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Sample records for arginine decarboxylase genes

  1. Expression of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase genes in apple cells and stressed shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu-Jin; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Honda, Chikako; Nada, Kazuyoshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2005-04-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) are two important enzymes responsible for putrescine biosynthesis. In this study, a full-length ADC cDNA (MdADC) was isolated from apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. Meanwhile, a partial ODC (pMdODC) could be amplified only by a second RCR from the RT-PCR products, whereas a full-length ODC could not be obtained by either cDNA library screening or 5'- and 3'-RACEs, suggesting quite low expression. Moreover, D-arginine, an ADC inhibitor, caused a decrease in ADC activity and severely inhibited the growth of apple callus, which could be partially resumed by exogenous addition of putrescine, whereas alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor for ODC, caused the incomplete repression of callus growth without changing ODC activity. RNA gel blot showed that the expression level of MdADC was high in young tissues/organs with rapid cell division and was positively induced by chilling, salt, and dehydration, implying its involvement in both cell growth and these stress responses. By contrast, the transcript of ODC could not be detected by RNA gel blot analysis. Based on the present study, it is possible to conclude that (i) the ODC pathway is active in apple, although the expression level of the pMdODC gene homologous with its counterparts found in other plant species is quite low; and (ii) MdADC expression correlates with cell growth and stress responses to chilling, salt, and dehydration, suggesting that ADC is a primary biosynthetic pathway for putrescine biosynthesis in apple.

  2. Heterologous expression of a plant arginine decarboxylase gene in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Carolina; Serra, María P; Pereira, Claudio A; Huber, Alejandra; González, Nélida S; Algranati, Israel D

    2004-11-01

    Wild-type Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes lack arginine decarboxylase (ADC) enzymatic activity. However, the transformation of these parasites with a recombinant plasmid containing the oat ADC cDNA coding region gave rise to the transient heterologous expression of the enzyme, suggesting the absence of endogenous mechanisms that could inhibit the expression of a hypothetical own ADC gene or the assay used to measure its enzymatic activity. The foreign ADC enzyme expressed in the transgenic T. cruzi was characterized by identification of the products, the stoichiometry of the catalysed reaction, the specific inhibition by alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and the study of its metabolic turnover. The half-life of the heterologous ADC activity in T. cruzi was about 150 min. Bioinformatics studies and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses seem to indicate the absence of ADC-like DNA sequences in the wild-type T. cruzi genome.

  3. Simultaneous silencing of two arginine decarboxylase genes alters development in Arabidopsis

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    Diana eSánchez-Rangel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines (PAs are small aliphatic polycations that are found ubiquitously in all organisms. In plants, PAs are involved in diverse biological processes such as growth, development, and stress responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the arginine decarboxylase enzymes (ADC1 and 2 catalyze the first step of PA biosynthesis. For a better understanding of PA biological functions, mutants in PA biosynthesis have been generated; however, the double adc1/adc2 mutant is not viable in A. thaliana. In this study, we generated non-lethal A. thaliana lines through an artificial microRNA that simultaneously silenced the two ADC genes (amiR:ADC. The generated transgenic lines (amiR:ADC-L1 and -L2 showed reduced AtADC1 and AtADC2 transcript levels. For further analyses the amiR:ADC-L2 line was selected. We found that the amiR:ADC-L2 line showed a significant decrease of their PA levels. The co-silencing revealed a stunted growth in A. thaliana seedlings, plantlets and delay in its flowering rate; these phenotypes were reverted with PA treatment. In addition, amiR:ADC-L2 plants displayed two seed phenotypes, such as yellow and brownish seeds. The yellow mutant seeds were smaller than adc1, adc2 mutants and wild type seeds; however, the brownish were the smallest seeds with arrested embryos at the torpedo stage. These data reinforce the importance of PA homeostasis in the plant development processes.

  4. Cloning of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) arginine decarboxylase gene and its expression during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R; Dulson, J; Rothstein, S J

    1993-11-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) is the first enzyme in one of the two pathways of putrescine biosynthesis in plants. The genes encoding ADC have previously been cloned from oat and Escherichia coli. Degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to two conserved regions of ADC were used as primers in polymerase chain reaction amplification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genomic DNA, and a 1.05-kb fragment was obtained. This genomic DNA fragment encodes an open reading frame of 350 amino acids showing about 50% identity with the oat ADC protein. Using this fragment as a probe, we isolated several partial ADC cDNA clones from a tomato pericarp cDNA library. The 5' end of the coding region was subsequently obtained from a genomic clone containing the entire ADC gene. The tomato ADC gene contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 502 amino acids and a predicted molecular mass of about 55 kD. The predicted amino acid sequence exhibits 47 and 38% identify with oat and E. coli ADCs, respectively. Gel blot hybridization experiments show that, in tomato, ADC is encoded by a single gene and is expressed as a transcript of approximately 2.2 kb in the fruit pericarp and leaf tissues. During fruit ripening the amount of ADC transcript appeared to peak at the breaker stage. No significant differences were seen when steady-state ADC mRNA levels were compared between normal versus long-keeping Alcobaca (alc) fruit, although alc fruit contain elevated putrescine levels and ADC activity at the ripe stage. The lack of correlation between ADC activity and steady-state mRNA levels in alc fruit suggests a translational and/or posttranslational regulation of ADC gene expression during tomato fruit ripening.

  5. Characterization and translational regulation of the arginine decarboxylase gene in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K S; Lee, S H; Hwang, S B; Park, K Y

    2000-10-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.9) is a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis in plants. We characterized a carnation genomic clone, gDcADC8, in which the deduced polypeptide of ADC was 725 amino acids with a molecular mass of 77.7 kDa. The unusually long 5'-UTR that contained a short upstream open reading frame (uORF) of seven amino acids (MQKSLHI) was predicted to form an extensive secondary structure (free energy of approximately -117 kcal mol-1) using the Zuker m-fold algorithm. The result that an ADC antibody detected two bands of 45 and 33 kDa in a petal extract suggested the full length of the 78 kDa polypeptide precursor converted into two polypeptides in the processing reaction. To investigate the role of the transcript leader in translation, in vitro transcription/translation reactions with various constructs of deletion and mutation were performed using wheat germ extract. The ADC transcript leader affected positively downstream translation in both wheatgerm extract and primary transformant overexpressing ADC gene. It was demonstrated that heptapeptide (8.6 kDa) encoded by the ADC uORF was synthesized in vitro. Both uORF peptide, and the synthetic heptapeptide MQKSLHI of the uORF, repressed the translation of downstream ORF. Mutation of the uORF ATG codon alleviated the inhibitory effect. ORF translation was not affected by either a frame-shift mutation in uORF or a random peptide. To our knowledge, this is the first report to provide evidence that a uORF may inhibit the translation of a downstream ORF, not only in cis but also in trans, and that the leader sequence of the ADC gene is important for efficient translation.

  6. Characterization of arginine decarboxylase from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Byung Hak; Cho, Ki Joon; Choi, Yu Jin; Park, Ky Young; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2004-04-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.9) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines in higher plants, whereas ornithine decarboxylase represents the sole pathway of polyamine biosynthesis in animals. Previously, we characterized a genomic clone from Dianthus caryophyllus, in which the deduced polypeptide of ADC was 725 amino acids with a molecular mass of 78 kDa. In the present study, the ADC gene was subcloned into the pGEX4T1 expression vector in combination with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The fusion protein GST-ADC was water-soluble and thus was purified by sequential GSTrap-arginine affinity chromatography. A thrombin-mediated on-column cleavage reaction was employed to release free ADC from GST. Hiload superdex gel filtration FPLC was then used to obtain a highly purified ADC. The identity of the ADC was confirmed by immunoblot analysis, and its specific activity with respect to (14)C-arginine decarboxylation reaction was determined to be 0.9 CO(2) pkat mg(-1) protein. K(m) and V(max) of the reaction between ADC and the substrate were 0.077 +/- 0.001 mM and 6.0 +/- 0.6 pkat mg(-1) protein, respectively. ADC activity was reduced by 70% in the presence of 0.1 mM Cu(2+) or CO(2+), but was only marginally affected by Mg(2+), or Ca(2+) at the same concentration. Moreover, spermine at 1 mM significantly reduced its activity by 30%.

  7. Biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase in phytopathogenic fungi.

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    Khan, A J; Minocha, S C

    1989-01-01

    It has been reported that while bacteria and higher plants possess two different pathways for the biosynthesis of putrescine, via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC); the fungi, like animals, only use the former pathway. We found that contrary to the earlier reports, two of the phytopathogenic fungi (Ceratocystis minor and Verticillium dahliae) contain significant levels of ADC activity with very little ODC. The ADC in these fungi has high pH optimum (8.4) and low Km (0.237 mM for C. minor, 0.103 mM for V. dahliae), and is strongly inhibited by alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), putrescine and spermidine, further showing that this enzyme is probably involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and not in the catabolism of arginine as in Escherichia coli. The growth of these fungi is strongly inhibited by DFMA while alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has little effect.

  8. Lotus hairy roots expressing inducible arginine decarboxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, María A; Ruiz, Oscar A; Sánchez, Diego H

    2004-05-01

    Biotechnological uses of plant cell-tissue culture usually rely on constitutive transgene expression. However, such expression of transgenes may not always be desirable. In those cases, the use of an inducible promoter could be an alternative approach. To test this hypothesis, we developed two binary vectors harboring a stress-inducible promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana, driving the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and the oat arginine decarboxylase. Transgenic hairy roots of Lotus corniculatus were obtained with osmotic- and cold-inducible beta-glucuronidase and arginine decarboxylase activities. The increase in the activity of the latter was accompanied by a significant rise in total free polyamines level. Through an organogenesis process, we obtained L. corniculatus transgenic plants avoiding deleterious phenotypes frequently associated with the constitutive over-expression of arginine decarboxylation and putrescine accumulation.

  9. Structures of Bacterial Biosynthetic Arginine Decarboxylases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F Forouhar; S Lew; J Seetharaman; R Xiao; T Acton; G Montelione; L Tong

    2011-12-31

    Biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC; also known as SpeA) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of polyamines from arginine in bacteria and plants. SpeA is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme and shares weak sequence homology with several other PLP-dependent decarboxylases. Here, the crystal structure of PLP-bound SpeA from Campylobacter jejuni is reported at 3.0 {angstrom} resolution and that of Escherichia coli SpeA in complex with a sulfate ion is reported at 3.1 {angstrom} resolution. The structure of the SpeA monomer contains two large domains, an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain followed by a {beta}-sandwich domain, as well as two smaller helical domains. The TIM-barrel and {beta}-sandwich domains share structural homology with several other PLP-dependent decarboxylases, even though the sequence conservation among these enzymes is less than 25%. A similar tetramer is observed for both C. jejuni and E. coli SpeA, composed of two dimers of tightly associated monomers. The active site of SpeA is located at the interface of this dimer and is formed by residues from the TIM-barrel domain of one monomer and a highly conserved loop in the {beta}-sandwich domain of the other monomer. The PLP cofactor is recognized by hydrogen-bonding, {pi}-stacking and van der Waals interactions.

  10. FcWRKY70, a WRKY protein of Fortunella crassifolia, functions in drought tolerance and modulates putrescine synthesis by regulating arginine decarboxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jingyan; Hu, Jianbing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Qinghua; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-11-01

    WRKY comprises a large family of transcription factors in plants, but most WRKY members are still poorly understood. In this study, we report functional characterization of a Group III WRKY gene (FcWRKY70) from Fortunella crassifolia. FcWRKY70 was greatly induced by drought and abscisic acid, but slightly or negligibly by salt and cold. Overexpression of FcWRKY70 in tobacco (Nicotiana nudicaulis) and lemon (Citrus lemon) conferred enhanced tolerance to dehydration and drought stresses. Transgenic tobacco and lemon exhibited higher expression levels of ADC (arginine decarboxylase), and accumulated larger amount of putrescine in comparison with wild type (WT). Treatment with D-arginine, an inhibitor of ADC, caused transgenic tobacco plants more sensitive to dehydration. Knock-down of FcWRKY70 in kumquat down-regulated ADC abundance and decreased putrescine level, accompanied by compromised dehydration tolerance. The promoter region of FcADC contained two W-box elements, which were shown to be interacted with FcWRKY70. Taken together, our data demonstrated that FcWRKY70 functions in drought tolerance by, at least partly, promoting production of putrescine via regulating ADC expression.

  11. Arginine decarboxylase as the source of putrescine for tobacco alkaloids

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    Tiburcio, A. F.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    The putrescine which forms a part of nicotine and other pyrrolidine alkaloids is generally assumed to arise through the action of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). However, we have previously noted that changes in the activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), an alternate source of putrescine, parallel changes in tissue alkaloids, while changes in ODC activity do not. This led us to undertake experiments to permit discrimination between ADC and ODC as enzymatic sources of putrescine destined for alkaloids. Two kinds of evidence presented here support a major role for ADC in the generation of putrescine going into alkaloids: (a) A specific 'suicide inhibitor' of ADC effectively inhibits the biosynthesis of nicotine and nornicotine in tobacco callus, while the analogous inhibitor of ODC is less effective, and (b) the flow of 14C from uniformly labelled arginine into nicotine is much more efficient than that from ornithine.

  12. Enzymatic Synthesis of Agmatine by Immobilized Escherichia coli Cells with Arginine Decarboxylase Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-guo; ZHAO Gen-hai; LIU Jun-zhong; LIU Qian; JIAO Qing-cai

    2011-01-01

    A new method for the enzymatic synthesis of agmatine by immobilized Escherichia coli cells with arginine decarboxylase(ADC)activity was established and a series of optimal reaction conditions was set down.The arginine decarboxylase showed the maximum activity when the pyridoxal phosphate(PLP)concentration was 50 mmol/L,pH=7 and 45 ℃.The arginine decarboxylase exhibited the maximum production efficiency when the substrate concentration was 100 mmol/L and the reaction time was 15 h.It was also observed that the appropriate concentration of Mg2+,especially at 0.5 mmol/L promoted the arginine decarboxylase activity; Mn2+ had little effect on the arginine decarboxylase activity.The inhibition of Cu2+ and Zn2+ to the arginine decarboxylase activity was significant.The immobilized cells were continuously used 6 times and the average conversion rate during the six-time usage was 55.6%.The immobilized cells exhibited favourable operational stability.After optimization,the maximally cumulative amount of agmatine could be up to 20 g/L.In addition,this method can also catalyze D,L-arginine to agmatine,leaving the pure optically D-arginine simultaneously.The method has a very important guiding significance to the enzymatic preparation of agmatine.

  13. Characterization of the activity and expression of arginine decarboxylase in human and animal Chlamydia pathogens.

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    Bliven, Kimberly A; Fisher, Derek J; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2012-12-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae encodes a functional arginine decarboxylase (ArgDC), AaxB, that activates upon self-cleavage and converts l-arginine to agmatine. In contrast, most Chlamydia trachomatis serovars carry a missense or nonsense mutation in aaxB abrogating activity. The G115R missense mutation was not predicted to impact AaxB functionality, making it unclear whether AaxB variations in other Chlamydia species also result in enzyme inactivation. To address the impact of gene polymorphism on functionality, we investigated the activity and production of the Chlamydia AaxB variants. Because ArgDC plays a critical role in the Escherichia coli acid stress response, we studied the ability of these Chlamydia variants to complement an E. coli ArgDC mutant in an acid shock assay. Active AaxB was detected in four additional species: Chlamydia caviae, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia muridarum. Of the C. trachomatis serovars, only E appears to encode active enzyme. To determine when functional enzyme is present during the chlamydial developmental cycle, we utilized an anti-AaxB antibody to detect both uncleaved and cleaved enzyme throughout infection. Uncleaved enzyme production peaked around 20 h postinfection, with optimal cleavage around 44 h. While the role ArgDC plays in Chlamydia survival or virulence is unclear, our data suggest a niche-specific function.

  14. Endogenous Inactivators of Arginase, l-Arginine Decarboxylase, and Agmatine Amidinohydrolase in Evernia prunastri Thallus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz, María Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    1983-01-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1), l-arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), and agmatine amidinohydrolase (EC 3.5.3.11) activities spontaneously decay in Evernia prunastri thalli incubated on 40 millimolar l-arginine used as inducer of the three enzymes if dithiothreitol is not added to the media. Lichen thalli accumulate both chloroatranorin and evernic acid in parallel to the loss of activity. These substances behave as inactivators of the enzymes at a range of concentrations between 2 and 20 micromolar, whereas several concentrations of dithiothreitol reverse, to some extent, the in vitro inactivation. PMID:16662821

  15. Endogenous Inactivators of Arginase, l-Arginine Decarboxylase, and Agmatine Amidinohydrolase in Evernia prunastri Thallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz, M E; Vicente, C

    1983-02-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1), l-arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), and agmatine amidinohydrolase (EC 3.5.3.11) activities spontaneously decay in Evernia prunastri thalli incubated on 40 millimolar l-arginine used as inducer of the three enzymes if dithiothreitol is not added to the media. Lichen thalli accumulate both chloroatranorin and evernic acid in parallel to the loss of activity. These substances behave as inactivators of the enzymes at a range of concentrations between 2 and 20 micromolar, whereas several concentrations of dithiothreitol reverse, to some extent, the in vitro inactivation.

  16. Catalytic irreversible inhibition of bacterial and plant arginine decarboxylase activities by novel substrate and product analogues.

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    Bitonti, A J; Casara, P J; McCann, P P; Bey, P

    1987-02-15

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity from Escherichia coli and two plant species (oats and barley) was inhibited by five new substrate (arginine) and product (agmatine) analogues. The five compounds, (E)-alpha-monofluoromethyldehydroarginine (delta-MFMA), alpha-monofluoromethylarginine (MFMA), alpha-monofluoromethylagatine (FMA), alpha-ethynylagmatine (EA) and alpha-allenylagmatine (AA), were all more potent inhibitors of ADC activity than was alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), the only irreversible inhibitor of this enzyme described previously. The inhibition caused by the five compounds was apparently enzyme-activated and irreversible, since the loss of enzyme activity followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, was time-dependent, the natural substrate of ADC (arginine) blocked the effects of the inhibitors, and the inhibition remained after chromatography of inhibited ADC on Sephadex G-25 or on overnight dialysis of the enzyme. DFMA, FMA, delta-MFMA and MFMA were effective at very low concentrations (10 nM-10 microM) at inhibiting ADC activity in growing E. coli. FMA was also shown to deplete putrescine effectively in E. coli, particularly when combined with an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, alpha-monofluoromethyl-putrescine. The potential uses of the compounds for the study of the role of polyamine biosynthesis in bacteria and plants is discussed.

  17. Consistency of polyamine profiles and expression of arginine decarboxylase in mitosis during zygotic embryogenesis of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuosku, Jaana; Jokela, Anne; Läärä, Esa; Sääskilahti, Mira; Muilu, Riina; Sutela, Suvi; Altabella, Teresa; Sarjala, Tytti; Häggman, Hely

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we show that both arginine decarboxylase (ADC) protein and mRNA transcript are present at different phases of mitosis in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) zygotic embryogenesis. We also examined the consistency of polyamine (PA) profiles with the effective temperature sum, the latter indicating the developmental stage of the embryos. PA metabolism was analyzed by fitting statistical regression models to the data of free and soluble conjugated PAs, to the enzyme activities of ADC and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), as well as to the gene expression of ADC. According to the fitted models, PAs typically had the tendency to increase at the early stages but decrease at the late stages of embryogenesis. Only the free putrescine fraction remained stable during embryo development. The PA biosynthesis strongly preferred the ADC pathway. Both ADC gene expression and ADC enzyme activity were substantially higher than putative ODC gene expression or ODC enzyme activity, respectively. ADC gene expression and enzyme activity increased during embryogenesis, which suggests the involvement of transcriptional regulation in the expression of ADC. Both ADC mRNA and ADC protein localized in dividing cells of embryo meristems and more specifically within the mitotic spindle apparatus and close to the chromosomes, respectively. The results suggest the essential role of ADC in the mitosis of plant cells.

  18. The first step in the biosynthesis of cocaine in Erythroxylum coca: the characterization of arginine and ornithine decarboxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docimo, Teresa; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Kai, Marco; Kunert, Grit; Gershenzon, Jonathan; D'Auria, John C

    2012-04-01

    Despite the long history of cocaine use among humans and its social and economic significance today, little information is available about the biochemical and molecular aspects of cocaine biosynthesis in coca (Erythroxylum coca) in comparison to what is known about the formation of other pharmacologically-important tropane alkaloids in species of the Solanaceae. In this work, we investigated the site of cocaine biosynthesis in E. coca and the nature of the first step. The two principal tropane alkaloids of E. coca, cocaine and cinnamoyl cocaine, were present in highest concentrations in buds and rolled leaves. These are also the organs in which the rate of alkaloid biosynthesis was the highest based on the incorporation of ¹³CO₂. In contrast, tropane alkaloids in the Solanaceae are biosynthesized in the roots and translocated to the leaves. A collection of EST sequences from a cDNA library made from young E. coca leaves was employed to search for genes encoding the first step in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. Full-length cDNA clones were identified encoding two candidate enzymes, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and the enzymatic activities of the corresponding proteins confirmed by heterologous expression in E. coli and complementation of a yeast mutant. The transcript levels of both ODC and ADC genes were highest in buds and rolled leaves and lower in other organs. The levels of both ornithine and arginine themselves showed a similar pattern, so it was not possible to assign a preferential role in cocaine biosynthesis to one of these proteins.

  19. Partial purification and characterization of arginine decarboxylase from avocado fruit, a thermostable enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, L; Vinkler, C; Apelbaum, A

    1984-09-01

    A partially purified preparation of arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), a key enzyme in polyamine metabolism in plants, was isolated from avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Fuerte) fruit. The preparation obtained from the crude extract after ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, and heat treatment, had maximal activity between pH 8.0 and 9.0 at 60 degrees C, in the presence of 1.2 millimolar MnCl(2), 2 millimolar dithiothreitol, and 0.06 millimolar pyridoxal phosphate. The K(m), of arginine for the decarboxylation reaction was determined for enzymes prepared from the seed coat of both 4-week-old avocado fruitlet and fully developed fruit, and was found to have a value of 1.85 and 2.84 millimolar, respectively. The value of V(app) (max) of these enzymes was 1613 and 68 nanomoles of CO(2) produced per milligram of protein per hour for the fruitlet and the fully developed fruit, respectively. Spermine, an end product of polyamine metabolism, caused less than 5% inhibition of the enzyme from fully developed fruit and 65% inhibition of the enzyme from the seed coat of 4-week-old fruitlets at 1 millimolar under similar conditions. The effect of different inhibitors on the enzyme and the change in the nature of the enzyme during fruit development are discussed.

  20. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. II. Improvement of oat protoplasts by an inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, A F; Kaur-Sawhney, R; Galston, A W

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to improve the viability of cereal mesophyll protoplasts by pretreatment of leaves with DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific 'suicide' inhibitor of the enzyme (arginine decarboxylase) responsible for their osmotically induced putrescine accumulation. Leaf pretreatment with DFMA before a 6 hour osmotic shock caused a 45% decrease of putrescine and a 2-fold increase of spermine titer. After 136 hours of osmotic stress, putrescine titer in DFMA-pretreated leaves increased by only 50%, but spermidine and spermine titers increased dramatically by 3.2- and 6-fold, respectively. These increases in higher polyamines could account for the reduced chlorophyll loss and enhanced ability of pretreated leaves to incorporate tritiated thymidine, uridine, and leucine into macromolecules. Pretreatment with DFMA significantly improved the overall viability of the protoplasts isolated from these leaves. The results support the view that the osmotically induced rise in putrescine and blockage of its conversion to higher polyamines may contribute to the lack of sustained cell division in cereal mesophyll protoplasts, although other undefined factors must also play a major role.

  1. The role of arginine decarboxylase in modulating the sensitivity of barley to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland-Bamford, A J; Borland, A M; Lea, P J; Mansfield, T A

    1989-01-01

    Polyamines (PA) are known to be involved in the areas of plant physiology and biochemistry which are related to the response of a plant to air pollution. This study examines the role of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), an important rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, in barley plants exposed to ozone (O(3)). The activity of ADC increased significantly in O(3)-treated leaves when visible injury was hardly apparent. The increase in ADC activity may be a mechanism to increase the PA levels in O(3)-treated leaves and so minimize the damaging effects of O(3). Supporting this, foliar applications of DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific inhibitor of ADC, prevented the rise in ADC activity and visible injury was considerable on exposure to O(3). This damage was not due to the foliar sprays, as little visible injury was seen in leaves in the O(3)-free controls. The results are discussed in terms of the roles of PA in conferring O(3) resistance in plants.

  2. Expression of arginine decarboxylase is induced during early fruit development and in young tissues of Pisum sativum (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Amador, M A; Carbonell, J; Granell, A

    1995-09-01

    A cDNA coding for arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) has been isolated from a cDNA library of parthenocarpic young fruits of Pisum sativum (L.). The deduced aminoacid sequence is 74%, 46% and 35% identical to ADCs from tomato, oat and Escherichia coli, respectively. When the pea ADC cDNA was put under the control of the galactose inducible yeast promoter CYC1-GAL10 and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it conferred galactose-regulated expression of the ADC activity. The ADC activity expressed in S. cerevisiae was inhibited 99% by alpha-DL-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific inhibitor of ADC activity. No activity was detected in the untransformed S. cerevisiae, nor when it was transformed with an antisense ADC construct. This provides direct evidence that the ADC cDNA from pea encoded a functional, specific ADC activity and that S. cerevisiae is able to process correctly the protein. In the pea plant, gene expression of the ADC is high in young developing tissues like shoot tips, young leaflets and flower buds. Fully expanded leaflets and roots have much lower, but still detectable, levels of the ADC transcript. In the ovary and fruit, they are developmentally regulated, showing high levels of expression during the early stages of fruit growth, which in pea is mainly due to cell expansion. The observed changes in the steady-state levels of ADC mRNA alone, however, cannot account for the differences in ADC activity suggesting that other regulatory mechanisms must be acting.

  3. Vector-mediated chromosomal integration of the glutamate decarboxylase gene in streptococcus thermophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The integrative vector pINTRS was used to transfer glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity to Streptococcus thermophilus ST128, thus allowing for the production of '-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In pINTRS, the gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase, gadB, was flanked by DNA fragments homologous to a S. ...

  4. Ornithine decarboxylase gene is overexpressed in colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yan Hu; Bing Zhang; Xian-Xi Liu; Chun-Ying Jiang; Yi Lu; Shi-Lian Liu; Ji-Feng Bian; Xiao-Ming Wang; Zhao Geng; Yan Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)gene expression in colorectal carcinoma, ODC mRNA was assayed by RT-PCR and ODC protein was detected by a monoclonal antibody against fusion of human colon ODC prepared by hybridoma technology.METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from human colorectal cancer tissues and their normal counterpart tissues. ODC mRNA levels were examined by RT-PCR.ODC genes amplified from RT-PCR were cloned into a prokaryotic vector pQE-30. The expressed proteins were purified by chromatography. Anti-ODC mAb was prepared with classical hybridoma techniques and used to determine the ODC expression in colon cancer tissues by immunohistochemical and Western blotting assay.RESULTS: A cell line, which could steadily secrete antiODC mAb, was selected through subcloning four times.Western blotting reconfirmed the mAb and ELISA showed that its subtype was IgG2a. RT-PCR showed that the ODC mRNA level increased greatly in colon cancer tissues (P<0.01). Immunohistochemical staining showed that colorectal carcinoma cells expressed a significantly higher level of ODC than normal colorectal mucosa (98.6±1.03%vs 5.26±5%, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: ODC gene overexpression is significantly related to human colorectal carcinoma. ODC gene expression may be a marker for the gene diagnosis and therapy of colorectal carcinoma.

  5. Chronic treatment with glucocorticoids alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Regunathan, Soundar

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the possible effect of chronic treatment with glucocorticoids on the morphology of the rat brain and levels of endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase (ADC) protein, the enzyme essential for agmatine synthesis. Seven-day treatment with dexamethasone, at a dose (10 and 50 mug/kg/day) associated to stress effects contributed by glucocorticoids, did not result in obvious morphologic changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as measured by immunocytochemical staining with beta-tubulin III. However, 21-day treatment (50 mug/kg/day) produced noticeable structural changes such as the diminution and disarrangement of dendrites and neurons in these areas. Simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day) prevented these morphological changes. Further measurement with HPLC showed that endogenous agmatine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were significantly increased after 7-day treatments with dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, 21-day treatment with glucocorticoids robustly reduced agmatine levels in these regions. The treatment-caused biphasic alterations of endogenous agmatine levels were also seen in the striatum and hypothalamus. Interestingly, treatment with glucocorticoids resulted in a similar change of ADC protein levels in most brain areas to endogenous agmatine levels: an increase after 7-day treatment versus a reduction after 21-day treatment. These results demonstrated that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against structural alterations caused by glucocorticoids in vivo. The parallel alterations in the endogenous agmatine levels and ADC expression in the brain after treatment with glucocorticoids indicate the possible regulatory effect of these stress hormones on the synthesis and metabolism of agmatine in vivo.

  6. Sequencing, characterization, and gene expression analysis of the histidine decarboxylase gene cluster of Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Chiara; Borgo, Francesca; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Ricci, Giovanni; Fortina, Maria Grazia

    2014-03-01

    The histidine decarboxylase gene cluster of Morganella morganii DSM30146(T) was sequenced, and four open reading frames, named hdcT1, hdc, hdcT2, and hisRS were identified. Two putative histidine/histamine antiporters (hdcT1 and hdcT2) were located upstream and downstream the hdc gene, codifying a pyridoxal-P dependent histidine decarboxylase, and followed by hisRS gene encoding a histidyl-tRNA synthetase. This organization was comparable with the gene cluster of other known Gram negative bacteria, particularly with that of Klebsiella oxytoca. Recombinant Escherichia coli strains harboring plasmids carrying the M. morganii hdc gene were shown to overproduce histidine decarboxylase, after IPTG induction at 37 °C for 4 h. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments revealed the hdc and hisRS genes were highly induced under acidic and histidine-rich conditions. This work represents the first description and identification of the hdc-related genes in M. morganii. Results support the hypothesis that the histidine decarboxylation reaction in this prolific histamine producing species may play a role in acid survival. The knowledge of the role and the regulation of genes involved in histidine decarboxylation should improve the design of rational strategies to avoid toxic histamine production in foods.

  7. Arginine deiminase pathway genes and arginine degradation variability in Oenococcus oeni strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araque, Isabel; Gil, Joana; Carreté, Ramon; Constantí, Magda; Bordons, Albert; Reguant, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Trace amounts of the carcinogenic ethyl carbamate can appear in wine as a result of a reaction between ethanol and citrulline, which is produced from arginine degradation by some bacteria used in winemaking. In this study, arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway genes were evaluated in 44 Oenococcus oeni strains from wines originating from several locations in order to establish the relationship between the ability of a strain to degrade arginine and the presence of related genes. To detect the presence of arc genes of the ADI pathway in O. oeni, pairs of primers were designed to amplify arcA, arcB, arcC and arcD1 sequences. All strains contained these four genes. The same primers were used to confirm the organization of these genes in an arcABCD1 operon. Nevertheless, considerable variability in the ability to degrade arginine among these O. oeni strains was observed. Therefore, despite the presence of the arc genes in all strains, the expression patterns of individual genes must be strain dependent and influenced by the different wine conditions. Additionally, the presence of arc genes was also determined in the 57 sequenced strains of O. oeni available in GenBank, and the complete operon was found in 83% of strains derived from wine. The other strains were found to lack the arcB, arcC and arcD genes, but all contained sequences homologous to arcA, and some of them had also ADI activity.

  8. Elevation of arginine decarboxylase-dependent putrescine production enhances aluminum tolerance by decreasing aluminum retention in root cell walls of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Sun, Chengliang; Wang, Jinghong; Ye, Yiquan; Lu, Lingli; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-12-15

    Aluminum (Al) stress induces putrescine (Put) accumulation in several plants and this response is proposed to alleviate Al toxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying this alleviation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that exposure to Al clearly increases Put accumulation in the roots of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. 'Xi Aimai-1') and that this was accompanied by significant increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), a Put producing enzyme. Application of an ADC inhibitor (d-arginine) terminated the Al-induced Put accumulation, indicating that increased ADC activity may be responsible for the increase in Put accumulation in response to Al. The d-arginine treatment also increased the Al-induced accumulation of cell wall polysaccharides and the degree of pectin demethylation in wheat roots. Thus, it elevated Al retention in cell walls and exacerbated Al accumulation in roots, both of which aggravate Al toxicity in wheat plants. The opposite effects were true for exogenous Put application. These results suggest that ADC-dependent Put accumulation plays important roles in providing protection against Al toxicity in wheat plants through decreasing cell wall polysaccharides and increasing the degree of pectin methylation, thus decreasing Al retention in the cell walls.

  9. Meat consumption, ornithine decarboxylase gene polymorphism, and outcomes after colorectal cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Zell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary arginine and meat consumption are implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC progression via polyamine-dependent processes. Polymorphism in the polyamine-regulatory gene, ornithine decarboxylase 1 (Odc1, rs2302615 is prognostic for CRC-specific mortality. Here, we examined joint effects of meat consumption and Odc1 polymorphism on CRC-specific mortality. Materials and Methods: The analytic cohort was comprised of 329 incident stage I-III CRC cases diagnosed 1994-1996 with follow- up through March 2008. Odc1 genotyping was conducted using primers that amplify a 172-bp fragment containing the polymorphic base at +316. Dietary questionnaires were administered at cohort entry. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis for CRC-specific mortality was stratified by tumor, node, metastasis (TNM stage, and adjusted for clinically relevant variables, plus meat consumption (as a continuous variable, i.e., the number of medium-sized servings/week, Odc1 genotype, and a term representing the meat consumption and Odc1 genotype interaction. The primary outcome was the interaction of Odc1 and meat intake on CRC-specific mortality, as assessed by departures from multiplicative joint effects. Results: Odc1 genotype distribution was 51% GG, 49% GA/AA. In the multivariate model, there was a significant interaction between meat consumption and Odc1 genotype, P-int = 0.01. Among Odc1 GA/AA CRC cases in meat consumption Quartiles 1-3, increased mortality risk was observed when compared to GG cases (adjusted hazards ratio (HR = 7.06 [95% CI 2.34-21.28] - a difference not found among cases in the highest dietary meat consumption Quartile 4. Conclusions: Effects of meat consumption on CRC-specific mortality risk differ based on genetic polymorphism at Odc1. These results provide further evidence that polyamine metabolism and its modulation by dietary factors such as meat may have relevance to CRC outcomes.

  10. Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber During Germination is Related to Expression of Lysine Decarboxylase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ming-hui; LI Xiao-ming; CHEN Jin-feng; CHEN Long-zheng; QIAN Chun-tao

    2005-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP technique, a specific fragment was isolated from cucumber cultivar Changchun mici possessing chilling tolerance induced at low temperature (15℃). This fragment, named cctr 132, could not be induced in the chilling sensitive cucumber cultivar Beijing jietou. After recovering the fragment, sequencing and translating, the results of blastx and blastp in GenBank of NCBI indicated that CCTR132 had 88.37% identities and 100% positives with Oryza sativa putative lysine decarboxylase-like protein respectively, and PGGXGTXXE, the putative conserved domain of lysine decarboxylase family, was detected from CCTR132, suggesting the cucumber chilling tolerance during germination is related to the expression of the lysine decarboxylase gene.

  11. High-performance liquid chromatography method with radiochemical detection for measurement of nitric oxide synthase, arginase, and arginine decarboxylase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volke, A; Wegener, Gregers; Vasar, E

    2006-01-01

    regulate NOS activity. We aimed to develop a HPLC-based method to measure simultaneously the products of these three enzymes. Traditionally, the separation of amino acids and related compounds with HPLC has been carried out with precolumn derivatization and reverse phase chromatography. We describe here...... a simple and fast HPLC method with radiochemical detection to separate radiolabeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-ornithine, and agmatine. 3H-labeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, agmatine, and 14C-labeled L-citrulline were used as standards. These compounds were separated in the normal phase column (Allure...

