WorldWideScience

Sample records for argon 37 target

  1. Preparation of a primary argon beam for the CERN fixed target physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, D; O'Neil, M; Scrivens, R; Thomae, R

    2014-02-01

    The fixed target experiment NA61 in the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron is studying phase transitions in strongly interacting matter. Up to now they used the primary beams available from the CERN accelerator complex (protons and lead ions) or fragmented beams created from the primary lead ion beam. To explore a wider range of energies and densities a request was made to provide primary argon and xenon beams. This paper describes the results of the setting up and 10 week test run of the Ar(11+) beam from the 14.5 GHz ECR ion source and the linear accelerator (Linac3) at CERN.

  2. Percutaneous targeted argon-helium cryoablation for renal carcinoma under CT guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish initially the technique and evaluate the principle, safety and short term efficacy of argon-helium superconductor operation system (or Ar-He knife) targeted cryotherapy for renal carcinoma. Methods: Seven patients with renal carcinoma were treated with CT-guided percutaneous Ar-He knife targeted cryotherapy. Results: After cryotherapy, no serious complications, such as bleeding, skin cold injury, infection, implantation metastasis inside the puncture path occurred, and one month later, CT scans showed low-density local necrosis in all tumors of the 7 cases, but the tumor reduction in size was found only in 2 cases. Conclusion: CT guiding percutaneous Ar-He knife targeted cryoablation for renal carcinoma is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic method, particularly for inoperable cases. (authors)

  3. Demonstration of a neonlike argon soft-x-ray laser with a picosecond-laser-irradiated gas puff target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Dunn, J; Smith, R F; Hunter, J; Nilsen, J; Osterheld, A L; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2001-09-15

    We demonstrate a neonlike argon-ion x-ray laser, using a short-pulse laser-irradiated gas puff target. The gas puff target was formed by pulsed injection of gas from a high-pressure solenoid valve through a nozzle in the form of a narrow slit and irradiated with a combination of long, 600-ps and short, 6-ps high-power laser pulses with a total of 10 J of energy in a traveling-wave excitation scheme. Lasing was observed on the 3p (1)S(0)?3s (1)P(1) transition at 46.9 nm and the 3d (1)P(1)?3p (1)P(1) transition at 45.1 nm. A gain of 11 cm(-1) was measured on these transitions for targets up to 0.9 cm long. PMID:18049619

  4. Depleted Argon from Underground Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however 39Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in 39Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO2 well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO2. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N2, and He mixture, from the CO2 through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N2 and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO2 facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

  5. Status of ArDM-1t: First observations from operation with a full ton-scale liquid argon target

    CERN Document Server

    Calvo, J; Daniel, M; Degunda, U; Di Luise, S; Epprecht, L; Gendotti, A; Horikawa, S; Knecht, L; Montes, B; Mu, W; Munoz, M; Murphy, S; Natterer, G; Nguyen, K; Nikolics, K; Periale, L; Regenfus, C; Romero, L; Rubbia, A; Santorelli, R; Sergiampietri, F; Sgalaberna, D; Viant, T; Wu, S

    2015-01-01

    ArDM-1t is the first operating ton-scale liquid argon detector for direct search of Dark Matter particles. Developed at CERN as Recognized Experiment RE18, the experiment has been approved in 2010 to be installed in the Spanish underground site LSC (Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc). Under the label of LSC EXP-08-2010 the ArDM detector underwent an intensive period of technical completion and safety approval until the recent filling of the target vessel with almost 2 ton of liquid argon. This report describes the experimental achievements during commissioning of ArDM and the transition into a stage of first physics data taking in single phase operational mode. We present preliminary observations from this run. A first indication for the background discrimination power of LAr detectors at the ton-scale is shown. We present an outlook for completing the detector with the electric drift field and upgrade of the scintillation light readout system with novel detector modules based on SiPMs in order to improve t...

  6. Boswellic acids target the human immune system-modulating antimicrobial peptide LL-37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Arne; Tausch, Lars; Pillong, Max; Jauch, Johann; Karas, Michael; Schneider, Gisbert; Werz, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is the sole member of the human cathelicidin family with immune system-modulating properties and roles in autoimmune disease development. Small molecules able to interact with LL-37 and to modulate its functions have not been described yet. Boswellic acids (BAs) are pentacyclic triterpene acids that are bioactive principles of frankincense extracts used as anti-inflammatory remedies. Although various anti-inflammatory modes of action have been proposed for BAs, the pharmacological profile of these compounds is still incompletely understood. Here, we describe the identification of human LL-37 as functional target of BAs. In unbiased target fishing experiments using immobilized BAs as bait and human neutrophils as target source, LL-37 was identified as binding partner assisted by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Thermal stability experiments using circular dichroism spectroscopy confirm direct interaction between BAs and LL-37. Of interest, this binding of BAs resulted in an inhibition of the functionality of LL-37. Thus, the LPS-neutralizing properties of isolated LL-37 were inhibited by 3-O-acetyl-β-BA (Aβ-BA) and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-BA (AKβ-BA) in a cell-free limulus amoebocyte lysate assay with EC50=0.2 and 0.8 μM, respectively. Also, LL-37 activity was inhibited by these BAs in LL-37-enriched supernatants of stimulated neutrophils or human plasma derived from stimulated human whole blood. Together, we reveal BAs as inhibitors of LL-37, which might be a relevant mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of BAs and suggests BAs as suitable chemical tools or potential agents for intervention with LL-37 and related disorders. PMID:26361729

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: In Silico Drug Targets Identification by Metabolic Pathways Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Amir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is a pathogenic bacteria species in the genus Mycobacterium and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB is the leading cause of death in the world from a bacterial infectious disease. This antibiotic resistance strain lead to development of the new antibiotics or drug molecules which can kill or suppress the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We have performed an in silico comparative analysis of metabolic pathways of the host Homo sapiens and the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv. Novel efforts in developing drugs that target the intracellular metabolism of M. tuberculosis often focus on metabolic pathways that are specific to M. tuberculosis. We have identified five unique pathways for Mycobacterium tuberculosis having a number of 60 enzymes, which are nonhomologous to Homo sapiens protein sequences, and among them there were 55 enzymes, which are nonhomologous to Homo sapiens protein sequences. These enzymes were also found to be essential for survival of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis according to the DEG database. Further, the functional analysis using Uniprot showed involvement of all the unique enzymes in the different cellular components.

  8. Identification of a DYRK1A Inhibitor that Induces Degradation of the Target Kinase using Co-chaperone CDC37 fused with Luciferase nanoKAZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonamoto, Rie; Kii, Isao; Koike, Yuka; Sumida, Yuto; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Okuno, Yukiko; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase family includes attractive targets for drug development. Methods for screening of kinase inhibitors remain largely limited to in vitro catalytic assays. It has been shown that ATP-competitive inhibitors antagonize interaction between the target kinase and kinase-specific co-chaperone CDC37 in living cells. Here we show a cell-based method to screen kinase inhibitors using fusion protein of CDC37 with a mutated catalytic 19-kDa component of Oplophorus luciferase, nanoKAZ (CDC37-nanoKAZ). A dual-specificity kinase DYRK1A, an importance of which has been highlighted in Alzheimer's disease, was targeted in this study. We established 293T cells stably expressing CDC37-nanoKAZ, and analyzed interaction between CDC37-nanoKAZ and DYRK1A. We revealed that DYRK1A interacted with CDC37-nanoKAZ. Importantly, point mutations that affect autophosphorylation strengthened the interaction, thus improving signal/noise ratio of the interaction relative to non-specific binding of CDC37-nanoKAZ. This high signal/noise ratio enabled screening of chemical library that resulted in identification of a potent inhibitor of DYRK1A, named CaNDY. CaNDY induced selective degradation of DYRK1A, and inhibited catalytic activity of recombinant DYRK1A with IC50 value of 7.9 nM by competing with ATP. This method based on a mutant target kinase and a bioluminescence-eliciting co-chaperone CDC37 could be applicable to evaluation and development of inhibitors targeting other kinases. PMID:26234946

  9. Structural Bioinformatics and Protein Docking Analysis of the Molecular Chaperone-Kinase Interactions: Towards Allosteric Inhibition of Protein Kinases by Targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Verkhivker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental role of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone system in mediating maturation of protein kinase clients and supporting kinase functional activity is essential for the integrity and viability of signaling pathways involved in cell cycle control and organism development. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, the molecular mechanisms and guiding principles of kinase recruitment to the chaperone system are lacking quantitative characterization. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with protein kinase clients by modern experimental techniques is highly challenging, owing to a transient nature of chaperone-mediated interactions. In this work, we used experimentally-guided protein docking to probe the allosteric nature of the Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4 kinase clients. The results of docking simulations suggest that the kinase recognition and recruitment to the chaperone system may be primarily determined by Cdc37 targeting of the N-terminal kinase lobe. The interactions of Hsp90 with the C-terminal kinase lobe may provide additional “molecular brakes” that can lock (or unlock kinase from the system during client loading (release stages. The results of this study support a central role of the Cdc37 chaperone in recognition and recruitment of the kinase clients. Structural analysis may have useful implications in developing strategies for allosteric inhibition of protein kinases by targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone machinery.

  10. Investigation of mechanisms of production of argon, krypton and xenon isotopes formed in heavy targets by protons with an energy ranging from 0.15 to 24 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As experimental results of the investigation of interactions between high-energy protons and nucleus generally lead to the distinction between four types of reaction mechanisms (spallation, fission, fragmentation and isotope production), this research thesis reports the study of this mechanisms by using the so-called 'thick target - thick collector' experiment and by studying the production of various isotopes of rare gases (argon, krypton, xenon). These isotopes are produced by using platinum, gold, bismuth and thorium targets bombarded by protons with an energy ranging from 0.15 to 24 GeV. The author presents the experimental methods (target preparation and irradiation, rare gas analysis system), reports the analysis of thick target - thick-collector experiments (vector-based representation, path determination, path-curve energy, corrections of experimental data, excitation energy of the intermediate nucleus), presents the experimental results, and discusses their interpretation (two-stage model of high energy nuclear reactions, isotopes produced by spallation and by fission, isotopes produced by deep spallation, representations of mechanisms of fragmentation and deep spallation)

  11. Argon in action

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few days, the SPS has been accelerating argon ions, which have started to be sent to the NA61/SHINE experiment. This operating mode, using a new type of ion, required a number of modifications to the accelerator.   Picture 1: a “super-cycle” of the SPS, featuring a proton cycle for the LHC, followed by an argon ion cycle for the North Area. Today, the accelerators are once again juggling particles and even performing completely new tricks. The SPS is supplying beams of argon ions for the first time, at energies never before achieved for this type of beam. They are destined for the NA61/SHINE experiment (see box) located in the North Area, which began receiving the beams on 11 February. Argon ions have a relatively large mass, as they consist of 40 nucleons, so they can be used in a similar way to lead ions. The main difficulty in accelerating them lies in the SPS, where the variation in acceleration frequency is limited. “The SPS was designed for a...

  12. Thermophysical properties of argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A.

    1988-02-01

    The entire report consists of tables of thermodynamic properties (including sound velocity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, Prandtl number, density) of argon at 86 to 400/degree/K, in the form of isobars over 0.9 to 100 bars. (DLC)

  13. Second-Order Born Effect in Single Ionization of Argon by Electron Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang; ZHOU Ya-Jun; JIAO Li-Guang

    2012-01-01

    We extend the standard distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) to include the second-order Born amplitude in order to describe the multiple interactions between a projectile and an atomic target. Both the first- and second-order DWBA models are used to calculate triply differential cross sections (TDCS) of coplanar (e,2e) on atomic argon with the scattered electron energy fixed at 500 eV, the scattering angle at 6° and the ejected electron energies at 37, 74 and 205 eV. Overall agreements with experimental measurements have been obtained in shape, and the second-order DWBA model improves the calculations as expected, especially for recoil peak of TDCS.%We extend the standard distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA ) to include the second-order Born amplitude in order to describe the multiple interactions between a projectile and an atomic target.Both the first- and secondorder DWBA models are used to calculate triply differential cross sections (TDCS) of coplanar (e,2e) on atomic argon with the scattered electron energy fixed at 500eV,the scattering angle at 6° and the ejected electron energies at 37,74 and 205 e V.Overall agreements with experimental measurements have been obtained in shape,and the second-order DWBA model improves the calculations as expected,especially for recoil peak of TDCS.

  14. Liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G

    2001-01-01

    The liquid argon imaging technique, as proposed for the ICARUS detector, offers the possibility to perform complementary and simultaneous measurements of neutrinos, as those of CERN to Gran Sasso beam (CNGS) and those from cosmic ray events. For the currently allowed values of the Super-Kamiokande results, the combination of both CNGS and atmospheric data will provide a precise determination of the oscillation parameters. Since one can observe and unambiguously identify nu /sub e/, nu /sub mu / and nu /sub tau / components, this technology allows to explore the full (3*3) mixing matrix. The same class of detector can be proposed for high precision measurements at a neutrino factory. (3 refs).

  15. Isentropic compression of argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Oona, H. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The compression was done in an MC-1 flux compression (explosive) generator, in order to study the transition from an insulator to a conductor. Since conductivity signals were observed in all the experiments (except when the probe is removed), both the Teflon and the argon are becoming conductive. The conductivity could not be determined (Teflon insulation properties unknown), but it could be bounded as being {sigma}=1/{rho}{le}8({Omega}cm){sub -1}, because when the Teflon breaks down, the dielectric constant is reduced. The Teflon insulator problem remains, and other ways to better insulate the probe or to measure the conductivity without a probe is being sought.

  16. Depleted argon from underground sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  17. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Dvorak, E; Hahn, A; Jaskierny, W; Johnson, C; Jostlein, H; Kendziora, C; Lockwitz, S; Pahlka, B; Plunkett, R; Pordes, S; Rebel, B; Schmitt, R; Stancari, M; Tope, T; Voirin, E; Yang, T

    2014-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  18. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  19. Optically Forbidden Excitations of 3s Electron of Argon by Fast Electron Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱林繁; 成华东; 刘小井; 田鹏; 苑震生; 李文斌; 徐克尊

    2003-01-01

    The electron energy loss spectrum of argon in the energy region of 24.5-30.5eV was measured at 2.5 keV impact energy. The line profile parameters of the optically forbidden excitations of 3s-1ns (n = 4-6) and 3s-1nd (n = 3-7) of argon, I.e.,Eγ,Г,q and p,were determined.

  20. Fano factor in pure argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fano factor for 5.3 MeV alpha particles in pure argon has been measured with a gridded ionization chamber and estimated to be 0.20 (+0.01-0.02). The obtained value is consistent with the theoretical value if the contribution of elastic nuclear collisions to the Fano factor is taken into the consideration. There is no appreciable difference between the values for pure argon and for a gas mixture of Ar (10%)CH4 obtained in the previous measurement. (orig.)

  1. Attainable superheat of argon-helium, argon-neon solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidakov, Vladimir G; Kaverin, Aleksey M; Andbaeva, Valentina N

    2008-10-16

    The method of lifetime measurement has been used to investigate the kinetics of spontaneous boiling-up of superheated argon-helium and argon-neon solutions. Experiments were made at a pressure of p = 1.5 MPa and concentrations up to 0.33 mol% in the range of nucleation rates from 10 (4) to 10 (8) s (-1) m (-3). The homogeneous nucleation regime has been distinguished. With good agreement between experimental data and homogeneous nucleation theory in temperature and concentration dependences of the nucleation rate, a systematic underestimation by 0.25-0.34 K has been revealed in superheat temperatures over the saturated line attained by experiment as compared with theoretical values calculated in a macroscopic approximation. The revealed disagreement between theory and experiment is connected with the dependence of the properties of new-phase nuclei on their size.

  2. First measurement of the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangiorgio, Samuele [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foxe, Michael P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Hagmann, Chris [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Norman, E. B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pereverzev, S. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rebassoo, Finn O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sorensen, Peter F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Liquid phase argon has long been used as a target medium for particle detection via scintillation light. Recently there has been considerable interest in direct detection of both hypothetical darkmatter particles and coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering. These as-yet unobserved neutral particle interactions are expected to result in a recoiling argon atom O(keV), generally referred to in the literature as a nuclear recoil. This prompts the question of the available electromagnetic signal in a liquid argon detector. In this Letter we report the first measurement of the ionization yield (Qy), detected electrons per unit energy, resulting from nuclear recoils in liquid argon, measured at 6.7 keV. This is also the lowest energy measurement of nuclear recoils in liquid argon.

  3. Binocular indirect argon laser photocoagulator.

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, K

    1981-01-01

    The binocular indirect argon laser photocoagulator was newly designed to enable visualisation of the entire fundus during panretinal laser photocoagulation and to treat retinal tears immediately after buckling procedures of the sclera. The lamp housing of the binocular ophthalmoscope was remodelled and adjusted so that the laser beam and illuminating light are coaxial after leaving the ophthalmoscope. The blocking filter was permanently fixed in the eye-pieces to lighten the weight of the oph...

  4. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  5. Changes in a surface of polycrystalline aluminum upon bombardment with argon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkhotov, O. G.; Ashkhotova, I. B.; Bliev, A. P.; Magkoev, T. T.; Krymshokalova, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between argon ions and a natural oxide layer of polycrystalline aluminum is studied via Auger electron (AE) and electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy. It is found that bombardment with argon ions whose energy is lower than the Al2O3 sputtering threshold results in the accumulation of bombarding ions in interstitial surface voids, thus forming a supersaturated solid solution of target atoms and bombarding ions of argon and nitrogen entrapped by the ion beam from the residual gas of the working chamber of the spectrometer.

  6. Activation of aluminum by argon: Experimental study and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetvertkova, V., E-mail: v.chetvertkova@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); J. W. Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, IAP, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Strasik, I. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); J. W. Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, IAP, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Belousov, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Iwase, H. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Mokhov, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Mustafin, E. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Latysheva, L. [Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pavlovic, M. [FEI STU, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Ratzinger, U. [J. W. Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, IAP, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Sobolevsky, N. [Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents the results of irradiation of aluminum targets by 430 and 500 MeV/u argon beams. Gamma-spectra were measured after the end of the irradiation in order to identify the induced nuclides as well as to determine their residual activity depth-profiles. The results of this experiment are compared with Monte Carlo simulations by FLUKA, GEANT4, MARS, PHITS and SHIELD-A codes. In case of a thin target, the agreement between the experiment and simulations is satisfactory, while in case of a thick target, some discrepancies are observed.

  7. Composing Experimental Environment of PRIDE Argon cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Seonho; Jang, Yongkuk; Cho, Il Je [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In PRIDE depleted Uranium feed material and a depleted Uranium mixed with some surrogate material are used for performing engineering scale Pyroprocessing. PRIDE has to maintain inert atmosphere because of the characteristic of Electrolytic Reduction technology, Electro refining technology, Electrowinning technology. The impurity concentration of the Argon cell has to be under 50 ppm(Oxygen, moisture). Atmospheric pressure changes and temperature changes can affect the Argon cell's impurity concentration. In this paper, how to compose the Argon cell impurity concentration under 50 ppm to make the exact optimal experimental environment(Oxygen, moisture) will be introduced. Composing the exact optimal experimental environment by supplying Argon gas have been introduced in this paper. Continuously supplying Argon gas which is heavier than the Oxygen through the bottom of the Argon cell the oxygen eventually discharged through the high vent fan and lower the impurity concentration of Oxygen.

  8. Argon Kα measurement on DIII endash D by Ross filters technique (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques to reduce the heat flux to the divertor plates in tokamak power plants and the consequent erosion of, and subsequent damage to the divertor target plates include the injection of impurities such as argon, that can dissipate the energy (through radiative or collisional processes) before it reaches the target plates. An important issue with this type of scheme is poisoning of the plasma core by the impurities introduced in the divertor region. Subsequently, there is a desire to measure the profiles of the injected impurities in the core. X-ray Ross filters with an effective narrow band pass centered on the argon Kα line at 3.2 keV, have been installed on two of the existing x-ray arrays on DIII endash D in order to help determine the argon concentration profiles. Emissivity profiles of the Kα lines and the emissivity profiles for the argon enhanced continuum can be inferred from the inverted filtered x-ray brightness signals if Te, ne, and Ar18+ profiles are known. The MIST code is used to couple the filtered x-ray signals to the time dependent measurements of Te and ne. Further, the Ar16+ profiles measured by charge transfer spectroscopy, are used as a constraint on the MIST code runs to calculate Ar18+ profiles and unfold the argon emissivity profiles. A discussion of the Ross filters, the DIII endash D argon data, and the data analysis scheme for inferring argon emissivity profiles will be discussed. Estimates of the total argon concentration in the core determined from this technique in DIII endash D argon puff experiments will be presented. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. Low radioactivity argon dark matter search results from the DarkSide-50 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agnes, P; Albuquerque, I F M; Alexander, T; Alton, A K; Arisaka, K; Back, H O; Baldin, B; Biery, K; Bonfini, G; Bossa, M; Bottino, B; Brigatti, A; Brodsky, J; Budano, F; Bussino, S; Cadeddu, M; Cadonati, L; Cadoni, M; Calaprice, F; Canci, N; Candela, A; Cao, H; Cariello, M; Carlini, M; Catalanotti, S; Cavalcante, P; Chepurnov, A; Cocco, A G; Covone, G; Crippa, L; D'Angelo, D; D'Incecco, M; Davini, S; De Cecco, S; De Deo, M; De Vincenzi, M; Derbin, A; Devoto, 25 A; Di Eusanio, F; Di Pietro, G; Edkins, E; Empl, A; Fan, A; Fiorillo, G; Fomenko, K; Forster, G; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Giganti, C; Goretti, A M; Granato, F; Grandi, L; Gromov, M; Guan, M; Guardincerri, Y; Hackett, B R; Herner, K; Hungerford, E V; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; James, I; Jollet, C; Keeter, K; Kendziora, C L; Kobychev, V; Koh, G; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kubankin, A; Li, X; Lissia, M; Lombardi, P; Luitz, S; Ma, Y; Machulin, I N; Mandarano, A; Mari, S M; Maricic, J; Marini, L; Martoff, C J; Meregaglia, A; Meyers, P D; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Montanari, D; Monte, A; Montuschi, M; Monzani, M; Mosteiro, P; Mount, B J; Muratova, V N; Musico, P; Napolitano, J; Nelson, A; Odrowski, S; Orsini, M; Ortica, F; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Pantic, E; Parmeggiano, S; Pelczar, K; Pelliccia, N; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Pordes, S; Pugachev, D A; Qian, H; Randle, K; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Reinhold, B; Renshaw, A L; Romani, A; Rossi, B; Rossi, N; Rountree, D; Sablone, D; Saggese, P; Saldanha, R; Sands, W; Sangiorgio, S; Savarese, C; Segreto, E; Semenov, D A; Shields, E; Singh, P N; Skorokhvatov, M D; Smallcomb, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Stanford, C; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Tatarowicz, J; Testera, G; Tonazzo, A; Trinchese, P; Unzhakov, E V; Vishneva, A; Vogelaar, B; Wada, M; Walker, S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Watson, A W; Westerdale, S; Wilhelmi, J; Wojcik, M M; Xiang, X; Xu, J; Yang, C; Yoo, J; Zavatarelli, S; Zec, A; Zhong, W; Zhu, C; Zuzel, G

    2015-01-01

    The DarkSide-50 dark matter search reports the first results obtained using a target of low-radioactivity argon extracted from underground sources. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and uses a two-phase time projection chamber as a detector. A total of 155 kg of low radioactivity argon has been obtained, and we have determined that underground argon is depleted in Ar-39 by a factor (1.4 +- 0.2) x 10^3 relative to atmospheric argon. The underground argon was also found to contain (2.05 +- 0.13) mBq/kg of Kr-85. We found no evidence for dark matter in the form of WIMPs in 70.9 live-days of data with a fiducial mass of (36.9 +- 0.6) kg. When combined with our preceding search with an atmospheric argon target, we set a 90 % C.L. upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 2.0 x 10^-44 cm^2 (8.6 x 10^-44 cm^2, 8.0 x 10^-43 cm^2 ) for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c^2 (1 TeV/c^2 , 10 TeV/c^2 ).

  10. Results from the first use of low radioactivity argon in a dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P. [Universite Paris Diderot (France). et al.

    2016-04-08

    Liquid argon is a bright scintillator with potent particle identification properties, making it an attractive target for direct-detection dark matter searches. The DarkSide-50 dark matter search here reports the first WIMP search results obtained using a target of low-radioactivity argon. DarkSide-50 is a dark matter detector, using two-phase liquid argon time projection chamber, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The underground argon is shown to contain Ar-39 at a level reduced by a factor (1.4 +- 0.2) x 103 relative to atmospheric argon. We report a background-free null result from (2616 +- 43) kg d of data, accumulated over 70.9 live-days. When combined with our previous search using an atmospheric argon, the 90 % C.L. upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section based on zero events found in the WIMP search regions, is 2.0 x 10-44 cm2 (8.6 x 10-44 cm2, 8.0 x 10-43 cm2) for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c2 (1 TeV/c2 , 10 TeV/c2).

  11. Transition probabilities for argon I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition probabilities for ArI lines have been calculated on the basis of the (j,k)-coupling scheme for more than 16000 spectral lines belonging to the transition arrays 4s-np (n=4 to n=9), 5s-np (n=5 to n=9), 6s-np (n=6 to n=9), 7s-np (n=8 to n=9), 4p-ns (n=5 to n=10), 5p-ns (n=6 to n=9), 6p-ns (n=7 to n=8), 4p-nd (n=3 to n=9), 5p-nd (n=4 to n=9), 3d-np (n=5 to n=9), 4d-np (n=6 to n=9), 5d-np (n=7 to n=9), 3d-nf (n=4 to n=9), 4d-nf (n=4 to n=9), 5d-nf (n=5 to n=9), 4f-nd (n=5 to n=9) 5f-nd (n=6 to n=9), 4f-ng (n=5 to n=9), 5f-ng (n=6 to n=9). Inso far as values by other authors exist, comparison is made with these values. It turns out that the results obtained in (j,k)-coupling are close to those obtained in intermediate coupling except for intercombination lines. For high principal and/or orbital quantum numbers the transition probabilities for a multiplet approach those of the corresponding transitions in atomic hydrogen. The calculated values are applied to construct a simplified argon-atom model, which reflects the real transition properties and which allows simplified but realistic non-equilibrium calculations for argon plasmas which deviate from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)

  12. Biological characteristics of a human specifically targeted antimicrobial peptide C16LL-37 againstStreptococcus mutans%针对变异链球菌的人源特异性靶向抗菌肽C16LL-37的生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车春晓; 姜科宇; 马媛媛; 曾飒; 周建业; 李志强; 何祥一

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the biological characteristics of a human specifically targeted antimicrobial peptide C16LL-37 against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Methods In this study, an antimicrobial peptide LL-37, a peptide derived from CSPC16 (S. mutans competence stimulating peptide), and recombinant peptide C16LL-37 were synthesized by Fmoc-chemistry-based strategy. The selectivity and antibacterial activity of C16LL-37 were identified by the colony counting method on microbial culture plates. After treatment of C16LL-37 at 32 μmol·L−1, the morphological changes in S. mutans were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate the hemolytic activity and antibacterial activity of C16LL-37 under different conditions. Results 1) The minimum inhibitory concentration of C16LL-37 was 16 μmol·L−1, and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 64 μmol·L−1. 2) The survival rate of S. mutans was 3.46% after C16LL-37 treatment at 64 μmol·L−1 for 30 min, whereas it was 0% at 64 μmol·L−1 for 60 min. The survival rates of four other kinds of bacteria were more than 60% at any time (P0.05). Conclusion C16LL-37 exhibited obvious specificity for S. mutans, strong antibacterial activity, low toxicity, and high stability. Thus, C16LL-37 has good potential in caries research and clinical application.%目的:研究针对变异链球菌(S. mutans)的人源特异性靶向抗菌肽C16LL-37的生物学特性。方法通过标准固相合成技术(Fmoc保护法)合成人源抗菌肽LL-37、S. mutans感受态刺激肽(CSP)C端16个氨基酸组成的多肽CSPC16及二者的重组多肽C16LL-37;以LL-37、CSPC16为对照组,采用平板菌落计数法检测C16LL-37对S. mutans、黏性放线菌、大肠埃希菌、嗜酸乳杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌的抗菌活性及其对S. mutans的靶向性。通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察,浓度为32

  13. Targeted Cancer Therapy with a Novel Anti-CD37 Beta-Particle Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate for Treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Repetto-Llamazares, Ada H V; Larsen, Roy H.; Sebastian Patzke; Fleten, Karianne G; David Didierlaurent; Alexandre Pichard; Jean Pierre Pouget; Jostein Dahle

    2015-01-01

    177Lu-DOTA-HH1 (177Lu-HH1) is a novel anti-CD37 radioimmunoconjugate developed to treat non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mice with subcutaneous Ramos xenografts were treated with different activities of 177Lu-HH1, 177Lu-DOTA-rituximab (177Lu-rituximab) and non-specific 177Lu-DOTA-IgG1 (177Lu-IgG1) and therapeutic effect and toxicity of the treatment were monitored. Significant tumor growth delay and increased survival of mice were observed in mice treated with 530 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1 as compared with mice ...

  14. Opacity of Shock-Generated Argon Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王藩侯; 陈敬平; 周显明; 李西军; 经福谦; 孟续军; 孙永盛

    2001-01-01

    Argon plasmas with uniform density and temperature are generated by a planar shock wave through argon gas. The opacities of argon plasma, covering the thermodynamic states at temperatures of 1.4-2.2eV and in densities of 0.0083- 0.015 g/cm3, are investigated by measuring the emitted radiance versus time at several visible wavelengths. Comparison of the measured opacities with those calculated demonstrates that the average atom model can be used well to describe the essential transport behaviour of photons in argon plasma under the abovementioned thermodynamic condition. A simplified and self-consistent method to deduce the reflectivity R(λ) at the baseplate surface is applied. It demonstrates that the values of R(λ) are all around 0.4 in the experiments, which are basically in agreement with those given by Erskine previously (1994 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.Transfer 51 97).

  15. Status and perspecitves of liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of liquid argon calorimeters is reviewed, and experience obtained with these devices is described. Future perspectives of the liquid ionization chamber technique in calorimetry are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Clinical periodontics with the argon laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, R. L.

    1995-04-01

    The argon laser has proven to be a valuable tool for the thermodynamic debridement of the periodontal lesion, incisions and tissue fusion. Illustrations of clinical applications and discussion of laser parameters will be provided.

  17. Argon plasma irradiation of polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepicka, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.c [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Vasina, A. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Kolska, Z. [J.E. Purkyne University, Department of Chemistry, 40096 Usti Nad Labem (Czech Republic); Luxbacher, T. [Anton Paar GmbH, 8054 Graz (Austria); Malinsky, P.; Mackova, A. [Nuclear Physics Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Svorcik, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-06-15

    Polypropylene samples were exposed to argon plasma discharge and the changes of the PP surface properties were studied by different methods. Surface wettability was derived from contact angle measured by standard goniometry and chemical structure of the plasma modified PP was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), surface morphology and roughness of samples using AFM. Zeta potential of pristine and modified PP was determined with the SurPASS. The presence of incorporated oxygen in the PP surface layer, about 60 nm thick, was observed in RBS spectra. Oxygen concentration is a decreasing function of the depth. With progressing aging time the oxygen concentration on the PP surface decreases. Plasma treatment results in a rapid decrease of the contact angle, which increases again with increasing aging time. In XPS measurement the oxygen containing structures, created by the plasma treatment, were found on the very surface of the modified PP and the zeta potential being changed too. The significant difference in zeta potential between pristine and plasma treated PP clearly indicates that the plasma treatment leads to a more hydrophilic PP surface.

  18. Negative corona current pulses in argon and in mixture argon with SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waveforms of the first negative current pulses in a short negative point-to plane gap in pure argon and argon with SF6 admixture have been investigated with a nanosecond time resolution at a gas pressure 50 kPa as a function of applied gap voltage and content of SF6 in the mixture. We have made an attempt to explain the differences in the discharge development in pure argon and in argon with admixture of SF6 based on the observed changes of the pulse shape. The experimental results obtained will be discussed in context with existing computer simulation models (Authors)

  19. Measurements on scintillation light from liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that an argon calorimeter can operate as a scintillation detector, provided that xenon is added. With the addition of 170 ppm xenon a light yield of 70% has been obtained. In addition the light yield is determined under influence of an electric field, from differently ionising particles and by the use of aluminium mirrors acting as light guides. Finally first measurements with a photomultiplier working at liquid argon temperatures are reported. (orig.)

  20. Argon Laser Photoablation for Postburn Conjunctival Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Joon Ahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an ocular burn injury from boiling water which resulted in conjunctival pigmentation, 1 week following injury. For cosmetic purposes, 2 sessions of argon laser photoablation were performed. One month after laser treatment, conjunctival pigmentation had been successfully removed and the patient was very satisfied with the results. Argon laser photoablation may be an effective way to remove postburn conjunctival pigmentation.

  1. Argon clusters embedded in helium nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Filipe Ferreira; Bartl, Peter; Denifl, Stephan; Echt, Olof; Märk, Tilmann D; Scheier, Paul

    2009-11-14

    Electron impact ionization of argon clusters embedded in helium droplets is investigated. Superior mass resolution makes it possible to distinguish between nominally isobaric cluster ions. An abundance maximum for ArHe(12)(+) is unambiguously confirmed; the spectra also prove the formation of Ar(2)He(n)(+) complexes that had been claimed to fragment into pure Ar(2)(+). Distributions of larger argon cluster ions containing up to 60 atoms closely resemble distributions observed upon electron impact or photoionization of bare argon clusters; caging and evaporative cooling provided by the helium matrix do not suffice to quench fragmentation of the nascent argon cluster ions. Intriguing abundance anomalies are observed in distributions of argon cluster ions that contain water, nitrogen or oxygen impurities. The strong abundance of Ar(55)H(2)O(+), Ar(54)O(2)(+) and Ar(54)N(2)(+) contrasts with the virtual absence of slightly larger cluster ions containing the corresponding impurities. The features are probably related to enhanced cluster ion stability upon closure of the second icosahedral shell but the difference in magic numbers (54 versus 55) and the well-known reactivity of charged argon-nitrogen complexes suggest structural differences. PMID:19851558

  2. Potassium-argon/argon-40-argon-39 geochronology of Cenozoic alkali basalts from the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa; YANG Yaomin; WANG Kunshan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the isotopic chronologic results of Cenozoic alkali basalts from the South China Sea,the characteristics of volcanic activi-ty of the South China Sea after spreading were studied.The potassium - argon ages of eight alkali basalt samples from the South China Sea,and the argon - argon ages of two samples among them are reported.Apparent ages of the whole rock are 3.80 to 7.91 Ma with an average value of 5.43 Ma (potassium- argon,whole rock),and there is little difference among samples at the same location,e.g.,4.76~5.78 Ma for location S04-12.The argon - argon ages for the two samples are 6.06 and 4.71 Ma,which lie within the age scope of potassium - argon method.The dating results indicate that rock-forming age is from late Miocene to Pli-ocene,which is consistent with erupting event for alkali basalts from adjacent regions of the South China Sea.Volcanic activities occur after the cessation of spreading of the South China Sea,which are controlled by lithospheric fault and the spreading center formed during the spreading period of the South China Sea.These dating results,combined with geochemical characteristics of these basalts,the published chronological data for the South China Sea and its adjacent regions,and the updated geophysical data near Hainan Island,suggest that after the cessation of spreading of the South China Sea,there occur widely distributing magmatic activities which primarily is alkali basalt,and the volcanic activity continues to Quaternary.The activity may be relative to Hainan mantle plume originated from core/mantle boundary.

  3. Targeted Cancer Therapy with a Novel Anti-CD37 Beta-Particle Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate for Treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada H V Repetto-Llamazares

    Full Text Available 177Lu-DOTA-HH1 (177Lu-HH1 is a novel anti-CD37 radioimmunoconjugate developed to treat non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mice with subcutaneous Ramos xenografts were treated with different activities of 177Lu-HH1, 177Lu-DOTA-rituximab (177Lu-rituximab and non-specific 177Lu-DOTA-IgG1 (177Lu-IgG1 and therapeutic effect and toxicity of the treatment were monitored. Significant tumor growth delay and increased survival of mice were observed in mice treated with 530 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1 as compared with mice treated with similar activities of 177Lu-rituximab or non-specific 177Lu-IgG1, 0.9% NaCl or unlabeled HH1. All mice injected with 530 MBq/kg of 177Lu-HH1 tolerated the treatment well. In contrast, 6 out of 10 mice treated with 530 MBq/kg 177Lu-rituximab experienced severe radiation toxicity. The retention of 177Lu-rituximab in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system was longer than for 177Lu-HH1, which explains the higher toxicity observed in mice treated with 177Lu-rituximab. In vitro internalization studies showed that 177Lu-HH1 internalizes faster and to a higher extent than 177Lu-rituximab which might be the reason for the better therapeutic effect of 177Lu-HH1.

  4. Argon Collection And Purification For Proliferation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achey, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hunter, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    In order to determine whether a seismic event was a declared/undeclared underground nuclear weapon test, environmental samples must be taken and analyzed for signatures that are unique to a nuclear explosion. These signatures are either particles or gases. Particle samples are routinely taken and analyzed under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) verification regime as well as by individual countries. Gas samples are analyzed for signature gases, especially radioactive xenon. Underground nuclear tests also produce radioactive argon, but that signature is not well monitored. A radioactive argon signature, along with other signatures, can more conclusively determine whether an event was a nuclear test. This project has developed capabilities for collecting and purifying argon samples for ultra-low-background proportional counting. SRNL has developed a continuous gas enrichment system that produces an output stream containing 97% argon from whole air using adsorbent separation technology (the flow diagram for the system is shown in the figure). The vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) enrichment system is easily scalable to produce ten liters or more of 97% argon within twelve hours. A gas chromatographic separation using a column of modified hydrogen mordenite molecular sieve has been developed that can further purify the sample to better than 99% purity after separation from the helium carrier gas. The combination of these concentration and purification systems has the capability of being used for a field-deployable system for collecting argon samples suitable for ultra-low-background proportional counting for detecting nuclear detonations under the On-Site Inspection program of the CTBTO verification regime. The technology also has applications for the bulk argon separation from air for industrial purposes such as the semi-conductor industry.

  5. The effect of PET/CT on cancer teatment strategies of argon-helium cryoablation targeted therapy%PET/CT对氩氦刀靶向治疗肿瘤策略的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泉旺; 曹阳; 左明焕; 安超; 刘传波; 胡凯文

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价全身18F-FDG PET/CT在氩氦刀靶向治疗中的价值.方法回顾100例肿瘤患者冷冻治疗前目标病灶CT检查、全身PET/CT检查.结果 根据PET/CT和CT结果,100例患者中,肺内病灶53例,肝内病灶22例,盆腔病灶11例;23例临床分期改变,17例治疗计划改变.12例肺内病灶(12/53,22.64%)、3例肝内病灶(3/22,13.64%)、2例盆腔病灶(2/11,18.18%)治疗计划改变.结论 全身PET/CT可提供更多有效的信息,对制定氩氦刀冷冻治疗策略有显著指导意义.%Objective To observe the value of whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT in cryocare targeted cryoablation therapy.Methods Totolly 100 cancer patients were examined with CT and whole body PET/CT before therapy. Results According to PET/CT and CT, lung tumors were detected in 53 patients, liver neoplasms were found in 22 patients, while pelvic masses were shown in 11 patients. Clinical stage were changed in 23 cases, while the treatment plan were changed in 17 cases, including 12 cases of lung tumors (12/53, 22.64%), 3 casesof liver neoplasms (3/22, 13.64%) and 2 cases of pelvic masses (2/11, 18. 18 % ). Conclusion Whole body PET/CT can provide effective information for the treatment strategy of cryocare targeted cryoablation therapy.

  6. Attenuation of vacuum ultraviolet light in liquid argon

    CERN Document Server

    Neumeier, A; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Schönert, S; Dandl, T; Heindl, T; Ulrich, A; Wieser, J

    2015-01-01

    The transmission of liquid argon has been measured, wavelength resolved, for a wavelength interval from 118 to 250 nm. The wavelength dependent attenuation length is presented for pure argon. It is shown that no universal wavelength independent attenuation length can be assigned to liquid argon for its own fluorescence light due to the interplay between the wavelength dependent emission and absorption. A decreasing transmission is observed below 130 nm in both chemically cleaned and distilled liquid argon and assigned to absorption by the analogue of the first argon excimer continuum. For not perfectly cleaned argon a strong influence of impurities on the transmission is observed. Two strong absorption bands at 126.5 and 141.0 nm with approximately 2 and 4 nm width, respectively, are assigned to traces of xenon in argon. A broad absorption region below 180 nm is found for unpurified argon and tentatively attributed to the presence of water in the argon sample.

  7. Low energy (e,2e) ionization of Argon in the equal energy sharing geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mazevet, S; Langlois, J M; Tweed, R J; Robaux, O; Tannous, C; Fakhreddine, K

    2002-01-01

    Quantum Defect theory is a well established theoretical concept in modern spectroscopy. We show that this approach is useful in electron impact ionization problems where state of the art theoretical methods are presently restricted mostly to simple atomic targets. For the well documented Argon ionization case in equal energy sharing geometry the approach suggested leads to significant improvements compared to previous calculations.

  8. Development of a low-level Ar-37 calibration standard

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, R M; Bowyer, T W; Day, A R; Fuller, E S; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoppe, E W; Humble, P H; Keillor, M E; LaFerriere, B D; Mace, E K; McIntyre, J I; Miley, H S; Myers, A W; Orrell, J L; Overman, C T; Panisko, M E; Seifert, A

    2016-01-01

    Argon-37 is an environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level Ar-37 standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in developing a process to generate and quantify low-level Ar-37 standards, which can be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. This paper presents a discussion of the measurement analysis, along with assumptions and uncertainty estimates.

  9. Experimental Measurement for Shock Velocity-Mass Velocity Relationship of Liquid Argon Up to 46 GPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟川民; 施尚春; 董石; 杨向东; 谭华; 经福谦

    2003-01-01

    Shock properties of liquid argon were measured in the shock pressure up to 46 GPa by employing the two-stage light gas gun. Liquid nitrogen was used as coolant liquid. The cryogenic target system has been improved to compare with the previous work. Shock velocities were measured with self-shorting electrical probes. Impactor velocities were measured with an electrical-magnetic induction system. Mass velocities were obtained by mean of shock impedance matching method. The experimental data shows that the slope of experimental Hugoniot curve of liquid argon begins to decrease above 30 GPa.

  10. Scintillation efficiency of liquid argon in low energy neutron-argon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments searching for weak interacting massive particles with noble gases such as liquid argon require very low detection thresholds for nuclear recoils. A determination of the scintillation efficiency is crucial to quantify the response of the detector at low energy. We report the results obtained with a small liquid argon cell using a monoenergetic neutron beam produced by a deuterium-deuterium fusion source. The light yield relative to electrons was measured for six argon recoil energies between 11 and 120 keV at zero electric drift field

  11. Scintillation efficiency of liquid argon in low energy neutron-argon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Creus, W; Amsler, C; Ferella, A D; Rochet, J; Scotto-Lavina, L; Walter, M

    2015-01-01

    Experiments searching for weak interacting massive particles with noble gases such as liquid argon require very low detection thresholds for nuclear recoils. A determination of the scintillation efficiency is crucial to quantify the response of the detector at low energy. We report the results obtained with a small liquid argon cell using a monoenergetic neutron beam produced by a deuterium-deuterium fusion source. The light yield relative to electrons was measured for six argon recoil energies between 11 and 120 keV at zero electric drift field.

  12. DarkSide-50 WIMP search results with low radioactivity argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin; DarkSide Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, DarkSide-50 is the first physics detector of the DarkSide dark matter search program. The experiment features a dual-phase Time Projection Chamber as the WIMP detector, surrounded by an organic liquid-scintillator neutron veto and a water-Cherenkov muon detector. We report the results from the first use of low radioactivity argon extracted from underground sources in a dark matter search. We have determined that underground argon is depleted in 39Ar by a factor (1 . 4 +/- 0 . 2) ×103 relative to atmospheric argon whose 39Ar activity is 1 bq/kg. The underground argon is also found to contain (2 . 05 +/- 0 . 13) mBq/kg of 85Kr. We find no evidence for dark matter in the form of WIMPs in 70.9 live-days of data with a fiducial mass of (36 . 9 +/- 0 . 6) kg. When combined with our preceding search with an atmospheric argon target, we set a 90 % C.L. upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 2 . 0 ×10-44 cm2 (8 . 6 ×10-44 cm2, 8 . 0 ×10-43 cm2) for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c2 (1 TeV/c2, 10 TeV/c2). DS-50 will continue dark matter search with the underground argon target for a total of 3 years. See also the DS-50 presentations by E. Edkins and G. Koh.

