard, J.-C.

    1975-11-01

    The effects of various ecological, biotic and abiotic factors (age, species, salinity, temperature, sediment, calcium overload, food) on the accumulation of 85 Sr were studied in two euryhaline Teleosts. Generally, all the physico-chemical and biotic factors tending to activate metabolism, slightly increased radiostrontium intake. Concentration factors were seldom above one for animals measured in toto. According to the concentration kinetics of 85 Sr, three types of organs were distinguished: bone-type tissues, soft tissues and digestive tract [fr

  12. Barbus meridionalis Risso, 1827 populations status in the Vişeu River basin (Maramureş Mountains Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bănăduc Doru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecological state of lotic ecosystems occupied naturally by Barbus meridionalis, in the Vişeu Basin within the Maramureş Mountains Natural Park, vary among good to reduced. The inventoried human activities which negatively influence the ecologic state of the Barbus meridionalis species habitats and populations are the organic and mining pollution, and poaching. The habitats with low and inadequate conditions created a reduced status of the Barbus meridionalis populations; the status of Barbus meridionalis populations is not so much affected in the cases of habitats of average to good condition. Barbus meridionalis is considered a relatively common fish species in the researched watershed despite the fact that its populations ecological status has decreased from 2007-2015, but the restoration potential in the area for improving this species status is high.

  13. Comparative gonadogenesis and hormonal induction of spawning of cultured and wild mediterranean amberjack (Seriola dumerili, Risso 1810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kozul

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The histological characteristics of wild and cultured Mediterranean amberjack gonads were studied during the first four years of their life cycle. No differences were found in the gonad development of both wild and captive males and females during the first and second year. In the third year, wild females showed more advanced oocyte development than captive females. In the fourth year, vitellogenic oocytes were noted for captive females. Fertilised eggs were obtained after a HCG hormone treatment of four- to nine-year old wild specimens. A smaller quantity of mature and fertilised eggs was also obtained through the spawning of hormone-treated four-year old captive broodstock specimens. Eggs in the stage of gastrulation died within eight hours following fertilisation.

  14. Shoreline distribution and parasite infection of black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso, 1827 in the lower River Danube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondračková, Markéta; Slováčková, Iveta; Trichkova, T.; Polačik, Matej; Jurajda, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2012), s. 590-596 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Pomphorhynchus laevis * water * size * invasions * habitats * history * fishes * sex Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.902, year: 2012

  15. Radiating on oceanic islands: patterns and processes of speciation in the land snail genus Theba (Risso 1826.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Greve

    Full Text Available Island radiations have played a major role in shaping our current understanding of allopatric, sympatric and parapatric speciation. However, the fact that species divergence correlates with island size emphasizes the importance of geographic isolation (allopatry in speciation. Based on molecular and morphological data, we investigated the diversification of the land snail genus Theba on the two Canary Islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Due to the geological history of both islands, this study system provides ideal conditions to investigate the interplay of biogeography, dispersal ability and differentiation in generating species diversity. Our analyses demonstrated extensive cryptic diversification of Theba on these islands, probably driven mainly by non-adaptive allopatric differentiation and secondary gene flow. In a few cases, we observed a complete absence of gene flow among sympatrically distributed forms suggesting an advanced stage of speciation. On the Jandía peninsula genome scans suggested genotype-environment associations and potentially adaptive diversification of two closely related Theba species to different ecological environments. We found support for the idea that genetic differentiation was enhanced by divergent selection in different environments. The diversification of Theba on both islands is therefore best explained by a mixture of non-adaptive and adaptive speciation, promoted by ecological and geomorphological factors.

  16. Radiating on oceanic islands: patterns and processes of speciation in the land snail genus Theba (Risso 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Carola; Gimnich, France; Hutterer, Rainer; Misof, Bernhard; Haase, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Island radiations have played a major role in shaping our current understanding of allopatric, sympatric and parapatric speciation. However, the fact that species divergence correlates with island size emphasizes the importance of geographic isolation (allopatry) in speciation. Based on molecular and morphological data, we investigated the diversification of the land snail genus Theba on the two Canary Islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Due to the geological history of both islands, this study system provides ideal conditions to investigate the interplay of biogeography, dispersal ability and differentiation in generating species diversity. Our analyses demonstrated extensive cryptic diversification of Theba on these islands, probably driven mainly by non-adaptive allopatric differentiation and secondary gene flow. In a few cases, we observed a complete absence of gene flow among sympatrically distributed forms suggesting an advanced stage of speciation. On the Jandía peninsula genome scans suggested genotype-environment associations and potentially adaptive diversification of two closely related Theba species to different ecological environments. We found support for the idea that genetic differentiation was enhanced by divergent selection in different environments. The diversification of Theba on both islands is therefore best explained by a mixture of non-adaptive and adaptive speciation, promoted by ecological and geomorphological factors.

  17. Anthropogenic impact in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral province (Mediterranean Sea): Observations and conservation straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onghia, G.; Calculli, C.; Capezzuto, F.; Carlucci, R.; Carluccio, A.; Grehan, A.; Indennidate, A.; Maiorano, P.; Mastrototaro, F.; Pollice, A.; Russo, T.; Savini, A.; Sion, L.; Tursi, A.

    2017-11-01

    , Merluccius merluccius and Conger conger while those from trawling mostly consisted of Aristeus antennatus, Aristaeomorpha foliacea and M. merluccius. The information collected during the observers' program and VMS data indicated greater impact due to trawling than longlining. The conservation and effective management of this vulnerable marine ecosystem remain difficult.

  18. Reproductive biology and diet of Mustelus punctulatus (Risso, 1826 (Chondrichthyes: Triakidae from the Gulf of Gabès, central Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechir Saïdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Mustelus punctulatus were collected between January 2002 and December 2005 from commercial fisheries in the Gulf of Gabès (central Mediterranean Sea. Males and females reached a maximum total length (TL of 111 and 122 cm respectively. Males matured between 76 and 88.5 cm TL, with a size at maturity (TL50 of 81.4 cm TL. Females matured between 88 and 100 cm TL with a TL50 of 95.6 cm. Females had an annual reproductive cycle. Mating occurred through late-May and June. Ovulation occurred from early July to mid-August with parturition occurring from mid-May to early June, after a gestation period of 11 months. The size at birth was estimated to be 24.5 to 30.5 cm TL. Positive linear relationships were detected between the TL of mature females and ovarian and uterine fecundities. Mustelus punctulatus is an opportunistic predator that consumes a wide range of demersal and benthic prey items. It preys mainly on crustaceans, teleosts and molluscs. Polychaetes, sipunculids, echinoderms and tunicates are also consumed. The species change their main food item as they grow, from crustaceans to teleosts then to molluscs.

  19. Comparative growth models of big-scale sand smelt (Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810 sampled from Hirfanll Dam Lake, Klrsehir, Ankara, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benzer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this current publication the growth characteristics of big-scale sand smelt data were compared for population dynamics within artificial neural networks and length-weight relationships models. This study aims to describe the optimal decision of the growth model of big-scale sand smelt by artificial neural networks and length-weight relationships models at Hirfanll Dam Lake, Klrsehir, Turkey. There were a total of 1449 samples collected from Hirfanll Dam Lake between May 2015 and May 2016. Both model results were compared with each other and the results were also evaluated with MAPE (mean absolute percentage error, MSE (mean squared error and r2 (coefficient correlation data as a performance criterion. The results of the current study show that artificial neural networks is a superior estimation tool compared to length-weight relationships models of big-scale sand smelt in Hirfanll Dam Lake.

  20. Chloroplast digestion and the development of functional kleptoplasty in juvenile Elysia timida (Risso, 1818 as compared to short-term and non-chloroplast-retaining sacoglossan slugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Marie Jerschabek Laetz

    Full Text Available Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only metazoans known to perform functional kleptoplasty, the sequestration and retention of functional chloroplasts within their digestive gland cells. Remarkably, a few species with this ability can survive starvation periods of 3-12 months likely due to their stolen chloroplasts. There are no reports of kleptoplast transfer from mother slug to either eggs or juveniles, demonstrating that each animal must independently acquire its kleptoplasts and develop the ability to maintain them within its digestive gland. We present here an investigation into the development of functional kleptoplasty in a long-term kleptoplast retaining species, Elysia timida. Laboratory-reared juvenile slugs of different post-metamorphic ages were placed in starvation and compared to 5 known short-term retaining slug species and 5 non-retaining slug species. The subsequent results indicate that functional kleptoplasty is not performed by E. timida until after 15 days post-metamorphosis and that by 25 days, these animals outlive many of the short-term retention species. Digestive activity was also monitored using lysosomal abundance as an indicator, revealing different patterns in starving juveniles versus adults. Starved juveniles were reintroduced to food to determine any differences in digestive activity when starvation ends, resulting in an increase in the number of kleptoplasts, but no overall change in lysosomal activity. By revealing some of the changes that occur during early development in these animals, which begin as non-kleptoplast-retaining and grow into long-term retaining slugs, this investigation provides a basis for future inquiries into the origin and development of this remarkable ability.

  1. Morphometric and molecular characterisation of specimens of Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Lepidapedidae) from the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso) (Teleostei: Moridae) in the western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dallarés, S.; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrasson, M.; Gibson, D. I.; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2013), s. 243-253 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Grant - others:GAJU(CZ) 04-135/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Northern Atlantic * Lepocrediidae Digenea * genus Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.035, year: 2013

  2. Çinkonun (Zn+2 Gümüş Balığı (Atherina boyeri, Risso, 1810 Üzerine Akut Toksisitesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer BULUT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to determine acute toxicity of zinc on sand smelt (Atherina boyeri. In the experiments were used sand smelt which have average length of 4.41±0.068 cm and weights 0.60±0.027 g. The test fish were exposed to following concentrations of zinc (7.78, 12.96, 21.6, 36, 60 and 100 mg/L for 24 hours. In preparation of test solutions zinc sulphate and artesian water which has temperature 19° C, total hardness 350 mg/L CaCO3 and 5.72 mg/L DO. Test fish were placed in plastic containers to replications experimental groups as hourly and daily morphological observations were made and recorded time of death in acute toxicity test. In zinc-acute toxicity test were used static bioassay methods for 24 hour intervals. Data obtained from the zinc acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the Probit Analysis to LC50 and LT50. LC50 zinc concentrations values were ranged between 1.768 mg/L were observed. The longer the duration of zinc showed a decrease in the value of LC50. LC50 value of the application factor is applied (1.768x0.1 to sand smelt zinc maximum acceptable concentration (safe concentration, 0.1768 mg/L Zn+2, respectively. Lethal concentration, depending on the time interval is 1 hour and 5 minutes to 6 hours 27 minutes LT50 values ranged and decreases the concentrations of zinc have been found. During the experiment, the surface concentrations of fish depending on the movements of assembly and also the opposite effect and side swims away from a fast-moving, uncontrolled swimming, to escape out of the water movement, perpendicular to the water, swimming, breathing movements are observed

  3. Integrated study of Mediterranean deep canyons: Novel results and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, M.; Company, J. B.; Martín, D.; Sànchez-Vidal, A.; Ramírez-Llodrà, E.

    2013-11-01

    intermediate and deep-water masses, and the associated fluxes of matter and energy are a main driver of deep-sea ecosystems; (iv) deep-sea organisms are highly sensitive to the arrival of external inputs, starting from the lowest food web levels and propagating upwards as time passes, which also relies upon the biology, nutritional needs and life expectancy of each individual species; and (v) innovative knowledge gained through such multidisciplinary research is of the utmost significance for an improved management of deep-sea living resources, such as the highly priced red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, for which a pilot management plan largely based in the findings described here and in related articles has been recently published (BOE, 2013). The researchers involved in such challenging endeavour have learnt tremendously from the results obtained so far and from each other, but are fully aware that there are still many unsolved questions. That is why this introductory article also includes “Future challenges” both in the title and as an individual section at the end, to express that there is still a long way to go.

  4. Continuous osteological characters in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships of the six Euro-Mediterranean mullet species (Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antović, Ivanka

    2013-09-01

    Sixty-three continuous osteological characters (18 skull continuous characters and the total length of neurocranium, 45 continuous characters of 15 elements of the viscerodermal skeleton) were analyzed and included in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships of the six Euro-Mediterranean mullet species from the South Adriatic Sea: Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758; Liza saliens Risso, 1810; Liza aurata Risso, 1810; Liza ramada Risso, 1826; Chelon labrosus Risso, 1826 and Oedalechilus labeo Cuvier, 1829. The study reveals that Sphyraenidae was separated clearly from Mugilidae, C. labrosus and three Liza species form a common cluster (L. ramada and L. saliens being the closest), while O. labeo and M. cephalus cluster together.