  12. The ornithine decarboxylase gene of Caenorhabditis elegans: Cloning, mapping and mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, M.; Coffino, P. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Plasterk, R.H.A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-06-01

    The gene (odc-1) encoding ornithine decarboxylase, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, was cloned and characterized. Two introns interrupt the coding sequence of the gene. The deduced protein contains 442 amino acids and is homologous to ornithine decarboxylases of other eukaryotic species. In vitro translation of a transcript of the cDNA yielded an enzymatically active product. The mRNA is 1.5 kb in size and is formed by trans-splicing to SL1, a common 5{prime} RNA segment. odc-1 maps to the middle of LG V, between dpy-11 and unc-42 and near a breakpoint of the nDf32 deficiency strain. Enzymatic activity is low in starved 1 (L1) larva and, after feeding, rises progressively as the worms develop. Targeted gene disruption was used to create a null allele. Homozygous mutants are normally viable and show no apparent defects, with the exception of a somewhat reduced brood size. In vitro assays for ornithine decarboxylase activity, however, show no detectable enzymatic activity, suggesting that ornithine decarboxylase is dispensible for nematode growth in the laboratory. 37 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Living with high putrescine: expression of ornithine and arginine biosynthetic pathway genes in high and low putrescine producing poplar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew F; Minocha, Rakesh; Minocha, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Arginine (Arg) and ornithine (Orn), both derived from glutamate (Glu), are the primary substrates for polyamine (PA) biosynthesis, and also play important roles as substrates and intermediates of overall N metabolism in plants. Their cellular homeostasis is subject to multiple levels of regulation. Using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we studied changes in the expression of all genes of the Orn/Arg biosynthetic pathway in response to up-regulation [via transgenic expression of mouse Orn decarboxylase (mODC)] of PA biosynthesis in poplar (Populus nigra × maximowiczii) cells grown in culture. Cloning and sequencing of poplar genes involved in the Orn/Arg biosynthetic pathway showed that they have high homology with similar genes in other plants. The expression of the genes of Orn, Arg and PA biosynthetic pathway fell into two hierarchical clusters; expression of one did not change in response to high putrescine, while members of the other cluster showed a shift in expression pattern during the 7-day culture cycle. Gene expression of branch point enzymes (N-acetyl-Glu synthase, Orn aminotransferase, Arg decarboxylase, and spermidine synthase) in the sub-pathways, constituted a separate cluster from those involved in intermediary reactions of the pathway (N-acetyl-Glu kinase, N-acetyl-Glu-5-P reductase, N-acetyl-Orn aminotransferase, N (2)-acetylOrn:N-acetyl-Glu acetyltransferase, N (2)-acetyl-Orn deacetylase, Orn transcarbamylase, argininosuccinate synthase, carbamoylphosphate synthetase, argininosuccinate lyase, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, spermine synthase). We postulate that expression of all genes of the Glu-Orn-Arg pathway is constitutively coordinated and is not influenced by the increase in flux rate through this pathway in response to increased utilization of Orn by mODC; thus the pathway involves mostly biochemical regulation rather than changes in gene expression. We further suggest that Orn itself plays a major role in the

  14. Bioinformatic evaluation of L-arginine catabolic pathways in 24 cyanobacteria and transcriptional analysis of genes encoding enzymes of L-arginine catabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistorius Elfriede K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far very limited knowledge exists on L-arginine catabolism in cyanobacteria, although six major L-arginine-degrading pathways have been described for prokaryotes. Thus, we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of possible L-arginine-degrading pathways in cyanobacteria. Further, we chose Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for a more detailed bioinformatic analysis and for validation of the bioinformatic predictions on L-arginine catabolism with a transcript analysis. Results We have evaluated 24 cyanobacterial genomes of freshwater or marine strains for the presence of putative L-arginine-degrading enzymes. We identified an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway in all 24 strains. In addition, cyanobacteria have one or two further pathways representing either an arginase pathway or L-arginine deiminase pathway or an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. An L-arginine amidinotransferase pathway as a major L-arginine-degrading pathway is not likely but can not be entirely excluded. A rather unusual finding was that the cyanobacterial L-arginine deiminases are substantially larger than the enzymes in non-photosynthetic bacteria and that they are membrane-bound. A more detailed bioinformatic analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 revealed that three different L-arginine-degrading pathways may in principle be functional in this cyanobacterium. These are (i an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway, (ii an L-arginine deiminase pathway, and (iii an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. A transcript analysis of cells grown either with nitrate or L-arginine as sole N-source and with an illumination of 50 μmol photons m-2 s-1 showed that the transcripts for the first enzyme(s of all three pathways were present, but that the transcript levels for the L-arginine deiminase and the L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase were substantially higher than that of the three isoenzymes of L-arginine decarboxylase. Conclusion The evaluation of 24

  15. Arginine Catabolism and the Arginine Succinyltransferase Pathway in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Barbara L.; Kiupakis, Alexandros K.; Reitzer, Lawrence J.

    1998-01-01

    Arginine catabolism produces ammonia without transferring nitrogen to another compound, yet the only known pathway of arginine catabolism in Escherichia coli (through arginine decarboxylase) does not produce ammonia. Our aims were to find the ammonia-producing pathway of arginine catabolism in E. coli and to examine its function. We showed that the only previously described pathway of arginine catabolism, which does not produce ammonia, accounted for only 3% of the arginine consumed. A search...

  16. Decarboxylase gene expression and cadaverine and putrescine production by Serratia proteamaculans in vitro and in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Pennacchia, Carmela; Di Pasqua, Rosangela; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2013-08-01

    Studies of the molecular basis of microbial metabolic activities that are important for the changes in food quality are valuable in order to help in understanding the behavior of spoiling bacteria in food. The growth of a psychrotrophic Serratia proteamaculans strain was monitored in vitro and in artificially inoculated raw beef. Two growth temperatures (25°C and 4°C) were tested in vitro, while growth at 15°C and 4°C was monitored in beef. During growth, the expression of inducible lysine and ornithine-decarboxylase genes was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), while the presence of cadaverine and putrescine was quantified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The expression of the decarboxylase genes, and the consequent production of cadaverine and putrescine were shown to be influenced by the temperature, as well as by the complexity of the growth medium. Generally, the maximum gene expression and amine production took place during the exponential and early stationary phase, respectively. In addition, lower temperatures caused slower growth and gene downregulation. Higher amounts of cadaverine compared to putrescine were found during growth in beef with the highest concentrations corresponding to microbial loads of ca. 9CFU/g. The differences found in gene expression evaluated in vitro and in beef suggested that such activities are more reliably investigated in situ in specific food matrices.

  17. Evolutionary trails of plant group II Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Type II pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase (PLP_deC enzymes play important metabolic roles during nitrogen metabolism. Recent evolutionary profiling of these genes revealed a sharp expansion of histidine decarboxylase (HDC genes in the members of Solanaceae family. In spite of the high sequence homology shared by PLP_deC orthologs, these enzymes display remarkable differences in their substrate specificities. Currently, limited information is available on the gene repertoires and substrate specificities of PLP_deCs which renders their precise annotation challenging and offers technical challenges in the immediate identification and biochemical characterization of their full gene complements in plants. Herein, we explored their evolutionary trails in a comprehensive manner by taking advantage of high-throughput data accessibility and computational approaches. We discussed the premise that has enabled an improved reconstruction of their evolutionary lineage and evaluated the factors offering constraints in their rapid functional characterization, till date. We envisage that the synthesized information herein would act as a catalyst for the rapid exploration of their biochemical specificity and physiological roles in more plant species.

  18. Identification and molecular cloning of glutamate decarboxylase gene from Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Tavakoli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA possesses several physiological functions such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic and tranquilizer effects. Production of GABA-enriched products by lactic acid bacteria has been a focus of different researches in recent years because of their safety and health-promoting specifities. In this study, glutamate decarboxylase (gad gene of a local strains Lactobacillus casei was identified and cloned. In order to clone the gad gene from this strain, the PCR was carried out using primers designed based on conserved regions. The PCR product was purified and ligated into PGEM-T vector. Comparison of obtained sequences shows that this fragment codes the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate binding region. This strain could possibly be used for the industrial GABA production and also for development of functional fermented foods. Gad gene manipulation can also either decrease or increase the activity of enzyme in bacteria.

  19. Polymorphism in genes for the enzyme arginine deiminase among Mycoplasma species.

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimura, K.; Ohno, T.; Azuma, I; Yamamoto, K.

    1993-01-01

    The extent of restriction fragment length polymorphism in genes for the arginine deiminase enzyme among 28 species of mycoplasmas was assessed by Southern blot analysis of DNA digested with EcoRI or TaqI nuclease probed with a 725-bp internal fragment of the arginine deiminase gene from Mycoplasma arginini. The results indicated unexpected heterogeneity among species of a single genus.

  20. Evolution and expression analysis of the soybean glutamate decarboxylase gene family

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tae Kyung Hyun; Seung Hee Eom; Xiao Han; Ju-Sung Kim

    2014-12-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of L-glutamate into -aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid present in all organisms. Although plant GAD plays important roles in GABA biosynthesis, our knowledge concerning GAD gene family members and their evolutionary relationship remains limited. Therefore, in this study, we have analysed the evolutionary mechanisms of soybean GAD genes and suggested that these genes expanded in the soybean genome partly due to segmental duplication events. The approximate dates of duplication events were calculated using the synonymous substitution rate, and we suggested that the segmental duplication of GAD genes in soybean originated 9.47 to 11.84 million years ago (Mya). In addition, all segmental duplication pairs (GmGAD1/3 and GmGAD2/4) are subject to purifying selection. Furthermore, GmGAD genes displayed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under abiotic stress conditions like salt, drought, and cold. The expression pattern of paralogous pairs suggested that they might have undergone neofunctionalization during the subsequent evolution process. Taken together, our results provide valuable information for the evolution of the GAD gene family and represent the basis for future research on the functional characterization of GAD genes in higher plants.

  1. The ArcD1 and ArcD2 arginine/ornithine exchangers encoded in the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway gene cluster of Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noens, Elke E E; Kaczmarek, Michał B; Żygo, Monika; Lolkema, Juke S

    2015-01-01

    The arginine deiminase pathway (ADI) gene cluster in Lactococcus lactis contains two copies of a gene encoding an L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger, the arcD1 and arcD2 genes. The physiological function of ArcD1 and ArcD2 was studied by deleting the two genes. Deletion of arcD1 resulted in loss of th

  2. Dynamic regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 gene expression in rat testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haixiong Liu; Shifeng Li; Yunbin Zhang; Yuanchang Yan; Yiping Li

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) produces γ-amino-butyric acid,the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult mammalian brain.Previous experiments,per-formed in brain,showed that GAD65 gene possesses two TATA-less promoters,although the significance is unknown.Here,by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method,two distinct GAD65 mRNA isoforms transcribed from two independent clusters of transcription start sites were identified in post-natal rat testis.RT-PCR results revealed that the two mRNA isoforms had distinct expression patterns during post-natal testis maturation,suggesting that GAD65 gene expression was regulated by alternative promoters at the transcription level.By using GAD65-speciflc antibodies,western blotting analysis showed that the 58-kDa GAD65,N-terminal 69 amino acids truncated form of full-length GAD65 protein,was developmentally expressed during post-natal testis matu-ration,suggesting that GAD65 gene expression in testis may also be regulated by post-translational processing.Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that GAD65 protein was presented in Leydig cells of Day 1 testis,primary spermatocytes and spermatids of post-natal of Day 90 testis.The above results suggested that GAD65 gene expression is dynamically regulated at mul-tiple levels during post-natal testis maturation.

  3. Identification of polymorphisms and balancing selection in the male infertility candidate gene, ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkins John F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antizyme family is a group of small proteins that play a role in cell growth and division by regulating the biosynthesis of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine. Antizymes regulate polyamine levels primarily through binding ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, an enzyme key to polyamine production, and targeting ODC for destruction by the 26S proteosome. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3 (OAZ3 is a testis-specific antizyme paralog and the only antizyme expressed in the mid to late stages of spermatogenesis. Methods To see if mutations in the OAZ3 gene are responsible for some cases of male infertility, we sequenced and evaluated the genomic DNA of 192 infertile men, 48 men of known paternity, and 34 African aborigines from the Mbuti tribe in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The coding sequence of OAZ3 was further screened for polymorphisms by SSCP analysis in the infertile group and an additional 250 general population controls. Identified polymorphisms in the OAZ3 gene were further subjected to a haplotype analysis using PHASE 2.02 and Arlequin 2.0 software programs. Results A total of 23 polymorphisms were identified in the promoter, exons or intronic regions of OAZ3. The majority of these fell within a region of less than two kilobases. Two of the polymorphisms, -239 A/G in the promoter and 4280 C/T, a missense polymorphism in exon 5, may show evidence of association with male infertility. Haplotype analysis identified 15 different haplotypes, which can be separated into two divergent clusters. Conclusion Mutations in the OAZ3 gene are not a common cause of male infertility. However, the presence of the two divergent haplotypes at high frequencies in all three of our subsamples (infertile, control, African suggests that they have been maintained in the genome by balancing selection, which was supported by a test of Tajima's D statistic. Evidence for natural selection in this region implies that these haplotypes

  4. Evolution of Substrate Specificity within a Diverse Family of [beta/alpha]-Barrel-fold Basic Amino Acid Decarboxylases X-ray Structure Determination of Enzymes with Specificity for L-Arginine and Carboxynorspermidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiaoyi; Lee, Jeongmi; Michael, Anthony J.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Phillips, Margaret A. (Sungkyunkwan); (UTSMC)

    2010-08-26

    Pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP)-dependent basic amino acid decarboxylases from the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel-fold class (group IV) exist in most organisms and catalyze the decarboxylation of diverse substrates, essential for polyamine and lysine biosynthesis. Herein we describe the first x-ray structure determination of bacterial biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase (CANSDC) to 2.3- and 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, solved as product complexes with agmatine and norspermidine. Despite low overall sequence identity, the monomeric and dimeric structures are similar to other enzymes in the family, with the active sites formed between the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel domain of one subunit and the {beta}-barrel of the other. ADC contains both a unique interdomain insertion (4-helical bundle) and a C-terminal extension (3-helical bundle) and it packs as a tetramer in the asymmetric unit with the insertions forming part of the dimer and tetramer interfaces. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed that the ADC solution structure is a tetramer. Specificity for different basic amino acids appears to arise primarily from changes in the position of, and amino acid replacements in, a helix in the {beta}-barrel domain we refer to as the 'specificity helix.' Additionally, in CANSDC a key acidic residue that interacts with the distal amino group of other substrates is replaced by Leu{sup 314}, which interacts with the aliphatic portion of norspermidine. Neither product, agmatine in ADC nor norspermidine in CANSDC, form a Schiff base to pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate, suggesting that the product complexes may promote product release by slowing the back reaction. These studies provide insight into the structural basis for the evolution of novel function within a common structural-fold.

  5. DL-alpha-difluoromethyl[3,4-3H]arginine metabolism in tobacco and mammalian cells. Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase activity after arginase-mediated hydrolysis of DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine to DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R D; Bitonti, A J; McCann, P P; Feirer, R P

    1988-10-01

    DL-alpha-Difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) is an enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) in vitro. DFMA has also been shown to inhibit ADC activities in a variety of plants and bacteria in vivo. However, we questioned the specificity of this inhibitor for ADC in tobacco ovary tissues, since ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was strongly inhibited as well. We now show that [3,4-3H]DFMA is metabolized to DL-alpha-difluoromethyl[3,4-3H]ornithine [( 3,4-3H]DFMO), the analogous mechanism-based inhibitor of ODC, by tobacco tissues in vivo. Both tobacco and mammalian (mouse, bovine) arginases (EC 3.5.3.1) hydrolyse DFMA to DFMO in vitro, suggesting a role for this enzyme in mediating the indirect inhibition of ODC by DFMA in tobacco. These results suggest that DFMA may have other effects, in addition to the inhibition of ADC, in tissues containing high arginase activities. The recent development of potent agmatine-based ADC inhibitors should permit selective inhibition of ADC, rather than ODC, in such tissues, since agmatine is not a substrate for arginase.

  6. Effects of the suicide inhibitors of arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities on organogenesis, growth, free polyamine and hydroxycinnamoyl putrescine levels in leaf explants of Nicotiana xanthi N.C. Cultivated in vitro in a medium producing callus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtin, D; Martin-Tanguy, J; Paynot, M; Rossin, N

    1989-01-01

    We studied the effects of dl-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and dl-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), specific, irreversible inhibitors of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), respectively, on organogenesis growth and titers of free polyamines and conjugated putrescines (hydroxycinnamoyl putrescines) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi n.c.) calli. These results suggest that ADC and ODC regulate putrescine biosynthesis during early and later stages of tobacco callus development, respectively. ADC appears active in biosynthesis of large levels of free amines (agmatine and putrescine) while ODC appears active only in biosynthesis of large levels of putrescine conjugates (hydroxycinnamoyl putrescines). DFMA inhibits the fresh and dry weight increases of tobacco calli, whereas DFMO even promoted the fresh and dry weight increases, thus supporting the view that ADC is important for cell division and callus induction. Inhibition of ODC activity by DFMO resulting in an amide deficiency after 4 weeks of culture facilates the expression of differentiated cell functions. Formation of buds is associated with a significant decrease of hydroxycinnamoyl putrescines.

  7. Nucleotide variation at the dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrey Tatarenkov; Francisco J. Ayala

    2007-08-01

    We studied nucleotide sequence variation at the gene coding for dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) in seven populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Strength and pattern of linkage disequilibrium are somewhat distinct in the extensively sampled Spanish and Raleigh populations. In the Spanish population, a few sites are in strong positive association, whereas a large number of sites in the Raleigh population are associated nonrandomly but the association is not strong. Linkage disequilibrium analysis shows presence of two groups of haplotypes in the populations, each of which is fairly diverged, suggesting epistasis or inversion polymorphism. There is evidence of two forms of natural selection acting on Ddc. The McDonald–Kreitman test indicates a deficit of fixed amino acid differences between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, which may be due to negative selection. An excess of derived alleles at high frequency, significant according to the -test, is consistent with the effect of hitchhiking. The hitchhiking may have been caused by directional selection downstream of the locus studied, as suggested by a gradual decrease of the polymorphism-to-divergence ratio. Altogether, the Ddc locus exhibits a complicated pattern of variation apparently due to several evolutionary forces. Such a complex pattern may be a result of an unusually high density of functionally important genes.

  8. Inhibition of scratching behaviour caused by contact dermatitis in histidine decarboxylase gene knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seike, M; Ikeda, M; Kodama, H; Terui, T; Ohtsu, H

    2005-03-01

    A neuronal system dedicated to itch consists of primary afferent and spinothalamic projection neurons. Histamine is thought to be one of the main mediators for the transmission of itch sensation. However, there are little available information on the role of histamine in scratching behaviour and sensory transmission of atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema. In the present study, the role of histamine in scratching behaviour and neural conduction of sensation in the chronic eczema model was investigated by using l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene knockout mice lacking histamine. The chronic contact dermatitis was induced with daily application of diphenylcyclopropenone (DCP) on a hind paw of HDC (+/+) and HDC (-/-) mice for 2 months. The observation of scratching behaviour and the hot-plate test were performed in both mice. Histological studies were performed in the skin and spinal cord tissues. Histological examination revealed that both HDC (+/+) and HDC (-/-) mice displayed the similar extent of inflammatory cell infiltration, hyperplastic epidermis and newly spreading of neuronal processes in the skin tissue. Scratching behaviour was exclusively induced in HDC (+/+) mice, whereas it was barely observed in HDC (-/-) mice. The expression of c-Fos was specifically upregulated in HDC (+/+) mice in lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn following repeated DCP application. Scratching behaviour in chronic contact dermatitis in mice was thought mainly mediated with histamine. The afferent pathway of sensation in chronic contact dermatitis model may connect with the central nervous system through lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn.

  9. Cloning of affecting pyruvate decarboxylase gene in the production bioethanol of agricultural waste in the E.coli bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masome Zeinali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ethanol made by a biomass is one of the useful strategies in terms of economic and environmental and as a clean and safe energy to replace fossil fuels considered and examined. Materials and methods: In this study, key enzyme in the production of ethanol (Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis bacteria was isolated and cloned at E. coli bacteria by freeze and thaw method. For gene cloning, we used specific primers of pdc and PCR reaction and then pdc gene isolated and pET 28a plasmid double digested with (Sal I and Xho I enzymes. Digestion Products were ligated by T4 DNA ligase in 16 °C for 16 hours. Results: Results of bacteria culture showed that a few colonies containing pET 28a plasmid could grow. Result of colony pcr of pdc gene with specific primers revealed 1700 bp bands in 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of PCR with T7 promotor forward primer and pdc revers primer have proved the accurate direction of integration of pdc gene into plasmid and revealed 1885 bp band. Double digestion of recombinant plasmid with SalI and XhoI enzymes revealed same bands. Finally, RT showed the expected band of 1700 bp that implies the desired gene expression in the samples. Discussion and conclusion: Due to the increased production of ethanol via pyruvate decarboxylase gene cloning in expression plasmids with a strong promoter upstream of the cloning site can conclude that, pyruvate decarboxylase cloning as a key gene would be useful and according to beneficial properties of E. coli bacteria, transfering the gene to bacteria appears to be reasonable.

  10. Cloning and sequencing of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes from bacteria and uses therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin-Furlow, Julie A [Gainesville, FL; Talarico, Lee Ann [Gainesville, FL; Raj, Krishnan Chandra [Tamil Nadu, IN; Ingram, Lonnie O [Gainesville, FL

    2008-02-05

    The invention provides isolated nucleic acids molecules which encode pyruvate decarboxylase enzymes having improved decarboxylase activity, substrate affinity, thermostability, and activity at different pH. The nucleic acids of the invention also have a codon usage which allows for high expression in a variety of host cells. Accordingly, the invention provides recombinant expression vectors containing such nucleic acid molecules, recombinant host cells comprising the expression vectors, host cells further comprising other ethanologenic enzymes, and methods for producing useful substances, e.g., acetaldehyde and ethanol, using such host cells.

  11. The Histidine Decarboxylase Gene Cluster of Lactobacillus parabuchneri Was Gained by Horizontal Gene Transfer and Is Mobile within the Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Daniel; Berthoud, Hélène; Wechsler, Daniel; Eugster, Elisabeth; Irmler, Stefan; Bruggmann, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Histamine in food can cause intolerance reactions in consumers. Lactobacillus parabuchneri (L. parabuchneri) is one of the major causes of elevated histamine levels in cheese. Despite its significant economic impact and negative influence on human health, no genomic study has been published so far. We sequenced and analyzed 18 L. parabuchneri strains of which 12 were histamine positive and 6 were histamine negative. We determined the complete genome of the histamine positive strain FAM21731 with PacBio as well as Illumina and the genomes of the remaining 17 strains using the Illumina technology. We developed the synteny aware ortholog finding algorithm SynOrf to compare the genomes and we show that the histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene cluster is located in a genomic island. It is very likely that the HDC gene cluster was transferred from other lactobacilli, as it is highly conserved within several lactobacilli species. Furthermore, we have evidence that the HDC gene cluster was transferred within the L. parabuchneri species. PMID:28261177

  12. The UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase gene family in Populus: structure, expression, and association genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Du

    Full Text Available In woody crop plants, the oligosaccharide components of the cell wall are essential for important traits such as bioenergy content, growth, and structural wood properties. UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (UXS is a key enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-xylose for the formation of xylans during cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we isolated a multigene family of seven members (PtUXS1-7 encoding UXS from Populus tomentosa, the first investigation of UXSs in a tree species. Analysis of gene structure and phylogeny showed that the PtUXS family could be divided into three groups (PtUXS1/4, PtUXS2/5, and PtUXS3/6/7, consistent with the tissue-specific expression patterns of each PtUXS. We further evaluated the functional consequences of nucleotide polymorphisms in PtUXS1. In total, 243 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified, with a high frequency of SNPs (1/18 bp and nucleotide diversity (πT = 0.01033, θw = 0.01280. Linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis showed that LD did not extend over the entire gene (r (2<0.1, P<0.001, within 700 bp. SNP- and haplotype-based association analysis showed that nine SNPs (Q <0.10 and 12 haplotypes (P<0.05 were significantly associated with growth and wood property traits in the association population (426 individuals, with 2.70% to 12.37% of the phenotypic variation explained. Four significant single-marker associations (Q <0.10 were validated in a linkage mapping population of 1200 individuals. Also, RNA transcript accumulation varies among genotypic classes of SNP10 was further confirmed in the association population. This is the first comprehensive study of the UXS gene family in woody plants, and lays the foundation for genetic improvements of wood properties and growth in trees using genetic engineering or marker-assisted breeding.

  13. Detection and transfer of the glutamate decarboxylase gene in Streptococcus thermophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is generated from glutamate by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and characterized by hypotensive, diuretic and tranquilizing effects in humans and animals. The production of GABA by lactic acid starter bacteria would enhance the functionality of fermen...

  14. Different roles of cell surface and exogenous glycosaminoglycans in controlling gene delivery by arginine-rich peptides with varied distribution of arginines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Rangeetha J; Chatterjee, Anindo; Ganguli, Munia

    2013-06-01

    The role of cell surface and exogenous glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in DNA delivery by cationic peptides is controlled to a large extent by the peptide chemistry and the nature of its complex with DNA. We have previously shown that complexes formed by arginine homopeptides with DNA adopt a GAG-independent cellular internalization mechanism and show enhanced gene delivery in presence of exogenous GAGs. In contrast, lysine complexes gain cellular entry primarily by a GAG-dependent pathway and are destabilized by exogenous GAGs. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the factors governing the role of cell surface and soluble glycosaminoglycans in DNA delivery by sequences of arginine-rich peptides with altered arginine distributions (compared to homopeptide). Using peptides with clustered arginines which constitute known heparin-binding motifs and a control peptide with arginines alternating with alanines, we show that complexes formed by these peptides do not require cell surface GAGs for cellular uptake and DNA delivery. However, the charge distribution and the spacing of arginine residues affects DNA delivery efficiency of these peptides in presence of soluble GAGs, since these peptides show only a marginal increase in transfection in presence of exogenous GAGs unlike that observed with arginine homopeptides. Our results indicate that presence of arginine by itself drives these peptides to a cell surface GAG-independent route of entry to efficiently deliver functional DNA into cells in vitro. However, the inherent stability of the complexes differ when the distribution of arginines in the peptides is altered, thereby modulating its interaction with exogenous GAGs.

  15. Characterization of the PRMT gene family in rice reveals conservation of arginine methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Ahmad

    Full Text Available Post-translational methylation of arginine residues profoundly affects the structure and functions of protein and, hence, implicated in a myriad of essential cellular processes such as signal transduction, mRNA splicing and transcriptional regulation. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs, the enzymes catalyzing arginine methylation have been extensively studied in animals, yeast and, to some extent, in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Eight genes coding for the PRMTs were identified in Oryza sativa, previously. Here, we report that these genes show distinct expression patterns in various parts of the plant. In vivo targeting experiment demonstrated that GFP-tagged OsPRMT1, OsPRMT5 and OsPRMT10 were localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas OsPRMT6a and OsPRMT6b were predominantly localized to the nucleus. OsPRMT1, OsPRMT4, OsPRMT5, OsPRMT6a, OsPRMT6b and OsPRMT10 exhibited in vitro arginine methyltransferase activity against myelin basic protein, glycine-arginine-rich domain of fibrillarin and calf thymus core histones. Furthermore, they depicted specificities for the arginine residues in histones H3 and H4 and were classified into type I and Type II PRMTs, based on the formation of type of dimethylarginine in the substrate proteins. The two homologs of OsPRMT6 showed direct interaction in vitro and further titrating different amounts of these proteins in the methyltransferase assay revealed that OsPRMT6a inhibits the methyltransferase activity of OsPRMT6b, probably, by the formation of heterodimer. The identification and characterization of PRMTs in rice suggests the conservation of arginine methylation in monocots and hold promise for gaining further insight into regulation of plant development.

  16. Biogenic Amine Degradation by Bacillus Species Isolated from Traditional Fermented Soybean Food and Detection of Decarboxylase-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Seo, Bo Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2015-09-01

    Biogenic amines in some food products present considerable toxicological risks as potential human carcinogens when consumed in excess concentrations. In this study, we investigated the degradation of the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine and the presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine decarboxylases and amine oxidase in Bacillus species isolated from fermented soybean food. No expression of histidine and tyrosine decarboxylase genes (hdc and tydc) were detected in the Bacillus species isolated (B. subtilis HJ0-6, B. subtilis D'J53-4, and B. idriensis RD13-10), although substantial levels of amine oxidase gene (yobN) expression were observed. We also found that the three selected strains, as non-biogenic amineproducing bacteria, were significantly able to degrade the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine. These results indicated that the selected Bacillus species could be used as a starter culture for the control of biogenic amine accumulation and degradation in food. Our study findings also provided the basis for the development of potential biological control agents against these biogenic amines for use in the food preservation and food safety sectors.

  17. How to identify Raoultella spp. including R. ornithinolytica isolates negative for ornithine decarboxylase? The reliability of the chromosomal bla gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walckenaer, Estelle; Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2008-12-01

    Although Raoultella planticola and Raoultella ornithinolytica were described more than 20 years ago, identifying them remains difficult. The reliability of the chromosomal bla gene for this identification was evaluated in comparison with that of the 16S rDNA and rpoB genes in 35 Raoultella strains from different origins. Of the 26 strains previously identified as R. planticola by biochemical tests alone or in association with molecular methods, 21 harboured a bla gene with 99.8% identity with the bla gene of two reference R. ornithinolytica strains (bla(ORN) gene) and 5 harboured a bla gene with 99.2% identity with the bla gene of two reference R. planticola strains (bla(PLA) gene). The 9 isolates previously identified as R. ornithinolytica harboured a bla(ORN) gene. The bla gene-based identification was confirmed by 16S rDNA and rpoB sequencing. The 21 isolates newly identified as R. ornithinolytica had a test negative for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Molecular experiments suggested one copy of ODC-encoding gene in both ODC-negative R. ornithinolytica and R. planticola strains and two copies in ODC-positive R. orninthinolytica strains. Analysis of the 35 bla genes allowed us (i) to confirm an identity of only 94% between the bla genes of the two Raoultella species while this identity was > 98% for rpoB and > 99% for 16S rDNA genes and (ii) to develop and successfully apply a bla PCR RFLP assay for Raoultella spp. identification. Overall, this study allowed us to discover ODC-negative R. ornithinolytica and to provide a reliable Raoultella identification method widely available as not requiring sequencing equipment.

  18. Deletion of Genes Encoding Arginase Improves Use of "Heavy" Isotope-Labeled Arginine for Mass Spectrometry in Fission Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika E Borek

    Full Text Available The use of "heavy" isotope-labeled arginine for stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC mass spectrometry in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is hindered by the fact that under normal conditions, arginine is extensively catabolized in vivo, resulting in the appearance of "heavy"-isotope label in several other amino acids, most notably proline, but also glutamate, glutamine and lysine. This "arginine conversion problem" significantly impairs quantification of mass spectra. Previously, we developed a method to prevent arginine conversion in fission yeast SILAC, based on deletion of genes involved in arginine catabolism. Here we show that although this method is indeed successful when (13C6-arginine (Arg-6 is used for labeling, it is less successful when (13C6(15N4-arginine (Arg-10, a theoretically preferable label, is used. In particular, we find that with this method, "heavy"-isotope label derived from Arg-10 is observed in amino acids other than arginine, indicating metabolic conversion of Arg-10. Arg-10 conversion, which severely complicates both MS and MS/MS analysis, is further confirmed by the presence of (13C5(15N2-arginine (Arg-7 in arginine-containing peptides from Arg-10-labeled cells. We describe how all of the problems associated with the use of Arg-10 can be overcome by a simple modification of our original method. We show that simultaneous deletion of the fission yeast arginase genes car1+ and aru1+ prevents virtually all of the arginine conversion that would otherwise result from the use of Arg-10. This solution should enable a wider use of heavy isotope-labeled amino acids in fission yeast SILAC.

  19. Role of type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in the regulation of Circadian Per1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungtae Na

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks are the endogenous oscillators that regulate rhythmic physiological and behavioral changes to correspond to daily light-dark cycles. Molecular dissections have revealed that transcriptional feedback loops of the circadian clock genes drive the molecular oscillation, in which PER/CRY complexes inhibit the transcriptional activity of the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer to constitute a negative feedback loop. In this study, we identified the type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5 as an interacting molecule of CRY1. Although the Prmt5 gene was constitutively expressed, increased interaction of PRMT5 with CRY1 was observed when the Per1 gene was repressed both in synchronized mouse liver and NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, rhythmic recruitment of PRMT5 and CRY1 to the Per1 gene promoter was found to be associated with an increased level of histone H4R3 dimethylation and Per1 gene repression. Consistently, decreased histone H4R3 dimethylation and altered rhythmic Per1 gene expression were observed in Prmt5-depleted cells. Taken together, these findings provide an insight into the link between histone arginine methylation by PRMT5 and transcriptional regulation of the circadian Per1 gene.

  20. A plethora of plant serine/arginine-rich proteins: redundancy or evolution of novel gene functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyna, Maria; Barta, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Pre-mRNA processing is an important step in gene expression and its regulation leads to the expansion of the gene product repertoire. Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are key players in intron recognition and spliceosome assembly and contribute significantly to the alternative splicing process. Due to several duplication events, at least 19 SR proteins are present in the Arabidopsis genome which is almost twice as much as in humans. They fall into seven different subfamilies, three of them homologous to metazoan splicing factors whereas the other four seem to be specific for plants. The current data show that most duplicated genes have different spatio-temporal expression patterns indicating functional diversification. Interestingly, the majority of SR protein genes are alternatively spliced and in some cases this process was shown to be under developmental and/or environmental control. This might greatly influence gene expression of target genes as also exemplified by ectopic expression studies of particular SR proteins. PMID:15270675

  1. ArgR-dependent repression of arginine and histidine transport genes in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Marina; Minh, Phu Nguyen Le; Bostoen, Sophie; Massant, Jan; Charlier, Daniel

    2007-10-19

    In Escherichia coli L-arginine is taken up by three periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems that are encoded by two genetic loci: the artPIQM-artJ and argT-hisJQMP gene clusters. The transcription of the artJ, artPIQM and hisJQMP genes and operons is repressed by liganded ArgR, whereas argT, encoding the LAO (lysine, arginine, ornithine) periplasmic binding protein, is insensitive to the repressor. Here we characterize the repressible Esigma70 P artJ, P artP and P hisJ promoters and demonstrate that the cognate operators consist of two 18 bp ARG boxes separated by 3 bp. Determination of the energy landscape of the ArgR-operator contacts by missing contact probing and mutant studies indicated that each box of a pair contributes to complex formation in vitro and to the repressibility in vivo, but to a different extent. The organization of the ARG boxes and promoter elements in the control regions of the uptake genes is distinct from that of the arginine biosynthetic genes. The hisJQMP operon is the first member of the E. coli ArgR regulon, directly repressed by liganded ArgR, where none of the core promoter elements overlaps the ARG boxes. Single round in vitro transcription assays and DNase I footprinting experiments indicate that liganded ArgR inhibits P artJ and P artP promoter activity by steric exclusion of the RNA polymerase. In contrast, ArgR-mediated repression of P hisJ by inhibition of RNA polymerase binding appears to occur through topological changes of the promoter region.

  2. Sensing and adaptation to low pH mediated by inducible amino acid decarboxylases in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie P M Viala

    Full Text Available During the course of infection, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must successively survive the harsh acid stress of the stomach and multiply into a mild acidic compartment within macrophages. Inducible amino acid decarboxylases are known to promote adaptation to acidic environments. Three low pH inducible amino acid decarboxylases were annotated in the genome of S. Typhimurium, AdiA, CadA and SpeF, which are specific for arginine, lysine and ornithine, respectively. In this study, we characterized and compared the contributions of those enzymes in response to acidic challenges. Individual mutants as well as a strain deleted for the three genes were tested for their ability (i to survive an extreme acid shock, (ii to grow at mild acidic pH and (iii to infect the mouse animal model. We showed that the lysine decarboxylase CadA had the broadest range of activity since it both had the capacity to promote survival at pH 2.3 and growth at pH 4.5. The arginine decarboxylase AdiA was the most performant in protecting S. Typhimurium from a shock at pH 2.3 and the ornithine decarboxylase SpeF conferred the best growth advantage under anaerobiosis conditions at pH 4.5. We developed a GFP-based gene reporter to monitor the pH of the environment as perceived by S. Typhimurium. Results showed that activities of the lysine and ornithine decarboxylases at mild acidic pH did modify the local surrounding of S. Typhimurium both in culture medium and in macrophages. Finally, we tested the contribution of decarboxylases to virulence and found that these enzymes were dispensable for S. Typhimurium virulence during systemic infection. In the light of this result, we examined the genomes of Salmonella spp. normally responsible of systemic infection and observed that the genes encoding these enzymes were not well conserved, supporting the idea that these enzymes may be not required during systemic infection.

  3. Cloning and molecular characterization of an ornithine decarboxylase gene and its expression during embryonic development of the housefly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutges, Michelle J; Santoso, Adi

    2011-10-01

    We are interested in identifying targets that may be used to develop new control products for the common housefly, Musca domestica, a vector of disease for many vertebrates. One such target, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), is an embryonic enzyme involved in the regulation of polyamines and is a critical enzyme during M. domestica development. In this study, the cDNA for ODC from M. domestica was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The full-length cDNA was 1,337-bp, consistent with a single band of approximately 1.35 kb obtained by northern analysis. The open-reading frame contains 1,191 bp, yielding a deduced polypeptide of 396 amino acid residues with a predicted mass of 44,618 Da. The deduced M. domestica ODC protein was homologous to other ODC proteins. mRNA expression profiles analyzed by real-time PCR indicated that the ODC transcript is temporally regulated throughout embryogenesis. Sequence data and Southern blot analysis suggests that there were likely only one or two closely linked copies of the M. domestica ODC gene.