  13. Contraction ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge and a definition of their arising propagation mechanism accounting for the specificity of elementary pocesses characteristic of argon are presented. (author)

  14. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...

  15. Antiapoptotic activity of argon and xenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaggiari, Sabrina; Kepp, Oliver; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Chaba, Kariman; Adjemian, Sandy; Pype, Jan; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Lemaire, Marc; Kroemer, Guido

    2013-08-15

    Although chemically non-reactive, inert noble gases may influence multiple physiological and pathological processes via hitherto uncharacterized physical effects. Here we report a cell-based detection system for assessing the effects of pre-defined gas mixtures on the induction of apoptotic cell death. In this setting, the conventional atmosphere for cell culture was substituted with gas combinations, including the same amount of oxygen (20%) and carbon dioxide (5%) but 75% helium, neon, argon, krypton, or xenon instead of nitrogen. The replacement of nitrogen with noble gases per se had no effects on the viability of cultured human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Conversely, argon and xenon (but not helium, neon, and krypton) significantly limited cell loss induced by the broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor staurosporine, the DNA-damaging agent mitoxantrone and several mitochondrial toxins. Such cytoprotective effects were coupled to the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity, as demonstrated by means of a mitochondrial transmembrane potential-sensitive dye and by assessing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In line with this notion, argon and xenon inhibited the apoptotic activation of caspase-3, as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy coupled to automated image analysis. The antiapoptotic activity of argon and xenon may explain their clinically relevant cytoprotective effects. PMID:23907115

  16. 37 CFR 41.37 - Appeal brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal brief. 41.37 Section... brief. Link to an amendment published at 73 FR 32974, June 10, 2008. Per final rule published at 73 FR...) Appellant must file a brief under this section within two months from the date of filing the notice...

  17. Keeping argon under a graphene lid-Argon intercalation between graphene and nickel(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Späth, Florian; Gotterbarm, Karin; Amende, Max; Bauer, Udo; Gleichweit, Christoph; Höfert, Oliver; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Papp, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report on the intercalation of graphene grown on a Ni(111) crystal with argon. Argon is implanted in the Ni(111) crystal by ion bombardment before graphene growth, and diffuses to the surface during the growth of graphene at elevated temperatures. Graphene acts as an atomically thin barrier and keeps the argon underneath. We investigated this system with high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. From our experiments we determined the mean quantities of argon under graphene. From our analysis, a simple model to determine the pressure under the graphene layer is presented. In our measurements, we find an increased thermal stability of the intercalated graphene as compared to non-intercalated graphene on Ni(111).

  18. Argon Laser Treatment of Strawberry Hemangioma in Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Achauer, Bruce M.; Vander Kam, Victoria M.

    1985-01-01

    Argon laser therapy is effective for removing port-wine stains and for reducing cutaneous vascular and pigmented lesions. Strawberry hemangiomas, being much thicker lesions than port-wine stains, were considered not appropriate for argon laser treatment. Using argon laser therapy in 13 cases of strawberry hemangioma, we achieved poor to dramatic results.

  19. Argon laser treatment of strawberry hemangioma in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achauer, B M; Vander Kam, V M

    1985-11-01

    Argon laser therapy is effective for removing port-wine stains and for reducing cutaneous vascular and pigmented lesions. Strawberry hemangiomas, being much thicker lesions than port-wine stains, were considered not appropriate for argon laser treatment. Using argon laser therapy in 13 cases of strawberry hemangioma, we achieved poor to dramatic results. PMID:4082569

  20. Analysis list: lin-37 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin-37 Embryo,Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin...-37.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-37.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-37.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/lin-37.Embryo....tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/lin-37.Larvae.tsv http:

  1. Flow Parameters of Argon plasma Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to the viscosity, the plasma will be adhering to the inner surface of the outer electrode and outer surface of the inner one. As result that the discharge will be eroding the walls of coaxial system. The thickness of the boundary layer near the walls has been estimated at different positions from the breech of coaxial plasma gun. It is found that the thickness of layer 0.008 cm at the end of inner electrode (17 cm). A coaxial plasma gun device is operated in argon gas at ambient pressure 0.6 Torr and discharge voltage about 10 KV. The electron temperature of argon discharge has been determined by using spectroscopic technique. It is found that kTe=3.4 eV. By knowing the thickness of the boundary layer, the density can be determined. The Reynolds number R=105 and Mach number M=5 i.e. the flow is compressible and hypersonic

  2. Argon laser irradiation of the otolithic organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, T.; Nomura, Y.; Young, Y.H.; Hara, M. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    An argon laser was used to irradiate the otolithic organs of guinea pigs and cynomolgus monkeys. After stapedectomy, the argon laser (1.5 W x 0.5 sec/shot) irradiated the utricle or saccule without touching the sensory organs. The stapes was replaced over the oval window after irradiation. The animals used for acute observation were killed immediately for morphologic studies; those used for long-term observation were kept alive for 2, 4, or 10 weeks. Acute observation revealed that sensory and supporting cells were elevated from the basement membrane only in the irradiated area. No rupture of the membranous labyrinth was observed. Long-term observation revealed that the otolith of the macula utriculi had disappeared in 2-week specimens. The entire macula utricili had disappeared in 10-week specimens. No morphologic changes were observed in cochlea, semicircular canals, or membranous labyrinth. The saccule showed similar changes.

  3. Abnormal epidermal changes after argon laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, R.A.; Knobler, R.M.; Aberer, E.; Klein, W.; Kocsis, F.; Ott, E. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

    1991-02-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a congenital port-wine stain on the forehead was treated three times at 2-month intervals with an argon laser. Six months after the last treatment, moderate blanching and mild scaling confined to the treated area was observed. A biopsy specimen of the treated area revealed a significant decrease in ectatic vessels. However, epidermal changes similar to those of actinic keratosis with disorganized cell layers and marked cytologic abnormalities were seen. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes for a defect in DNA repair was negative. Multiple, argon laser-induced photothermal effects may be responsible for the changes observed in our case and may lead to premalignant epidermal transformation.

  4. Explanation of the memory effect in argon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Vidosav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory effect - the long time variation of the electrical breakdown time delay on the relaxation time td (τ was observed in argon 24 hours after relaxation times and explained by the long-lived metastable states remaining from the preceding glow. However, the quenching processes reducing the effective lifetime of metastable states several orders of magnitude below that relevant for the time scale of observation were neglected. By applying approximate gas phase models it was found that the early afterglow kinetics up to hundreds of milliseconds is dominated by the decay of molecular argon ions Ar2+ and the approximate value of their ambipolar diffusion coefficient is determined. After that, nitrogen atoms present as impurities and recombined on the cathode surface and/or field emission determine the breakdown time delay down to the cosmic rays and natural radioactivity level.

  5. Anatomy of an Inversion - Argon Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamick, L.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Robinson, S. J. Q.

    2012-02-01

    Two different interactions give similar results for excitation energies and g factors of 2+1 states for most even-even argon isotopes except 46Ar. This is explained in terms of an inversion in J = ½+ and levels in 47K which is successfully obtained by one of the interactions but not the other. This example shows the possible dangers of nuclear astrophysics extrapolations.

  6. First demonstration of a sub-keV electron recoil energy threshold in a liquid argon ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangiorgio, S., E-mail: samuele@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Joshi, T.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Coleman, J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford St, Liverpool L69 7Ze (United Kingdom); Foxe, M. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hagmann, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Mavrokoridis, K. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford St, Liverpool L69 7Ze (United Kingdom); Mozin, V.; Pereverzev, S.; Sorensen, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We describe the first demonstration of a sub-keV electron recoil energy threshold in a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber. This is an important step in an effort to develop a detector capable of identifying the ionization signal resulting from nuclear recoils with energies of order a few keV and below. We obtained this result by observing the peaks in the energy spectrum at 2.82 keV and 0.27 keV, following the K- and L-shell electron capture decay of {sup 37}Ar respectively. The {sup 37}Ar source preparation is described in detail, since it enables calibration that may also prove useful in dark matter direct detection experiments. An internally placed {sup 55}Fe x-ray source simultaneously provided another calibration point at 5.9 keV. We discuss the ionization yield and electron recombination in liquid argon at those three calibration energies. -- Highlights: • We measure sub-keV electron recoils in a dual-phase argon time projection chamber. • Ar-37 is produced via neutron irradiation and used as calibration source. • Ar-37 electron captures at 2.82 and 0.27 keV are measured together with Fe-55 x-rays. • Spurious single ionization electrons provided absolute calibration of charge signal. • Modified Thomas–Imel model describes low-energy electron-recoils in liquid Ar.

  7. MeV Argon ion beam generation with narrow energy spread

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiancai; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shun; Yu, Yong; Li, Jinfeng; Lu, Xiaoming; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Xinliang; Liang, Xiaoyan; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-01-01

    Laser driven particle acceleration has shown remarkable progresses in generating multi-GeV electron bunches and 10s of MeV ion beams based on high-power laser facilities. Intense laser pulse offers the acceleration field of 1012 Volt per meter, several orders of magnitude larger than that in conventional accelerators, enabling compact devices. Here we report that a highly-collimated argon ion beam with narrow energy spread is produced by irradiating a 45-fs fully-relativistic laser pulse onto an argon cluster target. The highly-charged (Argon ion with charge state of 16+) heavy ion beam has a minimum absolute energy spread of 0.19 MeV per nucleon at the energy peak of 0.39 MeV per nucleon. we identify a novel scheme from particle-in-cell simulations that greatly reduces the beam energy spread. The laser-driven intense plasma wakefield has a strong modulation on the ion beam in a way that the low energy part is cut off. The pre-accelerated argon ion beam from Coulomb explosion thus becomes more mono-energetic ...

  8. Darkside-20k: A 20 ton Liquid Argon Dark Matter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Henning; Darkside-20k Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Darkside-20k detector is the next step in the Darkside dark matter search program at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. The Darkside detectors have grown in fiducial mass starting with 10kg in Darkside10, to 50 kg in Darkside50, and finally a proposed 20,000 kg fiducial mass, Darkside20k. The Darkside detectors are dual-phase argon TPCs that combine the very powerful scintillation pulse-shape analysis and ionization information to discriminate against background events. Two unique aspects to the Darkside program is the use of an external neutron veto based on borated liquid scintillator, and the use of low radioactivity argon from underground sources as the target. Argon from the atmosphere has an 39Ar activity of 1Bq/kg, which would be the limiting background, but the underground argon is essentially free of 39Ar. Additionally, the detector is placed in a water Cherenkov muon veto. Combining all these techniques allows Darkside-20k to achieve a background-free 100 t-yr exposure accumulated in a 5 yr run. Darkside-20k is expected to start operations in 2020 with data taking starting in 2021, and will be sensitive to WIMP-nucleon interaction cross sections of 1×10-47 cm2 (1x10-46 cm2) for WIMPs of 1 TeV/c2 (10 TeV/c2) mass.

  9. Development of a low-cost inductively coupled argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation is to drastically reduce running costs of an inductively coupled plasma. This is done by reducing the argon consumption from 20 l/min to about 1 l/min. First, a sample introduction system operating on 0.1 l/min of carrier argon is described. This system ensures a high ratio of plasma argon and carrier argon even at the low total argon consumptions intended. Next, the developed low consumption plasma is presented. In the proposed design, air is blown perpendicularly against the outside of the torch. A different coil has been developed to make air-cooling efficient. Preliminary data on coupling efficiency for the air-cooled plasma are presented. A similarly low argon consumption has been achieved with water as an external coolant medium. It is concluded that a cheaper alternative to the current ICP has become available. (Auth.)

  10. Morphology and characteristics of laser-induced aluminum plasma in argon and in air: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xueshi; Cao, Fan; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Ma, Qianli; Chen, Yanping; Yu, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), ablation takes place in general in an ambient gas of the atmospheric pressure, often in air but also in noble gas such as argon or helium. The use of noble gas is known to significantly improve the performance of the technique. We investigate in this work the morphology and the characteristics of induced plasma in argon and in air. The purpose is to understand the mechanism of the analytical performance improvement by the use of argon ambient with respective to air ambient and the dependence on the other experimental parameters such as the laser fluence. The observation of plasma morphology in different ambient gases provides also information for better design of the detection system which optimizes the signal collection according to the used ambient gases. More specifically, the expansion of the plasma induced on an aluminum target with nanosecond infrared (1064 nm) laser pulse in two ambient gases, argon and the atmospheric air, has been studied with spectroscopic imaging at short delays and with emission spectroscopy at longer delays. With relatively low ablation laser fluence (65 J/cm2), similar morphologies have been observed in argon and in air over the early stage of plasma expansion, while diagnostics at longer delay shows stronger emission, higher electron density and temperature for plasma induced in argon. With higher ablation laser fluence (160 J/cm2) however, different expansion behaviors have been observed, with a stagnating aluminum vapor near the target surface in air while a propagating plume away from the target in argon. The craters left on the target surface show as well corresponding difference: in air, the crater is very shallow with a target surface chaotically affected by the laser pulse, indicating an effective re-deposition of the ablated material back to the crater; while in Ar a deeper crater is observed, indicating an efficient mass removal by laser ablation. At longer delays, a brighter

  11. First demonstration of a sub-keV electron recoil energy threshold in a liquid argon ionization chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Sangiorgio, S; Coleman, J; Foxe, M; Hagmann, C; Joshi, T H; Jovanovic, I; Kazkaz, K; Mavrokoridis, K; Mozin, V; Pereverzev, S; Sorensen, P

    2013-01-01

    We make a first demonstration of a sub-keV electron recoil energy threshold in a dual-phase liquid argon time-projection chamber. This is an important step in a program to build a detector capable of identifying the ionization signal resulting from nuclear recoils at a few keV and below. We obtained this result by observing the peaks in the energy spectrum at 2.82 keV and 0.27 keV, following the K- and L-shell electron capture decay of Ar-37. We describe the details of the Ar-37 source preparation, as this calibration technique may prove useful, e.g. for dark matter direct detection experiments. A Fe-55 internal x-ray source was also measured simultaneously and provided another calibration point at 5.9 keV. We discuss the ionization yield and electron recombination in liquid argon at the three calibration energies.

  12. Effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, R.; Antonello, M.; Baibussinov, B.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Benetti, P.; Calaprice, F.; Calligarich, E.; Cambiaghi, M.; Canci, N.; Carbonara, F.; Cavanna, F.; Centro, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Di Pompeo, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Gallo, V.; Grandi, L.; Meng, G.; Modena, I.; Montanari, C.; Palamara, O.; Pandola, L.; Piano Mortari, G. B.; Pietropaolo, F.; Raselli, G. L.; Roncadelli, M.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Segreto, E.; Szelc, A. M.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.

    2010-06-01

    A dedicated test of the effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. A detector has been designed and assembled for this specific task and connected to a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Nitrogen into the liquid Argon. The purpose of the test is to detect the reduction of the Ar scintillation light emission as a function of the amount of the Nitrogen contaminant injected in the Argon volume. A wide concentration range, spanning from ~ 10-1 ppm up to ~ 103 ppm, has been explored. Measurements have been done with electrons in the energy range of minimum ionizing particles (γ-conversion from radioactive sources). Source spectra at different Nitrogen contaminations are analyzed, showing sensitive reduction of the scintillation yield at increasing concentrations. Direct PMT signal acquisition exploiting high time resolution by fast waveform recording allowed high precision extraction of the main characteristics of the scintillation light emission in contaminated LAr. In particular, the decreasing behavior in lifetime and relative amplitude of the slow component is found to be appreciable starting from Script O(1 ppm) of Nitrogen concentrations. The rate constant of the quenching process induced by Nitrogen in liquid Ar has been found to be kQ(N2) = 0.11 ± 0.01 μs-1ppm-1, consistent with a previous measurement of this quantity but with significant improvement in precision. On the other hand, no evidence for absorption by N2 impurities has been found up to the higher concentrations here explored.

  13. Argon diffusion from biotite at high temperature and pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道公; 贾命命; 李彬贤; 陆全明; 谢鸿森; 侯渭

    1995-01-01

    t The experiments of argon diffusion dynamics for biotite were carried out at 700 -1000℃ and 0.5 - 2,0 GPa and the diffusion coefficient and activation energy using different models have been calculated. The results indicate that the pressure does affect the argon diffusion and its effect is opposite to that of temperature. When p increases, the activation energy increases and diffusion coefficient decreases. The relation between pressure, closure temperature and cooling rate has been obtained. It is postulated that in low T and high p conditions, the argon diffusion from the environment to the system could occur and incur the appearance of the external argon in minerals.

  14. Near-infrared scintillation of liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, T. [Fermilab; Escobar, C. O. [Campinas State U.; Lippincott, W. H. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab

    2016-03-03

    Since the 1970s it has been known that noble gases scintillate in the near infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum (0.7 $\\mu$m < $\\lambda$; < 1.5$\\mu$m). More controversial has been the question of the NIR light yield for condensed noble gases. We first present the motivation for using the NIR scintillation in liquid argon detectors, then briefly review early as well as more recent efforts and finally show encouraging preliminary results of a test performed at Fermilab.

  15. Near-infrared scintillation of liquid argon

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, T; Lippincott, W H; Rubinov, P

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s it has been known that noble gases scintillate in the near infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum (0.7 $\\mu$m < $\\lambda$; < 1.5$\\mu$m). More controversial has been the question of the NIR light yield for condensed noble gases. We first present the motivation for using the NIR scintillation in liquid argon detectors, then briefly review early as well as more recent efforts and finally show encouraging preliminary results of a test performed at Fermilab.

  16. Argon isotope fractionation induced by stepwise heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieloff, Mario; Falter, Martina; Buikin, Alexei I.; Korochantseva, Ekaterina V.; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Altherr, Rainer

    2005-03-01

    Noble gas isotopes are widely used to elucidate the history of the rocks in which they have been trapped, either from distinct reservoirs or by accumulation following radioactive decay. To extract noble gases from their host rocks, stepwise heating is the most commonly used technique to deconvolve isotopically different components, e.g., atmospheric, in situ radiogenic, or excess radiogenic from mantle or crustal reservoirs. The accurate determination of the isotopic composition of these different components is of crucial importance, e.g., for ages obtained by 40Ar- 39Ar stepheating plateaus. However, diffusion theory-based model calculations predict that the stepwise thermal extraction process from mineral phases induces isotope fractionation and, hence, adulterates the original composition. Such effects are largely unconsidered, as they are small and a compelling experimental observation is lacking. We report the first unequivocal evidence for significant mass fractionation of argon isotopes during thermal extraction, observed on shungite, a carbon-rich Precambrian sedimentary rock. The degree of fractionation, as monitored by 38Ar/ 36Ar and 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios, very well agrees with theoretical predictions assuming an inverse square root dependence of diffusion coefficient and atomic mass, resulting in easier extraction of lighter isotopes. Hence, subatmospheric 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios obtained for argon extracted at low temperatures may not represent paleoatmospheric argon. Shungite argon resembles modern atmospheric composition, but constraints on the timing of trapping appear difficult to obtain, as shungites are multicomponent systems. In 40Ar- 39Ar stepwise heating, the isotope fractionation effect could cause systematic underestimations of plateau ages, between 0.15 and 0.4% depending on age, or considerably higher if samples contain appreciable atmospheric Ar. The magnitude of this effect is similar to the presently achieved uncertainties of this increasingly

  17. Argon Purification Studies and a Novel Liquid Argon Re-circulation System

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrokoridis, K; Coleman, J; Lightfoot, P K; McCauley, N; McCormick, K J; Touramanis, C

    2011-01-01

    Future giant liquid argon (LAr) time projection chambers (TPCs) require a purity of better than 0.1 parts per billion (ppb) to allow the ionised electrons to drift without significant capture by any electronegative impurities. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of electronegative impurity on gaseous and liquid argon scintillation light, an analysis of the efficacy of various purification chemicals, as well as the Liverpool LAr setup, which utilises a novel re-circulation purification system. Of the impurities tested - Air, O_2, H_2O, N_2 and CO_2 in the range of between 0.01 ppm to 1000 ppm - H_2O was found to have the most profound effect on gaseous argon scintillation light, and N_2 was found to have the least. Additionally, a correlation between the slow component decay time and the total energy deposited with 0.01 ppm - 100 ppm O_2 contamination levels in liquid argon has been established. The superiority of molecular sieves over anhydrous complexes at absorbing Ar gas, N_2 gas and H_2O vapou...

  18. Coherent set of electron cross sections for argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L. L.; Ferreira, C. M.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a coherent set of electron impact cross sections for argon (elastic momentum-transfer, inelastic for the excitation of 37 levels Ar(4s,4p,3d,5p,4d,6s) and ionization), which was recently uploaded onto the LXcat IST-Lisbon database. The cross section set was validated by comparing calculated swarm parameters (electron mobility and characteristic energy) and rate coefficients (Townsend ionization coefficient and direct + cascade excitation coefficients to the 4s and 4p states) with available experimental data, for E / N = 10-4 - 100 Td and Tg = 300, 77 K. The validation procedure involves the solution to the homogeneous two-term electron Boltzmann equation, resorting to three different solvers: (i) IST-Lisbon's (ii) BOLSIG+ (v1.2) with LXcat; (iii) BOLSIG+ (v1.23). The results obtained with these solvers are compared to evidence the importance of certain numerical features related with both the energy-grid (number of points, grid-type and maximum energy value) and the interpolation scheme adopted for the cross sections. In particular, the latter can cause a 6% variation on the values of swarm parameters at intermediate E/Ns.

  19. Investigation of argon ion sputtering on the secondary electron emission from gold samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Cui, Wanzhao; Li, Yun; Xie, Guibai; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rui; Hu, Tiancun; Zhang, Hongtai

    2016-09-01

    Secondary electron (SE) yield, δ, is a very sensitive surface property. The values of δ often are not consistent for even identical materials. The influence of surface changes on the SE yield was investigated experimentally in this article. Argon ion sputtering was used to remove the contamination from the surface. Surface composition was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface topography was scanned by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) before and after every sputtering. It was found that argon sputtering can remove contamination and roughen the surface. An "equivalent work function" is presented in this thesis to establish the relationship between SE yield and surface properties. Argon ion sputtering of 1.5keV leads to a significant increase of so called "work function" (from 3.7 eV to 6.0 eV), and a decrease of SE yield (from 2.01 to 1.54). These results provided a new insight into the influence of surface changes on the SE emission.

  20. Ion-beam excitation of liquid argon

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, M; Heindl, T; Neumeier, A; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Roth, S; Schönert, S; Wieser, J; Ulrich, A

    2015-01-01

    The scintillation light of liquid argon has been recorded wavelength and time resolved with very good statistics in a wavelength interval ranging from 118 nm through 970 nm. Three different ion beams, protons, sulfur ions and gold ions, were used to excite liquid argon. Only minor differences were observed in the wavelength-spectra obtained with the different incident particles. Light emission in the wavelength range of the third excimer continuum was found to be strongly suppressed in the liquid phase. In time-resolved measurements, the time structure of the scintillation light can be directly attributed to wavelength in our studies, as no wavelength shifter has been used. These measurements confirm that the singlet-to-triplet intensity ratio in the second excimer continuum range is a useful parameter for particle discrimination, which can also be employed in wavelength-integrated measurements as long as the sensitivity of the detector system does not rise steeply for wavelengths longer than 190 nm. Using ou...

  1. Argon laser-welded arteriovenous anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R A; Kopchok, G; Donayre, C; White, G; Lyons, R; Fujitani, R; Klein, S R; Uitto, J

    1987-11-01

    This study compared the healing of laser-welded and sutured canine femoral arteriovenous anastomoses. Arteriovenous fistulas 2 cm in length were created bilaterally in the femoral vessels of 10 dogs and were studied at 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 2), 4 (n = 3), and 8 (n = 3) weeks. In each animal, one anastomosis (control) was closed with running 6-0 polypropylene sutures, and the contralateral anastomosis (experimental) was sealed with an argon laser (0.5 watt, 4 minutes of exposure, 1830 J/cm2/1 cm length of anastomosis). At removal all experimental anastomoses were patent without hematomas, aneurysms, or luminal narrowing. Histologic examination at 4 weeks revealed that laser-welded anastomoses had less inflammatory response and almost normal collagen and elastin reorientation. At 8 weeks sutured anastomoses had significant intimal hyperplasia whereas laser repairs had normal luminal architecture. Tensile strength and collagen production, measured by the synthesis of hydroxyproline and the steady-state levels of type I and type III procollagen messenger ribonucleic acids, at the anastomoses and in adjacent vein and artery specimens were similar in sutured and laser-welded repairs at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. We conclude that argon laser welding of anastomoses is an acceptable alternative to suture techniques, with the advantage of improved healing without foreign body response and possible diminished intimal hyperplasia at the anastomotic line. PMID:3312648

  2. Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies

  3. Pollution of liquid argon after neutron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Andrieux, M L; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Ferrari, A; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Martin, P; Merkel, B; Puzo, P; Sauvage, D; Wielers, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the neutron facility installed at SARA is to investigate the behavior of various materials to be used in the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter, when submitted to fast neutron radiation. The samples are placed in a liquid argon cryostat a few cm away from the neutron source. Various pieces of the electromagnetic calorimeter have been tested in order to evaluate the rate of pollution of the liquid and consequently the possible signal loss in energy measurements. The average fluence was equivalent to the maximum expected in the calorimeter in about 10 years. The most striking feature of the results is that the pollution is not due to oxygen, at least for most of it. Using a particular value of the absorption length derived from these data, a simulation was carried out and the energy signal loss in the calorimeter could be predicted. Within the limits of our present knowledge, the conclusion is that damages due to this pollution will not be a problem. (17 refs).

  4. Pollution of liquid argon after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the neutron facility installed at SARA is to investigate the behavior of various materials to be used in the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter, when submitted to fast neutron radiation. The samples are placed in a liquid argon cryostat a few cm away from the neutron source. Various pieces of the electromagnetic calorimeter have been tested in order to evaluate the rate of pollution of the liquid and consequently the possible signal loss in energy measurements. The average fluence was equivalent to the maximum expected in the calorimeter in about 10 years. The most striking feature of the results is that the pollution is not due to oxygen, at least for most of it. Using a particular value of the absorption length derived from these data, a simulation was carried out and the energy signal loss in the calorimeter could be predicted. Within the limits of our present knowledge, the conclusion is that damages due to this pollution will not be a problem

  5. 49 CFR 37.157-37.159 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 37.157-37.159 Section 37.157-37.159 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service §§ 37.157-37.159...

  6. WARP: a double phase argon programme for dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WARP (Wimp ARgon Programme) is a double phase Argon detector for Dark Matter search under construction at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. We present recent results obtained operating a prototype with a sensitive mass of 2.3 litres deep underground

  7. Stopping Power of Solid Argon for Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Grauersen, O.;

    1981-01-01

    By means of the Rutherford-backscattering method, the stopping cross section of solid argon has been measured for 0.5–3 MeV helium ions to an accuracy of not, vert, similar3%. The results agree within the experimental accuracies with our earlier measurements for gaseous argon over the energy region...

  8. Nitrogen Removal from Molten Steel under Argon DC Glow Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ming-shan; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang

    2005-01-01

    Under argon DC glow plasma, the nitrogen removal from molten steel was studied. The experimental result showed that nitrogen mass percent could be reduced to 0.000 8%. The change of polarity had no impact on nitrogen removal when the nitrogen mass percent was low. The mechanism of denitrogenation of molten steel under argon DC glow plasma was discussed.

  9. Comparison of Diode and Argon Laser Lesions in Rabbit Retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhang; Xiaoxin Li; Bin Li; Jiping Da

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the histological alteration of retina with various spot intensities between diode and argon lasers in order to instruct the clinical use of 810 nm diode laser.Methods: Transpupillary retinal photocoagulations were performed on 42 eyes of 27pigmented rabbits. Histopathologic alteration of lesions in different intensities and different time intervals after irradiation produced by diode and argon laser was observed and compared using light microscopy. Areas of various lesions measured by image analysis system (CMIAS) were compared quantitatively.Results: Histopathologically, two-week-old grade 2 lesions produced by diode laser induced the disappearance of outer nuclear cells. More than a half of all showed reduction in number of outer nuclear layer cells in argon. Fibroblasts appeared in the diode grade 3lesions 5 days after irradiation. CMIAS data showed that all the areas of diode lesions immediately after photocoagulation were to be larger than those of argon laser lesions in the same spot intensity (P < 0.05). However, twenty-four hours after photocoagulation, the area of the diode lesions increased less than that of the argon laser lesions (8%vs.23%).Conclusion: The acute histological effect caused by 810 nm diode laser and argon green laser is similar,while the expansion of lesion area 24 hours after photocoagulation was less with the diode laser compared to the argon. This may be the first report in the literature regarding quantitative analysis of the delayed reaction of argon green lasers.

  10. Novel Diamond Films Synthesis Strategy: Methanol and Argon Atmosphere by Microwave Plasma CVD Method Without Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Jiang, Caiyi; Guo, Shenghui; Zhang, Libo; Gao, Jiyun; Peng, Jinhui; Hu, Tu; Wang, Liang

    2016-12-01

    Diamond thin films are grown on silicon substrates by only using methanol and argon mixtures in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor. It is worth mentioning that the novel strategy makes the synthesis reaction works smoothly without hydrogen atmosphere, and the substrates temperature is only 500 °C. The evidence of surface morphology and thickness under different time is obtained by characterizing the samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectrum reveals that the preferential orientation of (111) plane sample is obtained. The Raman spectra indicate that the dominant component of all the samples is a diamond. Moreover, the diamond phase content of the targeted films was quantitatively analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method, and the surface roughness of diamond films was investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM). Meanwhile, the possible synthesis mechanism of the diamond films in methanol- and argon-mixed atmosphere was discussed. PMID:27644241

  11. Are the argon metastables important in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, J. T., E-mail: tumi@hi.is [Department of Space and Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Lundin, D.; Minea, T. M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et Plasmas - LPGP, UMR 8578 CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Stancu, G. D. [CentraleSupélec, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); CNRS, UPR 288 Laboratoire EM2C, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Brenning, N. [Department of Space and Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Plasma and Coatings Physics Division, IFM-Materials Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-11-15

    We use an ionization region model to explore the ionization processes in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge in argon with a titanium target. In conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS), stepwise ionization can be an important route for ionization of the argon gas. However, in the HiPIMS discharge stepwise ionization is found to be negligible during the breakdown phase of the HiPIMS pulse and becomes significant (but never dominating) only later in the pulse. For the sputtered species, Penning ionization can be a significant ionization mechanism in the dcMS discharges, while in the HiPIMS discharge Penning ionization is always negligible as compared to electron impact ionization. The main reasons for these differences are a higher plasma density in the HiPIMS discharge, and a higher electron temperature. Furthermore, we explore the ionization fraction and the ionized flux fraction of the sputtered vapor and compare with recent experimental work.

  12. Novel Diamond Films Synthesis Strategy: Methanol and Argon Atmosphere by Microwave Plasma CVD Method Without Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Jiang, Caiyi; Guo, Shenghui; Zhang, Libo; Gao, Jiyun; Peng, Jinhui; Hu, Tu; Wang, Liang

    2016-09-01

    Diamond thin films are grown on silicon substrates by only using methanol and argon mixtures in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor. It is worth mentioning that the novel strategy makes the synthesis reaction works smoothly without hydrogen atmosphere, and the substrates temperature is only 500 °C. The evidence of surface morphology and thickness under different time is obtained by characterizing the samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectrum reveals that the preferential orientation of (111) plane sample is obtained. The Raman spectra indicate that the dominant component of all the samples is a diamond. Moreover, the diamond phase content of the targeted films was quantitatively analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method, and the surface roughness of diamond films was investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM). Meanwhile, the possible synthesis mechanism of the diamond films in methanol- and argon-mixed atmosphere was discussed.

  13. Merging of high speed argon plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, A.; Messer, S.; Brockington, S.; Wu, L.; Witherspoon, F. D. [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, Virginia 22180 (United States); Elton, R. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Formation of an imploding plasma liner for the plasma liner experiment (PLX) requires individual plasma jets to merge into a quasi-spherical shell of plasma converging on the origin. Understanding dynamics of the merging process requires knowledge of the plasma phenomena involved. We present results from the study of the merging of three plasma jets in three dimensional geometry. The experiments were performed using HyperV Technologies Corp. 1 cm Minirailguns with a preionized argon plasma armature. The vacuum chamber partially reproduces the port geometry of the PLX chamber. Diagnostics include fast imaging, spectroscopy, interferometry, fast pressure probes, B-dot probes, and high speed spatially resolved photodiodes, permitting measurements of plasma density, temperature, velocity, stagnation pressure, magnetic field, and density gradients. These experimental results are compared with simulation results from the LSP 3D hybrid PIC code.

  14. Large vessel sealing with the argon laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R A; Kopchok, G; Donayre, C; Lyons, R; White, G; Klein, S R; Pizzurro, D; Abergel, R P; Dwyer, R M; Uitto, J

    1987-01-01

    This study compared the histology, biochemistry, and tensile strength of laser-welded and sutured canine venotomies, arteriotomies, and arteriovenous fistulas. Twelve animals had bilateral femoral vessels studied, with one repair (control) closed with interrupted 6-0 polypropylene sutures, and the contralateral repair (experimental) welded with the argon laser. Specimens were examined at weekly intervals from 1 to 4 weeks (four animals for each type of repair), and were evaluated histologically by hematoxylin and eosin, elastin, and trichrome stains; biochemically by the formation of [3H]hydroxyproline as an index of collagen synthesis; and mechanically by tensile strength determinations. At removal, all experimental closures were patent without hematomas, aneurysms, or luminal dilatation. Histologic and biochemical examination and tensile strength determinations suggest that laser welding may be an alternative to sutures for repair of large-diameter venotomies, arteriotomies, and arteriovenous fistulas, as healing is comparable to that seen with suture repairs up to 4 weeks postoperatively. PMID:3306233

  15. Vascular Welding Using The Argon Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rodney A.; Donayre, Carlos; Kopchok, George; White, Geoffrey; Abergel, R. Patrick; Lyons, Richard; Klein, Stanley; Dwyer, Richard; Uitto, Jouni

    1987-03-01

    This study compared the histology, biochemistry, and tensile strength of laser welded and sutured canine venotomies, arteriotomies and arteriovenous fistulas. Bilateral femoral, carotid or jugular vessels were studied with one repair (control) closed with interrupted 6-0 polypropylene sutures, and the contralatral repair (experimental) welded with the argon laser. Specimens were examined at weekly intervals from 1 to 4 weeks for each type of repair and evaluated histologically by hematoxylineosin, elastin and trichrome stains, biochemically by the formation of [3H] hyaroxyproline as an index of collagen synthesis, ana mechanically by tensile strength determinations. At removal, all experimental closures were patent without hematomas, aneurysms or luminal dilatation. Histologic and biochemical examination and tensile strength determinations suggest that laser welaing may be an alternative to sutures for repair of large diameter venotomies, arteriotomies and arteriovenous fistulas, as they heal comparable to suture repairs up to 4 weeks postoperatively.

  16. Commissioning of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Rezaie, Erfan

    ATLAS, a multi-purpose detector built at the LHC at CERN, requires an extensive commissioning campaign to be ready for proton-proton collisions. In this work, we focus on the commissioning of the liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters, with emphasis on commissioning with cosmic rays. First we outline one phase of the commissioning work, which involves testing of the front-end electronics of the two endcap calorimeters. We then describe two cosmic ray generators as input to a Monte-Carlo simulation of cosmic rays in ATLAS, and compare their results. Finally, we explain a technique developed for this work which uses information from the Tile calorimeters to predict the timing of cosmic rays within the LAr calorimeters, because cosmic rays occur randomly in time whereas the electronics are clocked at [Special characters omitted.] . The results from this analysis tool are compared to default tools, using both simulated and real cosmic ray data in the calorimeters.

  17. Development of a Low-Level Ar-37 Calibration Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Humble, Paul H.; Keillor, Martin E.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen

    2016-03-07

    Argon-37 is an important environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level 37Ar standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments for use during an On-Site Inspection, a key provision of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the development of a process to generate and quantify low-level 37Ar standard material, which can then be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. The 37Ar used for our work was generated using a laboratory-scale, high-energy neutron source to irradiate powdered samples of calcium carbonate. Small aliquots of 37Ar were then extracted from the head space of the irradiated samples. The specific activity of the head space samples, mixed with P10 (90% stable argon:10% methane by mole fraction) count gas, is then derived using the accepted Length-Compensated Internal-Source Proportional Counting method. Due to the low activity of the samples, a set of three Ultra-Low Background Proportional-Counters designed and fabricated at PNNL from radio-pure electroformed copper was used to make the measurements in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory. Very low background levels (<10 counts/day) have been observed in the spectral region near the 37Ar emission feature at 2.8 keV. Two separate samples from the same irradiation were measured. The first sample was counted for 12 days beginning 28 days after irradiation, the second sample was counted for 24 days beginning 70 days after irradiation (the half-life of 37Ar is 35.0 days). Both sets of measurements were analyzed and yielded very similar results for the starting activity (~0.1 Bq) and activity concentration (0.15 mBq/ccSTP argon) after P10 count gas was added. A detailed uncertainty model was developed based on the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in

  18. Argon laser induced changes to the carbonate content of enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argon laser irradiation can be used to cure orthodontic brackets onto teeth in significantly less time than conventional curing lights. In addition, it has been shown that the argon laser seems to impart a demineralization resistance to the enamel. The purpose of this study was to use surface science techniques to ascertain if this demineralization resistance is possibly a result of a decrease in the carbonate content of enamel. Eleven mandibular third molars previously scheduled for extraction were collected and used in the present study. The teeth were sectioned in two and randomly assigned to either the argon laser (457-502 nm; 250 mW cm-2) or the control (no treatment) group. The sections assigned to the argon laser group were cured for 10 s and analyzed. To exaggerate any potential changes the experimental sections were then exposed to a further 110 s of argon laser irradiation. Surface analysis was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The results showed no statistically significant change in the carbonate content of enamel after argon laser irradiation (p > 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that any demineralization resistance imparted to the enamel surface by argon laser irradiation is not due to alterations in carbonate content.

  19. LArGe - A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    OpenAIRE

    Heisel, M.(Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany)

    2011-01-01

    LArGe is a Gerda low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the Gerda experiment. Gerda searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m3 of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m3 (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used...

  20. Practical reactor production of {sup 41}Ar from argon clathrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.R. E-mail: jmercer@pharmacy.ualberta.ca; Duke, M.J.M.; McQuarrie, S.A

    2000-06-01

    The radionuclide {sup 41}Ar has many ideal properties as a gas flow tracer. However, the modest cross-section of {sup 40}Ar for thermal neutron activation makes preparation of suitable activities of {sup 41}Ar technically difficult particularly for low flux reactors. Argon can however be trapped in a molecular complex called a clathrate that can then be irradiated. We prepared argon clathrate and explored its irradiation and stability characteristics. Argon clathrate can be used to provide gigabecquerel quantities of {sup 41}Ar even with low power reactors.

  1. Measurement of neutrino interactions in gaseous argon with T2K

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The T2K near-detector, ND280, employs three large argon gas TPCs (Time Projection Chambers) for particle tracking and identification. The gas inside the TPCs can be used as an active target to study the neutrino interactions in great detail. The low density of the gas leads to very low track energy thresholds, allowing the reconstruction of very low momentum tracks, e.g. protons with kinetic energies down to $\\mathcal{O}$(1 MeV). Since different nuclear interaction models vary considerably in their predictions of those low momentum track multiplicities, this makes neutrino interactions on gases a powerful probe to test those models. The TPCs operate with an argon-based gas mixture (95% by volume) and have been exposed to the T2K neutrino beam since the beginning of the experiment in 2010. Due to the low total mass of the gas, neutrino argon interactions happen only rarely, compared to the surrounding scintillator-based detectors. We expect about 600 such events in the recorded data so far (about 200 in the fi...

  2. CAPTAIN-Minerνa. Neutrino-Argon Scattering in a Medium-Energy Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The NuMI facility at Fermilab is currently providing an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the NOνA, MINERνA and MINOS+ experiments. By installing the 5-ton CAPTAIN liquid argon TPC in front of the MINERνA detector in the NuMI beamline and combining the data from the CAPTAIN, MINERνA and MINOS+ detectors, a broad program of few-GeV neutrino cross section measurements on argon can be pursued. These measurements will be extremely helpful for future oscillation experiments. By directly comparing the cross sections on argon to MINERνA’s scintillator (CH) target, a new level of precision can be achieved in the measurements of the effects of the nucleus on neutrino interactions. These effects are of interest to not only the particle physics but also the nuclear physics community. This document describes in detail the physics goals of the CAPTAIN-MINERνA experiment, in addition to a first estimate of the technical resources required to install, commission and operate the CAPTAIN detector in front of the MINERVA detector.

  3. Demonstration and Comparison of Operation of Photomultiplier Tubes at Liquid Argon Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R; Boffelli, F; Cambiaghi, M; Canci, N; Cavanna, F; Cocco, A G; Di Pompeo, F; Fiorillo, G; Galbiati, C; Grandi, L; Kryczynski, P; Meng, G; Montanari, C; Palamara, O; Pandola, L; Perfetto, F; Mortari, G B Piano; Pietropaolo, F; Raselli, G L; Rossella, M; Rubbia, C; Segreto, E; Szelc, A M; Triossi, A; Ventura, S; Vignoli, C; Zani, A

    2011-01-01

    Liquified noble gases are widely used as a target in direct Dark Matter searches. Signals from scintillation in the liquid, following energy deposition from the recoil nuclei scattered by Dark Matter particles (e.g. WIMPs), should be recorded down to very low energies by photosensors suitably designed to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Liquid Argon based detectors for Dark Matter searches currently implement photo multiplier tubes for signal read-out. In the last few years PMTs with photocathodes operating down to liquid Argon temperatures (87 K) have been specially developed with increasing Quantum Efficiency characteristics. The most recent of these, Hamamatsu Photonics Mod. R11065 with peak QE up to about 35%, has been extensively tested within the R&D program of the WArP Collaboration. During these testes the Hamamatsu PMTs showed superb performance and allowed obtaining a light yield around 7 phel/keVee in a Liquid Argon detector with a photocathodic coverage in the 12% range, sufficient for detec...

  4. The Effects of Dissolved Methane upon Liquid Argon Scintillation Light

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B J P; Back, H O; Collin, G; Conrad, J M; Greene, A; Katori, T; Pordes, S; Toups, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report on measurements of the effects of dissolved methane upon argon scintillation light. We monitor the light yield from an alpha source held 20 cm from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube (PMT) assembly as methane is injected into a high-purity liquid argon volume. We observe significant suppression of the scintillation light yield by dissolved methane at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. By examining the late scintillation light time constant, we determine that this loss is caused by an absorption process and also see some evidence of methane-induced scintillation quenching at higher concentrations (50-100 ppb). Using a second PMT assembly we look for visible re-emission features from the dissolved methane which have been reported in gas-phase argon methane mixtures, and we find no evidence of visible re-emission from liquid-phase argon methane mixtures at concentrations between 10 ppb and 0.1%.

  5. Evidence of electric breakdown induced by bubbles in liquid argon

    CERN Document Server

    Bay, F; Murphy, S; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Sergiampietri, F; Wu, S

    2014-01-01

    We report on the results of a high voltage test in liquid argon in order to measure its dielectric rigidity. Under stable conditions and below the boiling point, liquid argon was found to sustain a uniform electric field of 100 kV/cm, applied in a region of 20 cm$^2$ area across 1 cm thick gap. When the liquid is boiling, breakdowns may occur at electric fields as low as 40 kV/cm. This test is one of the R&D efforts towards the Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment (GLACIER) as proposed Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) for the LBNO observatory for neutrino physics, astrophysics and nucleon decay searches.