  5. Reseña del libro: Las Laurencias. Violencia sexual y de género en el terrorismo de Estado uruguayo de Soledad Gonzalez Baica y Mariana Risso (comps.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Jimena; Larrobla, Carla

    2014-01-01

    El siguiente artículo se propone realizar un recorrido analítico de los distintos momentos atravesados por la memoria femenina del terrorismo de Estado en Uruguay. A partir de 1985 fueron emergiendo memorias del horror desde los espacios que se iban habilitando para ellas. Pocos fueron sin embargo los relatos escritos por los protagonistas directos, y menos los de las mujeres. La característica fundamental, de todas estas producciones, fue su carácter esencialmente masculino. Con un relato ba...

  6. Short Communication A near mass stranding of cetaceans in St ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 70 false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens and 124 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops sp., and a separate group of 13 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus, assembled close inshore off a known mass-stranding site in St Helena Bay, South Africa, in October 2003. However, only a single Risso's dolphin attempted to ...

  7. Mosquitoes of the genus Culex in the Suez Canal Governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, L M; Kamal, A M; Ahmed, M M; Boshara, E F

    1990-06-01

    Mosquitoes are among the most annoying and important vectors of human and animal diseases as malaria, filariasis, yellow fever, rift valley fever...etc. In this paper, it was aimed to study the present status of species of genus Culex in the Suez Canal Governorates after the reconstruction and developmental projects. Five species of Culex were identified: C. pipiens, C. univittatus, C. antennatus, C. poicilipes and C. pusillus. The latter species was represented by two specimens. C. pipiens was the commonest species both indoors and outdoors. C. antennatus and C. poicilipes were found only outdoors. C. pipiens was found all the year round particularly in Spring. Other species were found in Spring and Autumn, except C. antennatus which was found in Summer as well. The results were discussed on the light of work done before.

  8. An unusual new species of Hallodapomimus Herczek, 2000 from the Eocene Baltic amber (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Herczek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hallodapomimus antennatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae, Hallodapini is described from a macropterous female found in Eocene Baltic amber. The new species can be recognized readily from the other species of the genus, mainly due to its unusual second antennal segment. A key for the identification of all known fossil Hallodapini is presented.

  9. Toothed whales in the northwestern Mediterranean: Insight into their feeding ecology using chemical tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praca, Emilie; Laran, Sophie; Lepoint, Gilles; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Quetglas, Antoni; Belcari, Paola; Sartor, Paolo; Dhermain, Frank; Ody, Denis; Tapie, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: →δ 15 N highlights significant different trophic levels. → Similar δ 13 C indicate a habitat superposition or corroborate seasonal migrations. → Congener 180 and tDDT/tPCB show wider migrations for sperm whales. - Abstract: Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales rarely strand in the northwestern Mediterranean. Thus, their feeding ecology, through the analysis of stomach contents, is poorly known. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the segregation/superposition of the diet and habitat of Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales using chemical tracers, namely, stable isotopes (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) and organochlorines. Significantly different δ 15 N values were obtained in Risso's dolphins (11.7 ± 0.7 per mille ), sperm whales (10.8 ± 0.3 per mille ) and pilot whales (9.8 ± 0.3 per mille ), revealing different trophic levels. These differences are presumably due to various proportions of Histioteuthidae cephalopods in each toothed whale's diet. Similar δ 13 C contents between species indicated long-term habitat superposition or corroborated important seasonal migrations. Lower congener 180 concentrations (8.20 vs. 21.73 μg.g -1 lw) and higher tDDT/tPCB ratios (0.93 vs. 0.42) were observed in sperm whales compared with Risso's dolphins and may indicate wider migrations for the former. Therefore, competition between these species seems to depend on different trophic levels and migration patterns.

  10. Geïntegreerde bestrijding van citruswolluis Planococcus citri in roos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnakker, J.; Leman, A.; Hennekam, M.

    2013-01-01

    Citruswolluis, Planococcus citri (Risso), is een van de belangrijkste plagen geworden in de rozenteelt onder glas. Er is inmiddels veel praktijkervaring met de toepassing van biologische bestrijders om haarden uit te roeien. Voor de professionele tuinbouw is de effectiviteit van deze aanpak

  11. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andréa Beatriz Mendes-Bonato Maria Suely Pagliarini Cacilda Borges Do Valle Liana Jank · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 85 Issue 1 April 2006 pp 83-87 Research Note. Chromosome number and meiotic behaviour in Brachiaria jubata (Gramineae) · Andrea Beatriz Mendes-Bonato Claudicéia Risso-Pascotto Maria ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 4701 - 4750 of 11090 ... ... Evaluating the effect of some botanical insecticides on the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Abstract PDF ... Vol 6, No 22 (2007), Evaluation of in vitro antiviral activity of a brown alga (Cystoseira myrica) from the Persian Gulf against herpes simplex virus ...

  13. Poaceae: Paniceae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1987; Bernini and Marin-Morales. 2001; Mendes-Bonato et al. 2002, 2006; Utsunomiya et al. 2005). More recently, a new number, x = 6, was determined for several accessions of B. dictyoneura (Risso-Pascotto et al. 2006), a species suggested to belong to the same agamic complex as B. humidicola (Renvoize et al. 1996).

  14. Simulaçao de sistemas de aquecimento solar com materiais em mudança de fase (MMF) adaptados de resíduos pesados do refino do petróleo sob condiçoes transitórias de insolaçao e demanda

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Alexandre Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Orientador: Marcelo Risso Errera Dissertaçao (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Tecnologia, Programa de Pós-Graduaçao em Engenharia - PIPE. Defesa: Curitiba, 2004 Inclui bibliografia e anexos Área de concentraçao: Engenharia de processos térmicos e químicos

  15. Assessing the Performance of Omni-Directional Receivers for Passive Acoustic Detection of Vocalizing Odontocetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daziens, John

    2004-01-01

    ...: 2 orca and 2 pilot whale whistles and sperm whale and Risso's dolphin clicks. Several hundred iterations of each signal were broadcast from R/V Point Sur at stations 300 m to 12,000 m from the range's moored three-element...

  16. Chromosome number and meiotic behaviour in Brachiaria jubata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrea Beatriz Mendes-Bonato1 Claudicéia Risso-Pascotto1 Maria Suely Pagliarini1 Cacilda Borges Do Valle2. Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, State University of Maringá, 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná, Brazil; Embrapa Beef Cattle, P.O. Box 154, 79002-970 Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil ...

  17. New records of epibiont Ciliates (Ciliophora) from Indian coast with descriptions of six new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Ramteke, D.; Ingole, B.S.

    patzcuarensis Villalobos, 1943, lake Pátzcuaro (Michoacán, Mexico) (Mayen-Estrada & Aladro-Lubel, 1998). On Liocarcinus depurator (Linnaeus, 1758), L. vernalis (Risso, 1827), Goneplax rhomboids( Linnaeus, 1758), Dardanus arrosor (Herbst, 1796), Paguristes... oculatus (Fabricius, 1775), Pagurus excavates (Herbst, 1791), and Pagurus prideaux Leach, 1815 from N.W. Mediterranean Sea (Fernandez-Leborans, 2003). Acknowledgement Thanks are due to Dr Marleen De Troch, Marine Biology Section, University of Ghent...

  18. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) population paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Pointin, Fabien; Payne, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827)) populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point tow...

  19. A review of mosquitoes associated with Rift Valley fever virus in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Luciano M; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonotic disease occurring throughout Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Madagascar. The disease is caused by a Phlebovirus (RVF virus [RVFV]) transmitted to vertebrate hosts through the bite of infected mosquitoes. In Madagascar, the first RVFV circulation was reported in 1979 based on detection in mosquitoes but without epidemic episode. Subsequently, two outbreaks occurred: the first along the east coast and in the central highlands in 1990 and 1991 and the most recent along the northern and eastern coasts and in the central highlands in 2008 and 2009. Despite the presence of 24 mosquitoes species potentially associated with RVFV transmission in Madagascar, little associated entomological information is available. In this review, we list the RVFV vector, Culex antennatus, as well as other taxa as candidate vector species. We discuss risk factors from an entomological perspective for the re-emergence of RVF in Madagascar. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. A revision of the species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae), parasites of mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Gibson, David I; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Raga, Juan Antonio; Shvetsova, Ludmila S; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-09-01

    The genus Saturnius Manter, 1969 is defined, its species re-examined and a key to the species presented. S. overstreeti n. sp. is described from Mugil soiuy Basilewsky and M. cephalus L. from the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan and distinguished from the morphologically related S. papernai Overstreet, 1977 and S. maurepasi Overstreet, 1977. S. segmentatus Manter, 1969 is redescribed on the basis of the type- and newly collected material from M. cephalus on the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan. The morphometric variation of S. papernai is studied based on newly collected material from Liza aurata (Risso) in the Ebro Delta and off Santa Pola, Spain. The comparisons reveal lower ranges of most metrical features than previously known. A principal component analysis, carried out after adding the new data to those of Blasco-Costa et al. (2006), confirms the species identification. Other valid species recognised are S. mugilis (Yamaguti, 1970), S. maurepasi, S. belizensis Fischthal, 1977, S. dimitrovi Blasco-Costa et al., 2006 and S. minutus Blasco-Costa et al., 2006. Forms considered species inquirendae are S. valamugilis Rekharani & Madhavi, 1984, Bunocotyle constrictus Domnich & Sarabeev, 1999 [=S. papernai of Domnich & Sarabeev (2000a, b, c, d)], B. mugilis Yamaguti, 1970 of Solonchenko (1976) and S. mugilis of Dmitrieva & Gaevskaya (2001). Host and locality information is given in detail for all species. Lisa ramado (Risso) and Chelon labrosus (Cuvier) are new host records for S. papernai (sensu stricto) and S. dimitrovi. L. aurata is a new host record for S. dimitrovi and S. minutus, and L. saliens (Risso) is a new host record for S. minutus.

  1. Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Mesopelagic: Odontocete Foraging Ecology and Anti-predator Behavior of Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Bird, K. J.

    2016-02-01

    We explored the behavior of Risso's dolphins foraging in scattering layers off California using an integrated approach comprising echosounders deployed in a deep-diving autonomous underwater vehicle, ship based acoustics, visual observations, direct prey sampling, and animal-borne tags on deep-diving predators. We identified three distinct prey layers: a persistent layer around 425 m, a vertically migrating layer around 300 m, and a layer intermittently present near 50 m, all of which were used by individual tagged animals. Active acoustic measurements demonstrated that Risso's dolphins dove to discrete prey layers throughout the day and night with only slightly higher detection rates at night. Dolphins were detected in all three layers during the day with over half of detections in the middle layer, 20% of detections in the deepest layer, and 10% falling outside the main layers. Dolphins were found less frequently in areas where the shallow, intermittent layer was absent, suggesting that this layer, while containing the smallest prey and the lowest densities of squid, was an important component of their foraging strategy. The deepest layer was targeted equally both during the day and at night. Using acoustic data collected from the AUV, we found layers were made up of distinct, small patches of animals of similar size and taxonomy adjacent to contrasting patches. Squid made up over 70% of the patches in which dolphins were found and more than 95% of those in deep water. Squid targeted by dolphins in deep water were also relatively large, indicating significant benefit from these relatively rare, physically demanding dives. Within these patches, prey formed tighter aggregations when Risso's dolphins were present. Careful integration of a suite of traditional and novel tools is providing insight into the ecology and dynamics of predator and prey in the mesopelagic.

  2. Occurrence of the Leech, Pontobdella muricata Linnaeus, on Elasmobranch Species in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Luca; Leoni, Simone; Polidori, Piero; Grati, Fabio; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Pellini, Giulio; Domenichetti, Filippo; Ferrà, Carmen; Fabi, Gianna

    2016-12-01

    This study provides a parasitological analysis of the elasmobranch species caught in the northern and central Adriatic Sea. Sixty-two marine leeches were recorded on 747 individuals of Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 (thornback ray), Myliobatis aquila Linnaeus, 1758 (common eagle ray), and Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810 (marbled torpedo ray) caught in 56 hauls over a 5 yr period. All leeches were identified as Pontobdella muricata, which is a typical ectoparasite of benthic elasmobranchs. The prevalence of infection ranged from 7.11% on R. clavata to 12.00% on M. aquila. The intensity of infection, the preferential sites of attachment to the host, and the periodicity of infection were evaluated.

  3. Determination of trace elements in the seeds of fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in Arak, I.R. Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourimani Reza; Meighani Elham; Fathivand Aliasghar

    2018-01-01

    In this study, four fruit's seed samples as Punica granatum L., Citrus medica var. limonum, Malus domestica L. and Citrus vulgaris Risso were prepared from Arak's markets. They were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation method (INAA). In this method, Tehran research reactor as a neutron source and relative INAA method has been used as the analysis method and to record gamma ray spectrum, the high purity germanium detector was used. Pomegranate seeds had the highest number of essential elements. Apple seeds and sour orange seeds contain the highest levels of Mg and K, Respectively. (author)

  4. The length-weight relationships of three sharks and five batoids in the Lebanese marine waters, eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Lteif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight relationships were estimated for 8 elasmobranchs (3 sharks and 5 batoids in the Lebanese marine waters, eastern Mediterranean. The values of parameter b ranged between 1.752 ± 0.4508 and 3.337 ± 0.2321. Sex influenced the length-weight relationships for the shark Centrophorus uyato (Rafinesque 1801 and the batoid Torpedo marmorata (Risso 1810. These relationships should be used only with the observed length ranges.