  4. Associations of polymorphisms in histidine decarboxylase, histamine N-methyltransferase and histamine receptor H3 genes with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-Hao He

    Full Text Available We previously found that genetic polymorphisms in gene coding for histamine H4 receptors were related to the risk and malignant degree of breast cancer. The roles of polymorphisms in other histamine-related genes, such as histidine decarboxylase (HDC, histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT and histamine H3 receptor (HRH3, remain unexplored. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical associations of polymorphisms in HDC, HNMT and HRH3 with breast cancer. Two hundred and one unrelated Chinese Han breast cancer patients and 205 ethnicity-matched health controls were recruited for case-control investigation. Genomic DNA from the participants was extracted and 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in HDC, HNMT and HRH3 were genotyped. We found that polymorphisms of HNMT and HRH3 were irrelevant with breast cancer in the present study. However, the T allele of rs7164386 in HDC significantly decreased the risk of breast cancer (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 0.387; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 0.208-0.720; P = 0.003. Furthermore, for HDC haplotypes, the CG haplotype of rs7164386-rs7182203 was more frequent among breast cancer patients (adjusted OR, 1.828; 95% CI, 1.218-2.744; P = 0.004 while the TG haplotype was more frequent among health controls (adjusted OR, 0.351; 95% CI, 0.182-0.678; P = 0.002. These findings indicated that polymorphisms of HDC gene were significantly associated with breast cancer in Chinese Han population and may be novel diagnostic or therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Further studies with larger participants worldwide are still needed for conclusion validation.

  5. arcD, the First Gene of the arc Operon for Anaerobic Arginine Catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Encodes an Arginine-Ornithine Exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoogt, Hans J.C.; Abee, Tjakko; Gamper, Marianne; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Haas, Dieter; Konings, Wil N.

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of oxygen and nitrate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa metabolizes arginine via the arginine deiminase pathway, which allows slow growth on rich media. The conversion of arginine to ornithine, CO2, and NH3 is coupled to the production of ATP from ADP. The enzymes of the arginine deiminase path

  6. ARCD, THE 1ST GENE OF THE ARC OPERON FOR ANAEROBIC ARGININE CATABOLISM IN PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA, ENCODES AN ARGININE-ORNITHINE EXCHANGER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERHOOGT, HJC; SMIT, H; ABEE, T; GAMPER, M; DRIESSEN, AJM; KONINGS, WN

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of oxygen and nitrate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa metabolizes arginine via the arginine deiminase pathway, which allows slow growth on rich media. The conversion of arginine to ornithine, CO2, and NH3 is coupled to the production of ATP from ADP. The enzymes of the arginine deiminase path

  7. Partial Cloning and Nucleotide Sequencing of Glutamate Decarboxylase Gene Isoform 65 from Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Esmaeili

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Because obtaining fresh human brain is difficult and amount of mRNA is low, it may not be easy to clone full length of human gad gene. The approach described in this paper may be useful in cloning of other genes for which the corresponding mRNA is present at low levels.

  8. Response of maize serine/arginine-rich protein gene family in seedlings to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Guo, Yuqi; Cui, Weiling; Xu, Aihua; Tian, Zengyuan

    2014-07-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) in eukaryotic organisms is closely related to the gene regulation in plant abiotic stress responses, in which serine/arginine-rich proteins (SR proteins) act as key regulators. The genome sequence of maize inbred line B73 was analyzed, showing that the promoter regions of SR genes possess about three to eight kinds of cis-acting regulatory elements. Twenty-seven SR genes encode alkaline proteins, and 23 of which are divided into five subgroups in terms of the first RNA recognition motif (RRM) at the amino terminal. The expression of SR genes showed tissue-specific and genotype-dependent features under drought stress in the hybrid Zhengdan-958 and its parents, Zheng-58 and Chang-7-2 via bidirectional hierarchical clustering. SR genes were down-regulated in roots while they were up-regulated in shoots under drought stress. However, SR genes were down-regulated in both roots and shoots in three different rehydration stages after severe drought stress. Additionally, a widespread alternative splicing exists in all SR genes although SR genes showed differential expression tendency under drought stress and/or during rehydration stages. Results above will deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant response to abiotic stress from the perspective of AS-network.

  9. [Molecular cloning and characterization of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase gene (DoSAMDC1) in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-06-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is a key enzyme in the polyamines biosynthesis, thus is essential for basic physiological and biochemical processes in plant. In the present study, a full length cDNA of DoSAMDC1 gene was obtained from symbiotic germinated seeds of an endangered medicinal orchid species Dendrobium officinale, using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR technique for the first time. The full length cDNA was 1 979 bp, with three open reading frames, i.e. tiny-uORF, small-uORF and main ORF (mORF). The mORF was deduced to encode a 368 amino acid (aa) protein with a molecular mass of 40.7 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.2. The deduced DoSAMDC1 protein, without signal peptide, had two highly conserved function domains (proenzyme cleavage site and PEST domain) and a 22-aa transmembrane domain (89-110). Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic relationship analyses revealed DoSAMDC1 had a higher level of sequence similarity to monocot SAMDCs than those of dicot. Expression patterns using qRT-PCR analyses showed that DoSAMDC1 transcripts were expressed constitutively without significant change in the five tissues (not infected with fungi). While in the symbiotic germinated seeds, the expression level was enhanced by 2.74 fold over that in the none-germinated seeds, indicating possible involvement of the gene in symbiotic seed germination of D. officinale.

  10. Screening for mutations in the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, L; Ged, C; Hombrados, I;

    1999-01-01

    , confirming the heterogeneity of the underlying genetic defects of these diseases. We have established a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) assay for mutation detection in the UROD gene, enabling the simultaneous screening for known and unknown mutations. The established assay has proved able...

  11. BASIC AMINO ACID CARRIER 2 gene expression modulates arginine and urea content and stress recovery in Arabidopsis leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine ePlanchais

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants, basic amino acids are important for the synthesis of proteins and signaling molecules and for nitrogen recycling. The Arabidopsis nuclear gene BASIC AMINO ACID CARRIER 2 (BAC2 encodes a mitochondria-located carrier that transports basic amino acids in vitro. We present here an analysis of the physiological and genetic function of BAC2 in planta. When BAC2 is overexpressed in vivo, it triggers catabolism of arginine, a basic amino acid, leading to arginine depletion and urea accumulation in leaves. BAC2 expression was known to be strongly induced by stress. We found that compared to wild type plants, bac2 null mutants (bac2-1 recover poorly from hyperosmotic stress when restarting leaf expansion. The bac2-1 transcriptome differs from the wild-type transcriptome in control conditions and under hyperosmotic stress. The expression of genes encoding stress-related transcription factors, arginine metabolism enzymes, and transporters is particularly disturbed in bac2-1, and in control conditions, the bac2-1 transcriptome has some hallmarks of a wild-type stress transcriptome. The BAC2 carrier is therefore involved in controlling the balance of arginine and arginine-derived metabolites and its associated amino acid metabolism is physiologically important in equipping plants to respond to and recover from stress.

  12. Cloning and expression of ornithine decarboxylase gene from human colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yan Hu; Xiao-Ming Wang; Wei Wang; Xian-Xi Liu; Chun-Ying Jiang; Yan Zhang; Ji-Feng Bian; Yi Lu; Zhao Geng; Shi-Lian Liu; Chuan-Hua Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To construct and express ODC recombinant gene for further exploring its potential use in early diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma.METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from colon cancer tissues and amplified by reverse-transcription PCR with two primers, which span the whole coding region of ODC. The synthesized ODC cDNA was cloned into vector pQE-30 at restriction sites BamH I and Sal I which constituted recombinant expression plasmid pQE30-ODC. The sequence of inserted fragment was confirmed by DNA sequencing,the fusion protein including 6His-tag was facilitated for purification by Ni-NTA chromatographic column.RESULTS: ODC expression vector was constructed and confirmed with restriction enzyme digestion and subsequent DNA sequencing. The DNA sequence matching on NCBI Blast showed 99 % affinity. The vector was transformed into E.coli M15 and expressed. The expressed ODC protein was verified with Western blotting.CONCLUSION: The ODC prokaryote expression vector is constructed and thus greatly facilitates to study the role of ODC in colorectal carcinoma.

  13. Quantitative analysis of histidine decarboxylase gene (hdcA) transcription and histamine production by Streptococcus thermophilus PRI60 under conditions relevant to cheese making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Gardini, Fausto; Rizzotti, Lucia; La Gioia, Federica; Tabanelli, Giulia; Torriani, Sandra

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of parameters relevant for cheese making on histamine formation by Streptococcus thermophilus. Strains possessing a histidine decarboxylase (hdcA) gene represented 6% of the dairy isolates screened. The most histaminogenic, S. thermophilus PRI60, exhibited in skim milk a high basal level of expression of hdcA, upregulation in the presence of free histidine and salt, and repression after thermization. HdcA activity persisted in cell extracts, indicating that histamine might accumulate after cell lysis in cheese.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Histidine Decarboxylase Gene (hdcA) Transcription and Histamine Production by Streptococcus thermophilus PRI60 under Conditions Relevant to Cheese Making▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Gardini, Fausto; Rizzotti, Lucia; La Gioia, Federica; Tabanelli, Giulia; Torriani, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of parameters relevant for cheese making on histamine formation by Streptococcus thermophilus. Strains possessing a histidine decarboxylase (hdcA) gene represented 6% of the dairy isolates screened. The most histaminogenic, S. thermophilus PRI60, exhibited in skim milk a high basal level of expression of hdcA, upregulation in the presence of free histidine and salt, and repression after thermization. HdcA activity persisted in cell extracts, indicating that histamine might accumulate after cell lysis in cheese. PMID:21378060

  15. Gender differences in associations of glutamate decarboxylase 1 gene (GAD1 variants with panic disorder.

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    Heike Weber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Panic disorder is common (5% prevalence and females are twice as likely to be affected as males. The heritable component of panic disorder is estimated at 48%. Glutamic acid dehydrogenase GAD1, the key enzyme for the synthesis of the inhibitory and anxiolytic neurotransmitter GABA, is supposed to influence various mental disorders, including mood and anxiety disorders. In a recent association study in depression, which is highly comorbid with panic disorder, GAD1 risk allele associations were restricted to females. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs tagging the common variation in GAD1 were genotyped in two independent gender and age matched case-control samples (discovery sample n = 478; replication sample n = 584. Thirteen SNPs passed quality control and were examined for gender-specific enrichment of risk alleles associated with panic disorder by using logistic regression including a genotype×gender interaction term. The latter was found to be nominally significant for four SNPs (rs1978340, rs3762555, rs3749034, rs2241165 in the discovery sample; of note, the respective minor/risk alleles were associated with panic disorder only in females. These findings were not confirmed in the replication sample; however, the genotype×gender interaction of rs3749034 remained significant in the combined sample. Furthermore, this polymorphism showed a nominally significant association with the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire sum score. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study represents the first systematic evaluation of gender-specific enrichment of risk alleles of the common SNP variation in the panic disorder candidate gene GAD1. Our tentative results provide a possible explanation for the higher susceptibility of females to panic disorder.

  16. Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. IX. Differential effects of arginine, leucine, glutamine, and glucose on interferon tau, ornithine decarboxylase, and nitric oxide synthase in the ovine conceptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Burghardt, Robert C; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Greg A; Spencer, Thomas E; Bazer, Fuller W

    2011-06-01

    Nutrients are primary requirements for development of conceptuses (embryo and extraembryonic membranes), including protein synthesis. We have shown that arginine (Arg), leucine (Leu), and glucose stimulate protein synthesis through phosphorylation of MTOR signaling molecules, thereby increasing proliferation of ovine trophectoderm cells. This study determined whether Arg, Leu, glutamine (Gln), and glucose influence gene expression and protein synthesis in explant cultures of ovine conceptuses recovered from ewes on Day 16 of pregnancy. Conceptuses were deprived of select nutrients and then cultured with either Arg, Leu, Gln, or glucose for 18 h, after which they were analyzed for abundance of MTOR, RPS6K, RPS6, EIF4EBP1 (also known as 4EBP1), IFNT, NOS2, NOS3, GCH1, and ODC1 mRNAs and proteins. Levels of MTOR, RPS6K, RPS6, and EIF4EBP1 mRNAs were not affected by treatment with any of the select nutrients. Similarly, expression of IFNT, NOS2, NOS3, and ODC1 mRNAs were not different. Interestingly, GCH1 mRNA levels increased in response to Arg treatment. Importantly, Arg, Leu, Gln, and glucose increased the abundance of phosphorylated MTOR, RPS6K, RPS6, and EIF4EBP1 proteins as well as NOS and ODC1 proteins, but only Arg increased the abundance of IFNT protein. These findings indicate that Arg, Leu, Gln, and glucose stimulate translation of mRNAs to increase synthesis of proteins through phosphorylation and activation of components of the MTOR signaling pathway. Increases in abundance of IFNT protein (the pregnancy recognition signal), NOS2, NOS3 and GCH1 for conversion of Arg to nitric oxide, and ODC1 for synthesis of polyamines are all important for growth and development of the ovine conceptus during pregnancy.

  17. Roles of export genes cgmA and lysE for the production of L-arginine and L-citrulline by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Dorit; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Taniguchi, Hironori; Wendisch, Volker F

    2016-10-01

    L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid with application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Metabolic engineering strategies have been applied for overproduction of L-arginine by Corynebacterium glutamicum. LysE was the only known L-arginine exporter of this bacterium. However, an L-arginine-producing strain carrying a deletion of lysE still accumulated about 10 mM L-arginine in the growth medium. Overexpression of the putative putrescine and cadaverine export permease gene cgmA was shown to compensate for the lack of lysE with regard to L-arginine export. Moreover, plasmid-borne overexpression of cgmA rescued the toxic effect caused by feeding of the dipeptide Arg-Ala to lysE-deficient C. glutamicum and argO-deficient Escherichia coli strains. Deletion of the repressor gene cgmR improved L-arginine titers by 5 %. Production of L-lysine and L-citrulline was not affected by cgmA overexpression. Taken together, CgmA may function as an export system not only for the diamine putrescine and cadaverine but also for L-arginine. The major export system for L-lysine and L-arginine LysE may also play a role in L-citrulline export since production of L-citrulline was reduced when lysE was deleted and improved by 45 % when lysE was overproduced.

  18. Identification of five novel arginine vasopressin gene mutations in patients with familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dan; Cen, Jing; Nie, Min; Gu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a genetic disorder presenting with polyuria and polydipsia and is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. The clinical manifestations of this disorder vary greatly depending on different mutations. The present study reports the genetic, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with FNDI caused by five novel mutations. Ten patients encompassing two pedigrees and four individual cases diagnosed with FNDI were included. Biochemical markers and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated and genomic DNA was sequenced. The results revealed that age at onset ranged from 1.0 to 11.0 years. Daily urine volumes ranged from 2.0 to 12.0 liters. One patient had mental retardation and three patients had puberty retardation; one patient had nausea, vomiting and mental retardation; and two patients had fever. Treatments, if given, included desmopressin and vasopressin tannate. Posterior pituitary T1-weighted MRI high-intensity signals were absent in two cases and present in four cases. Sequencing revealed five novel mutations in the AVP-NPII gene. On the whole, the findings of the present study indicate that FNDI exhibits different clinical manifestations and a diverse age at onset. Posterior pituitary MRI does not provide a definite diagnosis of FNDI. We also identified five novel AVP-NPII mutations. Thus, an enhanced understanding of FNDI pathogenesis may provide a basis for the development of presymptomatic FNDI diagnotic tools.

  19. Short-term arginine deprivation results in large-scale modulation of hepatic gene expression in both normal and tumor cells: microarray bioinformatic analysis

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    Sabo Edmond

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported arginine-sensitive regulation of LAT1 amino acid transporter (SLC 7A5 in normal rodent hepatic cells with loss of arginine sensitivity and high level constitutive expression in tumor cells. We hypothesized that liver cell gene expression is highly sensitive to alterations in the amino acid microenvironment and that tumor cells may differ substantially in gene sets sensitive to amino acid availability. To assess the potential number and classes of hepatic genes sensitive to arginine availability at the RNA level and compare these between normal and tumor cells, we used an Affymetrix microarray approach, a paired in vitro model of normal rat hepatic cells and a tumorigenic derivative with triplicate independent replicates. Cells were exposed to arginine-deficient or control conditions for 18 hours in medium formulated to maintain differentiated function. Results Initial two-way analysis with a p-value of 0.05 identified 1419 genes in normal cells versus 2175 in tumor cells whose expression was altered in arginine-deficient conditions relative to controls, representing 9–14% of the rat genome. More stringent bioinformatic analysis with 9-way comparisons and a minimum of 2-fold variation narrowed this set to 56 arginine-responsive genes in normal liver cells and 162 in tumor cells. Approximately half the arginine-responsive genes in normal cells overlap with those in tumor cells. Of these, the majority was increased in expression and included multiple growth, survival, and stress-related genes. GADD45, TA1/LAT1, and caspases 11 and 12 were among this group. Previously known amino acid regulated genes were among the pool in both cell types. Available cDNA probes allowed independent validation of microarray data for multiple genes. Among genes downregulated under arginine-deficient conditions were multiple genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor was

  20. Rapid detection and quantification of tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdc) and its expression in gram-positive bacteria associated with fermented foods using PCR-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, Sandra; Gatto, Veronica; Sembeni, Silvia; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna; Belletti, Nicoletta; Gardini, Fausto; Bover-Cid, Sara

    2008-01-01

    In this study, PCR-based procedures were developed to detect the occurrence and quantify the expression of the tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdc) in gram-positive bacteria associated with fermented foods. Consensus primers were used in conventional and reverse transcription PCR to analyze a collection of 87 pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci. All enterococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus fermentum strains and 1 of 10 Staphylococcus xylosus strains produced amplification products with the primers DEC5 and DEC3 in accordance with results of the screening plate method and with previously reported result obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography. No amplicons were obtained for tyramine-negative strains, confirming the high specificity of these new primers. A novel quantitative real-time PCR assay was successfully applied to quantify tdc and its transcript in pure cultures and in meat and meat products. This assay allowed estimation of the influence of different variables (pH, temperature, and NaCl concentration) on the tdc expression of the tyraminogenic strain Enterococcus faecalis EF37 after 72 h of growth in M17 medium. Data obtained suggest that stressful conditions could induce greater tyrosine decarboxylase activity. The culture-independent PCR procedures developed here may be used for reliable and fast detection and quantification of bacterial tyraminogenic activity without the limitations of conventional techniques.

  1. Mutation of the Erwinia amylovora argD gene causes arginine auxotrophy, nonpathogenicity in apples, and reduced virulence in pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Peter, Kari A; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Fire blight is caused by Erwinia amylovora and is the most destructive bacterial disease of apples and pears worldwide. In this study, we found that E. amylovora argD(1000)::Tn5, an argD Tn5 transposon mutant that has the Tn5 transposon inserted after nucleotide 999 in the argD gene-coding region, was an arginine auxotroph that did not cause fire blight in apple and had reduced virulence in immature pear fruits. The E. amylovora argD gene encodes a predicted N-acetylornithine aminotransferase enzyme, which is involved in the production of the amino acid arginine. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type argD gene complemented both the nonpathogenic and the arginine auxotrophic phenotypes of the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant. However, even when mixed with virulent E. amylovora cells and inoculated onto immature apple fruit, the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant still failed to grow, while the virulent strain grew and caused disease. Furthermore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid was stably maintained in the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant growing in host tissues without any antibiotic selection. Therefore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid could be useful for the expression of genes, markers, and reporters in E. amylovora growing in planta, without concern about losing the plasmid over time. The ArgD protein cannot be considered an E. amylovora virulence factor because the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant was auxotrophic and had a primary metabolism defect. Nevertheless, these results are informative about the parasitic nature of the fire blight disease interaction, since they indicate that E. amylovora cannot obtain sufficient arginine from apple and pear fruit tissues or from apple vegetative tissues, either at the beginning of the infection process or after the infection has progressed to an advanced state.

  2. Molecular cloning and functional identification of a plant ornithine decarboxylase cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, A J; Furze, J M; Rhodes, M J; Burtin, D

    1996-02-15

    A cDNA for a plant ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key enzyme in putrescine and polyamine biosynthesis, has been isolated from root cultures of the solanaceous plant Datura stramonium. Reverse transcription-PCR employing degenerate oligonucleotide primers representing conserved motifs from other eukaryotic ODCs was used to isolate the cDNA. The longest open reading frame potentially encodes a peptide of 431 amino acids and exhibits similarity to other eukaryotic ODCs, prokaryotic and eukaryotic arginine decarboxylases (ADCs), prokaryotic meso-diaminopimelate decarboxylases and the product of the tabA gene of Pseudomonas syringae cv. tabaci. Residues involved at the active site of the mouse ODC are conserved in the plant enzyme. The plant ODC does not possess the C-terminal extension found in the mammalian enzyme, implicated in rapid turnover of the protein, suggesting that the plant ODC may have a longer half-life. Expression of the plant ODC in Escherichia coli and demonstration of ODC activity confirmed that the cDNA encodes an active ODC enzyme. This is the first description of the primary structure of a eukaryotic ODC isolated from an organism where the alternative ADC routine to putrescine is present.

  3. Glutamine, glutamate, and arginine-based acid resistance in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Januana S; Seeras, Arisha; Sanchez-Maldonado, Alma Fernanda; Zhang, Chonggang; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine whether glutamine deamidation improves acid resistance of Lactobacillus reuteri, and to assess whether arginine, glutamine, and glutamate-mediated acid resistance are redundant or complementary mechanisms of acid resistance. Three putative glutaminase genes, gls1, gls2, and gls3, were identified in L. reuteri 100-23. All three genes were expressed during growth in mMRS and wheat sourdough. L. reuteri consistently over-expressed gls3 and the glutamate decarboxylase gadB. L. reuteri 100-23ΔgadB over-expressed gls3 and the arginine deiminase gene adi. Analysis of the survival of L. reuteri in acidic conditions revealed that arginine conversion is effective at pH of 3.5 while glutamine or glutamate conversion were effective at pH of 2.5. Arginine conversion increased the pHin but not ΔΨ; glutamate decarboxylation had only a minor effect on the pHin but increased the ΔΨ. This study demonstrates that glutamine deamidation increases the acid resistance of L. reuteri independent of glutamate decarboxylase activity. Arginine and glutamine/glutamate conversions confer resistance to lactate at pH of 3.5 and phosphate at pH of 2.5, respectively. Knowledge of L. reuteri's acid resistance improves the understanding of the adaptation of L. reuteri to intestinal ecosystems, and facilitates the selection of probiotic and starter cultures.

  4. Expression pattern of a nuclear encoded mitochondrial arginine-ornithine translocator gene from Arabidopsis

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    Schneider Anja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine and citrulline serve as nitrogen storage forms, but are also involved in biosynthetic and catabolic pathways. Metabolism of arginine, citrulline and ornithine is distributed between mitochondria and cytosol. For the shuttle of intermediates between cytosol and mitochondria transporters present on the inner mitochondrial membrane are required. Yeast contains a mitochondrial translocator for ornithine and arginine, Ort1p/Arg11p. Ort1p/Arg11p is a member of the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF essential for ornithine export from mitochondria. The yeast arg11 mutant, which is deficient in Ort1p/Arg11p grows poorly on media lacking arginine. Results High-level expression of a nuclear encoded Arabidopsis thaliana homolog (AtmBAC2 of Ort1p/Arg11p was able to suppress the growth deficiency of arg11. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated expression of AtmBAC2 in all tissues with highest levels in flowers. Promoter-GUS fusions showed preferential expression in flowers, i.e. pollen, in the vasculature of siliques and in aborted seeds. Variable expression was observed in leaf vasculature. Induction of the promoter was not observed during the first two weeks in seedlings grown on media containing NH4NO3, arginine or ornithine as sole nitrogen sources. Conclusion AtmBAC2 was isolated as a mitochondrial transporter for arginine in Arabidopsis. The absence of expression in developing seeds and in cotyledons of seedlings indicates that other transporters are responsible for storage and mobilization of arginine in seeds.

  5. Achieving high gene delivery performance with caveolae-mediated endocytosis pathway by (l)-arginine/(l)-histidine co-modified cationic gene carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Luo, Ting; Sheng, Ruilong; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Zhao; Cao, Amin

    2016-12-01

    Developing new amphiphilic polymers with natural product moieties has been regarded as a promising way to achieve biocompatibility and certain biological functions. In prior work, we developed some natural (l)-arginine modified cationic polymers (PAHMAA-Rs) as cationic gene carriers. For the sake of continuing optimize the gene delivery performance, herein, a new series of (l)-arginine and (l)-histidine co-modified cationic poly (ω-aminohexyl methacrylamide)s (PAHMAA-R-H) were synthesized and characterized with (1)H NMR, GPC-SLS and FT-IR. Their proton buffering capacities were studied by acid-base titration assay. pDNA binding affinity and self-assembly properties of the polyplexes were analyzed by agarose gel retardation assay, DLS and AFM, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity of the PAHMAA-R-H was determined by MTT and LDH assays in H1299 cells, the gene transfection efficacy and intracellular uptake capability were evaluated by luciferase assay and FACS, respectively. Moreover, the endocytosis pathways and intracellular distribution of the polyplexes were investigated by using specific endocytic inhibitors and fluorescent co-localization techniques. The results demonstrated that co-modification of (l)-arginine and (l)-histidine onto the PAHMAA polymer could enhance proton buffering capacity, shield surface charge, decrease cytotoxicity, and improve gene transfection efficiency and serum-compatibility. Moreover, the gene transfection and intracellular uptake behaviors were disclosed strongly rely on the (l)-arginine/(l)-histidine modification ratios. The polyplexes tend to be internalized through caveolae-mediated endocytosis gateway and localized with endosomes/lysosomes in H1299 cells. Notably, among the polymers, the PAHMAA-R18-H6 exhibited remarkable gene delivery efficiency and serum compatibility, which made it promising gene transfection agent for practical application.

  6. Graphene Functionalized with Arginine Decreases the Development of Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor in a Gene-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Vadalasetty, Krishna Prasad; Grodzik, Marta; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Kurantowicz, Natalia; Strojny, Barbara; Hotowy, Anna; Lipińska, Ludwika; Jagiełło, Joanna; Chwalibog, André

    2015-10-23

    Our previous studies revealed that graphene had anticancer properties in experiments in vitro with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells and in tumors cultured in vivo. We hypothesized that the addition of arginine or proline to graphene solutions might counteract graphene agglomeration and increase the activity of graphene. Experiments were performed in vitro with GBM U87 cells and in vivo with GBM tumors cultured on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes. The measurements included cell morphology, mortality, viability, tumor morphology, histology, and gene expression. The cells and tumors were treated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and rGO functionalized with arginine (rGO + Arg) or proline (rGO + Pro). The results confirmed the anticancer effect of graphene on GBM cells and tumor tissue. After functionalization with amino acids, nanoparticles were distributed more specifically, and the flakes of graphene were less agglomerated. The molecule of rGO + Arg did not increase the expression of TP53 in comparison to rGO, but did not increase the expression of MDM2 or the MDM2/TP53 ratio in the tumor, suggesting that arginine may block MDM2 expression. The expression of NQO1, known to be a strong protector of p53 protein in tumor tissue, was greatly increased. The results indicate that the complex of rGO + Arg has potential in GBM therapy.

  7. Transcriptional and functional analysis of oxalyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase and formyl-CoA transferase genes from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Bruno-Bárcena, Jose M; Hassan, Hosni M; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2006-03-01

    Oxalic acid is found in dietary sources (such as coffee, tea, and chocolate) or is produced by the intestinal microflora from metabolic precursors, like ascorbic acid. In the human intestine, oxalate may combine with calcium, sodium, magnesium, or potassium to form less soluble salts, which can cause pathological disorders such as hyperoxaluria, urolithiasis, and renal failure in humans. In this study, an operon containing genes homologous to a formyl coenzyme A transferase gene (frc) and an oxalyl coenzyme A decarboxylase gene (oxc) was identified in the genome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus. Physiological analysis of a mutant harboring a deleted version of the frc gene confirmed that frc expression specifically improves survival in the presence of oxalic acid at pH 3.5 compared with the survival of the wild-type strain. Moreover, the frc mutant was unable to degrade oxalate. These genes, which have not previously been described in lactobacilli, appear to be responsible for oxalate degradation in this organism. Transcriptional analysis using cDNA microarrays and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that mildly acidic conditions were a prerequisite for frc and oxc transcription. As a consequence, oxalate-dependent induction of these genes occurred only in cells first adapted to subinhibitory concentrations of oxalate and then exposed to pH 5.5. Where genome information was available, other lactic acid bacteria were screened for frc and oxc genes. With the exception of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium lactis, none of the other strains harbored genes for oxalate utilization.

  8. Cysteine dioxygenase and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase genes of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum: possible involvement in hypotaurine synthesis and adaptation to hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Toshihiro; Hongo, Yuki; Koito, Tomoko; Nakamura-Kusakabe, Ikumi; Shimamura, Shigeru; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takao; Maruyama, Tadashi; Inoue, Koji

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that invertebrates inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent areas use the sulfinic acid hypotaurine, a precursor of taurine, to protect against the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide contained in the seawater from the vent. In this protective system, hypotaurine is accumulated in the gill, the primary site of sulfide exposure. However, the pathway for hypotaurine synthesis in mollusks has not been identified. In this study, we screened for the mRNAs of enzymes involved in hypotaurine synthesis in the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum and cloned cDNAs encoding cysteine dioxygenase and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase. As mRNAs encoding cysteamine dioxygenase and cysteine lyase were not detected, the cysteine sulfinate pathway is suggested to be the major pathway of hypotaurine and taurine synthesis. The two genes were found to be expressed in all the tissues examined, but the gill exhibited the highest expression. The mRNA level in the gill was not significantly changed by exposure to sulfides or thiosulfate. These results suggests that the gill of B. septemdierum maintains high levels of expression of the two genes regardless of ambient sulfide level and accumulates hypotaurine continuously to protect against sudden exposure to high level of sulfide.

  9. Tyrosine decarboxylase activity of enterococci grown in media with different nutritional potential: tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine accumulation and tyrDC gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargossi, Eleonora; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gatto, Veronica; Gardini, Fausto; Torriani, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accumulate tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine by two strains of Enterococcus faecalis and two strains Enterococcus faecium was evaluated in two cultural media added or not with tyrosine. All the enterococcal strains possessed a tyrosine decarboxylase (tyrDC) which determined tyramine accumulation in all the conditions tested, independently on the addition of high concentration of free tyrosine. Enterococci differed in rate and level of biogenic amines accumulation. E. faecalis EF37 and E. faecium FC12 produced tyramine in high amount since the exponential growth phase, while 2-phenylethylamine was accumulated when tyrosine was depleted. E. faecium FC12 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212 showed a slower tyraminogenic activity which took place mainly in the stationary phase up to 72 h of incubation. Moreover, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 produced 2-phenylethylamine only in the media without tyrosine added. In BHI added or not with tyrosine the tyrDC gene expression level differed considerably depending on the strains and the growth phase. In particular, the tyrDC gene expression was high during the exponential phase in rich medium for all the strains and subsequently decreased except for E. faecium FC12. Even if tyrDC presence is common among enterococci, this study underlines the extremely variable decarboxylating potential of strains belonging to the same species, suggesting strain-dependent implications in food safety.

  10. Over-expression of mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter enhances fruit quality in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Roopali; Gupta, Aarti; Chowdhary, Anuj; Pal, Ram Krishna; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2015-02-01

    Diamine putrescine (Put) and polyamines; spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are essential component of every cell because of their involvement in the regulation of cell division, growth and development. The aim of this study is to enhance the levels of Put during fruit development and see its implications in ripening and quality of tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter (2A11) were developed. Transgenic fruits exhibited enhanced levels of Put, Spd and Spm, with a concomitant reduction in ethylene levels, rate of respiration and physiological loss of water. Consequently such fruits displayed significant delay of on-vine ripening and prolonged shelf life over untransformed fruits. The activation of Put biosynthetic pathway at the onset of ripening in transgenic fruits is also consistent with the improvement of qualitative traits such as total soluble solids, titratable acids and total sugars. Such changes were associated with alteration in expression pattern of ripening specific genes. Transgenic fruits were also fortified with important nutraceuticals like lycopene, ascorbate and antioxidants. Therefore, these transgenic tomatoes would be useful for the improvement of tomato cultivars through breeding approaches.

  11. Aversive odorant causing appetite decrease downregulates tyrosine decarboxylase gene expression in the olfactory receptor neuron of the blowfly, Phormia regina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2012-01-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, exposure to d-limonene for 5 days during feeding inhibits proboscis extension reflex behavior due to decreasing tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. TA is synthesized by tyrosine decarboxylase (Tdc) and catalyzed into octopamine (OA) by TA ß-hydroxylase (Tbh). To address the mechanisms of TA titer regulation in the blowfly, we cloned Tdc and Tbh cDNAs from P. regina (PregTdc and PregTbh). The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high identity to those of the corresponding proteins from Drosophila melanogaster at the amino acid level. PregTdc was expressed in the antenna, labellum, and tarsus whereas PregTbh was expressed in the head, indicating that TA is mainly synthesized in the sensory organs whereas OA is primarily synthesized in the brain. d-Limonene exposure significantly decreased PregTdc expression in the antenna but not in the labellum and the tarsus, indicating that PregTdc expressed in the antenna is responsible for decreasing TA titer. PregTdc-like immunoreactive material was localized in the thin-walled sensillum. In contrast, the OA/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR) was localized to the thick-walled sensillum. The results indicated that d-limonene inhibits PregTdc expression in the olfactory receptor neurons in the thin-walled sensilla, likely resulting in reduced TA levels in the receptor neurons in the antenna. TA may be transferred from the receptor neuron to the specific synaptic junction in the antennal lobe of the brain through the projection neurons and play a role in conveying the aversive odorant information to the projection and local neurons.

  12. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  13. Production of itaconate by whole-cell bioconversion of citrate mediated by expression of multiple cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cadA) genes in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Seo, Hyung-Min; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Song, Hun-Seok; Kim, Jung-Ho; Jeon, Jong-Min; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Wooseong; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Yun-Gon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Itaconate, a C5 unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, is an important chemical building block that is used in manufacturing high-value products, such as latex and superabsorbent polymers. Itaconate is produced by fermentation of sugars by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus. However, fermentation by A. terreus involves a long fermentation period and the formation of various byproducts, resulting in high production costs. E. coli has been developed as an alternative for producing itaconate. However, fermentation of glucose gives low conversion yields and low productivity. Here, we report the whole-cell bioconversion of citrate to itaconate with enhanced aconitase and cis-aconitate decarboxylase activities by controlling the expression of multiple cadA genes. In addition, this bioconversion system does not require the use of buffers, which reduces the production cost and the byproducts released during purification. Using this whole-cell bioconversion system, we were able to catalyze the conversion of 319.8 mM of itaconate (41.6 g/L) from 500 mM citrate without any buffer system or additional cofactors, with 64.0% conversion in 19 h and a productivity of 2.19 g/L/h. Our bioconversion system suggests very high productivity for itaconate production. PMID:28051098

  14. Tomato Glutamate Decarboxylase Genes SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 Play Key Roles in Regulating γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Mariko; Koike, Satoshi; Kusano, Miyako; Matsukura, Chiaki; Saito, Kazuki; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can accumulate relatively high levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during fruit development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying GABA accumulation and its physiological function in tomato fruits remain elusive. We previously identified three tomato genes (SlGAD1, SlGAD2 and SlGAD3) encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), likely the key enzyme for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. In this study, we generated transgenic tomato plants in which each SlGAD was suppressed and those in which all three SlGADs were simultaneously suppressed. A significant decrease in GABA levels, i.e. 50-81% compared with wild-type (WT) levels, was observed in mature green (MG) fruits of the SlGAD2-suppressed lines, while a more drastic reduction (up to tomato fruits. The importance of SlGAD3 expression was also confirmed by generating transgenic tomato plants that over-expressed SlGAD3. The MG and red fruits of the over-expressing transgenic lines contained higher levels of GABA (2.7- to 5.2-fold) than those of the WT. We also determined that strong down-regulation of the SlGADs had little effect on overall plant growth, fruit development or primary fruit metabolism under normal growth conditions.

  15. Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of five protein arginine methyltransferase genes of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Klesius, Phillip H

    2012-08-01

    Protein arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT), has recently emerged as an important modification in the regulation of gene expression. In this communication, we identified and characterized the channel catfish orthologs to human PRMT 1, 3, 4 and 5, and PRMT4 like. Each PRMT nucleic acid sequence has an open reading frame (ORF) and 3'-untranslated regions. Each ORF appears to encode 361, 587 and 458 amino acid residues for PRMT1, PRMT4 and variant, respectively. The partial ORF of PRMT3 and PRMT5 encode 292 and 563 amino acids, respectively. By comparison with the human counterparts, each channel catfish PRMT also has conserved domains. For expression profile, the channel catfish PRMT1 transcript was detected by RT-PCR in spleens, anterior kidneys, livers, intestines, skin and gills of fish examined. Except in liver, the PRMT3 transcript was detected in all catfish tissues examined. However, the PRMT4 cDNA was detected in livers from all three catfish and gills from two fish, but not other tissues. This information will enable us to further elucidate PRMT functions in channel catfish.

  16. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaria Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT. At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  17. Prevalence of the lmo0036-0043 gene cluster encoding arginine deiminase and agmatine deiminase systems in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshun; Chen, Fan; Cheng, Changyong; Fang, Weihuan

    2013-04-01

    Arginine deiminase and agmatine deiminase systems are involved in acid tolerance, and their encoding genes form the cluster lmo0036-0043 in Listeria monocytogenes. While lmo0042 and lmo0043 were conserved in all L. monocytogenes strains, the lmo0036-0041 region of this cluster was identified in all lineages I and II, and the majority of lineage IV (83.3%) strains, but absent in all lineage III and a small fraction of lineage IV (16.7%) strains, suggesting that the presence of the complete lmo0036-0043 cluster is dependent on lineages. lmo0036-0043-complete and -deficient lineage IV strains exhibit specific ascB-dapE profiles, which might represent two subpopulations with distinct genetic characteristics.