  6. A purity monitoring system for liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For liquid argon calorimeters electronegative impurities dissolved in the medium degrade the detector response and deteriorate the energy resolution, especially at high energies. A concept for a purity monitoring system for liquid argon calorimeters has been developed and is presented here. Special combined monitors of 241Am- and 207Bi-cells are used to monitor the concentration of impurities. The working principle as well as results from test measurements are discussed

  7. Size Determination of Argon Clusters from a Rayleigh Scattering Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI An-Le; ZHAI Hua-Jin; LIU Bing-Chen; LI Zhong; NI Guo-Yuan; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2000-01-01

    Argon clusters are produced in the process of adiabatic expansion of a high backing pressure gas into vacuum through a nozzle. The cluster size is determined by a Rayleigh scattering measurement. The scattered signal measured is proportional to the 2.78th power of gas stagnation pressure. The average cluster sizes vary from 100 to more than 12000 atoms/cluster with the argon gas backing pressures ranging between 3 to 45 atm.

  8. Pulse shape discrimination studies in a liquid Argon scintillation detector

    OpenAIRE

    Pollmann, T.

    2007-01-01

    Liquid rare gases have been gaining popularity as detector media in rare event searches, especially dark matter experiments, and one factor driving their adoption is the possibility to recognise different types of ionizing radiation by the pulse shapes they evoke. This work on pulse shape discrimination in a liquid argon scintillation detector was done in the framework of the GERDA experiment, where liquid argon scintillation signals may be used for background suppression purposes. Liquid arg...

  9. Power Consideration for Pulsed Discharges in Potassium Seeded Argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Sheng-Guo; HE Jun-Jia; LIU Ke-Fu

    2007-01-01

    Minimization of energy consumed in plasma generation is critical for applications, in which a large volume of plasmas is needed. We suggest that a high electron density atmospheric pressure plasmas can be generated by pulsed discharges in potassium seeded argon at an elevated temperature with a very small power input. The ionization efficiency and power budget of pulsed discharges in such plasmas are analytically studied. The results show that ionization efficiency of argon, especially at small reduced electric field E/N (the ratio of the electric field to the gas number density), is improved effectively in the presence of small amount of potassium additives. Power input of pulsed discharge to sustain a prescribed average level of ionization in potassium seeded argon is three orders of magnitude lower than that in pure argon. Further, unlike in pure argon, it is found that very short high-voltage pulses with very high repetition rates are unnecessary in potassium seeded argon. A pulse with 100ns of pulse duration, 5kHz of repetition rate, and 2Td (1 Td = 1 ×10-21 Vm2) of E/N is enough to sustain an electron density of 10l9m-3 in 1 atm 1500 K Ar+0.1% K mixture, with a very small power input of about 0.08 × 104 W/m3.

  10. Energy resolution for α-particles in doped liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes experiments on the effect of allene doped in liquid argon. In the case of doped argon, a large amount of charge is obtained even at low electric fields and the measured charge increases with the field gradually. This can be explained as follows; part of deposited energy which does not form charge in pure argon contributes to charge signal in doped argon through scintillation photons which ionize allene molecules. The main factors determining the energy resolution for α-particles are considered to be (1) fluctuation in the number of produced ion-electron pairs as expressed by the Fano factor, (2) fluctuation in recombination process, (3) fluctuation in photoionization, (4) fluctuation due to the condition of radioactive source and surface of electrodes, (5) fluctuation in geometrical efficiency due to the range and emission angle of α-particles in liquid argon, and (6) electronic noise of amplifier. The factors (1) and (3) can be neglected because of a large number of associated electrons or photons. In pure liquid argon, the factor (2) may be a cause of bad resolution since the fraction of the produced ion-electron paris which do not recombine is small and the photoionization process never occurs for photons emitted through recombination. (N.K.)

  11. New argon-argon (40Ar/39Ar) radiometric age dates from selected subsurface basalt flows at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary K.; Turrin, Brent D.; Champion, Duane E.; Swisher, Carl C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 12 new argon-argon radiometric ages from eastern Snake River Plain olivine tholeiite basalt flows in the subsurface at the Idaho National Laboratory. The core samples were collected from flows that had previously published paleomagnetic data. Samples were sent to Rutgers University for argon-argon radiometric dating analyses.

  12. Evolution of Martian atmospheric argon: Implications for sources of volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Kevin S.; Jakosky, Bruce M.

    We have examined processes affecting isotopes of argon (36Ar, 38Ar, 40Ar) in order to determine important atmospheric sources and sinks. Our simple model for argon evolution incorporates production of radiogenic argon in the mantle, outgassing of all argon species by extrusive and intrusive volcanism, and loss to space by knock-on sputtering above the exobase. Sputtering has been shown previously to be an important loss process for atmospheric species, especially isotopes of noble gases, which have few other mechanisms of escape. The integrated evolution of argon (36Ar, 38Ar, and 40Ar, respectively) is modeled in terms of these variables: (1) the planetary concentration of potassium, (2) the fraction of juvenile argon released catastrophically during the first 600 Myr., (3) potential variation in the time-history of sputtering loss from that suggested by Luhmann et al. [1992], and (4) the volume of total outgassing to the surface as compared to outgassing contributed by volcanic release. Our results indicate that Mars has lost between 85-95% of 36Ar and 70-88% of outgassed 40Ar. Due to this substantial loss, the planet must have outgassed the equivalent of between 10 and 100 times the total volume of gases released by extrusive and intrusive volcanics. This indicates that volcanic outgassing, alone, is insufficient to explain the present-day abundances of 36Ar and 40Ar in the Martian atmosphere. Similar calculations for 20Ne suggest outgassed volumes of between 100 and 1800 times in excess of that due to volcanism. This results in a distinct Ne/Ar elemental fractionation, with a preference for outgassing argon, of the order of 10 to 17. Although the results must be evaluated within the model uncertainties, the results are compelling in that they unequivocally show the existence of additional sources of atmospheric volatiles and helps define a means to identify them.

  13. Characterisation of GERDA Phase-I detectors in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERDA will search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge by submerging bare enriched HPGe detectors in liquid argon. In GERDA Phase-I, reprocessed enriched-Ge detectors, which were previously operated by the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX collaborations, and reprocessed natural-Ge detectors from Genius-TF, will be redeployed. We have tested the operation and performance of bare HPGe detectors in liquid nitrogen and in liquid argon over more than three years with three non-enriched p-type prototype detectors. The detector handling and mounting procedures have been defined and the Phase-I detector technology, the low-mass assembly and the long-term stability in liquid argon have been tested successfully. The Phase-I detectors were reprocessed by Canberra Semiconductor NV, Olen, according to their standard technology but without the evaporation of a passivation layer. After their reprocessing, the detectors have been mounted in their low-mass holders and their characterisation in liquid argon performed. The leakage current, the counting characteristics and the efficiency of the detectors have been measured. The testing of the detectors was carried out in the liquid argon test stand of the GERDA underground Detector Laboratory (GDL) at LNGS. The detectors are now stored underground under vacuum until their operation in GERDA.

  14. The Spectroscopic Detectability of Argon in the Lunar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, J W; Gladstone, G R; Shull, J M; Parker, Joel Wm.

    1999-01-01

    Direct measurements of the abundance of argon in the lunar atmosphere were made in 1973 by instruments placed on the Moon during the Apollo 17 mission, but the total daytime abundance is unknown due to instrument saturation effects; thus, until we are able to return to the Moon for improved direct measurements, we must use remote sensing to establish the daytime abundance. In this paper, we present a complete analysis of the potential for measuring argon in the lunar atmosphere via emission-line or absorption-line observations. We come to the surprising conclusion that the lower limit established by the in situ lunar argon measurements implies that any absorption-line measurement of argon in the lower, dayside lunar atmosphere requires analysis in the optically-thick regime. In light of this result, we present the results of our EUVS sounding rocket observations of the lunar occultation of Spica, which provide a new upper limit on the abundance of argon in the daytime lunar atmosphere. We also re-analyze a re...

  15. Ion impact induced Interatomic Coulombic Decay in neon and argon dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H -K; Schöffler, M S; Titze, J N; Waitz, M; Voigtsberger, J; Trinter, F; Becht, J; Kalinin, A; Neumann, N; Zhou, C; Schmidt, L Ph H; Jagutzki, O; Czasch, A; Merabet, H; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Jahnke, T; Cassimi, A; Dörner, R

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the contribution of Interatomic Coulombic Decay induced by ion impact in neon and argon dimers (Ne$_2$ and Ar$_2$) to the production of low energy electrons. Our experiments cover a broad range of perturbation strengths and reaction channels. We use 11.37 MeV/u S$^{14+}$, 0.125 MeV/u He$^{1+}$, 0.1625 MeV/u He$^{1+}$ and 0.150 MeV/u He$^{2+}$ as projectiles and study ionization, single and double electron transfer to the projectile as well as projectile electron loss processes. The application of a COLTRIMS reaction microscope enables us to retrieve the three-dimensional momentum vectors of the ion pairs of the fragmenting dimer into Ne$^{q+}$/Ne$^{1+}$ and Ar$^{q+}$/Ar$^{1+}$ (q = 1, 2, 3) in coincidence with at least one emitted electron.

  16. 37. Fais dodo, Colas

    OpenAIRE

    Delarue, Georges; Massignon, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    A) M. Jérôme Bujold, Saint-Jules-de-Maria (Bonaventure), P. Q. 1946 : Recueillie en décembre 1946 Notée par une personne de l’entourage du chanteur. MÉLODIE 37-A Fais dodo, mon titi, mon Colas,Fais dodo, mon titi, mon Colas.Quand papa reviendraApport’ra des p’tits chats.Fais dodo, mon titi, mon p’tit frère,Fais dodo, mon titi, mon Colas. B) Mme Edouard Savoie, Haut-Lamèque (Gloucester), N.-B. 46 : Recueillie en août 1946. PAS DE MÉLODIE NOTÉE Fais dodo, Colas mon p’tit frère,Fais dodo, t’aura...

  17. Metastable argon beam source using a surface wave sustained plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new source of metastable argon atoms in the thermal energy range is reported. The source is based on expanding a plasma sustained by electromagnetic surface waves in a quartz tube through a converging nozzle and extracting a beam from the supersonic free-expansion jet. The beam was characterized by time-of-flight measurements which yielded the absolute intensity and velocity distribution of the argon metastables. The source produced a maximum intensity of 6.2x1014 metastables per second per steradian, the highest time-averaged intensity of thermal argon metastables of any source reported to date. A simple picture of an expanding plasma in a recombination regime is used to explain the dependence of the metastable intensity on absorbed power

  18. On the electric breakdown in liquid argon at centimeter scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, M.; Blatter, A.; Ereditato, A.; Goeldi, D.; Janos, S.; Kreslo, I.; Luethi, M.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Strauss, T.; Weber, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a study on the dependence of electric breakdown discharge properties on electrode geometry and the breakdown field in liquid argon near its boiling point. The measurements were performed with a spherical cathode and a planar anode at distances ranging from 0.1 mm to 10.0 mm. A detailed study of the time evolution of the breakdown volt-ampere characteristics was performed for the first time. It revealed a slow streamer development phase in the discharge. The results of a spectroscopic study of the visible light emission of the breakdowns complement the measurements. The light emission from the initial phase of the discharge is attributed to electro-luminescence of liquid argon following a current of drifting electrons. These results contribute to set benchmarks for breakdown-safe design of ionization detectors, such as Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPC).

  19. The Simulation of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, J P; Carli, T; Costanzo, D; Dell'Acqua, A; Djama, F; Gallas, M; Fincke-Keeler, M; Khakzad, M; Kiryunin, A; Krieger, P; Leltchouk, M; Loch, P; Ma, H; Menke, S; Monnier, E; Nairz, A; Niess, V; Oakham, G; Oram, C; Pospelov, G; Rajagopalan, S; Rimoldi, A; Rousseau, D; Rutherfoord, J; Seligman, W; Soukharev, A; Strízenec, P; Tóth, J; Tsukerman, I; Tsulaia, V; Unal, G; Grahn, K J

    2008-01-01

    In ATLAS, all of the electromagnetic calorimetry and part of the hadronic calorimetry is performed by a calorimeter system using liquid argon as the active material, together with various types of absorbers. The liquid argon calorimeter consists of four subsystems: the electromagnetic barrel and endcap accordion calorimeters; the hadronic endcap calorimeters, and the forward calorimeters. A very accurate geometrical description of these calorimeters is used as input to the Geant 4-based ATLAS simulation, and a careful modelling of the signal development is applied in the generation of hits. Certain types of Monte Carlo truth information ("Calibration Hits") may, additionally, be recorded for calorimeter cells as well as for dead material. This note is a comprehensive reference describing the simulation of the four liquid argon calorimeteter components.

  20. Energy resolution studies of liquid argon ionization detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gridded ionization chamber was used to study the energy resolution in liquid argon with electrons from a 207Bi radioactive source. Argon was purified in the gas phase with a simple and reliable system, capable of reducing the impurity level below 1 ppb O2 equivalent, as inferred by a pulse shape analysis of the ionization signals. The electron spectrum was measured at different drift fields, up to 10.9 KV/cm. At this maximum field, a total energy resolution of 32 keV (fwhm), corresponding to a noise-subtracted energy resolution of 26 keV (fwhm), was obtained for the 976 keV conversion electron line. This value is the best reported so far in liquid argon but is still a factor of seven worse than the theoretical limit set by the Fano factor. The reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-3 Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications \\\\ \\\\Good electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry will play a central role in an LHC detector. Among the techniques used so far, or under development, the liquid argon sampling calorimetry offers high radiation resistence, good energy resolution (electromagnetic and hadronic), excellent calibration stability and response uniformity. Its rate capabilities, however, do not yet match the requirements for LHC. \\\\ \\\\The aim of this proposal is to improve the technique in such a way that high granularity, good hermiticity and adequate rate capabilities are obtained, without compromising the above mentioned properties. To reach this goal, we propose to use a novel structure, the $^{\\prime\\prime}$accordion$^{\\prime\\prime}$, coupled to fast preamplifiers working at liquid argon temperature. Converter and readout electrodes are no longer planar and perpendicular to particles, as usual, but instead they are wiggled around a plane containing particles. ...

  2. A therapeutic experience on Port Wine hemangiomas with Argon Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahvash M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Port wine stains are benign but cosmetically devasting congenital angiomas. The argon laser is a therapeutic device newly applied to this condition. Our program was begun 6 years ago. From the beginning, the study was conceived as a clinical investigation of both the port wine stain and its argon laser therapy. A total of 218 patients with port wine stains have been studied and many aspects of their clinical condition detailed. Employing the Argon laser, test spots have been carried out in patients and the results have been analyzed with clinical aspects of the lesions. Altogether, 501 treatments were performed in 218 patients. Good to excellent results were obtained in 81 patients. Moderate Result was obtained in 31 weak result in 65 patients. Most common complication were hyperpigmentation and depressed scar.

  3. On the Electric Breakdown in Liquid Argon at Centimeter Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, M; Ereditato, A; Goeldi, D; Janos, S; Kreslo, I; Luethi, M; von Rohr, C Rudolf; Strauss, T; Weber, M S

    2015-01-01

    We present a study on the dependence of electric breakdown discharge parameters on electrode geometry and the breakdown field in liquid argon near its boiling point. The measurements were performed with a spherical cathode and a planar anode at distances ranging from 0.1 mm to 10.0 mm. A detailed study of the time evolution of the breakdown volt-ampere characteristics was performed for the first time. It revealed a slow streamer development phase in the discharge. The results of a spectroscopic study of the visible light emission of the breakdowns complement the measurements. The light emission from the initial phase of the discharge is attributed to electro-luminescence of liquid argon following a current of drifting electrons. These results contribute to set benchmarks for breakdown-safe design of ionization detectors, such as Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPC).

  4. Bacterial inactivation/sterilization by argon plasma treatment on contaminated titanium implant surfaces:In vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Marco; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Caputo, Pina; Nastri, Livia; Guida, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background Surface treatment by argon plasma is widely used as the last step of the manufacturing process of titanium implant fixtures before their sterilization by gamma rays. The possibility of using such a technology in the daily clinical practice is particularly fascinating. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the argon plasma treatment on different titanium implant surfaces previously exposed In vitro to bacterial contamination. Material and Methods Sterile c.p. titanium implant discs with turned (T, Sa: 0.8 µm ), sandblasted/acid-etched (SAE, Sa: 1.3 µm) and titanium plasma sprayed (TPS, Sa: 3.0µm) surface were used in this study. A strain of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC3718 was grown at 37°C under anaerobic conditions for 24 h and then transferred on six discs for each of the three surface types. After 24 hours, a half of the contaminated discs (control group) were directly used to evaluate the colony forming units (CFUs). The other half of the contaminated discs (test group) were treated in an argon plasma chamber for 12 minutes at room temperature prior to be analyzed for CFU counting. All assays were performed using triplicate samples of each material in 3 different experiments. Results When the CFU counting was carried out on control discs, a total of 1.50x106±1.4x105, 1.55x106±7.07x104 and 3.15x106±2.12x105 CFU was respectively assessed for T, SAE and TPS discs, without statistically significant differences among the three surfaces. On the contrary, any trace of bacterial contamination was assessed for titanium discs treated in the argon plasma chamber prior to be analyzed, irrespectively to the implant surface tested. Conclusions Within the limit of this study, reported data suggested that the argon plasma technology could be efficiently used to decontaminate/sterilize previously infected titanium implant surfaces. Key words:Argon plasma, titanium implant surface, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. PMID

  5. Vaporization kinetics of Sb2S3 in argon fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 华一新

    2003-01-01

    The vaporization kinetics of antimony trisulfide in argon fluid was studied with thermogravimetry at 873- 1 173 K. A theoretical model was developed to calculate the overall rate constant and the mass transfer coefficient ingas phase. The experimental results show that the vaporization rate is enhanced with increasing temperature and ar-gon flow-rate. The evaporation rate is mainly controlled by mass transport in the gas phase. The apparent activationenergy for the process is found to be 55.54 kJ/mol. It is demonstrated that the mass transfer coefficient in gas phaseis decreased with increasing temperature.

  6. Modelling of a supersonic ICP argon-hydrogen expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expanding argon-hydrogen plasma is investigated by means of simulations. The model is a hydrodynamical model specific for plasma expansions, taking into account the conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy. The code includes the Rankine-Hugoniot relations to calculate shock jump conditions. Results are shown for the expansion from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with a separated Laval nozzle. The expansion discussed here is a 'weakly' under-expanding argon-hydrogen plasma. The results from the ICP expansion are verified with probe measurements

  7. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Sharma; N Camus; B Fischer; M Kremer; A Rudenko; B Bergues; M Kuebel; N G Johnson; M F Kling; T Pfeifer; J Ullrich; R Moshammer

    2014-01-01

    In this work we explored strong field-induced decay of doubly excited transient Coulomb complex Ar** → Ar2++2. We measured the correlated two-electron emission as a function of carrier envelop phase (CEP) of 6 fs pulses in the non-sequential double ionization (NSDI) of argon. Classical model calculations suggest that the intermediate doubly excited Coulomb complex loses memory of its formation dynamics. We estimated the ionization time difference between the two electrons from NSDI of argon and it is 200 ± 100 as (N Camus et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 073003 (2012)).

  8. A simple but accurate potential for the naphthalene-argon complex: applications to collisional energy transfer and matrix isolated IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, F; Falvo, Cyril; Parneix, Pascal

    2013-01-21

    An explicit polarizable potential for the naphthalene-argon complex has been derived assuming only atomic contributions, aiming at large scale simulations of naphthalene under argon environment. The potential was parametrized from dedicated quantum chemical calculations at the CCSD(T) level, and satisfactorily reproduces available structural and energetic properties. Combining this potential with a tight-binding model for naphthalene, collisional energy transfer is studied by means of dedicated molecular dynamics simulations, nuclear quantum effects being accounted for in the path-integral framework. Except at low target temperature, nuclear quantum effects do not alter the average energies transferred by the collision or the collision duration. However, the distribution of energy transferred is much broader in the quantum case due to the significant zero-point energy and the higher density of states. Using an ab initio potential for the Ar-Ar interaction, the IR absorption spectrum of naphthalene solvated by argon clusters or an entire Ar matrix is computed via classical and centroid molecular dynamics. The classical spectra exhibit variations with growing argon environment that are absent from quantum spectra. This is interpreted by the greater fluxional character experienced by the argon atoms due to vibrational delocalization.

  9. Time- and space-resolved spectroscopic characterization of a laser carbon plasma plume in an argon background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present time- and space-resolved spectroscopic observations of a laser-produced carbon plasma, in an argon background. An Nd : YAG laser pulse, 370 mJ, 3.5 ns, at 1.06 µm, with a fluence of 6.9 J cm−2, is used to produce a plasma from a solid graphite target in a 0.5 to 415 mTorr argon background. The spectral emission in the visible is recorded with 15 ns time resolution. We use 20 ns time resolution plasma imaging, filtered at characteristic carbon species emission wavelengths, to study the dynamics of the expanding plasma. The carbon plasma emission is found to evolve from the characteristic of single ionized carbon, to a more complex one, where C2 and C3 molecular bands dominate. Several plasma fronts, with either ionic or molecular composition, are seen to detach from the laser target plasma. The temporal and spatial features of the molecular carbon species evolution are found to be dependent on the actual argon background pressure. (paper)

  10. Lessons from Rotor 37

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.D.Denton

    1997-01-01

    NASA rotor 37 was used as a blind test case for turbomachinery CFD by the Turbomachinery Committee of the IGTI.The rotor is a transonic compressor with a tip speed of 454 m/s(1500ft/s)and a relatively high pressure ratio of 2.1.It was tested in isolation with a circumferentially uniform inlet flow so that the flow through it should be steady apart from and effects of passage to passage geometry variation and mechanical vibration.As such it represents the simplest possible type of test for three-dimensional turbomachinery flow solvers.Howerver,the rotor still presents a real challenge to 3D viscous flow solvers because the shock wave-boudary layer interaction is strong and the effects of viscosity are dominant in determining the flow deviation and hence the pressure ration.Eleven blind solutions were submittewd and in addition a non-blind solution was used to prepare for the exercies.This paper reviews the flow in the test case and the comparisons of the CFD solutions with the test data.Lessons for both the Flow physics in transonic fans and for the application of CFD to such machines are pointed out.

  11. Extremely Nonlinear Optics Using Shaped Pulses Spectrally Broadened in an Argon- or Sulfur Hexafluoride-Filled Hollow-Core Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoffmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present a comparison of the performance of spectrally broadened ultrashort pulses using a hollow-core fiber either filled with argon or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 for demanding pulse-shaping experiments. The benefits of both gases for pulse-shaping are studied in the highly nonlinear process of high-harmonic generation. In this setup, temporally shaping the driving laser pulse leads to spectrally shaping of the output extreme ultraviolet (XUV spectrum, where total yield and spectral selectivity in the XUV are the targets of the optimization approach. The effect of using sulfur hexafluoride for pulse-shaping the XUV yield can be doubled compared to pulse compression and pulse-shaping using argon and the spectral range for selective optimization of a single harmonic can be extended. The obtained results are of interest for extending the range of ultrafast science applications drawing on tailored XUV fields.

  12. Uranium-liquid argon calorimetry: preliminary results from the DO tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motivations for using uranium and liquid argon in sampling calorimetry are reviewed and the pros and cons of the technique are discussed. Preliminary results of the DO uranium-liquid argon test program are presented. 9 refs., 7 figs

  13. Optical emission spectroscopy of argon and hydrogen-containing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepa, Sarah; Danko, Stephan; Tsankov, Tsanko V.; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) on neutral argon is applied to investigate argon, hydrogen and hydrogen-silane plasmas. The spectra are analyzed using an extensive collisional-radiative model (CRM), from which the electron density and the electron temperature (or mean energy) can be calculated. The CRM also yields insight into the importance of different excited species and kinetic processes. The OES measurements are performed on pure argon plasmas at intermediate pressure. Besides, hydrogen and hydrogen-silane plasmas are investigated using argon as a trace gas. Especially for the gas mixture discharges, CRMs for low and high pressure differ substantially. The commonly used line-ratio technique is found to lose its sensitivity for gas mixture discharges at higher pressure. A solution using absolutely calibrated line intensities is proposed. The effect of radiation trapping and the shape of the electron energy distribution function on the results are discussed in detail, as they have been found to significantly influence the results. This work was supported by the Ruhr University Research School PLUS, funded by Germany's Excellence Initiative [DFG GSC 98/3].

  14. Measurement of the argon plasma temperature by use of pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes in detail how to use pyrometer to measure the plasma temperature. The temperatures of shock-generated argon plasmas are given in the present work. Measured results of temperature-pressure curve are compared with calculated results using Saha-Debye-Huckel model, which are in good agreement

  15. Turbulence and transport in a magnetized argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study on turbulence and transport in the highly ionized argon plasma of a hollow cathode discharge is described. In order to determine the plasma parameters three standard diagnostics have been used, whilst two diagnostics have been developed to study the plasma turbulence. (Auth.)

  16. Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q F; Zheng, J; Gu, Y J; Chen, Y L; Cai, L C; Shen, Z J

    2014-02-21

    In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ∼6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models. PMID:24559345

  17. Thermal decomposition of Yttrium(III) isovalerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Tang, Xiao;

    2016-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of yttrium(III) isovalerate (Y(C4H9CO2)3) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, FTIR-spectroscopy, hot-stage optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction with a laboratory Cu-tube source as well as with a synchrotron radiation source...

  18. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Tang, Xiao;

    2014-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate (Y(C4H9CO2)3) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, in-situ synchrotron diffraction and hot-stage microscopy as well as room temperature optical microscopy. Melting...

  19. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) hexanoate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Suarez Guevara, Maria Josefina; Attique, Fahmida;

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) hexanoate (Y(C5H11CO2)3)·xH2O in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction at a laboratory Cu-tube source and in-situ experiments at a synchrotron radiation source as well as hot...

  20. A 2-Dimensional Fluid Model for an Argon Rf Discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, J. D. P.; W. J. Goedheer,

    1993-01-01

    A fluid model for an argon rf discharge in a cylindrical discharge chamber is presented. The model contains the particle balances for electrons and ions and the electron energy balance. A nonzero autobias voltage is obtained by imposing the condition that the time-averaged current toward the powered

  1. Study of Liquid Argon Dopants for LHC Hadron Calorimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hadron calorimetry based on the Liquid Argon Ionisation Chamber technique is one of the choice techniques for LHC-experimentation. A systematic study of the effect of selected dopants on Liquid Argon (LAr) will be carried out with the aim to achieve an improvement on: \\item (i)~``Fast Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the drift velocity. It has been already shown that CH&sub4. added at a fraction of one percent increases the drift velocity by a factor of two or more. \\item (ii)~``Compensated Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the response to densely ionising particles, resulting in improved compensation, such as photosensitive dopants. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ Monitoring of the parameters involved in understanding the response of a calorimeter is essential. In case of doped LAr, the charge yield, the non-saturated drift velocity and the electron lifetime in the liquid should be precisely and simultaneously monitored as they all vary with the level of dopant concentrati...

  2. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m3 of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m3 (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 103 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10-2 cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural 42Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  3. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-04-13

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m{sup 3} of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m{sup 3} (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10{sup 3} have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural {sup 42}Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  4. Design of capsules capable of argon-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of the use of polycarbosilane capsules as fuel container in inertial confinement fusion experiments was analyzed in the paper. Primary study indicates that the polycarbosilane capsules can be filled with argon by means of diffusion and possess reasonable retention time for deuterium. (author)

  5. Conversion of an atomic to a molecular argon ion and low pressure argon relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, N. Stankov; A, P. Jovanović; V, Lj Marković; S, N. Stamenković

    2016-01-01

    The dominant process in relaxation of DC glow discharge between two plane parallel electrodes in argon at pressure 200 Pa is analyzed by measuring the breakdown time delay and by analytical and numerical models. By using the approximate analytical model it is found that the relaxation in a range from 20 to 60 ms in afterglow is dominated by ions, produced by atomic-to-molecular conversion of Ar+ ions in the first several milliseconds after the cessation of the discharge. This conversion is confirmed by the presence of double-Gaussian distribution for the formative time delay, as well as conversion maxima in a set of memory curves measured in different conditions. Finally, the numerical one-dimensional (1D) model for determining the number densities of dominant particles in stationary DC glow discharge and two-dimensional (2D) model for the relaxation are used to confirm the previous assumptions and to determine the corresponding collision and transport coefficients of dominant species and processes. Project supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Grant No. ON171025).

  6. Observations of acoustic-wave-induced superluminescence in an argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that in an argon discharge plasma it is possible to obtain overpopulation of certain electronic levels of atomic argon under the influence of acoustic waves. When the specified threshold is exceeded, then a superluminescence (in the form of light flashes) from the overpopulated electronic levels of atomic argon is observed

  7. 21 CFR 874.4490 - Argon laser for otology, rhinology, and laryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Argon laser for otology, rhinology, and laryngology. 874.4490 Section 874.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Argon laser for otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (a) Identification. The argon laser device for...

  8. Argon metastable dynamics and lifetimes in a direct current microdischarge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Ilija; Kuschel, Thomas; Schröter, Sandra; Böke, Marc

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we study the properties of a pulsed dc microdischarge with the continuous flow of argon. Argon metastable lifetimes are measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and are compared with calculated values which yield information about excitation and de-excitation processes. By increasing the gas flow-rate about 5 times from 10 to 50 sccm, the Arm lifetime increases from 1 to 5 μs due to the reduction of metastable quenching with gas impurities. Optical emission spectroscopy reveals nitrogen and water molecules as the main gas impurities. The estimated N2 density [N2] = 0.1% is too low to explain the measured metastable lifetimes. Water impurity was found to be the main de-excitation source of argon metastable atoms due to high quenching coefficients. The water impurity level of [H2O] = 0.15% to 1% is sufficient to bring calculated metastable lifetimes in line with experiments. The maximum value of water content in the discharge compared to the argon atoms is estimated to approximately 6%, due to the large surface to volume ratio of the microdischarge. The current pulse releases the water molecules from the electrode surface and they are either re-adsorbed in the time between 0.4 ms for [H2O] = 1% and 2.6 ms for [H2O] = 0.15% or pumped out of the discharge with the speed equal to the gas flow-rate. Depending on its partial pressure, the water impurity re-adsorption time is of the order of magnitude or less then the argon gas residence time.

  9. Pulse shape analysis of enriched BEGe detectors in vacuum cryostat and liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. Germanium diodes of BEGe type (Canberra, Belgium) made from isotopically modified material have been procured for Phase II of Gerda. They will improve the sensitivity of the experiment by additional target mass, improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. The PSD efficiencies of the new enriched BEGe detectors were studied in vacuum cryostats as part of the characterization campaign at the HADES underground laboratory. For a deeper understanding of the pulse shape performance of the enriched BEGe detectors, detailed {sup 241}Am surface scans were performed. Unexpectedly high position-dependence of the pulse shape parameter Amplitude-over-Energy was found for some of the detectors. With further investigation this effect was traced to surface charge effects specific to the operational configuration of the detectors inside the vacuum cryostats. The standard behavior is restored when they are operated in liquid argon in the configuration intended for Gerda Phase II. Finally, five of the enriched BEGe diodes were installed in the Gerda liquid argon cryostat prior to the full upgrade. They show a good performance and are able to reject efficiently multi-site-events as well as β- and α-particles.

  10. A Demonstration of Light Guides for Light Detection in Liquid Argon TPCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignarra, C. M.

    Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) are a developing technology that is becoming a popular choice for neutrino and dark matter experiments due to the low cost of the LAr as a target material and the high signal effciency and background rejection that these detectors can achieve. When excited by a passing charged particle created in a neutrino interaction, argon produces scintillation light at 128 nm. Several types of systems exist for detecting this light. Most involve shifting the wavelength of the light using Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB), resulting in visible light which is detected by a PMT.I will discuss our work on a new system under development for light detection in LAr which uses acrylic lightguides. The lightguides are coated with a thin film consisting of TPB embedded in polystyrene. This system could provide a solution to some of the issues associated with scaling existing systems for a larger future LAr detector. Though we are only in the preliminary stages of this R&D, we have shown that the results are already suffcient for triggering.

  11. Structural characterization of human Uch37

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgie, E. Sethe; Bingman, Craig A.; Soni, Ameet B.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2012-06-28

    Uch37 is a deubiquitylating enzyme (DUB) that is functionally linked with multiple protein complexes and signal transduction pathways. Uch37 associates with the 26S proteasome through Rpn13 where it serves to remove distal ubiquitin moeities from polyubiquitylated proteins. Uch37's proteasome associated activity was shown to liberate proteins from destruction. However, Uch37 may also specifically facilitate the destruction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and I{kappa}B-{alpha} at the proteasome. Wicks et al. established Uch37's potential to modulate the transforming growth factor-{beta}(TGF-{beta}) signaling cascade, through tis interaction with SMAD7. Yao et al. demonstrated that Uch37 also associates with the Ino80 chromatin-remodeling complex (Ino80 complex), which is involved in DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. Uch37's importance in metazoan development was underscored recently as Uch37 knockouts in mice result in prenatal lethality, where mutant embryos had severe defects in brain development. Protein ubiquitylation is an ATP-dependent post-translational modification that serves to signal a wide variety of cellular processes in eukaryotes. A protein cascade, generally comprising three enzymes, functions to activate, transport and specifically transfer ubiquitin to the targeted protein, culminating in an isopeptide linkage between the {epsilon}-amino group of a target protein's lysysl residue and the ubiquitin's terminal carboxylate. Monoubiquitination plays an important role in histone regulation, endocytosis, and viral budding. Further processing of the target protein may be accomplished by ubiquitylation of the protein on a different lysine, or through the formation of polyubiquitin chains, where the best-characterized outcome is destruction of the polyubiquitin-labeled protein in the proteasome. DUBs catalyze the removal of ubiquitin from proteins. This activity serves to reverse the effects of ubiquitination, permit

  12. EFFECTS OF ARGON ON THE PROPERTIES OF RF SPUTTERED AMORPHOUS SILICON

    OpenAIRE

    Shao-Qi, Peng; Qai, Yu; Xian, Zhang; Jing, Ye

    1981-01-01

    The Effects of argon on the properties of rf sputtered amorphous silicon film have been investigated. As the sputtering argon pressure is increased from 2 to 20 mTorr, the content of argon in the amorphous silicon film increases apparently (Argon/Silicon : from 10-2 to 5 x 10-2). The other properties measured as a function of argon pressure PAr show that as the PAr is increased, the photoconductivity, resistivity (300K), conductivity activation energy and optical gap increase also, while the ...

  13. Plasma diagnostics of the SIMPA Ecr ion source by X-ray spectroscopy, Collisions of H-like Neon ions with Argon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this thesis is devoted to the SIMPA ECR ion source characterization, first, I explored the ion source's capacities on the point of view of extracted currents for three elements, argon, krypton and neon. By analyzing the Bremsstrahlung spectra, I determined the electronic temperature in the plasma and the electronic and ionic densities. In a second time, I recorded high resolution X-spectra of argon and krypton plasma's. By taking into account the principal mechanisms of production of a K hole in the ions inside the plasma, I determined the ionic densities of the high charge states of argon. Lastly, I highlighted a correlation between the ions charge states densities with the intensities of extracted currents. The second part of the thesis is devoted to Ne9+- argon clusters collisions. First, I presented simple and effective theoretical models allowing to describe the phenomena occurring during a collision, from the point of view of the projectile. I carried out a simulation for a collision of an ion Ne9+ with an argon cluster of a given size, which has enabled us to know the energy levels populated during the electronic capture and to follow the number of electrons in each projectile shell. Lastly, I presented the first results of a collision between a Ne9+ beam and argon clusters. These results, have enabled me by using projectile X-ray spectroscopy during the ions-clusters collision, to evidence a strong clustering of targets atoms and to highlight an electronic multi-capture in the projectile ion excited states. (author)

  14. Narrow spectral width laser diode for metastable argon atoms pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Li, Bin; Wang, Xinbing; Zuo, Duluo

    2016-03-01

    Diode laser pump source with narrow emitting spectrum for optically pumped metastable rare gas laser (OPRGL) of argon was achieved by employing a complex external cavity coupled with volume Bragg grating (VBG). A commercially available c-mount laser diode with rated power of 6 W was used and studied in both the free running mode and VBG external cavity. The maximum output power of 3.9 W with FWHM less than 25 pm and peak wavelength locked around 811.53 nm was obtained from the VBG external cavity laser diode. Precise control of VBG temperature enabled fine tuning of the emission wavelength over a range of 450 pm. Future researches on OPRGL of argon will benefit from it.

  15. Evaporation and condensation at a liquid surface. I. Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Kenji; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Kataoka, Yosuke

    1994-11-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations were carried out to investigate the dynamics of evaporation and condensation for argon at the temperature of 80 and 100 K. From the decrease of the survival probability of vapor molecules, the ratio of self reflection to collision is estimated to be 12%-15%, only weakly dependent on the temperature. This suggests that argon vapor molecules are in the condition of almost complete capture, and the condensation is considered to be a barrierless process. The total ratio of reflection which is evaluated with the flux correlation of condensation and evaporation is 20% at both temperature. The difference between these two ratios of reflection is ascribed to a phenomenon that vapor molecules colliding with the surface drive out other liquid molecules. This molecule exchange at the surface is as important as the self-reflection, and the conventional picture of condensation as a unimolecular chemical reaction is not appropriate.

  16. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.;

    1981-01-01

    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore unequivo......The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...... unequivocally associated with electronic processes generated by the bombarding particle. In the present energy region, it is found that Y scales approximately as the electronic stopping power squared, depends on the charge state of the incoming helium ions, and perhaps more important, is independent...

  17. Demonstration of a Lightguide Detector for Liquid Argon TPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Bugel, L; Ignarra, C; Jones, B J P; Katori, T; Smidt, T; Tanaka, H -K

    2011-01-01

    We report demonstration of light detection in liquid argon using an acrylic lightguide detector system. This opens the opportunity for development of an inexpensive, large-area light collection system for large liquid argon time projection chambers. The guides are constructed of acrylic, with TPB embedded in a surface coating with a matching index of refraction. We study the response to early scintillation light produced by a 5.3 MeV alpha. We measure coating responses from 7 to 8 PE on average, compared to an ideal expectation of 10 PE on average. We estimate the attenuation length of light along the lightguide bar to be greater than 0.5 m. The coating response and the attenuation length can be improved; we show, however, that these results are already sufficient for triggering in a large detector.

  18. Trimming a Metallic Biliary Stent Using an Argon Plasma Coagulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Distal migration is one of the common complications after insertion of a covered metallic stent. Stent repositioning or removal is not always possible in every patient. Therefore, trimming using an argon plasma coagulator (APC) may be a good alternative method to solve this problem. Methods. Metallic stent trimming by APC was performed in 2 patients with biliary Wallstent migration and in another patient with esophageal Ultraflex stent migration. The power setting was 60-100 watts with an argon flow of 0.8 l/min. Observations. The procedure was successfully performed and all distal parts of the stents were removed. No significant collateral damage to the nearby mucosa was observed. Conclusions. In a patient with a distally migrated metallic stent, trimming of the stent is possible by means of an APC. This new method may be applicable to other sites of metallic stent migration

  19. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adorisio, C; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, H; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Aktas, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anjos, N; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonelli, S; Antunovic, B; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, T; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Arutinov, D; Asai, M; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asner, D; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Atoian, G; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Austin, N; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Baranov, S P; Baranov, S; Barashkou, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baron, S; Baroncelli, A; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; BarreiroGuimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P; Barros, N; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, D; Bastos, J; Bates, R L; Bathe, S; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Bazalova, M; Beare, B; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Becerici, N; Bechtle, P; Beck, G A; Beck, H P; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Bedajanek, I; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednár, P; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendel, M; Benedict, B H; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benincasa, G P; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernardet, K; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertin, A; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bocci, A; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A; Bondarenko, V G; Bondioli, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, J R A; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bosteels, M; Boterenbrood, H; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boulahouache, C; Bourdarios, C; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Brett, N D; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodbeck, T J; Brodet, E; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brubaker, E; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Byatt, T; Caballero, J; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Camarri, P; Cambiaghi, M; Cameron, D; Campabadal-Segura, F; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Cantero, J; Capasso, L; Capeans-Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, B; Caron, S; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cascella, M; Caso, C; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N; Cataldi, G; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Cattani, G; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cetin, S A; Cevenini, F; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chapman, J D; Chapman, J W; Chareyre, E; Charlton, D G; Chavda, V; Cheatham, S; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chen, H; Chen, S; Chen, T; Chen, X; Cheng, S; Cheplakov, A; Chepurnov, V F; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Tcherniatine, V; Chesneanu, D; Cheu, E; Cheung, S L; Chevalier, L; Chevallier, F; Chiarella, V; Chiefari, G; Chikovani, L; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chizhov, M; Choudalakis, G; Chouridou, S; Chren, D; Christidi, I A; Christov, A; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Ciobotaru, M D; Ciocca, C; Ciocio, A; Cirilli, M; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, W; Clemens, J C; Clement, B; Clement, C; Clements, D; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coelli, S; Coggeshall, J; Cogneras, E; Cojocaru, C D; Colas, J; Cole, B; Colijn, A P; Collard, C; Collins, N J; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colon, G; Coluccia, R; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Consonni, M; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conventi, F; Cook, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cooper-Smith, N J; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Costin, T; Côté, D; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L; Cowan, G; Cowden, C; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Cranshaw, J; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Crupi, R; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M; Curtis, C J; Cwetanski, P; Czyczula, Z; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; D'Orazio, A; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dai, T; Dallapiccola, C; Dallison, S J; Daly, C H; Dam, M; Danielsson, H O; Dannheim, D; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darlea, G L; Davey, W; Davidek, T; Davidson, N; Davidson, R; Davison, A R; Dawson, I; Dawson, J W; Daya, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; 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Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained u...

  20. Breakdown voltage of metal-oxide resistors in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagby, L. F. [Fermilab; Gollapinni, S. [Kansas State U.; James, C. C. [Fermilab; Jones, B. J.P. [MIT; Jostlein, H. [Fermilab; Lockwitz, S. [Fermilab; Naples, D. [Pittsburgh U.; Raaf, J. L. [Fermilab; Rameika, R. [Fermilab; Schukraft, A. [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [Bern U., LHEP; Weber, M. S. [Bern U., LHEP; Wolbers, S. A. [Fermilab

    2014-11-07

    We characterized a sample of metal-oxide resistors and measured their breakdown voltage in liquid argon by applying high voltage (HV) pulses over a 3 second period. This test mimics the situation in a HV-divider chain when a breakdown occurs and the voltage across resistors rapidly rise from the static value to much higher values. All resistors had higher breakdown voltages in liquid argon than their vendor ratings in air at room temperature. Failure modes range from full destruction to coating damage. In cases where breakdown was not catastrophic, subsequent breakdown voltages were lower in subsequent measuring runs. One resistor type withstands 131 kV pulses, the limit of the test setup.

  1. A pressurized argon gas TPC as DUNE near detector

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Albo, J

    2016-01-01

    DUNE is a new international experiment for neutrino physics and nucleon decay searches. It will consist of two detectors, about 1300 km apart, exposed to a multi-megawatt neutrino beam that will be built at Fermilab. One of the two detectors will be installed several hundred meters downstream of the neutrino production point with the primary role of characterising the energy spectrum and composition of the beam as well as performing precision measurements of neutrino cross sections. For the design of this so-called near detector, the DUNE Collaboration is considering, among other technologies, a pressurized argon gas time projection chamber. Such a detector, thanks to its low density and low detection thresholds, would allow the detailed measurement in argon of nuclear effects at the neutrino interaction vertex, which are considered at present one of the most important sources of systematic uncertainty for neutrino oscillation measurements.

  2. Opacity measurements in shock-generated argon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D.

    1993-07-01

    Dense plasmas having uniform and constant density and temperature are generated by passage of a planar shock wave through gas. The opacity of the plasma is accurately measured versus wavelength by recording the risetime of emitted light. This technique is applicable to a wide variety of species and plasma conditions. Initial experiments in argon have produced plasmas with 2 eV temperatures, 0.004--0.04 g/cm{sup 3} densities, and coupling parameters {Gamma} {approximately}0.3--0.7. Measurements in visible light are compared with calculations using the HOPE code. An interesting peak in the capacity at 400 nm is observed for the first time and is identified with the 4s-5p transition in excited neutral argon atoms.

  3. Treatment of facial vascular lesions with an argon laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanczyk, Jacek; Golebiowska, Aleksandra; Michalska, I.