  5. Records of new and rare elasmobranchs from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hua Hsun; Joung, Shoou Jeng; Ebert, David A; Lin, Chia Yen

    2013-01-01

    Five new records of elasmobranchs collected from eastern Taiwan fish markets, Da-xi and Cheng-gong, are presented. Samples were caught by deepsea longliners and bottom trawlers which operate in northeastern waters off Taiwan between 2004 and 2012. These five new species records include the smalltooth sandtiger, Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810) (Lamniformes: Odontaspididae), salamander shark, Parmaturus pilosus Garman, 1906 (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae), leadhued skate Notoraja tobitukai (Hiyama, 1940) (Rajiformes: Arhynchobatidae), giant skate Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama, 1958) (Rajiformes: Rajidae), and the pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), Diagnostic characteristics for each species are given and a key to the genera Parmaturus and Dipturus from Taiwan is presented.

  6. Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

    2007-11-01

    A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location.

  7. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activity. Among the products that evidenced antimould activity, citral and eugenol showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations, which was 1% and 4%, respectively, for the most of the tested mould strains.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de cepas de fungos filamentosos isolados de alimento a alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas nos ensaios antimicrobianos foram: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger e Penicillium spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os óleos essenciais de L. Alba N.R. Brown, P. boldus Molina, L. microphylla Phill, C. limon Risso e C. citratus Stapf. e os fitoconstituintes citral, eugenol e mirceno mostraram destacada atividade antifúngica. Dentre os produtos que apresentaram atividade antifúngica, o citral e eugenol mostraram as menores CIM's, as quais foram 1% e 4%, respectivamente, para a maioria das cepas fúngicas testadas.

  8. Comparative histological study of the mammalian facial nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Rui; Sugita, Shoei

    2008-04-01

    We performed comparative Nissl, Klüver-Barrera and Golgi staining studies of the mammalian facial nucleus to classify the morphologically distinct subdivisions and the neuronal types in the rat, rabbit, ferret, Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), pig, horse, Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The medial subnucleus was observed in all examined species; however, that of the Risso's and bottlenose dolphins was a poorly-developed structure comprised of scattered neurons. The medial subnuclei of terrestrial mammals were well-developed cytoarchitectonic structures, usually a rounded column comprised of densely clustered neurons. Intermediate and lateral subnuclei were found in all studied mammals, with differences in columnar shape and neuronal types from species to species. The dorsolateral subnucleus was detected in all mammals but the Japanese monkey, whose facial neurons converged into the intermediate subnucleus. The dorsolateral subnuclei of the two dolphin species studied were expanded subdivisions comprised of densely clustered cells. The ventromedial subnuclei of the ferret, pig, and horse were richly-developed columns comprised of large multipolar neurons. Pig and horse facial nuclei contained another ventral cluster, the ventrolateral subnucleus. The facial nuclei of the Japanese monkey and the bottlenose dolphin were similar in their ventral subnuclear organization. Our findings show species-specific subnuclear organization and distribution patterns of distinct types of neurons within morphological discrete subdivisions, reflecting functional differences.

  9. Trace elements in tissues of cetacean species rarely stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Kerem, Dan; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Goffman, Oz; Morick, Danny; Yoffe, Olga; Kress, Nurit

    2014-06-15

    In this paper we present the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Se, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in organs of 6 non-common specimens of cetaceans that were stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast (IMC), during 2002-2010: two fin whales, one minke whale, one Cuvier's beaked whale, one rough-toothed dolphin, and one Risso's dolphin. Most of the specimens were calves stranded by accident. Concentrations of Hg and Cd were low in tissues of the baleen whales and higher in the toothed whales, with maximum concentrations of 1067 mg kg(-1) Hg in the liver of the Risso's dolphin and 29 mg kg(-1) Cd in the kidney of the Cuvier's beaked whale. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of trace elements in baleen whales in the Eastern Mediterranean, and the first report of trace elements in minke whale and rough-toothed dolphin in the Mediterranean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Trophic niche overlap between flatfishes in a nursery area on the Portuguese coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique N. Cabral

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The diets and the trophic niche overlap between seven flatfish species were studied in a coastal nursery adjoining to the Tagus estuary (Portugal. Fish were sampled monthly, from March to November 1999, using a beach seine. Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque, 1810, Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum, 1792 and Arnoglossus thori Kyle, 1913, fed mainly on crustaceans. The diets of Buglossidium luteum (Risso, 1810 and Dicologoglossa cuneata (Moreau, 1881 were mainly composed of Bivalvia and Polychaeta, while for Scophthalmus rhombus (Linnaeus, 1758 the main food items were Mysidacea and Teleostei. The diet of Pegusa lascaris (Risso, 1810 was mainly composed by Cumacea, Bivalvia, Decapoda and Amphipoda. Based on diet similarities two main groups were identified: one composed of A. imperialis, A. laterna, A. thori and S. rhombus, and the other grouping B. luteum, P. lascaris and D. cuneata. For the most common flatfishes, a similar pattern of diet seasonal variation was found, such that Amphipoda presented higher indices values in the period from March to June, while from July to November, Decapoda were more abundant. Although high values of diet overlap were obtained among some of the species, the main items in the diet of flatfishes are probably the most abundant prey in this coastal area, which suggests a generalist and opportunistic utilization of these food resources. Furthermore, niche overlap between these species is probably minimized by differences in resource use in other niche dimensions, namely time and space.

  11. STRATEGI PENGELOLAAN SUMBER DAYA UDANG LAUT DALAM SECARA BERKELANJUTAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Suman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan sumber daya udang di Indonesia dilakukan pada wilayah perairan laut dangkal dan status pengusahaannya sudah dalam tahapan jenuh (over-fishing. Apabila kondisi ini dibiarkan dalam jangka panjang tanpa adanya usaha pengelolaan yang berkelanjutan, maka akan menyebabkan kelestarian sumber daya udang akan terancam dan bahkan bisa punah. Salah satu hal yang harus dilakukan dalam mengantisipasinya adalah mencari daerah penangkapan baru di perairan laut dalam, berupa sumber daya udang yang potensial dan belum pernah dimanfaatkan (untapped resources. Komposisi jenis udang laut dalam di perairan Indonesia lebih dari sekitar 38 jenis dengan jenis udang yang mendominasi adalah Plesiopenaeus edwardsianus dan Aristeus virilis serta alat tangkap yang disarankan untuk pemanfaatannya adalah bubu laut dalam tipe silinder. Potensi penangkapan udang laut dalam di Kawasan Barat Indonesia (KBI sebagai 640 ton per tahun dan di Kawasan Timur Indonesia (KTI sebagai 2.840 ton per tahun. Agar pengelolaan sumber daya udang laut dalam dapat dilakukan berkelanjutan, maka harus dikelola dari awal pemanfaatannya. Strategi pengelolaan yang harus dilakukan adalah membatasi upaya penangkapan pada tingkat upaya sekitar 285 armada bubu laut dalam di KBI dan sekitar 1.250 armada bubu laut dalam di KTI. Selain itu harus dilakukan penutupan musim dan daerah penangkapan serta dilakukan penetapan kuota penangkapan. The utilization of Indonesia’s shrimps resources are commonly taking from shallow marine water while its status is currently on overfishing stage. In the long run without appropriate management will threat its sutainability and may be worsen to become extinct. A possible anticipition is finding a new fishing ground at deep sea area for potential deep sea shrimps as untapped resource. Deep sea shrimps species composition have been identified for more than 38 species with mainly dominated by Plesiopenaeus edwardsianus and Aristeus virili. Recommended fihing gear

  12. The genus Allogamus Schmid, 1955 (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae: revised by sexual selection-driven adaptive, non-neutral traits of the phallic organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, János

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based upon our previous reviews on the phylogenetic species concept, initial split criteria and fine structure analysis here we summarize population and model thinking as support to our diverged structure matrix procedure to test simply visually or, if required, by geometric morphometrics the stability of sexual selection-driven adaptive, non-neutral traits of the phallic organ. Complexity review helped us to establish plesiomorphic and apomorphic states of parameres of the phallic organ. Fine structure diversity of the adaptive traits of paramere and the apical portion of aedeagus has been applied to revise the Allogamus genus. All the known 22 taxa, 19 species and 3 subspecies, have been revised. Apomorphic fusion of parameres and complexity evolution of aedeagus directed us to erect 2 rediagnosed species groups, 1 new species group, 4 new species subgroups, 1 new species complex, 10 new species and 4 new or revised species status as follows: Allogamus auricollis species group, rediagnosed. Allogamus antennatus new subgroup: A. antennatus (McLachlan, 1876, A. ausoniae Moretti, 1991, stat. rev., A. morettii DePietro & Cianficconi, 2001, stat. rev., A. silanus Moretti 1991, stat. nov. Allogamus auricollis new subgroup: A. alpensis Oláh, Lodovici & Valle sp. nov., A. auricollis (Pictet, 1834, A. despaxi Decamps, 1967, A. zomok Oláh & Coppa sp. nov. Allogamus hilaris new subgroup: A. hilaris (McLachlan, 1876. Allogamus ligonifer new subgroup: A. gibraltaricus Gonzalez & Ruiz, 2001, A. kefes Coppa & Oláh sp. nov., A. laureatus (Navas, 1918, A. ligonifer (McLachlan, 1876, A. pertuli Malicky, 1974, A. pupos Coppa & Oláh sp. nov. Allogamus mortoni new species complex: A. kampos Oláh & Ruiz sp. nov., A. kettos Oláh & Ruiz sp. nov., A. kurtas Oláh & Zamora-Muñoz sp. nov., A. mortoni (Navas, 1907, A. pohos Oláh & Zamora-Muñoz sp. nov., A. tuskes Oláh & Sáinz-Bariáin sp. nov. Allogamus corsicus new species group: A. corsicus (Ris, 1897. A

  13. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eNavarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  14. Morphology and systematic position of Cingula tumidula G.O. Sars, 1878 Gastropoda: Rissoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhaev, Ivan O

    2016-11-03

    Rissoidae is a family of small to minute marine gastropods distributed worldwide. The generic composition of the family was revised by Ponder (1984) based on characters of external morphology and internal anatomy. However, species level taxonomy within the family is still based mainly on conchological characters, which are less informative and usually not sufficient for resolving the systematic relationships of species. Northern Atlantic representatives of the family were revised by Warén (1974; 1996) and Bouchet & Warén (1993) based on shape and sculpture of both proto- and teleoconch, and were suggested to be members of several genera, widely distributed in boreal or even tropical Atlantic environments. These include Alvania Risso, 1826; Onoba H. & A. Adams, 1852; Obtusella Cossmann, 1921 and a few more. However, it was recently demonstrated that some these genera are not monophyletic (Criscione et al. 2016).

  15. Sibling species of copepods in association with Mediterranean gorgorians

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    Mercedes Conradi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto a single species of Doridicola Leydig (Poecilostomatoida: Rhynchomolgidae has been found reported in association with gorgonians in Europe: Doridicola botulosus (Stock and Kleeton, 1963, living on the Mediterranean gorgonian Eunicella singularis (Esper, 1791. During a survey along the Iberian Mediterranean coast, several specimens of D. botulosus were collected from its reported host. Furthermore, an undescribed species of Doridicola was discovered living in association with Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826, a Mediterranean gorgonian usually living in overlaps with that of E. singularis. Although the new species is close to D. botulosus, they differ in the oral appendages. A common origin of these two species was suggested. This is a good example of sibling species produced by the colonisation of two hosts with overlapping habitats

  16. Redução do teor de limoneno e bergapteno do óleo essencial de bergamota adsorvido em sílica gel pelo CO2 - supercrítico

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    Araújo Júlio Maria de Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a utilização do CO2 supercrítico na extração seletiva de compostos oxigenados (linalol e acetato de linalila contidos no óleo essencial de bergamota (Citrus bergamia Risso, var. bergamia, adsorvido em sílica gel contendo baixo teor de limoneno e bergapteno. A densidade do dióxido de carbono e a temperatura de extração foram otimizadas, e os extratos obtidos foram analisados por cromatografia. Nas condições estudadas, observou-se uma redução de 72% no teor de limoneno e 92,5% para o bergapteno, sendo extraídos 52% de linalol e 69,4% de acetato de linalila.