  18. Regulation of Arginine Acquisition and Virulence Gene Expression in the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae by Transcription Regulators ArgR1 and AhrC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the transcriptional response of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluctuating concentrations of arginine, an essential amino acid for this bacterium. By means of DNA microarray analyses, several operons and genes were found, the expressi

  19. In silico cloning and sequencing of anarginine decarboxylase gene from Fragaria vesca%森林草莓精氨酸脱羧酶基因的电子克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 赵密珍; 王壮伟; 吴伟民; 钱亚明

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an arginine decarboxylase gene was isolated from Fragaria vesca, named FvADC (Fragar-ia vesca ADC) , and its expression pattern, sequence characteristics and evolutionary relationship were investigated. FvADC was isolated by RT-PCR in combination with in silico cloning. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the expression pattern under salt, hot and cold stresses. Bioinformatics analysis was used to study the structure, evolutionary relationship of FvADC. The results showed that the full-length cDNA sequence was 2 905 bp, which contained a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 2 154 bp, with a 456 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 293 bp3'-UTR. The ORF encoded a putative protein containing 717 amino acids. The two single RT-PCR bands confirmed the results. FvADC amino acid sequence shared high identity with those from Primus persica (87% , AB379849) , Malus×domestica (84% , AB181854) and Malus hupehensis (83% , EU431331). A putative N-terminal signal peptide was predicted. FvADC contained two highly conservative domains, I. E. , the ADC family 2 pyridoxal phosphate binding site and the ADC family 2 signature 2 sequence. FvADC putative protein had a calculated molecular mass of 243 243. 17 and an isoelectric point of 4. 80. FvADC was located in the cytoplasm. There was a close relationship between apple FvADC and peach FvADC by phylogenetic tree analysis. Based on the database of ESTs, FvADC was expressed in response to stress such as hot, drought, salt, chilling and exogenous salicylic acid. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that FvADC expression was induced under salt, hotor cold stresses. The above results indicated that in silico cloning would be efficient in isolation of strawberry genes, and FvADC was a good stress-resistant candidate gene for strawberry genetic improvement.%从森林草莓中分离精氨酸脱羧酶基因(FvADC),分析其表达模式、序列特征和进化关系。采用电子克隆结合RT-PCR分离FvADC

  20. The AMT1 arginine methyltransferase gene is important for plant infection and normal hyphal growth in Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Wang

    Full Text Available Arginine methylation of non-histone proteins by protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT has been shown to be important for various biological processes from yeast to human. Although PRMT genes are well conserved in fungi, none of them have been functionally characterized in plant pathogenic ascomycetes. In this study, we identified and characterized all of the four predicted PRMT genes in Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. Whereas deletion of the other three PRMT genes had no obvious phenotypes, the Δamt1 mutant had pleiotropic defects. AMT1 is a predicted type I PRMT gene that is orthologous to HMT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Δamt1 mutant was slightly reduced in vegetative growth but normal in asexual and sexual reproduction. It had increased sensitivities to oxidative and membrane stresses. DON mycotoxin production and virulence on flowering wheat heads also were reduced in the Δamt1 mutant. The introduction of the wild-type AMT1 allele fully complemented the defects of the Δamt1 mutant and Amt1-GFP fusion proteins mainly localized to the nucleus. Hrp1 and Nab2 are two hnRNPs in yeast that are methylated by Hmt1 for nuclear export. In F. graminearum, AMT1 is required for the nuclear export of FgHrp1 but not FgNab2, indicating that yeast and F. graminearum differ in the methylation and nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of hnRNP components. Because AMT2 also is a predicted type I PRMT with limited homology to yeast HMT1, we generated the Δamt1 Δamt2 double mutants. The Δamt1 single and Δamt1 Δamt2 double mutants had similar defects in all the phenotypes assayed, including reduced vegetative growth and virulence. Overall, data from this systematic analysis of PRMT genes suggest that AMT1, like its ortholog in yeast, is the predominant PRMT gene in F. graminearum and plays a role in hyphal growth, stress responses, and plant infection.

  1. Interference of the CadC regulator in the arginine-dependent acid resistance system of Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, Mariassunta; Prosseda, Gianni; Barbagallo, Marialuisa; Iacobino, Angelo; Ceccarini, Paolo; Latella, Maria Carmela; Nicoletti, Mauro; Colonna, Bianca

    2010-06-01

    A typical pathoadaptive mutation of Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is the inactivation of the cad locus which comprises the genes necessary for lysine decarboxylation, an enzyme involved in pH homoeostasis. In E. coli, the cadBA operon, encoding lysine decarboxylase (CadA) and a lysine cadaverine antiporter (CadB), is submitted to the control of CadC, a positive activator whose gene maps upstream the operon, and is transcribed independently from the same strand. CadC is an integral inner membrane protein which acts both, as signal sensor and as transcriptional regulator responding to the low pH and lysine signals. Analysis of the molecular rearrangements responsible for the loss of lysine decarboxylase activity in Shigella and EIEC has revealed that the inactivation of the cadC gene is a common feature. The 3 major adaptive acid resistance (AR) systems - AR1, AR2, and AR3 - are known to be activated at low pH by Shigella and E. coli, allowing them to withstand extremely acid conditions. In this study, evaluating the survival of S. flexneri, S. sonnei, and EIEC strains complemented with a functional cadC gene and challenged at low pH, we present evidence that CadC negatively regulates the expression of the arginine-dependent adaptive acid-resistance system (AR3), encoded by the adi locus while it has no effect on the expression of AR1 and AR2 systems. Moreover, since our results indicate that in enteroinvasive strains the presence of CadC reduces the expression of the arginine decarboxylase encoding gene adiA, it is possible to hypothesize that the loss of functionality of lysine decarboxylase is counterbalanced by a higher expression of the adi system, and that CadC, besides specifically affecting the regulation of the cadBA operon, is also relevant to other systems responding to low pH.

  2. Arginine induces GH gene expression by activating NOS/NO signaling in rat isolated hemi-pituitaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.F. Olinto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid arginine (Arg is a recognized secretagogue of growth hormone (GH, and has been shown to induce GH gene expression. Arg is the natural precursor of nitric oxide (NO, which is known to mediate many of the effects of Arg, such as GH secretion. Arg was also shown to increase calcium influx in pituitary cells, which might contribute to its effects on GH secretion. Although the mechanisms involved in the effects of Arg on GH secretion are well established, little is known about them regarding the control of GH gene expression. We investigated whether the NO pathway and/or calcium are involved in the effects of Arg on GH gene expression in rat isolated pituitaries. To this end, pituitaries from approximately 170 male Wistar rats (~250 g were removed, divided into two halves, pooled (three hemi-pituitaries and incubated or not with Arg, as well as with different pharmacological agents. Arg (71 mM, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1 and 0.1 mM and a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP analogue (8-Br-cGMP, 1 mM increased GH mRNA expression 60 min later. The NO acceptor hemoglobin (0.3 µM blunted the effect of SNP, and the combined treatment with Arg and L-NAME (a NO synthase (NOS inhibitor, 55 mM abolished the stimulatory effect of Arg on GH gene expression. The calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine (3 µM also abolished Arg-induced GH gene expression. The present study shows that Arg directly induces GH gene expression in hemi-pituitaries isolated from rats, excluding interference from somatostatinergic neurons, which are supposed to be inhibited by Arg. Moreover, the data demonstrate that the NOS/NO signaling pathway and calcium mediate the Arg effects on GH gene expression.

  3. Arginine induces GH gene expression by activating NOS/NO signaling in rat isolated hemi-pituitaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olinto, S.C.F. [Faculdade de Ciências Integradas do Pontal, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil); Adrião, M.G. [Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Castro-Barbosa, T.; Goulart-Silva, F.; Nunes, M.T. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The amino acid arginine (Arg) is a recognized secretagogue of growth hormone (GH), and has been shown to induce GH gene expression. Arg is the natural precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is known to mediate many of the effects of Arg, such as GH secretion. Arg was also shown to increase calcium influx in pituitary cells, which might contribute to its effects on GH secretion. Although the mechanisms involved in the effects of Arg on GH secretion are well established, little is known about them regarding the control of GH gene expression. We investigated whether the NO pathway and/or calcium are involved in the effects of Arg on GH gene expression in rat isolated pituitaries. To this end, pituitaries from approximately 170 male Wistar rats (∼250 g) were removed, divided into two halves, pooled (three hemi-pituitaries) and incubated or not with Arg, as well as with different pharmacological agents. Arg (71 mM), the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1 and 0.1 mM) and a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) analogue (8-Br-cGMP, 1 mM) increased GH mRNA expression 60 min later. The NO acceptor hemoglobin (0.3 µM) blunted the effect of SNP, and the combined treatment with Arg and L-NAME (an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 55 mM) abolished the stimulatory effect of Arg on GH gene expression. The calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine (3 µM) also abolished Arg-induced GH gene expression. The present study shows that Arg directly induces GH gene expression in hemi-pituitaries isolated from rats, excluding interference from somatostatinergic neurons, which are supposed to be inhibited by Arg. Moreover, the data demonstrate that the NOS/NO signaling pathway and calcium mediate the Arg effects on GH gene expression.

  4. Guipi decoction effects on arginine vasopressin protein and gene expression in the hippocampus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and prefrontal lobe in rats with spleen deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huinan Qian; Xueqin Hu; Libo Shen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin has been shown to enhance learning in experimental animal models.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Guipi decoction enhances memory and learning by increasing arginine vasopressin levels, and to verify the influence of Guipi decoction on arginine vasopressin protein and gene expression in the hippocampal CAI region, prefrontal lobe cortex, and ventral nucleus of hypothalamus in rats with spleen deficiency.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized, neuropharmacological, control study was performed in the College of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine between March 2002 and March 2005.MATERIALS: Sixty, healthy, male, Wistar rats were used to establish spleen deficiency models according to the traditional Chinese medicine principle of bitter drugs for purgation, improper diet, and overstrain. Arginine vasopressin-I polyclonal anti-rabbit antibody immunohistocbemistry kit and arginine vasopressin in situ hybridization kit were provided by Department of Neuroanatomy in Shanghai Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into five groups at random: normal control (n = 11), model (n = 13), Guipi decoction (n = 12), recipe control A (n = 12), and recipe control B groups (n = 12). Rats in the latter four groups received 7.5 g/kg of the drugs by intragastric administration each morning, which comprised Dahuang, Houpu, and Zhishi, prepared at a ratio of 2:1 : 1. The rats were lasted every other day, but were allowed free access to water at all times. The rats were forced to swim in 25℃ water until fatigued. Rats in the Guipi decoction and two recipe control groups were intragastrically administered 7.5 g/kg Guipi decoction, Chaihu Shugan powder, and Tianwang Buxin pellets, respectively, each afternoon. Rats in the normal group were intragastrically administered the same amount of normal saline. All rats were treated for 6 weeks.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 6 weeks after drug

  5. Overexpression of carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene generates a broad-spectrum tolerance to abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Soo Jin; Kim, Woo Taek; Park, Ky Young

    2006-10-01

    Polyamines (PAs), such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are present in all living organism and implicate in a wide range of cellular physiological processes. We have used transgenic technology in an attempt to evaluate their potential for mitigating the adverse effects of several abiotic stresses in plants. Sense construct of full-length cDNA for S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), a key enzyme in PA biosynthesis, from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Several transgenic lines overexpressing SAMDC gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter accumulated soluble total PAs by 2.2 (S16-S-4) to 3.1 (S16-S-1) times than wild-type plants. The transgenic tobacco did not show any difference in organ phenotype compared to the wild-type. The number and weight of seeds increased, and net photosynthetic rate also increased in transgenic plants. Stress-induced damage was attenuated in these transgenic plants, in the symptom of visible yellowing and chlorophyll degradation after all experienced stresses such as salt stress, cold stress, acidic stress, and abscisic acid treatment. H2O2-induced damage was attenuated by spermidine treatment. Transcripts for antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, manganase superoxide dismutase, and glutathione S-transferase) in transgenic plants and GUS activity transformed with SAMDC promoter::GUS fusion were induced more significantly by stress treatment, compared to control. These results that the transgenic plants with sense SAMDC cDNA are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than wild-type plants suggest that PAs may play an important role in contributing stress tolerance in plants.

  6. Investigation of a Possible Role for the Histidine Decarboxylase Gene in Tourette Syndrome in the Chinese Han Population: A Family-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meixin; Xu, Longqiang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a polygenic neuropsychiatric disease. Previous studies have indicated that dysregulation in the histaminergic system may play a crucial role in disease onset. In this study, we investigated the role of the histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) in TS susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. After genotyping 241 TS nuclear families trios, we analyzed three tag HDC single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs854150, rs854151, and rs854157) in a family-based study using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and haplotype relative risk (HRR). TDT showed no over-transmission in these SNPs across the HDC region (for rs854150: χ2 = 0.472, P = 0.537, OR = 1.097, 95%CI = 0.738–1.630; for rs854151: χ2 = 0.043, P = 0.889, OR = 1.145, 95%CI = 0.767–1.709; for rs854157:χ2 = 0.984, P = 0.367, OR = 1.020, 95%CI = 0.508–2.049). HRR also showed the same tendency (for rs854150: χ2 = 0.211, P = 0.646, OR = 1.088, 95%CI = 0.759–1.559; for rs854151: χ2 = 0.134, P = 0.714, OR = 0.935, 95%CI = 0.653–1.339; for rs854157:χ2 = 0.841, P = 0.359, OR = 1.206, 95%CI = 0.808–1.799). Additionally, the haplotype-based haplotype relative risk showed a negative association. Although these findings indicate an unlikely association between HDC and TS in the Chinese Han population, a potential role for HDC cannot be ruled out in TS etiology. Future research should investigate this more thoroughly using different populations and larger samples. PMID:27529419

  7. X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy caused by an arginine to leucine substitution in exon 3 of the Norrie gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.; Perry, Y.M.; Ferrell, R.E. [Univ. of Pittsburg, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a disorder characterized by abnormal vascularization of the peripheral retina affecting both the retina and the vitreous body. This is a bilateral disorder and leads to a clinical phenotype resembling retinopathy of prematurity, but affected individuals experience a normal gestational period, and they do not have a history of oxygen therapy. Manifestations of the disorder may include retinal folds, retinal traction, sub- or intraretinal exudates, and in severe cases enophthalmos or phthisis ultimately leading to blindness. Autosomal dominant and X-linked patterns of segregation have been reported. We studied a large three-generation family in which FEVR segregated as an X-linked recessive trait. The Norrie gene was examined because of a prior report of mutation in this gene in a small X-linked FEVR family. Exons 1-3 of the Norrie gene were amplified and screened for mutations by single stranded conformational analysis. A variant conformer of exon 3 was observed in an affected male and in combination with the normal conformer in an obligate carrier female. Sequence analysis revealed a G{r_arrow}T transversion destroying an MspI restriction site. The mutation was present in all affected males, and all obligate carrier females were heterozygous for the mutation. The mutation was not present in unaffected males or in 108 randomly selected normal females. The G{r_arrow}T mutation leads to the substitution of a hydrophobic leucine residue for the positively charged arginine normally present at position 121 of the Norrie gene product. This study confirms that mutation in the Norrie gene can lead to the FEVR phenotype and the existence of allelic heterogeneity.

  8. Peptidylarginine deiminase 2-catalyzed histone H3 arginine 26 citrullination facilitates estrogen receptor α target gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesen; Bolt, Michael; Guertin, Michael J; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Sheng; Cherrington, Brian D; Slade, Daniel J; Dreyton, Christina J; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Bicker, Kevin L; Thompson, Paul R; Mancini, Michael A; Lis, John T; Coonrod, Scott A

    2012-08-14

    Cofactors for estrogen receptor α (ERα) can modulate gene activity by posttranslationally modifying histone tails at target promoters. Here, we found that stimulation of ERα-positive cells with 17β-estradiol (E2) promotes global citrullination of histone H3 arginine 26 (H3R26) on chromatin. Additionally, we found that the H3 citrulline 26 (H3Cit26) modification colocalizes with ERα at decondensed chromatin loci surrounding the estrogen-response elements of target promoters. Surprisingly, we also found that citrullination of H3R26 is catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) 2 and not by PAD4 (which citrullinates H4R3). Further, we showed that PAD2 interacts with ERα after E2 stimulation and that inhibition of either PAD2 or ERα strongly suppresses E2-induced H3R26 citrullination and ERα recruitment at target gene promoters. Collectively, our data suggest that E2 stimulation induces the recruitment of PAD2 to target promoters by ERα, whereby PAD2 then citrullinates H3R26, which leads to local chromatin decondensation and transcriptional activation.

  9. Pyruvate decarboxylases from the petite-negative yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Nielsen, Jens;

    2004-01-01

    Saccharomyces kluyveri is a petite-negative yeast, which is less prone to form ethanol under aerobic conditions than is S. cerevisiae. The first reaction on the route from pyruvate to ethanol is catalysed by pyruvate decarboxylase, and the differences observed between S. kluyveri and S. cerevisiae...... was controlled by variations in the amount of mRNA. The mRNA level and the pyruvate decarboxylase activity responded to anaerobiosis and growth on different carbon sources in essentially the same fashion as in S. cerevisiae. This indicates that the difference in ethanol formation between these two yeasts...... is not due to differences in the regulation of pyruvate decarboxylase(s), but rather to differences in the regulation of the TCA cycle and the respiratory machinery. However, the PDC genes of Saccharomyces/Kluyveromyces yeasts differ in their genetic organization and phylogenetic origin. While S. cerevisiae...

  10. Gene expression of ornithine decarboxylase, cyclooxygenase-2, and gastrin in atrophic gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori before and after eradication therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, Peter C; Rembiasz, Kazimierz; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Stachura, Jerzy; Bielanski, Wladyslaw; Galuschka, K; Karcz, Danuta; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2003-01-01

    H. pylori (Hp) -induced atrophic gastritis is a well-known risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Whether Hp eradication can prevent or retard the progress of atrophy and metaplasia has been the topic of numerous studies but the subject remains controversial. Recently, the increased expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), gastrin and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been shown to be increased in premalignant lesions in gastric mucosa and to play an essential role in the malignant transformation. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of eradication therapy on atrophic gastritis and analyze the gene expression for ODC, COX-2 and gastrin in gastric mucosa after succesful eradication in patients with atrophic gastritis. Twenty patients with chronic atrophic gastritis including both corpus and antrum of the stomach were included in this study. Four antral mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained from antrum and four from corpus. The histopathologic evaluation of gastritis was based on Sydney classification of gastritis. All patients were Hp positive based on the [13C] urea breath test (UBT) and the presence of anti-Hp IgG and anti-CagA-antibodies detected by ELISA. The patients were then eradicated with triple therapy consiting of omeprazol (2 x 20 mg), amoxycillin (2 x 1 g) and clarithromycin (2 x 500 mg) for seven days and vitamin C 1 g/day for three months. In gastric mucosal samples obtained from the antrum and corpus before and after eradication, the mRNA expression for ODC, COX-2, and gastrin was assessed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In all patients the gastric secretory analysis was performed by measuring gastric acid output and serum gastrin levels. After triple therapy the successful eradication assessed by UBT was observed in 95% of patients. In 45% of patients the infection with CagA-positive Hp strain was observed. Three months after eradication a significant reduction in the gastric activity (neutrophilic

  11. Enhanced flux of substrates into polyamine biosynthesis but not ethylene in tomato fruit engineered with yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanajak, Yi; Minocha, Rakesh; Minocha, Subhash C; Goyal, Ravinder; Fatima, Tahira; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2014-03-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a major substrate in 1-C metabolism is a common precursor in the biosynthetic pathways of polyamines and ethylene, two important plant growth regulators, which exhibit opposing developmental effects, especially during fruit ripening. However, the flux of various substrates including SAM into the two competing pathways in plants has not yet been characterized. We used radiolabeled (14)C-Arg, (14)C-Orn, L-[U-(14)C]Met, (14)C-SAM and (14)C-Put to quantify flux through these pathways in tomato fruit and evaluate the effects of perturbing these pathways via transgenic expression of a yeast SAM decarboxylase (ySAMDC) gene using the fruit ripening-specific promoter E8. We show that polyamines in tomato fruit are synthesized both from Arg and Orn; however, the relative contribution of Orn pathway declines in the later stages of ripening. Expression of ySAMDC reversed the ripening associated decline in spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) levels observed in the azygous control fruit. About 2- to 3-fold higher levels of labeled-Spd in transgenic fruit (556HO and 579HO lines) expressing ySAMDC confirmed the enzymatic function of the introduced gene. The incorporation of L-[U-(14)C]Met into Spd, Spm, ethylene and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was used to determine Met-flux into these metabolites. The incorporation of (14)C-Met into Spd/Spm declined during ripening of the control azygous fruit but this was reversed in fruits expressing ySAMDC. However, incorporation of (14)C-Met into ethylene or ACC during ripening was not altered by the expression of ySAMDC in the fruit. Taken together these results show that: (1) There is an inverse relationship between the production of higher polyamines and ethylene during fruit ripening, (2) the inverse relationship between higher polyamines and ethylene is modulated by ySAMDC expression in that the decline in Spd/Spm during fruit ripening can be reversed without significantly altering ethylene

  12. The arginine vasopressin V1b receptor gene and prosociality: Mediation role of emotional empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-09-01

    The vasopressin V1b receptor (AVPR1B) gene has been shown to be closely associated with bipolar disorder and depression. However, whether it relates to positive social outcomes, such as empathy and prosocial behavior, remains unknown. This study explored the possible role of the AVPR1B gene rs28373064 in empathy and prosociality. A total of 256 men, who were genetically unrelated, non-clinical ethnic Han Chinese college students, participated in the study. Prosociality was tested by measuring the prosocial tendencies of cognitive and emotional empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs28373064, was genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The results suggest that the AVPR1B gene rs28373064 is linked to emotional empathy and prosociality. The mediation analysis indicated that the effect of the AVPR1B gene on prosociality might be mediated by emotional empathy. This study demonstrated the link between the AVPR1B gene and prosociality and provided evidence that emotional empathy might mediate the relation between the AVPR1B gene and prosociality.

  13. Increased contribution of L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in aorta of mice lacking the gene for vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Henrion, D; Ebrahimian, T; Benessiano, J; Colucci-Guyon, E; Langa, F; Lévy, B I; Boulanger, C M

    2001-10-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate endothelial function in the aorta of mice lacking the gene for the cytoskeleton protein vimentin (vim -/- ). Rings with and without endothelium from wild-type (vim +/+ ), heterozygous (vim +/- ), and homozygous (vim -/- ) mice were suspended in organ chambers to record of changes in isometric tension. During phenylephrine contraction, acetylcholine evoked comparable endothelium-dependent relaxations in the three groups. In the presence of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine, acetylcholine caused endothelium-dependent contractions, which were greater in vim -/- than in vim +/+ and vim +/- aortas. Indomethacin did not affect relaxation to acetylcholine in vim +/+ or in vim +/-, but it significantly increased the maximal response in vim -/- (67 +/- 7 vs. 102 +/- 4%). Response to acetylcholine in vim -/- aortas was not affected by cyclooxygenase type 2 inhibitor NS-398, the thromboxane receptor antagonist SQ-29,548, or superoxide dismutase. Relaxations to sodium nitroprusside were not different between vim +/+ and vim -/- mice and were not affected by cyclooxygenase inhibition. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels, which were increased to a comparable level by acetylcholine in vim +/+ and vim -/-, were augmented by indomethacin in vim -/- aortas but not in vim +/+ aortas. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was not different between vim +/+ and vim -/- preparations. These results suggest that despite comparable endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine, endothelial cells from vim -/- mice release a cyclooxygenase product that compensates the augmented contribution of nitric oxide.

  14. ARGININE VASOPRESSIN GENE EXPRESSION IN SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS AND PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMOUS FOLLOWING CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Background. Our previous studies indicated that the increased arginine vasopressin(AVP) in ischemic brain regions of gerbils could exacerbate the ischemic brain edema. This experiments is further clarify the relation between AVP and cerebral ischemia at the molecular level. Methods. The contents of AVP, AVP mRNA, AVP immunoreactive(ir) neurons in supraoptic nucleus(SON)and paraventricular nucleus(PVN) after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion were respectively determined by radioim-munoassay(RIA), immunocytochemistry( Ⅱ C), situ hybridization and computed image pattem analysis. Results. The contents of AVP in SON, PVN were increased, and the AVP ir positive neurons in SON and PVN were also significantly increased as compared with the controls after ischemia and reperfusion. And there were very light staining of AVP ir positive neurons in the other brain areas such as suprachiasmatic nucleus (SC) and periven-tricular hypothalamic nucleus (PE), but these have no significant changes as compared with the controls. During dif-ferent periods of cerebral ischemia (30~ 120 min) and reperfusion (30 min), AVP mRNA expression in SON and PVN were more markedly increased than the controls. Condusions. The transcription of AVP gene elevated, then promoting synthesis and release of AVP in SON,PVN. Under the specific condition of cerebral ischemia and repeffusion, the activity and contents of central AVP in-creased abnormally is one of the important factors which causes ischemia brain damage.

  15. Expression of the arginine deiminase pathway genes in Lactobacillus sakei is strain dependent and is affected by the environmental pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaux, T; Rivière, A; Illeghems, K; Weckx, S; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2012-07-01

    The adaptation of Lactobacillus sakei to a meat environment is reflected in its metabolic potential. For instance, the ability to utilize arginine through the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway, resulting in additional ATP, represents a competitive benefit. In L. sakei CTC 494, the arc operon (arcABCTDR) shows the same gene order and organization as that in L. sakei 23K, the genome sequence of which is known. However, differences in relative gene expression were found, and these seemed to be optimal in different growth phases, namely, the highest relative gene expression level was in the end exponential growth phase in the case of L. sakei CTC 494 and in the mid-exponential growth phase of L. sakei 23K. Also, the environmental pH influenced the relative expression level of the arc operon, as shown for L. sakei CTC 494, with the highest relative expression level occurring at the optimal pH for growth (pH 6.0). Deviations from this optimal pH (pH 5.0 and pH 7.0) resulted in an overall decline of the relative expression level of all genes of the arc operon. Furthermore, a differential relative expression of the individual genes of the arc operon was found, with the highest relative gene expression occurring for the first two genes of the arc operon (arcA and arcB). Finally, it was shown that some L. sakei strains were able to convert agmatine into putrescine, suggesting an operational agmatine deiminase pathway in these strains, a metabolic trait that is undesirable in meat fermentations. This study shows that this metabolic trait is most probably encoded by a previously erroneously annotated second putative arc operon.

  16. 粘质沙雷氏菌α-乙酰乳酸脱羧酶基因的体外表达%Expression of Serratia marcescens α-Acetolactate Decarboxylase Gene in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚平; 周荣华; 饶犇; 马立新

    2013-01-01

    根据GenBank中α-乙酰乳酸脱羧酶的基因序列(slaA)设计引物,以粘质沙雷氏菌(Serratia marcescens)HU1基因组DNA为模板通过PCR扩增得到了目标基因,全长为780 bp.将该基因分别连接到大肠杆菌表达载体pET30a和毕赤酵母表达栽体pPICZαA上,构建表达质粒pET30a-slaA和pPICZαA-slaA,并在对应的宿主中进行了表达.结果表明,大肠杆菌和毕赤酵母的表达产物的最适温度和pH均分别为40℃和7,两者在不同pH下的稳定性也相似,只不过毕赤酵母的表达产物的热稳定性要略强于大肠杆菌的表达产物.%Serratia marcescens α-acetolactate decarboxylase gene in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris,repectively.Primers of α-acetolactate decarboxylase gene (slaA) were designed according to the gene sequence in GeneBank; and target gene was obtained by PCR amplification using S.marcescens MG1 genomic DNA as template,which was 780 bp.Then slaA gene was inserted into pET-30a,expression vector of E.coli,and pPICZαA,expression vector of P.pastoris,resulting in plasmids pET30a-slaA and pPICZoA-slaA.The two expression vectors were introduced into the corresponding hosts and the gene was successfully expressed.The results showed that the optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme produced by E.coli and P.pastoris were both about 40 ℃ and 7,respectively.The stability of the enzyme at different pH from E.coli and P.pastoris was also similar.However,the thermal stability of the enzyme produced by P.pastoris was slightly stronger than that from E.coii.

  17. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 gene (As-PRMT1) from Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Yao, Feng; Li, Xuejie; Jia, Baolin; Zhong, Guangying; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is an important epigenetic regulation factor in eukaryotic genomes. PRMT1 is involved in histone arginine loci methylation modification, changes in eukaryotic genomes' chromatin structure, and gene expression regulation. In the present paper, the full-length 1201-bp cDNA sequence of the PRMT1 homolog of Artemia sinica (As-PRMT1) was cloned for the first time. The putative As-PRMT1 protein comprises 346 amino acids with a SAM domain and a PRMT5 domain. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that the putative sequence of As-PRMT1 protein was relatively conserved across species, especially in the SAM domain. As-PRMT1 is widely expressed during embryo development of A. sinica. This is followed by a dramatic upregulation after diapause termination and then downregulation from the nauplius stage. Furthermore, As-PRMT1 transcripts are highly upregulated under conditions of high salinity and low temperature stress. These findings suggested that As-PRMT1 is a stress-related factor that might promote or inhibit the expression of certain genes, play a critical role in embryonic development and in resistance to low temperature and high salinity stress.

  18. Effect of Ornithine decarboxylase gene silencing on endometrial cancer Ishikawa%鸟氨酸脱羧酶基因沉默对子宫内膜癌细胞Ishikawa的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚广民; 张建波; 陈小兵; 刘红亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of the ornithine decarboxylase gene silence on endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells by use the RNA interference technology. Methods The ornithine decarboxylase gene siRNA plasmid was designed and synthesized, and transfected into endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells, The experiment was divided into three groups: Ishikawa group, pSUPER-EGFP group, pSUPER-EGFP-ODC group. Real-time PCR and Western blot was used to detect the expression of ODC. MTT and flow cy tome try were used to detect the impact of the ODC gene silencing on the growth of Ishikawa cells. Results Real-time PCR and Western results showed that the ODC mRNA and protein expression levels in pSUPER-EGFP-ODC group were significantly decreased. MTT results showed that the pSUPER-EGFP-ODC could significantly inhibit the proliferation activity of Ishikawa cells compared with the Ishikawa (P < 0.01). Flow cytometry results showed pSUPER-EGFP-ODC could significantly blocked of Ishikawa cells in G0/G1 phase, a corresponding reduction in the number of S-phase cells, and induction of apoptosis, compared with the Ishikawa (P < 0.01). Conclusion Transfected with targeting siRNA sequences of the ODC gene plasmid could down-regulate ODC gene expression, inhibit the proliferation of human endometrial carcinoma Ishikawa in vitro block of Ishikawa cells in G0/G1 phase and induction of apoptosis.%目的 利用RNA干扰技术,观察鸟氨酸脱羧酶(ornithine decarboxylase,ODC)基因在子宫内膜癌Ishikawa细胞的沉默效应及对Ishikawa细胞增殖周期的影响.方法 设计合成以鸟氨酸脱羧酶基因为靶向目标的siRNA序列质粒,利用脂质体介导的方法 将质粒转染至子宫内膜癌Ishikawa细胞,实验分三组:Ishikawa组,pSUPER-EGFP组,pSUPER-EGFP-ODC组.用Real-time PCR和Western blot检测ODC的表达情况.采用MTT和流式细胞术来检测ODC基因沉默对Ishikawa细胞生长的影响.结果 Real-time PCR和Western显示pSUPER-EGFP-ODC组细胞ODC mRNA

  19. The gdhB gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an arginine-inducible NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase which is subject to allosteric regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C D; Abdelal, A T

    2001-01-01

    The NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was purified, and its amino-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. This sequence information was used in identifying and cloning the encoding gdhB gene and its flanking regions. The molecular mass predicted from the derived sequence for the encoded NAD-GDH was 182.6 kDa, in close agreement with that determined from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme (180 kDa). Cross-linking studies established that the native NAD-GDH is a tetramer of equal subunits. Comparison of the derived amino acid sequence of NAD-GDH from P. aeruginosa with the GenBank database showed the highest homology with hypothetical polypeptides from Pseudomonas putida, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rickettsia prowazakii, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Shewanella putrefaciens, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Caulobacter crescentus. A moderate degree of homology, primarily in the central domain, was observed with the smaller tetrameric NAD-GDH (protomeric mass of 110 kDa) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Neurospora crassa. Comparison with the yet smaller hexameric GDH (protomeric mass of 48 to 55 kDa) of other prokaryotes yielded a low degree of homology that was limited to residues important for binding of substrates and for catalytic function. NAD-GDH was induced 27-fold by exogenous arginine and only 3-fold by exogenous glutamate. Primer extension experiments established that transcription of gdhB is initiated from an arginine-inducible promoter and that this induction is dependent on the arginine regulatory protein, ArgR, a member of the AraC/XyIS family of regulatory proteins. NAD-GDH was purified to homogeneity from a recombinant strain of P. aeruginosa and characterized. The glutamate saturation curve was sigmoid, indicating positive cooperativity in the binding of glutamate. NAD-GDH activity was subject to allosteric control by arginine and citrate, which

  20. A novel splice site mutation of the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II gene identified in a kindred with autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Hyun-Jung; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Shim, Sun-Mi; Yoo, Soon-Jib; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Kwang-Woo; Son, Ho-Young; Kang, Sung-Koo

    2005-01-01

    Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is an inherited deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP), and this is caused by mutations in the AVP-neurophysin II (AVP-NP II) gene. Most of these mutations have been located in the signal peptide or in the NP II moiety. In the present study, we have analyzed the AVP-NP II gene in a Korean family. Clinical and genetic studies were performed on three members of the family, and on a normal healthy unrelated individual. The diagnosis of neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus was done by performing a fluid deprivation test and a vasopressin challenge. For genetic analysis, the genomic DNA was extracted and the AVP-NP II gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical assessment of the affected individuals confirmed the diagnosis of neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus. Genetic analysis of the AVP-NP II gene revealed a novel deletion mutation of a single nucleotide (guanine) within the splice acceptor site of intron 2 (IVS2 +1 delG). The affected individuals were heterozygous for this mutation. We also demonstrated through RT-PCR analysis of the mutant gene that this mutation resulted in the retention of intron 2 during pre-mRNA splicing. We concluded that a novel splicing mutation in the AVP-NP II gene causes neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in this family.

  1. Long-term gene therapy in the CNS: reversal of hypothalamic diabetes insipidus in the Brattleboro rat by using an adenovirus expressing arginine vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, B J; Harding, T C; Lightman, S L; Uney, J B

    1997-12-01

    The ability of adenovirus (Ad) to transfect most cell types efficiently has already resulted in human gene therapy trials involving the systemic administration of adenoviral constructs. However, because of the complexity of brain function and the difficulty in noninvasively monitoring alterations in neuronal gene expression, the potential of Ad gene therapy strategies for treating disorders of the CNS has been difficult to assess. In the present study, we have used an Ad encoding the arginine vasopressin cDNA (AdAVP) in an AVP-deficient animal model of diabetes insipidus (the Brattleboro rat), which allowed us to monitor chronically the success of the gene therapy treatment by noninvasive assays. Injection of AdAVP into the supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the hypothalamus resulted in expression of AVP in magnocellular neurons. This was accompanied by reduced daily water intake and urine volume, as well as increased urine osmolality lasting 4 months. These data show that a single gene defect leading to a neurological disorder can be corrected with an adenovirus-based strategy. This study highlights the potential of using Ad gene therapy for the long-term treatment of disorders of the CNS.

  2. Long-term replacement of a mutated nonfunctional CNS gene: reversal of hypothalamic diabetes insipidus using an EIAV-based lentiviral vector expressing arginine vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienemann, Alison S; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Cosgrave, Anna S; Glover, Colin P J; Wong, Liang-Fong; Kingsman, Susan M; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Mazarakis, Nicholas D; Uney, James B

    2003-05-01

    Due to the complexity of brain function and the difficulty in monitoring alterations in neuronal gene expression, the potential of lentiviral gene therapy vectors to treat disorders of the CNS has been difficult to fully assess. In this study, we have assessed the utility of a third-generation equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) in the Brattleboro rat model of diabetes insipidus, in which a mutation in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene results in the production of nonfunctional mutant AVP precursor protein. Importantly, by using this model it is possible to monitor the success of the gene therapy treatment by noninvasive assays. Injection of an EIAV-CMV-AVP vector into the supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus resulted in expression of functional AVP peptide in magnocellular neurons. This was accompanied by a 100% recovery in water homeostasis as assessed by daily water intake, urine production, and urine osmolality lasting for a 1-year measurement period. These data show that a single gene defect leading to a neurological disorder can be corrected with a lentiviral-based strategy. This study highlights the potential of using viral gene therapy for the long-term treatment of disorders of the CNS.