    1996-03-01

    Two-hundred-ninety-six patients with various vascular lesions of the face have been treated with argon laser LAK-1 in the Department of Dermatology Warsaw Medical Academy since April 1992. The diagnosis of the treated lesions was port-wine stains, multiple telangiectasiae and small, most often induced by trauma hemangioma cavernosum of the lip. Best results were achieved in the patients with small hemangiomas cavernosum of the lip and multiple telangiectasiae on the face. Cure rate in this group was 100%. In 112 port-wine stain cases fading of 50 - 75% comparing with the adjacent skin was achieved. With stress, the argon laser therapy is a method of choice for the treatment of hemangioma cavernosum, port-wine stains and multiple teleagiectasiae of the face.

  4. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Montanari, D; Nessi, M; Norris, B

    2015-01-01

    A proposal for a very large liquid argon (68,000 kg) based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN. The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself. The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these...

  5. Picosecond-laser-driven gas puff neonlike argon x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed short-pulse laser-irradiated gas puff target experiments to generate a neonlike argon soft-x-ray laser by using a small laser system. A high-pressure solenoid valve forms a gas column through a narrow slit that is irradiated by two laser pulses containing 10 J of energy. Strong lasing is observed on two transitions, the 3p 1S0→3s 1P1 line at 46.9 nm and the 3d 1P1→3p 1P1 line at 45.1 nm. We present results from a systematic study in which the gas puff and laser conditions were varied to optimize the x-ray-laser output from a 0.9-cm-long gas column

  6. Dynamics of the ions in Liquid Argon Detectors and electron signal quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, L; Montes, B

    2016-01-01

    A study of the dynamics of the positive charges in liquid argon has been carried out in the context of the future massive time projection chambers proposed for dark matter and neutrino physics. The ions spend considerably longer times in the active volume with respect to the electrons given their small mobility coefficient in liquid. The space charge can be additionally increased by the injection in the target volume of the ions produced by electron multiplying devices located in a gas phase above the liquid. The impact of the positive current on the uniformity of the field has been evaluated as well as the probability of the charge signal quenching due to the electron-ion recombination along the drift. The results show a potential concern for the operation of massive detectors with drift of many meters when located on surface.

  7. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, D; Agnes, P; Agostino, L; Bottino, B; Davini, S; De Cecco, S; Fan, A; Fiorillo, G; Galbiati, C; Goretti, A M; Hungerford, E V; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Jollet, C; Marini, L; Martoff, C J; Meregaglia, A; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Pantic, E; Pocar, A; Renshaw, A L; Rossi, B; Rossi, N; Suvorov, Y; Testera, G; Tonazzo, A; Wang, H; Zavatarelli, S

    2015-01-01

    The direct search for dark matter WIMP particles through their interaction with nuclei at the "neutrino floor" sensitivity, where neutrino-induced coherent scattering on nuclei starts contributing to the background, requires detectors capable of collecting exposures of the order of 1~ktonne yr free of background resulting from beta and gamma decays and cosmogenic and radiogenic neutrons. The same constraints are required for precision measurements of solar neutrinos elastically scattering on electrons. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are prime candidates for the ambitious program to explore the nature of dark matter. The large target, high scintillation light yield and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions concurrently allows a high precision measurement of solar neutrino fluxes. We studied the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equival...

  8. Spectroscopy of Argon Excited in an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E

    2005-04-18

    Argon is one of the gases best investigated and most widely used in plasma discharge devices for a multitude of applications that range from wavelength reference standards to controlled fusion experiments. Reviewing atomic physics and spectroscopic problems in various ionization stages of Ar, the past use and future options of employing an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) for better and more complete Ar data in the x-ray, EUV and visible spectral ranges are discussed.

  9. Influence of argon pollution on the weld surface morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Krolczyk, G.M.; Nieslony, P.; Krolczyk, J.B.; I. Samardzic; Legutko, S.; S. Hloch; Barrans, Simon; Maruda, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the surfaces of butt welded joints in steel tubes were analyzed using an optical 3D measurement system to determine the morphology and topographic parameters. It was established that pollution of the argon shield gas with oxygen did not influence the width of the heat-affected zone. However, the composition of the shield gas significantly influenced the surface asymmetry, Ssk, and its inclination Sku. The measurement of these parameters enabled the selection of a ...

  10. STATUS OF THE ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER AND ITS PERFORMANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Berillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The liquid argon (LAr) calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic and for hadron calorimetry. The LAr calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The latest status of the detector as well as problems and solutions addressed during the last years will be presented. Aspects of operation of a large detector over a long time period will be summarized and selected topics showing the performance of the detector will be shown.

  11. Thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) butyrate in argon atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Xiao, Tang;

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of La(C3H7CO2)3·xH2O (x≈0.82) was studied in argon during heating at 5K/min. After the loss of bound H2O, the anhydrous butyrate presents at 135°C a phase transition to a mesophase, which turns to an isotropic liquid at 180°C. The decomposition of the anhydrous butyrate ...

  12. Operational performance of a large liquid argon photon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the performance of a large (0.9x1.4 m2) liquid argon photon calorimeter in high energy experiments at Fermilab. Resolutions for π0 and electron showers, obtained under data-taking conditions, are compared with electron-beam calibration results. Exceptional spatial and time resolutions have been achieved for isolated showers (sigmasub(x,y)0 data up to 180 GeV are presented. (orig.)

  13. Unified set of atomic transition probabilities for neutral argon

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, W.; Brault, J.; Danzmann, K.; Helbig, V.; de Kock, M

    1989-01-01

    The atomic transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes of neutral argon have been the subject of numerous experiments and calculations, but the results exhibit many discrepancies and inconsistencies. We present a unified set of atomic transition probabilities, which is consistent with essentially all recent results, albeit sometimes only after critical reanalysis. The data consistency and scale confirmation has been achieved in two ways. (i) We have carried out some lifetime–branching-ra...

  14. Monte Carlo Simulation of Argon in Nano-Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Min; YANG Chun; GUO Zeng-Yuan

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to investigate the thermodynamic properties of argon confined in nano-scale cubes constructed of graphite walls. A remarkable depression of the system pressures is observed. The simulations reveal that the length-scale of the cube, the magnitude of the interaction between the fluid and the graphite wall and the density of the fluid exhibit reasonable effects on the thermodynamic property shifts of the luid.

  15. Two dimensional condensation of argon adsorbed on lamellar halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamellar halides such as NiCl2, FeCl2, NiBr2, MnBr2, MgBr2, CdBr2, CoI2, FeI2, MnI2, CaI2 and PbI2 were sublimed in a rapid stream of dry nitrogen. The adsorption of argon on such materials shows stepped isotherms which reveal two dimensional condensations. From sets of isotherms the Helmholtz free energy, the internal energy and the entropy of the successive layers are determined. From the entropy of the first layer the role of the potential relief of the adsorbent surface on the structure of the adsorbed layer may be determined while the Helmholtz free energy reveals how the ionic character of the adsorbent governs the attractive force of adsorption. The study of the second third and fourth layers shows that their growth follows quite a different behaviour depending on whether the Van der Waals diameter of argon is greater or smaller than the distance between adjacent anions on the crystal surface. A proposition is made to account for the difference in the critical temperatures of the first and second dense layers in terms of the vibrationnal state of their respective substrate. The occurence for the maximum critical temperature observed of corresponding to a triangular layer 3% more expanded than the (111) plane of solid argon is discussed

  16. A liquid argon scintillation veto for the Gerda experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegmann, Anne [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium detectors are operated in a cryostat with 65 m{sup 3} of liquid argon (LAr). To reach the aspired background index of ≤10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). A light instrumentation of LAr installed in the LArGe test facility has demonstrated that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. Based on these results, Gerda pursues several options for the light instrumentation, which have to be compatible with the stringent radiopurity requirements of the experiment and should provide a significant suppression of the background in the region of interest around Q{sub ββ} at 2039 keV. This talk gives an account of the competing design options under investigation in the Gerda collaboration. The design options using photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are discussed, together with their expected performance from Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, the progress of development is reported, along with the design criteria for light instrumentation in Gerda.

  17. A liquid argon scintillation veto for the Gerda experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. Bare germanium detectors are operated in a cryostat with 65 m3 of liquid argon (LAr). To reach the aspired background index of ≤10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). A light instrumentation of LAr installed in the LArGe test facility has demonstrated that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. Based on these results, Gerda pursues several options for the light instrumentation, which have to be compatible with the stringent radiopurity requirements of the experiment and should provide a significant suppression of the background in the region of interest around Qββ at 2039 keV. This talk gives an account of the competing design options under investigation in the Gerda collaboration. The design options using photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are discussed, together with their expected performance from Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, the progress of development is reported, along with the design criteria for light instrumentation in Gerda.

  18. Space-charge effects in liquid argon ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherfoord, J. P.; Walker, R. B.

    2015-03-01

    We have uniformly irradiated liquid argon ionization chambers with betas from high-activity 90Sr sources. The radiation environment is similar to that in the liquid argon calorimeters which are part of the ATLAS detector installed at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We measured the resulting ionization current over a wide range of applied potential for two different source activities and for three different chamber gaps. These studies provide operating experience at exceptionally high ionization rates. In particular they indicate a stability at the 0.1% level for these calorimeters over years of operation at the full LHC luminosity when operated in the normal mode at an electric field E = 1.0 kV / mm. We can operate these chambers in the normal mode or in the space-charge limited regime and thereby determine the transition point between the two. This transition point is parameterized by a positive argon ion mobility of μ+ = 0.08 ± 0.02mm2 / V s at a temperature of 88.0±0.5 K and at a pressure of 1.02±0.02 bar. In the space-charge limited regime the ionization currents are degraded and show signs of instability. At the highest electric fields in our study (6.7 kV/mm) the ionization current is still slowly rising with increasing electric field.

  19. ARAPUCA a new device for liquid argon scintillation light detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a totally innovative device for the detection of liquid argon scintillation light, that has been named ARAPUCA (Argon R and D Advanced Program at UniCAmp). It is composed of a passive light collector and of active devices. The latters are standard SiPMs that operate at liquid argon temperature, while the passive collector is based on a new technology, never explored in this field before. It is a photon trap, that allows to collect light with extremely high efficiency. The total detection efficiency of the device can be tuned by modifying the ratio between the area of the active devices (SiPM) and the area of the optical window. For example, it will allow to reach a detection efficiency at the level of 1% on a surface of 50 × 50 cm2 with an active coverage of 2 × 2 cm2 (two/three large area SiPM). It is also a cheap device, since the major part of its cost is represented by the active devices. For these reason this appears to be the ideal device for scintillation light detection in large Time Projection Chambers. With appropriate modifications it can be used also in next generation Dark Matter detectors

  20. Isotopic fractionation of argon during stepwise release from shungite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous attempts to determine the 40Ar/36Ar ratio in the ancient atmosphere, the only direct measurement yielding a value below the atmospheric value of today is for argon released at low temperatures from a pre-Cambrian shungite, an amorphous carbon mineral The present work confirms a low value for 40Ar/36Ar in gas released from a type I shungite at low temperatures. But quantitative scrutiny of the accompanying 38AR/36Ar ratios and the enhanced ratio of 40Ar/36Ar for the fractions released at high temperatures shows convincingly that the effect seen here is an artifact of the stepwise heating and the argon diffusion mobilized thereby. The low 40Ar/36Ar previously obtained is very likely from the same cause rather than reflecting the isotopic composition of the pre-Cambrian atmosphere. The vitreous character of and the sharp, conchoidal fractures seen in the specimens of type I shungite suggest that the substance may exhibit simple volume diffusion over macroscopic dimensions as glasses do. If so, the diffusion parameters (D infinitely = 3 x 10-4 cm2/s and E = 11 kcal/mole) obtained from the data imply rapid exchange with the atmosphere for any argon initially trapped in centimenter-thick veins of the material. (orig.)

  1. Isotopic fractionation of argon during stepwise release from shungite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, W.

    1980-05-01

    It is noted that in previous attempts to determine the Ar-40/Ar-36 ratio in the ancient atmosphere, the only direct measurement yielding a value below the atmospheric value of today is for argon released at low temperatures from a pre-Cambrian shungite. In the present work, a low value for Ar-40/Ar-36 in gas released from a type I shungite at low temperatures is confirmed. Attention is given to a study of the accompanying Ar-38/Ar-36 ratios and the enhanced ratio of Ar-40/Ar-36 for the fractions released at high temperatures which shows that the effect observed is a result of the stepwise heating and the argon diffusion mobilized thereby. It is suggested that the low Ar-40/Ar-36 obtained in the past is from the same source rather than reflecting the isotropic composition of the pre-Cambrian atmosphere, and that the type I shungite may exhibit simple volume diffusion over macroscopic dimensions as glasses do. It is concluded that if this is so, the diffusion parameters obtained from the data would imply rapid exchange with the atmosphere for any argon initially trapped in the veins of the material.

  2. Tin LPP plasma control in the argon cusp source

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoch, Malcolm W.

    2016-03-01

    The argon cusp plasma has been introduced [1,2] for 500W class tin LPP exhaust control in view of its high power handling, predicted low tin back-scatter from a beam dump, and avoidance of hydrogen usage. The physics of tin ion control by a plasma is first discussed. Experimentally, cusp stability and exhaust disc geometry have previously been proved at full scale [2], the equivalent of 300W-500W usable EUV. Here we verify operation of the plasma barrier that maintains a high argon density next to the collector, for its protection, and a low density in the long path toward the intermediate focus, for efficiency. A pressure differential of 2Pa has been demonstrated in initial work. Other aspects of tin LPP plasma control by the cusp have now been demonstrated using tin ions from a low Hz 130mJ CO2 laser pulse onto a solid tin surface at the cusp center. Plasma is rejected at the design to match a specified exhaust power is discussed. In view of this work, argon cusp exhaust control appears to be very promising for 500W class tin LPP sources.

  3. Bacteria Inactivation Using DBD Plasma Jet in Atmospheric Pressure Argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guimin; ZHANG Guanjun; SHI Xingmin; MA Yue; WANG Ning; LI Yuan

    2009-01-01

    A coaxial dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet Was designed,which can be operated in atmospheric pressure argon under an intermediate frequency sinusoidal resonant power supply,and an atmospheric pressure glow-like discharge Was achieved.Two kinds of typical bacteria,i.e.,the Staphylococcus aureus(S.aurens)and Escherichia coil(E.coil),were employed to study the bacterial inactivation mechanism by means of the non-thermal plasma.The killing log value (KLV)of S.aureus reached up to 5.38 with a treatment time of 90 s and that of E.coil up to 5.36 with 60 s,respectively.According to the argon emission spectra of the plasma jet and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the two bacteria before and after the plasma treatment.it is concluded that the reactive species in the argon plasma played a major role in the bacterial inactivation,while the heat,electric field and UV photons had little effect.

  4. Metal clusters on supported argon layers; Metallcluster auf dielektrischen Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Bernhard

    2011-10-21

    The deposition of small sodium clusters on supported Ar(001)-surfaces is simulated. Theoretical description is achieved by a hierarchical model consisting of time-dependent DFT and molecular dynamics. The valence electrons of the sodium atoms are considered by Kohn-Sham-Scheme with self interaction correction. The interaction of argon atoms and sodium ions is described by atom-atom potentials whereas the coupling to the QM electrons is done by local pseudo-potentials. A decisive part of the model is the dynamical polarizability of the rare-gas atoms. The optional metal support is considered by the method of image charges. The influence of the forces caused by image charges and the influence of the number of argon monolayers on structure, optical response and deposition dynamics of Na{sub 6} and Na{sub 8} is investigated. There is very little influence on cluster structure and only a small shift of the cluster perpendicular to the surface. Concerning optical response the position of the Mie plasmon peak stays robust whereas the details of spectral fragmentation react very sensitively to changes. The forces caused by image charges of the metal support play only a little role with the dynamics of deposition while the thickness of the argon surface strongly influences the dissipation. (orig.)

  5. Calculations on charge state and energy loss of argon ions in partially and fully ionized carbon plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D; Casas, David; Morales, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The energy loss of argon ions in a target depends on their velocity and charge density. At the energies studied in this work, it depends mostly on the free and bound electrons in the target. Here the random-phase approximation is used for analyzing free electrons at any degeneracy. For the plasma-bound electrons, an interpolation between approximations for low and high energies is applied. The Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler et al. is used to determine its equilibrium charge state Q(eq). This latter criterion implies that the equilibrium charge state depends slightly on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. On the other hand, the effective charge Q(eff) is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of the argon ion and that of the proton for the same plasma conditions. This effective charge Q(eff) is larger than the equilibrium charge state Q(eq) due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. Though our charge-state estimations are not exactly the same as the experimental values, our energy loss agrees quite well with the experiments. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold target of about, ∼42-62.5% and increases with carbon plasma ionization. This confirms the well-known enhanced plasma stopping. It is also observed that only a small part of this energy loss enhancement is due to an increase of the argon charge state, namely only ∼2.2 and 5.1%, for the partially and the fully ionized plasma, respectively. The other contribution is connected with a better energy transfer to the free electrons at plasma state than to the bound electrons at solid state of about, ∼38.8-57.4%, where higher values correspond to a fully ionized carbon plasma. PMID:27078472

  6. Calculations on charge state and energy loss of argon ions in partially and fully ionized carbon plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.; Casas, David; Morales, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The energy loss of argon ions in a target depends on their velocity and charge density. At the energies studied in this work, it depends mostly on the free and bound electrons in the target. Here the random-phase approximation is used for analyzing free electrons at any degeneracy. For the plasma-bound electrons, an interpolation between approximations for low and high energies is applied. The Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler et al. is used to determine its equilibrium charge state Qeq. This latter criterion implies that the equilibrium charge state depends slightly on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. On the other hand, the effective charge Qeff is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of the argon ion and that of the proton for the same plasma conditions. This effective charge Qeff is larger than the equilibrium charge state Qeq due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. Though our charge-state estimations are not exactly the same as the experimental values, our energy loss agrees quite well with the experiments. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold target of about, ˜42 -62.5 % and increases with carbon plasma ionization. This confirms the well-known enhanced plasma stopping. It is also observed that only a small part of this energy loss enhancement is due to an increase of the argon charge state, namely only ˜2.2 and 5.1 % , for the partially and the fully ionized plasma, respectively. The other contribution is connected with a better energy transfer to the free electrons at plasma state than to the bound electrons at solid state of about, ˜38.8 -57.4 % , where higher values correspond to a fully ionized carbon plasma.

  7. K-Ar age of young volcanic rocks and excess argon--Binary mixing model and quantitative study of excess argon effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A binary mixing model for excess argon is suggested in the note. According to this model and the data of excess argon component obtained in our experiment , a quantitative study of the effect of excess argon on real K-Ar age of young volcanic rocks is done. The result indicates that the effect of 5% excess argon component in samples on K-Ar age of the samples more than 2 Ma is less than 7.36% and can lead K-Ar age of 0.5 Ma samples to increase by 32.4%, while 1% excess argon component leads K-Ar age of 0.5 Ma samples to increase by 6.26%. Therefore, when pre-processed excess argon component is ≤1%, K-Ar age of the samples more than 0.5 Ma should be credible. On this basis we suggest a principal opinion for evaluation of previous K-Ar dating results and propose that the matrix is used to determine K-Ar age of young volcanic rocks. For the samples less than 0.2 Ma, in the case of high excess argon content, even if only 1% excess argon component exists in their matrix, it can also greatly affect their K-A age. Thus it must be careful to treat the dating result.

  8. Roles of argon seeding in energy confinement and pedestal structure in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of improving energy confinement with argon seeding at high density has been investigated in JT-60U. Better confinement is sustained at high density by argon seeding accompanied by higher core and pedestal temperatures. The electron density profiles become flatter with increasing density in conventional H-mode plasmas, whereas peaked density profiles are maintained with argon seeding. Density peaking and dilution effects lower the pedestal density at a given averaged density. The pedestal density in the argon seeded plasmas, which is lower than that in plasmas with deuterium puff, enables the pedestal temperature to be higher, whereas the increase in the pedestal pressure with argon seeding is small. High pedestal temperature is a boundary condition for high core temperature through profile stiffness, which leads to better confinement with argon seeding. The density peaking is a key factor of sustaining better confinement in argon seeded H-mode plasmas. The radiative loss power density is predominantly enhanced in the edge region by argon puff. The role of argon seeding in the pedestal characteristics has also been examined. The pedestal width becomes larger continuously with edge collisionality, but is nearly independent of the presence of argon seeding. (paper)

  9. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Makoto [Gaseous Electronics Institute, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    A bibliography of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for argon (Ar). About 1,960 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1921 through 2000 for Ar. Finally, author's recommended Ar electron collision cross section set is given in numerical tables. (author)

  10. The second Born approximation of electron–argon elastic scattering in a bichromatic laser field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bin Zhou; Ming-Yang Zheng; Da-Yong Wen

    2012-03-01

    We study the elastic scattering of atomic argon by electron in the presence of a bichromatic laser field in the second Born approximation. The target atom is approximated by a simple screening potential and the continuum states of the impinging and emitting electrons are described as Volkov states. We evaluate the S-matrix elements numerically. The dependence of differential cross-section on the relative phase between the two laser components is presented. The results obtained in the first and second Born approximations are compared and analysed.

  11. Experimental investigation of the structure and the dynamics of nanosecond laser-induced plasma in 1-atm argon ambient gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianli; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Bai, Xueshi; Yu, Jin

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the structure and the dynamics of the plasma induced on a metallic target in 1-atm argon ambient by a nanosecond laser pulse with irradiance in the range of 10 GW/cm2. The structure is revealed to be sensitively dependent on the laser wavelength. A layered structure of different species characterizes the plasma induced by ultraviolet 355 nm pulse, while an effective mixing between the ablation vapor and the shocked ambient gas is observed with infrared 1064 nm pulse. The absorption property of the shocked gas is found to be crucial for determining the structure of the plasma.

  12. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliography of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for argon (Ar). About 1,960 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1921 through 2000 for Ar. Finally, author's recommended Ar electron collision cross section set is given in numerical tables. (author)

  13. Argon-41 production and evolution at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor (OSTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, argon-41 concentrations were measured at various locations within the reactor facility to assess the accuracy of models used to predict argon-41 evolution from the reactor tank, and to determine the relationship between argon gas evolution from the tank and subsequent argon-41 concentrations throughout the reactor room. In particular, argon-41 was measured directly above the reactor tank with the reactor tank lids closed, at other accessible locations on the reactor top with the tank lids both closed and open, and at several locations on the first floor of the reactor room. These measured concentrations were then compared to values calculated using a modified argon-41 production and evolution model for TRIGA reactor tanks and ventilation values applicable to the OSTR facility. The modified model was based in part on earlier TRIGA models for argon-41 production and release, but added features which improved the agreement between predicted and measured values. The approximate dose equivalent rate due to the presence of argon-41 in reactor room air was calculated for several different locations inside the OSTR facility. These dose rates were determined using the argon-41 concentration measured at each specific location, and were subsequently converted to a predicted quarterly dose equivalent for each location based on the reactor's operating history. The predicted quarterly dose equivalent values were then compared to quarterly doses measured by film badges deployed as dose-integrating area radiation monitors at the locations of interest. The results indicate that the modified production and evolution model is able to predict argon-41 concentrations to within a factor of ten when compared to the measured data. Quarterly dose equivalents calculated from the measured argon-41 concentrations and the reactor's operating history seemed consistent with results obtained from the integrating area radiation monitors. Given the argon-41 concentrations measured

  14. Plasma diagnostics of the SIMPA Ecr ion source by X-ray spectroscopy, Collisions of H-like Neon ions with Argon clusters; Diagnostic du plasma de la source d'ions ECR SIMPA par spectroscopie X, Collision d'ions neon hydrogenoides avec des agregats d'argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrouche, N

    2006-09-15

    The first part of this thesis is devoted to the SIMPA ECR ion source characterization, first, I explored the ion source's capacities on the point of view of extracted currents for three elements, argon, krypton and neon. By analyzing the Bremsstrahlung spectra, I determined the electronic temperature in the plasma and the electronic and ionic densities. In a second time, I recorded high resolution X-spectra of argon and krypton plasma's. By taking into account the principal mechanisms of production of a K hole in the ions inside the plasma, I determined the ionic densities of the high charge states of argon. Lastly, I highlighted a correlation between the ions charge states densities with the intensities of extracted currents. The second part of the thesis is devoted to Ne{sup 9+-} argon clusters collisions. First, I presented simple and effective theoretical models allowing to describe the phenomena occurring during a collision, from the point of view of the projectile. I carried out a simulation for a collision of an ion Ne{sup 9+} with an argon cluster of a given size, which has enabled us to know the energy levels populated during the electronic capture and to follow the number of electrons in each projectile shell. Lastly, I presented the first results of a collision between a Ne{sup 9+} beam and argon clusters. These results, have enabled me by using projectile X-ray spectroscopy during the ions-clusters collision, to evidence a strong clustering of targets atoms and to highlight an electronic multi-capture in the projectile ion excited states. (author)

  15. Toward Improvements in Inter-laboratory Calibration of Argon Isotope Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, S. R.; Deino, A. L.; Heizler, M. T.; Hodges, K. V.; McIntosh, W. C.; Renne, P. R.; Swisher, C. C., III; Turrin, B. D.; Van Soest, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to continue to develop strategies to improve our ability to compare results between laboratories chronometers. The U-Pb community has significantly reduced inter-laboratory biases with the application of a community tracer solution and the distribution of synthetic zircon solutions. Inevitably sample selection and processing and even biases in interpretations will still lead to some disagreements in the assignment of ages. Accordingly natural samples that are shared will be important for achievement of the highest levels of agreement. Analogous improvements in quality and inter-laboratory agreement of analytical aspects of Ar-Ar can be achieved through development of synthetic age standards in gas canisters with multiple pipettes to deliver various controlled amounts of argon to the mass spectrometer. A preliminary proof-of concept comes from the inter-laboratory calibration experiment for the 40Ar/39Ar community. This portable Argon Pipette Intercalibration System (APIS) consists of three 2.7 L canisters each equipped with three pipettes of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 cc volumes. The currently traveling APIS has the three canisters filled with air and 40Ar*/39Ar of 1.73 and canister 2 has a 40Ar*/39Ar of 40.98 (~ Alder Creek and Fish Canyon in the same irradiation). With these pipettes it is possible to combine them to provide 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 (0.1+0.2), 0.4, 0.5 (0.1+0.4), 0.6 (0.2+0.4), and 0.7 (0.1+0.2+0.4) cc. The configuration allows a simple test for inter-laboratory biases and for volume/pressure dependent mass fractionation on the measured ratios for a gas with a single argon isotope composition. Although not yet tested, it is also possible to mix gas from any one of the three canisters in proportions of these increments, allowing even more tightly controlled calibration of measurements. We suggest that ultimately each EARTHTIME lab should be equipped with such a system permanently, with a community plan for a traveling system to periodically repeat the

  16. The effects of argon in the bioenergetics of the hamster and the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, G. E.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1974-01-01

    Oxygen consumption was examined in hamsters and rats exposed to normoxic mixtures of argon at 1 atm. In fasted and nonfasted animals, no marked change in O2 utilization was detectable at 22 C. However, at 7 C a significant decrease in oxygen consumption was observed where the animals were exposed in argon. The data are interpreted in terms of the greater thermal conductivity of nitrogen. The study was prompted by conflicting reports on the metabolic effects of argon and helium.

  17. Argon Laser Photoablation for Treating Benign Pigmented Conjunctival Nevi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Abdulrahman M.; Al-Gehedan, Saeed M.; Alasbali, Tariq; Alkuraya, Hisham S.; Lotfy, Nancy M.; Khandekar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of argon laser photoablation of benign conjunctival pigmented nevi with different clinical presentations. Patients and Methods: This interventional case series was conducted between July 2014 and January 2015. Patients presenting with benign conjunctival nevi were included. Data were collected on the clinical features at presentation, argon laser photoablation, and follow-up at 8 and 24 weeks. Postoperative photography allowed recording of the success of each case and the overall success rate. Complete removal of conjunctival pigments was considered an absolute success. Partial pigmentation requiring repeat laser treatment was considered a qualified success. Results: There were 14 eyes (four right eyes and ten left eyes) with benign pigmented conjunctival nevi. There were three males and eight females in the study sample. The median age was 36 (25% percentile: 26 years). Three patients had bilateral lesions. The nevi were located temporally in nine eyes, nasally in three eyes, and on the inferior bulbar conjunctiva in two eyes. The mean horizontal and vertical diameters of nevi were 5 ± 2 mm and 4 ± 2.7 mm, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 5 months. Following laser treatment, no eyes had subconjunctival hemorrhage, infection, scarring, neovascularization, recurrence, or corneal damage. The absolute success rate of laser ablation was 79%. Three eyes with elevated nevi had one to three sessions of laser ablation resulting in a qualified success rate of 100%. Conclusions: Argon laser ablation was a safe and effective treatment for the treatment of selective benign pigmented conjunctival nevi in Arab patients. PMID:27555708

  18. The abundances of neon, sulfur, and argon in planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S. C.; Lacy, J. H.; Townes, C. H.; Aller, L. H.; Geballe, T. R.; Baas, F.

    1981-01-01

    New infrared observations of Ne II, Ar III, and S IV are used in optical observations of other ionization states of the considered elements to evaluate the abundances of neon, argon, and sulfur in 18 planetary nebulae. Attention is also given to one or more of the infrared lines in 18 other nebulae. It is pointed out that S IV was detected in approximately 90% of the observed objects, while Ar III was found in about 80%, and Ne II in roughly one-third. It is noted that optical observations typically include only a limited region of the nebula, while the infrared measurements frequently involve integration over the entire nebular image.

  19. Ionization coefficients for argon in a micro-discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization coefficients are measured for electrons in a dc micro-discharge in argon from optical emission profiles. The micro-discharge is operated in the Townsend regime between two parallel-plate electrodes. Axial profiles of emission are obtained with sufficient resolution to provide spatial ionization coefficients. The measured coefficients agree very well with the data obtained from other sources, indicating the operation of the discharge in the Townsend regime and also that Townsend mechanisms do not need extension to describe such discharges. (paper)

  20. Kinetic modeling of the Townsend breakdown in argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheret, S. O.; Shneider, M. N.

    2013-10-01

    Kinetic modeling of the Townsend breakdown in argon was performed in the "forward-back" approximation. The kinetic model was found to adequately describe the left branch of the Paschen curve, and the important role of ionization by fast ions and atoms near the cathode, as well as the increase in secondary emission coefficient in strong electric fields described in the literature, was confirmed. The modeling also showed that the electron energy distribution function develops a beam of high-energy electrons and that the runaway effect, i.e., the monotonic increase of the mean electron energy with the distance from the cathode, occurs at the left branch of the Paschen curve.

  1. Ionization coefficients for argon in a micro-discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschel, Thomas; Stefanović, Ilija; Malović, Gordana; Marić, Dragana; Petrović, Zoran Lj

    2013-08-01

    Ionization coefficients are measured for electrons in a dc micro-discharge in argon from optical emission profiles. The micro-discharge is operated in the Townsend regime between two parallel-plate electrodes. Axial profiles of emission are obtained with sufficient resolution to provide spatial ionization coefficients. The measured coefficients agree very well with the data obtained from other sources, indicating the operation of the discharge in the Townsend regime and also that Townsend mechanisms do not need extension to describe such discharges.

  2. Diffusion coefficient of metal vapours into rare gases. Mercury - argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The source information is present as well as the results of analysis and integration of data on mutual diffusion coefficient (MDC) of mercury - argon mixture at Hg concentration → 0 in 300-2500 K temperature range. Reference data on MDC for metal - inert gas binary mixtures obtained on the base of complex analysis of various information, as it exemplified by Hg-Ar pair, can be used as a part of metrological support at calibration of devices for determination MDC of gas - metal vapors

  3. Electron drift velocity in argon-methane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are the results of a series of measurements of electron drift velocity taken with samples of chemically pure grade gas mixture of Ar-10% CH4 (N2222O<2 ppm). The measured drift velocity is plotted as a function of the ratio of electric field to pressure in the range from 0.05 to 0.8 V/cmxtorr. The measurements are reproducible only to within 4%. The results of numerical calculations employing the well-established argon elastic and methane elastic and inelastic cross sections are also included. The disagreement from the present experimental results, and from those obtained elsewhere, is rather puzzling

  4. High intensity, argon ion laser-jet photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. Marshall; Schnapp, Karlyn A.; Hannemann, Klaus; Ho, Douglas M.; Memarian, Hamid R.; Azadnia, Ardeshir; Pinhas, Allan R.; Figley, Timothy M.

    A new technique for the study of high intensity solution photochemistry has been developed. With this laser-jet technique, a high velocity microjet is irradiated with the focussed output of an argon ion laser. Under these extremely high intensity conditions, photochemically generated transient species with suitable absorption properties are excited further and produce relatively large amounts of photoproducts which are not observed under low intensity conditions. The application of this laser-jet technique in the study of the photochemistry of radicals, biradicals, photoenols and the higher excited states of carbonyl and polycyclic aromatic compounds is described.

  5. Optical fiber read-out for liquid argon scintillation light

    CERN Document Server

    Csáthy, J Janicskó; Kratz, J; Schönert, S; Wiesinger, Ch

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the performance of a light detector for Ar scintillation light made of wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers connected to Silicon-Photomultipliers (SiPM). The setup was conceived to be used as anti-Compton veto for high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors operated directly in liquid Argon (LAr). Background suppression efficiencies for different radioactive sources were measured in a test cryostat with about 800 kg LAr. This work was part of the R\\&D effort for the GERDA experiment.

  6. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter TGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a test beam exposure. 15 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Activation of copper by nitrogen and argon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetvertkova, Vera [IAP, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Mustafin, Edil; Strasik, Ivan [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Belousov, Anton [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Latysheva, Ludmila; Sobolevsky, Nikolai [INR RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ratzinger, Ulrich [IAP, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Monte Carlo transport codes are widely used for various purposes in nuclear physics, radiation protection, medical applications, accelerator design etc. Code verification by experiments is needed to be sure that the codes give accurate results. New data on the activation of copper by a nitrogen beam of 500 MeV/u is presented and compared with FLUKA and SHIELD simulation results. The activation of copper by a nitrogen beam is compared to activation by an argon beam and respective simulations. This gives a chance to see the accuracy of the codes at different projectile masses. Correspondences and discrepancies of calculations and experiments are discussed.

  8. Study of a Novel Concept for a Liquid Argon Calorimeter \

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD33 \\\\ \\\\ The development of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter prototype is proposed as a generic R\\&D project for a novel concept of calorimetry in proton-proton and electron-positron collider detectors: the $^{\\prime$Thin Gap Turbine$^{\\prime}$ (TGT). The TGT calorimeter has a modular construction, is flexible in its longitudinal and transverse granularity, and offers a uniform energy response and resolution, independent of the production angle of incident particles. An important aspect of the project is the development of fast, radiation-hard front-end electronics which is operating in the cold.

  9. Laser-induced vibrational dynamics of ozone in solid argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Amstrup, B.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1997-01-01

    We consider the vibrational dynamics, induced by an intense infrared laser pulse, in an ozone molecule with isotopic substitution, that is, (OOO)-O-16-O-16-O-18 and compare the dynamics in the gas phase and in solid ar on. not perturbed by argon on a time-scale of a few picoseconds and selective...... bond-breaking in the molecule should be possible following the same laser control scheme as suggested in the gas phase. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V....

  10. Electron transport in argon in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness; Makabe

    2000-09-01

    An investigation of electron transport in argon in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is carried out over a wide range of values of electric and magnetic field strengths. Values of mean energy, ionization rate, drift velocity, and diffusion tensor are reported here. Two unexpected phenomena arise; for certain values of electric and magnetic field we find regions where the swarm mean energy decreases with increasing electric fields for a fixed magnetic field and regions where swarm mean energy increases with increasing magnetic field for a fixed electric field. PMID:11088933

  11. Upgraded readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  12. Upgraded readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hong; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34/cm^2/s. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger chan...

  13. Upgrade readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  14. Quantification of water and plasma diagnosis for electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: the use of argon and argide polyatomics as probing species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water content of the carrier flow originating from an electrothermal vaporization unit (ETV) attached to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was monitored by following the argon hydride ion (ArH+) at m/z=37. The goal was to measure the water expelled by the ETV at sample vaporization and evaluate the influence of this parameter on the ion-generation efficiency. Linear responses from the argon hydride were obtained when the water loading in the plasma injector flow was increased from 0 to 3.3 mg/min. Other argides and water-derived species (Ar+, Ar+2 and O+2) were also monitored simultaneously and the effects from operating parameters have been calculated for each species. The magnitude of these effects can eventually be used as diagnosis tools. It was also found that signals for zinc, copper, lead, antimony and arsenic were greatly influenced by slight variations in water loading at low water levels. These signal fluctuations are greatly attenuated and transients' shapes restored by convoluting each element transient with the ArH+ or Ar+2 curves that were recorded simultaneously. Envisioned applications that would benefit from a water-enhanced signal include spray electrothermal vaporization, direct sample insertion and laser ablation for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The argon dimer Ar+2 seems more appropriate for making the correction since it provides a direct insight on the plasma temperature and provides a robust signal. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. LArIAT: Liquid Argon In A Testbeam

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanna, F; Raaf, J; Rebel, B

    2014-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are ideal detectors for precision neutrino physics. These detectors, when located deep underground, can also be used for measurements of proton decay, and astrophysical neutrinos. The technology must be completely developed, up to very large mass scales, and fully mastered to construct and operate these detectors for this physics program. As part of an integrated plan of developing these detectors, accurate measurements in LArTPC of known particle species in the relevant energy ranges are now deemed as necessary. The LArIAT program aims to directly achieve these goals by deploying LArTPC detectors in a dedicated calibration test beam line at Fermilab. The set of measurements envisaged here are significant for both the short-baseline (SBN) and long-baseline (LBN) neutrino oscillation programs in the US, starting with MicroBooNE in the near term and with the adjoint near and far liquid argon detectors in the Booster beam line at Fermilab envisioned in the mid-term...

  16. A liquid argon scintillation veto for the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013. Currently Gerda is being upgraded to a second phase. To reach the aspired background index of ≤ 10-3 cts/(keV . kg . yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). It has been demonstrated by the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. This talk focusses on the light instrumentation which is being installed in GERDA. Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are combined to maximize the photoelectron-yield with respect to various background sources. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to optimize the design for background suppression and low self-induced background. First results of the prototypes and the progress of installation are reported.

  17. A liquid argon scintillation veto for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegmann, Anne [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013. Currently Gerda is being upgraded to a second phase. To reach the aspired background index of ≤ 10{sup -3} cts/(keV . kg . yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). It has been demonstrated by the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. This talk focusses on the light instrumentation which is being installed in GERDA. Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are combined to maximize the photoelectron-yield with respect to various background sources. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to optimize the design for background suppression and low self-induced background. First results of the prototypes and the progress of installation are reported.

  18. Some transport properties in plasmas containing argon and fluorine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković R.N.V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some results of numerical evaluation of transport coefficients in plasmas in the mixtures of argon and fluorine are presented. These transport characteristics are given in the function of the temperature for low pressures ranging from 0,1 kPa to 1,0 kPa and for low temperatures between 500 K and 5 000 K in argon plasmas with 20% and 30% of the fluorine added. It is assumed that the system is kept under constant pressure and that a corresponding state of local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE is attained in it. The equilibrium plasma composition, necessary for the evaluations, was determined on the ground of the Saha equations for ionization processes and the law of mass action for the thermal dissociation of F2, combined with the charge conservation relation and the assumption that the pressure remained constant in the course of temperature variations. The ionization energy lowering, required in conjunction with the Saha equations, was obtained with the aid of a modified expression for the plasma Debye radius proposed previously. A previously derived expression for the modified Debye radius, offering the possibility to treat the plasmas considered as weakly non-ideal in the whole temperature range, is used. The cut-off at the Landau length rather than of the smallest of ionic radii is introduced. This alteration in the evaluation procedure brings different considerable changes in the final numerical results for the all relevant quantities.

  19. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutro argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 12), np(n=4 to 8) and nd(n=3 to 8) of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 7), np(n=4 to 7) and nd(n=3 to 8). 3.- Comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author)

  20. Elastic properties of liquid and solid argon in nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappert, Klaus; Pelster, Rolf

    2013-10-16

    We have measured sorption isotherms and determined the intrinsic longitudinal elastic modulus β(Ar,ads) of nanoconfined material via ultrasonic measurements combined with a special effective medium analysis. In the liquid regime the adsorbate only contributes to the measured effective properties when the pores are completely filled and the modulus is bulklike. At partial fillings its contribution is cancelled out by the high compressibility of the vapour phase. In contrast, at lower temperatures frozen argon as well as underlying liquid surface layers cause a linear increase of the effective longitudinal modulus upon filling. During sorption the contribution of the liquid surface layers near the pore wall β(Ar,surf) increases with the thickness of the solid layers reaching the bulk value β(Ar,liquid) only in the limit of complete pore filling. We interpret this effect as due to the gradual stiffening of the solid argon membrane. The measurements and their analysis show that longitudinal ultrasonic waves are well suited to the study of the elastic properties and liquid-solid phase transitions in porous systems. This method should also help to detect the influence of nanoconfinement on elastic properties in further research. PMID:24057946

  1. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    CERN Document Server

    Aalseth, C E; Haas, D A; Hoppe, E W; Hyronimus, B J; Keillor, M E; Mace, E K; Orrell, J L; Seifert, A; Woods, V T

    2010-01-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

  2. Local effects of ECRH on argon transport at ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future deuterium-tritium magnetically confined fusion power plants will most probably rely an high-Z Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) such as tungsten. This choice is determined by the necessity of low erosion of the first wall materials (to guarantee a long lifetime of the wall components) and by the need to avoid the too high tritium wall retention of typical carbon based PFCs. The experience gathered at the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak has demonstrated the possibility of reliable and high performance plasma operation with a full tungsten-coated first wall. The observed accumulation of tungsten which can lead to excessive radiation losses is mitigated with the use of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). Although this impurity control method is routinely performed at AUG, the underlying physics principles are still not clear. This thesis aims an providing further knowledge an the effects of ECRH an the transport of impurities inside the core plasma. The transport of argon has been therefore investigated in-depth in purely ECR heated L-mode (low-confinement) discharges. Studies an impurity transport in centrally ECR heated nitrogen-seeded H-mode (high-confinement) discharges have also been performed. To this scope, a new crystal X-ray spectrometer of the Johann type has been installed an AUG for argon concentration and ion temperature measurements. New methods for the experimental determination of the total argon density through the integrated use of this diagnostic and of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) diode arrays have been developed. This gives the possibility of evaluating the full profiles of the argon transport coefficients from the linear flux-gradient dependency of local argon density. In comparison to classical χ2-minimization methods, the approach proposed here delivers transport coefficients intrinsically independent of the modelling of periodic relaxation mechanisms such as those Lied to sawtooth MHD (Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic) activity. Moreover, the good

  3. Carbamylated LL-37 as a modulator of the immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koro, Catalin; Hellvard, Annelie; Delaleu, Nicolas;

    2016-01-01

    Carbamylation of lysine residues and protein N-termini is an ubiquitous, non-enzymatic post-translational modification. Carbamylation at sites of inflammation is due to cyanate formation during the neutrophil oxidative burst and may target lysine residues within the antimicrobial peptide LL-37...... to investigate how this modification affects the bactericidal, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory function of the peptide. The results indicated that LL-37 undergoes rapid modification in the presence of physiological concentrations of cyanate, yielding a spectrum of diverse carbamylated peptides. Mass spectrometry...... analyses revealed that the N-terminal amino group of Leu-1 was highly reactive and was modified almost instantly by cyanate to generate the predominant form of the modified peptide, named LL-37(C1). This was followed by the sequential carbamylation of Lys-8 and Lys-12 to yield LL-37(C8), and Lys-15...

  4. Ful distil ation argon producing crud argon column on operating experience%全精馏制氩粗氩塔操作经验浅谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马光显

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the ful distil ation argon recovery process in the crude argon column in air separation system of cooling,heating and put some matters needing attention in use.%简要介绍了全精馏制氩过程中粗氩塔在空分系统降温、升温及投用中的一些注意事项。

  5. Characteristics of atmospheric-pressure, radio-frequency glow discharges operated with argon added ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Ting; Li, Guo; Li, He-Ping; Bao, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Hua-Bo; Zeng, Shi; Gao, Xing; Luo, Hui-Ying

    2007-06-01

    Rf, atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas with bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, thin film deposition, disinfection and sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics are presented for the rf APGD plasmas generated with pure argon or argon-ethanol mixture as the plasma-forming gas and using water-cooled, bare copper electrodes. The experimental results show that the breakdown voltage can be reduced significantly when a small amount of ethanol is added into argon, probably due to the fact that the Penning ionization process is involved, and a pure α-mode discharge can be produced more easily with the help of ethanol. The uniformity of the rf APGDs of pure argon or argon-ethanol mixtures using bare metallic electrodes is identified with the aid of the intensified charge coupled device images.