  17. Identification of phlebotomine sandfly bloodmeals from Baringo District, Kenya, by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

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    Ngumbi, P M; Lawyer, P G; Johnson, R N; Kiilu, G; Asiago, C

    1992-10-01

    Direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to identify the sources of bloodmeals in phlebotomine sandflies from Baringo District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. Some bloodmeals had been stored for over 4 years before being analysed. Among 356 sandflies identified, 62.9% were Phlebotomus martini, 14.8% Sergentomyia antennatus, 10% S.schwetzi, 6% S.clydei, 1.9% S.adleri, 1.6% P.duboscqi, 1.4% S.africanus and 0.8% S.bedfordi. Out of 224 P.martini bloodmeals, host source was identified for 69. The order of host preference for P.martini was: goat 28.5%, rabbit 22.7%, human 8.9% and others 8.9%. Evidence of mixed feeding was shown by four species comprising sixteen specimens, twelve of which were P.martini. The most effective methods for trapping bloodfed P. martini were sticky paper traps in termite hills, followed by light-traps. Of the 224 P.martini trapped, 58.9% were collected with traps in termite hills, and 22.7% with light traps. Roles of the three most popular hosts for P.martini should be investigated to ascertain whether they act as reservoirs in the transmission of Leishmania donovani causing visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya.

  18. Characterization of Alpha-fetoprotein Levels in Three Dolphin Species: Development of Sensitive Immunoassays for Analysis of the Pregnancy-associated Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORITA, Yuka; HIRAMATSU, Naoshi; FUJITA, Toshiaki; AMANO, Haruna; KATSUMATA, Etsuko; ARAI, Kazutoshi; IWASAKI, Toshihide; TODO, Takashi; HARA, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) were initially developed for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) of the striped dolphin. Utilizing these developed assays, we investigated pregnancy-associated changes in the levels of AFP in the sera of fetuses and pregnant females of three dolphin species; samples were either collected from captive individuals or obtained as fishery by-products. The concentrations of AFP in the fetal serum ranged from 419.0 to 2026.3 μg/ml in the striped dolphin, 12.6 to 1218.7 μg/ml (for an AFP equivalent; eqAFP) in the common bottlenose dolphin and 770.6 to 3129.1 μg eqAFP/ml in the Risso's dolphin. AFP levels decreased with increased fetal size in fetuses over 20 cm in length. The concentrations of AFP in sera of pregnant females ranged from 7.18 to 8068.7 ng/ml in the striped dolphin, 6.6 to 1241.1 ng eqAFP/ml in the common bottlenose dolphin and 3.4 to 2868.7 ng eqAFP/ml in the Risso's dolphin. The levels in most pregnant females were equal to or lower than those found in males and nonpregnant individuals, although a few pregnant females exhibited extremely high levels (in the range of hundreds to thousands of nanograms per milliliter). Such high levels of AFP were not observed during pseudopregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first report on basal profiles for serum AFP levels in small odontocetes. The profiles indicated that AFP may play a significant role during embryonic development, although maternal levels do not appear to be a diagnostic biomarker for monitoring pregnancy. PMID:23656975

  19. Deep diving odontocetes foraging strategies and their prey field as determined by acoustic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorli, Giacomo

    Deep diving odontocetes, like sperm whales, beaked whales, Risso's dolphins, and pilot whales are known to forage at deep depths in the ocean on squid and fish. These marine mammal species are top predators and for this reason are very important for the ecosystems they live in, since they can affect prey populations and control food web dynamics through top-down effects. The studies presented in this thesis investigate deep diving odontocetes. foraging strategies, and the density and size of their potential prey in the deep ocean using passive and active acoustic techniques. Ecological Acoustic Recorders (EAR) were used to monitor the foraging activity of deep diving odontocetes at three locations around the world: the Josephine Seamount High Sea Marine Protected Area (JHSMPA), the Ligurian Sea, and along the Kona coast of the island of Hawaii. In the JHSMPA, sperm whales. and beaked whales. foraging rates do not differ between night-time and day-time. However, in the Ligurian Sea, sperm whales switch to night-time foraging as the winter approaches, while beaked whales alternate between hunting mainly at night, and both at night and at day. Spatial differences were found in deep diving odontocetes. foraging activity in Hawaii where they forage most in areas with higher chlorophyll concentrations. Pilot whales (and false killer whales, clustered together in the category "blackfishes") and Risso's dolphins forage mainly at night at all locations. These two species adjust their foraging activity with the length of the night. The density and size of animals living in deep sea scattering layers was studied using a DIDSON imaging sonar at multiple stations along the Kona coast of Hawaii. The density of animals was affected by location, depth, month, and the time of day. The size of animals was influenced by station and month. The DIDSON proved to be a successful, non-invasive technique to study density and size of animals in the deep sea. Densities were found to be an

  20. Postmortem evidence of interactions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with other dolphin species in south-west England.

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    Barnett, J; Davison, N; Deaville, R; Monies, R; Loveridge, J; Tregenza, N; Jepson, P D

    2009-10-10

    Reports of violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the coastal waters of the UK are well documented. Examination of stranded cetaceans by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network and the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme has indicated that seven animals, of four other species, found stranded in south-west England, had pathology consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction, including two juvenile and two adult common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), one juvenile pilot whale (Globicephala melas), one juvenile Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and one adult striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Although recorded traumatic lesions were often not as severe as those found in harbour porpoises, it is probable that the interactions did contribute to stranding and/or death in all four of the juvenile animals examined. Furthermore, analysis of photographs taken before establishment of the Marine Strandings Network revealed rake (teeth) marks consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction on one stranded common dolphin in 1992. A number of causes have been suggested for these interactions in harbour porpoises stranded in the UK and it is possible that any combination of these factors may also be implicated in the cases described in this report.

  1. Prion search and cellular prion protein expression in stranded dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, G; Cocumelli, C; Meoli, R; Barbaro, K; Terracciano, G; Di Francesco, C E; Mazzariol, S; Eleni, C

    2012-01-01

    The recent description of a prion disease (PD) case in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prompted us to carry out an extensive search for the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain and in a range of lymphoid tissues from 23 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), 5 bottlenose dolphins and 2 Risso s dolphins (Grampus griseus) found stranded between 2007 and 2012 along the Italian coastline. Three striped dolphins and one bottlenose dolphin showed microscopic lesions of encephalitis, with no evidence of spongiform brain lesions being detected in any of the 30 free-ranging cetaceans investigated herein. Nevertheless, we could still observe a prominent PrPC immunoreactivity in the brain as well as in lymphoid tissues from these dolphins. Although immunohistochemical and Western blot investigations yielded negative results for PrPSc deposition in all tissues from the dolphins under study, the reported occurrence of a spontaneous PD case in a wild dolphin is an intriguing issue and a matter of concern for both prion biology and intra/inter-species transmissibility, as well as for cetacean conservation medicine.

  2. RESPOSTA FUNCIONAL DA JOANINHA CRYPTOLAEMUS PREDANDO COCHONILHA BRANCA EM DIFERENTES TEMPERATURAS E SUBSTRATOS VEGETAIS

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    SERGIO ANTONIO DE BORTOLI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the functional response of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 1850 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae fed with Planococcus citri Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae reared on a pumpkin hybrid (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moscata (Cucurbitaceae, seedlings of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Rutaceae and potato (Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae at two temperatures. The predation rate of C. montrouzieri was measured using Petri dishes of 15 cm diameter with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 adults of P. Citri. One third instar larva, one fourfh instar and one newly emerged adult (without differentiation of sex of C. montrouzieri were added to each plate. The study was conducted in climatic chambers at temperatures of 25 and 30 º C and photophase of 12 hours. The predation rate was evaluated after 24 hours of prey exposition to the predator, by counting the number of preys trapped in the different treatments and control. The statistical design was completely randomized with four treatments x 6 subplots with 7 repetitions, the two temperatures. The values obtained were subjected to analysis of variance, to relate the number of scales preyed by larvae and adults of C. montrouzieri set up in different substrates. The amount of prey consumed by larvae and adults of the predator increased with increasing the prey density until it reaches a plateau, characterizing functional response type II. In general, the number of scales preyed by larvae and adults of C. montrouzieri was higher on potato and under temperature of 30 °C.

  3. Lectotype designation for Murex nebula Montagu 1803 (Mangeliidae) and its implications for Bela Leach in Gray 1847.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Scarponi; Landau, Bernard; Janssen, Ronald; Morgenroth, Holly; Bella, Giano Della

    2014-11-12

    Bela Leach in Gray is a misapplied and broadly defined genus within the family Mangeliidae Fischer, 1883. Examination of material from the Montagu collection at the Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery (RAMM) in Exeter (UK) led to the discovery of six specimens of Murex nebula Montagu 1803 (the type species of Bela). This material is considered to belong to the original lot used by Montagu to define his species. We selected the best-preserved specimen as a lectotype. The lectotype and paralectotypes deposited at the RAMM are fully described and illustrated. Furthermore, diagnostic characters for recognizing B. nebula specimens are presented: protoconch shows weak ornamentation; teleoconch is fusiform with slightly convex whorls characterized by broad, suture-to-suture ribs and dense but weak spiral elements; outer lip is thin; anal sinus is shallow, placed on the shoulder ramp. These key features are of basic importance for: i) restricting the usage of the genus Bela and promoting its stability and consistent usage in literature and ii) separating two allied (and sometimes interchanged) genera: Bela and Mangelia Risso 1826.

  4. Combining genetic and demographic data for the conservation of a Mediterranean marine habitat-forming species.

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    Rosana Arizmendi-Mejía

    Full Text Available The integration of ecological and evolutionary data is highly valuable for conservation planning. However, it has been rarely used in the marine realm, where the adequate design of marine protected areas (MPAs is urgently needed. Here, we examined the interacting processes underlying the patterns of genetic structure and demographic strucuture of a highly vulnerable Mediterranean habitat-forming species (i.e. Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826, with particular emphasis on the processes of contemporary dispersal, genetic drift, and colonization of a new population. Isolation by distance and genetic discontinuities were found, and three genetic clusters were detected; each submitted to variations in the relative impact of drift and gene flow. No founder effect was found in the new population. The interplay of ecology and evolution revealed that drift is strongly impacting the smallest, most isolated populations, where partial mortality of individuals was highest. Moreover, the eco-evolutionary analyses entailed important conservation implications for P. clavata. Our study supports the inclusion of habitat-forming organisms in the design of MPAs and highlights the need to account for genetic drift in the development of MPAs. Moreover, it reinforces the importance of integrating genetic and demographic data in marine conservation.

  5. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  6. Toxic effects of six plant oils alone and in combination with controlled atmosphere on Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J J; Tsai, J H; Ding, W; Zhao, Z M; Li, L S

    2001-10-01

    Six plant essential oils alone as repellent and fumigant, and in combination with the controlled atmosphere against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel were assessed in the laboratory. These essential oils were extracted from the leaves of six source plants: Citrus tangerina Tanaka, Citrus aurantium L., Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, Pinus sylvestris L., Cupressus funebris End]., and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. The repellency test indicated that L. bostrychophila adults were repelled by filter paper strips treated with six essential oils. Of these essential oils, the C. funebris oil was most effective followed by that of F. sylvestris, C. tangerina, C. bergamia, and E. citriodora. The average repellency of the C. aurantium oil against L. bostrychophila adults was significantly lower than other five test oils by day 14. These essential oils had a high level of toxicity in the fumigation assay against L. bostrychophila adults at both 10 and 20 ppm. When combined with two controlled atmosphere treatments (12% CO2 + 9% O2, and 10% CO2 + 5% O2, balanced N2), the toxicity of plant oils was enhanced significantly.

  7. Ecological modulation of reproductive behaviour in the peacock blenny: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, J L; Gonçalves, D; Oliveira, R F

    2013-02-01

    The inter-populational variation in the reproductive behaviour of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo (Risso 1810), particularly the influence of the ecologic environment, was reviewed in the present work. Two populations of this species inhabiting contrasting environments were studied: the Ria Formosa population, a coastal lagoon with sandy/muddy substrate located in the south of Portugal, and the Gulf of Trieste, an area presenting rocky substrate located in the northern Adriatic sea. The remarkable differences in the mating system and reproductive behaviour between the two populations (namely sex-role reversal and high frequency of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) at the Ria Formosa vs typical sex roles and low frequency of ARTs at the Gulf of Trieste) are interpreted as a plastic behavioural and physiological response to contrasting ecological conditions. Androgens, namely 11-ketotestosterone, seem to act as mediators of this response. The expression and activity of the enzyme aromatase in the brain also seems to play a key role in fine-tuning the behavioural output in all male morphs as well as females.

  8. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou population paradox?

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    Fabien Pointin

    Full Text Available We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827 populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point towards a single population. A paradox therefore arises in attempting to reconcile these two sets of information. Here we analyse 1100 observations of blue whiting larvae from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR from 1948-2005 using modern statistical techniques. We show a clear spatial separation between a northern spawning area, in the Rockall Trough, and a southern one, off the Porcupine Seabight. We further show a difference in the timing of spawning between these sites of at least a month, and meaningful differences in interannual variability. The results therefore support the two-population hypothesis. Furthermore, we resolve the paradox by showing that the acoustic observations cited in support of the single-population model are not capable of resolving both populations, as they occur too late in the year and do not extend sufficiently far south to cover the southern population: the confusion is the result of a simple observational artefact. We conclude that blue whiting in the North Atlantic comprises two populations.