  3. Isolation and bioinformatics analysis of a glutamate decarboxylase gene inDendrobium officinale%铁皮石斛谷氨酸脱羧酶基因的分离与生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岗; 胡本祥; 李依民; 张大为; 郭顺星

    2014-01-01

    目的分离珍稀濒危兰科药用铁皮石斛谷氨酸脱羧酶(GAD)基因并进行生物信息学和表达分析。方法采用 RT-PCR和 RACE技术获基因 cDNA全长;利用生物信息学软件分析蛋白理化性质、结构域和三维建模等分子特性;用 DNASTAR 6.0和 MEGA 4.0分别进行氨基酸多序列比对和进化树分析;借助实时定量 PCR检测基因表达。结果分离到DoGAD基因,cDNA全长1795 bp,编码一条由498个氨基酸组成的多肽,分子量55.90 kD,等电点5.32;DoGAD蛋白不含跨膜域或信号肽,具有谷氨酸脱羧酶和磷酸吡哆醛依赖的脱羧酶结构域(17-443、37-381);DoGAD与植物 GADs蛋白一致性为69.5%~78.8%,隶属于 GADs分子进化树的植物类群;DoGAD转录本在石斛叶和茎中相对表达量较高,分别为根中的5.16和3.92倍。结论成功克隆得到铁皮石斛谷氨酸脱羧酶基因全长, DoGAD 的表达特征暗示其可能在铁皮石斛叶和茎中发挥重要的调控作用。%ObjectiveThis study is aimed to isolate and characterize a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) geneDoGAD fromDendrobium officinale, a rare endangered medicinal orchid species. MethodsRT-PCR and RACE technologies were used for gene isolation. The physiochemical properties, conserved domains and three dimensional structure of the deduced DoGAD protein were determined using a series of bioinformatics tools. The analyses of multiple alignment and phylogenetic tree were performed using DNASTAR 6.0 and MEGA 4.0, respectively. Real time quantitative PCR was used for gene expression analysis.Results The full-length cDNA ofDoGAD, with 1795 bp in size, was deduced to encode a 498-aa protein with molecular weight of 55.90 kD and isoelectric point of 5.32. The deduced DoGAD protein, without transmembrane or signal peptide residues, contained glutamate decarboxylase and pyridoxal phosphate dependant decarboxylase domains (17-443, 37-381). DoGAD had high identities (69.5% - 78

  4. Identification and transcript analysis of two glutamate decarboxylase genes, CsGAD1 and CsGAD2, reveal the strong relationship between CsGAD1 and citrate utilization in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Long-Fei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2014-09-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC 4.1.1.15) has been suggested to be a key, regulatory point in the biosynthesis of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and in the utilization of citric acid through GABA shunt pathway. In this study we discovered two GAD genes, named as CsGAD1 and CsGAD2, in citrus genome database and then successfully cloned. Both CsGAD1 and CsGAD2 have a putative pyridoxal 5-phosphate binding domain in the middle region and a putative calmodulin-binding domain at the carboxyl terminus. Gene structure analysis showed that much difference exists in the size of exons and introns or in cis-regulatory elements in promoter region between the two GAD genes. Gene expression indicated that CsGAD1 transcript was predominantly expressed in flower and CsGAD2 transcript was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs; in the ripening fruit, CsGAD1 transcript level was at least 2-time higher than CsGAD2 transcript level. Moreover, CsGAD1 transcript level was increased significantly along with the increase of GAD activity and accompanied by a significant decrease of titratable acid (TA), suggesting that it is CsGAD1 rather than CsGAD2 plays a role in the citric acid utilization during fruit ripening. In addition, injection of abscisic acid and foliar spray of K2SO4 significantly increased the TA content of Satsuma mandarin, and significantly decreased GAD activity as well as CsGAD1 transcript, further suggesting the important role of CsGAD1 in the citrate utilization of citrus fruit.

  5. A rare disease-associated mutation in the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene changes a conserved arginine, previously shown to be functionally essential in short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Jensen, T G

    1993-01-01

    157 mutation was verified in genomic DNA from the patient and her mother by a PCR-based assay. The mutation changes conserved arginine at position 28 (R28C) of the mature MCAD protein. The effect of the T157 mutation on MCAD protein was investigated by expression of mutant MCAD cDNA in COS-7 cells......-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) gene of a patient with SCAD deficiency, suggesting that the conserved arginine is crucial for formation of active enzyme in the straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases....

  6. Reprogramming fibroblasts to pluripotency using arginine-terminated polyamidoamine nanoparticles based non-viral gene delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Li, Jun; Lai, Hao; Yang, Cheng; Guo, Changfa; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have attracted keen interest in regenerative medicine. The generation of iPSCs from somatic cells can be achieved by the delivery of defined transcription factor (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc[OSKM]). However, most instances of iPSC-generation have been achieved by potentially harmful genome-integrating viral vectors. Here we report the generation of iPSCs from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) using arginine-terminated generation 4 polyamidoamine (G4Arg) nanoparticles as a nonviral transfection vector for the delivery of a single plasmid construct carrying OSKM (pOSKM). Our results showed that G4Arg nanoparticles delivered pOSKM into MEFs at a significantly higher transfection efficiency than did conventional transfection reagents. After serial transfections of pOSKM-encapsulated G4Arg nanoparticles, we successfully generated iPSCs from MEFs. Our study demonstrates that G4Arg nanoparticles may be a promising candidate for generating of virus-free iPSCs that have great potential for clinical application. PMID:25540584

  7. Reprogramming fibroblasts to pluripotency using arginine-terminated polyamidoamine nanoparticles based non-viral gene delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kai Zhu,1,2,* Jun Li,1,2,* Hao Lai,1,2 Cheng Yang,1,2 Changfa Guo,1,2 Chunsheng Wang1,2 1Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 2Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this article Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have attracted keen interest in regenerative medicine. The generation of iPSCs from somatic cells can be achieved by the delivery of defined transcription factor (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc[OSKM]. However, most instances of iPSC-generation have been achieved by potentially harmful genome-integrating viral vectors. Here we report the generation of iPSCs from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs using arginine-terminated generation 4 polyamidoamine (G4Arg nanoparticles as a nonviral transfection vector for the delivery of a single plasmid construct carrying OSKM (pOSKM. Our results showed that G4Arg nanoparticles delivered pOSKM into MEFs at a significantly higher transfection efficiency than did conventional transfection reagents. After serial transfections of pOSKM-encapsulated G4Arg nanoparticles, we successfully generated iPSCs from MEFs. Our study demonstrates that G4Arg nanoparticles may be a promising candidate for generating of virus-free iPSCs that have great potential for clinical application. Keywords: mouse embryonic fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cells

  8. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis.

  9. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Tang, M Matt; Wu, Xueliang; Phillips, Nancy; Galkowski, Dariusz; Jarvis, Gary A; Fan, Huizhou

    2016-01-01

    Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis.

  10. Cloning and expression analysis of pyruvate decarboxylase gene in Salvia miltiorrhiza%白花丹参丙酮酸脱羧酶基因的克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史仁玖; 常正尧; 王健美; 王德才

    2013-01-01

    Objective To obtain the fulllength of Salvia miltiorrhiza pyruvate decarboxylase (SmPDC) gene, to analyze the expression differences in various tissues of S. miltiorrhiza after anaerobic stress treatment. Methods The fulllength of SmPDC gene was isolated through sequencing cDNA library, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect the gene expression levels. Results The fulllength of SmPDC cDNA has an open reading frame of 2 190 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmPDC has 605 amino acid residues which form a 6.485×104 polypeptide with a calculated pI of 5.49. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that SmPDC gene was expressed at a high level in root, followed by stem and leaf of 5. miltiorrhiza. Anaerobic stress could induce the expression of SmPDC gene and the expression was increased with the stress time elongating. Conclusion SmPDC is a new member of the PDC family and plays an important role in anaerobic respiration pathway.%目的 获得白花丹参丙酮酸脱羧酶(SmPDC)全长基因,分析该基因在白花丹参不同组织部位,以及缺氧胁迫处理后的该基因表达差异.方法 利用cDNA文库筛选获得SmPDC基因全长,利用半定量RT-PCR,分析SmPDC基因在白花丹参不同部位的表达情况,及缺氧处理条件下的表达情况.结果 获得的SmPDC基因由2 190个核苷酸组成,编码605个氨基酸,蛋白相对分子质量药6.485×104,等电点pI 5.49;半定量RT-PCR检测,该基因在丹参的根中表达量最高,其次是茎和叶;缺氧胁迫处理会诱导该基因的表达,随胁迫时间延长表达量逐渐增加.结论 白花丹参SmPDC基因是PDC家族新成员,其功能与植物耐缺氧代谢途径有关.

  11. Influence of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of cross-bred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Marta S; Rolo, Eva S; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pires, Virgínia R; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2016-03-28

    The isolated or combined effects of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets (RPD) on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig m. longissimus lumborum and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed. The experiment was performed on forty intact male pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace cross-breed) with initial and final live weights of 60 and 93 kg, respectively. Pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following five diets (n 8): 16·0 % of crude protein (control), 13·0 % of crude protein (RPD), RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine, RPD supplemented with 1·5 % of arginine and RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine and 1·5 % of arginine. Data confirmed that RPD increase intramuscular fat (IMF) content and total fat content in SAT. The increased total fat content in SAT was accompanied by higher GLUT type 4, lipoprotein lipase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA expression levels. In addition, the supplementation of RPD with betaine and/or arginine did not affect either IMF or total fat in SAT. However, dietary betaine supplementation slightly affected fatty acid composition in both muscle and SAT. This effect was associated with an increase of carnitine O-acetyltransferase mRNA levels in SAT but not in muscle, which suggests that betaine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key genes of lipid metabolism in pig muscle and SAT. Although the arginine-supplemented diet decreased the mRNA expression level of PPARG in muscle and SAT, it did not influence fat content or fatty acid composition in any of these pig tissues.

  12. Isolation of Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don Nuclei and Measurement of Rate of Tryptophan decarboxylase Gene Transcription Using Nuclear Run-On Transcription Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    Full Text Available An accurate assessment of transcription 'rate' is often desired to describe the promoter activity. In plants, isolation of transcriptionally active nuclei and their subsequent use in nuclear run-on assays has been challenging and therefore limit an accurate measurement of gene transcription 'rate'. Catharanthus roseus has emerged as a model medicinal plant as it exhibits an unsurpassed spectrum of chemodiversity, producing over 130 alkaloids through the terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA pathway and therefore serves as a 'molecular hub' to understand gene expression profiles.The protocols presented here streamline, adapt and optimize the existing methods of nuclear run-on assay for use in C. roseus. Here, we fully describe all the steps to isolate transcriptionally active nuclei from C. roseus leaves and utilize them to perform nuclear run-on transcription assay. Nuclei isolated by this method transcribed at a level consistent with their response to external stimuli, as transcription rate of TDC gene was found to be higher in response to external stimuli i.e. when seedlings were subjected to UV-B light or to methyl jasmonate (MeJA. However, the relative transcript abundance measured parallel through qRT-PCR was found to be inconsistent with the synthesis rate indicating that some post transcriptional events might have a role in transcript stability in response to stimuli.Our study provides an optimized, efficient and inexpensive method of isolation of intact nuclei and nuclear 'run-on' transcription assay to carry out in-situ measurement of gene transcription rate in Catharanthus roseus. This would be valuable in investigating the transcriptional and post transcriptional response of other TIA pathway genes in C. roseus. Isolated nuclei may also provide a resource that could be used for performing the chip assay as well as serve as the source of nuclear proteins for in-vitro EMSA studies. Moreover, nascent nuclear run-on transcript could be further

  13. Cloning and Prokaryotic Expressing of Glutamate Decarboxylase Gene from Lactobacillus plantarum%植物乳杆菌谷氨酸脱羧酶基因的克隆及原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时粲; 刘昭明; 黎娅; 易弋; 伍时华

    2015-01-01

    Based on the sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 published in GenBank, primers were designed and the glutamate decarboxylase encoding gene gadB from L. plantarum QL-14 was amplified by PCR technology. Then the target gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 through fusion expression vector pGEX-4T-3, and the expression condition was optimized and target protein was purified. The results showed that the ORF of gadB gene was 1 407 bp and encoded 469 amino acids, 99.6% homology with L. plantarum WCFS1. After optimizing the inducing condition, the molecular weight and pI of purified GAD protein reached to 53.6 ku and 5.58 respectively, with an activity of 9.9 U/mg.%根据GenBank中植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum)基因组序列设计引物,利用PCR技术扩增了植物乳杆菌QL-14的谷氨酸脱羧酶编码基因gadB,克隆至表达载体pGEX-4T-3,转化大肠杆菌(Es-cherichia coli)后进行原核表达,对表达条件进行了优化并对表达蛋白质进了纯化。结果表明,扩增目的gadB基因的开放阅读框(ORF)全长1407 bp,编码469个氨基酸,氨基酸序列与植物乳杆菌WCFS1同源性为99.6%。通过优化诱导表达条件,得到纯化蛋白质GAD大小为53.6 ku,等电点为5.58,比活力为9.9 U/mg。

  14. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a positive regulator of the Cyclin E1 gene

    OpenAIRE

    El Messaoudi, Selma; Fabbrizio, Eric; Rodriguez, Carmen; Chuchana, Paul; Fauquier, Lucas; Cheng, Donghang; Theillet, Charles; Vandel, Laurence; Bedford, Mark T.; Sardet, Claude

    2006-01-01

    The Cyclin E1 gene (CCNE1) is an ideal model to explore the mechanisms that control the transcription of cell cycle-regulated genes whose expression rises transiently before entry into S phase. E2F-dependent regulation of the CCNE1 promoter was shown to correlate with changes in the level of H3-K9 acetylation/methylation of nucleosomal histones positioned at the transcriptional start site region. Here we show that, upon growth stimulation, the same region is subject to variations of H3-R17 an...

  15. Tyrosine decarboxylase activity of enterococci grown in media with different nutritional potential: tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine accumulation and tyrDC gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora eBargossi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to accumulate tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine by two strains of Enterococcus faecalis and two strains Enterococcus faecium was evaluated in two cultural media added or not with tyrosine. All the enterococcal strains possessed a tyrDC which determined tyramine accumulation in all the conditions tested, independently on the addition of high concentration of free tyrosine. Enterococci differed in rate and level of biogenic amines accumulation. E. faecalis EF37 and E. faecium FC12 produced tyramine in high amount since the exponential growth phase, while 2-phenylethylamine was accumulated when tyrosine was depleted. Enterococcus faecium FC12 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212 showed a slower tyraminogenic activity which took place mainly in the stationary phase up to 72 h of incubation. Moreover, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 produced 2-phenylethylamine only in the media without tyrosine added. In BHI added or not with tyrosine the tyrDC gene expression level differed considerably depending on the strains and the growth phase. In particular, the tyrDC gene expression was high during the exponential phase in rich medium for all the strains and subsequently decreased except for E. faecium FC12. Even if tyrDC presence is common among enterococci, this study underlines the extremely variable decarboxylating potential of strains belonging to the same species, suggesting strain-dependent implications in food safety.

  16. Mutations in the codon for a conserved arginine-1563 in the COL4A5 collagen gene in Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, J; Gregory, M C; Hertz, Jens Michael

    1993-01-01

    We have screened 110 unrelated Alport syndrome kindreds for mutations in the exon 48 region of the COL4A5 collagen gene. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the PCR-amplified region of exon 48 revealed sequence variants in DNA from affected males and carriers of three unrelated kind...

  17. L-arginine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking L-arginine, alone or together with antioxidants (Niteworks, Herbalife International, Inc), does not improve performance ... administered as a shot, or applied to the skin, short-term. It can cause some side effects ...

  18. Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity Is Required for Prostatic Budding in the Developing Mouse Prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Gamat

    Full Text Available The prostate is a male accessory sex gland that produces secretions in seminal fluid to facilitate fertilization. Prostate secretory function is dependent on androgens, although the mechanism by which androgens exert their effects is still unclear. Polyamines are small cationic molecules that play pivotal roles in DNA transcription, translation and gene regulation. The rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is ornithine decarboxylase, which is encoded by the gene Odc1. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA decreases in the prostate upon castration and increases upon administration of androgens. Furthermore, testosterone administered to castrated male mice restores prostate secretory activity, whereas administering testosterone and the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor D,L-α-difluromethylornithine (DFMO to castrated males does not restore prostate secretory activity, suggesting that polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effects. To date, no one has examined polyamines in prostate development, which is also androgen dependent. In this study, we showed that ornithine decarboxylase protein was expressed in the epithelium of the ventral, dorsolateral and anterior lobes of the adult mouse prostate. Ornithine decarboxylase protein was also expressed in the urogenital sinus (UGS epithelium of the male and female embryo prior to prostate development, and expression continued in prostatic epithelial buds as they emerged from the UGS. Inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase using DFMO in UGS organ culture blocked the induction of prostatic buds by androgens, and significantly decreased expression of key prostate transcription factor, Nkx3.1, by androgens. DFMO also significantly decreased the expression of developmental regulatory gene Notch1. Other genes implicated in prostatic development including Sox9, Wif1 and Srd5a2 were unaffected by DFMO. Together these results indicate that Odc1 and polyamines are required for androgens to exert their

  19. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of wild type and a mutant histidine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus 30a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderslice, P; Copeland, W C; Robertus, J D

    1986-11-15

    Prohistidine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus 30a is a protein that autoactivates to histidine decarboxylase by cleaving its peptide chain between serines 81 and 82 and converting Ser-82 to a pyruvoyl moiety. The pyruvoyl group serves as the prosthetic group for the decarboxylation reaction. We have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene for this enzyme from a wild type strain and from a mutant with altered autoactivation properties. The nucleotide sequence modifies the previously determined amino acid sequence of the protein. A tripeptide missed in the chemical sequence is inserted, and three other amino acids show conservative changes. The activation mutant shows a single change of Gly-58 to an Asp. Sequence analysis up- and downstream from the gene suggests that histidine decarboxylase is part of a polycistronic message, and that the transcriptional promotor region is strongly homologous to those of other Gram-positive organisms.

  20. Bioinformatic analysis of an unusual gene-enzyme relationship in the arginine biosynthetic pathway among marine gamma proteobacteria: implications concerning the formation of N-acetylated intermediates in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labedan Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The N-acetylation of L-glutamate is regarded as a universal metabolic strategy to commit glutamate towards arginine biosynthesis. Until recently, this reaction was thought to be catalyzed by either of two enzymes: (i the classical N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, gene argA first characterized in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa several decades ago and also present in vertebrates, or (ii the bifunctional version of ornithine acetyltransferase (OAT, gene argJ present in Bacteria, Archaea and many Eukaryotes. This paper focuses on a new and surprising aspect of glutamate acetylation. We recently showed that in Moritella abyssi and M. profunda, two marine gamma proteobacteria, the gene for the last enzyme in arginine biosynthesis (argH is fused to a short sequence that corresponds to the C-terminal, N-acetyltransferase-encoding domain of NAGS and is able to complement an argA mutant of E. coli. Very recently, other authors identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis an independent gene corresponding to this short C-terminal domain and coding for a new type of NAGS. We have investigated the two prokaryotic Domains for patterns of gene-enzyme relationships in the first committed step of arginine biosynthesis. Results The argH-A fusion, designated argH(A, and discovered in Moritella was found to be present in (and confined to marine gamma proteobacteria of the Alteromonas- and Vibrio-like group. Most of them have a classical NAGS with the exception of Idiomarina loihiensis and Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis which nevertheless can grow in the absence of arginine and therefore appear to rely on the arg(A sequence for arginine biosynthesis. Screening prokaryotic genomes for virtual argH-X 'fusions' where X stands for a homologue of arg(A, we retrieved a large number of Bacteria and several Archaea, all of them devoid of a classical NAGS. In the case of Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans, the arg(A-like sequence

  1. The role of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in bacillamide C biosynthesis by Bacillus atrophaeus C89

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Yuwen; Feng-Li Zhang; Qi-Hua Chen; Shuang-Jun Lin; Yi-Lei Zhao; Zhi-Yong Li

    2013-01-01

    For biosynthesis of bacillamide C by Bacillus atrophaeus C89 associated with South China sea sponge Dysidea avara, it is hypothesized that decarboxylation from L-tryptophan to tryptamine could be performed before amidation by the downstream aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) to the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) gene cluster for biosynthesizing bacillamide C. The structural analysis of decarboxylases' known substrates in KEGG database and alignment analysis of amino acid seq...

  2. Arginine vasotocin, isotocin and nonapeptide receptor gene expression link to social status and aggression in sex-dependent patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, S C; Sanders, K E; Walti, K A

    2015-02-01

    Nonapeptide hormones of the vasopressin/oxytocin family regulate social behaviours. In mammals and birds, variation in behaviour also is linked to expression patterns of the V1a-type receptor and the oxytocin/mesotocin receptor in the brain. Genome duplications, however, expand the diversity of nonapeptide receptors in actinopterygian fishes, and two distinct V1a-type receptors (v1a1 and v1a2) for vasotocin, as well as at least two V2-type receptors (v2a and v2b), have been identified in these taxa. The present study investigates how aggression connected to social status relates to the abundance patterns of gene transcripts encoding four vasotocin receptors, an isotocin receptor (itr), pro-vasotocin (proVT) and pro-isotocin (proIT) in the brain of the pupfish Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae. Sexually-mature pupfish were maintained in mixed-sex social groups and assessed for individual variation in aggressive behaviours. Males in these groups behaved more aggressively than females, and larger fish exhibited higher aggression relative to smaller fish of the same sex. Hypothalamic proVT transcript abundance was elevated in dominant males compared to subordinate males, and correlated positively with individual variation in aggression in both social classes. Transcripts encoding vasotocin receptor v1a1 were at higher levels in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of socially subordinate males than dominant males. Dominant males exhibited elevated hypothalamic v1a2 receptor transcript abundance relative to subordinate males and females, and telencephalic v1a2 mRNA abundance in dominant males was also associated positively with individual aggressiveness. Transcripts in the telencephalon encoding itr were elevated in females relative to males, and both telencephalic proIT and hypothalamic itr transcript abundance varied with female social status. Taken together, these data link hypothalamic proVT expression to aggression and implicate forebrain expression of the V1a

  3. Cloning and expression analysis of a lysine decarboxylase gene in Sophora alopecuroides%苦豆子赖氨酸脱羧酶基因克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毅; 陆姗姗; 刘萍; 田蕾

    2016-01-01

    赖氨酸脱羧酶(lysine decarboxylase,LDC)基因是苦豆子中氧化苦参碱(oxymatrine,OMA)生物合成的第一个关键酶基因。根据近缘物种苦参的赖氨酸脱羧酶基因设计特异引物,同源克隆法克隆了苦豆子赖氨酸脱羧酶基因的蛋白质编码区序列,全长1368 bp,命名为 Sa-LDC,GenBank 登录号为 KM249871。生物信息学分析表明 Sa-LDC 编码区序列无内含子,与苦参和狗苦参的 LDC 序列一致性均达到97%;属于Ⅲ型5-磷酸吡哆醛依赖酶[typeⅢ pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes,PLPDE-Ⅲ]超基因家族,功能活跃。Sa-LDC 编码455个氨基酸残基,其编码的肽链相对分子质量49.14 kD,理论等电点5.63,无信号肽和跨膜结构;在其氨基酸序列中具有产喹诺里西啶生物碱的特征性保守位点 Phe340;系统进化树将苦豆子与其他产喹诺里西啶类生物碱的植物聚为一类。qPCR 和 HPLC 检测显示,苦豆子赖氨酸脱羧酶基因的表达和氧化苦参碱的积累均受干旱胁迫的影响,且基因的表达量与氧化苦参碱的积累呈正相关关系。%In the biochemical metabolic processes of Sophora alopecuroides ,a lysine decarboxylase (LDC)gene is one of the key enzyme genes involved in the process of Oxymatrine biosynthesis.In the present study,the full length of the LDC coding sequence in S .alopecuroides was cloned using a pair of specific primers designed based on the LDC sequence of Sophora flavescens and was named Sa-LDC (gene bank accession number:KM249871).Sa-LDC belongs to the Type Ⅲ Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent enzyme supergene fami-ly,is comprised of a 1368 bps open reading frame (ORF)without intron,and has 97% identity with the LDC of Echinosophora koreensis and S .flavescens in GeneBank.Its nucleotide sequence encodes 455 amino acid resi-dues whose putative protein had a relative molecular mass of 49.14 kD and the theoretical isoelectric point

  4. Inactivation of agmatinase expressed in vegetative cells alters arginine catabolism and prevents diazotrophic growth in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnat, Mireia; Flores, Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Arginine decarboxylase produces agmatine, and arginase and agmatinase are ureohydrolases that catalyze the production of ornithine and putrescine from arginine and agmatine, respectively, releasing urea. In the genome of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, ORF alr2310 putatively encodes an ureohydrolase. Cells of Anabaena supplemented with [(14) C]arginine took up and catabolized this amino acid generating a set of labeled amino acids that included ornithine, proline, and glutamate. In an alr2310 deletion mutant, an agmatine spot appeared and labeled glutamate increased with respect to the wild type, suggesting that Alr2310 is an agmatinase rather than an arginase. As determined in cell-free extracts, agmatinase activity could be detected in the wild type but not in the mutant. Thus, alr2310 is the Anabaena speB gene encoding agmatinase. The ∆alr2310 mutant accumulated large amounts of cyanophycin granule polypeptide, lacked nitrogenase activity, and did not grow diazotrophically. Growth tests in solid media showed that agmatine is inhibitory for Anabaena, especially under diazotrophic conditions, suggesting that growth of the mutant is inhibited by non-metabolized agmatine. Measurements of incorporation of radioactivity from [(14) C]leucine into macromolecules showed, however, a limited inhibition of protein synthesis in the ∆alr2310 mutant. Analysis of an Anabaena strain producing an Alr2310-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion showed expression in vegetative cells but much less in heterocysts, implying compartmentalization of the arginine decarboxylation pathway in the diazotrophic filaments of this heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium.

  5. Role of ornithine decarboxylase in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wensheng Deng; Xian Jiang; Yu Mei; Jingzhong Sun; Rong Ma; Xianxi Liu; Hui Sun; Hui Tian; Xueying Sun

    2008-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis that decarboxylates ornithine to putrescine, has become a promising target for cancer research. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of ODC in breast cancer. We detected expression of ODC in breast cancer tissues and four breast cancer cell lines, and transfected breast cancer cells with an adenoviral vector carrying antisense ODC (rAd-ODC/Ex3as) and examined their growth and migration.ODC was overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared with non-tumor tissues and normal breast epithelial celis,and there was a positive correlation between the level of ODC mRNA and the staging of tumors.The expression of ODC correlated with cyclin D1,a cell cycle protein,in synchronized breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.Gene transfection of rAd-ODC/Ex3as markedly down-regulated expression Of ODC and cyclin D1,resulting in suppression of proliferation and cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase,and the inhibifion of colony formation,an anchorage-independent growth pattern,and the migratory ability of MDA-MB-231 cells.rAd-ODC/Ex3as also markedly reduced the concentration of putrescine,but not spermidine or spermine,in MDA-MB-231 cells.The results suggested that the ODC gene might act as aprognostic factor for breast cancer and it could be a promising therapeutic target.

  6. Convergent evolution of the arginine deiminase pathway: the ArcD and ArcE arginine/ornithine exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noens, Elke E E; Lolkema, Juke S

    2017-02-01

    The arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and yields 1 mol of ATP per mol of L-arginine consumed. The L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger in the pathway takes up L-arginine and excretes L-ornithine from the cytoplasm. Analysis of the genomes of 1281 bacterial species revealed the presence of 124 arc gene clusters encoding the pathway. About half of the clusters contained the gene encoding the well-studied L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger ArcD, while the other half contained a gene, termed here arcE, encoding a membrane protein that is not a homolog of ArcD. The arcE gene product of Streptococcus pneumoniae was shown to take up L-arginine and L-ornithine with affinities of 0.6 and 1 μmol/L, respectively, and to catalyze metabolic energy-independent, electroneutral exchange. ArcE of S. pneumoniae could replace ArcD in the ADI pathway of Lactococcus lactis and provided the cells with a growth advantage. In contrast to ArcD, ArcE catalyzed translocation of the pathway intermediate L-citrulline with high efficiency. A short version of the ADI pathway is proposed for L-citrulline catabolism and the presence of the evolutionary unrelated arcD and arcE genes in different organisms is discussed in the context of the evolution of the ADI pathway.

  7. Anaerobic arginine metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by arginine deiminase (arcA), but is not essential for chronic persistence in an aerogenic mouse model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürken, Michael; Keller, Christine; Röhker, Claudia; Ehlers, Stefan; Bange, Franz-Christoph

    2008-10-01

    In many pathogens, degradation of arginine via the arginine deiminase pathway supports anaerobic metabolism. Here we show by deletion of Rv1001 (arcA) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis that this gene functions as an arginine deiminase. Arginine metabolism in the presence of oxygen was not affected by the mutation, indicating a separate pathway for arginine degradation under aerobic conditions. Following aerosol infection in mice, the DeltaarcA mutant and wild-type strain of M. tuberculosis multiplied and persisted in infected organs in a similar fashion.

  8. Influence of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of cross-bred pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, M.; Rolo, E.; Alfaia, C.; Pires, V.,; Luxton, R.; Doran, O.; Bessa, R.; Prates, J.

    2016-01-01

    The isolated or combined effects of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets (RPD) on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig m. longissimus lumborum and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)were assessed. The experiment was performed on forty intact male pigs (Duroc × Large White × Landrace cross-breed) with initial and final\\ud live weights of 60 and 93 kg, respectively. Pigs were randomly assigned to one of the follo...

  9. Arginine metabolism in wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albina, J.E.; Mills, C.D.; Barbul, A.; Thirkill, C.E.; Henry, W.L. Jr.; Mastrofrancesco, B.; Caldwell, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Arginine metabolism in wounds was investigated in the rat in 1) lambda-carrageenan-wounded skeletal muscle, 2) Schilling chambers, and 3) subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol sponges. All showed decreased arginine and elevated ornithine contents and high arginase activity. Arginase could be brought to the wound by macrophages, which were found to contain arginase activity. However, arginase was expressed by macrophages only after cell lysis and no arginase was released by viable macrophages in vitro. Thus the extracellular arginase of wounds may derive from dead macrophages within the injured tissue. Wound and peritoneal macrophages exhibited arginase deiminase activity as demonstrated by the conversion of (guanido-/sup 14/C)arginine to radiolabeled citrulline during culture, the inhibition of this reaction by formamidinium acetate, and the lack of prokaryotic contamination of the cultures. These findings and the known metabolic fates of the products of arginase and arginine deiminase in the cellular populations of the wound suggest the possibility of cooperativity among cells for the production of substrates for collagen synthesis.

  10. The Ergogenic Potential of Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Bounty Paul M

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is involved in protein synthesis, the detoxification of ammonia, and its conversion to glucose as well as being catabolized to produce energy. In addition to these physiological functions, arginine has been purported to have ergogenic potential. Athletes have taken arginine for three main reasons: 1 its role in the secretion of endogenous growth hormone; 2 its involvement in the synthesis of creatine; 3 its role in augmenting nitric oxide. These aspects of arginine supplementation will be discussed as well as a review of clinical investigations involving exercise performance and arginine ingestion.

  11. Effects of down-regulating ornithine decarboxylase upon putrescine-associated metabolism and growth in Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Heidi L; Blomstedt, Cecilia K; Neale, Alan D; Gleadow, Ros; DeBoer, Kathleen D; Hamill, John D

    2016-05-01

    Transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum L. homozygous for an RNAi construct designed to silence ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) had significantly lower concentrations of nicotine and nornicotine, but significantly higher concentrations of anatabine, compared with vector-only controls. Silencing of ODC also led to significantly reduced concentrations of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine), tyramine and phenolamides (caffeoylputrescine and dicaffeoylspermidine) with concomitant increases in concentrations of amino acids ornithine, arginine, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine. Root transcript levels of S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase, S-adenosyl methionine synthase and spermidine synthase (polyamine synthesis enzymes) were reduced compared with vector controls, whilst transcript levels of arginine decarboxylase (putrescine synthesis), putrescine methyltransferase (nicotine production) and multi-drug and toxic compound extrusion (alkaloid transport) proteins were elevated. In contrast, expression of two other key proteins required for alkaloid synthesis, quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (nicotinic acid production) and a PIP-family oxidoreductase (nicotinic acid condensation reactions), were diminished in roots of odc-RNAi plants relative to vector-only controls. Transcriptional and biochemical differences associated with polyamine and alkaloid metabolism were exacerbated in odc-RNAi plants in response to different forms of shoot damage. In general, apex removal had a greater effect than leaf wounding alone, with a combination of these injury treatments producing synergistic responses in some cases. Reduced expression of ODC appeared to have negative effects upon plant growth and vigour with some leaves of odc-RNAi lines being brittle and bleached compared with vector-only controls. Together, results of this study demonstrate that ornithine decarboxylase has important roles in facilitating both primary and secondary metabolism in Nicotiana.

  12. Role of arginine in immunonutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, D; Barbul, A

    2000-01-01

    Arginine plays an important role in many physiologic and biologic processes beyond its role as a protein-incorporated amino acid. Dietary supplementation of arginine can enhance wound healing, regulate endocrine activity and potentiate immune activity. Under normal unstressed conditions the arginine requirement of adult humans is fulfilled by endogenous sources, however this is compromised during times of stress, especially in critical illness. These finding have led to use of arginine supplementation as part of an immune-enhancing dietary regimen to help combat the immune suppression seen in such patients. Though the results from studies examining the use of this type of immunonutrition in critically ill patients are far from definitive, they are promising that this mode of therapy may be of some advantage. A better understanding of the in vivo biology of arginine and its metabolism is necessary to truly define a benefit from arginine supplementation.

  13. The Ergogenic Potential of Arginine

    OpenAIRE

    La Bounty Paul M; Campbell Bill I; Roberts Mike

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is involved in protein synthesis, the detoxification of ammonia, and its conversion to glucose as well as being catabolized to produce energy. In addition to these physiological functions, arginine has been purported to have ergogenic potential. Athletes have taken arginine for three main reasons: 1) its role in the secretion of endogenous growth hormone; 2) its involvement in the synthesis of creatine; 3) its role in augmenting n...

  14. 产气肠杆菌α-乙酰乳酸脱羧酶基因的克隆表达及鉴定%Cloning and Expression of α-Acetolactate Decarboxylase Gene from Enterobacter aerogenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱娥; 荫俊

    2003-01-01

    根据已知α-乙酰乳酸脱羧酶(α-acetolactate decarboxylase,ALDC)的基因序列,用PCR法从产气肠杆菌(Ebterobacter aerogenes)中克隆到约0.8kb的DNA片段,经DNA测序证明是ALDC基因,将该基因重组到质粒pBV220中,转化大肠杆菌,实现了高表达,获得了目的蛋白表达量约50%的转化子;表达产物经鉴定具有ALDC酶活性,为可溶性表达.为下一步应用基因工程手段对其进行改造奠定了基础.

  15. The root-specific glutamate decarboxylase (GAD1) is essential for sustaining GABA levels in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouché, Nicolas; Fait, Aaron; Zik, Moriyah; Fromm, Hillel

    2004-05-01

    In plants, as in most eukaryotes, glutamate decarboxylase catalyses the synthesis of GABA. The Arabidopsis genome contains five glutamate decarboxylase genes and one of these genes (glutamate decarboxylase1; i.e. GAD1 ) is expressed specifically in roots. By isolating and analyzing three gad1 T-DNA insertion alleles, derived from two ecotypes, we investigated the potential role of GAD1 in GABA production. We also analyzed a promoter region of the GAD1 gene and show that it confers root-specific expression when fused to reporter genes. Phenotypic analysis of the gad1 insertion mutants revealed that GABA levels in roots were drastically reduced compared with those in the wild type. The roots of the wild type contained about sevenfold more GABA than roots of the mutants. Disruption of the GAD1 gene also prevented the accumulation of GABA in roots in response to heat stress. Our results show that the root-specific calcium/calmodulin-regulated GAD1 plays a major role in GABA synthesis in plants under normal growth conditions and in response to stress.

  16. Arginine deiminase inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis surface attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugini, Carla; Stephens, Danielle N; Nguyen, Daniel; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Davey, Mary E

    2013-02-01

    The oral cavity is host to a complex microbial community whose maintenance depends on an array of cell-to-cell interactions and communication networks, with little known regarding the nature of the signals or mechanisms by which they are sensed and transmitted. Determining the signals that control attachment, biofilm development and outgrowth of oral pathogens is fundamental to understanding pathogenic biofilm development. We have previously identified a secreted arginine deiminase (ADI) produced by Streptococcus intermedius that inhibited biofilm development of the commensal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis through downregulation of genes encoding the major (fimA) and minor (mfa1) fimbriae, both of which are required for proper biofilm development. Here we report that this inhibitory effect is dependent on enzymic activity. We have successfully cloned, expressed and defined the conditions to ensure that ADI from S. intermedius is enzymically active. Along with the cloning of the wild-type allele, we have created a catalytic mutant (ADIC399S), in which the resulting protein is not able to catalyse the hydrolysis of l-arginine to l-citrulline. P. gingivalis is insensitive to the ADIC399S catalytic mutant, demonstrating that enzymic activity is required for the effects of ADI on biofilm formation. Biofilm formation is absent under l-arginine-deplete conditions, and can be recovered by the addition of the amino acid. Taken together, the results indicate that arginine is an important signal that directs biofilm formation by this anaerobe. Based on our findings, we postulate that ADI functions to reduce arginine levels and, by a yet to be identified mechanism, signals P. gingivalis to alter biofilm development. ADI release from the streptococcal cell and its cross-genera effects are important findings in understanding the nature of inter-bacterial signalling and biofilm-mediated diseases of the oral cavity.