  6. First measurements with ARGONTUBE, a 5 m long drift Liquid Argon TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) technique is a promising technology for future neutrino detectors. At LHEP of the University of Bern (Switzerland), an R and D program towards large detectors are on-going. The main goal is to show the feasibility of long drift paths over many meters. Therefore, a liquid Argon TPC with 5 m of drift distance was constructed. Many other aspects of the liquid Argon TPC technology are also investigated, such as a new device to generate high voltage in liquid Argon (Greinacher circuit), a recirculation filtering system and the multi-photon ionization of liquid Argon with a UV laser. Two detectors are built: a medium size prototype for specific detector technology studies, and ARGONTUBE, a 5 m long device

  7. Characteristics of atmospheric-pressure, radio-frequency glow discharges operated with argon added ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rf, atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas with bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, thin film deposition, disinfection and sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics are presented for the rf APGD plasmas generated with pure argon or argon-ethanol mixture as the plasma-forming gas and using water-cooled, bare copper electrodes. The experimental results show that the breakdown voltage can be reduced significantly when a small amount of ethanol is added into argon, probably due to the fact that the Penning ionization process is involved, and a pure α-mode discharge can be produced more easily with the help of ethanol. The uniformity of the rf APGDs of pure argon or argon-ethanol mixtures using bare metallic electrodes is identified with the aid of the intensified charge coupled device images

  8. Management of Liver Cancer Argon-helium Knife Therapy with Functional Computer Tomography Perfusion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Shu, Shengjie; Li, Jinping; Jiang, Huijie

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the change in blood perfusion of liver cancer following argon-helium knife treatment with functional computer tomography perfusion imaging. Twenty-seven patients with primary liver cancer treated with argon-helium knife and were included in this study. Plain computer tomography (CT) and computer tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging were conducted in all patients before and after treatment. Perfusion parameters including blood flows, blood volume, hepatic artery perfusion fraction, hepatic artery perfusion, and hepatic portal venous perfusion were used for evaluating therapeutic effect. All parameters in liver cancer were significantly decreased after argon-helium knife treatment (p liver tissue, but other parameters kept constant. CT perfusion imaging is able to detect decrease in blood perfusion of liver cancer post-argon-helium knife therapy. Therefore, CTP imaging would play an important role for liver cancer management followed argon-helium knife therapy.

  9. Structures of GMC W 37

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xiaoliang; Chen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Miaomiao; Song, Chao

    2015-01-01

    We carried out observations toward the giant molecular cloud W 37 with the $J = 1 - 0$ transitions of $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O using the 13.7 m single-dish telescope at the Delingha station of Purple Mountain Observatory. Based on the three CO lines, we calculated the column densities, cloud masses for the molecular clouds with radial velocities at around $+20 \\mathrm{km s}^{-1}$. The gas mass of W 37, calculated from $^{13}$CO emission, is $1.7\\times10^5 M_\\odot$, above the criteria of giant molecular cloud. The dense ridge of W 37 is a dense filament, which is supercritical in linear mass ratio. Dense clumps found by C$^{18}$O emission are aligned along the dense ridge with a regular interval about 2.8 pc, similar to the clump separation caused by large-scale `sausage instability'. We confirm the identification of the giant molecular filament (GMF) G 18.0-16.8 by \\cite{2014A&A...568A..73R} and find a new giant filament, G16.5-15.8, located in the west 0.8 degree of G 18.0-16.8. Both GMFs are ...

  10. Development of membrane cryostats for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, D; Gendotti, A; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Loew, T; Mladenov, D; Montanari, C; Murphy, S; Nessi, M; Norris, B; Noto, F; Rubbia, A; Sharma, R; Smargianaki, D; Stewart, J; Vignoli, C; Wilson, P; Wu, S

    2015-01-01

    A new collaboration is being formed to develop a multi-kiloton Long-Baseline neutrino experiment that will be located at the Surf Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. In the present design, the detector will be located inside cryostats filled with 68,400 ton of ultrapure liquid argon (less than 100 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). To qualify the membrane technology for future very large-scale and underground implementations, a strong prototyping effort is ongoing: several smaller detectors of growing size with associated cryostats and cryogenic systems will be designed and built at Fermilab and CERN. They will take physics data and test different detector elements, filtration systems, design options and installation procedures. In addition, a 35 ton prototype is already operational at Fermilab and will take data with single-phase detector in early 2016. After the prototyping phase, the multi-kton detector will be constructed. After commissioning, it will detect and study ne...

  11. Fluorescence Spectrum of SiO in an Argon Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullman, R.; Hormes, J.; Schroeder, W.; Wiggenhauser, H.

    1987-04-01

    Fluorescence from SiO matrix isolated in argon has been investigated in the wavelength region 120-300 nm. Fluorescence emission spectra from the valence states, A1Π, E1Σ+ and G1Π, revealed that nearly all radiation comes from one channel at 305 nm, which was analysed as originating from the b3Π-X1Σ+ transition. Contrary to the A1Π and G1Π states, the E1Σ+ state also decays radiatively, although weakly, through two other channels situated in the vicinity of 305 nm. These two channels were believed to originate from the a3Σ+-X1Σ+ and e3Σ--X1Σ+ transitions.

  12. Electron Neutrino Classification in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Płoński, Piotr; Sulej, Robert; Zaremba, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos are one of the least known elementary particles. The detection of neutrinos is an extremely difficult task since they are affected only by weak sub-atomic force or gravity. Therefore large detectors are constructed to reveal neutrino's properties. Among them the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) detectors provide excellent imaging and particle identification ability for studying neutrinos. The computerized methods for automatic reconstruction and identification of particles are needed to fully exploit the potential of the LAr-TPC technique. Herein, the novel method for electron neutrino classification is presented. The method constructs a feature descriptor from images of observed event. It characterizes the signal distribution propagated from vertex of interest, where the particle interacts with the detector medium. The classifier is learned with a constructed feature descriptor to decide whether the images represent the electron neutrino or cascade produced by photons. The proposed ap...

  13. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory [Adelphi Technology LLC, Purdue Technology Center, 5225 Exploration Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46241 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  14. Argon plasma coagulation for treatment of hemorrhagic radiation gastroduodenitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Shu-Ji; Aoyama, Nobuo; Shirasaka, Daisuke; Inoue, Takashi; Kuroda, Kohei; Ebara, Shigeyuki; Tamura, Takao; Miyamoto, Masaki; Kasuga, Masato [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    A 79-year-old man who had received radiotherapy for portal vein thrombosis due to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 5 months earlier, showed progressive anemia and melena. Endoscopy on admission revealed diffuse bleeding from multiple telangiectasias on the anterior wall of the antrum and bulbus. We treated this patient with a new non-contact hemostatic method: the argon plasma coagulator (APC). The melena stopped after the first session and the hemoglobin level remained stable for 7 months. No delayed complications have been observed. Gastrointestinal bleeding from chronic radiation gastroduodenitis is rarely reported compared with radiation proctitis. This case demonstrates that APC is effective for hemostasis of diffuse bleeding from radiation gastroduodenitis, just as for radiation protitis. (author)

  15. Line ratio diagnostics in helium and helium seeded argon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, R F [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Loch, S D [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Ballance, C P [Physics Department, Rollins College, White Park, FL 32789 (United States); Branscomb, D [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Pindzola, M S [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    We investigate the potential use of line ratio diagnostics to evaluate electron temperature in either helium or helium seeded argon plasmas. Plasmas are produced in a helicon plasma source. A rf compensated Langmuir probe is used to measure both the electron temperature and plasma density while a spectrometer is used to measure He I line intensities from the plasma. For all plasma densities where the electron temperature remains at 5 {+-} 1 eV, three He line ratios are measured. Each experimental ratio is compared with the prediction of three different collisional radiative models. One of these models makes uses of recent R-matrix with pseudo-states calculations for collisional rate coefficients. A discussion related to the different observations and model predictions is presented.

  16. Photodegradation Mechanisms of Tetraphenyl Butadiene Coatings for Liquid Argon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B J P; Conrad, J M; Pla-Dalmau, A

    2013-01-01

    We report on studies of degradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry we have detected the ultraviolet-blocking impurity benzophenone (BP). We monitored the drop in performance and increase of benzophenone concentration in TPB plates with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and demonstrate the correlation between these two variables. Based on the presence and initially exponential increase in the concentration of benzophenone observed, we propose that TPB degradation is a free radical-mediated photooxidation reaction, which is subsequently confirmed by displaying delayed degradation using a free radical inhibitor. Finally we show that the performance of wavelength-shifting coatings of the type envisioned for the LBNE experiment can be improved by 10-20%, with significantly delayed UV degradation, by using a 20% admixture of 4-tert-Butylcatechol.

  17. Kinetic modeling of the Townsend breakdown in argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macheret, S. O.; Shneider, M. N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, D-414 Engineering Quadrangle, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Kinetic modeling of the Townsend breakdown in argon was performed in the “forward-back” approximation. The kinetic model was found to adequately describe the left branch of the Paschen curve, and the important role of ionization by fast ions and atoms near the cathode, as well as the increase in secondary emission coefficient in strong electric fields described in the literature, was confirmed. The modeling also showed that the electron energy distribution function develops a beam of high-energy electrons and that the runaway effect, i.e., the monotonic increase of the mean electron energy with the distance from the cathode, occurs at the left branch of the Paschen curve.

  18. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  19. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthymiopoulos, Ilias

    2001-04-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs.

  20. Characterization of SF6/Argon Plasmas for Microelectronics Applications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents measurements in inductively driven plasmas containing SF(sub 6)/Argon gas mixtures. The data in this report is presented in a series of appendices with a minimum of interpretation. During the course of this work we investigated: the electron and negative ion density using microwave interferometry and laser photodetachment; the optical emission; plasma species using mass spectrometry, and the ion energy distributions at the surface of the rf biased electrode in several configurations. The goal of this work was to assemble a consistent set of data to understand the important chemical mechanisms in SF(sub 6) based processing of materials and to validate models of the gas and surface processes

  1. Photodegradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene coatings for liquid argon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. J. P.; VanGemert, J. K.; Conrad, J. M.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on studies of degradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry we have detected the ultraviolet-blocking impurity benzophenone. We monitored the drop in performance and increase of benzophenone concentration in TPB plates with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and demonstrate the correlation between these two variables. Based on the presence and initially exponential increase in the concentration of benzophenone observed, we propose that TPB degradation is a free radical-mediated photooxidation reaction, which is subsequently confirmed by displaying delayed degradation using a free radical inhibitor. Finally we show that the performance of wavelength-shifting coatings of the type envisioned for the LBNE experiment can be improved by 10-20%, with significantly delayed UV degradation, by using a 20% admixture of 4-tert-Butylcatechol.

  2. Liquid Argon Cryogenic Detector Calibration by Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Polosatkin, Sergey; Dolgov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A method for calibration of cryogenic liquid argon detector response to recoils with certain energy -8.2 keV - is proposed. The method utilizes a process of inelastic scattering of monoenergetic neutrons produced by fusion DD neutron generator. Features of kinematics of inelastic scattering cause sufficient (forty times) increase in count rate of useful events relative to traditional scheme exploited elastic scattering with the same recoil energy and compatible energy resolution. The benefits of the proposed scheme of calibration most well implemented with the use of tagged neutron generator as a neutron source that allows to eliminate background originated from casual coincidence of signals on cryogenic detector and additional detector of scattered neutrons.

  3. The liquid argon TPC for the ICARUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F

    1997-01-01

    The ICARUS project aims at the realisation of a large liquid argon TPC to be run at the Underground Laboratories of Gran Sasso in Italy. An intense R&D; activity has put on firm grounds this new detector technology and experimentally confirmed its feasibility on a few ton scale. Based on these solid achievements, the collaboration is now confident of being able to build and safely operate a multi-kton detector. The reseach program of the experiment involves the systematic study of a wide spectrum of physical phenomena covering many orders of magnitude in the energy deposited in the detector: from the few MeV of solar neutrino interactions, to the about one GeV of the proton decay and atmospheric neutrinos, up to the higher energies of neutrinos from accelerators.

  4. Response Uniformity of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Aharrouche, M; Di Ciaccio, L; El Kacimi, M; Gaumer, O; Gouanère, M; Goujdami, D; Lafaye, R; Laplace, S; Le Maner, C; Neukermans, L; Perrodo, P; Poggioli, L; Prieur, D; Przysiezniak, H; Sauvage, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Lanni, F; Lü, L; Ma, H; Rajagopalan, S; Takai, H; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Hakimi, M; Hoummada, A; Gao, Y; Stroynowsk, R; Aleksa, M; Carli, T; Fassnacht, P; Gianotti, F; Hervás, L; Lampl, W; Collot, J; Hostachy, J Y; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Malek, F; Martin, P; Viret, S; Leltchouk, M; Parsons, J A; Simion, S; Barreiro, F; Del Peso, J; Labarga, L; Oliver, C; Rodier, S; Barrillon, P; Benchouk, C; Djama, F; Hubaut, F; Monnier, E; Pralavorio, P; Sauvage, D; Serfon, C; Tisserant, S; Tóth, J; Banfi, D; Carminati, L; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Delmastro, M; Fanti, M; Mandell, L; Mazzanti, M; Tartarelli, F; Kotov, K; Maslennikov, A; Pospelov, G; Tikhonov, Yu; Bourdarios, C; Fayard, L; Fournier, D; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Kado, M; Parrour, G; Puzo, P; Rousseau, D; Sacco, R; Serin, L; Unal, G; Zerwas, D; Dekhissi, B; Derkaoui, J; EL Kharrim, A; Maaroufi, F; Cleland, W; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Nikolic-Audit, I; Schwemling, Ph; Ghazlane, H; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, A; Boonekamp, M; Kerschen, N; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, P; Schwindlingy, J; Lund-Jensen, B

    2007-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter modules is completed and all the modules are assembled and inserted in the cryostats. During the production period four barrel and three endcap modules were exposed to test beams in order to assess their performance, ascertain the production quality and reproducibility, and to scrutinize the complete energy reconstruction chain from the readout and calibration electronics to the signal and energy reconstruction. It was also possible to check the full Monte Carlo simulation of the calorimeter. The analysis of the uniformity, resolution and extraction of constant term is presented. Typical non-uniformities of 0.5% and typical global constant terms of 0.6% are measured for the barrel and end-cap modules.

  5. A Thermodynamic Model for Argon Plasma Kernel Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Keck

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasma kernel formation of argon is studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments have been performed in a constant volume cylindrical vessel located in a shadowgraph system. The experiments have been done in constant pressure. The energy of plasma is supplied by an ignition system through two electrodes located in the vessel. The experiments have been done with two different spark energies to study the effect of input energy on kernel growth and its properties. A thermodynamic model employing mass and energy balance was developed to predict the experimental data. The agreement between experiments and model prediction is very good. The effect of various parameters such as initial temperature, initial radius of the kernel, and the radiation energy loss have been investigated and it has been concluded that initial condition is very important on formation and expansion of the kernel.

  6. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I

    2001-01-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs. (3 refs).

  7. Attosecond Coherent Control of Single and Double Photoionization in Argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogle, C W; Tong, X M; Martin, L; Murnane, M M; Kapteyn, H C; Ranitovic, P

    2015-10-23

    Ultrafast high harmonic beams provide new opportunities for coherently controlling excitation and ionization processes in atoms, molecules, and materials on attosecond time scales by employing multiphoton two-pathway electron-wave-packet quantum interferences. Here we use spectrally tailored and frequency tuned vacuum and extreme ultraviolet harmonic combs, together with two phase-locked infrared laser fields, to show how the total single and double photoionization yields of argon can be coherently modulated by controlling the relative phases of both optical and electronic-wave-packet quantum interferences. This Letter is the first to apply quantum control techniques to double photoionization, which is a fundamental process where a single, high-energy photon ionizes two electrons simultaneously from an atom. PMID:26551112

  8. Dynamic resonances and tunnelling in the multiphoton ionization of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of wavepacket simulations for multiphoton ionization in argon. A single active electron model is applied to estimate the single-electron ionization rates and photoelectron energy distributions for λ = 390 nm light with intensities up to I = 2 x 1014 W cm-2. The multiphoton ionization rates are compared with R-matrix Floquet calculations and found to be in very good agreement. The photoelectron energy distribution is used to study the nature of ionization at the higher intensities. Our results are consistent with recent calculations and experiments which show the imprint of the tunnelling process in the multiphoton regime. For few-cycle intense pulses, we find that the strong modulation of intensity and increased bandwidth leads to dynamic mixing of the 3d and 5s resonances.

  9. The ATLAS liquid Argon calorimeters read-out system

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Fayard, L; La Marra, D; Léger, A; Matricon, P; Perrot, G; Poggioli, L; Prast, J; Riu, I; Simion, S

    2004-01-01

    The calorimetry of the ATLAS experiment takes advantage of different detectors based on the liquid Argon (LAr) technology. Signals from the LAr calorimeters are processed by various stages before being delivered to the Data Acquisition system. The calorimeter cell signals are received by the front-end boards, which digitize a predetermined number of samples of the bipolar waveform and sends them to the Read-Out Driver (ROD) boards. The ROD board receives triggered data from 1028 calorimeter cells, and determines the precise energy and timing of the signals by processing the discrete samplings of the pulse. In addition, it formats the digital stream for the following elements of the DAQ chain, and performs monitoring. The architecture and functionality of the ATLAS LAr ROD board are discussed, along with the final design of the Processing Unit boards housing the Digital Signal Processors (DSP). (9 refs).

  10. Electron-ion recombination study in argon at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with a wall-stabilized arc burning in argon at atmospheric pressure. A transient mode is obtained using a fast thyristor connected to the electrodes, which short-circuits the discharge. By means of two wavelengths laser interferometry and spectroscopy measurements we have determined the temporal changes of the electron density, ground state atom density and excited atom density. We have shown that, when the electric field is suppressed, the electron temperature rapidly decreases to the gas temperature before changing electron and atom densities. This phenomenon is applied to determine the gas temperature and to evaluate the role played by ionization in electron density balance. The coefficients of ambipolar diffusion, ionization and recombination and an apparent recombination coefficient are determined versus electron temperature and compared with theoretical values

  11. Atmospheric dispersion of argon-41 from anuclear research reactor: measurement and modeling of plume geometry and gamma radiation field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Bent; Astrup, Poul; Drews, Martin;

    2003-01-01

    An atmospheric dispersion experiment was conducted using a visible tracer along with the routine release of argon-41 from the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Simultaneous measurements of plume geometry and radiation fields for argon-41 decay were performed as well as measurements of the argon...

  12. Transfer ionization cross-sections measured in collisions of highly charged argon ions with neon target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Xinwen(马新文); LIU; Huiping; (刘惠萍); CHEN; Ximeng; (陈熙萌); YANG; Zhihu; (杨治虎); SHEN; Ziyong; (申自勇); WANG; Youde; (王友德); YU; Deyang; (于得洋); CAI; Xiaohong; (蔡晓红); LIU; Zhaoyuan; (刘兆远)

    2003-01-01

    Multiple electron transfer processes are studied for Arq+ + Ne (q = 8, 9, 11, 12) collisions by using multi-parameter coincidence techniques. Various electron transfer processes are identified experimentally and the related cross-sections are measured. The dependence of transfer ionization cross-sections on the recoil charge states is compared with the results from the modified molecular classical overbarrier model. It is found that the modified model described the experimental results reasonably.

  13. Biostimulation of human carcinoma cells with the argon laser: a previously unreported potential iatrogenic effect of lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, D.J.; Saxton, R.E.; Fetterman, H.R.; Castro, D.J.; Ward, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The human squamous carcinoma cell line P3 was subjected to treatment with a single mode argon laser at 514.5 nm. The temperature and energy levels delivered to the target cells were determined by a reproducible method of dosimetry. At energy levels between 860 to 990 J/cm2 and a corresponding temperature of 39 +/- 1 degrees C, a significant delayed stimulation in DNA synthesis was noted after 24 hours, but the cells remained viable. However, at energy levels and temperatures higher or equal to 1100 J/cm2 (41 degrees C), an immediate suppression of DNA synthesis was accompanied by nonviability of the P3 carcinoma cells. These results indicate that the argon laser has potential for selective biostimulation on carcinoma cell duplication at the specific non-thermal range of 39 +/- 1 degrees C. Similar effects were not observed when the P3 carcinoma cells were heated to this same temperature using a standard heat bath. This phenomenon appears to represent a previously undescribed potential iatrogenic effect of the monochromatic laser beam in the treatment of cancer.

  14. Measuring Muon-Neutrino Charged-Current Differential Cross Sections with a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, Joshua B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-01-01

    More than 80 years after its proposed existence, the neutrino remains largely mysterious and elusive. Precision measurements of the neutrino's properties are just now beginning to take place. Such measurements are required in order to determine the mass of the neutrino, how many neutrinos there are, if neutrinos are different than anti-neutrinos, and more. Muon-neutrino charged-current differential cross sections on an argon target in terms of the outgoing muon momentum and angle are presented. The measurements have been taken with the ArgoNeuT Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) experiment. ArgoNeuT is the first LArTPC to ever take data in a low energy neutrino beam, having collected thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. The results are relevant for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments searching for non-zero $\\theta_{13}$, CP-violation in the lepton sector, and the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, among other things. Furthermore, the differential cross sections are important for understanding the nature of the neutrino-nucleus interaction in general. These measurements represent a significant step forward for LArTPC technology as they are among the first neutrino physics results with such a device.

  15. On-line experimental results of an argon gas cell-based laser ion source (KEK Isotope Separation System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Jung, H. S.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.

    2016-06-01

    KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) has been developed at RIKEN to produce neutron rich isotopes with N = 126 to study the β -decay properties for application to astrophysics. The KISS is an element-selective mass-separation system which consists of an argon gas cell-based on laser ion source for atomic number selection and an ISOL mass-separation system. The argon gas cell of KISS is a key component to stop and collect the unstable nuclei produced in a multi-nucleon transfer reaction, where the isotopes of interest will be selectively ionized using laser resonance ionization. We have performed off- and on-line experiments to study the basic properties of the gas cell as well as of the KISS. We successfully extracted the laser-ionized stable 56Fe (direct implantation of a 56Fe beam into the gas cell) atoms and 198Pt (emitted from the 198Pt target by elastic scattering with a 136Xe beam) atoms from the KISS during the commissioning on-line experiments. We furthermore extracted laser-ionized unstable 199Pt atoms and confirmed that the measured half-life was in good agreement with the reported value.

  16. Effect of Argon Plasma Treatment on Tribological Properties of UHMWPE/MWCNT Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitturi Naresh Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE is widely used in artificial joints in the replacement of knee, hip and shoulder that has been impaired as a result of arthritis or other degenerative joint diseases. The UHMWPE made plastic cup is placed in the joint socket in contact with a metal or ceramic ball affixed to a metal stem. Effective reinforcement of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs in UHMWPE results in improved mechanical and tribological properties. The hydrophobic nature of the nanocomposites surface results in lesser contact with biological fluids during the physiological interaction. In this project, we investigate the UHMWPE/MWCNTs nanocomposites reinforced with MWCNTs at different concentrations. The samples were treated with cold argon plasma at different exposure times. The water contact angles for 60 min plasma-treated nanocomposites with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt % MWCNTs were found to be 55.65°, 52.51°, 48.01°, 43.72°, and 37.18° respectively. Increasing the treatment time of nanocomposites has shown transformation from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic nature due to carboxyl groups being bonded on the surface for treated nanocomposites. Wear analysis was performed under dry, and also under biological lubrication, conditions of all treated samples. The wear factor of untreated pure UHMWPE sample was reduced by 68% and 80%, under dry and lubricated conditions, respectively, as compared to 2 wt % 60 min-treated sample. The kinetic friction co-efficient was also noted under both conditions. The hardness of nanocomposites increased with both MWCNTs loading and plasma treatment time. Similarly, the surface roughness of the nanocomposites was reduced.

  17. Wetting and evaporation of argon nanodroplets on smooth and rough substrates: Molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qun; Wang, Baohe; Chen, Yonggang; Zhao, Zongchang

    2016-10-01

    Wetting and evaporation behaviors of argon nanodroplets on smooth and rough substrates are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Effects of interaction energy between solid and argon atoms on wetting and evaporation and differences between nanodroplets on smooth and rough substrates have been investigated. The results show that for both smooth and rough substrates, as the interaction energy between solid and argon atoms increases, the contact angle and total evaporation increase. For rough substrates, the variations of contact angle and contact radius during evaporation progress are much more complex and the total evaporation is much larger than that of smooth substrates.

  18. A Study of Dielectric Breakdown Along Insulators Surrounding Conductors in Liquid Argon

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwitz, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    High voltage breakdown in liquid argon is an important consideration in the design of liquid argon time projection chambers, which are often used as neutrino and dark matter detectors. We have made systematic measurements of breakdown voltages in liquid argon along insulators surrounding negative rod electrodes. The purpose of these tests is to understand the effects of materials, of breakdown path length, and of surface topology. We have found no material-specific effects other than those due to their permittivity. We have found no dependence on breakdown voltage on the length of the exposed insulator. A model for the breakdown mechanism is presented that can help inform future designs.

  19. Design Principles and Operational Results of the Cryogenic System for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fabre, C; Chalifour, M; Gonidec, G; Passardi, Giorgio; Petit, P; Pezzetti, M; Wicek, F

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter housed in three independent cryostats containing a total argon volume of about 78 m3 has been installed in the underground cavern. The three detectors have been cooled down following stringent temperature gradient limits and have been filled with liquid argon. The cryostats are now in a stable condition for periods going up to almost two years. The temperature uniformity within each of the three detector volumes is found to be within 70 mK rms, while the temperature stability stays below 5 mK rms.

  20. A new ozone standard - The vapor pressure of ozone at liquid argon temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauersberger, K.; Hanson, D.; Morton, J.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure of ozone has been measured at liquid argon temperatures. At the normal boiling point of argon (-185.9 C) an ozone pressure of 0.0405 torr was obtained with an accuracy of + or - 1.5 percent. Increases and decreases in liquid argon temperatures raised and lowered the ozone vapor pressure, respectively. During the vapor pressure measurements the purity of ozone was monitored with a mass spectrometer. The proposed ozone standard will considerably improve the calibration of experiments for atmospheric research, the determination of absorption cross sections and other laboratory ozone studies.

  1. Surface compositional changes in GaAs subjected to argon plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdu-Bob, C.C.; Sullivan, J.L.; Saied, S.O.; Layberry, R.; Aflori, M

    2002-12-30

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been employed to study surface compositional changes in GaAs (1 0 0) subjected to argon plasma treatment. The experimental results have been explained in terms of predicted argon ion energies, measured ion densities and etch rates. A model is proposed for the processes taking place at the surface of GaAs in terms of segregation, sputtering and surface relaxation. Stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) code has also been employedan aid to identification of the mechanisms responsible for the compositional changes. Argon plasma treatment induced surface oxidation at very low energies and sputtering and surface damage with increasing energy.

  2. The role of argon plasma coagulation in the management of Barrett's esophagus: a single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad YZ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Yahia Z Gad1, Adel A Zeid21Associate Professor of Internal Medicine, Mansoura Specialized Medical Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 2Consultant Surgeon, Al Nil Hospital, Mansaura, EgyptBackground/aim: Patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE are 30 times more likely to develop esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC than the general population. Data regarding the use of argon plasma coagulation (APC for treatment of patients with BE in Egypt are still limited. This article discusses the efficacy and safety of APC as a thermoablative modality in Egyptian patients with BE.Materials and methods: A total of 73 referred eligible patients with a confirmed endoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis of BE were enrolled in this study and subjected to thermoablation by high-power (hp-APC equipment at a 60 W setting until complete ablation or a maximum of five sessions and were followed up clinically and endoscopically at 3-month intervals. Computer-generated randomization allocated patients into APC-treated and control groups (n = 75, all of whom were treated with a proton pump inhibitor.Results: Minor and major complications occurred in 8 of 73 (10.95% and 1 of 73 (1.36% patients, respectively. Macroscopic ablation was achieved after one session in 37 of 73 (50.63% patients, and complete histologic ablation was confirmed after 167 sessions in 69 of 73 (94.52% patients. At 1-year follow-up, no relapses of BE or progression to EAC were observed.Conclusion: hp-APC at a medium-energy setting of 60 W in an acid-reduced environment can ablate BE effectively and safely with promising initial results.Keywords: Barrett's esophagus, argon plasma coagulation

  3. 37th National Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Sandeep; Adhikari, Bibhas; Seshadri, Harinipriya; Fulwani, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The book is a collection of peer-reviewed scientific papers submitted by active researchers in the 37th National System Conference (NSC 2013). NSC is an annual event of the Systems Society of India (SSI), primarily oriented to strengthen the systems movement and its applications for the welfare of humanity. A galaxy of academicians, professionals, scientists, statesman and researchers from different parts of the country and abroad are invited to attend the conference. The book presents research articles in the areas of system’s modelling, complex network modelling, cyber security, sustainable systems design, health care systems, socio-economic systems, and clean and green technologies. The book can be used as a tool for further research.

  4. 37th International MATADOR Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Presented here are 97 refereed papers given at the 37th MATADOR Conference held at The University of Manchester in July 2012. The MATADOR series of conferences covers the topics of Manufacturing Automation and Systems Technology, Applications, Design, Organisation and Management, and Research.   The proceedings of this conference contain original papers contributed by researchers from many countries on different continents. The papers cover the principles, techniques and applications in aerospace, automotive, biomedical, energy, consumable goods and process industries.    The papers in this volume reflect: the importance of manufacturing to international wealth creation; the emerging fields of micro- and nano-manufacture; the increasing trend towards the fabrication of parts using lasers; the growing demand for precision engineering and part inspection techniques, and the changing trends in manufacturing within a global environment. .

  5. Main: 1B37 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B37 トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Polyamine Oxidase Precursor Name=Pao; Zea Mays Molecul...FSNWPVGVNRYEYDQLRAPVGRVYFTGEHTSEHYNGYVHGAYLSGIDSAEILINCAQKKMCKYHVQGKYD corn_1B37.jpg ...

  6. Experimental study and simulation of the residual activity induced by high-energy argon ions in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasik, I., E-mail: i.strasik@gsi.d [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); FEI STU, Ilkovicova 3, SK-812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Mustafin, E.; Seidl, T. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Pavlovic, M. [FEI STU, Ilkovicova 3, SK-812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-03-15

    The paper presents new experimental results and FLUKA-simulations of residual activation induced by high-energy argon ions in copper. It follows the previous residual activation studies performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt with uranium ions as a preparatory work for constructing the FAIR facility. Copper samples were irradiated by 1 GeV/u and 500 MeV/u {sup 40}Ar ions and investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry. The isotopes with dominating contribution to the total residual activity were identified and their partial activities were quantified. Depth-profiling of the partial residual activities of all identified isotopes was performed by measurements of individual target foils. The experimental results were compared with simulations by the FLUKA-code. A satisfactory agreement between the experiment and the simulations was observed.

  7. Self-assembled heterogeneous argon/neon core-shell clusters studied by photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundwall, M; Pokapanich, W; Bergersen, H; Lindblad, A; Rander, T; Ohrwall, G; Tchaplyguine, M; Barth, S; Hergenhahn, U; Svensson, S; Björneholm, O

    2007-06-01

    Clusters formed by a coexpansion process of argon and neon have been studied using synchrotron radiation. Electrons from interatomic Coulombic decay as well as ultraviolet and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine the heterogeneous nature of the clusters and the cluster structure. Binary clusters of argon and neon produced by coexpansion are shown to exhibit a core-shell structure placing argon in the core and neon in the outer shells. Furthermore, the authors show that 2 ML of neon on the argon core is sufficient for neon valence band formation resembling the neon solid. For 1 ML of neon the authors observe a bandwidth narrowing to about half of the bulk value.

  8. Surface Chemistry of Polymers Physical Adsorption of Nitrogen, Argon, Sulfur Dioxide and Neopentane on Polyvinylidene Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Houriet, Jean-Philippe; Ghiste, Patrick; Stoeckli, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption of nitrogen, argon, sulfur dioxide and neopentane on polyvinylidene fluoride has been measured by static methods and by gas-solid chromatography. The polymer has a homogeneous surface of low energy, which is not significantly affected by heating.

  9. Surface modification of polypropylene using argon plasma: Statistical optimization of the process variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low pressure plasma treatment using radiofrequency (rf) discharge of argon gas was employed to improve the hydrophilicity of polypropylene. The effects of argon plasma on the wettability, surface chemistry and surface morphology of polypropylene were studied using static contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Increase in surface energy of polypropylene was observed as a result of argon plasma treatment. SEM and AFM images revealed the increased surface roughness. A set of identified process variables (rf power, pressure, argon flow rate and time) were used in this study and were optimized using central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). A statistical model was developed to represent the surface energy in terms of the process variables mentioned above. Accuracy of the model was verified and found to be high.

  10. Simulations of argon accident scenarios in the ATLAS experimental cavern a safety analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Balda, F

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristic accidents in the ATLAS experimental cavern (UX15) are simulated by means of STAR-CD, a code using the "Finite-Volume" method. These accidents involve different liquid argon leaks from the barrel cryostat of the detector, thus causing the dispersion of the argon into the Muon Chamber region and the evaporation of the liquid. The subsequent temperature gradients and distribution of argon concentrations, as well as their evolution in time are simulated and discussed, with the purpose of analysing the dangers related to asphyxiation and to contact with cryogenic fluids for the working personnel. A summary of the theory that stands behind the code is also given. In order to validate the models, an experimental test on a liquid argon spill performed earlier is simulated, showing that the program is able to output reliable results. At the end, some safety-related recommendations are listed.

  11. Pose Measurement Performance of the Argon Relative Navigation Sensor Suite in Simulated Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Joseph M.; Eepoel, John Van; Strube, Matt; Gill, Nat; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Hyslop, Andrew; Patrick, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Argon is a flight-ready sensor suite with two visual cameras, a flash LIDAR, an on- board flight computer, and associated electronics. Argon was designed to provide sensing capabilities for relative navigation during proximity, rendezvous, and docking operations between spacecraft. A rigorous ground test campaign assessed the performance capability of the Argon navigation suite to measure the relative pose of high-fidelity satellite mock-ups during a variety of simulated rendezvous and proximity maneuvers facilitated by robot manipulators in a variety of lighting conditions representative of the orbital environment. A brief description of the Argon suite and test setup are given as well as an analysis of the performance of the system in simulated proximity and rendezvous operations.

  12. Formation and characterization of magnesium bisozonide and carbonyl complexes in solid argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanjun; Gong, Yu; Zhang, Qingqing; Zhou, Mingfei

    2010-10-14

    The reactions of magnesium atoms with dioxygen and dioxygen/carbon monoxide mixture have been investigated by matrix isolation infrared absorption spectroscopy. Magnesium atoms react with dioxygen in solid argon to form the inserted MgO(2) molecules under UV excitation, which were previously characterized. Annealing allows the dioxygen molecules to diffuse and to react with MgO(2) and form the magnesium bisozonide complex, Mg(O(3))(2), which is proposed to be coordinated by two argon atoms in solid argon matrix. The Mg(O(3))(2)(Ar)(2) complex is characterized to have two equivalent side-on bonded ozonide ligands with a D(2h) symmetry. The coordinated argon atoms can be replaced by carbon monoxide to give the magnesium bisozonide dicarbonyl complex, Mg(O(3))(2)(CO)(2), a neutral magnesium carbonyl complex with CO binding to the Mg(2+) center. PMID:20857987

  13. Dynamic range compression in a liquid argon calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, W.E. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lissauer, D.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wingerter-Seez, I. [LAPP, Annecy-le-Vieux (France)

    1996-12-31

    The anticipated range of particle energies at the LHC, coupled with the need for precision, low noise calorimetry makes severe demands on the dynamic range of the calorimeter readout. A common approach to this problem is to use shapers with two or more gain scales. In this paper, the authors describe their experience with a new approach in which a preamplifier with dynamic gain compression is used. An unavoidable consequence of dynamic gain adjustment is that the peaking time of the shaper output signal becomes amplitude dependent. The authors have carried out a test of such a readout system in the RD3 calorimeter, a liquid argon device with accordion geometry. The calibration system is used to determine both the gain of the individual channels as well as to map the shape of the waveform as a function of signal amplitude. A new procedure for waveform analysis, in which the fitted parameters describe the impulse response of the system, permits a straightforward translation of the calibration waveform to the waveform generated by a particle crossing the ionization gap. They find that the linearity and resolution of the calorimeter is equivalent to that obtained with linear preamplifiers, up to an energy of 200 GeV.

  14. An update of argon inelastic cross sections for plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a coherent set of electron impact inelastic cross sections for argon, based on recent experimental measurements. The updated set is validated by comparing calculated swarm parameters and rate coefficients (obtained by solving the two-term approximation electron Boltzmann equation) with available experimental data. This validation procedure is usually adopted when the cross section set is to be later used in plasma discharge modelling. Simulation results for the electron drift velocity and characteristic energy are in very good agreement with experimental values of these quantities. Calculations, using cross section sets proposed by different authors, of the total (direct + cascade) excitation coefficients to the 4s and 4p states, and of the Townsend ionization coefficient, show that the present set ensures the best overall agreement with measured values. The agreement is particularly good for the excitation coefficient to metastable 4s'[1/2]0 and the Townsend ionization coefficient, which are probably the most relevant electron macroscopic coefficients in the modelling of discharge plasmas

  15. Argon defect complexes in low energy Ar irradiated molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Veen, A.; Buters, W.T.M.; van der Kolk, G.J.; Caspers, L.M. (Interuniversitair Reactor Instituut, Delft (Netherlands)); Armstrong, T.R. (Victoria Univ., Wellington (New Zealand). Dept. of Physics)

    1982-03-15

    Thermal desorption spectrometry has been used to study the defects created in Mo irradiated along the <110> direction with Ar ions ranging in energy from 0.1 to 2 keV. In addition to monitoring the release of the implanted Ar, additional information has been obtained by decoration of the defects with low energy helium and subsequent monitoring of the helium release. The studies show evidence that the Ar can be trapped in both substitutional sites and in a configuration in which the Ar is associated with vacancies (ArVsub(n), n >= 2). Most of the Ar implanted at high energy is released at approx. equal to 1500 K by thermal vacancy assisted diffusion. Argon trapped closer to the surface is released at lower temperatures via at least three different surface related release mechanisms. Additional results are presented on the interaction of self interstitial atoms (introduced by 100 eV Xe bombardment) with the Ar defects. Substitutional Ar is found to convert to interstitial Ar which seems to be mobile at room temperature. The Ar-vacancy complexes are found to be reduced to substitutional Ar. The results of atomistic calculations of the release mechanisms will also be presented.

  16. Scintillation Light from Cosmic-Ray Muons in Liquid Argon

    CERN Document Server

    Whittington, Denver

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the first experiment to directly measure the properties of the scintillation light generated by minimum ionizing cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches, as well as for particle identification. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo facility at Fermilab using prototype light guides and electronics developed for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment. Analysis of the time-resolved structure of the scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons gives $\\langle \\tau_{\\text{T}}\\rangle = 1.43 \\pm 0.04~\\text{(stat.)} \\pm 0.007~\\text{(sys.)}~\\mu$s for the triplet light decay time constant. The ratio of singlet to triplet light measured using surface-coated light guides is $R = 0.39 \\pm 0.01~\\text{(stat.)} \\pm 0.008~\\text{(sys.)}$. There is some evidence that this value is not consistent with $R$ for minimum ionizing electrons. However, the value for $...

  17. State-selective radiative recombination cross sections of argon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The n-, (n,l)- and fine-structure level state-selective radiative recombinations (RR) cross sections of argon ions Ar18+,Ar13+,Ar7+ and Ar+ are obtained with the semi-classical Kramer formula, the relativistic self-consistent field (RSCF) method and the relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) method. It is found that for the highly charged ions with few electrons, the cross sections calculated with these three methods are in good agreement with each other. But as the number of electrons increases, the Kramer formula deviates from the RSCF and RCI results. For instance, when the energy of the incident electron is larger than 100 eV, the n-state selective cross sections of Ar7+ calculated from the Kramer formula are underestimated for more than 50%. The RSCF results are in general agreement with the RCI results. However, for the low charged ions, a clear distinction appears due to the strong configuration interaction, especially near the Cooper minimum. The n-resolved (n≤10) and total Maxwellian averaged rate coefficients are calculated, and the analytic fitting parameters are also provided. -- Highlights: ► The RR cross sections of Ar18+, Ar13+, Ar7+ and Ar+ are obtained. ► The Kramer formula, the relativistic self-consistent field and RCI methods are used. ► Results from three methods are compared with each other.

  18. Electronics calibration board for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To calibrate the energy response of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter, an electronics calibration board has been designed; it delivers a signal whose shape is close to the calorimeter ionization current signal with amplitude up to 100 mA in 50 Ω with 16 bit dynamic range. The amplitude of this signal is designed to be uniform over all calorimeters channels, stable in time and with an integral linearity much better that the electronics readout. The various R and D phases and most of the difficulties met are discussed and illustrated by many measurements. The custom design circuits are described and the layout of the ATLAS calibration board presented. The procedure used to qualify the boards is explained and the performance obtained illustrated: a dynamic range up to 3 TeV in three energy scales with an integral linearity better than 0.1% in each of them, a response uniformity better than 0.2% and a stability better than 0.1%. The performance of the board is well within the ATLAS requirements. Finally, in situ measurements done on the ATLAS calorimeter are shown to validate these performances

  19. Methane from benzene in argon dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Efficient on-line conversion of benzene to methane at room temperature. ► Absence of other H-atom donor suggests new type of chemistry. ► For parent loss > 90%, methane yield was ∼40% of limit due to H-atom availability. ► Surface moisture contributed ·OH radical for trace phenolic products’ formation. ► This method may emerge as an exploitable tactic for pollutants’ usable alterations. -- Abstract: A first-time account of direct, on-line, instantaneous and efficient chemical conversion of gas phase benzene to methane in argon Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) is presented. In the absence of another overt hydrogen-donating source, potency of analogous parents toward methane generation is found to follow the order: benzene > toluene > p-xylene. Simultaneous production of trace amounts of phenolic surface deposits suggest (a) prompt decomposition of the parent molecules, including a large fraction yielding atomic transients (H-atom), (b) continuous and appropriate recombination of such parts, and (c) trace moisture in parent contributing ·OH radicals and additional H-atoms, which suitably react with the unreacted fraction of the parent, and also other intermediates. Results highlight Ar DBD to be a simple and exploitable technology for transforming undesirable hazardous aromatics to usable/useful low molecular weight open-chain products following the principles of green chemistry and engineering

  20. 32 CFR 37.1310 - Intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intellectual property. 37.1310 Section 37.1310... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1310 Intellectual property. Inventions, data, works of authorship, and other intangible products of intellectual effort...

  1. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

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    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  2. 32 CFR 651.37 - Public availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., use of public libraries and a list of POCs for supportive documents is encouraged. A depository should... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public availability. 651.37 Section 651.37... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.37 Public...

  3. 19 CFR 210.37 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 210.37 Section 210.37 Customs Duties... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Prehearing Conferences and Hearings § 210.37 Evidence. (a) Burden of proof. The.... (b) Admissibility. Relevant, material, and reliable evidence shall be admitted....

  4. 32 CFR 37.1280 - Equipment.

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    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment. 37.1280 Section 37.1280 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1280 Equipment....

  5. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification guides. 1045.37 Section 1045.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.37 Classification...

  6. 34 CFR 104.37 - Nonacademic services.

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    2010-07-01

    ... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.37 Nonacademic services. (a) General. (1) A recipient... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonacademic services. 104.37 Section 104.37 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 32 CFR 37.1335 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 37.1335 Section 37.1335 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1335 Program income. Gross income earned by the recipient or a participant that is generated by a supported activity or earned as...

  8. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  9. 32 CFR 37.1270 - Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data. 37.1270 Section 37.1270 National Defense... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1270 Data. Recorded information, regardless of form or method of recording. The term includes technical data, which are data of a scientific...