  9. Static inflation and deflation pressure–volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H.; Ferrigno, Massimo; Moore, Colby; Early, Greg; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; Wenzel, Frederic; Joy, Ruth; Moore, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), gray seal (Halichoerus grypush), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (MAV, N=15), the elastic properties (pressure–volume curves, N=24) of the respiratory system and the total lung capacity (TLC). Our data indicate that mass-specific TLC (sTLC, l kg–1) does not differ between species or groups (odontocete vs phocid) and agree with that estimated (TLCest) from body mass (Mb) by applying the equation: TLCest=0.135 Mb0.92. Measured MAV was on average 7% of TLC, with a range from 0 to 16%. The pressure–volume curves were similar among species on inflation but diverged during deflation in phocids in comparison with odontocetes. These differences provide a structural basis for observed species differences in the depth at which lungs collapse and gas exchange ceases. PMID:22031747

  10. Feeding habits of Pagellus acarne (Sparidae in the Gulf of Tunis, central Mediterranean

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    Rafika Fehri-Bedoui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the axillary seabream, Pagellus acarne (Risso, 1810, from the Gulf of Tunis were investigated in relation to season, sex and fish size (juveniles TL < 14.5 cm and adults TL ≥ 14.5 cm. A total of 536 specimens (males, females, unsexed and hermaphroditic, ranging between 11.0 and 25.2 cm TL, were collected with trammel nets from June 2005 to July 2006. Their stomach contents were analysed. Of the total number of examined stomachs, 279 stomachs were empty (Vacuity index, VI = 52%. The VI did not reveal significant seasonal differences when all of the specimens were analysed together; however, significant seasonal variations were observed for females. The diet of the axillary seabream was composed of 36 different prey species. The most important prey were Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata. Both the dietary indices and the Spearman’s coefficient of correlation indicated seasonal variations in the diet. The diet was more diversified in adults than in juveniles. The axillary seabream fed on a wide range of prey items, endofauna and nekton, and can be considered a carnivorous and euryphagous predator.

  11. The 1 Repetition Maximum Mechanics of a High-Handle Hexagonal Bar Deadlift Compared With a Conventional Deadlift as Measured by a Linear Position Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Lazar, Adrina; Risso, Fabrice G; Liu, Tricia M; Stage, Alyssa A; Birmingham-Babauta, Samantha A; Torne, Ibett A; Stokes, John J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Davis, DeShaun L; Orjalo, Ashley J; Callaghan, Samuel J

    2018-01-01

    Lockie, RG, Moreno, MR, Lazar, A, Risso, FG, Liu, TM, Stage, AA, Birmingham-Babauta, SA, Torne, IA, Stokes, JJ, Giuliano, DV, Davis, DL, Orjalo, AJ, and Callaghan, SJ. The 1 repetition maximum mechanics of a high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift compared with a conventional deadlift as measured by a linear position transducer. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 150-161, 2018-The high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift (HHBD), a variation of the conventional deadlift (CD), is said to reduce the lift range of motion, which may change the mechanics of the lift. However, no research has investigated this. This study compared the mechanics between a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) CD and HHBD. Thirty-one strength-trained subjects (21 men, 10 women) completed a 1RM CD and HHBD. A linear position transducer measured lift distance, duration, and work; and peak and mean power, velocity, and force. The presence of a sticking region (SR) was determined for each lift. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculated differences between 1RM CD and HHBD mechanics. A one-way ANOVA compared the mechanics of each lift between subjects who exhibited an SR or not, and the SR between the CD and HHBD. Significance was set at p mechanics between subjects with or without an SR, and no differences in SR region distance or duration between the CD and HHBD. Greater force can be generated in the HHBD, which could have implications for strength-training adaptations over time.

  12. Metazoan parasites from odontocetes off New Zealand: new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kristina; Randhawa, Haseeb; Poulin, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Information about the parasite fauna of spectacled porpoises and cetaceans from New Zealand waters in general is scarce. This study takes advantage of material archived in collections of the Otago Museum in Dunedin and Massey University in Auckland, sampled from cetacean species found stranded along the New Zealand coastline between 2007 and 2014. Parasites from seven species of cetaceans (spectacled porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica (n = 2 individuals examined); pygmy sperm whale (n = 1); long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas (n = 1); Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus (n = 1); short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (n = 7); striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (n = 3) and dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (n = 2)) from the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract, cranial sinus, liver, urogenital and mammary tract, fascia and blubber were investigated. Ten parasite species were identified, belonging to the Nematoda (Stenurus minor, Stenurus globicephalae, Halocercus sp. (Pseudaliidae), Anisakis sp. (Anisakidae), Crassicauda sp. (Crassicaudidae)), Cestoda (Phyllobothrium delphini and Monorygma grimaldii (Phyllobothriidae)), Trematoda (Brachicladium palliata and Brachicladium delphini (Brachicladiidae)) and Crustacea (Scutocyamus antipodensis (Cyamidae)). Some of the parasite species encountered comprises new records for their host. Although the material was not sampled within a systematic parasitological survey, the findings contain valuable new information about the parasite fauna of rare, vagile and vulnerable marine wildlife from a remote oceanic environment.

  13. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

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    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  14. Atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais sobre espécies de Candida

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    Igara de Oliveira Lima

    Full Text Available A candidíase apresenta-se como uma infecção fúngica superficial ou profunda causada por leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida, sendo considerada a principal infecção micótica em ambiente nosocomial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a concentração inibitória mínima - CIM do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth e de Rosmarinus officinialis L. sobre cepas de Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea e C. tropicalis. Os ensaios de atividade antifúngica foram realizados através da técnica de difusão em meio sólido. Os óleos essenciais de C. zeylanicum e P. boldus mostraram os mais destacáveis resultados, visto que inibiram o crescimento de 58% das cepas ensaiadas e apresentaram CIM de 4%.

  15. Changes in benthic fish assemblages as a consequence of coastal works in a coastal lagoon: The Mar Menor (Spain, Western Mediterranean).

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    Pérez-Ruzafa, A; García-Charton, J A; Barcala, E; Marcos, C

    2006-01-01

    The benthic fish assemblage of the Mar Menor consisted of 37 species. Dominant species are: Gobius cobitis, Lipophrys pavo and Tripterygion tripteronotus on infralittoral rocks; Pomatoschistus marmoratus, Callionymus pussillus, Callionymus risso and Solea vulgaris on sandy bottoms and Gobius niger, Syngnathus abaster, Hippocampus ramulosus and Symphodus cinereus on Cymodocea nodosa-Caulerpa prolifera mixed beds. From 1985 to 1989 tourist development has led to the creation of new beaches and the installation of artificial rocky structures for retaining sediments. Dredging for the extraction of sand and subsequent pumping altered sediment characteristics causing a real stress leading to the substitution of typical sandy bottoms communities with Cymodocea nodosa by Caulerpa prolifera communities on mud. Soft bottom fish assemblages responded to changes in vegetation cover and substratum characteristics mainly changing the species composition, while artificial hard substrata contain a similar fish community than natural ones, harbouring even richer and more diverse assemblages. This positive effect of breakwaters should not obscure their likely negative effects on hydrodynamics and the subsequent changes of sediment quality and vegetation cover on the breakwaters' area of influence.

  16. Seasonal distribution and abundance of cetaceans within French waters- Part I: The North-Western Mediterranean, including the Pelagos sanctuary

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    Laran, Sophie; Pettex, Emeline; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; David, Léa; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Monestiez, Pascal; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is undergoing important changes. Cetaceans, as top predators, are an important component of marine ecosystems. The seasonal distribution and abundance of several cetacean species were studied with a large aerial survey over the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, including the international Pelagos sanctuary, the largest Marine Protected Area (MPA) designed for marine mammals in the Mediterranean. A total of 8 distinct species of cetaceans were identified, and their occurrence within the sanctuary was investigated. Abundance estimates were obtained for three groups of species: the small delphinids (striped dolphins mainly), the bottlenose dolphin and the fin whale. There was a seasonal variation in striped dolphin abundance between winter (57,300 individuals, 95% CI: 34,500-102,000) and summer (130,000, 95% CI: 76,800-222,100). In contrast, bottlenose dolphin winter abundance was thrice that of summer. It was also the only species to exhibit any preference for the Pelagos sanctuary. Fin whale abundance had the reverse pattern with winter abundance (1000 individuals, 95% CI: 500-2500) and summer (2500 individuals, 95% CI: 1500-4300), without any preference for the sanctuary. Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales did not exhibit strong seasonal pattern in their abundance. These results provide baseline estimates which can be used to inform conservation policies and instruments such as the Habitats Directive or the recent European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  17. Genetic characteristics of Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolated from cage cultured cobia, Rachycentron canadum (L.).

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    Tsai, M-A; Wang, P-C; Yoshida, T; Chen, S-C

    2015-12-01

    Disease outbreaks occurred during 2007-2013 in Taiwan with 2.5-10% mortality among the cage cultured cobia, Rachycentron canadum (L.), characterized by the presence of polyserositis, pericarditis and peritonitis. The micro-organisms isolated from internal organs were Gram-positive cocci. The isolates were confirmed as Streptococcus dysgalactiae by a polymerase chain reaction assay that yielded the expected specific 259 bp amplicon. Additionally, partial sequence of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region of the GCS strain isolates from fish was also compared and produced 100% sequence identity with S. dysgalactiae (GenBank accession number AB252398). The genetic characterization was then determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Based on PFGE, the Apa I or Sma I digestion patterns of chromosomal DNA of these isolates were grouped into three main clusters. Taiwanese strains were divided into two clusters, and the tet(M) gene was detected in cluster 1 (pulsotypes: A1-A2 and S1-S3), but not in cluster 2 strains (pulsotypes: A3-A4 and S4-S5). Three Japanese strains from amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Risso), were grouped into cluster 3 (pulsotypes: A5-A7 and S6-S8) and displayed no mortality to cobia in the challenge experiment. Conversely, Taiwanese strains from cobia and snubnose pompano, Trachinotus blochii (L.), displayed a mortality rate of 50-87.5% in cobia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

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    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  19. Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagetta, Giacinto; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Amantea, Diana; Russo, Rossella; Berliocchi, Laura; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2010-09-01

    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) is a fruit most knowledgeable for its essential oil (BEO) used in aromatherapy to minimize symptoms of stress-induced anxiety and mild mood disorders and cancer pain though the rational basis for such applications awaits to be discovered. The behavioural and EEG spectrum power effects of BEO correlate well with its exocytotic and carrier-mediated release of discrete amino acids endowed with neurotransmitter function in the mammalian hippocampus supporting the deduction that BEO is able to interfere with normal and pathological synaptic plasticity. The observed neuroprotection in the course of experimental brain ischemia and pain does support this view. In conclusion, the data yielded so far contribute to our understanding of the mode of action of this phytocomplex on nerve tissue under normal and pathological experimental conditions and provide a rational basis for the practical use of BEO in complementary medicine. The opening of a wide venue for future research and translation into clinical settings is also envisaged. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys

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    Le Goff Gilbert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft’s filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. Methods We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group. Results We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia

  1. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae) of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Boussès, Philippe; Julienne, Simon; Brengues, Cécile; Rahola, Nil; Rocamora, Gérard; Robert, Vincent

    2012-09-21

    During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft's filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride) and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group). We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus) albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus) sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm) sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia browni. Ur. nepenthes and Ur. pandani) and one

  2. Larval fish distribution and their relationship with environmental factors in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (central Mediterranean during two years of sampling

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    Adriana Profeta

    2014-06-01

    The results of this study could have implications for the management of marine resources, because the investigated area has already been identified as a nursery area for many pelagic and coastal fishes and a natural habitat for many species of high commercial interest. Fig. 1. Results of CCA analysis for larval fish species and sampled stations during June 2006. Two first axes (CCA1 and CCA2 are represented. Species abbreviations in alphabetical order: An_a (Anthias anthias, Ap_i (Apogon imberbis, Ar_k (Arnoglossus kessleri, Ar_h (Argyropelecus hemigymnus, Ar_l (Arnoglossus laterna, Ar_r (Arnoglossus rueppelii, Ar_t (Arnoglossus thori, Be_g (Benthosema glaciale, Bl_o (Blennius ocellaris, Bo_b (Boops boops, Bo_p (Bothus podas, Ca_a (Capros aper, Ca_p (Callyonimus maculatus, Ce_m (Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Ce_m1(Cepola macrophtalma, Ci_l (Citharus linguatula, Co_j (Coris julis, Co_n (Ophidion barbatum, Cy_b (Cyclothone braueri, Cy_p (Cyclothone pygmaea, En_e (Engraulis encrasicolus, Di_a (Diplodus annularis, Di_h (Diaphus holti, Di_r (Diaphus rafinesquei, El_r (Electrona rissoi, Go_n (Gobius niger, He_d (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Hy_b (Hygophum benoiti, Hy_h (Hygophum hygomii, La_c (Lampanyctus crocodilus, La_p (Lampanyctus pusillus, Le_c (Lepidotrigla cavillone, Le_j (Lestidiops jayakari, Lo_d (Lobianchia dofleini, Ma_m (Maurolicus muelleri, Ma_s (Macrorhamphosus scolopax, Me_m (Merluccius merluccius, Mi_p (Micromesistius poutassou, My_p (Myctophum punctatum, Mu_s (Mullus surmuletus, Ne_s (Nemichthys scolopaceus, No_b (Notoscopelus bolini, No_e (Notoscopelus elongatus, No_r (Arctozenus risso, Ob_m (Oblada melanura, Pa_s (Paralepis speciosa. Sc_p (Scorpaena porcus, Sc_s (Scorpaena scrofa, Se_c (Serranus cabrilla, Se_h (Serranushepatus, Sp_f (Spicara maena, Sp_s (Spicara smaris, Sy sp. (Symphurus nigrescens, Sy_v, (Symphurus ligulatus, St_b (Stomias boa boa, Tr_d (Trachinus draco, Tr_me (Trachurus mediterraneus, Tr_t (Trachurus trachurus, Ur_s (Uranoscopus scaber