  17. Expression and Characterization of ArgR, An Arginine Regulatory Protein in Corynebacterium crenatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue Lan; ZHANG Bin; TANG Li; JIAO Hai Tao; XU Heng Yi; XU Feng; XU Hong; WEI Hua; XIONG Yong Hua

    2014-01-01

    Objective Corynebacterium crenatum MT, a mutant from C. crenatum AS 1.542 with a lethal argR gene, exhibits high arginine production. To confirm the effect of ArgR on arginine biosynthesis in C. crenatum, an intact argR gene from wild-type AS 1.542 was introduced into C. crenatum MT, resulting in C. crenatum MT. sp, and the changes of transcriptional levels of the arginine biosynthetic genes and arginine production were compared between the mutant strain and the recombinant strain. Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to analyze the changes of the related genes at the transcriptional level, electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to determine ArgR binding with the argCJBDF, argGH, and carAB promoter regions, and arginine production was determined with an automated amino acid analyzer. Results Arginine production assays showed a 69.9%reduction in arginine from 9.01±0.22 mg/mL in C. crenatum MT to 2.71±0.13 mg/mL (P Conclusion The arginine biosynthetic genes in C. crenatum are clearly controlled by the negative regulator ArgR, and intact ArgR in C. crenatum MT results in a significant descrease in arginine production.

  18. Arginine consumption by the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis reduces proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Stadelmann

    Full Text Available In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO. A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consumes arginine as main energy source and secretes an arginine-consuming enzyme, arginine deiminase (ADI. Reduced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC proliferation is a common theme during bacterial and viral intestinal infections, but it has never been connected to arginine-consumption. Our specific question was thereby, whether the arginine-consumption by Giardia leads to reduced IEC proliferation, in addition to NO reduction. In vitro cultivation of human IEC lines in arginine-free or arginine/citrulline-complemented medium, as well as in interaction with different G. intestinalis isolates, were used to study effects on host cell replication by MTT assay. IEC proliferation was further analyzed by DNA content analysis, polyamine measurements and expressional analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes. IEC proliferation was reduced upon arginine-withdrawal and also in an arginine-dependent manner upon interaction with G. intestinalis or addition of Giardia ADI. We show that arginine-withdrawal by intestinal pathogens leads to a halt in the cell cycle in IECs through reduced polyamine levels and upregulated cell cycle inhibitory genes. This is of importance with regards to intestinal tissue homeostasis that is affected through reduced cell proliferation. Thus, the slower epithelial cell turnover helps the pathogen to maintain a more stable niche for colonization. This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful

  19. Arginine consumption by the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis reduces proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Britta; Merino, María C; Persson, Lo; Svärd, Staffan G

    2012-01-01

    In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consumes arginine as main energy source and secretes an arginine-consuming enzyme, arginine deiminase (ADI). Reduced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation is a common theme during bacterial and viral intestinal infections, but it has never been connected to arginine-consumption. Our specific question was thereby, whether the arginine-consumption by Giardia leads to reduced IEC proliferation, in addition to NO reduction. In vitro cultivation of human IEC lines in arginine-free or arginine/citrulline-complemented medium, as well as in interaction with different G. intestinalis isolates, were used to study effects on host cell replication by MTT assay. IEC proliferation was further analyzed by DNA content analysis, polyamine measurements and expressional analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes. IEC proliferation was reduced upon arginine-withdrawal and also in an arginine-dependent manner upon interaction with G. intestinalis or addition of Giardia ADI. We show that arginine-withdrawal by intestinal pathogens leads to a halt in the cell cycle in IECs through reduced polyamine levels and upregulated cell cycle inhibitory genes. This is of importance with regards to intestinal tissue homeostasis that is affected through reduced cell proliferation. Thus, the slower epithelial cell turnover helps the pathogen to maintain a more stable niche for colonization. This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful and that

  20. Characterization of a second ornithine decarboxylase isolated from Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Las Rivas, Blanca; González, Ramón; Landete, José María; Muñoz, Rosario

    2008-03-01

    The genes involved in the putrescine formation by Morganella morganii were investigated because putrescine is an indicator of food process deterioration. We report here on the existence of a new gene for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in M. morganii. The sequenced 5,311-bp DNA region showed the presence of four complete and one partial open reading frame. Putative functions have been assigned to several gene products by sequence comparison with the proteins included in the databases. The third open reading frame (speC) encoded a 722-amino acid protein showing 70.9% identity to the M. morganii ODC previously characterized (SpeF). The speC gene has been expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in ODC activity. The presence of a functional promoter (PspeC) located upstream of speC has been demonstrated. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to quantify expression of both M. morganii ODC-encoding genes, speC and speF, under different growth conditions. This assay allows us to identify SpeF as the inducible M. morganii ODC, since it was highly expressed in the presence of ornithine.

  1. Listeria monocytogenes 10403S Arginine Repressor ArgR Finely Tunes Arginine Metabolism Regulation under Acidic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Changyong; Dong, Zhimei; Han, Xiao; Sun, Jing; Wang, Hang; Jiang, Li; Yang, Yongchun; Ma, Tiantian; Chen, Zhongwei; Yu, Jing; Fang, Weihuan; Song, Houhui

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is able to colonize human and animal intestinal tracts and to subsequently cross the intestinal barrier, causing systemic infection. For successful establishment of infection, L. monocytogenes must survive the low pH environment of the stomach. L. monocytogenes encodes a functional ArgR, a transcriptional regulator belonging to the ArgR/AhrC arginine repressor family. We aimed at clarifying the specific functions of ArgR in arginine metabolism regulation, and more importantly, in acid tolerance of L. monocytogenes. We showed that ArgR in the presence of 10 mM arginine represses transcription and expression of the argGH and argCJBDF operons, indicating that L. monocytogenes ArgR plays the classical role of ArgR/AhrC family proteins in feedback inhibition of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Notably, transcription and expression of arcA (encoding arginine deiminase) and sigB (encoding an alternative sigma factor B) were also markedly repressed by ArgR when bacteria were exposed to pH 5.5 in the absence of arginine. However, addition of arginine enabled ArgR to derepress the transcription and expression of these two genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that ArgR binds to the putative ARG boxes in the promoter regions of argC, argG, arcA, and sigB. Reporter gene analysis with gfp under control of the argG promoter demonstrated that ArgR was able to activate the argG promoter. Unexpectedly, deletion of argR significantly increased bacterial survival in BHI medium adjusted to pH 3.5 with lactic acid. We conclude that this phenomenon is due to activation of arcA and sigB. Collectively, our results show that L. monocytogenes ArgR finely tunes arginine metabolism through negative transcriptional regulation of the arginine biosynthetic operons and of the catabolic arcA gene in an arginine-independent manner during lactic acid-induced acid stress. ArgR also appears to activate catabolism as well as sigB transcription by anti

  2. Induction of aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase by decarboxylase inhibitors in idiopathic parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, F; Meerwaldt, J D; Man in 't Veld, A J; Hovestadt, A; Schalekamp, M A

    1989-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of administration of L-dopa, alone or in combination with a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor, on plasma levels of aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (ALAAD). After single-dose administration of L-dopa plus benserazide (Madopar) in healthy subjects and in chronically treated patients with parkinsonism, plasma ALAAD followed for 2 to 3 hours fell, but returned to predosing levels within 90 minutes. Four groups of patients with idiopathic parkinsonism were studied during chronic treatment: Group I, no L-dopa treatment (n = 31); Group II, L-dopa alone (n = 15); Group III, L-dopa plus benserazide (n = 28); and Group IV, L-dopa plus carbidopa (Sinemet, n = 30). Plasma ALAAD 2 hours after dosing was normal in Groups I and II. ALAAD was increased threefold in Groups III and IV, suggesting induction of ALAAD by the coadministration of a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. In a study of 3 patients in whom L-dopa/benserazide was started, plasma ALAAD rose gradually over 3 to 4 weeks. Further detailed pharmacokinetic studies of L-dopa, dopamine, and ALAAD in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are required to determine if the apparent ALAAD induction by a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor may be related to the loss of clinical efficacy of combination therapy in some patients and how it is related to end-of-dose deterioration and on-off phenomena.

  3. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus subtilis. 173.115 Section 173.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Bacillus subtilis. The food additive alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation, may be... derived from a modified Bacillus subtilis strain that contains the gene coding for α-ALDC from...

  4. Feed intake and brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) gene expression in juvenile cobia fed plant-based protein diets with different lysine to arginine ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Van; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Espe, Marit; Buttle, Louise; Lai, Hung Van; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2013-07-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Actinopterygii, Perciformes;10.5±0.1g) were fed to satiation with three plant-based protein test diets with different lysine (L) to arginine (A) ratios (LL/A, 0.8; BL/A, 1.1; and HL/A, 1.8), using a commercial diet as control for six weeks. The test diets contained 730 g kg(-1) plant ingredients with 505-529 g protein, 90.2-93.9 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter; control diet contained 550 g protein and 95 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter. Periprandial expression of brain NPY and CCK (npy and cck) was measured twice (weeks 1 and 6). At week one, npy levels were higher in pre-feeding than postfeeding cobia for all diets, except LL/A. At week six, npy levels in pre-feeding were higher than in postfeeding cobia for all diets. cck in pre-feeding cobia did not differ from that in postfeeding for all diets, at either time point. Cobia fed LL/A had lower feed intake (FI) than cobia fed BL/A and control diet, but no clear correlations between dietary L/A ratio and FI, growth and expression of npy and cck were detected. The data suggest that NPY serves as an orexigenic factor, but further studies are necessary to describe links between dietary L/A and regulation of appetite and FI in cobia.

  5. Proteomic analysis of arginine methylation sites in human cells reveals dynamic regulation during transcriptional arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvestersen, Kathrine B; Horn, Heiko; Jungmichel, Stephanie;

    2014-01-01

    The covalent attachment of methyl groups to the side-chain of arginine residues is known to play essential roles in regulation of transcription, protein function and RNA metabolism. The specific N-methylation of arginine residues is catalyzed by a small family of gene products known as protein......, transcription, and chromatin remodeling are predominantly found modified with MMA. Despite this, MMA sites prominently are located outside RNA-binding domains as compared to the proteome-wide distribution of arginine residues. Quantification of arginine methylation in cells treated with Actinomycin D uncovers...

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of genes involved in polyamine metabolism during tomato fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaniklidis, Georgios; Kotsiras, Anastasios; Tsafouros, Athanasios; Roussos, Peter A; Aivalakis, Georgios; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Delis, Costas

    2016-03-01

    Polyamines are organic compounds involved in various biological roles in plants, including cell growth and organ development. In the present study, the expression profile, the accumulation of free polyamines and the transcript localisation of the genes involved in Put metabolism, such as Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and copper containing Amine oxidase (CuAO), were examined during Solanum lycopersicum cv. Chiou fruit development and maturation. Moreover, the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in higher polyamine metabolism, including Spermidine synthase (SPDS), Spermine synthase (SPMS), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and Polyamine oxidase (PAO), were studied. Most genes participating in PAs biosynthesis and metabolism exhibited an increased accumulation of transcripts at the early stages of fruit development. In contrast, CuAO and SPMS were mostly expressed later, during the development stages of the fruits where a massive increase in fruit volume occurs, while the SPDS1 gene exhibited a rather constant expression with a peak at the red ripe stage. Although Put, Spd and Spm were all exhibited decreasing levels in developing immature fruits, Put levels maxed late during fruit ripening. In contrast to Put both Spd and Spm levels continue to decrease gradually until full ripening. It is worth noticing that in situ RNA-RNA hybridisation is reported for the first time in tomato fruits. The localisation of ADC2, ODC1 and CuAO gene transcripts at tissues such as the locular parenchyma and the vascular bundles fruits, supports the theory that all genes involved in Put biosynthesis and catabolism are mostly expressed in fast growing tissues. The relatively high expression levels of CuAO at the ImG4 stage of fruit development (fruits with a diameter of 3 cm), mature green and breaker stages could possibly be attributed to the implication of polyamines in physiological processes taking place during fruit ripening.

  7. Characterization of the Entamoeba histolytica ornithine decarboxylase-like enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Jhingran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are organic cations that are required for cell growth and differentiation. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, is a highly regulated enzyme. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: To use this enzyme as a potential drug target, the gene encoding putative ornithine decarboxylase (ODC-like sequence was cloned from Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite causing amoebiasis. DNA sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF of approximately 1,242 bp encoding a putative protein of 413 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.61. The E. histolytica putative ODC-like sequence has 33% sequence identity with human ODC and 36% identity with the Datura stramonium ODC. The ORF is a single-copy gene located on a 1.9-Mb chromosome. The recombinant putative ODC protein (48 kDa from E. histolytica was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Antiserum against recombinant putative ODC protein detected a band of anticipated size approximately 46 kDa in E. histolytica whole-cell lysate. Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, an enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of ODC, had no effect on the recombinant putative ODC from E. histolytica. Comparative modeling of the three-dimensional structure of E. histolytica putative ODC shows that the putative binding site for DFMO is disrupted by the substitution of three amino acids-aspartate-332, aspartate-361, and tyrosine-323-by histidine-296, phenylalanine-305, and asparagine-334, through which this inhibitor interacts with the protein. Amino acid changes in the pocket of the E. histolytica enzyme resulted in low substrate specificity for ornithine. It is possible that the enzyme has evolved a novel substrate specificity. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first report on the molecular characterization of putative ODC-like sequence from

  8. Keto-isovalerate decarboxylase enzymes and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvain, Jessica; O'Keefe, Daniel P.; Paul, Brian James; Payne, Mark S.; Rothman, Steven Cary; He, Hongxian

    2016-01-19

    Provided herein are polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides which have ketoisovalerate decarboxylase activity. Also provided are recombinant host cells comprising such polypeptides and polynucleotides and methods of use thereof.

  9. l-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P < 0.05, for each tissue and enzyme) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively. Arginase I abundance in aorta, heart, and kidney was increased (P < 0.05, for each tissue) in hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P < 0.05, for each tissue). Arginase II was augmented in aorta and kidney (P < 0.05, for each tissue) of hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P < 0.05, for all tissues) in hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P < 0.05) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively, in all organs studied. OAT and proline levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in liver but not in the other tissues. ADC protein levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in all tissues. According to these findings, thyroid hormone treatment positively modulates different l-arginine metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might

  10. 苦瓜果实S-腺苷蛋氨酸脱羧酶基因McSAMDC的克隆、表达及亚细胞定位%Cloning, Expression and Subcellular Localization of S-adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase Gene (McSAMDC)Gene from Fruit in Momordica charantia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高山; 陈桂信; 许端祥; 钟开勤; 林义章; 潘东明

    2013-01-01

    The full length cDNA sequence of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) gene named McSAMDC (GenBank accession No.:KC632099) was cloned by 3′RACE technique based on the related EST sequence from the normalized Full-Length cDNA library of bitter gourd fruit.The cDNA sequence is 1900 bp in full length with a 501 bp 5′-UTR and a 325 bp 3′-UTR.The cDNA sequence consists of three ORFs (tiny ORF,upstream ORF and main ORF),and the main ORF was 1077 bp encoding 358 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 39.31 ku.The mORF deduced protein had two conserved function domains (proenzyme cleavage site and rapid degradation of SAMDC protein domain).In the secondary structure,Random coil,α-helix,Extended strand,and β-tum was 45.53%,29.33%,19.83% and 5.31%,respectively.Amino acid sequence alignment showed the McSAMDC shared high identity with Arabidopsis thaliana (CAA69073.1),Arabidopsis lyrata subsp.(XP 002882231.1),and Brassica juncea (AAS45435.1) as 69%,68% and 68%.Subcellular localization analysis showed that the mORF was mainly found in the cytoplasm.Fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis showed the McSAMDC gene was expressed at the highest level at the fruit enlargement stage and rapidly decreased thereafter,and the expression level was continuously increased from the mature green stage until full mature stage.%根据已构建苦瓜果实均一化文库中获得的1个与SAMDC基因相关的EST序列,采用3′RACE技术,克隆获得1个苦瓜SAMDC基因的cDNA全长序列,命名为McSAMDC(GenBank登录号为KC632099).生物信息分析结果表明,该cDNA全长l900bp,5′UTR和3′UTR分别长501、325bp.该cDNA序列存在3个开放读码框(微型tORF、上游读码框uORF和主读码框mORF),其中mORF长1077bp,编码358个氨基酸,预测分子量为39.31ku,含有酶原剪切位点结构域和蛋白快速降解有关的PEST二个保守结构域.二级结构分析显示,McSAMDC含有无规卷曲(45.53%)、α-螺旋(29.33

  11. Regulation of Arginine-Ornithine Exchange and the Arginine Deiminase Pathway in Streptococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POOLMAN, B; DRIESSEN, AJM; KONINGS, WN

    1987-01-01

    Streptococcus lactis metabolizes arginine by the argiqine deiminase (ADI) pathway. Resting cells of S. lactis grown in the presence of galactose and arginine maintain a high intracellular ornithine pool in the absence of arginine and other exogenous energy sources. Addition of arginine results in a

  12. A porphodimethene chemical inhibitor of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W Yip

    Full Text Available Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD catalyzes the conversion of uroporphyrinogen to coproporphyrinogen during heme biosynthesis. This enzyme was recently identified as a potential anticancer target; its inhibition leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species, likely mediated by the Fenton reaction, thereby decreasing cancer cell viability and working in cooperation with radiation and/or cisplatin. Because there is no known chemical UROD inhibitor suitable for use in translational studies, we aimed to design, synthesize, and characterize such a compound. Initial in silico-based design and docking analyses identified a potential porphyrin analogue that was subsequently synthesized. This species, a porphodimethene (named PI-16, was found to inhibit UROD in an enzymatic assay (IC50 = 9.9 µM, but did not affect porphobilinogen deaminase (at 62.5 µM, thereby exhibiting specificity. In cellular assays, PI-16 reduced the viability of FaDu and ME-180 cancer cells with half maximal effective concentrations of 22.7 µM and 26.9 µM, respectively, and only minimally affected normal oral epithelial (NOE cells. PI-16 also combined effectively with radiation and cisplatin, with potent synergy being observed in the case of cisplatin in FaDu cells (Chou-Talalay combination index <1. This work presents the first known synthetic UROD inhibitor, and sets the foundation for the design, synthesis, and characterization of higher affinity and more effective UROD inhibitors.

  13. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W;

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept...

  14. Twin-Arginine Protein Translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosens, Vivianne J; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Twin-arginine protein translocation systems (Tat) translocate fully folded and co-factor-containing proteins across biological membranes. In this review, we focus on the Tat pathway of Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal Tat pathway is composed of two components, namely a TatA and TatC pair, which a

  15. Occurrence of Arginine Deiminase Pathway Enzymes in Arginine Catabolism by Wine Lactic Acid Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Liu., S; Pritchard, G. G.; Hardman, M. J.; Pilone, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    l-Arginine, an amino acid found in significant quantities in grape juice and wine, is known to be catabolized by some wine lactic acid bacteria. The correlation between the occurrence of arginine deiminase pathway enzymes and the ability to catabolize arginine was examined in this study. The activities of the three arginine deiminase pathway enzymes, arginine deiminase, ornithine transcarbamylase, and carbamate kinase, were measured in cell extracts of 35 strains of wine lactic acid bacteria....

  16. A standard numbering scheme for thiamine diphosphate-dependent decarboxylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Constantin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard numbering schemes for families of homologous proteins allow for the unambiguous identification of functionally and structurally relevant residues, to communicate results on mutations, and to systematically analyse sequence-function relationships in protein families. Standard numbering schemes have been successfully implemented for several protein families, including lactamases and antibodies, whereas a numbering scheme for the structural family of thiamine-diphosphate (ThDP -dependent decarboxylases, a large subfamily of the class of ThDP-dependent enzymes encompassing pyruvate-, benzoylformate-, 2-oxo acid-, indolpyruvate- and phenylpyruvate decarboxylases, benzaldehyde lyase, acetohydroxyacid synthases and 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase (MenD is still missing. Despite a high structural similarity between the members of the ThDP-dependent decarboxylases, their sequences are diverse and make a pairwise sequence comparison of protein family members difficult. Results We developed and validated a standard numbering scheme for the family of ThDP-dependent decarboxylases. A profile hidden Markov model (HMM was created using a set of representative sequences from the family of ThDP-dependent decarboxylases. The pyruvate decarboxylase from S. cerevisiae (PDB: 2VK8 was chosen as a reference because it is a well characterized enzyme. The crystal structure with the PDB identifier 2VK8 encompasses the structure of the ScPDC mutant E477Q, the cofactors ThDP and Mg2+ as well as the substrate analogue (2S-2-hydroxypropanoic acid. The absolute numbering of this reference sequence was transferred to all members of the ThDP-dependent decarboxylase protein family. Subsequently, the numbering scheme was integrated into the already established Thiamine-diphosphate dependent Enzyme Engineering Database (TEED and was used to systematically analyze functionally and structurally relevant

  17. Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency Not Responding to Pyridoxine and Bromocriptine Therapy: Case Report and Review of Response to Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency (MIM #608643) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of monoamines. It is caused by a mutation in the DDC gene that leads to a deficiency in the AADC enzyme. The clinical features of this condition include a combination of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin deficiencies, and a patient may present with hypotonia, oculogyric crises, sweating, hypersalivation, autonomic dysfunction, and progressive encephalopathy with severe developmental...

  18. Characterization of the arginine deiminase of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyongsu

    2006-09-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is an important cause of infectious diseases in horses and rarely humans. Little is known about the virulence factors or protective antigens of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the present study, I designed original primers based on an alignment of the gene sagp(arcA) from Streptococcus pyogenes encoding streptococcal acid glycoprotein-arginine deiminase (SAGP/AD) to amplify the S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus counterpart sequence by polymerase chain reaction, and I analyzed the sagp(arcA) gene of the organism. Using chromosomal walking steps, I identified a contiguous eight-gene locus involved in SAGP/AD production. Their open reading frames were found to share significant homologies and to correspond closely in molecular mass to previously sequenced arc genes of S. pyogenes, thus they were designated ahrC.2 (arginine repressor), arcR (CRP/FNR transcription regulator), sagp(arcA) (streptococcal acid glycoprotein-arginine deiminase), putative acetyltransferase gene, arcB (ornithine carbamyl transferase), arcD (arginine-ornithine antiporter), arcT (Xaa-His peptidase), and arcC (carbamate kinase). The SAGP homologue of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SzSAGP), encoded by arcA gene of the bacteria (arcA(SZ)), was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. When in vitro growth inhibitory activity of the recombinant SzSAGP was tested against MOLT-3 cells, it inhibited the growth of the cells during the 3 days of culture in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by the induction of apoptotic cell death. The recombinant protein also possessed AD activity. By immunoblot analysis using both anti-SzSAGP-SfbI(H8) and anti-SfbI(H8) sera, I was able to demonstrate that the SzSAGP protein is expressed on the streptococcal surface.

  19. Effects of Teucrium polium aerial parts extracts on malonyl-CoA decarboxylase level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdi Qujeq

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD is an enzyme involved in the decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. In order to explore the hypothesis that the changing plant materials’ MCD activity level can serve as therapy to diabetics, the effect of Teucrium polium compounds was studied in a diabetic rat model. In this experimental study, two groups of rats, a control and a diabetic group, each including six rats, were used. At the end of the experiment, all rats were exterminated by ether anesthesia, their pancreases removed and dissected. Isolated rat pancreas was cultured in buffers with or without 100-500µg/l T. polium aerial parts extracts containing arginine and leucine. MCD and insulin levels were measured after culture at 37°C and 5% CO2, for 1, 3 and 5 days. Results showed that T. polium aqueous and the alcoholic extract decreased MCD activity. Present data also indicate that incubation of pancreatic tissue at a concentration of 2.8 and 16.7 mmol/L glucose stimulated insulin release. For the first time it seems that aqueous and alcoholic extracts of this plant decreased MCD activity.

  20. An alternative, arginase-independent pathway for arginine metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis involves guanidinobutyrase as a key enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romagnoli, G.; Verhoeven, M.D.; Mans, R.; Fleury Rey, Y.; Bel-Rhlid, R.; Van den Broek, M.; Maleki Seifar, R.; Ten Pierick, A.; Thompson, M.; Müller, V.; Wahl, S.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Most available knowledge on fungal arginine metabolism is derived from studies on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which arginine catabolism is initiated by releasing urea via the arginase reaction. Orthologues of the S. cerevisiae genes encoding the first three enzymes in the arginase pathway were clon

  1. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T;

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of V...

  2. Differential distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 messenger RNAs in the entopeduncular nucleus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, P Q; Grånäs, C; Källström, L; Yu, J; Huhman, K; Larhammar, D; Albers, H E; Johnson, A E

    1997-05-01

    The entopeduncular nucleus is one of the major output nuclei of the basal ganglia, with topographically organized projections to both motor and limbic structures. Neurons of the entopeduncular nucleus use GABA as the principal transmitter, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (the GABA synthetic enzyme) is widely distributed throughout the region. Previous studies have shown that glutamate decarboxylase exists in two forms (glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67), and that the messenger RNAs for these different enzymes are widely distributed in rat brain. The purpose of the present experiment was to describe the distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and glutamic decarboxylase-67 messenger RNAs throughout the entopeduncular nucleus using recently developed oligodeoxynucleotide probes and in situ hybridization histochemical methods. In agreement with previous studies, northern analysis of rat brain poly(A)+ messenger RNA preparations showed that the glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 probes used in the present study hybridized to messenger RNAs of approximately 5.7 and 3.7 kb, respectively. Film autoradiographic analysis revealed large region-dependent, isoform-specific differences in the levels of expression of the two messenger RNAs, with glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 messenger RNA predominating in rostral and medial regions of the entopeduncular nucleus and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 messenger RNA most abundant in the caudal region. Cellular analysis showed that these region-dependent differences in labelling were due to differences in the relative amounts of glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 messenger RNAs expressed per cell rather than the number of cells expressing each form of glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA. The differences in the distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 messenger RNAs are closely related to the

  3. Hepatic adaptation compensates inactivation of intestinal arginine biosynthesis in suckling mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Marion

    Full Text Available Suckling mammals, including mice, differ from adults in the abundant expression of enzymes that synthesize arginine from citrulline in their enterocytes. To investigate the importance of the small-intestinal arginine synthesis for whole-body arginine production in suckling mice, we floxed exon 13 of the argininosuccinate synthetase (Ass gene, which codes for a key enzyme in arginine biosynthesis, and specifically and completely ablated Ass in enterocytes by crossing Ass (fl and Villin-Cre mice. Unexpectedly, Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice showed no developmental impairments. Amino-acid fluxes across the intestine, liver, and kidneys were calculated after determining the blood flow in the portal vein, and hepatic and renal arteries (86%, 14%, and 33%, respectively, of the transhepatic blood flow in 14-day-old mice. Relative to control mice, citrulline production in the splanchnic region of Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice doubled, while arginine production was abolished. Furthermore, the net production of arginine and most other amino acids in the liver of suckling control mice declined to naught or even changed to consumption in Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice, and had, thus, become remarkably similar to that of post-weaning wild-type mice, which no longer express arginine-biosynthesizing enzymes in their small intestine. The adaptive changes in liver function were accompanied by an increased expression of genes involved in arginine metabolism (Asl, Got1, Gpt2, Glud1, Arg1, and Arg2 and transport (Slc25a13, Slc25a15, and Slc3a2, whereas no such changes were found in the intestine. Our findings suggest that the genetic premature deletion of arginine synthesis in enterocytes causes a premature induction of the post-weaning pattern of amino-acid metabolism in the liver.

  4. Pancreatic cancer cell lines deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase are sensitive to arginine deprivation by arginine deiminase

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Tawnya L.; Kim, Randie; Galante, Joseph; Parsons, Colin M.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Bold, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells can synthesize the non-essential amino acid arginine from aspartate and citrulline using the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). It has been observed that ASS is under-expressed in various types of cancers ASS, for which arginine become auxotrophic. Arginine deiminase (ADI) is a prokaryotic enzyme that metabolizes arginine to citrulline and has been found to inhibit melanoma and hepatoma cancer cells deficient of ASS. We tested the hypothesis that pancreatic cancers ha...

  5. The role of arginine and arginine-metabolizing enzymes during Giardia - host cell interactions in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Stadelmann, Britta; Hanevik, Kurt; Andersson, Mattias; Bruserud, Øystein; Staffan G Svärd

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid important in growing individuals and under nonhomeostatic conditions/disease. Many pathogens interfere with arginine-utilization in host cells, especially nitric oxide (NO) production, by changing the expression of host enzymes involved in arginine metabolism. Here we used human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and three different isolates of the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis to investigate the role of arginine and argini...

  6. Altered subcellular localization of ornithine decarboxylase in Alzheimer's disease brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Tatjana; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Volkman, Inga

    2006-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein can through ligand-mimicking induce expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. We report here the regional distribution and cellular localization of ODC immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD...

  7. Functional Characterization of Twin-arginine Translocation Gene (tatC) from Erwinia amylovora%梨火疫病菌(Erwinia amylovora)双精氨酸运输系统基因(tatC)的功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋洋; 刘倩倩; 徐恩丽; 胡白石

    2011-01-01

    Erwinia amylovom causes fire blight on many plants of the Rosaceae family such as apple and pear. The Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway plays a crucial role in transporting the proteins which are related to virulence. In this study, a tatC disruption mutant EaAtatC was successfully constructed by homologous recombination as well as the complement strain EaAtatC (pME-tatC). The results showed that the tatC mutant EaAtafC displayed the reduced virulence, extracellular polysaccharide production, chemotaxis, motility, flagella assembly and growth in vitro. However, compared to wild type strain NCPPB1665 (Eal665), the induction of hypersensitive response in nonhost tobacco, biofilm synthesis and cellulose production of the tatC mutant EaAtalC didn't show significant difference. These findings demonstrate that tatC gene in Erwinia amylovora is involved in growth, and motility and play an important role in virulence.%梨火疫病菌(Erwinia amylovora)可引起梨、苹果等蔷薇科植物的火疫病.双精氨酸运输系统(Tat)与致病相关蛋白的转运有特定的联系.本研究在梨火疫病菌全基因组中发现了同源基因,通过同源重组的方法,构建了梨火疫病菌的tatC基因突变体以及互补子.研究结果表明,tatC基因影响着梨火疫病菌的致病性、胞外多糖、鞭毛运动、游动性、趋化性、生长情况等多种生物学特性.然而,Ea△tatC仍能引起烟草过敏性反应,并且在胞外纤维素和生物膜的生成方面与野生型菌株相比没有明显差异.说明梨火疫病菌tatC基因对病菌的生长、游动性以及致病性方面具有关键作用.

  8. Convergent evolution of the arginine deiminase pathway : the ArcD and ArcE arginine/ornithine exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noens, Elke E E; Lolkema, Juke S

    2016-01-01

    The arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and yields 1 mol of ATP per mol of L-arginine consumed. The L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger in the pathway takes up L-arginine and excretes L-ornithine from the cytoplasm. Analysis of the genomes of 1281 bacterial species rev

  9. Cerebellar Ataxia and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariño, Helena; Gresa-Arribas, Nuria; Blanco, Yolanda; Martínez-Hernández, Eugenia; Sabater, Lidia; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Rouco, Idoia; Bataller, Luis; Dalmau, Josep O.; Saiz, Albert; Graus, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Current clinical and immunologic knowledge on cerebellar ataxia (CA) with glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibodies (GAD65-Abs) is based on case reports and small series with short-term follow-up data. OBJECTIVE To report the symptoms, additional antibodies, prognostic factors, and long-term outcomes in a cohort of patients with CA and GAD65-Abs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study and laboratory investigations at a center for autoimmune neurologic disorders among 34 patients with CA and GAD65-Abs, including 25 with long-term follow-up data (median, 5.4 years; interquartile range, 3.1-10.3 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Analysis of clinicoimmunologic features and predictors of response to immunotherapy. Immunochemistry on rat brain, cultured neurons, and human embryonic kidney cells expressing GAD65, GAD67, α1-subunit of the glycine receptor, and a repertoire of known cell surface autoantigens were used to identify additional antibodies. Twenty-eight patients with stiff person syndrome and GAD65-Abs served as controls. RESULTS The median age of patients was 58 years (range, 33-80 years); 28 of 34 patients (82%) were women. Nine patients (26%) reported episodes of brainstem and cerebellar dysfunction or persistent vertigo several months before developing CA. The clinical presentation was subacute during a period of weeks in 13 patients (38%). Nine patients (26%) had coexisting stiff person syndrome symptoms. Systemic organ-specific autoimmunities (type 1 diabetes mellitus and others) were present in 29 patients (85%). Twenty of 25 patients with long-term follow-up data received immunotherapy (intravenous immunoglobulin in 10 and corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin or other immunosuppressors in 10), and 7 of them (35%) improved. Predictors of clinical response included subacute onset of CA (odds ratio [OR], 0.50; 95% CI, 0.25-0.99; P = .047) and prompt immunotherapy (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99; P = .01). Similar

  10. Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shiori; Tanaka, Hideki; Hirayama, Makoto; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved.

  11. Enhancing the Activity of Glutamate Decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis by Directed Evolution☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Lin; Sheng Hu; Kai Yu; Jun Huang; Shanjing Yao; Yinlin Lei; Guixiang Hu; Lehe Mei

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC4.1.1.15) can catalyze the decarboxylation of L-glutamate to form γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), which is in great demand in some foods and pharmaceuticals. In our previous study, gad, the gene coding glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacil us brevis CGMCC 1306, was cloned and its soluble expression was realized. In this study, error-prone PCR was conducted to improve its activity, followed by a screening. Mutant Q51H with high activity [55.4 mmol·L−1·min−1·(mg protein)−1, 120%higher than that of the wild type at pH 4.8] was screened out from the mutant library. In order to investigate the potential role of this site in the regulation of enzymatic activity, site-directed saturation mutagenesis at site 51 was carried out, and three specific mutants, N-terminal truncated GAD, Q51P, and Q51L, were identified. The kinetic parameters of the three mutants and Q51H were characterized. The results reveal that aspartic acid at site 88 and N-terminal domain are essential to the activity as well as correct folding of GAD. This study not only improves the activity of GAD, but also sheds new light on the structure–function relationship of GAD.

  12. European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax Immune Status and Disease Resistance Are Impaired by Arginine Dietary Supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Azeredo

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases and fish feeds management are probably the major expenses in the aquaculture business. Hence, it is a priority to define sustainable strategies which simultaneously avoid therapeutic procedures and reinforce fish immunity. Currently, one preferred approach is the use of immunostimulants which can be supplemented to the fish diets. Arginine is a versatile amino acid with important mechanisms closely related to the immune response. Aiming at finding out how arginine affects the innate immune status or improve disease resistance of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax against vibriosis, fish were fed two arginine-supplemented diets (1% and 2% arginine supplementation. A third diet meeting arginine requirement level for seabass served as control diet. Following 15 or 29 days of feeding, fish were sampled for blood, spleen and gut to assess cell-mediated immune parameters and immune-related gene expression. At the same time, fish from each dietary group were challenged against Vibrio anguillarum and survival was monitored. Cell-mediated immune parameters such as the extracellular superoxide and nitric oxide decreased in fish fed arginine-supplemented diets. Interleukins and immune-cell marker transcripts were down-regulated by the highest supplementation level. Disease resistance data were in accordance with a generally depressed immune status, with increased susceptibility to vibriosis in fish fed arginine supplemented diets. Altogether, these results suggest a general inhibitory effect of arginine on the immune defences and disease resistance of European seabass. Still, further research will certainly clarify arginine immunomodulation pathways thereby allowing the validation of its potential as a prophylactic strategy.