  10. 49 CFR 37.149 - Disapproved plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disapproved plans. 37.149 Section 37.149 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.149 Disapproved plans. (a) If a...

  11. 10 CFR 905.37 - Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Process. 905.37 Section 905.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.37 Process. Modified contractual language shall be required to place resource extensions under contract. Resource extensions and...

  12. 32 CFR 37.1330 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” at 48 CFR 2.101. ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement contract. 37.1330 Section 37.1330... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1330...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.37 - Safety.

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    2010-01-01

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  14. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

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    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section 4.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37...

  15. 45 CFR 63.37 - Leasing facilities.

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    2010-10-01

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  16. 32 CFR 37.1220 - Applied research.

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    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applied research. 37.1220 Section 37.1220... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1220 Applied research... technology such as new materials, devices, methods and processes. It typically is funded in...

  17. 32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.

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    2010-07-01

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  18. 32 CFR 37.1360 - Research.

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    2010-07-01

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  19. 28 CFR 37.12 - Standards.

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  20. 10 CFR 10.37 - Attorney representation.

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  1. 10 CFR 36.37 - Power failures.

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    2010-01-01

    ... failure. (c) During a power failure, the area of any irradiator where sources are located may be entered... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power failures. 36.37 Section 36.37 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.37 Power failures. (a) If electrical power at a panoramic irradiator is...

  2. 10 CFR 71.37 - Quality assurance.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality assurance. 71.37 Section 71.37 Energy NUCLEAR... Package Approval § 71.37 Quality assurance. (a) The applicant shall describe the quality assurance program... quality assurance program that are applicable to the particular package design under...

  3. 7 CFR 75.37 - Submitted samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitted samples. 75.37 Section 75.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 75.37 Submitted samples. Submitted samples may be obtained by or for any interested...

  4. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  5. 50 CFR 37.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., engineering or culture, as determined in accordance with 36 CFR 60.6. (f) Department means the Department of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 37.2 Section 37.2 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Provisions § 37.2 Definitions. The following definitions...

  6. 30 CFR 256.37 - Lease term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease term. 256.37 Section 256.37 Mineral... IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of Leases § 256.37 Lease term. (a)(1) All oil and gas leases... unusually deep water or other unusually adverse conditions. (2) If your oil and gas lease is in water...

  7. 28 CFR 0.37 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization. 0.37 Section 0.37 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-Executive Office for United States Trustees § 0.37 Organization. The Executive Office for United States Trustees shall be headed by...

  8. 32 CFR 564.37 - Medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Medical care. 564.37 Section 564.37 National... REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.37 Medical care. (a) General. The definitions of medical care; policies outlining the manner, conditions, procedures, and eligibility for care; and the sources from...

  9. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  10. Benchmarking TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, B.; Bugel, L.; Chiu, C; Conrad, J. M.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jones, B. J. P.; Katori, T.; Mufson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Scintillation light from liquid argon is produced at 128 nm and thus must be shifted to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). To date, designs have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we show that the response of lightguides coated with TPB in a UV Transmitting (UV...

  11. TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ignarra, C M

    2013-01-01

    Light detection systems in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) require the detection of the 128 nm light produced during argon scintillation. Most detectors use Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to shift the wavelength of the light into a range visible to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). These proceedings summarize characterizations of light-guides coated with a matrix of TPB in UV transmitting acrylic which are more compact than existing LArTPC light collection systems.

  12. TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignarra, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    Light detection systems in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) require the detection of the 128 nm light produced during argon scintillation. Most detectors use Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to shift the wavelength of the light into a range visible to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). These proceedings summarize characterizations of light-guides coated with a matrix of TPB in UV transmitting acrylic which are more compact than existing LArTPC light collection systems.

  13. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on the lesions induced by retinal argon laser photocoagulation in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clairambault, P.; Pairault, C.; Droy-Lefaix, M.T.; Magnier, B.; Magnier, M.

    1986-01-09

    In rabbits, retinal argon laser photocoagulation disrupts the arrangement of cell layers and produces interstitial edema. Photochemical and thermal energy is released with production of free oxygenated radicals that are responsible for destruction of cell membranes. Retinal argon laser photocoagulation in rabbits was used as a pharmacologic model to evaluate the protective effect of EGB 761 against membrane lesions and edema. As a strong free radicals scavengers, EGB 761 confirms its protective action on cells membranes and its anti-edema effect.

  14. Configurational Entropy,Diffusivity and Potential Energy Landscape in Liquid Argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yong-Ping; MA Cong-Xiao; LI Jia-Yun; LI Cong; WANG Dan; LI Mei-Li; SUN Min-Hua

    2009-01-01

    The configurational entropy, diffusion coefficient, dynamics and thermodynamics fragility indices of liquid argon are calculated using molecular dynamics simulations at two densities. The relationship between dynamics and thermodynamics properties is studied. The diffusion coefficient depends linearly on configurational entropy, which is consistent with the hypothesis of Adam-Gibbs. The consistence of dynamics and thermodynamics fragility indices demonstrates that dynamical behaviour is governed by thermodynamics behaviour in glass transition of liquid argon.

  15. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on the lesions induced by retinal argon laser photocoagulation in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rabbits, retinal argon laser photocoagulation disrupts the arrangement of cell layers and produces interstitial edema. Photochemical and thermal energy is released with production of free oxygenated radicals that are responsible for destruction of cell membranes. Retinal argon laser photocoagulation in rabbits was used as a pharmacologic model to evaluate the protective effect of EGB 761 against membrane lesions and edema. As a strong free radicals scavengers, EGB 761 confirms its protective action on cells membranes and its anti-edema effect

  16. A correction to Birks' Law in liquid argon ionization chamber simulations for highly ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a study of the performance of Birks' Law in liquid argon ionization chamber simulations as applied to highly ionizing particles, such as particles with multiple electric charges or with magnetic charge. We used Birks' Law to model recombination effects in a GEANT4 simulation of heavy ions in a liquid argon calorimeter. We then compared the simulation to published heavy-ion data to extract a highly ionizing particle correction to Birks' Law.

  17. LArGe: Background suppression using liquid argon (LAr) scintillation for 0$\

    CERN Document Server

    Marco, M D; Schönert, S

    2007-01-01

    Measurements with a bare p-type high purity germanium diode (HPGe) submerged in a 19 kg liquid argon (LAr) scintillation detector at MPIK Heidelberg are reported. The liquid argon--germanium system (LArGe) is operated as a 4$\\pi$ anti-Compton spectrometer to suppress backgrounds in the HPGe. This R&D is carried out in the framework of the GERDA experiment which searches for 0$\

  18. Optimization of the HIRFL-CSR cluster target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new gas delivery system is designed and installed for HIRFL-CSR cluster target. The original blocked nozzle is replaced by a new one with the throat diameter of 0.12mm. New test of hydrogen and argon gases are performed. The stable jets can be obtained for these two operation gases. The attenuation of the jet caused by the collision with residual gas is studied. The maximum achievable H2 target density is 1.75 x 1013 atoms/cm3 with a target thickness of 6.3 x 1012 atoms/cm2 for HIRFL-CSR cluster target. The running stability of the cluster source is tested both for hydrogen and argon. The operation parameters for obtaining hydrogen jet are optimized. The results of long time running for H2 and Ar cluster jets look promising. The jet intensity has no essential change during the test for H2 and Ar. (authors)

  19. Discovery of photospheric argon in very hot central stars of planetary nebulae and white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K; Kruk, J W

    2007-01-01

    We report the first discovery of argon in hot evolved stars and white dwarfs. We have identified the ArVII 1063.55A line in some of the hottest known (Teff=95000-110000 K) central stars of planetary nebulae and (pre-) white dwarfs of various spectral type. We determine the argon abundance and compare it to theoretical predictions from stellar evolution theory as well as from diffusion calculations. We analyze high-resolution spectra taken with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. We use non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres and perform line-formation calculations to compute synthetic argon line profiles. We find a solar argon abundance in the H-rich central star NGC1360 and in the H-deficient PG1159 star PG1424+535. This confirms stellar evolution modeling that predicts that the argon abundance remains almost unaffected by nucleosynthesis. For the DAO-type central star NGC7293 and the hot DA white dwarfs PG0948+534 and REJ1738+669 we find argon abundances that are up to three orders of magnitude sma...

  20. Numerical study of breakdown pattern induced by an intense microwave under nitrogen and argon gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2016-07-01

    Filamentary plasma induced by microwave beam irradiation was reproduced in nitrogen and argon by combining fluid or particle plasma models with electromagnetic wave propagation. Transport coefficients used in the fluid model are estimated from particle simulation to maintain consistency of the breakdown structure between the fluid and particle models. A discrete structure was obtained using the one-dimensional (1D) fluid model, because a standing wave is generated in front of the plasma when the incident microwave beam is reflected by the overcritical plasma, which agrees with the breakdown structure obtained using the 1D particle model. A 2D plasma filament was also reproduced using the fluid model in nitrogen and argon. Reflection of the incident microwave in argon becomes stronger than that in nitrogen because of the denser argon plasma. Change in filament shape is induced in argon because the electric field is deformed at the plasma tip owing to stronger wave reflection from the neighboring filament. The propagation speed of the plasma front becomes larger in argon breakdown because of the larger ionization frequency and the larger diffusion coefficient.

  1. Condensed argon isentropic compression with ultrahigh magnetic field pressure: Experimental design. Post-shot report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, A.I.; Boriskov, G.V.; Dolotenko, M.I. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    This report continues the series of work devoted to experimental study of a high-dense condensed argon state. Remember that according to work of Kwon et. al., hexagonal close-packed structure is profitable in terms of energy rather than face-centered argon structure (stable with zero pressure). What is most interesting and intriguing here is the issue of possible argon metallization, when it is compressed up to the densities more than 9.17 g/cm{sup 3}. In the experiment of 1995 (the arrangement and data are described in a cited reference) the authors recorded appearance of conductivity in argon, which is non-conductive in the initial state, when it is compressed more than a factor of four. The peak value of argon specific conductivity recorded in this experiment did not exceed 10 (Ohm x cm){sup {minus}1}. This value of conductivity is characteristic of semiconductors, but not metals, which have 10{sup 4} (Ohm x cm){sup {minus}1}. At this stage of the work the main attention is paid to recording of argon conductive state and studying the possibilities of multiframed radiography of the sample in the compressed state.

  2. Skin Electroporation of a Plasmid Encoding hCAP-18/LL-37 Host Defense Peptide Promotes Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Steinstraesser, Lars; Lam, Martin C; Jacobsen, Frank; Porporato, Paolo E; Chereddy, Kiran Kumar; Becerikli, Mustafa; Stricker, Ingo; Hancock, Robert EW; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Sonveaux, Pierre; Préat, Véronique; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    Host defense peptides, in particular LL-37, are emerging as potential therapeutics for promoting wound healing and inhibiting bacterial growth. However, effective delivery of the LL-37 peptide remains limiting. We hypothesized that skin-targeted electroporation of a plasmid encoding hCAP-18/LL-37 would promote the healing of wounds. The plasmid was efficiently delivered to full-thickness skin wounds by electroporation and it induced expression of LL-37 in the epithelium. It significantly acce...

  3. Theoretical calculation of the triple differential cross sections of the 2p orbital of argon in a coplanar highly asymmetric (e, 2e) reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛自明; 周雅君; 吕志伟; 王治文

    2002-01-01

    The triple differential cross sections of the 2p electron of argon in a coplanar highly asymmetric geometry have beencalculated with the modified distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) and the target Hartree-Fock approximationmethods. The damping polarization of the semi-classical short-range potentials and the Mee factor are included in thedistorting potentials of the modified DWBA. Theoretical results are compared with a recent experiment. The dynamicmechanism of inner shell ionization in a coplanar highly asymmetric geometry (e, 2e) reaction are also discussed.

  4. Inhaled 45–50% argon augments hypothermic brain protection in a piglet model of perinatal asphyxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, Kevin D.; Fierens, Igor; Fleiss, Bobbi; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Ezzati, Mojgan; Hassell, Jane; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Bainbridge, Alan; Kawano, Go; Ma, Daqing; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Gressens, Pierre; Golay, Xavier; Sanders, Robert D.; Robertson, Nicola J.

    2016-01-01

    Cooling to 33.5 °C in babies with neonatal encephalopathy significantly reduces death and disability, however additional therapies are needed to maximize brain protection. Following hypoxia–ischemia we assessed whether inhaled 45–50% Argon from 2–26 h augmented hypothermia neuroprotection in a neonatal piglet model, using MRS and aEEG, which predict outcome in babies with neonatal encephalopathy, and immunohistochemistry. Following cerebral hypoxia–ischemia, 20 Newborn male Large White piglets < 40 h were randomized to: (i) Cooling (33 °C) from 2–26 h (n = 10); or (ii) Cooling and inhaled 45–50% Argon (Cooling + Argon) from 2–26 h (n = 8). Whole-brain phosphorus-31 and regional proton MRS were acquired at baseline, 24 and 48 h after hypoxia–ischemia. EEG was monitored. At 48 h after hypoxia–ischemia, cell death (TUNEL) was evaluated over 7 brain regions. There were no differences in body weight, duration of hypoxia–ischemia or insult severity; throughout the study there were no differences in heart rate, arterial blood pressure, blood biochemistry and inotrope support. Two piglets in the Cooling + Argon group were excluded. Comparing Cooling + Argon with Cooling there was preservation of whole-brain MRS ATP and PCr/Pi at 48 h after hypoxia–ischemia (p < 0.001 for both) and lower 1H MRS lactate/N acetyl aspartate in white (p = 0.03 and 0.04) but not gray matter at 24 and 48 h. EEG background recovery was faster (p < 0.01) with Cooling + Argon. An overall difference between average cell-death of Cooling versus Cooling + Argon was observed (p < 0.01); estimated cells per mm2 were 23.9 points lower (95% C.I. 7.3–40.5) for the Cooling + Argon versus Cooling. Inhaled 45–50% Argon from 2–26 h augmented hypothermic protection at 48 h after hypoxia–ischemia shown by improved brain energy metabolism on MRS, faster EEG recovery and reduced cell death on TUNEL. Argon may provide a cheap and practical therapy

  5. Modelling steel’s homogenization during argon purging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pieprzyca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One of the primary tasks that put the steel producers to the test is to reduce production costs while maintaining high quality. This objective is achieved among others through the optimization of conducted technological processes. Commonly used technology of steel homogenization with inert gases is an important stage in the production of steel in which that objective can be accomplished.Design/methodology/approach: Tests of hydrodynamic processes occurring during the steel blowing with inert gases process directly in industrial conditions is very difficult or impossible. Therefore, as the primary research method physical modelling was used. In order to carry out the tests described in the article a physical model of the station for the argon purging was used that is working at the VSB-TU, Department of Metallurgy and Foundry in Ostrava.Findings: As a result the study provided values for the investigated process and determined the appropriate location of the gas-permeable fittings in steelmaking ladle’s bottom plug. This allows to obtain the required conditions for the steel mixing in the entire volume of ladle’s workspace.Research limitations/implications: Tests presented in the article were carried out in the VSB-TU in Ostrava. Due to this fact some research limitations occurs that applies to localization and physical model’s specific construction. Therefore, as a result of cooperation between VSB-TU in Ostrava and the Silesian University of Technology will be carried out the construction of the new research station in Katowice.Practical implications: The results of the research constitute the basis to make changes that will allow the optimization to so far used purge of steel technology.Originality/value: The results presented in the article are addressed to the steel producers and it allows to optimize on-going steel homogenization process that takes place in the ladle

  6. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Denver Wade [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.; Mufson, S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Astronomy Dept.; Howard, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a physically-motivated model. Both models find tT = 1:52 ms for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the “early” light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value 0.3 found by dark matter and double b-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  7. Scintillation Light from Cosmic-Ray Muons in Liquid Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Denver Wade [Indiana U.; Mufson, S. [Indiana U., Bloomington, Dept. Astron.; Howard, B. [Indiana U.

    2015-11-13

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a physically-motivated model. Both models find tT = 1:52 ms for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the “early” light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value 0.3 found by dark matter and double b-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  8. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, D.; Mufson, S.; Howard, B.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a composite model. Both models find τT = 1.52 μs for the decay time constant of the Ar2* triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the ``early'' light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE ≈ 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS ≈ 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value ~0.3 found by dark matter and double β-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  9. Analysis list: Su(var)3-7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)3-7 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)3-7.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)3-7.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)3-7.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)3-7.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien

  10. 50 CFR 300.37 - Radio monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio monitoring. 300.37 Section 300.37 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.37 Radio monitoring. The international distress frequency, 2.182 mHz, and 156.8 mHz (Channel 16, VHF) shall...

  11. HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An internal cluster target was built and installed at HIRFL–CSR. • The target thickness for H2 amounts up to 6.6 × 1012 atoms/cm2. • The feasibility and stability of the internal cluster target were verified by on-line experiments. -- Abstract: Since HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL–CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 1012 atoms/cm2, and those of other targets are larger than 1013 atoms/cm2 with the background pressure of 10−11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability

  12. Argon gas concentration effects on nanostructured molybdenum nitride layer growth using 100 Hz pulsed dc glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlaq, U.; Ahmad, R.; Saleem, S.; Shah, M. S.; Umm-i-Kalsoom; Khan, N.; Khalid, N.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of argon concentration (10%-40%) on the surface properties of molybdenum is studied in nitrogen-argon mixture using 100 Hz pulsed dc glow discharge. The analysis is carried out by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Vickers microhardness tester to investigate surface properties of the nitrided samples. XRD results exhibit the formation of molybdenum nitrides. Crystallite size analysis and SEM morphology confirm the growth of nanostructured molybdenum nitride layers. Moreover, significant increase in surface hardness (by a factor of about two times) is found when the sample is treated for 30% argon in nitrogen-argon mixed plasma.

  13. Improved TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars. We discuss a model for connecting bar response in air to response in liquid argon and compare this to data taken in liquid argon. The good agreement between the prediction of the model and the measured response in liquid argon demonstrates that characterization in air is sufficient for quality control of bar production. This model can be used in simulations of light guides for future experiments

  14. Improved TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Z.; Bugel, L.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Jones, B. J. P.; Moon, J.; Toups, M.; Wongjirad, T.

    2015-08-01

    Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars. We discuss a model for connecting bar response in air to response in liquid argon and compare this to data taken in liquid argon. The good agreement between the prediction of the model and the measured response in liquid argon demonstrates that characterization in air is sufficient for quality control of bar production. This model can be used in simulations of light guides for future experiments.

  15. Fast-imaging and spectroscopic analysis of atmospheric argon streamers for large gap arc breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachuilo, Michael; Stefani, Francis; Bengtson, Roger; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2014-10-01

    A non-equilibrium plasma source has been developed to assist in the low-voltage arc breakdown of large electrode gaps. The source consists of a dielectric embedded wire helically wound around a confining cylindrical quartz chamber. Annular electrodes cap the ends of the quartz chamber. An argon feed gas is used to provide a uniform environment and exhausts to ambient atmospheric conditions. A negative polarity 50 kV trigger pulse is applied to the embedded trigger wire to initiate the arc breakdown. Application of the trigger pulse produces a localized coronal discharges along the inner surface of the quartz tube. The corona provides seed electrons through which streamers propagate from one of the main discharge electrode along the quartz surface until it reaches the opposite electrode to bridge the gap. Once the gap is bridged a spark over occurs and robust arc discharge is formed in the chamber volume. Fast imaging of the streamer propagation establishes its velocity in the range of ~ 100 km/s. Spectroscopy of the streamer discharge in atmospheric argon has been conducted and electron temperature and number density estimated from a collision radiative model. Argon spectrum is dominated by neutral argon lines in the 650--950 nm range, and singly ionized argon lines are observed in the ultra-violet to near UV (300--400 nm). Research was performed in connection with AFOSR Contract FA9550-11-1-0062.

  16. Prediction of the thermophysical properties of pure neon, pure argon, and the binary mixtures neon-argon and argon-krypton by Monte Carlo simulation using ab initio potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabad, A E; Laghaei, R; Deiters, U K

    2004-10-01

    Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations were used to test the ability of intermolecular pair potentials derived ab initio from quantum mechanical principles, enhanced by Axilrod-Teller triple-dipole interactions, to predict the vapor-liquid phase equilibria of pure neon, pure argon, and the binary mixtures neon-argon and argon-krypton. The interaction potentials for Ne-Ne, Ar-Ar, Kr-Kr, and Ne-Ar were taken from literature; for Ar-Kr a different potential has been developed. In all cases the quantum mechanical calculations had been carried out with the coupled-cluster approach [CCSD(T) level of theory] and with correlation consistent basis sets; furthermore an extrapolation scheme had been applied to obtain the basis set limit of the interaction energies. The ab initio pair potentials as well as the thermodynamic data based on them are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data; the only exception is neon. It is shown, however, that in this case the deviations can be quantitatively explained by quantum effects. The interaction potentials that have been developed permit quantitative predictions of high-pressure phase equilibria of noble-gas mixtures.

  17. 6 CFR 37.41 - Security plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Information (SSI) and must be handled and protected in accordance with 49 CFR Part 1520. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security plan. 37.41 Section 37.41 Domestic... Security plan. (a) In General. States must have a security plan that addresses the provisions in...

  18. 18 CFR 157.37 - Project design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project design. 157.37... Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.37 Project design. In reviewing any... proposed project has been designed to accommodate the needs of shippers who have made conforming...

  19. 27 CFR 45.37 - Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assessment. 45.37 Section... PAYMENT OF TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Removals § 45.37 Assessment. Whenever any person required by... amount is nominal or the result of an evident mathematical error, no such assessment shall be made...

  20. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advanced research. 37.1210 Section 37.1210... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous...

  1. 24 CFR 206.37 - Credit standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit standing. 206.37 Section 206... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.37 Credit standing. Each mortgagor must have a general credit standing satisfactory to the Secretary....

  2. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT...

  3. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section 385.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN Ensuring Protection...

  4. 15 CFR 30.37 - Miscellaneous exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous exemptions. 30.37 Section 30.37 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Exemptions From the Requirements for the...

  5. 20 CFR 901.37 - Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer. 901.37 Section 901.37 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL... allegations of the complaint and a waiver of hearing, and the Administrative Law Judge may make a decision...

  6. First measurement of surface nuclear recoil background for argon dark matter searches

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jingke; Westerdale, Shawn; Calaprice, Frank; Wright, Alexander; Shi, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    One major background in direct searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) comes from the deposition of radon progeny on detector surfaces. The most dangerous surface background is the $^{206}$Pb recoils produced by $^{210}$Po decays. In this letter, we report the first characterization of this background in liquid argon. The scintillation signal of low energy Pb recoils is measured to be highly quenched in argon, and we estimate that the 103keV $^{206}$Pb recoil background will produce a signal equal to that of a ~5keV (30keV) electron recoil ($^{40}$Ar recoil). In addition, we demonstrate that this dangerous $^{210}$Po surface background can be suppressed by a factor of ~100 or higher using pulse shape discrimination methods, which can make argon dark matter detectors near background-free and enhance their potential for discovery of medium- and high-mass WIMPs. We also discuss the impact on other low background experiments.

  7. The WArP Experiment: A Double-Phase Argon Detector for Dark Matter Searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryogenic noble liquids emerged in the previous decade as one of the best media to perform WIMP dark matter searches, in particular due to the possibility to scale detector volumes to multiton sizes. The WArP experiment was then developed as one of the first to implement the idea of coupling Argon in liquid and gas phase, in order to discriminate β/γ-interactions from nuclear recoils and then achieve reliable background rejection. Since its construction, other projects spawned, employing Argon and Xenon and following its steps. The WArP 100l detector was assembled in 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS), as the final step of a years-long R&D programme, aimed at characterising the technology of Argon in double phase for dark matter detection. Though it never actually performed a physics run, a technical run was taken in 2011, to characterise the detector response

  8. Operation of a GERDA phase I prototype detector in liquid argon and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A GERDA phase I prototype detector, consisting of a bare non-enriched high-purity (HP) p-type germanium diode mounted in a low mass holder has been operated both in liquid nitrogen and liquid argon. Because of its high density, liquid argon has been selected as cryogenic liquid and shield for GERDA experiment. The testing of this detector assembly has been carried out in the underground detector laboratory at LNGS, and at the detector manufacturer. The best resolution achieved is 2.2 keV FWHM at 1.332 MeV, which is the same as the resolution measured in a standard test cryostat. The long-term measurements with the prototype detector are performed in liquid argon. Up to now, 38 thermal cycles have been carried out with this detector. The operations, measurements and results of the prototype detector testing are summarized. (orig.)

  9. Lattice gas model for fragmentation from argon on scandium to gold on gold

    CERN Document Server

    Das-Gupta, S; Gupta, Subal Das; Pan, Jicai

    1995-01-01

    The recent fragmentation data for central collisions of Gold on Gold are even qualitatively different from those for central collisions of Argon on Scandium. The latter can be fitted with a lattice gas model calculation. Effort is made to understand why the model fails for Gold on Gold. The calculation suggests that the large Coulomb interaction which is operative for the larger system is responsible for this discrepancy. This is demonstrated by mapping the lattice gas model to a molecular dynamics calculation for disassembly. This mapping is quite faithful for Argon on Scandium but deviates strongly for Gold on Gold. The molecular dynamics calculation for disassembly reproduces the characteristics of the fragmentation data for both Gold on Gold and Argon on Scandium.

  10. Theoretical and experimental comparisons of Gamble 2 argon gas puff experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-dimensional radiative MHD analysis of an imploding argon gas puff plasma is performed. The calculations are set up to approximate the conditions of a series of argon gas puff experiments that were carried out on the NRL Gamble II generator. Annular gas puffs (2.5 cm diameter) are imploded with a 1.2-MA peak driving current for different initial argon mass loadings. Comparisons are made with the experimental results for implosion times, K, L-shell x-ray emission, and energy coupled from the generator to the plasma load. The purpose of these calculations is to provide a foundation from which a variety of physical phenomena which influence the power and total energy of the x-ray emission can be analyzed. Comparisons with similar experimental and theoretical results for aluminum plasmas are discussed

  11. Atomistic-Continuum Hybrid Simulation of Heat Transfer between Argon Flow and Copper Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Yijin; Chen, C L

    2016-01-01

    A simulation work aiming to study heat transfer coefficient between argon fluid flow and copper plate is carried out based on atomistic-continuum hybrid method. Navier-Stokes equations for continuum domain are solved through the Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PISO) algorithm, and the atom evolution in molecular domain is solved through the Verlet algorithm. The solver is validated by solving Couette flow and heat conduction problems. With both momentum and energy coupling method applied, simulations on convection of argon flows between two parallel plates are performed. The top plate is kept as a constant velocity and has higher temperature, while the lower one, which is modeled with FCC copper lattices, is also fixed but has lower temperature. It is found that, heat transfer between argon fluid flow and copper plate in this situation is much higher than that at macroscopic when the flow is fully developed.

  12. Argon: Systematic Review on Neuro- and Organoprotective Properties of an “Inert” Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Höllig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Argon belongs to the group of noble gases, which are regarded as chemically inert. Astonishingly some of these gases exert biological properties and during the last decades more and more reports demonstrated neuroprotective and organoprotective effects. Recent studies predominately use in vivo or in vitro models for ischemic pathologies to investigate the effect of argon treatment. Promising data has been published concerning pathologies like cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, models applied and administration of the therapeutic gas vary. Here we provide a systematic review to summarize the available data on argon’s neuro- and organoprotective effects and discuss its possible mechanism of action. We aim to provide a summary to allow further studies with a more homogeneous setting to investigate possible clinical applications of argon.

  13. Surface modification of poly (vinyl chloride) by long-distance and direct argon RF plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of long- distance and direct argon radio frequency (RF) plasma surface treatment on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films in terms of changes in surface wettability and surface chemistry. The surface properties are characterized by the water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanism is further analyzed and the role of all kinds of active species, e.g. electrons, ions and free radicals involved in plasma surface modification is further evaluated. Results show that the long-distance and direct RF plasma treatments modify the PVC surface in morphology and composition, and both modifications cause surface oxidation of PVC films, in the forming of functional groups enhancing polymer wettability. The effect of the long-distance argon RF plasma is more notable. This suggests that long-distance argon RF plasma could restrain the ion and electron eroding effect and enhance free radical reaction.

  14. The effects of accelerated heavy nuclei of neon and argon on mammalian cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival of human T-1 kidney cells in high-energy neon (400MeV/nucleon) and argon (500MeV/nucleon) beams has been studied at the Berkeley Bevalac. Cells were plated in monolayers on glass and studied at different residual-range values. The survival curves depend on LET and on particle velocity. The effectiveness of the beams increases as the range decreases, except for argon beams with very low range values, where the effectiveness decreases again. The 'oxygen effect' is high at high particle energies (2.6 for neon and 2.4 for argon); it decreases to values between 1.1 and 1.3 near the Bragg peak. (author)

  15. Synodic and semiannual oscillations of argon-40 in the lunar exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R. Richard; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft collected a trove of exospheric data, including a set of high-quality measurements of radiogenic 40Ar over a period of 142 days. Data synthesis studies, using well-established exosphere simulation tools, show that the LADEE argon data are consistent with an exosphere-regolith interaction that is dominated by adsorption and that the desorption process generates the Armand distribution of exit velocities. The synthesis work has uncovered an apparent semiannual oscillation of argon that is consistent with temporal sequestration in the seasonal cold traps created at the poles by the obliquity of the Moon. In addition, the LADEE data provide new insight into the pristine nature of lunar regolith, its spatially varying sorption properties, and the influence of sorption processes on the synodic oscillation of the argon exosphere.

  16. Atomistic Simulation of Properties of Ultra-thin Layer of Liquid Argon Compressed Between Diamond Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Khomenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the method of classical molecular dynamics we investigate the properties of ultrathin film of liquid argon, which consists of one or two layers of molecules and is confined by two atomically smooth crystalline diamond surfaces. The aim of the research is validating the use of rigid surfaces and one of the available models of the argon molecule. We study the behavior of the equilibrium and dynamic characteristics of the system. It is shown that at increasing external load the transition of film in the solid-like state occurs, which is indicated by the behavior of the velocity autocorrelation function of argon molecules, reduction of the magnitude of the diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity increase. The organization of molecules in layers and the presence of their in-plane ordering are revealed. The dependences of the kinetic friction force on time and load are obtained. The results are compared with experimental data.

  17. Coherent and incoherent Thomson scattering on an argon/hydrogen microwave plasma torch with transient behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrusník, A.; Synek, P.; Hübner, S.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.; Zajíčková, L.; Nijdam, S.

    2016-10-01

    A new method of processing time-integrated coherent Thomson scattering spectra is presented, which provides not only the electron density and temperature but also information about the transient behaviour of the plasma. Therefore, it is an alternative to single-shot Thomson scattering measurements as long as the scattering is coherent. The method is applied to a microwave plasma torch operating in argon or a mixture of argon with hydrogen at atmospheric pressure. Electron densities up to 8\\cdot {{10}21} m-3 (ionization degree above 10-3) were observed, which is more than two times higher than presented in earlier works on comparable discharges. Additionally, a parametric study with respect to the argon/hydrogen ratio and the input power was carried out and the results are discussed together with earlier Stark broadening measurements on the same plasma.

  18. Ionic Wind Phenomenon and Charge Carrier Mobility in Very High Density Argon Corona Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, M.; Bonifaci, N.; Denat, A.

    2014-04-01

    Wind ions phenomenon has been observed in the high density argon corona discharge plasma. Corona discharge plasma was produced by point to plane electrodes and high voltage DC. Light emission from the recombination process was observed visually. The light emission proper follow the electric field lines that occur between point and plane electrodes. By using saturation current, the mobilities of non-thermal electrons and ions have been obtained in argon gas and liquid with variation of density from 2,5 1021 to 2 1022 cm-3. In the case of ions, we found that the behaviour of the apparent mobility inversely proportional to the density or follow the Langevin variation law. For non-thermal electron, mobility decreases and approximately follows a variation of Langevin type until the density <= 0,25 the critical density of argon.

  19. Operation of a high purity germanium crystal in liquid argon as a Compton suppressed radiation spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Orrell, J L; Amsbaugh, J F; Doe, P J; Hossbach, T W; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Doe, Peter J.; Hossbach, Todd W.

    2007-01-01

    A high purity germanium crystal was operated in liquid argon as a Compton suppressed radiation spectrometer. Spectroscopic quality resolution of less than 1% of the full-width half maximum of full energy deposition peaks was demonstrated. The construction of the small apparatus used to obtain these results is reported. The design concept is to use the liquid argon bath to both cool the germanium crystal to operating temperatures and act as a scintillating veto. The scintillation light from the liquid argon can veto cosmic-rays, external primordial radiation, and gamma radiation that does not fully deposit within the germanium crystal. This technique was investigated for its potential impact on ultra-low background gamma-ray spectroscopy. This work is based on a concept initially developed for future germanium-based neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments.

  20. Calculation of ion energy distributions of argon excimer ions generated in helicon plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Tong-Zhen; Jiang Nan; Wang Long

    2005-01-01

    A program is developed to calculate the ion energy distributions (IEDs) of Ar2+ making use of a simplified kinetic model with a combination of Monte Carlo method. Several coefficients are used to realize good match between the calculated and measured results. Some important assumptions are confirmed: argon excimer ions have short lifetime,hence they are formed in a short range before the collecting electrode. The excimer ions that encounter collisions will be discarded because they turn to other ion species after they collide with argon atoms. From the calculated results some plasma parameters such as the cross section or neutral density in discharge could be evaluated.

  1. Transport coefficients of helium-argon mixture based on ab initio potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipov, Felix; Benites, Victor J

    2015-10-21

    The viscosity, thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and thermal diffusion factor of helium-argon mixtures are calculated for a wide range of temperature and for various mole fractions up to the 12th order of the Sonine polynomial expansion with an ab initio intermolecular potential. The calculated values for these transport coefficients are compared with other data available in the open literature. The comparison shows that the obtained transport coefficients of helium-argon mixture have the best accuracy for the moment. PMID:26493894

  2. Heat Transfer During Evaporation of Cesium From Graphite Surface in an Argon Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespala Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on discussion of problem of graphite radioactive waste formation and accumulation. It is shown that irradiated nuclear graphite being inalienable part of uranium-graphite reactor may contain fission and activation products. Much attention is given to the process of formation of radioactive cesium on the graphite element surface. It is described a process of plasma decontamination of irradiated graphite in inert argon atmosphere. Quasi-one mathematical model is offered, it describes heat transfer process in graphite-cesium-argon system. Article shows results of calculation of temperature field inside the unit cell. Authors determined the factors which influence on temperature change.

  3. Evolution of precipitate in nickel-base alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Luo, Fengfeng; Ma, Shuli; Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2013-07-01

    Alloy 718 is a nickel-base superalloy whose strength derives from γ'(Ni3(Al,Ti)) and γ″(Ni3Nb) precipitates. The evolution of the precipitates in alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature were examined via transmission electron microscopy. Selected-area electron diffraction indicated superlattice spots disappeared after argon ion irradiation, which showing that the ordered structure of the γ' and γ″ precipitates became disordered. The size of the precipitates became smaller with the irradiation dose increasing at 290 °C.

  4. A 20-Liter Test Stand with Gas Purification for Liquid Argon Research

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yichen; Tang, Wei; Joshi, Jyoti; Qian, Xin; Diwan, Milind; Kettell, Steve; Morse, William; Rao, Triveni; Stewart, James; Tsang, Thomas; Zhang, Lige

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design of a 20-liter test stand constructed to study fundamental properties of liquid argon (LAr). This system utilizes a simple, cost-effective gas argon (GAr) purification to achieve ultra-high purity, which is necessary to study electron transport properties in LAr. An electron drift stack with up to 25 cm length is constructed to study electron drift, diffusion, and attachment at various electric fields. A gold photocathode and a pulsed laser are used as a bright electron source. The operational performance of this system is reported.

  5. Pulse Compression by Filamentation in Argon with an Acoustic Optical Programmable Dispersive Filter for Predispersion Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-Wei; JIANG Yong-Liang; LENG Yu-Xin; LIU Jun; GE Xiao-Chun; LI Ru-Xin; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2006-01-01

    @@ We have experimentally demonstrated pulses 0.4 mJ in duration smaller than 12 fs with an excellent spatial beam profile by self-guided propagation in argon. The original 52fs pulses from the chirped pulsed amplification laser system are first precompressed to 32 fs by inserting an acoustic optical programmable dispersive filter instrument into the laser system for spectrum reshaping and dispersion compensation, and the pulse spectrum is subsequently broadened by filamentation in an argon cell. By using chirped mirrors for post-dispersion compensation, the pulses are successfully compressed to smaller than 12fs.

  6. The Discovery of Argon in Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, S A; Festou, M C; Parker, J W; A'Hearn, M F; Wilkinson, E; Gladstone, G R

    2000-01-01

    On 30.14 March 1997 we observed the EUV spectrum of the bright comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) at the time of its perihelion, using our EUVS sounding rocket telescope/spectrometer. The spectra reveal the presence H Ly beta, O+, and, most notably, Argon. Modelling of the retrieved Ar production rates indicates that comet Hale-Bopp is enriched in Ar relative to cosmogonic expectations. This in turn indicates that Hale-Bopp's deep interior has never been exposed to the 35-40 K temperatures necessary to deplete the comet's primordial argon supply.

  7. Physiological responses of Vigna radiata L. to nitrogen and argon+ laser irradiation - Short Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of nitrogen laser (337.1 nm) and argon+ laser (514.5 nm) irradiation on physiological responses in the green gram seedlings was studied. The shoot and root lengths and fresh and dry weights of the seedlings increased with 30 min exposure to nitrogen laser and 5 min exposure to Argon+ laser. Protein content was maximum with 20 min exposure to N laser and 5 min exposure to Ar+ laser, while DNA and RNA contents were maximum at 5 min exposure with both the laser treatments

  8. Inner-shell Annihilation of Positrons in Argon, Iron and Copper Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Raouf, M A; El-Bakry, S Y

    2007-01-01

    The annihilation parameters of positrons with electrons in different shells of Argon, Iron and Copper atoms are calculated below the positronium (Ps) formation thresholds. Quite accurate ab initio calculations of the bound state wavefunctions of Argon, Iron and Copper orbitals are obtained from Cowan computer code. A least-squares variational method (LSVM) is used for determining the wavefunction of the positrons. The program is employed for calculating the s-wave partial cross sections of positrons scattered by Iron and Copper atoms. Our results of the effective charge are compared with available experimental and theoretical ones. --

  9. Application of argon laser LAK-1 for therapy in selected blood vessel diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanczyk, Jacek; Golebiowska, Aleksandra; Michalska, I.; Nowakowski, Wlodzimierz

    1995-03-01

    Argon laser was applied in 172 patients with various vascular disorders and epidermal nevi. The best therapeutical results were obtained in facial telangiectasia and in cavernous hemangiomas, in which there was a complete or almost complete regression. In capillary facial hemangiomas in 49 patients (79%) clearing of 50% to 75% was obtained, and in epidermal nevi the full regression was in 4 (44%) of the cases, and 50% regression in 4 (44%). In telangiectasia of the lower limbs the results were not satisfactory. We stress that cavernous, and capillary hemangiomas, as well as facial telangiectasia are an indication for the argon laser therapy.

  10. Performance of the Electronic Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, H; Aleksa, M; Aperio Bella, L; Archambault, JP; Arfaoui, S; Arnaez, O; Auge, E; Aurousseau, M; Bahinipati, S; Ban, J; Banfi, D; Barajas, A; Barillari, T; Bazan, A; Bellachia, F; Beloborodova, O; Benchekroun, D; Benslama, K; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Bernat, P; Bernier, R; Besson, N; Binet, S; Blanchard, JB; Blondel, A; Bobrovnikov, V; Bohner, O; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Bouchel, M; Bourdarios, C; Bozzone, A; Braun, HM; Breton, D; Brettel, H; Brooijmans, G; Caputo, R; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Caughron, S; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Chareyre, E; Chase, RL; Chekulaev, SV; Chen, H; Cheplakov, A; Chiche, R; Citterio, M; Cojocaru, C; Colas, J; Collard, C; Collot, J; Consonni, M; Cooke, M; Copic, K; Costa, GC; Courneyea, L; Cuisy, D; Cwienk, WD; Damazio, D; Dannheim, D; De Cecco, S; De La Broise, X; De La Taille, C; de Vivie, JB; Debennerot, B; Delagnes, E; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, L; Doan, O; Dudziak, F; Duflot, L; Dumont-Dayot, N; Dzahini, D; Elles, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Etienvre, AI; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farooque, T; Favre, P; Fayard, Louis; Fent, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, A; Fournier, D; Fournier, L; Fras, M; Froeschl, R; Gadfort, T; Gallin-Martel, ML; Gibson, A; Gillberg, D; Gingrich, DM; Göpfert, T; Goodson, J; Gouighri, M; Goy, C; Grassi, V; Gray, J; Guillemin, T; Guo, B; Habring, J; Handel, C; Heelan, L; Heintz, H; Helary, L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hervas, L; Hobbs, J; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, JY; Hoummada, A; Hrivnac, J; Hrynova, T; Hubaut, F; Huber, J; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Iengo, P; Imbert, P; Ishmukhametov, R; Jantsch, A; Javadov, N; Jezequel, S; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Ju, XY; Kado, M; Kalinowski, A; Kar, D; Karev, A; Katsanos, I; Kazarinov, M; Kerschen, N; Kierstead, J; Kim, MS; Kiryunin, A; Kladiva, E; Knecht, N; Kobel, M; Koletsou, I; König, S; Krieger, P; Kukhtin, V; Kuna, M; Kurchaninov, L; Labbe, J; Lacour, D; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lamarra, D; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Laskus, H; Le Coguie, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Lechowski, M; Lee, SC; Lefebvre, M; Leonhardt, K; Lethiec, L; Leveque, J; Liang, Z; Liu, C; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Loch, P; Lu, J; Ma, H; Mader, W; Majewski, S; Makovec, N; Makowiecki, D; Mandelli, L; Mangeard, PS; Mansoulie, B; Marchand, JF; Marchiori, G; Martin, D; Martin-Chassard, G; Martin dit Latour, B; Marzin, A; Maslennikov, A; Massol, N; Matricon, P; Maximov, D; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, T; McPherson, R; Menke, S; Meyer, JP; Ming, Y; Monnier, E; Mooshofer, P; Neganov, A; Niedercorn, F; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nugent, IM; Oakham, G; Oberlack, H; Ocariz, J; Odier, J; Oram, CJ; Orlov, I; Orr, R; Parsons, JA; Peleganchuk, S; Penson, A; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Perus, A; Petit, E; Pisarev, I; Plamondon, M; Poffenberger, P; Poggioli, L; Pospelov, G; Pralavorio, P; Prast, J; Prudent, X; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Quentin, M; Radeka, V; Rajagopalan, S; Rauter, E; Reimann, O; Rescia, S; Resende, B; Richer, JP; Ridel, M; Rios, R; Roos, L; Rosenbaum, G; Rosenzweig, H; Rossetto, O; Roudil, W; Rousseau, D; Ruan, X; Rudert, A; Rusakovich, N; Rusquart, P; Rutherfoord, J; Sauvage, G; Savine, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaffer, A; Schram, M; Schwemling, P; Seguin Moreau, N; Seifert, F; Serin, L; Seuster, R; Shalyugin, A; Shupe, M; Simion, S; Sinervo, P; Sippach, W; Skovpen, K; Sliwa, R; Soukharev, A; Spano, F; Stavina, P; Straessner, A; Strizenec, P; Stroynowski, R; Talyshev, A; Tapprogge, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, GF; Teuscher, R; Tikhonov, Yu; Tocut, V; Tompkins, D; Thompson, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Tomasz, F; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, Thi N; Trochet, S; Trocme, B; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsionou, D; Ueno, R; Unal, G; Urbaniec, D; Usov, Y; Voss, K; Veillet, JJ; Vincter, M; Vogt, S; Weng, Z; Whalen, K; Wicek, F; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wulf, E; Yang, Z; Ye, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zarzhitsky, P; Zerwas, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Zhou, N; Zimmer, J; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. ATLAS includes electromagnetic and hadronic liquid argon calorimeters, with almost 200,000 channels of data that must be sampled at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz. The calorimeter electronics calibration and readout are performed by custom electronics developed specifically for these purposes. This paper describes the system performance of the ATLAS liquid argon calibration and readout electronics, including noise, energy and time resolution, and long term stability, with data taken mainly from full-system calibration runs performed after installation of the system in the ATLAS detector hall at CERN.