  3. Dolphins in a Scaled-Down Mediterranean: The Gulf of Corinth's Odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearzi, G; Bonizzoni, S; Santostasi, N L; Furey, N B; Eddy, L; Valavanis, V D; Gimenez, O

    The Gulf of Corinth is a 2400-km 2 semi-enclosed inland system (a mediterraneus) in central Greece. Its continental shelf areas, steep bottom relief, and waters up to 500-900m deep offer suitable habitat to neritic and pelagic species. We used photographic capture-recapture, distribution modelling, and direct observations to investigate the abundance, status, habitat preferences, movements, and group size of four odontocete species regularly observed in the Gulf, based on five years (2011-2015) of survey effort from small boats. Striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) are more abundant (1324 individuals, 95%CI 1158-1515) than was determined from previous estimates. Striped dolphins appear to be confined to the Gulf, where they favour deep and oligotrophic waters, and were encountered in single-species and mixed-species groups. Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) (22 individuals, 95%CI 16-31), individuals with intermediate pigmentation (possibly striped/common dolphin hybrids) (55, 95%CI 36-83), and a single Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) were only encountered in mixed-species groups with striped dolphins. Short-beaked common dolphins constitute a discrete conservation unit (subpopulation), and based on the current estimate, would qualify as Critically Endangered according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (39 animals, 95%CI 33-47) occur in single-species groups; they prefer continental shelf waters and areas near fish farms in the northern sector, and several animals appear to move into and out of the Gulf. Additionally, we contribute records of marine fauna and an assessment of the fishing fleet operating in the Gulf. Our study shows that the importance of this vulnerable marine environment has been underestimated, and management action must be taken to mitigate human impact and ensure long-term protection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  4. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study

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    Di Pierro F

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alberto Zanvit,2 Piero Nobili,2 Paolo Risso,3 Carlo Fornaini4 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, 2Stomatology Institute, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Health Science, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 4Teleo Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Nice, Nice, France Abstract: Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18. Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis®. The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. Keywords: BLIS M18, caries prediction, dextranase, urease, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, plaque, salivary pH, bacteriocins

  5. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.

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    Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2011-04-01

    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime.

  6. Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae.

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    Hofit Kol-Maimon

    Full Text Available Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret. These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1 DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1 The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2 we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.

  7. Mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses of the Delphinidae with an emphasis on the Globicephalinae

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    de Stephanis Renaud

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous DNA-based phylogenetic studies of the Delphinidae family suggest it has undergone rapid diversification, as characterised by unresolved and poorly supported taxonomic relationships (polytomies for some of the species within this group. Using an increased amount of sequence data we test between alternative hypotheses of soft polytomies caused by rapid speciation, slow evolutionary rate and/or insufficient sequence data, and hard polytomies caused by simultaneous speciation within this family. Combining the mitogenome sequences of five new and 12 previously published species within the Delphinidae, we used Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods to estimate the phylogeny from partitioned and unpartitioned mitogenome sequences. Further ad hoc tests were then conducted to estimate the support for alternative topologies. Results We found high support for all the relationships within our reconstructed phylogenies, and topologies were consistent between the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood trees inferred from partitioned and unpartitioned data. Resolved relationships included the placement of the killer whale (Orcinus orca as sister taxon to the rest of the Globicephalinae subfamily, placement of the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus within the Globicephalinae subfamily, removal of the white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris from the Delphininae subfamily and the placement of the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis as sister taxon to the rest of the Delphininae subfamily rather than within the Globicephalinae subfamily. The additional testing of alternative topologies allowed us to reject all other putative relationships, with the exception that we were unable to reject the hypothesis that the relationship between L. albirostris and the Globicephalinae and Delphininae subfamilies was polytomic. Conclusion Despite their rapid diversification, the increased sequence data yielded by mitogenomes enables the

  8. Rational Basis for the Use of Bergamot Essential Oil in Complementary Medicine to Treat Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolà, L; Amantea, D; Russo, R; Adornetto, A; Berliocchi, L; Tridico, L; Corasaniti, M T; Sakurada, S; Sakurada, T; Bagetta, G; Morrone, L A

    2016-01-01

    In complementary medicine, aromatherapy uses essential oils to improve agitation and aggression observed in dementia, mood, depression, anxiety and chronic pain. Preclinical research studies have reported that the essential oil obtained from bergamot (BEO) fruit (Citrus bergamia, Risso) modifies normal and pathological synaptic plasticity implicated, for instance, in nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Interestingly, recent results indicated that BEO modulates sensitive perception of pain in different models of nociceptive, inflammatory and neuropathic pain modulating endogenous systems. Thus, local administration of BEO inhibited the nociceptive behavioral effect induced by intraplantar injection of capsaicin or formalin in mice. Similar effects were observed with linalool and linalyl acetate, major volatile components of the phytocomplex, Pharmacological studies showed that the latter effects are reversed by local or systemic pretreatment with the opioid antagonist naloxone hydrochloride alike with naloxone methiodide, high affinity peripheral μ-opioid receptor antagonist. These results and the synergistic effect observed following systemic or intrathecal injection of an inactive dose of morphine with BEO or linalool indicated an activation of peripheral opioid system. Recently, in neuropathic pain models systemic or local administration of BEO or linalool induced antiallodynic effects. In particular, in partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) model, intraplantar injection of the phytocomplex or linalool in the ipsilateral hindpaw, but not in the contralateral, reduced PSNL-induced extracellularsignal- regulated kinase (ERK) activation and mechanical allodynia. In neuropathic pain high doses of morphine are needed to reduce pain. Interestingly, combination of inactive doses of BEO or linalool with a low dose of morphine induced antiallodynic effects in mice. Peripheral cannabinoid and opioid systems appear to be involved in the antinociception produced by

  9. Alpine crossroads or origin of genetic diversity? Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric microgastropod species.

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    Alexander M Weigand

    Full Text Available The Alpine Region, constituting the Alps and the Dinaric Alps, has played a major role in the formation of current patterns of biodiversity either as a contact zone of postglacial expanding lineages or as the origin of genetic diversity. In our study, we tested these hypotheses for two widespread, sympatric microgastropod taxa--Carychium minimum O.F. Müller, 1774 and Carychium tridentatum (Risso, 1826 (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae--by using COI sequence data and species potential distribution models analyzed in a statistical phylogeographical framework. Additionally, we examined disjunct transatlantic populations of those taxa from the Azores and North America. In general, both Carychium taxa demonstrate a genetic structure composed of several differentiated haplotype lineages most likely resulting from allopatric diversification in isolated refugial areas during the Pleistocene glacial periods. However, the genetic structure of Carychium minimum is more pronounced, which can be attributed to ecological constraints relating to habitat proximity to permanent bodies of water. For most of the Carychium lineages, the broader Alpine Region was identified as the likely origin of genetic diversity. Several lineages are endemic to the broader Alpine Region whereas a single lineage per species underwent a postglacial expansion to (recolonize previously unsuitable habitats, e.g. in Northern Europe. The source populations of those expanding lineages can be traced back to the Eastern and Western Alps. Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages. Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America. We conclude that passive (anthropogenic transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

  10. Sinop Yarımadası (Güney Karadeniz Kıyısal Sularındaki Bazı Syngnathid Türlerinin (Syngnathus sp., Nerophis sp., Hippocampus sp. Besin Kompozisyonları

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    Şule GÜRKAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, Temmuz 2001 - Mayıs 2002 tarihleri arasında Sinop yarımadası (güney Karadeniz kıyısal sularının 5 – 15 m derinliklerindeki farklı biyotoplarından el direci kullanılarak yakalanan 6 deniziğnesi (Syngnathus acus Linnaeus, 1758; Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus, 1758; Syngnathus tenurostris Rathke, 1837; Syngnathus variegatus Palas, 1811; Nerophis ophidion Linnaeus, 1758; Syngnathus abaster Risso,1926 ve bir denizatı (Hippocampus hippocampus (L.,1758 türüne ait toplam 130 bireyde 105 mide içeriği incelenmiştir. Analizler sonunda mide içeriklerinde 13 av grubu tespit edilmiştir. Deniziğnesi türlerinin besin içeriğinde bulunuş frekans değeri (% F bakımından en baskın av grupları; S. acus’da % 90.9 Euterpina acutifrons, S. typhle’de % 93.3 tanımlanamamış doku parçaları, S. tenurostris’de % 87 Pseudocalanus elongatus, S. variegatus’da % 91.7 tanımlanamamış doku parçaları, N. ophidion’da % 90 Euterpina acutifrons, S. abaster’de ise % 100 Pseudocalanus elongatus, Euterpina acutifrons, Cirriped cypris, ve Cirriped nauiplius’dur. H. hippocampus ise % 25 ile Onceae sp. en baskın av grubudur. Sonuç olarak, deniziğnesi ve denizatı türlerinin esasen bentik ve planktonik krustase gruplarıyla beslendikleri görülmekle birlikte S. tenuirostris, S. abaster ve S. variegatus için besin kompozisyonu kıyılarımızdan ilk kez belirlenmiştir

  11. Targeted Acoustic Data Processing for Ocean Ecological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovskaia, N.; Li, K.; Tiemann, C.; Ackleh, A. S.; Tang, T.; Ioup, G. E.; Ioup, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is home to many species of deep diving marine mammals. In recent years several ecological studies have collected large volumes of Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) data to investigate the effects of anthropogenic activities on protected and endangered marine mammal species. To utilize these data to their fullest potential for abundance estimates and habitat preference studies, automated detection and classification algorithms are needed to extract species acoustic encounters from a continuous stream of data. The species which phonate in overlapping frequency bands represent a particular challenge. This paper analyzes the performance of a newly developed automated detector for the classification of beaked whale clicks in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Current used beaked whale classification algorithms rely heavily on experienced human operator involvement in manually associating potential events with a particular species of beaked whales. Our detection algorithm is two-stage: the detector is triggered when the species-representative phonation band energy exceeds the baseline detection threshold. Then multiple event attributes (temporal click duration, central frequency, frequency band, frequency sweep rate, Choi-Williams distribution shape indices) are measured. An attribute vector is then used to discriminate among different species of beaked whales present in the Gulf of Mexico and Risso's dolphins which were recognized to mask the detections of beaked whales in the case of widely used energy-band detectors. The detector is applied to the PAM data collected by the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center to estimate abundance trends of beaked whales in the vicinity of the 2010 oil spill before and after the disaster. This algorithm will allow automated processing with minimal operator involvement for new and archival PAM data. [The research is supported by a BP/GOMRI 2015-2017 consortium grant.

  12. Identification of highly brominated analogues of Q1 in marine mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuten, Emma L. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: emma.teuten@plymouth.ac.uk; Pedler, Byron E. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: bpedler@whoi.edu; Hangsterfer, Alexandra N. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: ahangsterfer@whoi.edu; Reddy, Christopher M. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: creddy@whoi.edu

    2006-11-15

    Three novel halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal New England with the molecular formulae C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl, C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 7}, and C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl. They were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of Q1, a heptachlorinated HOC suspected to be naturally produced. These compounds were found in Atlantic white sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and a potential food source (Loligo pealei) with concentrations as high as 2.7 {mu}g/g (lipid weight). The regiospecificity of C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl is suggestive of a biogenic origin. Debromination of C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl may be significant in the formation of C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl. - Three novel bioaccumulated compounds were identified as C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl, C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 7} and C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl.