  13. Generating knock-in parasites: integration of an ornithine decarboxylase transgene into its chromosomal locus in Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sigrid C; Kline, Chelsey; Liu, Wei; Ullman, Buddy

    2011-06-01

    Leishmania null mutants created by targeted gene replacement are typically complemented with chimeric episomes harboring the replaced gene in order to validate that the observed phenotype is due to the specific gene deletion. However, the current inventory of available episomes for complementation of genetic lesions in Leishmania is unstable in the absence of drug selection, and levels of gene expression cannot be controlled, especially in vivo. To circumvent this impediment, a strategy to re-introduce the targeted gene into the original chromosomal locus to generate "knock-in" parasites within selectable null backgrounds has been developed. A genomic fragment encompassing the ornithine decarboxylase locus and lacking heterologous DNA sequences was transfected into ornithine decarboxylase-deficient Leishmania donovani. The construct randomly integrated into either chromosomal allele by homologous recombination restoring polyamine prototrophy and revealing that LdODC was functionally expressed in the knock-in clones. This strategy offers a mechanism for complementing a genetic lesion amenable to positive selection in a manner that facilitates stable gene expression from its original locus in the absence of continuous drug pressure.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase gene (DoSAMDC1) in Dendrobium officinale%铁皮石斛S-腺苷酸脱羧酶基因DoSAMDC1的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明明; 张岗; 张大为; 郭顺星

    2013-01-01

    S-腺苷甲硫氨酸脱羧酶(S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase,SAMDC)是多胺合成的关键酶,通过调节多胺的代谢途径参与植物的多项生理生化过程.本文利用cDNA末端快速克隆技术(RACE),首次从铁皮石斛共生萌发种子中分离得到一个新的SAMDC基因,命名为DoSAMDC1 (GenBank注册号JX966243),并对其编码蛋白的理化性质、保守结构域等特征进行分析.生物信息学分析表明,DoSAMDC1基因的全长为1 979 bp,涵盖tiny-uORF、small-uORF和mainORF 3个植物SAMDC基因特征ORF.mORF编码一条368个氨基酸的肽链,预测分子质量为40.7 kD,等电点为5.2,编码蛋白不含信号肽,具有22个氨基酸的跨膜域(89~110位),具有植物SAMDC的典型结构特点,包括酶原剪切位点、PEST结构域及催化功能必须的氨基酸.序列比对及系统发育树分析结果表明DoSAMDC1与单子叶植物SAMDC具有很高的同源性,与双子叶植物的亲缘关系较远.应用实时荧光定量PCR对DoSAMDC1基因在石斛不同组织中的表达模式分析发现,该基因在未接菌的植物组织中表达变化差异不大,在接菌共生萌发的植物种子中显著上调表达,为未萌发种子的2.74倍,具有受真菌侵染诱导表达的特性,揭示其可能通过参与多胺调控途径在植物-真菌共生方面发挥作用.%S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is a key enzyme in the polyamines biosynthesis,thus is essential for basic physiological and biochemical processes in plant.In the present study,a full length cDNA of DoSAMDC1 gene was obtained from symbiotic germinated seeds of an endangered medicinal orchid species Dendrobium officinale,using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR technique for the first time.The full length cDNA was 1 979 bp,with three open reading frames,i.e.tiny-uORF,small-uORF and main ORF (mORF).The mORF was deduced to encode a 368 amino acid (aa) protein with a molecular mass of 40.7 kD and a theoretical

  15. Genetic and biochemical characterization of arginine biosynthesis in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Victor M; Girard, Lourdes; Hernández-Lucas, Ismael; Vázquez, Alejandra; Ortíz-Ortíz, Catalina; Díaz, Rafael; Dunn, Michael F

    2015-08-01

    L-Ornithine production in the alfalfa microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti occurs as an intermediate step in arginine biosynthesis. Ornithine is required for effective symbiosis but its synthesis in S. meliloti has been little studied. Unlike most bacteria, S. meliloti 1021 is annotated as encoding two enzymes producing ornithine: N-acetylornithine (NAO) deacetylase (ArgE) hydrolyses NAO to acetate and ornithine, and glutamate N-acetyltransferase (ArgJ) transacetylates l-glutamate with the acetyl group from NAO, forming ornithine and N-acetylglutamate (NAG). NAG is the substrate for the second step of arginine biosynthesis catalysed by NAG kinase (ArgB). Inactivation of argB in strain 1021 resulted in arginine auxotrophy. The activity of purified ArgB was significantly inhibited by arginine but not by ornithine. The purified ArgJ was highly active in NAO deacetylation/glutamate transacetylation and was significantly inhibited by ornithine but not by arginine. The purified ArgE protein (with a 6His-Sumo affinity tag) was also active in deacetylating NAO. argE and argJ single mutants, and an argEJ double mutant, are arginine prototrophs. Extracts of the double mutant contained aminoacylase (Ama) activity that deacetylated NAO to form ornithine. The purified products of three candidate ama genes (smc00682 (hipO1), smc02256 (hipO2) and smb21279) all possessed NAO deacetylase activity. hipO1 and hipO2, but not smb21279, expressed in trans functionally complemented an Escherichia coli ΔargE : : Km mutant. We conclude that Ama activity accounts for the arginine prototrophy of the argEJ mutant. Transcriptional assays of argB, argE and argJ, fused to a promoterless gusA gene, showed that their expression was not significantly affected by exogenous arginine or ornithine.

  16. Effect of l-Arginine in One Patient with Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder due to PEX12 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlin, Arthur; Briand, Gilbert; Cheillan, David; Wiedemann, Arnaud; Montaut-Verient, Bettina; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Feillet, François

    2016-06-01

    Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders due to PEX genes mutations, with a broad clinical spectrum comprising severe neonatal disease to mild presentation. Recently, Berendse et al reported an improvement of peroxisomal functions with l-arginine supplementation in fibroblasts with specific mutations of PEX1, PEX6, and PEX12. We report the first treatment by l-arginine in a patient homozygous for the specific PEX12 mutation shown to be l-arginine responsive in fibroblasts. We described the effect of l-arginine on biochemical (decrease of some plasma peroxisomal parameters) and neurophysiological (improvement of deafness) parameters. Some subjective clinical effects have also been observed (no more sialorrhea, behavior improvement). More studies are needed to assess the efficacy of l-arginine in some PBD patients with specific mutations.

  17. Transcriptional regulation of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene by putrescine accumulation positively modulates ABA synthesis and drought tolerance in Lotus tenuis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espasandin, Fabiana D; Maiale, Santiago J; Calzadilla, Pablo; Ruiz, Oscar A; Sansberro, Pedro A

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of putrescine (Put) and increased arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) activity levels in response to osmotic stress has been reported; however, the biological meaning of this increase remains unclear. To obtain new insights into these questions, we studied the drought response of a transgenic Lotus tenuis line that expresses the oat ADC gene, which is driven by the stress-inducible pRD29A promoter. This line contains high levels of Put with no changes in spermidine and spermine contents, even under water deficits. Our results indicate that the biochemical and morphological responses to dehydration correlate with the Put level and provide evidence that Put controls the ABA content in response to drought by modulating ABA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level.

  18. [Mechanism of arginine deiminase activity by site-directed mutagenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lifeng; Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Arginine deiminase (ADI) has been studied as a potential anti-cancer agent for inhibiting arginine-auxotrophic tumors (such as melanomas and hepatocellular carcinomas) in phase III clinical trials. In this work, we studied the molecular mechanism of arginine deiminase activity by site-directed mutagenesis. Three mutation sites, A128, H404 and 1410, were introduced into wild-type ADI gene by QuikChange site-directed mutagenesis method, and four ADI mutants M1 (A128T), M2 (H404R), M3 (I410L), and M4 (A128T, H404R) were obtained. The ADI mutants were individually expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the enzymatic properties of the purified mutant proteins were determined. The results show that both A128T and H404R had enhanced optimum pH, higher activity and stability of ADI under physiological condition (pH 7.4), as well as reduced K(m) value. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanism of the ADI activity, and also the experimental evidence for the rational protein evolution in the future.

  19. Histidine decarboxylase deficiency causes Tourette syndrome: parallel findings in humans and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan, Lissandra Castellan; Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Crowley, Michael; Anderson, George M.; Loring, Erin; Gorczyca, Roxanne; Billingslea, Eileen; Wasylink, Suzanne; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Krusong, Kuakarun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Bloch, Michael H.; Hughes, Zoë A.; Krystal, John H.; Mayes, Linda; de Araujo, Ivan; Ding, Yu-Shin; State, Matthew W.; Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by tics, sensorimotor gating deficiencies, and abnormalities of cortico-basal ganglia circuits. A mutation in histidine decarboxylase (Hdc), the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of histamine (HA), has been implicated as a rare genetic cause. Hdc knockout mice exhibited potentiated tic-like stereotypies, recapitulating core phenomenology of TS; these were mitigated by the dopamine D2 antagonist haloperidol, a proven pharmacotherapy, and by HA infusion into the brain. Prepulse inhibition was impaired in both mice and humans carrying Hdc mutations. HA infusion reduced striatal dopamine (DA) levels; in Hdc knockout mice, striatal DA was increased and the DA-regulated immediate early gene Fos was upregulated. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding was altered both in mice and in humans carrying the Hdc mutation. These data confirm HDC deficiency as a rare cause of TS and identify histamine-dopamine interactions in the basal ganglia as an important locus of pathology. PMID:24411733

  20. [Inhibitory effect of essential oils, food additives, peracetic acid and detergents on bacterial histidine decarboxylase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Jyunki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether various essential oils, food additives, peracetic acid and detergents inhibit bacterial histidine decarboxylase. Crude extract of Morganella morganii NBRC3848 was prepared and incubated with various agents. Histidine decarboxylase activity was significantly inhibited (pperacetic acid caused slight decomposition. Histidine and histamine were stable in the presence of the other 24 agents. These results indicated that 25 of the agents examined were inhibitors of histidine decarboxylase.

  1. Arginine vasopressin and oxytocin modulate human social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstein, Richard P; Israel, Salomon; Lerer, Elad; Uzefovsky, Florina; Shalev, Idan; Gritsenko, Inga; Riebold, Mathias; Salomon, Shahaf; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that two nonapeptides, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, shape human social behavior in both nonclinical and clinical subjects. Evidence is discussed that in autism spectrum disorders genetic polymorphisms in the vasopressin-oxytocin pathway, notably the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a), the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), neurophysin I and II, and CD38 (recently shown to be critical for social behavior by mediating oxytocin secretion) contribute to deficits in socialization skills in this group of patients. We also present first evidence that CD38 expression in lymphoblastoid cells derived from subjects diagnosed with autism is correlated with social skill phenotype inventoried by the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales. Additionally, we discuss molecular genetic evidence that in nonclinical subjects both AVPR1a and OXTR genes contribute to prosocial or altruistic behavior inventoried by two experimental paradigms, the dictator game and social values orientation. The role of the AVPR1a is also analyzed in prepulse inhibition. Prepulse inhibition of the startle response to auditory stimuli is a largely autonomic response that resonates with social cognition in both animal models and humans. First results are presented showing that intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin increases salivary cortisol levels in the Trier Social Stress test. To summarize, accumulating studies employing a broad array of cutting-edge tools in psychology, neuroeconomics, molecular genetics, pharmacology, electrophysiology, and brain imaging are beginning to elaborate the intriguing role of oxytocin and arginine vasopressin in human social behavior. We expect that future studies will continue this advance and deepen our understanding of these complex events.

  2. Two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase in Arabidopsis are regulated by calcium/calmodulin and differ in organ distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zik, M; Arazi, T; Snedden, W A; Fromm, H

    1998-08-01

    The nucleotide sequences of cDNAs encoding two isoforms of Arabidopsis glutamate decarboxylase, designated GAD1 (57.1 kDa) and GAD2 (56.1 kDa) and sharing 82% identical amino acid sequences, were determined. The recombinant proteins bound [35S] calmodulin (CaM) in the presence of calcium, and a region of 30-32 amino acids from the C-terminal of each isoform was sufficient for CaM binding when fused to glutathione S-transferase. Full-length GAD1 and GAD2 were expressed in Sf9 insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus vectors. Recombinant proteins were partially purified by CaM affinity chromatography and were found to exhibit glutamate decarboxylase activity, which was dependent on the presence of Ca2+/CaM at pH 7.3. Southern hybridizations with GAD gene-specific probes suggest that Arabidopsis possesses one gene related to GAD1 and one to GAD2. Northern hybridization and western blot analysis revealed that GAD1 was expressed only in roots and GAD2 in roots, leaves, inflorescence stems and flowers. Our study provides the first evidence for the occurrence of multiple functional Ca2+/CaM-regulated GAD gene products in a single plant, suggesting that regulation of Arabidopsis GAD activity involves modulation of isoform-specific gene expression and stimulation of the catalytic activity of GAD by calcium signalling via CaM.

  3. Arginine deprivation by arginine deiminase of Streptococcus pyogenes controls primary glioblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Tomas; Strauss, Madlen; Hering, Silvio; Redanz, Ulrike; William, Doreen; Rosche, Yvonne; Classen, Carl Friedrich; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Linnebacher, Michael; Maletzki, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Arginine auxotrophy constitutes a weak point of several tumors, among them glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Hence, those tumors are supposed to be sensitive for arginine-depleting substances, such as arginine deiminase (ADI). Here we elucidated the sensitivity of patient-individual GBM cell lines toward Streptococcus pyogenes-derived ADI. To improve therapy, ADI was combined with currently established and pre-clinical cytostatic drugs. Additionally, effectiveness of local ADI therapy was determined in xenopatients. Half of the GBM cell lines tested responded well toward ADI monotherapy. In those cell lines, viability decreased significantly (up to 50%). Responding cell lines were subjected to combination therapy experiments to test if any additive or even synergistic effects may be achieved. Such promising results were obtained in 2/3 cases. In cell lines HROG02, HROG05 and HROG10, ADI and Palomid 529 combinations were most effective yielding more than 70% killing after 2 rounds of treatment. Comparable boosted antitumoral effects were observed after adding chloroquine to ADI (>60% killing). Apoptosis, as well as cell cycle dysregulation were found to play a minor role. In some, but clearly not all cases, (epi-) genetic silencing of arginine synthesis pathway genes (argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and argininosuccinate lyase) explained obtained results. In vivo, ADI as well as the combination of ADI and SAHA efficiently controlled HROG05 xenograft growth, whereas adding Palomid 529 to ADI did not further increase the strong antitumoral effect of ADI. The cumulative in vitro and in vivo results proved ADI as a very promising candidate therapeutic, especially for development of adjuvant GBM combination treatments.

  4. Enzymes of creatine biosynthesis, arginine and methionine metabolism in normal and malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Soumen; Wallimann, Theo; Ray, Subhankar; Ray, Manju

    2008-12-01

    The creatine/creatine kinase system decreases drastically in sarcoma. In the present study, an investigation of catalytic activities, western blot and mRNA expression unambiguously demonstrates the prominent expression of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and N-guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in sarcoma, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells, whereas both enzymes were virtually undetectable in normal muscle. Compared to that of normal animals, these enzymes remained unaffected in the kidney or liver of sarcoma-bearing mice. High activity and expression of mitochondrial arginase II in sarcoma indicated increased ornithine formation. Slightly or moderately higher levels of ornithine, guanidinoacetate and creatinine were observed in sarcoma compared to muscle. Despite the intrinsically low level of creatine in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells, these cells could significantly take up and release creatine, suggesting a functional creatine transport, as verified by measuring mRNA levels of creatine transporter. Transcript levels of arginase II, ornithine-decarboxylase, S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase and methionine-synthase were significantly upregulated in sarcoma and in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells. Overall, the enzymes related to creatine and arginine/methionine metabolism were found to be significantly upregulated in malignant cells. However, the low levels of creatine kinase in the same malignant cells do not appear to be sufficient for the building up of an effective creatine/phosphocreatine pool. Instead of supporting creatine biosynthesis, l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and N-guanidinoacetate methyltransferase appear to be geared to support cancer cell metabolism in the direction of polyamine and methionine synthesis because both these compounds are in high demand in proliferating cancer cells.

  5. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  6. Characterization of the arcD Arginine : Ornithine Exchanger of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Localization in the Cytoplasmic Membrane and a Topological Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Heierli, Daniel; Gamper, Marianne; Verhoogt, Hans J.C.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wil N.; Lazdunski, Claude; Haas, Dieter

    1993-01-01

    The arcDABC operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes the enzymes of the arginine deiminase pathway and is induced by oxygen limitation. The arcD gene specifies a 53-kDa protein with arginine: ornithine exchange activity. The ArcD protein of P. aeruginosa, like the LysI lysine transporter of Coryneba

  7. Fatal malonyl CoA decarboxylase deficiency due to maternal uniparental isodisomy of the telomeric end of chromosome 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvagia, S; Papi, L; Morrone, A; Donati, M A; Ciani, F; Pasquini, E; la Marca, G; Scholte, H R; Genuardi, M; Zammarchi, E

    2007-11-01

    Malonic aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, encoded by the MLYCD gene. We report on a patient with clinical presentation in the neonatal period. Metabolic investigations led to a diagnosis of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, confirmed by decreased activity in cultured fibroblasts. High doses of carnitine and a diet low in lipids led to a reduction in malonic acid excretion, and to an improvement in his clinical conditions, but at the age of 4 months he died suddenly and unexpectedly. No autopsy was performed. Molecular analysis of the MLYCD gene performed on the proband's RNA and genomic DNA identified a previously undescribed mutation (c.772-775delACTG) which was homozygous. This mutation was present in his mother but not in his father; paternity was confirmed by microsatellite analysis. A hypothesis of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) was investigated using fourteen microsatellite markers on chromosome 16, and the results confirmed maternal UPD. Maternal isodisomy of the 16q24 region led to homozygosity for the MLYCD mutant allele, causing the patient's disease. These findings are relevant for genetic counselling of couples with a previously affected child, since the recurrence risk in future pregnancies is dramatically reduced by the finding of UPD. In addition, since the patient had none of the clinical manifestations previously associated with maternal UPD 16, this case provides no support for the existence of maternally imprinted genes on chromosome 16 with a major effect on phenotype.

  8. Arginine deprivation using pegylated arginine deiminase has activity against primary acute myeloid leukemia cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraki-Moud, Farideh; Ghazaly, Essam; Ariza-McNaughton, Linda; Hodby, Katharine A; Clear, Andrew; Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Liapis, Konstantinos; Grantham, Marianne; Sohrabi, Fareeda; Cavenagh, Jamie; Bomalaski, John S; Gribben, John G; Szlosarek, Peter W; Bonnet, Dominique; Taussig, David C

    2015-06-25

    The strategy of enzymatic degradation of amino acids to deprive malignant cells of important nutrients is an established component of induction therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here we show that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells from most patients with AML are deficient in a critical enzyme required for arginine synthesis, argininosuccinate synthetase-1 (ASS1). Thus, these ASS1-deficient AML cells are dependent on importing extracellular arginine. We therefore investigated the effect of plasma arginine deprivation using pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) against primary AMLs in a xenograft model and in vitro. ADI-PEG 20 alone induced responses in 19 of 38 AMLs in vitro and 3 of 6 AMLs in vivo, leading to caspase activation in sensitive AMLs. ADI-PEG 20-resistant AMLs showed higher relative expression of ASS1 than sensitive AMLs. This suggests that the resistant AMLs survive by producing arginine through this metabolic pathway and ASS1 expression could be used as a biomarker for response. Sensitive AMLs showed more avid uptake of arginine from the extracellular environment consistent with their auxotrophy for arginine. The combination of ADI-PEG 20 and cytarabine chemotherapy was more effective than either treatment alone resulting in responses in 6 of 6 AMLs tested in vivo. Our data show that arginine deprivation is a reasonable strategy in AML that paves the way for clinical trials.

  9. Resolution of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase into two isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, D J; Dikdan, G; Jordan, F

    1986-03-01

    A novel purification method was developed for brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) that for the first time resolved the enzyme into two isozymes on DEAE-Sephadex chromatography. The isozymes were found to be distinct according to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: the first one to be eluted gave rise to one band, the second to two bands. The isozymes were virtually the same so far as specific activity, KM, inhibition kinetics and irreversible binding properties by the mechanism-based inhibitor (E)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid are concerned. This finding resolves a longstanding controversy concerning the quaternary structure of this enzyme.

  10. Conformational Stabilization of Rat S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase by Putrescine

    OpenAIRE

    和田, 牧子; 白幡, 晶

    2010-01-01

    The activity and processing of mammalian S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is stimulated by putrescine. To obtain new insights into the mechanism through which putrescine stimulates AdoMetDC, we investigated conformational changes in rat prostate AdoMetDC in the presence or absence of putrescine. We examined the reactivity of purified rat prostate AdoMetDC to the SH-reagent iodoacetic acid (IAA) and its susceptibility to proteolysis in the presence or absence of putrescine using m...

  11. Cell biology, physiology and enzymology of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolomeo, Francesca; Wagner, Ariane; Daum, Günther

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine is one of the most abundant phospholipids whose major amounts are formed by phosphatidylserine decarboxylases (PSD). Here we provide a comprehensive description of different types of PSDs in the different kingdoms of life. In eukaryotes, type I PSDs are mitochondrial enzymes, whereas other PSDs are localized to other cellular compartments. We describe the role of mitochondrial Psd1 proteins, their function, enzymology, biogenesis, assembly into mitochondria and their contribution to phospholipid homeostasis in much detail. We also discuss briefly the cellular physiology and the enzymology of Psd2. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipids of Mitochondria edited by Guenther Daum.

  12. IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFECTS OF ARGININE DEIMINASE FROM STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Starikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogens use metabolic pathway of arginine for successful dissemination. Bacterial arginine deiminase hydrolyzes arginine to form one molecule of ammonia and two molecules of ATP. The activity of the enzyme contributes to the improvement of survival of pathogenic bacteria in conditions of low pH at the site of infection or in phagolysosome, as well as in anaerobic conditions, and also leads to deficiency of arginine. Metabolism of arginine plays an important role in regulating the functions of immune system cells in mammals. Arginine is a substrate of enzymes NOS and arginase. Arginine depletion, potentially contributs to immunosuppression. The review analyzed the literature data on the effect of streptococcal arginine deiminase on the metabolism of arginine eukaryotic cells, and discusses immunosuppressive action of the enzyme.

  13. Glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in transgenic mouse septum: an anti-GFP immunofluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verimli, Ural; Sehirli, Umit S

    2016-09-01

    The septum is a basal forebrain region located between the lateral ventricles in rodents. It consists of lateral and medial divisions. Medial septal projections regulate hippocampal theta rhythm whereas lateral septal projections are involved in processes such as affective functions, memory formation, and behavioral responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons of the septal region possess the 65 and 67 isoforms of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. Although data on the glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in the septal region generally appears to indicate glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 dominance, different studies have given inconsistent results in this regard. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain information on the distributions of both of these glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms in the septal region in transgenic mice. Two animal groups of glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice were utilized in the experiment. Brain sections from the region were taken for anti-green fluorescent protein immunohistochemistry in order to obtain estimated quantitative data on the number of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons. Following the immunohistochemical procedures, the mean numbers of labeled cells in the lateral and medial septal nuclei were obtained for the two isoform groups. Statistical analysis yielded significant results which indicated that the 65 isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase predominates in both lateral and medial septal nuclei (unpaired two-tailed t-test p glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 65 in the septal region in glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice.

  14. Cloning of arginine kinase gene from the housefly Musca domestica and its application in pest control%家蝇精氨酸激酶基因克隆及其在害虫防治上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雪; 曹新茹; 高一夫; 唐婷; 柳峰松

    2015-01-01

    从家蝇转录组数据库中筛选到一条精氨酸激酶同源序列,将其命名为家蝇精氨酸激酶(Musca domestica arginine kinase,简称:MdAK).通过RT-PCR克隆得到MdAK cDNA序列,长2 007 bp,编码356个氨基酸残基,编码蛋白的分子质量为40.0 ku.利用RNAi技术敲低家蝇幼虫精氨酸激酶的表达后,其生长发育受到影响,死亡率明显升高.认为精氨酸激酶可以作为害虫生物防治的潜在靶点.

  15. COPA and SLC4A4 are required for cellular entry of arginine-rich peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Tsumuraya

    Full Text Available Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs have gained attention as promising tools to enable the delivery of various molecules in a non-invasive manner. Among the CPPs, TAT and poly-arginine have been extensively utilized in numerous studies for the delivery of functional proteins, peptides, and macromolecules to analyze cellular signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms of cellular entry remain largely unknown. Here, we applied siRNA library screening to identify the regulatory genes for the cellular entry of poly-arginine peptide based on microscopic observation of the entry of fluorescent peptides in siRNA-treated cells. In this screening, we identified the cell membrane gene SLC4A4 and the trafficking regulator gene COPA, which also plays an important role in early endosome maturation. These results demonstrated that cellular entry of poly-arginine requires at least two different steps, probably binding on the cell surface and endosomal entry. The identification of genes for cellular entry of poly-arginine provides insights into its mechanisms and should further aid in the development of highly efficient cell-penetrating peptides.

  16. Molecular characterization of arginine deiminase pathway in Laribacter hongkongensis and unique regulation of arginine catabolism and anabolism by multiple environmental stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lifeng; Teng, Jade L L; Watt, Rory M; Liu, Cuihua; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-11-01

    The betaproteobacterium Laribacter hongkongensis is associated with invasive bacteremic infections and gastroenteritis. Its genome contains two adjacent arc gene cassettes (arc1 and arc2) under independent transcriptional control, which are essential for acid resistance. Laribacter hongkongensis also encodes duplicate copies of the argA and argB genes from the arginine biosynthesis pathway. We show that arginine enhances the transcription of arcA2 but suppresses arcA1 expression. We demonstrate that ArgR acts as a transcriptional regulator of the two arc operons through binding to ARG operator sites (ARG boxes). Upon temperature shift from 20°C to 37°C, arcA1 transcription is upregulated while arcA2, argA2, argB2 and argG are downregulated. The transcription of arcA1 and arcA2 are augmented under anaerobic and acidic conditions. The transcription levels of argA1, argA2, argB1, argB2 and argG are significantly increased under anaerobic and acidic conditions but are repressed by the addition of arginine. Deletion of argR significantly decreases bacterial survival in macrophages, while expression of both arc operons, argR and all five of the anabolic arg genes increases 8 h post-infection. Our results show that arginine catabolism in L. hongkongensis is finely regulated by controlling the transcription of two arc operons, whereas arginine anabolism is controlled by two copies of argA and argB.

  17. Genome-wide association reveals that common genetic variation in the kallikrein-kinin system is associated with serum L-arginine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Jernerén, Fredrik; Lehne, Benjamin C; Chen, Ming-Huei; Luben, Robert N; Johnston, Carole; Elshorbagy, Amany; Eppinga, Ruben N; Scott, William R; Adeyeye, Elizabeth; Scott, James; Böger, Rainer H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; van der Harst, Pim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Chambers, John C; Refsum, Helga; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2016-11-30

    L-arginine is the essential precursor of nitric oxide, and is involved in multiple key physiological processes, including vascular and immune function. The genetic regulation of blood L-arginine levels is largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic factors determining serum L-arginine levels, amongst 901 Europeans and 1,394 Indian Asians. We show that common genetic variations at the KLKB1 and F12 loci are strongly associated with serum L-arginine levels. The G allele of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs71640036 (T/G) in KLKB1 is associated with lower serum L-arginine concentrations (10 µmol/l per allele copy, p=1×10(-24)), while allele T of rs2545801 (T/C) near the F12 gene is associated with lower serum L-arginine levels (7 µmol/l per allele copy, p=7×10(-12)). Together these two loci explain 7 % of the total variance in serum L-arginine concentrations. The associations at both loci were replicated in independent cohorts with plasma L-arginine measurements (pL-arginine and its potential relationship with cardiovascular risk.

  18. Arginine Deiminase Enzyme Evolving As A Potential Antitumor Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Rakesh; Chaskar, Pratip K

    2016-08-17

    Some melanomas and hepatocellular carcinomas have been shown to be auxotrophic for arginine. Arginine deiminase (ADI), an arginine degrading enzyme isolated from Mycoplasma, can inhibit the growth of these tumors. It is a catabolizing enzyme which catabolizes arginine to citrulline. Tumor cells do not express an enzyme called arginosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and hence, these cells becomes auxotrophic for arginine. It is found that ADI is specific for arginine and did not degrade other amino acid. This review covers various aspects of ADIs like origin, properties and chemical modifications for better antitumor activity.

  19. Functionally diverse biotin-dependent enzymes with oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzan, Adam D; St Maurice, Martin

    2014-02-15

    Biotin-dependent enzymes catalyze carboxylation, decarboxylation and transcarboxylation reactions that participate in the primary metabolism of a wide range of organisms. In all cases, the overall reaction proceeds via two half reactions that take place in physically distinct active sites. In the first half-reaction, a carboxyl group is transferred to the 1-N' of a covalently tethered biotin cofactor. The tethered carboxybiotin intermediate subsequently translocates to a second active site where the carboxyl group is either transferred to an acceptor substrate or, in some bacteria and archaea, is decarboxylated to biotin and CO2 in order to power the export of sodium ions from the cytoplasm. A homologous carboxyltransferase domain is found in three enzymes that catalyze diverse overall reactions: carbon fixation by pyruvate carboxylase, decarboxylation and sodium transport by the biotin-dependent oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex, and transcarboxylation by transcarboxylase from Propionibacterium shermanii. Over the past several years, structural data have emerged which have greatly advanced the mechanistic description of these enzymes. This review assembles a uniform description of the carboxyltransferase domain structure and catalytic mechanism from recent studies of pyruvate carboxylase, oxaloacetate decarboxylase and transcarboxylase, three enzymes that utilize an analogous carboxyltransferase domain to catalyze the biotin-dependent decarboxylation of oxaloacetate.

  20. Reconstitution of an active arginine deiminase pathway in Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechnitzer, Hagai; Rottem, Shlomo; Herrmann, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Some species of the genus Mycoplasma code for the arginine deiminase pathway (ADI), which enables these bacteria to produce ATP from arginine by the successive reaction of three enzymes: arginine deiminase (ArcA), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB), and carbamate kinase (ArcC). It so far appears that independently isolated strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae encode an almost identical truncated version of the ADI pathway in which the proteins ArcA and ArcB have lost their original enzymatic activities due to the deletion of significant regions of these proteins. To study the consequences of a functional ADI pathway, M. pneumoniae M129 was successfully transformed with the cloned functional arcA, arcB, and arcC genes from Mycoplasma fermentans. Enzymatic tests showed that while the M. pneumoniae ArcAB and ArcABC transformants possess functional arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, and carbamate kinase, they were unable to grow on arginine as the sole energy source. Nevertheless, infection of a lung epithelial cell line, A549, with the M. pneumoniae transformants showed that almost 100% of the infected host cells were nonviable, while most of the lung cells infected with nontransformed M. pneumoniae were viable under the same experimental conditions.

  1. Pancreatic cancer cell lines deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase are sensitive to arginine deprivation by arginine deiminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Tawnya L; Kim, Randie; Galante, Joseph; Parsons, Colin M; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Bold, Richard J

    2008-10-15

    Eukaryotic cells can synthesize the non-essential amino acid arginine from aspartate and citrulline using the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). It has been observed that ASS is underexpressed in various types of cancers ASS, for which arginine become auxotrophic. Arginine deiminase (ADI) is a prokaryotic enzyme that metabolizes arginine to citrulline and has been found to inhibit melanoma and hepatoma cancer cells deficient of ASS. We tested the hypothesis that pancreatic cancers have low ASS expression and therefore arginine deprivation by ADI will inhibit cell growth. ASS expression was examined in 47 malignant and 20 non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues as well as a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Arginine deprivation was achieved by treatment with a recombinant form of ADI formulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG-ADI). Effects on caspase activation, cell growth and cell death were examined. Furthermore, the effect of PEG-ADI on the in vivo growth of pancreatic xenografts was examined. Eighty-seven percent of the tumors lacked ASS expression; 5 of 7 cell lines similarly lacked ASS expression. PEG-ADI specifically inhibited growth of those cell lines lacking ASS. PEG-ADI treatment induced caspase activation and induction of apoptosis. PEG-ADI was well tolerated in mice despite complete elimination of plasma arginine; tumor growth was inhibited by approximately 50%. Reduced expression of ASS occurs in pancreatic cancer and predicts sensitivity to arginine deprivation achieved by PEG-ADI treatment. Therefore, these findings suggest that arginine deprivation by ADI could provide a beneficial strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, a malignancy in which new therapy is desperately needed.

  2. [L-arginine and male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibona, M; Meschini, P; Capparelli, S; Pecori, C; Rossi, P; Menchini Fabris, G F

    1994-12-01

    The clinical efficacy and acceptance of L-arginina HCL was tested in 40 infertile men. All of these men had a normal number of spermatozoa (> 20 million/ml), but a decreased motility; this decreased motility was not due to infection or to immunological disorders. The treatment consisted of 80 ml of 10% L-arginine HCL administered daily per os for 6 months. L-arginine HCL showed to be able to improve the motility of spermatozoa without any side-effects.

  3. Anti-tumor activity of arginine deiminase via arginine deprivation in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Dong Hun; Min, Bon-Hong; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2007-12-01

    In spite of recent advances in the treatment of retinoblastoma, chemotherapy is still challenging in high-stage intraocular retinoblastoma or metastatic retinoblastoma. Here, we investigated whether arginine deprivation via arginine deiminase (ADI) could be a new anti-tumor therapy in retinoblastoma cells. Expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) was detected in human retinoblastoma tissues. Even with a high expression of ASS, ADI effectively inhibited the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells and induced retinoblastoma cell death in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that arginine deprivation via ADI could be another treatment option for retinoblastoma due to low ASS activity in retinoblastoma cells.

  4. Low plasma arginine:asymmetric dimethyl arginine ratios predict mortality after intracranial aneurysm rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsø, Jonatan Myrup; Bergström, Anita; Edsen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, predicts mortality in cardiovascular disease and has been linked to cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this prospective study, we assessed whether circulating ADMA, arginine...

  5. Lysine and arginine requirements of Salminus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Koji Dairiki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the dietary lysine (DL and dietary arginine (DA requirements of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis, through dose-response trials using the amino acid profiles of whole carcasses as a reference. Two experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design (n=4. In the first experiment, groups of 12 feed-conditioned dourado juveniles (11.4±0.2 g were stocked in 60 L cages placed in 300 L plastic indoor tanks in a closed circulation system. Fish were fed for 60 days on diets containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 % dietary lysine. In the second experiment, dourado juveniles (27.0±0.8 g were fed for 60 days on semipurified diets containing arginine at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0%, in similar conditions to those of the first experiment. Optimal DL requirements, as determined by broken-line analysis method for final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate, were 2.15% DL or 5% lysine in dietary protein, and 1.48% DA or 3.43% arginine in dietary protein. The best feed conversion ratio is attained with 2.5% DL or 5.8% lysine in dietary protein and 1.4% DA or 3.25% arginine in dietary protein.

  6. Arginine residues as stabilizing elements in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MRABET, NT; VANDENBROECK, A; VANDENBRANDE, JL; STANSSENS, P; LAROCHE, Y; LAMBEIR, AM; MATTHIJSSENS, G; JENKINS, J; CHIADMI, M; VANTILBEURGH, H; REY, F; JANIN, J; QUAX, WJ; LASTERS, [No Value; DEMAEYER, M; WODAK, SJ

    1992-01-01

    Site-specific substitutions of arginine for lysine in the thermostable D-xylose isomerase (XI) from Actinoplanes missouriensis are shown to impart significant heat stability enhancement in the presence of sugar substrates most probably by interfering with nonenzymatic glycation. The same substitutio

  7. Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoimmunity in Batten disease and other disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, David A; Atkinson, Mark; Tagle, Danilo A

    2004-12-14

    Degenerative diseases of the CNS, such as stiff-person syndrome (SPS), progressive cerebellar ataxia, and Rasmussen encephalitis, have been characterized by the presence of autoantibodies. Recent findings in individuals with Batten disease and in animal models for the disorder indicate that this condition may be associated with autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that converts the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Anti-GAD autoantibodies could result in excess excitatory neurotransmitters, leading to the seizures and other symptoms observed in patients with Batten disease. The pathogenic potential of GAD autoantibodies is examined in light of what is known for other autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, SPS, Rasmussen encephalitis, and type 1 diabetes, and may have radical implications for diagnosis and management of Batten disease.

  8. Serotonin accumulation in transgenic rice by over-expressing tryptophan decarboxylase results in a dark brown phenotype and stunted growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanaphachoat, Parawee; Wei, Bi-Yin; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Wang, I-Wen; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Yu, Su-May; Yen, Ming-Liang; Chiu, Sheng-Hsien; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, Liang-Jwu

    2012-04-01

    A mutant M47286 with a stunted growth, low fertility and dark-brown phenotype was identified from a T-DNA-tagged rice mutant library. This mutant contained a copy of the T-DNA tag inserted at the location where the expression of two putative tryptophan decarboxylase genes, TDC-1 and TDC-3, were activated. Enzymatic assays of both recombinant proteins showed tryptophan decarboxylase activities that converted tryptophan to tryptamine, which could be converted to serotonin by a constitutively expressed tryptamine 5' hydroxylase (T5H) in rice plants. Over-expression of TDC-1 and TDC-3 in transgenic rice recapitulated the stunted growth, darkbrown phenotype and resulted in a low fertility similar to M47286. The degree of stunted growth and dark-brown color was proportional to the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3. The levels of tryptamine and serotonin accumulation in these transgenic rice lines were also directly correlated with the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3. A mass spectrometry assay demonstrated that the darkbrown leaves and hulls in the TDC-overexpressing transgenic rice were caused by the accumulation of serotonin dimer and that the stunted growth and low fertility were also caused by the accumulation of serotonin and serotonin dimer, but not tryptamine. These results represent the first evidence that over-expression of TDC results in stunted growth, low fertility and the accumulation of serotonin, which when converted to serotonin dimer, leads to a dark brown plant color.

  9. 猪链球菌2型分离株精氨酸脱亚氨酸酶遗传变异分析%Analysis in Heredity and Variation of the Arginine-deiminase Gene Sequence of Streptococcus suis Serotyp 2 Isolation Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹国友; 孙婕; 陈兰英; 谢朝晖; 王福梅

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to analyze the reason and epidemic trend of Streptococcus suis serotype 2, and provide theoretical basis for preventing and controlling it. According to the sequence of arginine deiminase gene published by the Genbank, The primers was designed for RT-PCR amplification of ADS isolates from Henan obtaining its DNA fragments, which were cloned into pMD18-T vector respectively and sequenced. The sequences of ADS genes were analysed by DNAStar,analysed nucleotide sequence homology and drawed phylogenetic tree. The nuclear acid analysis indicated that the homology was 94.9% to 100% between the isolation strains,the homology was 100% between HN5 and HN6 from the same region,and the homology of nuclear acid sequence was 95.9% to 99.2% between Henan isolation strains and SX332 issued by the GenBank. The homology of ADS gene sequence was higher and genetic relationship was near during prevalence strains in the same region,and it was far in different regions.%为了分析猪链球菌2型(SS2)发病原因、流行趋势,为预防和控制猪链球菌2型提供理论依据,根据GenBank发表的猪链球菌精氨酸脱亚氨酸酶(arginine deiminase,ADS)基因序列,设计并合成引物,采用RT-PCR技术,对阳性病料进行扩增,回收扩增产物并将其克隆人pMD18-T载体中,提取质粒测序.应用DNAStar软件分析核苷酸序列的同源性,并绘制系统进化树.结果显示,分离株HN1-HN8核苷酸的同源性为94.9%~100%,来自同一地区的分离株HN5和HN6同源性为100%,而河南分离株与GenBank发表的SX332同源性为95.9%~99.2%.因此,同一地域分离株间ADS基因序列同源性较高且亲缘关系较近,不同地域则较远.