  11. Intermolecular interaction potentials of methane-argon complex calculated using LDA approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yu-Lin; Chen Xiang-Rong; Zhou Xiao-Lin; Yang Xiang-Dong; Wang Hai-Yan

    2004-01-01

    The intermolecular interaction potential for methane-argon complex is calculated by local density approximation (LDA) approaches. The calculated potential has a minimum when the intermolecular distance of methane-argon complex is 6.75 a.u.; the corresponding depth of the potential is 0.0163eV which has good agreement with experimental data. We also have made a nonlinear fitting of our results for the Lennard-Jones (12-6) potential function and obtain that V(R) = 143794365.332/R12 - 3032.093/R6 (R in a.u. and V(R) in eV).

  12. Ablation of Barrett’s esophagus using the second-generation argon plasma coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of the second-generation argon plasma coagulation (VIO APC) in ablation of Barrett’s esophagus. Methods Eighteen patients with Barrett’s esophagus (12 males, median age of 55 years, median length of 2.1 cm,1 low-grade dysplasia, 13 cases of short segment Barrett’s esophagus) received VIO APC, which was performed at a power setting of 40W and argon gas flow at 1.5-2.0 L/min, "forced" mode, in 1-3 sessions (mean 1.3). All the patients received treatment with hi...

  13. Research of On-line Analytical Method of Trace Oxygen and Water in Argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Metal sodium has an active chemical quality. When it is used as a coolant in a fast neutron reactor, it must be protected by a cover gas argon for safety operation of the reactor. But oxygen and water in argon can produce chemical reaction with sodium. Then sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide and hydrogen can be produced. This will be harmful to the safety operation of reactor. The purpose of controlling a level of impurity in the cover gas is for controlling a level of impurity in sodium. The research is to find an on-line determining method and a sampling system to monitor

  14. ArgonCube: a novel, fully-modular approach for the realization of large-mass liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, C; Asaadi, J; Auger, M; Barbato, F; Bay, F; Bishai, M; Bleiner, D; Borgschulte, A; Bremer, J; Cavus, E; Chen, H; De Geronimo, G; Ereditato, A; Fleming, B; Goldi, D; Hanni, R; Kose, U; Kreslo, I; La Mattina, F; Lanni, F; Lissauer, D; Luthi, M; Lutz, P; Marchionni, A; Mladenov, D; Nessi, M; Noto, F; Palamara, O; Raaf, J L; Radeka, V; Rudolph Von Rohr, Ch; Smargianaki, D; Soderberg, M; Strauss, Th; Weber, M; Yu, B; Zeller, G P; Zeyrek, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2015-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber is a prime candidate detector for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently being considered at the future LBNF facility in the United States on the very large mass scale of 40 kton. In this document, following the long standing R&D work conducted over the last years in several laboratories in Europe and in the United States, we intend to propose a novel Liquid Argon TPC approach based on a fully-modular, innovative design, the ArgonCube. The related R&D work will proceed along two main directions; one aimed at on the assessment of the proposed modular detector design, the other on the exploitation of new signal readout methods. Such a strategy will provide high performance while being cost-effective and robust at the same time. According to our plans, we will firstly realize a detector prototype hosted in a cryostat that is a...

  15. 40 CFR 63.10686 - What are the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen decarburization vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.10686 What are the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen... arc furnaces and argon-oxygen decarburization vessels? 63.10686 Section 63.10686 Protection...

  16. Numerical Simulation of the Thermal Conductivity of Thermal Insulation Pipe by Vacuum and High Pressure Argon Pre-filled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract]By analyzing the insulation effect of argon-filled tubing and vacuum-insulated tubing before and after hydrogen permeation respectively, a conclusion can be drawn that the insulated tubing filled with high pressure argon is better than the vacuum insulated tubing considering the lifetime and heat insulation effect.

  17. Comparative investigation of laser ablation plumes in air and argon by analysis of spectral line shapes: Insights on calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Jörg, E-mail: hermann@lp3.univ-mrs.fr [LP3, CNRS — Aix Marseille University, 163 Av. de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Gerhard, Christoph [Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Straße 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Axente, Emanuel [Laser–Surface–Plasma Interactions Laboratory, Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Măgurele (Romania); Dutouquet, Christophe [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS/DRC/CARA/NOVA), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-En-Halatte (France)

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the characteristic features of plume expansion in air and argon resulting from ultraviolet laser ablation of solid matter in conditions typically applied in material analysis via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Barite crown glass is chosen as a target material for the characteristic emission spectrum suitable for plasma diagnostics. The space-integrated plasma emission spectrum recorded with an echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector is compared to the computed spectral radiance of a nonuniform plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, resonance lines of neutral sodium atoms and barium ions are observed to probe gradients of temperature and density within the plume. It is shown that laser ablation in argon leads to an almost uniform plasma whereas gradients of temperature and density are evidenced in ambient air. The discrepancy is attributed to the different physical properties of both gases leading to a stronger vapor–gas energy exchange in the case of air. However, strong gradients occur only in a thin peripheral zone, close to the vapor–gas contact front. The larger plasma core appears almost uniform. The peripheral zone of low temperature mostly contributes to the plasma emission spectrum by absorption and material analysis via calibration-free LIBS in air may ignore the nonuniform character of the plasma if only transitions of small optical thickness are considered. - Highlights: • Investigation of laser ablation plumes by analysis of spectral line shapes • Simulation of emission spectra from nonuniform laser-produced plasma • Plasma is more uniform for ablation in argon. • Plasma nonuniformity mostly affects optically thick lines. • Calibration-free LIBS may ignore gradients if optically thin lines are chosen.

  18. 49 CFR 37.133 - Subscription service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.133 Subscription service. (a) This... paratransit system, subject to the limitations in this section. (b) Subscription service may not absorb...

  19. Ex vivo and in vivo neuroprotection induced by argon when given after an excitotoxic or ischemic insult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène N David

    Full Text Available In vitro studies have well established the neuroprotective action of the noble gas argon. However, only limited data from in vivo models are available, and particularly whether postexcitotoxic or postischemic argon can provide neuroprotection in vivo still remains to be demonstrated. Here, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of postexcitotoxic-postischemic argon both ex vivo in acute brain slices subjected to ischemia in the form of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD, and in vivo in rats subjected to an intrastriatal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA or to the occlusion of middle-cerebral artery (MCAO. We show that postexcitotoxic-postischemic argon reduces OGD-induced cell injury in brain slices, and further reduces NMDA-induced brain damage and MCAO-induced cortical brain damage in rats. Contrasting with its beneficial effect at the cortical level, we show that postischemic argon increases MCAO-induced subcortical brain damage and provides no improvement of neurologic outcome as compared to control animals. These results extend previous data on the neuroprotective action of argon. Particularly, taken together with previous in vivo data that have shown that intraischemic argon has neuroprotective action at both the cortical and subcortical level, our findings on postischemic argon suggest that this noble gas could be administered during but not after ischemia, i.e. before but not after reperfusion has occurred, in order to provide cortical neuroprotection and to avoid increasing subcortical brain damage. Also, the effects of argon are discussed as regards to the oxygen-like chemical, pharmacological, and physical properties of argon.

  20. Results of the /sup 37/Cl experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R Jr

    Present results of the /sup 37/Cl experiment to measure the flux of /sup 8/B neutrinos from the sun are presented. The results are plotted, and the technical details are discussed. From a /sup 37/Ar production rate above the background of 0.30, the possible solar neutrino rate was deduced to be 5.31 x (0.30 +- 0.08) = 1.6 +- 0.4 SNU. (JFP)

  1. Photoionization cross-sections for atoms and ions of aluminum, silicon, and argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R. D.; Henry, R. J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Photoionization cross sections for all levels belonging to the configurations of atoms and ions of aluminum, silicon, and argon have been calculated using Hartree-Fock bound-electron wave functions and close-coupling approximation free-electron wave functions. The results are presented in the form of a computationally convenient interpolation formula and should find wide astrophysical application.

  2. Liquid Argon Dielectric Breakdown Studies with the MicroBooNE Purification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R. [Fermilab; Carls, B. [Fermilab; James, C. [Fermilab; Johnson, B. [Fermilab; Jostlein, H. [Fermilab; Lockwitz, S. [Fermilab; Lundberg, B. [Fermilab; Raaf, J. L. [Fermilab; Rameika, R. [Fermilab; Rebel, B. [Fermilab; Zeller, G. P. [Fermilab; Zuckerbrot, M. [Fermilab

    2014-11-04

    The proliferation of liquid argon time projection chamber detectors makes the characterization of the dielectric properties of liquid argon a critical task. To improve understanding of these properties, a systematic study of the breakdown electric field in liquid argon was conducted using a dedicated cryostat connected to the MicroBooNE cryogenic system at Fermilab. An electrode sphere-plate geometry was implemented using spheres with diameters of 1.3 mm, 5.0 mm, and 76 mm. The MicroBooNE cryogenic system allowed measurements to be taken at a variety of electronegative contamination levels ranging from a few parts-per-million to tens of parts-per-trillion. The cathode-anode distance was varied from 0.1 mm to 2.5 cm. The results demonstrate a geometric dependence of the electric field strength at breakdown. This study is the first time that the dependence of the breakdown field on stressed cathode area has been shown for liquid argon.

  3. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of argon, krypton, and xenon using vacuum ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonant, single-photon excitation of ground state inert gases requires light in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. This paper discusses methods for generating this light. Efficient schemes for ionizing argon, krypton, and xenon using resonant, stepwise single-photon excitation are presented

  4. A calculation of internal kinetic energy and polarizability of compressed argon from the statistical atom model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldam, C.A. ten; Groot, S.R. de

    1952-01-01

    From Jensen's and Gombás' modification of the statistical Thomas-Fermi atom model, a theory for compressed atoms is developed by changing the boundary conditions. Internal kinetic energy and polarizability of argon are calculated as functions of pressure. At 1000 atm. an internal kinetic energy of a

  5. First Observation of Low Energy Electron Neutrinos in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R; Asaadi, J; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fitzpatrick, R S; Fleming, B; Hackenburg, A; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Lang, K; Luo, X; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Rebel, B; Schukraft, A; Scanavini, G; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Zeller, G P

    2016-01-01

    Liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) produce remarkable fidelity in the observation of neutrino interactions. The superior capabilities of such detectors to reconstruct the spatial and calorimetric information of neutrino events have made them the detectors of choice in a number of experiments, specifically those looking to observe electron neutrino ($\

  6. Operation of a GERDA phase I prototype detector in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-enriched high-purity (HP) p-type germanium diode has been operated in a low mass holder in liquid nitrogen and liquid argon. Because of the shielding and scintillation properties of liquid argon, GERDA experiment is planned to use it as a cryogenic fluid shield. Therefore, the long-term measurements with the bare detector are performed in liquid argon. The testing of the prototype detector and the preparation of the enriched detectors for GERDA phase I are being carried out in the GERDA underground Detector Laboratory (GDL) at LNGS. The phase I prototype detector assembly is being operated since beginning of 2006 to study detector handling protocols, detector assembly performance and detector assembly stability. 45 warming and cooling cyclings have been carried out. Since February 8 2007, the prototype detector is continuously operated in liquid argon under varying irradiation conditions. The operations, measurements and results of the prototype detector testing as well as the status of the phase I enriched detectors are summarized

  7. Liquid Argon Dielectric Breakdown Studies with the MicroBooNE Purification System

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R; James, C; Johnson, B; Jostlein, H; Lockwitz, S; Lundberg, B; Raaf, J L; Rameika, R; Rebel, B; Zeller, G P; Zuckerbrot, M

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of liquid argon time projection chamber detectors makes the characterization of the dielectric properties of liquid argon a critical task. To improve understanding of these properties, a systematic study of the breakdown electric field in liquid argon was conducted using a dedicated cryostat connected to the MicroBooNE cryogenic system at Fermilab. An electrode sphere-plate geometry was implemented using spheres with diameters of 1.3 mm, 5.0 mm, and 76 mm. The MicroBooNE cryogenic system allowed measurements to be taken at a variety of electronegative contamination levels ranging from a few parts-per-million to tens of parts-per- trillion. The cathode-anode distance was varied from 0.1 mm to 2.5 cm. The results demonstrate a geometric dependence of the electric field strength at breakdown. This study is the first time that the dependence of the breakdown field on stressed cathode area has been shown for liquid argon.

  8. Common versus noble Bacillus subtilis differentially responds to air and argon gas plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Theresa; Bernhardt, Jörg; Winter, Jörn; Mäder, Ulrike; Schlüter, Rabea; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Hecker, Michael; Kusch, Harald

    2013-09-01

    The applications of low-temperature plasma are not only confined to decontamination and sterilization but are also found in the medical field in terms of wound and skin treatment. For the improvement of already established and also for new plasma techniques, in-depth knowledge on the interactions between plasma and microorganism is essential. In an initial study, the interaction between growing Bacillus subtilis and argon plasma was investigated by using a growth chamber system suitable for low-temperature gas plasma treatment of bacteria in liquid medium. In this follow-up investigation, a second kind of plasma treatment-namely air plasma-was applied. With combined proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, we were able to investigate the plasma-specific stress response of B. subtilis toward not only argon but also air plasma. Besides an overlap of cellular responses due to both argon and air plasma treatment (DNA damage and oxidative stress), a variety of gas-dependent cellular responses such as growth retardation and morphological changes were observed. Only argon plasma treatments lead to a phosphate starvation response whereas air plasma induced the tryptophan operon implying damage by photooxidation. Biological findings were supported by the detection of reactive plasma species by optical emission spectroscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy measurements. PMID:23794223

  9. Effect of Low Electric Fields on Alpha Scintillation Light Yield in Liquid Argon

    CERN Document Server

    Agnes, P; Alexander, T; Alton, A K; Asner, D M; Back, H O; Baldin, B; Biery, K; Bocci, V; Bonfini, G; Bonivento, W; Bossa, M; Bottino, B; Brigatti, A; Brodsky, J; Budano, F; Bussino, S; Cadeddu, M; Cadoni, M; Calaprice, F; Canci, N; Candela, A; Caravati, M; Cariello, M; Carlini, M; Catalanotti, S; Cavalcante, P; Chepurnov, A; Cicalò, C; Cocco, A G; Covone, G; D'Angelo, D; D'Incecco, M; Davini, S; De Cecco, S; De Deo, M; De Vincenzi, M; Derbin, A; Devoto, A; Di Eusanio, F; Di Pietro, G; Dionisi, C; Edkins, E; Empl, A; Fan, A; Fiorillo, G; Fomenko, K; Forster, G; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Giagu, S; Giganti, C; Giovanetti, G K; Goretti, A M; Granato, F; Gromov, M; Guan, M; Guardincerri, Y; Hackett, B R; Herner, K; Hughes, D; Humble, P; Hungerford, E V; Ianni, A; James, I; Johnson, T N; Jollet, C; Keeter, K; Kendziora, C L; Koh, G; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kubankin, A; Li, X; Lissia, M; Loer, B; Lombardi, P; Longo, G; Ma, Y; Machulin, I N; Mandarano, A; Mari, S M; Maricic, J; Marini, L; Martoff, C J; Meregaglia, A; Meyers, P D; Milincic, R; Miller, J D; Montanari, D; Monte, A; Mount, B J; Muratova, V N; Musico, P; Napolitano, J; Agasson, A Navrer; Odrowski, S; Oleinik, A; Orsini, M; Ortica, F; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Pantic, E; Parmeggiano, S; Pelczar, K; Pelliccia, N; Pocar, A; Pordes, S; Pugachev, D A; Qian, H; Randle, K; Ranucci, G; Razeti, M; Razeto, A; Reinhold, B; Renshaw, A L; Rescigno, M; Riffard, Q; Romani, A; Rossi, B; Rossi, N; Rountree, D; Sablone, D; Saggese, P; Sands, W; Savarese, C; Schlitzer, B; Segreto, E; Semenov, D A; Shields, E; Singh, P N; Skorokhvatov, M D; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Stanford, C; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Tatarowicz, J; Testera, G; Tonazzo, A; Trinchese, P; Unzhakov, E V; Verducci, M; Vishneva, A; Vogelaar, B; Wada, M; Walker, S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Watson, A W; Westerdale, S; Wilhelmi, J; Wojcik, M M; Xiang, X; Xiao, X; Xu, J; Yang, C; Zhong, W; Zhu, C; Zuzel, G

    2016-01-01

    Measurements were made of scintillation light yield of alpha particles from the $^{222}$Rn decay chain within the DarkSide-50 liquid argon time projection chamber. The light yield was found to increase as the applied electric field increased, with alphas in a 200 V/cm electric field exhibiting a $\\sim$2% increase in light yield compared to alphas in no field.

  10. Neutral gas temperature estimates and metastable resonance energy transfer for argon-nitrogen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovibrational spectroscopy band fitting of the nitrogen (N2) second positive system is a technique used to estimate the neutral gas temperature of N2 discharges, or atomic discharges with trace amounts of a N2 added. For mixtures involving argon and N2, resonant energy transfer between argon metastable atoms (Ar*) and N2 molecules may affect gas temperature estimates made using the second positive system. The effect of Ar* resonance energy transfer is investigated here by analyzing neutral gas temperatures of argon-N2 mixtures, for N2 percentages from 1% to 100%. Neutral gas temperature estimates are higher than expected for mixtures involving greater than 5% N2 addition, but are reasonable for argon with less than 5% N2 addition when compared with an analytic model for ion-neutral charge exchange collisional heating. Additional spatiotemporal investigations into neutral gas temperature estimates with 10% N2 addition demonstrate that although absolute temperature values may be affected by Ar* resonant energy transfer, spatiotemporal trends may still be used to accurately diagnose the discharge

  11. Three-body dispersion contributions to the thermodynamic properties and effective pair interactions in liquid argon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoef, van der Martin A.; Madden, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    The contributions of three-body triple dipole and dipole-dipole-quadrupole dispersion interactions to the thermodynamic properties of liquid argon are examined, using a recently introduced simulation scheme which contains an explicit, quantum mechanical representation of the underlying electronic st

  12. Arc Root Motions in an Argon-Hydrogen Direct-Current Plasma Torch at Reduced Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG He-Ji; PAN Wen-Xia; WU Cheng-Kang

    2008-01-01

    Arc root motions in generating dc argon hydrogen plasma at reduced pressure are optically observed using a high-speed video camera. The time resolved angular position of the arc root attachment point is measured and analysed. The arc root movement is characterized as a chaotic and jumping motion along the circular direction on the anode surface.

  13. Simulations of geometrically pinched argon plasmas using an extended one-dimensional model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.T.A.L. Burm,; W. J. Goedheer,; D.C. Schram,

    2001-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the modelling of a wall-stabilized cylinder symmetric cascaded are which is to be used as a high-density plasma source. To enhance the ion flux emerging from cascaded are argon plasmas the confining wall can be changed into a nozzle geometry. Such pinched geometries incr

  14. CT assessment of liver hemodynamics in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after argon-helium cryoablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Jia Hao; Jin-Ping Li; Hui-Jie Jiang; Da-Qing Li; Zai-Sheng Ling

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment  of  tumor  response  after  argon-helium  cryoablation  is  critical  in  guiding  future  therapy  for unresectable  hepatocellular  carcinoma.  This  study  aimed  to evaluate  liver  hemodynamics  in  hepatocellular  carcinoma after  argon-helium  cryoablation  with  computed  tomography perfusion. METHODS: The  control  group  comprised  40  volunteers without liver disease.  The  experimental  group  was  composed of  15  patients  with  hepatocellular  carcinoma  treated  with argon-helium  cryoablation.  Computed  tomography  perfusion parameters were measured: hepatic blood flow, hepatic blood volume,  mean  transit  time,  permeability  of  capillary  vessel surface, hepatic arterial fraction, hepatic arterial perfusion, and hepatic portal perfusion. RESULTS: After  treatment,  in  the  tumor  foci,  permeability of  capillary  vessel  surface  was  higher,  and  hepatic  blood flow,  hepatic  blood  volume,  hepatic  arterial  fraction,  and hepatic  arterial  perfusion  values  were  lower  (P0.05). CONCLUSION: Computed tomography perfusion can evaluate tumor response after argon-helium cryoablation.

  15. Neutral gas temperature estimates and metastable resonance energy transfer for argon-nitrogen discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greig, A., E-mail: amelia.greig@anu.edu.au; Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Rovibrational spectroscopy band fitting of the nitrogen (N{sub 2}) second positive system is a technique used to estimate the neutral gas temperature of N{sub 2} discharges, or atomic discharges with trace amounts of a N{sub 2} added. For mixtures involving argon and N{sub 2}, resonant energy transfer between argon metastable atoms (Ar*) and N{sub 2} molecules may affect gas temperature estimates made using the second positive system. The effect of Ar* resonance energy transfer is investigated here by analyzing neutral gas temperatures of argon-N{sub 2} mixtures, for N{sub 2} percentages from 1% to 100%. Neutral gas temperature estimates are higher than expected for mixtures involving greater than 5% N{sub 2} addition, but are reasonable for argon with less than 5% N{sub 2} addition when compared with an analytic model for ion-neutral charge exchange collisional heating. Additional spatiotemporal investigations into neutral gas temperature estimates with 10% N{sub 2} addition demonstrate that although absolute temperature values may be affected by Ar* resonant energy transfer, spatiotemporal trends may still be used to accurately diagnose the discharge.

  16. Test beam results of a stereo preshower integrated in the liquid argon accordion calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, R; Greenious, G; Kitching, P; Olsen, B; Pinfold, James L; Rodning, N L; Boos, E; Zhautykov, B O; Aubert, Bernard; Bazan, A; Beaugiraud, B; Boniface, J; Colas, Jacques; Eynard, G; Jézéquel, S; Le Flour, T; Linossier, O; Nicoleau, S; Sauvage, G; Thion, J; Van den Plas, D; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y; Chmeissani, M; Fernández, E; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Padilla, C; Citterio, M; Gordon, H A; Lissauer, D; Ma, H; Makowiecki, D S; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Rescia, S; Stephani, D; Takai, H; Baisin, L; Berset, J C; Chevalley, J L; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Marin, C P; Nessi, Marzio; Poggioli, Luc; Richter, W; Vuillemin, V; Baze, J M; Delagnes, E; Gosset, L G; Lavocat, P; Lottin, J P; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, J P; Renardy, J F; Schwindling, J; Simion, S; Taguet, J P; Teiger, J; Walter, C; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Hostachy, J Y; Mahout, G; Barreiro, F; Del Peso, J; García, J; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Romero, P; Scheel, C V; Chekhtman, A; Cousinou, M C; Dargent, P; Dinkespiler, B; Etienne, F; Fassnacht, P; Fouchez, D; Martin, L; Miotto, A; Monnier, E; Nagy, E; Olivetto, C; Tisserant, S; Battistoni, G; Camin, D V; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Cozzi, L; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Perini, L; Resconi, S; Sala, P R; Beaudoin, G; Depommier, P; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Roy, P; Augé, E; Breton, D; Chase, Robert L; Chollet, J C; de La Taille, C; Fayard, Louis; Fournier, D; González, J; Hrisoho, A T; Jacquier, Y; Merkel, B; Nikolic, I A; Noppe, J M; Parrour, G; Pétroff, P; Puzo, P; Richer, J P; Schaffer, A C; Seguin-Moreau, N; Serin, L; Tisserand, V; Veillet, J J; Vichou, I; Canton, B; David, J; Genat, J F; Imbault, D; Le Dortz, O; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schwemling, P; Eek, L O; Lund-Jensen, B; Söderqvist, J; Astbury, Alan; Keeler, Richard K; Lefebvre, M; Robertson, S; White, J

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of an integrated preshower within the RD3 liquid argon accordion calorimeter. It has a stereo view which enables the measurement of two transverse coordinates. The prototype was tested at CERN with electrons, photons and muons to validate its capability to work at LHC ( Energy resolution, impact point resolution, angular resolution, $\\pi^o$/$\\gamma$ rejection ).

  17. Evaporation characteristics of thin film liquid argon in nano-scale confinement: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to explore the evaporation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in nano-scale confinement. The present study has been conducted to realize the nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation inside a confined space for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of surface wetting conditions. The simulation domain consisted of two parallel platinum plates; one at the top and another at the bottom. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Considering hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of top and bottom surfaces, two different cases have been investigated: (i) Case A: Both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophilic, (ii) Case B: both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophobic. For all cases, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall was set to four different temperatures such as 110 K, 120 K, 130 K and 140 K to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat fluxes normal to top and bottom walls were estimated and discussed to illuminate the effectiveness of heat transfer in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic confinement at various boundary temperatures of the bottom plate.

  18. A liquid argon calorimeter prototype for forward region at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artamonov, A. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Epstein, V. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gorbunov, P. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jemanov, V. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khovansky, V. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuchenkov, A. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kruchinin, S. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maslennikov, A. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rjabinin, M. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatalov, P. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, V. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaitsev, V. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zeldovich, S. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zuckerman, I. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-02-21

    We report on the design and on beam test results of a liquid argon calorimeter prototype. This technology was proposed as an option for the forward region of an experiment at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The measurements were performed using electrons from the ITEP PS with an energy range of 1 to 5 GeV. (orig.).

  19. Ionization EM calorimetry with accordion electrodes and liquid krypton or argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeka, V.

    1993-11-01

    The results of a study and tests of a liquid krypton/argon electromagnetic calorimeter with accordion electrode structure are briefly summarized. This includes the calorimeter response to electrons and muons, energy, pointing and timing resolution, and a measurement by multiple sampling. The electrode layout with fine segmentation is illustrated.

  20. Pollution of liquid argon after neutron irradiation measured at SARA: summary of raw data

    CERN Document Server

    Andrieux, M L; de Saintignon, P; Ferrari, A; Hostachy, J Y; Martin, P; Wielers, M; Belymam, A; Hoummada, A; Merkel, B; Puzo, P M; Sauvage, D

    1998-01-01

    The SARA fast neutron facility has been used to irradiate various pieces of materials due to be used in the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter, immersed in a liquid argon cryostat. The subsequent pollution was measured. The raw data have been summarized in this paper.

  1. HIRFL-CSR internal cluster target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Caojie; Lu, Rongchun; Cai, Xiaohong; Yu, Deyang; Ruan, Fangfang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Jianming; Torpokov, D. K.; Nikolenko, D.

    2013-12-01

    Since HIRFL-CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL-CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 1012 atoms/cm2, and those of other targets are larger than 1013 atoms/cm2 with the background pressure of 10-11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability.

  2. CERN's Fixed Target Primary Ion Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, Django; Axensalva, Jerome; Bellodi, Giulia; Blas, Alfred; Bodendorfer, Michael; Bohl, Thomas; Cettour-Cave, Stephane; Cornelis, Karel; Damerau, Heiko; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Fabich, Adrian; Ferreira Somoza, Jose; Findlay, Alan; Freyermuth, Pierre; Gilardoni, Simone; Hancock, Steven; Holzer, Eva Barbara; Jensen, Steen; Kain, Verena; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Michet, Alice; O'Neil, Michael; Pasinelli, Sergio; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Tranquille, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The renewed availability of heavy ions at CERN for the needs of the LHC programme has triggered the interest of the fixed-target community. The project, which involves sending several species of primary ions at various energies to the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron, has now entered its operational phase. The first argon run, with momenta ranging from 13 AGeV/c to 150 AGeV/c, took place from February 2015 to April 2015. This paper presents the status of the project, the performance achieved thus far and an outlook on future plans.

  3. The Ashima/MIT Mars GCM and argon in the martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yuan; Richardson, Mark I.; Newman, Claire E.; Lee, Christopher; Toigo, Anthony D.; Mischna, Michael A.; Campin, Jean-Michel

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the ability of modern general circulation models (GCMs) to simulate transport in the martian atmosphere using measurements of argon as a proxy for the transport processes. Argon provides the simplest measure of transport as it is a noble gas with no sinks or sources on seasonal timescales. Variations in argon result solely from 'freeze distillation', as the atmosphere condenses at the winter poles, and from atmospheric transport. Comparison of all previously published models when rescaled to a common definition of the argon enhancement factor (EF) suggest that models generally do a poor job in predicting the peak enhancement in southern winter over the winter pole - the time when the capability of the model transport approaches are most severely tested. Despite observed peak EF values of ˜6, previously published model predictions peaked at EF values of only 2-3. We introduce a new GCM that provides a better treatment of mass conservation within the dynamical core, includes more sophisticated tracer transport approaches, and utilizes a cube-sphere grid structure thus avoiding the grid-point convergence problem at the pole that exists for most current Mars GCMs. We describe this model - the Ashima Research/Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mars General Circulation Model (Ashima/MIT Mars GCM) and use it to demonstrate the significant sensitivity of peak EF to the choices of transport approach for both tracers and heat. We obtain a peak EF of 4.75 which, while over 50% higher than any prior model, remains well short of the observed value. We show that the polar EF value in winter is primarily determined by the competition between two processes: (1) mean meridional import of lower-latitude air not enriched in argon and (2) the leakage of enriched argon out of the polar column by eddies in the lowest atmospheric levels. We suggest possibilities for improving GCM representation of the CO2 cycle and the general circulation that may further improve the

  4. Cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixture in natural air samples for isotopic and molecular ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeeb Rahman, Keedakkadan; Abe, Osamu

    2014-05-01

    The discovery of mass independent isotope fractionation in oxygen during the formation of ozone in the stratosphere has initiated a wide application in isotope geochemistry field. Separation of oxygen-argon mixture has become the foundation of high precision analysis of Δ17O and δ(O2/Ar) for geochemical applications. Here we present precise and simplified cryogenic separation of argon oxygen mixture from the atmospheric and dissolved air using 30/60 mesh 5A molecular sieve zeolite. A pioneer study of this method was conducted by Thiemens and Meagher in 1984. The column which is made of glass tube contains about 1.1 grams of molecular sieve zeolite and both ends of column was filled with glass wools. The experimental set up was tested for different combination of molecular sieves and slurry temperatures. We found the most efficient condition for the separation was at a column temperature of -103°C. For complete transfer of O2 and Ar mixture usually takes in 15-20 minutes time. The isotopic ratios of oxygen were analyzed using mass spectrometer (Thermo Fischer Delta Plus) relative to reference oxygen-argon mixture at 3V of m/z 32 for both sample and reference side. The signals of m/z 28, 32, and 40 were measured by dynamically to determine oxygen -argon ratio and to check nitrogen contamination. Repeated measurements of atmospheric air yielded a reproducibility (SE n=80) of 0.006, 0.004 and 0.19‰ for δ17O, δ18O and δO2/Ar respectively. The isotopic and molecular fractionation of argon- oxygen mixture during gas adsorption and desorption while using molecular sieve under liquid nitrogen temperature was studied. We have established a linear relationship governing the effect of 13X and 5A molecular sieves on molecular fractionation. And suggested the use of single 1/8" pellet 13X molecular sieve provided a negligible fractionation.

  5. Clinical application of argon-helium cryotherapy system in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the efficacy of Argon-Helium cryotherapy system (AHCS) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in treating the large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with diameter over 10 cm. Methods: Forty-eight HCC patients were randomly divided into therapy group (n=26) and control group (n=22), and patients in the therapy group were treated with AHCS [(Cryocare)TM Surgical System] 4 weeks after TACE. Tumor size ranged from 10 to 13 cm. All tumors were hypervascular with Child A in 38 cases and Child B in 10 cases. AFP was positive in 40 cases and negative in 8. Reexamination included pathology, tumor marker, T-lymphocyte subgroup, ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Necrosis rate was calculated with Cavalieri theory. Numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain evaluation and EORTC QLQ-C30 for life quality evaluation were performed. Results: Technical success rate was 100%. Follow-up time varied from 6 to 14 months, and follow-up rate was 100%. Average neoplasm necrosis rate was 8.07% after TACE, and 28.65% after AHCS. Tumor marker significantly deceased after AHCS. The necrosis after AHCS was more significant than that after TACE alone. AST and ALT deteriorated for 2 weeks after TACE and for 1 week after AHCS. Local pain 48 hours after AHCS was the only more serious side effect than after TACE. Immunological function was significantly suppressed after TACE. CD3+, CD4+, and NK increased after AHCS, and abnormal distribution was corrected. Coagulative necrosis was founded in the tumor target area pathologically. Quality of life increased according EORTC QLQ-C30 results after AHCS. No severe complication occurred. Conclusion: AHCS after TACE can reduce tumor load in short term, and it can improve cellular immunity, ameliorate the liver function, increase the quality of life, and make satisfactory effect in the near future. The key point to increase therapeutic efficacy is the embolization of blood vessel and control of heat sink effect by TACE. Interventional therapy is

  6. Multiple ionization of argon accompanied by electron loss and capture of 0.22-6.35 MeV Cq+ ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Lin; Xie Jiang-Shan; Sun Guang-Zhi; Liu Zhao-Yuan; Chen Xi-Meng; Shao Jian-Xiong; Lu Yan-Xia; Ding Bao-Wei; Cui Ying; Gao Zhi-Min; Liu Yu-Wen; Du Juan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a projectile ions-recoil ions coincidence technique is employed to investigate the target ionization and projectile charge state changing processes in the collision of 0.22-6.35 MeV Cq+ (q = 1-4) ions with argon atoms. The partial cross section ratios of the double, triple, quadruplicate ionization to the single ionization (or the single capture) of argon associated with single electron loss (or single electron capture) by the projectile are measured and compared with the previous experimental results. In the present experiment, it is observed that the ratios of ionization cross sections R associated with single loss and single capture depend strongly on the projectile charge state and vary significantly with different reaction channels as impact energy increases. In addition, this paper gets empirical scaling laws for the ionization cross section ratios R corresponding to the projectile single loss and finds that the ratios of the double ionization to the single ionization associated with single electron capture remain constant in the present energy range.

  7. LL-37 complexation with glycosaminoglycans in cystic fibrosis lungs inhibits antimicrobial activity, which can be restored by hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2009-07-01

    There is an abundance of antimicrobial peptides in cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs. Despite this, individuals with CF are susceptible to microbial colonization and infection. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial response within the CF lung, focusing on the human cathelicidin LL-37. We demonstrate the presence of the LL-37 precursor, human cathelicidin precursor protein designated 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein, in the CF lung along with evidence that it is processed to active LL-37 by proteinase-3. We demonstrate that despite supranormal levels of LL-37, the lung fluid from CF patients exhibits no demonstrable antimicrobial activity. Furthermore Pseudomonas killing by physiological concentrations of exogenous LL-37 is inhibited by CF bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid due to proteolytic degradation of LL-37 by neutrophil elastase and cathepsin D. The endogenous LL-37 in CF BAL fluid is protected from this proteolysis by interactions with glycosaminoglycans, but while this protects LL-37 from proteolysis it results in inactivation of LL-37 antimicrobial activity. By digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BAL fluid, endogenous LL-37 is liberated and the antimicrobial properties of CF BAL fluid restored. High sodium concentrations also liberate LL-37 in CF BAL fluid in vitro. This is also seen in vivo in CF sputum where LL-37 is complexed to glycosaminoglycans but is liberated following nebulized hypertonic saline resulting in increased antimicrobial effect. These data suggest glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 complexes to be potential therapeutic targets. Factors that disrupt glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 aggregates promote the antimicrobial effects of LL-37 with the caveat that concomitant administration of antiproteases may be needed to protect the now liberated LL-37 from proteolytic cleavage.

  8. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  9. Sputter target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  10. Estimation of Minimal Breakdown Point in a GaP Plasma Structure and Discharge Features in Air and Argon Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, H. Hilal; Tanrıverdi, Evrim

    2016-08-01

    We present gas discharge phenomena in argon and air media using a gallium phosphide (GaP) semiconductor and metal electrodes. The system has a large-diameter ( D) semiconductor and a microscaled adjustable interelectrode gap ( d). Both theoretical and experimental findings are discussed for a direct-current (dc) electric field ( E) applied to this structure with parallel-plate geometry. As one of the main parameters, the pressure p takes an adjustable value from 0.26 kPa to 101 kPa. After collection of experimental data, a new theoretical formula is developed to estimate the minimal breakdown point of the system as a function of p and d. It is proven that the minimal breakdown point in the semiconductor and metal electrode system differs dramatically from that in metal and metal electrode systems. In addition, the surface charge density σ and spatial electron distribution n e are calculated theoretically. Current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) demonstrate that there exist certain negative differential resistance (NDR) regions for small interelectrode separations (i.e., d = 50 μm) and low and moderate pressures between 3.7 kPa and 13 kPa in Ar medium. From the difference of currents in CVCs, the bifurcation of the discharge current is clarified for an applied voltage U. Since the current differences in NDRs have various values from 1 μA to 7.24 μA for different pressures, the GaP semiconductor plasma structure can be used in microwave diode systems due to its clear NDR region.

  11. Size Effect on Transport Properties of Gaseous Argon: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out a series of equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations of gaseous argon at 273.15 K and 1.00 atm for the calculation of transport properties as a function of the number of argon molecules (N). While the diffusion coefficients (D) of gaseous argon approach to the experimental measure with increasing N, the viscosities (η) and thermal conductivities (λ) obtained for N = 432 are unreliable due to the high fluctuation of the time correlation functions and those for N = 1728 are rather acceptable. Increasing further to N = 6912 has improved the MD results a little closer to the experimental measures for η and λ. Both the EMD results for η and λ for N = 6912 underestimate the experimental measures and it is not expected that the more increasing N makes the closer results to the experimental measures. One possible explanation for the large disagreement between MD results and the experimental measures for η and λ may be due to the use of LJ parameters which were used for liquid argon. In a recent study, we have examined the Green-Kubo formula for the calculation of transport properties (diffusion coefficient, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) by carrying out a series of equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations for the system of N=1728 at 273.15 K and 1.00 atm.1 While the diffusion coefficients (D) of noble gases were obtained through the original Green-Kubo formula, the viscosities (η) and thermal conductivities (λ) were obtained by utilizing the revised Green-Kubo formulas. The structural and dynamic properties of gaseous argon are completely different from those of liquid argon at 94.4 K and 1.374 g/cm3. The results for transport properties (D, η, and λ) at 273.15 K and 1.00 atm obtained from our EMD simulations are in general agreement with the experimental data and superior to the rigorous results of the kinetic theory

  12. Operating Instructions for the Cryogenics in the Liquid Argon Detector at CIEMAT; Operacion de la Criogenia del Detector de Argon Liquido del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L.; Leal, M. D.; Prado, M. del; Ramirez, J. L.

    2009-12-19

    Ciemat has wide experience in designing and developing gaseous particle detectors. It has taken part in the building of experiments for CERN accelerators, constructing shares of the muon chambers for L3 experiment in LEP and CMS experiment in LHC. Recently, new concepts for particle detectors have been developed, as a natural evolution from the ones built at Ciemat. These new radiation detectors use liquefied noble gases as active media. A testing system for these kind of liquefied argon detectors has been built at Ciemat, and includes a supporting cryogenic system for the liquefaction and maintenance of the liquid argon needed for operating the detector. This document describes the technical features of this cryogenic system. Besides the documentation of the cryogenic system, this technical report can be of help for the management and upgrading of the detector. As well as an introduction, the report includes the following chapters: The second one is a description of the cryogenics and gas systems. The third chapter shows the controlling electronics. The fourth chapter deals with the important topic that is security, its systems and protocols. The fifth describes the cryogenic operations possible in this equipment. The report is completed with diagrams, schemes, pictures and tables for the easier management of the setup. (Author)

  13. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral argon; Compilacion de resultados de secciones eficaces de excitacion para niveles del Argon neutro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, F.

    1993-07-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4to 12), np(n=4to8) and nd(n=3to8)of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4 to 7), np (n=4 to 7) and nd (n=3 to 8). 3.- comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author) 35 refs.

  14. 7 CFR 37.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ASSESS ORGANIC CERTIFYING AGENCIES § 37.1 Definitions. Words used in this part in the singular form shall... accordance with the regulations that may result in assessment of an organic certification program...

  15. 7 CFR 37.2 - Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ASSESS ORGANIC CERTIFYING AGENCIES § 37.2 Services. Organic certifying agencies requesting assessment... approves the incorporation by reference of ISO/IEC Guide 65 in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  16. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection....

  17. 37 CFR 11.50 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 11.50 Section 11.50... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.50 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings...

  18. 37 CFR 351.10 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 351.10 Section 351... JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.10 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. All evidence that is... authenticated or identified in order to be admissible as evidence. The requirement of authentication...

  19. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  20. 45 CFR 84.37 - Nonacademic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 84.37 Nonacademic services. (a) General. (1) A recipient to which this subpart applies... students with similar interests and abilities. (c) Physical education and athletics. (1) In...

  1. 45 CFR 605.37 - Nonacademic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.37 Nonacademic services. (a) General. (1) A recipient to which this... than are nonhandicapped students with similar interests and abilities. (c) Physical education...

  2. 48 CFR 37.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 37.101 Definitions. As used in this part— Child care services means child protective services (including the investigation of child abuse and neglect reports), social services, health and mental health care, child (day) care, education (whether or not...

  3. 37 CFR 10.32 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 10.32 Section 10... of Professional Responsibility § 10.32 Advertising. (a) Subject to § 10.31, a practitioner may advertise services through public media, including a telephone directory, legal directory, newspaper,...

  4. 37 CFR 102.9 - Business Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business Information. 102.9... COMMERCE ADMINISTRATION DISCLOSURE OF GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 102.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by USPTO from a submitter will be disclosed...

  5. 37 CFR 251.3 - Arbitrator lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitrator lists. 251.3... Organization § 251.3 Arbitrator lists. (a) Any professional arbitration association or organization may submit... arbitrators on a Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel. The list shall contain the following for each person:...

  6. 37 CFR 350.5 - Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time. 350.5 Section 350.5... RULES AND PROCEDURES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS § 350.5 Time. (a) Computation. To compute the due... reasons why there is good cause for the delay; (5) The justification for the amount of additional...

  7. 37 CFR 41.126 - Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration. 41.126 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases § 41.126 Arbitration. (a) Parties to a contested case may resort to binding arbitration to determine any issue in...

  8. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an application to register a service mark, the application shall specify and contain all the elements required...

  9. 32 CFR 37.1315 - Nonprofit organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1315 Nonprofit... primarily for scientific, educational, service, or similar purposes in the public interest. (2) Is not... of the organization. (b) The term includes any nonprofit institution of higher education or...

  10. 37 CFR 41.41 - Reply brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reply brief. 41.41 Section 41... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Ex Parte Appeals § 41.41 Reply brief... file a reply brief to an examiner's answer within two months from the date of the examiner's answer....

  11. 37 CFR 41.71 - Rebuttal brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rebuttal brief. 41.71 Section... Rebuttal brief. (a) Within one month of the examiner's answer, any appellant may once file a rebuttal brief. (b)(1) The rebuttal brief of the owner may be directed to the examiner's answer and/or any...

  12. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent's brief. 41.68... Respondent's brief. (a)(1) Respondent(s) in an appeal may once, within the time limit for filing set forth in... title. (2) The brief must be signed by the party, or the party's duly authorized attorney or agent,...

  13. 37 CFR 41.67 - Appellant's brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appellant's brief. 41.67... Appellant's brief. (a)(1) Appellant(s) may once, within time limits for filing set forth in § 41.66, file a... title. (2) The brief must be signed by the appellant, or the appellant's duly authorized attorney...

  14. 37 CFR 2.51 - Drawing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawing required. 2.51... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.51 Drawing required. (a) In an application under section 1(a) of the Act, the drawing of the mark must be a substantially exact representation of the...

  15. 37 CFR 2.64 - Final action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final action. 2.64 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Examination of Application and Action by Applicants § 2.64 Final action. (a) On the first or any subsequent reexamination or reconsideration the refusal of...

  16. 21 CFR 17.37 - Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... individual employed by a party engaged in assisting counsel for the party. (g) If a witness' testimony is... witness at its own expense, and failure to do so shall result in the striking of the witness' testimony. ... HEARINGS § 17.37 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at...

  17. 37 CFR 11.24 - Reciprocal discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., whether or not admitted in that jurisdiction, has been guilty of misconduct shall establish a prima facie case by clear and convincing evidence that the practitioner violated 37 CFR 10.23, as further... to give rise to the clear conviction that the Office could not, consistently with its duty, accept...

  18. 37 CFR 202.2 - Copyright notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyright notice. 202.2 Section 202.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT § 202.2 Copyright notice....

  19. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting complaints. 4.3... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a...