  13. Lifespan mercury accumulation pattern in Liza aurata : Evidence from two southern European estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, S.; Oliveira, H.; Coelho, J. P.; Pereira, M. E.; Duarte, A. C.; Pardal, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    Mercury accumulation throughout the lifespan of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810) was analysed in four tissues (muscle, gills, liver and brain) in two southern European coastal ecosystems with distinct mercury contamination. Specimens from four to five age classes were captured in two sampling sites in the Ria de Aveiro (Laranjo bay and Mira), a system historically contaminated by industrial mercury, and in one site in the Mondego estuary, assumed as a mercury-free ecosystem. Mercury concentration in all tissues was found to be significantly higher in the Ria de Aveiro (Laranjo bay) compared to the Mondego, in accordance with the environmental contamination (water, sediments and suspended particulate matter). Significant differences inside the Ria de Aveiro (between the Mira and Laranjo bay) were only detected in the liver. This tissue registered the highest levels of mercury (ranging from 0.11 to 4.2 μg g -1 ) in all sampling sites, followed by muscle, brain, and gills. In all sampling sites and tissues was denoted a mercury dilution pattern along the lifecycle (except in liver at the Mondego, the reference area where the concentrations are always very low). An exponential trend was found in the metal age variation patterns in Laranjo (the most contaminated area) and a linear trend in the Mira and the Mondego (the least contaminated areas). Organic mercury concentration in muscle generally accounted for over 95% of total mercury concentration, and followed the same accumulation pattern of total mercury. This fish species is of lesser importance in mercury transfer to adjacent coastal areas and although the consumption of fish from Laranjo may present some risk for the humans, this risk decreases with fish age/size.

  14. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  15. Especificidade alimentar: em busca de um caráter taxonômico para a diferenciação de duas espécies crípticas de cochonilhas do gênero Planococcus (Hemíptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Viana de Sousa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar uma possível especificidade alimentar de duas espécies crípticas de cochonilhas do gênero Planococcus, refletida em seu desenvolvimento em frutos de cacaueiro, cafeeiro e citros. A cochonilha Planococcus minor (Maskell, obtida de frutos de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. cv. Comum, e Planococcus citri (Risso, de lavoura de café (Coffea arabica L. cv. Mundo Novo e de mudas de citros (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cv. Bahia, foram criadas em abóboras (Cucurbita maxima L., em laboratório. Rosetas com frutos de café foram mantidas sobre uma lâmina de 5 mm de ágar-água em placas de Petri, vedadas com filme plástico de polietileno. Em frutos de citros e cacau foram utilizadas gaiolas plásticas cilíndricas (1,5 cm x 3,0 cm, vedadas com voile na parte superior, as quais foram fixadas nos frutos por meio de um elástico. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos em câmaras climatizadas a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se de 30 repetições. Para as cochonilhas provenientes de cafeeiro, o substrato café proporcionou o maior período ninfal de fêmeas (20,8 dias e maior longevidade (31,7 dias. Para fêmeas oriundas de cacau, o substrato cacau promoveu o menor período ninfal (21,1 dias e maior longevidade (25,0 dias. Para aquelas oriundas de citros, o substrato cacau promoveu o menor período ninfal (18,4 dias, e o substrato citros, a maior longevidade (32,0 dias. As maiores porcentagens de mortalidade (50% foram obtidas das ninfas oriundas de frutos de cacau e citros, criadas em café e cacau, e as menores foram das ninfas oriundas de frutos de café, independentemente do substrato em que foram criadas. A cochonilha P. minor mostra uma associação mais estreita com o cacau e, eventualmente, café, em relação ao citros, o que explicaria sua maior ocorrência em cacau. No entanto, P. citri não evidencia nenhuma especificidade para os três substratos testados.

  16. Antalya İlinde Portakal Bahçelerinde Gözlenen Önemli Zararlı ve Yararlı Böcek Popülasyonları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan GÖL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, 2014 yılında, Antalya ilinde bulunan iki portakal bahçesinde önemli zararlı ve yararlı böcek popülasyonları belirlenmiştir. Bahçelerde ağırlıklı olarak portakal bulunması nedeniyle örneklemeler de bu tür üzerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışma süresince zararlılara karşı herhangi bir mücadele yöntemi uygulanmamıştır. Çalışmada örneklerin toplanması için gözle kontrol yöntemi, yaprak, sürgün, meyve örnekleme yöntemi, darbe ve tuzakla yakalama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda zararlı türler olarak Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae, Empoasca decipiens (Paoli, Asymmetrasca decedens (Paoli (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell (Hem.: Aleyrodidae, Aphis craccivora (Koch (Hem.: Aphididae, Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hem.: Margarodidae, Coccus hesperidum (Linnaeus, Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock (Hem.: Coccidae, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, Aonidiella citrina (Coquillet, Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock (Hem.: Diaspididae, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hem.: Pseudococcidae, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae ve Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae saptanmıştır. Bunlardan E. decipiens (Paoli, A. decedens (Paoli, A. floccosus (Maskell, A. aurantii (Maskell ve Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock en yaygın türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca 2 takıma bağlı 7 avcı ve asalak tür saptanmıştır. Bu türler: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Coccinella septempunctata L., Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Rhyzobius lophantae (Blaisdell, Oenopia conglobata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Aphytis melinus DeBach ve Comperiella bifasciata (Coleoptera: Aphelinidae’ dır. Çalışmada ayrıca zararlı iki cicadellid türü ile A. floccosus, A. aurantii, P. pergandii, C. capitata‘nın ve doğal düşmanlardan C. carnea’nın, coccinellidlerin, A. melinus ve E. citrina

  17. Evidências científicas para a indicação popular de algumas espécies da família Rutaceae no tratamento de doenças respiratórias na região Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Correia Campello PRUDENTE, Regina Braga de MOURA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas medicinais como forma de tratamento vem sendo bastante empregada pela população brasileira, sendo a maioria através do uso empírico. Diversas patologias têm sido tratadas através da utilização popular de plantas medicinais, sendo uma das principais as doenças do trato respiratório. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar se existem evidências científicas para o uso popular das espécies de Rutaceae: Citrusaurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle, Citrus aurantiumL., Citrus limonum Risso, Citrus medica L., Citrussinensis Osbeck e Ruta graveolens L. na regiãoSudeste, para problemas respiratórios. Foram considerados artigos sobre estudos farmacológicos envolvendo doenças respiratórias, assim como sobre a ação anti-inflamatória e anti-bacteriana das espécies. A revisão mostrou que a presença de flavonóides, hidrocarbonetos terpênicos e monoterpênicos nos extratos e nos óleos essenciais dessas plantas causam um efeito anti-inflamatório, através da inibição de mediadores pró-inflamatórios iNOS e COX-2; e atividade anti-bacteriana, analisada por meio do método de difusão em disco. O trabalho mostrou que apesar do intenso uso da população da região Sudeste do Brasil de espécies medicinais da família Rutaceae para tratamento de doenças do trato respiratório, ainda existem poucos estudos que evidenciem cientificamente as ações farmacológicas, justificando assim a grande necessidade de estudos clínicos para tratamentos feitos com a utilização das espécies estudadas.

  18. Mercury speciation and selenium in toothed-whale muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi, E-mail: sakamoto@nimd.go.jp [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Hama 4058-18, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan); Itai, Takaaki [Ehime University, Bunkyo 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8755 (Japan); Yasutake, Akira [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Hama 4058-18, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshihide [Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute, 25-259 Shimomekurakubo, Aomori 031-0841 (Japan); Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro [Institute of Cetacean Research, 4-5 Toyomi, Tokyo 104-0055 (Japan); Nakamura, Masaaki [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Hama 4058-18, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan); Murata, Katsuyuki [Akita University School of Medicine, Hondo 1-1-1, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Man Chan, Hing [University of Ottawa, Marie-Curie, Ottawa, ON, Canada KIN 6N5 (Canada); Domingo, José L. [School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat “Rovira i Virgili”, Reus (Spain); Marumoto, Masumi [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Hama 4058-18, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Mercury accumulates at high levels in marine mammal tissues. However, its speciation is poorly understood. The main goal of this investigation was to establish the relationships among mercury species and selenium (Se) concentrations in toothed-whale muscles at different mercury levels. The concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (I-Hg) and Se were determined in the muscles of four toothed-whale species: bottlenose dolphins (n=31), Risso's dolphins (n=30), striped dolphins (n=29), and short-finned pilot whales (n=30). In each species, the MeHg concentration increased with increasing T-Hg concentration, tending to reach a plateau. In contrast, the proportion of MeHg in T-Hg decreased from 90–100% to 20–40%. The levels of T-Hg and Se showed strong positive correlations. Se/I-Hg molar ratios rapidly decreased with the increase of I-Hg and reached almost 1 in all species. These results suggested that the demethylated MeHg immediately formed Se/I-Hg equimolar complex of mercury selenide (HgSe) in their muscles. In addition, an X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (XAFS) of a bottlenose dolphin muscle confirmed that the dominant chemical form of the Se/I-Hg equimolar complex was HgSe. HgSe was mainly localized in cells near the endomysium using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). These results suggested that the demethylated MeHg finally deposits within muscle cells of bottlenose dolphin as an inert HgSe. - Highlights: • T-Hg, MeHg, I-Hg and Se were determined in the muscles of four toothed-whales. • MeHg increased with increasing T-Hg and tended to reach a plateau in all species. • Se/I-Hg molar ratios rapidly decreased with increase of I-Hg and reached almost 1. • XAFS of bottlenose dolphin muscle confirmed that HgSe was dominant chemical form. • EPMA of bottlenose dolphin muscle showed that HgSe deposited in muscle cells.

  19. Mercury speciation and selenium in toothed-whale muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Itai, Takaaki; Yasutake, Akira; Iwasaki, Toshihide; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Masaaki; Murata, Katsuyuki; Man Chan, Hing; Domingo, José L.; Marumoto, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Mercury accumulates at high levels in marine mammal tissues. However, its speciation is poorly understood. The main goal of this investigation was to establish the relationships among mercury species and selenium (Se) concentrations in toothed-whale muscles at different mercury levels. The concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (I-Hg) and Se were determined in the muscles of four toothed-whale species: bottlenose dolphins (n=31), Risso's dolphins (n=30), striped dolphins (n=29), and short-finned pilot whales (n=30). In each species, the MeHg concentration increased with increasing T-Hg concentration, tending to reach a plateau. In contrast, the proportion of MeHg in T-Hg decreased from 90–100% to 20–40%. The levels of T-Hg and Se showed strong positive correlations. Se/I-Hg molar ratios rapidly decreased with the increase of I-Hg and reached almost 1 in all species. These results suggested that the demethylated MeHg immediately formed Se/I-Hg equimolar complex of mercury selenide (HgSe) in their muscles. In addition, an X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (XAFS) of a bottlenose dolphin muscle confirmed that the dominant chemical form of the Se/I-Hg equimolar complex was HgSe. HgSe was mainly localized in cells near the endomysium using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). These results suggested that the demethylated MeHg finally deposits within muscle cells of bottlenose dolphin as an inert HgSe. - Highlights: • T-Hg, MeHg, I-Hg and Se were determined in the muscles of four toothed-whales. • MeHg increased with increasing T-Hg and tended to reach a plateau in all species. • Se/I-Hg molar ratios rapidly decreased with increase of I-Hg and reached almost 1. • XAFS of bottlenose dolphin muscle confirmed that HgSe was dominant chemical form. • EPMA of bottlenose dolphin muscle showed that HgSe deposited in muscle cells.

  20. By the Light of the Moon: North Pacific Dolphins Optimize Foraging with the Lunar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Anne Elizabeth

    The influence of the lunar cycle on dolphin foraging behavior was investigated in the productive, southern California Current Ecosystem and the oligotrophic Hawaiian Archipelago. Passive acoustic recordings from 2009 to 2015 were analyzed to document the presence of echolocation from four dolphin species that demonstrate distinct foraging preferences and diving abilities. Visual observations of dolphins, cloud coverage, commercial landings of market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) and acoustic backscatter of fish were also considered in the Southern California Bight. The temporal variability of echolocation is described from daily to annual timescales, with emphasis on the lunar cycle as an established behavioral driver for potential dolphin prey. For dolphins that foraged at night, the presence of echolocation was reduced during nights of the full moon and during times of night that the moon was present in the night sky. In the Southern California Bight, echolocation activity was reduced for both shallow- diving common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and deeper-diving Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) during times of increased illumination. Seasonal differences in acoustic behavior for both species suggest a geographic shift in dolphin populations, shoaling scattering layers or prey switching behavior during warm months, whereby dolphins target prey that do not vertically migrate. In the Hawaiian Archipelago, deep-diving short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and shallow-diving false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) also showed reduced echolocation behavior during periods of increased lunar illumination. In contrast to nocturnal foraging in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, false killer whales in the main Hawaiian Islands mainly foraged during the day and the lunar cycle showed little influence on their nocturnal acoustic behavior. Different temporal patterns in false killer whale acoustic behavior between the main and northwestern Hawaiian