  20. 37 CFR 1.251 - Unlocatable file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unlocatable file. 1.251 Section 1.251 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.251 Unlocatable file. (a) In the event that the Office cannot locate the file of an...

  1. 7 CFR 900.37 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Rules of Practice Governing Proceedings To Amend Fruit, Vegetable and Nut Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.37 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the terms as defined in the Act and in §...

  2. 37 CFR 401.16 - Electronic filing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic filing. 401.16... OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER GOVERNMENT GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS § 401.16 Electronic filing. Unless...

  3. 30 CFR 18.37 - Lead entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... against loosening. (d) Compressed packing material shall be in contact with the cable jacket for a length... cable jacket and the nominal inside diameter of the packing material shall not exceed 1/32-inch, based... § 18.37 Lead entrances. (a) Insulated cable(s), which must extend through an outside wall of...

  4. 37 CFR 382.14 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential information. 382... Confidential information. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, “Confidential Information” shall include the statements of account and any information contained therein, including the amount of...

  5. 37 CFR 261.5 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential information. 261... THE MAKING OF EPHEMERAL REPRODUCTIONS § 261.5 Confidential information. (a) For purposes of this part, “Confidential Information” shall include the statements of account, any information contained therein,...

  6. 37 CFR 380.5 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential information. 380... information. (a) Definition. For purposes of this part, “Confidential Information” shall include the statements of account and any information contained therein, including the amount of royalty payments,...

  7. 37 CFR 384.5 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential information. 384... BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENT SERVICES § 384.5 Confidential information. (a) Definition. For purposes of this part, “Confidential Information” shall include the statements of account, any information contained therein,...

  8. 37 CFR 262.5 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidential information. 262... information. (a) Definition. For purposes of this part, “Confidential Information” shall include the statements of account, any information contained therein, including the amount of royalty payments, and...

  9. 45 CFR 86.37 - Financial assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.37 Financial assistance. (a) General... its students, a recipient shall not: (1) On the basis of sex, provide different amount or types...

  10. 37 CFR 1.45 - Joint inventors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Joint inventors. 1.45 Section... Patent § 1.45 Joint inventors. (a) Joint inventors must apply for a patent jointly and each must make the... patent for an invention invented by them jointly, except as provided in § 1.47. (b) Inventors may...

  11. 37 CFR 1.435 - The description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The description. 1.435... Application § 1.435 The description. (a) The application must meet the requirements as to the content and form of the description set forth in PCT Rules 5, 9, 10, and 11 and sections 204 and 208 of...

  12. 37 CFR 262.1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General. 262.1 Section 262.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY...), during the period 2003-2004 and in the case of Subscription Services 1998-2004 (the “License Period”)....

  13. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L.

    1983-07-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF4 using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an r.f. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF4[25%]-argon [75%] mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF4 [87%]-argon [13%] were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF4 as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an AES study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined.

  14. Surface modification of fluorosilicone acrylate RGP contact lens via low-temperature argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Shiheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Analytical and Testing Center, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Yingjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ren Li [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: psliren@scut.edu.cn; Zhao Lianna [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Kuang Tongchun [Analytical and Testing Center, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Hao [Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)], E-mail: chenhao823@mail.wz.zj.cn; Qu Jia [Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A fluorosilicone acrylate rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens was modified via argon plasma to improve surface hydrophilicity and resistance to protein deposition. The influence of plasma treatment on surface chemical structure, hydrophilicity and morphology of RGP lens was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The contact angle results showed that the hydrophilicity of the contact lens was improved after plasma treatment. XPS results indicated that the incorporation of oxygen-containing groups on surface and the transformation of silicone into hydrophilic silicate after plasma treatment are the main reasons for the surface hydrophilicity improvement. SEM results showed that argon plasma with higher power could lead to surface etching.

  15. Nanometer-scale sharpening and surface roughening of ZnO nanorods by argon ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Shyamal, E-mail: shyamal@iitbbs.ac.in [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Behera, Akshaya K. [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Banerjee, Amarabha; Tribedi, Lokesh C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Som, Tapobrata [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Ayyub, Pushan, E-mail: pushan@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2012-07-01

    We report the effects of exposing a hydrothermally grown, single crystalline ZnO nanorod array to a beam of 50 keV argon ions at room temperature. High resolution electron microscopy reveals that the ion bombardment results in a nanometer-scale roughening of the nanorod sidewalls, which were almost atomically flat in the pristine sample. Ion bombardment further causes the flat, Almost-Equal-To 100 nm diameter nanorod tips to get sharpened to ultrafine points less than 10 nm across. While tip sharpening is attributed to preferential sputtering, the formation of crystalline surface protuberances can be ascribed to surface instability due to curvature dependent sputtering and surface diffusion under argon-ion bombardment. Both the nanoscale roughening as well as the tip sharpening are expected to favorably impact a wide variety of applications, such as those involving catalysis, gas sensing, solar cells, field emission and gas discharge.

  16. Pressure-Induced Argon Insertion into an Auxetic Small Pore Zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.; Hriljac, J; Vogt, T

    2010-01-01

    We report that natrolite, Na{sub 16}Al{sub 16}Si{sub 24}O{sub 48} {center_dot} 16H{sub 2}O, a small pore auxetic zeolite can incorporate significant amounts of Argon under moderate pressure- and temperature conditions resulting in Na{sub 16}Al{sub 16}Si{sub 24}O{sub 80} {center_dot} 16H{sub 2}O {center_dot} 6Ar. This material has a {approx}6.5% larger unit cell than natrolite at ambient conditions and its structure is related to Na{sub 16}Al{sub 16}Si{sub 24}O{sub 80} {center_dot} 24H{sub 2}O, an intermediate superhydrated natrolite referred to as para-natrolite. Argon insertion under pressure into auxetic frameworks such as natrolites is an important and overlooked confinement mechanism with potential applications and implications.

  17. Photochemistry of the ozone-water complex in cryogenic neon, argon, and krypton matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Masashi; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Kawai, Akio; Shibuya, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-12

    The photochemistry of ozone-water complexes and the wavelength dependence of the reactions were studied by matrix isolation FTIR spectrometry in neon, argon, and krypton matrixes. Hydrogen peroxide was formed upon the irradiation of UV light below 355 nm. Quantitative analyses of the reactant and product were performed to evaluate the matrix cage effect of the photoreaction. In argon and krypton matrixes, a bimolecular O((1)D) + H2O → H2O2 reaction was found to occur to form hydrogen peroxide, where the O((1)D) atom generated by the photolysis of ozone diffused in the cryogenic solids to encounter water. In a neon matrix, hydrogen peroxide was generated through intracage photoreaction of the ozone-water complex, indicating that a neon matrix medium is most appropriate to study the photochemistry of the ozone-water complex.

  18. Radon backgrounds in the DEAP-1 liquid argon based Dark Matter detector

    CERN Document Server

    Amaudruz, P -A; Beltran, B; Boudjemline, K; Caldwell, M G Boulay B Cai T; Chen, M; Chouinard, R; Cleveland, B T; Contreras, D; Dering, K; Duncan, F; Ford, R; Giuliani, R Gagnon F; Golovko, M Gold V V; Gorel, P; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hakobyan, R; Hallin, A L; Harvey, P; Hearns, C; Jillings, C J; Kuźniak, M; Lawson, I; Li, O; Lidgard, J; Liimatainen, P; Lippincott, W H; Mathew, R; McDonald, A B; McElroy, T; McFarlane, K; McKinsey, D; Muir, A; Nantais, C; Nicolics, K; Nikkel, J; Noble, T; O'Dwyer, E; Olsen, K S; Ouellet, C; Pasuthip, P; Pollmann, T; Rau, W; Retiere, F; Ronquest, M; Skensved, P; Sonley, T; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Veloce, L; Ward, M

    2012-01-01

    The DEAP-1 \\SI{7}{kg} single phase liquid argon scintillation detector was operated underground at SNOLAB in order to test the techniques and measure the backgrounds inherent to single phase detection, in support of the DEAP-3600 Dark Matter detector. Backgrounds in DEAP are controlled through material selection, construction techniques, pulse shape discrimination and event reconstruction. This report details the analysis of background events observed in three iterations of the DEAP-1 detector, and the measures taken to reduce them. The $^{222}$Rn decay rate in the liquid argon was measured to be between 16 and \\SI{26}{\\micro\\becquerel\\per\\kilogram}. We found that the background spectrum near the region of interest for Dark Matter detection in the final DEAP-1 detector generation is well described considering events from three sources: radon daughters decaying on the surface of the active volume, the expected rate of electromagnetic events misidentified as nuclear recoils due to inefficiencies in the pulse sh...

  19. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Guy; Prat, Serge; Veillet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud 11, BP 34, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-05-15

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  20. Two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector with electroluminescence gap operated in argon doped with nitrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Bondar, A; Dolgov, A; Nosov, V; Shekhtman, L; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A

    2016-01-01

    A two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector (CRAD) with electroluminescence (EL) gap, operated in argon doped with a minor (49$\\pm$7 ppm) admixture of nitrogen, has been studied. The EL gap was optically read out using cryogenic PMTs located on the perimeter of the gap. We present the results of the measurements of the N$_2$ content, detector sensitivity to X-ray-induced signals, EL gap yield and electron lifetime in the liquid. The detector sensitivity, at a drift field in liquid Ar of 0.6 kV/cm, was measured to be 9 and 16 photoelectrons recorded at the PMTs per keV of deposited energy at 23 and 88 keV respectively. Such two-phase detectors, with enhanced sensitivity to the S2 (ionization-induced) signal, are relevant in the field of argon detectors for dark matter search and low energy neutrino detection.

  1. Experimental study of electric breakdowns in liquid argon at centimeter scale

    CERN Document Server

    Blatter, A; Hsu, C -C; Janos, S; Kreslo, I; Luethi, M; von Rohr, C Rudolf; Schenk, M; Strauss, T; Weber, M S; Zeller, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present results on measurements of the dielectric strength of liquid argon near its boiling point and cathode-anode distances in the range of 0.1 mm to 40 mm with spherical cathode and plane anode. We show that at such distances the applied electric field at which breakdowns occur is as low as 40 kV/cm. Flash-overs across the ribbed dielectric of the high voltage feed-through are observed for a length of 300 mm starting from a voltage of 55 kV. These results contribute to set reference for the breakdown-free design of ionization detectors, such as Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPC).

  2. Characteristics of a DC discharge with a water cathode in argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, S. A.; Shutov, D. A.; Bobkova, E. S.; Rybkin, V. V., E-mail: rybkin@isuct.ru [Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The characteristics of a dc discharge excited between a metal anode and a water cathode in argon were studied experimentally. The dimensions of the positive column and the electric field in it were measured, and the vibrational temperature in the positive column was determined from the N{sub 2}C{sup 3}Π{sub u} → B{sup 3}Π{sub g} (0–2) emission band. It is shown that the power deposited in the positive column is almost entirely spent on gas heating. The obtained dependence of the reduced electric field on the gas pressure and the ionization frequencies calculated by solving the Boltzmann equation indicate that electrons are lost diffusively, whereas ionization proceeds in a stepwise manner via the lower metastable states of argon atoms.

  3. Adsorption and diffusion of argon confined in ordered and disordered microporous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a combination of grand canonical Monte Carlo and microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations to study the adsorption and diffusion of argon at 77 K and 120 K confined in previously generated models of a disordered bituminous coal-based carbon, BPL, and an ordered carbon replica of Faujasite zeolite (C-FAU). Both materials exhibit a maximum in the diffusion coefficient as well as anomalous (sub-diffusive) behavior in the mean-squared displacements at short times at some relative pressures. In BPL, the anomalous diffusion occurs at low relative pressures, due to the trapping of argon atoms in small pores. In C-FAU, the anomalous diffusion occurs at high relative pressures, due to competitive diffusion of atoms traveling through windows and constrictions which interconnect the pores. All diffusion eventually tends to Fickian diffusion at longer times.

  4. First results obtained from the Cello liquid argon end cap calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cello liquid argon calorimeter is presented in the first part of this thesis. The cryogenic system has to supply three cryostats filled with liquid argon: one cylindrical cryostat of 25 m3 volume contains 2x8 separate modules; each of the two symmetric end cap cryostats contains two half cylindrical modules. Each module in the end cap part consists of 42 layers of lead strips interleaved with 43 full plates. The strips are alternatively vertical, horizontal and circular. In front of the lead calorimeter are 4 planes of copper foils glued on epoxy for dE/dx measurement. The electronics, signal processing and data acquisition system are described. In the second part, the performance and analysis of data measured by the end cap calorimeters are reported: study of Bhabha scattering e+e- → e+e-; preliminary results obtained in two photon physics e+e- → e+e-γγ → e+e-X

  5. Benchmarking TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, B; Chiu, C; Conrad, J M; Ignarra, C M; Jones, B J P; Katori, T; Mufson, S

    2012-01-01

    Scintillation light from liquid argon is produced at 128 nm and thus must be shifted to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). To date, designs have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we show that the response of lightguides coated with TPB in a UV Transmitting (UVT) acrylic matrix is very similar to that of a coating using a polystyrene (PS) matrix. We obtain a factor of three higher light yield than has been previously reported from lightguides. This paper provides information on the response of the lightguides so that these can be modeled in simulations for future LArTPCs. This paper also identifies areas of R&D for potential improvements in the lightguide response

  6. Development of wavelength shifter coated reflectors for the ArDM argon dark matter detector

    CERN Document Server

    Boccone, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Regenfus, C; Amsler, C; Badertscher, A; Bueno, A; Cabrera, H; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Daniel, M; Daw, E J; Degunda, U; Dell'Antone, A; Gendotti, A; Epprecht, L; Horikawa, S; Kaufmann, L; Knecht, L; Laffranchi, M; Lazzaro, C; Lussi, D; Lozano, J; Marchionni, A; Melgarejo, A; Mijakowski, P; Natterer, G; Navas-Concha, S; Otyugova, P; de Prado, M; Przewlocki, P; Resnati, F; Robinson, M; Rochet, J; Romero, L; Rondio, E; Rubbia, A; Spooner, N J C; Strauss, T; Ulbricht, J; Viant, T

    2009-01-01

    To optimise the design of the light readout in the ArDM 1-ton liquid argon dark matter detector, a range of reflector and WLS coating combinations were investigated in several small setups, where argon scintillation light was generated by radioactive sources in gas at normal temperature and pressure and shifted into the blue region by tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB). Various thicknesses of TPB were deposited by spraying and vacuum evaporation onto specular 3M{\\small\\texttrademark}-foil and diffuse Tetratex{\\small\\textregistered} (TTX) substrates. Light yields of each reflector and TPB coating combination were compared. Reflection coefficients of TPB coated reflectors were independently measured using a spectroradiometer in a wavelength range between 200 and 650~nm. WLS coating on the PMT window was also studied. These measurements were used to define the parameters of the light reflectors of the ArDM experiment. Fifteen large $120\\times 25$~cm$^2$ TTX sheets were coated and assembled in the detector. Measurements...

  7. Tetraphenyl-butadiene films: VUV-Vis optical characterization from room to liquid argon temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, R.; Montereali, R. M.; Nichelatti, E.; Vincenti, M. A.; Canci, N.; Segreto, E.; Cavanna, F.; Di Pompeo, F.; Carbonara, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Perfetto, F.

    2013-09-01

    A thin film of Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) deposited onto the surface delimiting the active volume of the detector and/or onto the photosensor's optical window is the most common solution to down convert argon VUV scintillation light in current and planned liquid argon based experiments for dark matter searches and neutrino physics. Characterization of the main features of TPB coatings on different, commonly used substrates is reported, as a result of measurements at the specialized optical metrology labs of ENEA and University of Tor Vergata. Measured features include TPB emission spectra with lineshape and relative intensity variation recorded as a function of the film thickness and for the first time down to LAr temperature, as well as optical reflectance and transmittance spectra of the TPB coated substrates in the wavelength range of the TPB emission.

  8. Improved TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Z; Collin, G; Conrad, J M; Jones, B J P; Moon, J; Toups, M; Wongjirad, T

    2014-01-01

    Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetra phenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars.

  9. Some effects of argon and helium upon explosions of carbon monoxide and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiock, Ernst F; Roeder, Carl H

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted to study the effects of the inert gases, argon and helium, upon flame speed and expansion ratio in exploding mixtures of carbon monoxide, oxygen and water.For the particular gas mixtures investigated the results show that: (1) With the possible exception of helium in small amounts the addition of inert gas always produces decreased flame speed and expansion ratio; (2) like volumes of argon and helium have very different effects upon flame speed but practically the same effect upon expansion ratio; and (3) the difference in the effect of these two gases upon speed is independent of the ratio of carbon monoxide to oxygen. A discussion of some possible modes by which inert gases may produce the observed effects is included.

  10. Transpupillary Argon Laser Cyclophotocoagulation in a Refractory Traumatic Glaucoma Patient with Aphakia and Aniridia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Duygu Uzunel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of transpupillary argon laser cyclophotocoagulation (TALC in a patient with traumatic aniridia and aphakia secondary to blunt trauma who had previous bilateral trabeculectomy. Four months after the trauma the patient’s intraocular pressure (IOP rose to 35 mmHg despite topical antiglaucomatous medication. Inferior 180 degrees cyclophotocoagulation was performed with transpupillary argon laser in the first session and his IOP fell to values of 12-17 mmHg. Twelve weeks after TALC, his IOP rose to 22 mmHg and we had to apply TALC to the residual ciliary processes. Seven months later his IOP was 13 mmHg with topical dorzolamide/timolol and latanoprost administration. TALC may be an effective treatment alternative for lowering IOP in patients with visible ciliary processes who do not respond to conventional medical or laser treatment.

  11. Oxidized dahlia-like carbon nanohorns: adsorption of argon, methane and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Migone, Aldo; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio

    2010-03-01

    Different types of nanohorns, and nanohorn aggregates, can be produced depending on the parameters used during their production. We used a sample consisting mainly of dahlia-like nanohorn aggregates. In the dahlia-like aggregates the individual nanohorns are aligned radially, forming a sphere, with their individual ends protruding from the outer surface of the spherule. Our sample was oxidized by flowing pure oxygen. This treatment opened entry ports into the spaces at the interior of the individual nanohorns. We measured volumetric adsorption isotherms at 77.3 K with argon, methane, and nitrogen. For argon and methane two distinct substeps are present in the adsorption data; the steps for each of these two gases are comparable in size. For nitrogen there is a clear step present at lower adsorbent loadings, and a more gradual growth in the amount adsorbed as saturation is approached.

  12. Influence of dissociative recombination on the LTE of argon high-frequency plasmas at atmospheric pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Sainz, A; García, M C; Calzada, M D; Sainz, Abel; Margot, Joelle; Garcia, Maria Carmen; Calzada, Maria Dolores

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a few preliminary results from a collisional-radiative (CR) model intended to describe an argon microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma at atmospheric pressure. This model aims to investigate the influence of dissociative recombination products on the Saha-Boltzmann plasma equilibrium. The model is tested through comparison with experimental results obtained in an argon plasma column generated by a traveling electromagnetic surface-wave, which is suitable to perform a parametric investigation of the plasma. It is shown that dissociative recombination predominantly populates the 4s levels and the ground state. It is further observed that it strongly influences the population of the levels, specially those of lower energy. However, the higher levels (close to the ionization limit) appear to be in equilibrium whatever the plasma density. This allows assuming that the excitation temperature Texc determined from the upper levels in the atomic system in the Boltzmann-plot is equal to Te.

  13. Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber research and development in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, B.; Bromberg, C.; Buchanan, N.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Gehman, V.; Greenlee, H.; Guardincerri, E.; Jones, B.; Junk, T.; Katori, T.; Kirby, M.; Lang, K.; Loer, B.; Marchionni, A.; Maruyama, T.; Mauger, C.; Menegolli, A.; Montanari, D.; Mufson, S.; Norris, B.; Pordes, S.; Raaf, J.; Rebel, B.; Sanders, R.; Soderberg, M.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A.; Tope, T.; Touramanis, C.; Thorn, C.; Urheim, J.; Van de Water, R.; Wang, H.; Yu, B.; Zuckerbrot, M.

    2014-05-01

    A workshop was held at Fermilab on March 20-21, 2013 to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in seven topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity, ii) Cryogenics, iii) TPC and High Voltage, iv) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, v) Scintillation Light Detection, vi) Calibration and Test Beams, and vii) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It also highlights areas in LArTPC research and development that are common between neutrino experiments and dark matter experiments.

  14. Rotational and Vibrational Temperatures of Atmospheric Double Arc Argon-Nitrogen Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jian-Hua; TU Xin; MA Zeng-Yi; CEN Ke-Fa; B.G.Chéron

    2007-01-01

    The spectroscopic technique is employed to study the emission of atmospheric argon-nitrogen plasma jet generated by an original dc double anode plasma torch. The molecular bands of the N(+2) first negative system are observed at the torch exit and chosen to evaluate the rotational and vibrational temperatures in comparison with the simulated spectra. The excitation temperature (Texc≈9600 K) is determined from the Boltzmann plot method. The results show that the rotational, vibrational, electron and kinetic temperatures are in good agreement with one another, which indicates that the core region of atmospheric double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet at the torch exit is close to the local thermodynamic equilibrium state under our experimental conditions.

  15. Observation of Ω mode electron heating in dusty argon radio frequency discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killer, Carsten; Bandelow, Gunnar; Schneider, Ralf; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Matyash, Konstantin [Universitätsrechenzentrum, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    The time-resolved emission of argon atoms in a dusty plasma has been measured with phase-resolved optical emission spectroscopy using an intensified charge-coupled device camera. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a capacitively coupled rf argon discharge with the help of thermophoretic levitation. While electrons are exclusively heated by the expanding sheath (α mode) in the dust-free case, electron heating takes place in the entire plasma bulk when the discharge volume is filled with dust particles. Such a behavior is known as Ω mode, first observed in electronegative plasmas. Furthermore, particle-in-cell simulations have been carried out, which reproduce the trends of the experimental findings. These simulations support previous numerical models showing that the enhanced atomic emission in the plasma can be attributed to a bulk electric field, which is mainly caused by the reduced electrical conductivity due to electron depletion.

  16. Experimental thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat values for mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. A.; Cieszkiewicz, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity obtained with a transient hot-wire apparatus are reported for three mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Values of the specific heat, Cp, are calculated from these measured values and the density calculated with an equation of state. The measurements were made at temperatures between 65 and 303 K with pressures between 0.1 and 70 MPa. The data cover the vapor, liquid, and supercritical gas phases for the three mixtures. The total reported points are 1066 for the air mixture (78.11 percent nitrogen, 20.97 percent oxygen, and 0.92 percent argon), 1058 for the 50 percent nitrogen, 50 percent oxygen mixture, and 864 for the 25 percent nitrogen, 75 oxygen mixture. Empirical thermal conductivity correlations are provided for the three mixtures.

  17. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adorisio, C; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, H; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Aktas, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anjos, N; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonelli, S; Antos, J; Antunovic, B; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J F; Argyropoulos, T; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Arutinov, D; Asai, M; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asner, D; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Atoian, G; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Austin, N; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Baranov, S P; Baranov, S; Barashkou, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baron, S; Baroncelli, A; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P; Barros, N; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, D; Bastos, J; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Bazalova, M; Beare, B; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Becerici, N; Bechtle, P; Beck, G A; Beck, H P; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Bedajanek, I; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednár, P; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendel, M; Benedict, B H; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benincasa, G P; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernardet, K; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertin, A; Besana, M I; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J B; Blanchot, G; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bocci, A; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A; Bondarenko, V G; Bondioli, M; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bosteels, M; Boterenbrood, H; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boulahouache, C; Bourdarios, C; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodbeck, T J; Brodet, E; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brubaker, E; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Byatt, T; Caballero, J; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Camarri, P; Cambiaghi, M; Cameron, D; Campabadal Segura, F; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Cantero, J; Capasso, L; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, B; Caron, S; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cascella, M; Caso, C; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N; Cataldi, G; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Cattani, G; Caughron, S; 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Collard, C; Collins, N J; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colon, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Consonni, M; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conventi, F; Cook, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cooper-Smith, N J; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Costin, T; Côté, D; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L; Cowan, G; Cowden, C; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Cranshaw, J; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Crupi, R; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M; Curtis, C J; Cwetanski, P; Czyczula, Z; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; D'Orazio, A; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dai, T; Dallapiccola, C; Dallison, S J; Daly, C H; Dam, M; Danielsson, H O; Dannheim, D; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darlea, G L; Davey, W; Davidek, T; Davidson, N; Davidson, R; Davies, M; Davison, A R; Dawson, I; Dawson, J W; Daya, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; 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Penwell, J; Perantoni, M; Perez, K; Perez Codina, E; Pérez García-Estañ, M T; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Perrodo, P; Persembe, S; Perus, P; Peshekhonov, V D; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petersen, T C; Petit, E; Petridou, C; Petrolo, E; Petrucci, F; Petschull, D; Petteni, M; Pezoa, R; Pfeifer, B; Phan, A; Phillips, A W; Piacquadio, G; Piccinini, M; Piegaia, R; Pilcher, J E; Pilkington, A D; Pina, J; Pinamonti, M; Pinfold, J L; Ping, J; Pinto, B; Pizio, C; Placakyte, R; Plamondon, M; Plano, W G; Pleier, M A; Poblaguev, A; Poddar, S; Podlyski, F; Poffenberger, P; Poggioli, L; Pohl, M; Polci, F; Polesello, G; Policicchio, A; Polini, A; Poll, J; Polychronakos, V; Pomarede, D M; Pomeroy, D; Pommès, K; Pontecorvo, L; Pope, B G; Popovic, D S; Poppleton, A; Popule, J; Portell Bueso, X; Porter, R; Pospelov, G E; Pospichal, P; Pospisil, S; Potekhin, M; Potrap, I N; Potter, C J; Potter, C T; Potter, K P; Poulard, G; Poveda, J; Prabhu, R; Pralavorio, P; Prasad, S; Pravahan, R; Preda, T; Pretzl, K; Pribyl, L; Price, D; Price, L E; Prichard, P M; Prieur, D; Primavera, M; Prokofiev, K; Prokoshin, F; Protopopescu, S; Proudfoot, J; Prudent, X; Przysiezniak, H; Psoroulas, S; Ptacek, E; Puigdengoles, C; Purdham, J; Purohit, M; Puzo, P; Pylypchenko, Y; Qi, M; Qian, J; Qian, W; Qian, Z; Qin, Z; Qing, D; Quadt, A; Quarrie, D R; Quayle, W B; Quinonez, F; Raas, M; Radeka, V; Radescu, V; Radics, B; Rador, T; Ragusa, F; Rahal, G; Rahimi, A M; Rahm, D; Rajagopalan, S; Rammes, M; Ratoff, P N; Rauscher, F; Rauter, E; Raymond, M; Read, A L; Rebuzzi, D M; Redelbach, A; Redlinger, G; Reece, R; Reeves, K; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Reisinger, I; Reljic, D; Rembser, C; Ren, Z L; Renkel, P; Rescia, S; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Resende, B; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richards, A; Richards, R A; Richter, R; Richter-Was, E; Ridel, M; Rieke, S; Rijpstra, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rinaldi, L; Rios, R R; Riu, I; Rivoltella, G; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E R; Roa Romero, D A; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J; Robinson, M; Robson, A; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C; Roda Dos Santos, D; Rodriguez, D; Rodriguez Garcia, Y; Roe, S; Røhne, O; Rojo, V; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Romanov, V M; Romeo, G; Romero Maltrana, D; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosenbaum, G A; Rosenberg, E I; Rosselet, L; Rossetti, V; Rossi, L P; Rotaru, M; Rothberg, J; Rottländer, I; Rousseau, D; Royon, C R; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Ruckert, B; Ruckstuhl, N; Rud, V I; Rudolph, G; Rühr, F; Ruggieri, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rumyantsev, L; Rusakovich, N A; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruwiedel, C; Ruzicka, P; Ryabov, Y F; Ryadovikov, V; Ryan, P; Rybkin, G; Rzaeva, S; Saavedra, A F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sadykov, R; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saleem, M; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvachua Ferrando, B M; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; Salvucci, A; Salzburger, A; Sampsonidis, D; Samset, B H; Sanchis Lozano, M A; Sandaker, H; Sander, H G; Sanders, M P; Sandhoff, M; Sandstroem, R; 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Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Sushkov, S; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Sviridov, Yu M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Szymocha, T; Sánchez, J; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taga, A; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Talby, M; Talyshev, A; Tamsett, M C; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tappern, G P; Tapprogge, S; Tardif, D; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tassi, E; Tatarkhanov, M; Taylor, C; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, R P; Taylor, W; Teixeira-Dias, P; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y D; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terwort, M; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Tevlin, C M; Thadome, J; Thananuwong, R; Thioye, M; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thomas, T L; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, R J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thun, R P; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Y A; Timmermans, C J W P; Tipton, P; Tique Aires Viegas, F J; Tisserant, S; Tobias, J; Toczek, B; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Tomasz, F; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, D; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, G; Tonoyan, A; Topfel, C; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tovey, S N; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, T N; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trivedi, A; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C L; Tsiafis, I; Tsiakiris, M; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsung, J W; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Turala, M; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E; Tuts, P M; Twomey, M S; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Tzanakos, G; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Uhrmacher, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Underwood, D G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Urkovsky, E; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Uslenghi, M; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Vahsen, S; Valenta, J; Valente, P; Valentinetti, S; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W; Vandoni, G; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasilyeva, L; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vegni, G; Veillet, J J; Vellidis, C; Veloso, F; Veness, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Viehhauser, G H A; Villa, M; Villani, E G; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinek, E; Vinogradov, V B; Viret, S; Virzi, J; Vitale, A; Vitells, O V; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vlasov, N; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobiev, A P; Vorwerk, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Voss, T T; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Wagner, P; Wahlen, H; Walbersloh, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J C; Wang, S M; Ward, C P; Warsinsky, M; Wastie, R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Webel, M; Weber, J; Weber, M D; Weber, M; Weber, M S; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Wellenstein, H; Wells, P S; Wen, M; Wenaus, T; Wendler, S; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Werthenbach, U; Wessels, M; Whalen, K; Wheeler-Ellis, S J; Whitaker, S P; White, A; White, M J; White, S; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicek, F; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, M G; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wraight, K; Wright, C; Wright, D; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wulf, E; Xella, S; Xie, S; Xie, Y; Xu, D; Xu, N; Yamada, M; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W M; Yao, Y; Yasu, Y; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Young, C; Youssef, S P; Yu, D; Yu, J; Yu, M; Yu, X; Yuan, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zajacova, Z; Zambrano, V; Zanello, L; Zarzhitsky, P; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeller, M; Zema, P F; Zemla, A; Zendler, C; Zenin, O; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, Q; Zhang, X; Zhao, L; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, S; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhou, Y; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.7% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of 0.29% in the barrel and 0.53% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61 +- 0.07 mm/microsecond at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  18. Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    CERN Document Server

    Bromberg, C; Junk, T; Katori, T; Lang, K; Marchionni, A; Mauger, C; Mufson, S; Pordes, S; Raaf, J; Rebel, B; Soderberg, M; Thorn, C; Urheim, J

    2013-01-01

    A workshop was held at Fermilab on March 20-21, 2013 to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPC) in the United States. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in plenary sessions organized into seven topical categories: $i)$ Argon Purity, $ii)$ Cryogenics, $iii)$ TPC and High Voltage, $iv)$ Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, $v)$ Scintillation Light Detection, $vi)$ Calibration and Test Beams, and $vii)$ Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these topical categories. It also highlights areas in LArTPC research and development that are common between neutrino experiments and dark matter experiments.

  19. Investigation of capacitively coupled argon plasma driven at various frequencies and validation of surface waves excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, E., E-mail: essam29@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519 (Egypt); Physics Department, College of Science, Salman bin AbdulAziz University, Al-Kharj, P.O. 83, Al-Kharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-03

    The influence of excitation frequency (13.56–96 MHz) on the characteristics of capacitively coupled argon plasma is investigated by means of Langmuir probe and a high-voltage probe. Measurements are performed in argon pressure of 40 and 60 mTorr at a fixed discharge voltage V{sub pp}=200 V. The measured electron energy distribution function EEPFs are a bi-Maxwellian type irrespective of the driving frequency and gas pressure. The electron density and temperatures show peak over frequency range of 54–72 MHz, beyond which it decreases. The non-monotonic dependences of plasma parameters with driving frequency were interpreted in terms of excited surface wave excited at the powered electrode.

  20. Shock tube study of ionization rates of NaCl-contaminated argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K.-P.; Park, C.

    1975-01-01

    Electron density, electron temperature, and concentration of excited sodium atoms are measured in the weakly ionized regime behind a shock wave in impure argon in a shock tube using microwave techniques and spectrally resolved radiometry. Evidence is presented to show that an apparent increase in the rate of ionization is due to electron detachment of negative chlorine ions produced from sodium chloride vapor contained as an impurity. To be consistent with this chemical model, rate coefficients are found in the temperature range between 5500 and 8600 K for the dissociation of NaCl into an ion pair, dissociation of NaCl into a neutral pair, and electron detachment of a negative chlorine ion. Electron temperature is lower than heavy-particle temperature by roughly 1000 K. The electron-argon impact-ionization rate coefficient is a weak function of electron temperature in contradiction to expectation.

  1. Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber research and development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop was held at Fermilab on March 20-21, 2013 to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in seven topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity, ii) Cryogenics, iii) TPC and High Voltage, iv) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, v) Scintillation Light Detection, vi) Calibration and Test Beams, and vii) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It also highlights areas in LArTPC research and development that are common between neutrino experiments and dark matter experiments

  2. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  3. Hydrogen-bonded complexes of 2-aminopyrimidine-parabenzoquinone in an argon matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plokhotnichenko, A. M.; Stepanian, S. G.; Karachevtsev, V. A.; Adamowicz, L.

    2006-02-01

    The H-bonded complexes of 2-aminopyrimidine (NH2Py) with parabenzoquinone (Qu) in a low-temperature argon matrix are investigated by the method of IR spectroscopy. The IR absorption spectra in the spectral range 400-3600cm-1 are obtained for different concentration ratios of these compounds at a temperature of 11K. The molar integrated absorption coefficients in the bands of the stretching modes of the free and H-bonded NH2 group are determined. Quantum-mechanical calculations of the IR spectra of the NH2Py and Qu molecules and their dimers are carried out. A comparison of the experimental and calculated results permits the conclusion that NH2Py-Qu dimers in an argon matrix have a planar structure with two weak hydrogen bonds, NH ⋯O and CH ⋯N.

  4. Low-pressure argon adsorption assessment of micropore connectivities in activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, T; Villieras, F; Finqueneisel, G; Cossarutto, L; Weber, J V

    2006-01-01

    Low-pressure argon adsorption has been used to study the energetic distribution of microporous activated carbons differing by their burn-off. The collected isotherms were analyzed using the derivative isotherm summation method. Some oscillations on the experimental curves for very low partial pressures were detected. The results are analyzed and discussed according to the literature and could be attributed to local overheating caused by spontaneous mass transfer of argon through constrictions between former pores and the new opening pore or deadend pores. We used the dynamic character of the experimental method and mainly the discrepancy of the quasi-equilibrium state to deduce key parameters related to the porosity topology. PMID:16112680

  5. CFD Simulation of a Hydrogen/Argon Plasma Jet Reactor for Coal Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN H. G.; XIE K. C.

    2004-01-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was formulated for DC arc hydrogen/argon plasma jet reactors used in the process of the thermal H2/Ar plasma pyrolysis of coal to acetylene. In this model, fluid flow, convective heat transfer and conjugate heat conductivity are considered simultaneously. The error caused by estimating the inner-wall temperature of a reactor is avoided. The thermodynamic and transport properties of the hydrogen/argon mixture plasma system, which are usually expressed by a set of discrete dats, are fitted into expressions that can be easily implemented in the program. The effects of the turbulence are modeled by two standard k-s equations. The temperature field and velocity field in the plasma jet reactor were calculated by employing SIMPLEST algorithm. The knowledge and insight obtained are useful for the design improvement and scale-up of plasma reactors.

  6. The influence of target oxygen on the YBa2Cu3O6+δ direct-current magnetron sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxygen partial pressure and the target potential have been monitored under a range of process conditions during single target direct-current (dc) magnetron sputtering of Y--Ba--Cu--O. The introduced sputtering gas consisted in most instances of pure argon and hence the oxygen present in the plasma originated mainly from the target. During the first hours of sputtering the oxygen partial pressure was of the same magnitude as the argon pressure (3.0 Pa) and the film composition was off stoichiometric. During the sputtering the oxygen pressure decreased, the target potential increased and the film composition became more stoichiometric. After 30--40 h of sputtering the target potential and the oxygen pressure stabilized and the film composition was equal to that of the stoichiometric target. If an oxygen flow exceeding a critical level was mixed into the sputtering gas the target potential and the deposition rate decreased swiftly. This was due to target oxidation. In some instances the stabilization after ''presputtering'' in pure argon was incomplete and oscillations in target voltage and oxygen partial pressure were observed. The fluctuations made it virtually impossible to obtain stoichiometric films. The oscillative behavior of the sputtering process is tentatively explained by a target temperature dependent oxygen diffusion

  7. K-, L- and M-shell X-ray productions induced by argon ions in the 0.8-1.6 MeV/amu range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluchshenko, N.; Gorlachev, I.; Ivanov, I.; Kireyev, A.; Kozin, S.; Kurakhmedov, A.; Platov, A.; Zdorovets, M.

    2016-04-01

    The X-ray emissions induced by argon ions for the elements from Mg to Bi were measured on mono-elemental thin films. K-, L- and M-shells X-ray production cross section were obtained for the 40Ar projectile energies of 32, 40, 48, 56 and 64 MeV, considering absorption corrections. For the most of target elements the approach used is based on the calculation of X-ray production cross sections through the cross section of Rutherford backscattering. The efficiency of the X-ray detector was determined using standard calibrated radioactive sources. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of the ECPSSR and PWBA theories calculated with the ISICS code.

  8. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeya Sharma, T

    2015-11-01

    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine's performance within the range studied. PMID:26644918

  9. Investigation of transfer ionization processes in the collision of partially stripped carbon ions on Argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; Du Juan; SUN GuangZhi; CHEN Lin; CHEN XiMeng; DING BaoWei; FU HongBin; CUI Ying; SHAO JianXiong; LU YanXia; GAO ZhiMin; LIU YuWen

    2008-01-01

    The ratios of the cross section of the transfer-ionization to the single-electroncapture of Argon induced by Cq+ (q=1,2,3) ions are measured by means of position sensitive and time-of-flight techniques. Our experimental results are compared with the data of Heq+ (q=1,2)-Ar of DuBois. A qualitative interpretation is presented based on the Classical-Over-Barrier Model of Bohr,

  10. EBR-II argon cooling system restricted fuel handling I and C upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumentation and control of the Argon Cooling System (ACS) restricted fuel handling control system at Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) is being upgraded from a system comprised of many discrete components and controllers to a computerized system with a graphical user interface (GUI). This paper describes the aspects of the upgrade including reasons for the upgrade, the old control system, upgrade goals, design decisions, philosophies and rationale, and the new control system hardware and software

  11. The WArP Experiment: A Double-Phase Argon Detector for Dark Matter Searches

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Zani

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic noble liquids emerged in the previous decade as one of the best media to perform WIMP dark matter searches, in particular due to the possibility to scale detector volumes to multiton sizes. The WArP experiment was then developed as one of the first to implement the idea of coupling Argon in liquid and gas phase, in order to discriminate β/γ -interactions from nuclear recoils and then achieve reliable background rejection. Since its construction, other projects spawned, employing Arg...

  12. Gas temperature effect on the time for onset of particle nucleation in argon diluted acetylene plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanovic, I; Berndt, J; Winter, J; Stefanovic, Ilija; Kovacevic, Eva; Berndt, Johannes; Winter, Jorg

    2004-01-01

    In our work we are focused on study of powder formation in C2H2/Ar plasmas. In this scope we used a combination of FTIR and mass spectroscopy, which are the mostly used experimental techniques for plasma powder formation diagnostics. To test the proposed mechanism for particle nucleation delay we measured the particle nucleation under different plasma conditions: firstly we increased the gas temperature and secondly we changed the background gas from argon to helium.

  13. Performance of VUV-sensitive MPPC for liquid argon scintillation light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Washimi, T.; Yorita, K.

    2016-10-01

    A new multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) sensitive to vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) light (wavelength λ dark count rate of the MPPCs are also evaluated. Using an 241Am α-ray source, the absolute photon detection efficiency (PDE) of the liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light (λ=128 nm) for the latest MPPC model is estimated to be 13%. Based on these basic measurements a possible application of the new MPPC to LAr detectors in dark matter search is suggested.

  14. Alternating-Gradient Focusing of the Benzonitrile-Argon Van der Waals Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Putzke, S.; Filsinger, F.; Küpper, J.; Meijer, G.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the focusing and guiding of the van der Waals complex formed between benzonitrile molecules (C$_6$H$_5$CN) and argon atoms in a cold molecular beam using an ac electric quadrupole guide. The distribution of quantum states in the guided beam is non-thermal, because the transmission efficiency depends on the state-dependent effective dipole moment in the applied electric fields. At a specific ac frequency, however, the excitation spectrum can be described by a thermal distribution ...

  15. Upgraded Readout Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andeen, Timothy R.; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS liquid-argon calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sum analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up background expected during the high luminosity phases of the LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons or photons, at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new Liquid Argon Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new, off-detector digital processing system. The digital processing system applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions. The refined trigger primitives are then transmitted to the first level trigger system to extract improved trigger signatures. The general concept of the upgraded liquid-argon calorimeter readout together with the various electronics components to be developed for such a complex system is presented. The research activities and architectural studies undertaken by the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group are described, particularly details of the on-going design of mixed-signal front-end electronics, of radiation tolerant optical-links, and of the high-speed off-detector digital processing system.

  16. One more study of argon arc binding to pure tungsten cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Sargsyan, M. A.; Tereshonok, D. V.; Tyuftyaev, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    Pyrometric and spectroscopic investigations of pure tungsten cathode in argon arc plasma discharge at atmospheric pressure are reported. The distribution of surface cathode temperature and the radial distribution of plasma temperature at different distance from the cathode tip were measured. We conducted a comparison between our work and other studies on arc discharges where cathodes from lanthanated (W-2% La2O3) and thoriated (W-2% ThO2) tungsten were used.

  17. Characterisation of an RF excited argon plasma cathode electron beam gun

    OpenAIRE

    Del Pozo, S.; Ribton, C; Smith, DR

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the experimental set up used for carrying out spectroscopic measurements in a plasma cathode electron beam (EB) gun. Advantages of plasma cathode guns over thermionic guns are described. The factors affecting electron beam power such as plasma pressure, excitation power and plasma chamber geometry are discussed. The maximum beam current extracted was 53 mA from a 0.5 mm diameter aperture in the plasma chamber. In this work, the electron source is an argon plasma excited at...

  18. Electron localizability indicators ELI and ELIA: the case of highly correlated wavefunctions for the argon atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezugly, Viktor; Wielgus, Pawel; Wagner, Frank R; Kohout, Miroslav; Grin, Yuri

    2008-06-01

    Electron localizability indicators based on the same-spin electron pair density and the opposite-spin electron pair density are studied for correlated wavefunctions of the argon atom. Different basis sets and reference spaces are used for the multireference configuration interaction method following the complete active space calculations aiming at the understanding of the effect of local electron correlation when approaching the exact wavefunction. The populations of the three atomic shells of Ar atom in real space are calculated for each case.

  19. Evaluation of the procedures in BR 3014 for the assessment of Argon-41 activity in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses conflicting measurements which have been made at RNC Greenwich using a 92 cc Argon-41 collection chamber in the detecting assembly MK 5NHA with the counter scaler MK 4NCA. It is concluded that the original calibration is not in serious error but it is recommended that the calibration factor should be increased by 27% over that given in BR 3014. (author)

  20. Effect of argon on the performance of a fast-axial flow CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvani, S.; Amiri, Kh; Pazokian, H.; Montazerolghaem, M.; Mollabashi, M.; Naeimi, S. A.; Esmaeilpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a fast-axial flow (FAF) cw CO2 laser are described. The dependences of the output power, efficiency, and discharge voltage on the discharge current of a FAF cw CO2 laser with optimised composition of the CO2:N2:He=1:4.4:7.6 gas mixture with a small amount of argon are studied experimentally at two pressures of 50 and 60 mbar in open and closed cycle regimes of the laser system.