  1. Empirical testing of Kotler's high-performance factors to increase sales growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Dayan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and/or objectives: The primary objective of this study is to empirically test Kotler's (2003 high-performance model which ensures an increase in sales growth. More specifically, the study explores the influence of process variables (as measured by marketing strategies, resources management (as measured by the management of labour, materials, machines, information technology and energy and organisational variables (as measured by TQM and organisational culture on sales growth in the food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing industries. Problem investigated Various research studies suggest that the managers of firms are continuously challenged in their attempts to increase their sales (Morre, 2007; Pauwels, Silva Risso, Srinivasan & Hanssens, 2004: 142-143; Gray & Hayes, 2007: 1. Kotler (2003 suggests a model that leads to a high performing business. The question is posed as to whether this model can be used to increase sales growth in all businesses. This study seeks to develop a generic model to increase sales growth across industries by using an adapted version of Kotler's (2003 high-performance model. The study investigates the application of this adapted model on the food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing industries. Design and/or methodology and/or approach: An empirical causal research design that includes 770 marketing and product development practitioners from multinational food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing firms, was used in this study. A response rate of 76.1% was achieved as only 571 useable questionnaires were returned. The internal reliability and discriminant validity of the measuring instrument were assessed by the calculation of Cronbach alpha coefficients and the conducting an exploratory factor analysis respectively. Structural Equation Modelling SEM was used to statistically test the relationships between the independent variables (marketing strategies, resource management, TQM and

  2. Role of D-Limonene in Autophagy Induced by Bergamot Essential Oil in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Rossella; Cassiano, Maria Gilda Valentina; Ciociaro, Antonella; Adornetto, Annagrazia; Varano, Giuseppe Pasquale; Chiappini, Carlotta; Berliocchi, Laura; Tassorelli, Cristina; Bagetta, Giacinto; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso et Poiteau) essential oil (BEO) is a well characterized, widely used plant extract. BEO exerts anxiolytic, analgesic and neuroprotective activities in rodents through mechanisms that are only partly known and need to be further investigated. To gain more insight into the biological effects of this essential oil, we tested the ability of BEO (0.005–0.03%) to modulate autophagic pathways in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. BEO-treated cells show increased LC3II levels and appearance of dot-like formations of endogenous LC3 protein that colocalize with the lysosome marker LAMP-1. Autophagic flux assay using bafilomycin A1 and degradation of the specific autophagy substrate p62 confirmed that the observed increase of LC3II levels in BEO-exposed cells is due to autophagy induction rather than to a decreased autophagosomal turnover. Induction of autophagy is an early and not cell-line specific response to BEO. Beside basal autophagy, BEO also enhanced autophagy triggered by serum starvation and rapamycin indicating that the underlying mechanism is mTOR independent. Accordingly, BEO did not affect the phosphorylation of ULK1 (Ser757) and p70S6K (Thr389), two downstream targets of mTOR. Furthermore, induction of autophagy by BEO is beclin-1 independent, occurs in a concentration-dependent manner and is unrelated to the ability of BEO to induce cell death. In order to identify the active constituents responsible for these effects, the two most abundant monoterpenes found in the essential oil, d-limonene (125–750 µM) and linalyl acetate (62.5–375 µM), were individually tested at concentrations comparable to those found in 0.005–0.03% BEO. The same features of stimulated autophagy elicited by BEO were reproduced by d-limonene, which rapidly increases LC3II and reduces p62 levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Linalyl acetate was ineffective in replicating BEO effects; however, it greatly enhanced LC3 lipidation triggered by d

  3. Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: Implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Donovan, Greg; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Vázquez, José Antonio; Burt, Louise

    2017-07-01

    Systematic, effective monitoring of animal population parameters underpins successful conservation strategy and wildlife management, but it is often neglected in many regions, including much of the Mediterranean Sea. Nonetheless, a series of systematic multispecies aerial surveys was carried out in the seas around Italy to gather important baseline information on cetacean occurrence, distribution and abundance. The monitored areas included the Pelagos Sanctuary, the Tyrrhenian Sea, portions of the Seas of Corsica and Sardinia, the Ionian Seas as well as the Gulf of Taranto. Overall, approximately 48,000 km were flown in either spring, summer and winter between 2009-2014, covering an area of 444,621 km2. The most commonly observed species were the striped dolphin and the fin whale, with 975 and 83 recorded sightings, respectively. Other sighted cetacean species were the common bottlenose dolphin, the Risso's dolphin, the sperm whale, the pilot whale and the Cuvier's beaked whale. Uncorrected model- and design-based estimates of density and abundance for striped dolphins and fin whales were produced, resulting in a best estimate (model-based) of around 95,000 striped dolphins (CV=11.6%; 95% CI=92,900-120,300) occurring in the Pelagos Sanctuary, Central Tyrrhenian and Western Seas of Corsica and Sardinia combined area in summer 2010. Estimates were also obtained for each individual study region and year. An initial attempt to estimate perception bias for striped dolphins is also provided. The preferred summer 2010 uncorrected best estimate (design-based) for the same areas for fin whales was around 665 (CV=33.1%; 95% CI=350-1260). Estimates are also provided for the individual study regions and years. The results represent baseline data to develop efficient, long-term, systematic monitoring programmes, essential to evaluate trends, as required by a number of national and international frameworks, and stress the need to ensure that surveys are undertaken regularly and

  4. Vesta and low gravity impact mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Martin; Nathues, Andreas; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Sierks, Holger

    2013-04-01

    impacts into granular material lead to anything but a simple crater morphology. Unusual scaling laws (Uehara et al. 2003) and much more diverse phase patterns than in ordinary solid media have to be taken into account, if a consistent interpretation of the formation of a crater in very deep regolith is attempted (e.g. Opsomer et al. 2011). Additional effects are due to the low gravity environment on a small planetary body like Vesta (Tancredi et al. 2012). On Vesta many apparent counterparts to the results of the experiments can be found, as demonstrated by some examples. On a global scale, the multitude of small, unresolved primary and secondary impacts into the granular regolith contributes to the observed maturity on Vesta even after short time scales. References Cook, M. A., Mortensen, K. S. 1967. Impact cratering in granular materials. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5125-5128. Daniels, K. E., Coppock, J. E., Behringer, R. P. 2004. Dynamics of meteor impacts. Chaos 14, 84. Daraio, C., Nesterenko, V. F., Herbold, E. B., Jin S. 2006. Energy trapping and shock desintegration in a composite granular medium. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 058002, 1-4. Opsomer, E., Ludewig, F., Vandewalle, N. 2011. Phase transitions in vibrated granular systems in microgravity. Phys. Rev. E84, 051306, 1-5. Rivas, N., Ponce, S., Gellet, B., Risso, D., Soto, R., Cordero, P. 2011. Sudden chain energy transfer events in vibrated granular media. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 088001, 1-4. Tancredi, G., Maciel, A., Heredia, L., Richeri, P., Nesmachnow, S. 2012. Granular physics in low-gravity environments using discrete element method. Monthly Not. Royal Astron. Soc. 420, 3368-3380. Uehara, J. S., Ambroso, M. A., Ojha, R. J., Durian, D. J. 2003. Low-speed impact craters in loose granular media. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 194301, 1-4.

  5. Studying, the Insecticidal Effects of Melia azedarach and Citrus limonum Extracts on Two Aphid Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam Pahlavan Yali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is the most principal plant food for 35 percent of the world's population, and canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important brassicaceous crops that play a major role in the development of edible oil. The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani and cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L. are the main pests of wheat and canola, respectively, which can considerably limit profitable production of these crops either through direct feeding or via transmission of plant pathogenic viruses. Although chemical control is the most effective and easiest way to control aphids, but this method causes problems such as pesticide residues in food and environment, and development of resistance to insecticides. The utilization of plant extracts is an environmentally safe method that can be used in control of these aphids. Among these, the products of the Melia seed (Melia azedarach Linnaeus and lemon peel (Citrus limonum Risso can be noted. Negative associations between phenolic compounds present in plant species and aphid’s invasion have been recorded for some aphid species. In this study, our goal was to determine the amount of phenol in plant extracts of Melia seed and lemon peel and evaluate the toxicity of these compounds on the wheat aphid and cabbage aphid in various doses after different time periods. Materials and methods: This research was conducted in a growth chamber (temperature 25 ± 1˚C, 65± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D. S. graminum and B. brassicae were bred on wheat (Pishtaz cultivar and canola (Hyola401 cultivar, respectively. The extraction of Melia seed and lemon peel was carried out and then contact toxicity bioassay was done to evaluate the insecticidal effects of these extracts on nymphs of wheat and cabbage aphids using a completely randomized design. The leaves of wheat and canola plants, impregnated with three different concentrations of each extract (10, 50 and 80 g/ml and

  6. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Bordoli, Dra.

    2017-12-01

    transmisión, la epimeleia heautou en clase”. El autor a partir de la recuperación de las nociones foucaultianas de epimeleia heautou y parrhesia analiza críticamente la inclusión de algunos conceptos freudianos en los programas de Formación Docente en Uruguay. El artículo de Mora, “Pensando las luchas como campo de saber”, es un ensayo que se inscribe en un enfoque de la cultura corporal para abordar las interrelaciones que se producen entre las ciencias del deporte, la Educación Física y las luchas. Esta sección se cierra con el texto de Jorge Rettich, “Didáctica y experiencia en la Modernidad: una relación a partir de la instrumentalización del lenguaje”. El autor ubica al lenguaje como un instrumento de la didáctica y la experiencia con el objetivo de discutir una posible reconfiguración de la enseñanza. En la sección de nota de investigación se encuentra el trabajo de Andrés Risso, “La formación en enseñanza, una mirada a partir de las teorías pedagógicas”. Desde una perspectiva teórica de la enseñanza, se presenta un avance exploratorio en torno a los vínculos que se operan entre la formación de quienes enseñan y las teorías pedagógicas. Finalmente, la nota de investigación de Croci, “Entre el saber diagnóstico y el no saber del maestro ignorante: una experiencia”, presenta algunos de los hallazgos de una investigación etnográfica en un liceo de la zona metropolitana. Específicamente, analiza - desde los aportes críticos de Foucault y de Rancière - la experiencia de un estudiante con diagnóstico de “dificultades de aprendizaje” en un taller de escritura de invención en la asignatura de Literatura. En la sección de reseñas se presentan dos libros. Pablo Martinis refiere a la producción de Eloísa Bordoli, “La construcción de la relación pedagógica en la escuela uruguaya. Sujetos, saber y gobierno de los niños”, publicado por la FHCE en  2015. El libro recoge una investigación de la autora en torno

  7. Selected Abstracts of the 19th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP; Naples (Italy; January 19-21, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    , T. Palmieri, R. Iazzetta, G. Nazzaro, M. Miranda, M. LocciABS 49. PLACENTAL DISORDERS IN EARLY PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES (pPROM. INFLAMMATORY OR VASCULAR DISEASE? • A. Pizzardi, A. Locatelli, S. Cuttin, T. Fedeli, G. Kullman, F. Pescatore, P. VerganiABS 50. EVALUATION OF THE QUANTITATIVE FETAL FIBRONECTIN TEST AND PARTOSURE™ (PLACENTAL ALPHA MICROGLOBULIN-1 [PAMG-1] FOR THE PREDICTION OF SPONTANEOUS PRETERM BIRTH (SPTB IN PATIENTS WITH SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SUGGESTIVE OF PRETERM LABOR • M. Ravi, M. Beljorie, K. EL MasryABS 51. THE ROLE OF PARTOSURE™ TEST IN PREDICTING IMMINENT PRETERM BIRTH • E. Salzano, G. Nazzaro, M. Miranda, T. Palmieri, R. Iazzetta, M. LocciABS 52. PRETERM BEHAVIORAL EPIGENETICS: SLC6A4 METHYLATION AND SOCIO-EMOTIONAL STRESS REGULATION IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS • L. Provenzi, M. Fumagalli, R. Giorda, U. Pozzoli, F. Morandi, S. Beri, I. Sirgiovanni, G. Menozzi, F. Mosca, R. Montirosso, R. BorgattiABS 53. SAFETY OF LUMBAR PUNCTURE IN EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (ELBW INFANTS: INSIGHTS FROM A SINGLE ITALIAN NICU CENTER • F.M. Risso, E. Castagnola, R. Bandettini, C. Bellini, L. Pagani, L.A. RamenghiABS 54. ANNULAR PANCREAS AS A RARE CAUSE OF DUODENAL ATRESIA • S. Cornacchione, M. Tei, C. Fommei, S. Negro, R. Angotti, E. Bindi, F. Molinaro, M. Messina, M. Torricelli, F.M. Severi, B. TomasiniABS 55. CONGENITAL HEPATIC ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATION BREAKING OUT PERSISTENT PULMONARY HYPERTENSION • C. Fommei, S. Cornacchione, M. Tei, S. Negro, S. Cecchi, S. Zani, M.A. Centra, B. TomasiniABS 56. TRANSPORT OF HIGH RISK NEONATES IN THE SOUTH–EAST AREA OF TUSCANY • M. Tei, S. Cornacchione, C. Fommei, S. Cecchi, S. Negro, S. Bertrando, G. Stazzoni, S. Zani, B. TomasiniABS 57. α-LIPOIC ACID AS MAINTENANCE THERAPY IN PATIENTS TREATED FOR PRETERM BIRTH • E. Salzano, R. Iazzetta, T. Palmieri, G. Nazzaro, M. Miranda, M. LocciABS 58. FACTORS RELATED TO PERINATAL AND NEONATAL OUTCOMES OF LATE PRETERM (LP BABIES: A MULTICENTER