  10. Arginine methylation initiates BMP-induced Smad signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Wang, A. Hongjun; Oses-Prieto, Juan; Makhijani, Kalpana; Katsuno, Yoko; Pei, Ming; Yan, Leilei; Zheng, Y. George; Burlingame, Alma; Brückner, Katja; Derynck, Rik

    2014-01-01

    Summary Kinase activation and substrate phosphorylation commonly form the backbone of signaling cascades. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a subclass of TGF-β family ligands, induce activation of their signaling effectors, the Smads, through C-terminal phosphorylation by transmembrane receptor kinases. However, the slow kinetics of Smad activation in response to BMP suggests a preceding step in the initiation of BMP signaling. We now show that arginine methylation, which is known to regulate gene expression, yet also modifies some signaling mediators, initiates BMP-induced Smad signaling. BMP-induced receptor complex formation promotes interaction of the methyltransferase PRMT1 with the inhibitory Smad6, resulting in Smad6 methylation and relocalization at the receptor, leading to activation of effector Smads through phosphorylation. PRMT1 is required for BMP-induced biological responses across species, as evidenced by the role of its ortholog Dart1 in BMP signaling during Drosophila wing development. Activation of signaling by arginine methylation may also apply to other signaling pathways. PMID:23747011

  11. Staphylococcus aureus ArcR controls expression of the arginine deiminase operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlin, Julia; Kofman, Tzili; Borovok, Ilya; Kohler, Christian; Engelmann, Susanne; Cohen, Gerald; Aharonowitz, Yair

    2007-08-01

    We identified a single open reading frame that is strongly similar to ArcR, a member of the Crp/Fnr family of bacterial transcriptional regulators, in all sequenced Staphylococcus aureus genomes. The arcR gene encoding ArcR forms an operon with the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway genes arcABDC that enable the utilization of arginine as a source of energy for growth under anaerobic conditions. In this report, we show that under anaerobic conditions, S. aureus growth is subject to glucose catabolic repression and is enhanced by arginine. Likewise, glucose and arginine have reciprocal effects on the transcription of the arcABDCR genes. Furthermore, we show using a mutant deleted for arcR that the transcription of the arc operon under anaerobic conditions depends strictly on a functional ArcR. These findings are supported by proteome analyses, which showed that under anaerobic conditions the expression of the ADI catabolic proteins depends on ArcR. Bioinformatic analysis of S. aureus ArcR predicts an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain and a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif. ArcR binds to a conserved Crp-like sequence motif, TGTGA-N(6)-TCACA, present in the arc promoter region and thereby activates the expression of the ADI pathway genes. Crp-like sequence motifs were also found in the regulatory regions of some 30 other S. aureus genes mostly encoding anaerobic enzymatic systems, virulence factors, and regulatory systems. ArcR was tested and found to bind to the regulatory regions of four such genes, adh1, lctE, srrAB, and lukM. In one case, for lctE, encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase, ArcR was able to bind only in the presence of cyclic AMP. These observations suggest that ArcR is likely to play an important role in the expression of numerous genes required for anaerobic growth.

  12. Engineering salidroside biosynthetic pathway in hairy root cultures of Rhodiola crenulata based on metabolic characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhong Lan

    Full Text Available Tyrosine decarboxylase initializes salidroside biosynthesis. Metabolic characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase gene from Rhodiola crenulata (RcTYDC revealed that it played an important role in salidroside biosynthesis. Recombinant 53 kDa RcTYDC converted tyrosine into tyramine. RcTYDC gene expression was induced coordinately with the expression of RcUDPGT (the last gene involved in salidroside biosynthesis in SA/MeJA treatment; the expression of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT was dramatically upregulated by SA, respectively 49 folds and 36 folds compared with control. MeJA also significantly increased the expression of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT in hairy root cultures. The tissue profile of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT was highly similar: highest expression levels found in stems, higher expression levels in leaves than in flowers and roots. The gene expressing levels were consistent with the salidroside accumulation levels. This strongly suggested that RcTYDC played an important role in salidroside biosynthesis in R. crenulata. Finally, RcTYDC was used to engineering salidroside biosynthetic pathway in R. crenulata hairy roots via metabolic engineering strategy of overexpression. All the transgenic lines showed much higher expression levels of RcTYDC than non-transgenic one. The transgenic lines produced tyramine, tyrosol and salidroside at higher levels, which were respectively 3.21-6.84, 1.50-2.19 and 1.27-3.47 folds compared with the corresponding compound in non-transgenic lines. In conclusion, RcTYDC overexpression promoted tyramine biosynthesis that facilitated more metabolic flux flowing toward the downstream pathway and as a result, the intermediate tyrosol was accumulated more that led to the increased production of the end-product salidroside.

  13. Identification and characterization of the arginine deiminase system of Streptococcus canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzmann, A; Bergmann, S; Rohde, M; Chhatwal, G S; Fulde, M

    2013-02-22

    Although Streptococcus (S.) canis is known to cause severe infections in dogs and cats and harbors a clear zoonotic potential, knowledge about physiology and pathogenesis is mostly elusive. The arginine deiminase system (ADS) has been described in certain streptococcal species and its role in the establishment of infection has been suggested. In this study we focused on the identification and characterization of the ADS in S. canis. Using genome sequencing and subsequent in silico analysis we identified the ADS of S. canis as a gene cluster composed of seven genes. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the ADS of S. canis is transcribed in four transcriptional units, comprising three monocistronical mRNAs and one operon structure. As a secondary metabolic pathway, the ADS of S. canis is strictly regulated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and arginine as demonstrated on transcriptional, translational, and enzymatical level, respectively. Furthermore, growth kinetics with a chemically defined medium clearly showed that arginine, the substrate of the ADS, is essential for the biological fitness of S. canis. Using Immuno-electron microscopy analysis, we observed a surface-exposed localization of the ADS enzymes arginine deiminase (ArcA), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB), and carbamate kinase (ArcC), respectively, which might suggest the contribution of the ADS to the development of streptococcal infections.

  14. Arginine Metabolism in Myeloid Cells Shapes Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paulo C.; Ochoa, Augusto C.; Al-Khami, Amir A.

    2017-01-01

    Arginine metabolism has been a key catabolic and anabolic process throughout the evolution of the immune response. Accruing evidence indicates that arginine-catabolizing enzymes, mainly nitric oxide synthases and arginases, are closely integrated with the control of immune response under physiological and pathological conditions. Myeloid cells are major players that exploit the regulators of arginine metabolism to mediate diverse, although often opposing, immunological and functional consequences. In this article, we focus on the importance of arginine catabolism by myeloid cells in regulating innate and adaptive immunity. Revisiting this matter could result in novel therapeutic approaches by which the immunoregulatory nodes instructed by arginine metabolism can be targeted.

  15. Dual role of arginine metabolism in establishing pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Mayuri; Datey, Akshay; Wilson, Keith T; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2016-02-01

    Arginine is an integral part of host defense when invading pathogens are encountered. The arginine metabolite nitric oxide (NO) confers antimicrobial properties, whereas the metabolite ornithine is utilized for polyamine synthesis. Polyamines are crucial to tissue repair and anti-inflammatory responses. iNOS/arginase balance can determine Th1/Th2 response. Furthermore, the host arginine pool and its metabolites are utilized as energy sources by various pathogens. Apart from its role as an immune modulator, recent studies have also highlighted the therapeutic effects of arginine. This article sheds light upon the roles of arginine metabolism during pathological conditions and its therapeutic potential.

  16. The role of arginine in infection and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiking, Yvette C; Poeze, Martijn; Ramsay, Graham; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2005-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic response to an infection, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Metabolic changes during infection and sepsis could be related to changes in metabolism of the amino acid L-arginine. In sepsis, protein breakdown is increased, which is a key process to maintain arginine delivery because both endogenous de novo arginine production from citrulline and food intake are reduced. Arginine catabolism, on the other hand, is markedly increased by enhanced use of arginine via the arginase and nitric oxide pathways. As a result, lowered plasma arginine levels are usually found. Arginine may therefore be considered as an essential amino acid in sepsis, and supplementation could be beneficial in sepsis by improving microcirculation and protein anabolism. L-Arginine supplementation in a hyperdynamic pig model of sepsis prohibits the increase in pulmonary arterial blood pressure, improves muscle and liver protein metabolism, and restores the intestinal motility pattern. Arguments raised against arginine supplementation are mainly pointed at stimulating nitric oxide (NO) production, with concerns about toxicity of increased NO and hemodynamic instability with refractory hypotension. NO synthase inhibition, however, increased mortality. Arginine supplementation in septic patients has transient effects on hemodynamics when supplied as a bolus but seems without hemodynamic side effects when supplied continuously. In conclusion, arginine could have an essential role in infection and sepsis.

  17. Structural Basis of the Substrate Specificity and Enzyme Catalysis of a Papaver somniferum Tyrosine Decarboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai; Song, Shuaibao; Robinson, Howard; Liang, Jing; Ding, Haizhen; Li, Jianyong; Han, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC), a type II pyridoxal 5′-phosphate decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of tyrosine. Due to a generally high sequence identity to other aromatic amino acid decarboxylases (AAADs), primary sequence information is not enough to understand substrate specificities with structural information. In this study, we selected a typical TyDC from Papaver somniferum as a model to study the structural basis of AAAD substrate specificities. Analysis of the native P. somniferum TyDC crystal structure and subsequent molecular docking and dynamics simulation provide some structural bases that explain substrate specificity for tyrosine. The result confirmed the previous proposed mechanism for the enzyme selectivity of indolic and phenolic substrates. Additionally, this study yields the first crystal structure for a plant type II pyridoxal-5'-phosphate decarboxylase. PMID:28232911

  18. Aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes rat heart and hindleg muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Shahabpour, Elham

    2016-09-01

    Arteriogenesis is a main defense mechanism to prevent heart and local tissues dysfunction in occlusive artery disease. TGF-β and angiostatin have a pivotal role in arteriogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes cardiac and skeletal muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI) parallel to upregulation of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin. For this purpose, 4 weeks after LAD occlusion, 50 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into five groups: (1) sham surgery without MI (sham, n = 10), (2) control-MI (Con-MI, n = 10), (3) l-arginine-MI (La-MI, n = 10), (4) exercise training-MI (Ex-MI, n = 10), and (5) exercise and l-arginine-MI (Ex + La-MI). Exercise training groups running on a treadmill for 10 weeks with moderate intensity. Rats in the l-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 4 % l-arginine. Arteriolar density with different diameters (11-25, 26-50, 51-75, and 76-150 μm), TGF-β, and angiostatin gene expression were measured in cardiac (area at risk) and skeletal (soleus and gastrocnemius) muscles. Smaller arterioles decreased in cardiac after MI. Aerobic training and l-arginine increased the number of cardiac arterioles with 11-25 and 26-50 μm diameters parallel to TGF-β overexpression. In gastrocnemius muscle, the number of arterioles/mm(2) was only increased in the 11 to 25 μm in response to training with and without l-arginine parallel to angiostatin downregulation. Soleus arteriolar density with different size was not different between experimental groups. Results showed that 10 weeks aerobic exercise training and l-arginine supplementation promotes arteriogenesis of heart and gastrocnemius muscles parallel to overexpression of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin in MI rats.

  19. Arginine depletion by arginine deiminase does not affect whole protein metabolism or muscle fractional protein synthesis rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Juan C; Didelija, Inka Cajo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depletion can potentially exacerbate the progressive loss of body weight, and especially lean body mass, in cancer patients we determined the effect of arginine depletion by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) on whole body protein synthesis and fractional protein synthesis rate in multiple tissues of mice. ADI-PEG 20 successfully depleted circulating arginine (arginine, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown were maintained in the ADI-PEG 20 treated mice. The fractional protein synthesis rate of muscle was also not affected by arginine depletion. Most tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas) were able to maintain their fractional protein synthesis rate; however, the fractional protein synthesis rate of brain, thymus and testicles was reduced due to the ADI-PEG 20 treatment. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by the incorporation of ureido [14C]citrulline, which indicate the local conversion into arginine, into protein. In conclusion, the intracellular recycling pathway of citrulline is able to provide enough arginine to maintain protein synthesis rate and prevent the loss of lean body mass and body weight.

  20. Post-transcriptional regulation of ornithine decarboxylase in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassez, T; Paris, J; Omilli, F; Dorel, C; Osborne, H B

    1990-11-01

    The level at which ornithine decarboxylase expression is regulated in growing oocytes has been investigated. Immunoprecipitation of the in vivo labelled proteins showed that ornithine decarboxylase accumulated less rapidly in stage IV oocytes than in previtellogenic stage I + II oocytes. Quantitative Northern analysis showed that ornithine decarboxylase mRNA is abundant in oocytes (about 8 x 10(8) transcripts/cell) and this number does not significantly change during oogenesis. Polysome analysis showed that this mRNA is present in polysomes in stage I + II oocytes but has passed into puromycin-insensitive mRNP particles by stage IV of oogenesis. Therefore, during the growth phase of oogenesis, ornithine decarboxylase expression is regulated at a translational level. These results are discussed relative to the temporal expression of ornithine decarboxylase and of other proteins whose expression also decreases during oogenesis. In order to perform these experiments, the cDNA (XLODC1) corresponding to Xenopus laevis ornithine decarboxylase mRNA was cloned and sequenced.

  1. Regulation of human ornithine decarboxylase expression by the c-Myc.Max protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, A; Reddy, C D; Wu, S; Hickok, N J; Reddy, E P; Yumet, G; Soprano, D R; Soprano, K J

    1993-12-25

    The presence of a CACGTG element within a region of the human ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) promoter located at -491 to -474 base pairs 5' to the start site of transcription suggested that the c-Myc.Max protein complex may play a role in the regulation of ODC expression during growth. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and methylation interference analysis showed that the nuclei of WI-38 cells expressing ODC contained proteins that bound to this region of the ODC gene in a manner that correlated with growth-associated ODC expression. Also, use of antibodies against c-Myc and Max and purified recombinant c-Myc and Max protein in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that these proteins can specifically bind this portion of the human ODC promoter. Transient transfection studies showed that increase in the level of c-Myc and/or Max led to a significant enhancement of expression of a human ODC promoter-CAT reporter construct. Moreover, treatment of actively growing WI-38 cells with an antisense oligomer to c-Myc reduced the amount of endogenous protein complex formed and the amount of endogenous ODC mRNA expressed. These studies show that the c-Myc.Max protein complex plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of human ODC in vivo.

  2. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency diagnosed by clinical metabolomic profiling of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Donti, Taraka R; Cardon, Aaron L; Bacino, C A; Sun, Qin; Emrick, L; Reid Sutton, V; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism affecting the biosynthesis of serotonin, dopamine, and catecholamines. We report a case of AADC deficiency that was detected using the Global MAPS platform. This is a novel platform that allows for parallel clinical testing of hundreds of metabolites in a single plasma specimen. It uses a state-of-the-art mass spectrometry platform, and the resulting spectra are compared against a library of ~2500 metabolites. Our patient is now a 4 year old boy initially seen at 11 months of age for developmental delay and hypotonia. Multiple tests had not yielded a diagnosis until exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants of uncertain significance (VUS), c.286G>A (p.G96R) and c.260C>T (p.P87L) in the DDC gene, causal for AADC deficiency. CSF neurotransmitter analysis confirmed the diagnosis with elevated 3-methoxytyrosine (3-O-methyldopa). Metabolomic profiling was performed on plasma and revealed marked elevation in 3-methoxytyrosine (Z-score +6.1) consistent with the diagnosis of AADC deficiency. These results demonstrate that the Global MAPS platform is able to diagnose AADC deficiency from plasma. In summary, we report a novel and less invasive approach to diagnose AADC deficiency using plasma metabolomic profiling.

  3. Antitumor Effect of Antisense Ornithine Decarboxylase Adenovirus on Human Lung Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui TIAN; Lin LI; Xian-Xi LIU; Yan ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, was found to increase in cancer cells, especially lung cancer cells. Some chemotherapeutic agents aimed at decreasing ODC gene expression showed inhibitory effects on cancer cells. In this study, we examined the effects of adenoviral transduced antisense ODC on lung cancer cells. An adenovirus carrying antisense ODC (rAd-ODC/Ex3as) was used to infect lung cancer cell line A-549. The 3-(4,5-me thylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to analyze the effect on cell growth. Expression of ODC and concentration of polyamines in cells were determined by Western blot analysis and high performance liquid chromatography. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling was used to analyze cell apoptosis. The expression of ODC in A-549 cells was reduced to 54%, and that of three polyamines was also decreased through the rAd-ODC/Ex3as treatment. Consequently, cell growth was substantially inhibited and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling showed that rAd-ODC/Ex3as could lead to cell apoptosis, with apoptosis index of 46%. This study suggests that rAd-ODC/Ex3as has an antitumor effect on the human lung cancer cells.

  4. Histidine decarboxylase knockout mice, a genetic model of Tourette syndrome, show repetitive grooming after induced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meiyu; Li, Lina; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Tics, such as are seen in Tourette syndrome (TS), are common and can cause profound morbidity, but they are poorly understood. Tics are potentiated by psychostimulants, stress, and sleep deprivation. Mutations in the gene histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) have been implicated as a rare genetic cause of TS, and Hdc knockout mice have been validated as a genetic model that recapitulates phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Tic-like stereotypies in this model have not been observed at baseline but emerge after acute challenge with the psychostimulant d-amphetamine. We tested the ability of an acute stressor to stimulate stereotypies in this model, using tone fear conditioning. Hdc knockout mice acquired conditioned fear normally, as manifested by freezing during the presentation of a tone 48h after it had been paired with a shock. During the 30min following tone presentation, knockout mice showed increased grooming. Heterozygotes exhibited normal freezing and intermediate grooming. These data validate a new paradigm for the examination of tic-like stereotypies in animals without pharmacological challenge and enhance the face validity of the Hdc knockout mouse as a pathophysiologically grounded model of tic disorders.

  5. Amino acids allosterically regulate the thiamine diphosphate-dependent alpha-keto acid decarboxylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, Tobias; Spinka, Michael; Tittmann, Kai; Schütz, Anja; Golbik, Ralph; Mrestani-Klaus, Carmen; Hübner, Gerhard; König, Stephan

    2008-02-29

    The gene rv0853c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv codes for a thiamine diphosphate-dependent alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (MtKDC), an enzyme involved in the amino acid degradation via the Ehrlich pathway. Steady state kinetic experiments were performed to determine the substrate specificity of MtKDC. The mycobacterial enzyme was found to convert a broad spectrum of branched-chain and aromatic alpha-keto acids. Stopped-flow kinetics showed that MtKDC is allosterically activated by alpha-keto acids. Even more, we demonstrate that also amino acids are potent activators of this thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme. Thus, metabolic flow through the Ehrlich pathway can be directly regulated at the decarboxylation step. The influence of amino acids on MtKDC catalysis was investigated, and implications for other thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes are discussed.

  6. Expression of ornithine decarboxylase in precancerous and cancerous gastric lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Pu Miao; Jian-Sheng Li; Hui-Yan Li; Shi-Ping Zeng; Ye Zhao; Jiang-Zheng Zeng

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in precancerous and cancerous gastric lesions.METHODS: We studied the expression of ODC in gastric mucosa from patients with chronic superficial gastritis (CSG, n = 32), chronic atrophic gastritis [CAG, n = 43;15 with and 28 without intestinal metaplasia (IM)],gastric dysplasia (DYS, n = 11) and gastric cancer (GC,n = 48) tissues using immunohistochemical staining. All 134 biopsy specimens of gastric mucosa were collected by gastroscopy.METHODS: The positive rate of ODC expression was 34.4%, 42.9%, 73.3%, 81.8% and 91.7% in cases with CSG, CAG without IM, CAG with IM, DYS and GC, respectively (P < 0.01), The positive rate of ODC expression increased in the order of CSG < CAG (without IM) < CAG (with IM) < DYS and finally, GC. In addition,ODC positive immunostaining rate was lower in welldifferentiated GC than in poorly-differentiated GC (P <0.05).CONCLUSION: The expression of ODC is positively correlated with the degree of malignity of gastric mucosa and development of gastric lesions. This finding indicates that ODC may be used as a good biomarker in the screening and diagnosis of precancerous lesions.

  7. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2 regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanerva, Kristiina; Maekitie, Laura T. [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Baeck, Nils [Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Andersson, Leif C., E-mail: leif.andersson@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); HUSLAB, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) and 2 (AZIN2) are proteins that activate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. Both AZINs release ODC from its inactive complex with antizyme (AZ), leading to formation of the catalytically active ODC. The ubiquitously expressed AZIN1 is involved in cell proliferation and transformation whereas the role of the recently found AZIN2 in cellular functions is unknown. Here we report the intracellular localization of AZIN2 and present novel evidence indicating that it acts as a regulator of vesicle trafficking. We used immunostaining to demonstrate that both endogenous and FLAG-tagged AZIN2 localize to post-Golgi vesicles of the secretory pathway. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed that the vesicles associate mainly with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). RNAi-mediated knockdown of AZIN2 or depletion of cellular polyamines caused selective fragmentation of the TGN and retarded the exocytotic release of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Exogenous addition of polyamines normalized the morphological changes and reversed the inhibition of protein secretion. Our findings demonstrate that AZIN2 regulates the transport of secretory vesicles by locally activating ODC and polyamine biosynthesis.

  8. Arginine-based cationic liposomes for efficient in vitro plasmid DNA delivery with low cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker SR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Satya Ranjan Sarker, Yumiko Aoshima, Ryosuke Hokama, Takafumi Inoue, Keitaro Sou, Shinji Takeoka Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University (TWIns, Tokyo, Japan Background: Currently available gene delivery vehicles have many limitations such as low gene delivery efficiency and high cytotoxicity. To overcome these drawbacks, we designed and synthesized two cationic lipids comprised of n-tetradecyl alcohol as the hydrophobic moiety, 3-hydrocarbon chain as the spacer, and different counterions (eg, hydrogen chloride [HCl] salt or trifluoroacetic acid [TFA] salt in the arginine head group. Methods: Cationic lipids were hydrated in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES buffer to prepare cationic liposomes and characterized in terms of their size, zeta potential, phase transition temperature, and morphology. Lipoplexes were then prepared and characterized in terms of their size and zeta potential in the absence or presence of serum. The morphology of the lipoplexes was determined using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The gene delivery efficiency was evaluated in neuronal cells and HeLa cells and compared with that of lysine-based cationic assemblies and Lipofectamine™ 2000. The cytotoxicity level of the cationic lipids was investigated and compared with that of Lipofectamine™ 2000. Results: We synthesized arginine-based cationic lipids having different counterions (ie, HCl-salt or TFA-salt that formed cationic liposomes of around 100 nm in size. In the absence of serum, lipoplexes prepared from the arginine-based cationic liposomes and plasmid (p DNA formed large aggregates and attained a positive zeta potential. However, in the presence of serum, the lipoplexes were smaller in size and negative in zeta potential. The morphology of the lipoplexes was vesicular. Arginine-based cationic liposomes with HCl-salt showed the

  9. Arginine catabolism in Lactobacillus sake isolated from meat.

    OpenAIRE

    Montel, M C; Champomier, M C

    1987-01-01

    Lactobacillus sake isolated from meat can hydrolyze arginine via the arginine deiminase pathway. Two enzymes, arginine deiminase and ornithine transcarbamylase, have been revealed by detection of their reaction products, citrulline and ornithine, respectively. The production of citrulline depends on the concentration of glucose in a synthetic medium; it does not occur when the concentration of glucose is 27.5 mM or higher.

  10. Epigenetic signature of panic disorder: a role of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) DNA hypomethylation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domschke, Katharina; Tidow, Nicola; Schrempf, Marie; Schwarte, Kathrin; Klauke, Benedikt; Reif, Andreas; Kersting, Anette; Arolt, Volker; Zwanzger, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Glutamate decarboxylases (GAD67/65; GAD1/GAD2) are crucially involved in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis and thus were repeatedly suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. In the present study, DNA methylation patterns in the GAD1 and GAD2 promoter and GAD1 intron 2 regions were investigated for association with panic disorder, with particular attention to possible effects of environmental factors. Sixty-five patients with panic disorder (f=44, m=21) and 65 matched healthy controls were analyzed for DNA methylation status at 38 GAD1 promoter/intron2 and 10 GAD2 promoter CpG sites via direct sequencing of sodium bisulfate treated DNA extracted from blood cells. Recent positive and negative life events were ascertained. Patients and controls were genotyped for GAD1 rs3762556, rs3791878 and rs3762555, all of which are located in the analyzed promoter region. Patients with panic disorder exhibited significantly lower average GAD1 methylation than healthy controls (p<0.001), particularly at three CpG sites in the promoter as well as in intron 2. The occurrence of negative life events was correlated with relatively decreased average methylation mainly in the female subsample (p=0.01). GAD1 SNP rs3762555 conferred a significantly lower methylation at three GAD1 intron 2 CpG sites (p<0.001). No differential methylation was observed in the GAD2 gene. The present pilot data suggest a potentially compensatory role of GAD1 gene hypomethylation in panic disorder possibly mediating the influence of negative life events and depending on genetic variation. Future studies are warranted to replicate the present finding in independent samples, preferably in a longitudinal design.

  11. Catabolism and safety of supplemental L-arginine in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenlong; Hou, Yongqing; Hu, Shengdi; Bazer, Fuller W; Meininger, Cynthia J; McNeal, Catherine J; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-07-01

    L-arginine (Arg) is utilized via multiple pathways to synthesize protein and low-molecular-weight bioactive substances (e.g., nitric oxide, creatine, and polyamines) with enormous physiological importance. Furthermore, Arg regulates cell signaling pathways and gene expression to improve cardiovascular function, augment insulin sensitivity, enhance lean tissue mass, and reduce obesity in humans. Despite its versatile roles, the use of Arg as a dietary supplement is limited due to the lack of data to address concerns over its safety in humans. Data from animal studies are reviewed to assess arginine catabolism and the safety of long-term Arg supplementation. The arginase pathway was responsible for catabolism of 76-85 and 81-96 % Arg in extraintestinal tissues of pigs and rats, respectively. Dietary supplementation with Arg-HCl or the Arg base [315- and 630-mg Arg/(kg BW d) for 91 d] had no adverse effects on male or female pigs. Similarly, no safety issues were observed for male or female rats receiving supplementation with 1.8- and 3.6-g Arg/(kg BW d) for at least 91 d. Intravenous administration of Arg-HCl to gestating sheep at 81 and 180 mg Arg/(kg BW d) is safe for at least 82 and 40 d, respectively. Animals fed conventional diets can well tolerate large amounts of supplemental Arg [up to 630-mg Arg/(kg BW d) in pigs or 3.6-g Arg/(kg BW d) in rats] for 91 d, which are equivalent to 573-mg Arg/(kg BW d) for humans. Collectively, these results can help guide studies to determine the safety of long-term oral administration of Arg in humans.

  12. Structural characterization of the enzymes composing the arginine deiminase pathway in Mycoplasma penetrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Pablo; Planell, Raquel; Benach, Jordi; Querol, Enrique; Perez-Pons, Josep A; Reverter, David

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of arginine towards ATP synthesis has been considered a major source of energy for microorganisms such as Mycoplasma penetrans in anaerobic conditions. Additionally, this pathway has also been implicated in pathogenic and virulence mechanism of certain microorganisms, i.e. protection from acidic stress during infection. In this work we present the crystal structures of the three enzymes composing the gene cluster of the arginine deiminase pathway from M. penetrans: arginine deiminase (ADI), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC) and carbamate kinase (CK). The arginine deiminase (ADI) structure has been refined to 2.3 Å resolution in its apo-form, displaying an "open" conformation of the active site of the enzyme in comparison to previous complex structures with substrate intermediates. The active site pocket of ADI is empty, with some of the catalytic and binding residues far from their active positions, suggesting major conformational changes upon substrate binding. Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC) has been refined in two crystal forms at 2.5 Å and 2.6 Å resolution, respectively, both displaying an identical dodecameric structure with a 23-point symmetry. The dodecameric structure of OTC represents the highest level of organization in this protein family and in M.penetrans it is constituted by a novel interface between the four catalytic homotrimers. Carbamate kinase (CK) has been refined to 2.5 Å resolution and its structure is characterized by the presence of two ion sulfates in the active site, one in the carbamoyl phosphate binding site and the other in the β-phosphate ADP binding pocket of the enzyme. The CK structure also shows variations in some of the elements that regulate the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The relatively low number of metabolic pathways and the relevance in human pathogenesis of Mycoplasma penetrans places the arginine deiminase pathway enzymes as potential targets to design specific inhibitors against this human

  13. Structural characterization of the enzymes composing the arginine deiminase pathway in Mycoplasma penetrans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gallego

    Full Text Available The metabolism of arginine towards ATP synthesis has been considered a major source of energy for microorganisms such as Mycoplasma penetrans in anaerobic conditions. Additionally, this pathway has also been implicated in pathogenic and virulence mechanism of certain microorganisms, i.e. protection from acidic stress during infection. In this work we present the crystal structures of the three enzymes composing the gene cluster of the arginine deiminase pathway from M. penetrans: arginine deiminase (ADI, ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC and carbamate kinase (CK. The arginine deiminase (ADI structure has been refined to 2.3 Å resolution in its apo-form, displaying an "open" conformation of the active site of the enzyme in comparison to previous complex structures with substrate intermediates. The active site pocket of ADI is empty, with some of the catalytic and binding residues far from their active positions, suggesting major conformational changes upon substrate binding. Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC has been refined in two crystal forms at 2.5 Å and 2.6 Å resolution, respectively, both displaying an identical dodecameric structure with a 23-point symmetry. The dodecameric structure of OTC represents the highest level of organization in this protein family and in M.penetrans it is constituted by a novel interface between the four catalytic homotrimers. Carbamate kinase (CK has been refined to 2.5 Å resolution and its structure is characterized by the presence of two ion sulfates in the active site, one in the carbamoyl phosphate binding site and the other in the β-phosphate ADP binding pocket of the enzyme. The CK structure also shows variations in some of the elements that regulate the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The relatively low number of metabolic pathways and the relevance in human pathogenesis of Mycoplasma penetrans places the arginine deiminase pathway enzymes as potential targets to design specific inhibitors

  14. Weissella halotolerans W22 combines arginine deiminase and ornithine decarboxylation pathways and converts arginine to putrescine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, C. I.; San Romao, M. V.; Lolkema, J. S.; Barreto Crespo, M. T.; Baretto Crespo, M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To demonstrate that the meat food strain Weissella halotolerans combines an ornithine decarboxylation pathway and an arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway and is able to produce putrescine, a biogenic amine. Evidence is shown that these two pathways produce a proton motive force (PMF). Methods and

  15. Structural and degradative aspects of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2

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    Bruno Ramos-Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC is the key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. ODC levels are controlled by polyamines through the induction of antizymes (AZs, small proteins that inhibit ODC and target it to proteasomal degradation without ubiquitination. Antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1 and AZIN2 are proteins homologous to ODC that bind to AZs and counteract their negative effect on ODC. Whereas ODC and AZIN1 are well-characterized proteins, little is known on the structure and stability of AZIN2, the lastly discovered member of this regulatory circuit. In this work we first analyzed structural aspects of AZIN2 by combining biochemical and computational approaches. We demonstrated that AZIN2, in contrast to ODC, does not form homodimers, although the predicted tertiary structure of the AZIN2 monomer was similar to that of ODC. Furthermore, we identified conserved residues in the antizyme-binding element, whose substitution drastically affected the capacity of AZIN2 to bind AZ1. On the other hand, we also found that AZIN2 is much more labile than ODC, but it is highly stabilized by its binding to AZs. Interestingly, the administration of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 caused differential effects on the three AZ-binding proteins, having no effect on ODC, preventing the degradation of AZIN1, but unexpectedly increasing the degradation of AZIN2. Inhibitors of the lysosomal function partially prevented the effect of MG132 on AZIN2. These results suggest that the degradation of AZIN2 could be also mediated by an alternative route to that of proteasome. These findings provide new relevant information on this unique regulatory mechanism of polyamine metabolism.

  16. Catalysis of acetoin formation by brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, J T; Washabaugh, M W

    1993-12-14

    Catalysis of C(alpha)-proton transfer from 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate (HETDP) by pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was investigated by determining the steady-state kinetics of the reaction of [1-L]acetaldehyde (L = H, D, or T) to form acetoin and the primary kinetic isotope effects on the reaction. The PDC isozyme mixture and alpha 4 isozyme (alpha 4-PDC) have different steady-state kinetic parameters and isotope effects for acetoin formation in the presence and absence of the nonsubstrate allosteric effector pyruvamide: pyruvamide activation occurs by stabilization of the acetaldehyde/PDC ternary complex. The magnitudes of primary L(V/K)-type (L = D or T) isotope effects on C(alpha)-proton transfer from alpha 4-PDC-bound HETDP provide no evidence for significant breakdown of the Swain-Schaad relationship that would indicate partitioning of the putative C(alpha)-carbanion/enamine intermediate between HETDP and products. The substrate concentration dependence of the deuterium primary kinetic isotope effects provides evidence for an intrinsic isotope effect of 4.1 for C(alpha)-proton transfer from alpha 4-PDC-bound HETDP. A 1.10 +/- 0.02-fold 14C isotope discrimination against [1,2-14C]acetaldehyde in acetoin formation is inconsistent with a stepwise mechanism, in which the addition step occurs after rate-limiting formation of the C(alpha)-carbanion/enamine as a discrete enzyme-bound intermediate, and provides evidence for a concerted reaction mechanism with an important component of carbon-carbon bond formation in the transition state.

  17. Conformational stabilization of rat s-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase by putrescine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Makiko; Shirahata, Akira

    2010-01-01

    The activity and processing of mammalian S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is stimulated by putrescine. To obtain new insights into the mechanism through which putrescine stimulates AdoMetDC, we investigated conformational changes in rat prostate AdoMetDC in the presence or absence of putrescine. We examined the reactivity of purified rat prostate AdoMetDC to the SH-reagent iodoacetic acid (IAA) and its susceptibility to proteolysis in the presence or absence of putrescine using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The activity of AdoMetDC treated with IAA in the absence of putrescine was reduced, but about 80% of its activity remained after treatment with IAA in the presence of putrescine. In the presence of putrescine, IAA incorporation was 1.9 mol IAA/mol of AdoMetDC α-subunit, while there was no incorporation of IAA in the β-subunit of AdoMetDC. In the absence of putrescine, 5.0 mol of IAA/mol of α-subunit and 0.9 mol of IAA/mol of β-subunit were incorporated. Only Cys292 and Cys310 were carboxymethylated by IAA in the presence of putrescine. In contrast, in the absence of putrescine all cysteines were carboxymethylated by IAA. In addition, putrescine slowed the rate of AdoMetDC degradation by trypsin. These results demonstrate that the conformation of AdoMetDC purified from rat prostate is stabilized by putrescine.

  18. Depletion of arginine by recombinant arginine deiminase induces nNOS-activated neurotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Erh; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Wei, Ming-Feng; Shen, Li-Jiuan

    2014-01-01

    The abnormal regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI) is a selective NO modulator of iNOS and eNOS in endothelial cells, and it also exhibits neuroprotective activity in an iNOS-induced neuron-microglia coculture system. However, the effect of rADI on nNOS remains unknown. Addressing this issue is important for evaluating the potential application of rADI in neurodegenerative diseases. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to activate nNOS. NMDA increased NO production by 39.7 ± 3.9% via nNOS under arginine-containing conditions, but there was no significant increase in both arginine-free and rADI pretreated arginine-containing (citrulline) buffer. Subsequently, neither NMDA nor rADI alone caused cytotoxicity, whereas cotreatment with NMDA and rADI resulted in dissipation of the cell mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased cell viability. The mechanism of rADI cytotoxicity in the presence of NMDA is caused by the inhibition of NO production via nNOS mediated by the NMDA receptor, which was abolished when extracellular arginine was absent, even in the presence of citrulline. rADI not only reduced NO production but also caused cellular toxicity in nNOS-activated SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting a dual role for rADI in NOS-mediated neurotoxicity.

  19. Depletion of Arginine by Recombinant Arginine Deiminase Induces nNOS-Activated Neurotoxicity in Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Erh Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The abnormal regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS is associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI is a selective NO modulator of iNOS and eNOS in endothelial cells, and it also exhibits neuroprotective activity in an iNOS-induced neuron-microglia coculture system. However, the effect of rADI on nNOS remains unknown. Addressing this issue is important for evaluating the potential application of rADI in neurodegenerative diseases. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA to activate nNOS. NMDA increased NO production by 39.7 ± 3.9% via nNOS under arginine-containing conditions, but there was no significant increase in both arginine-free and rADI pretreated arginine-containing (citrulline buffer. Subsequently, neither NMDA nor rADI alone caused cytotoxicity, whereas cotreatment with NMDA and rADI resulted in dissipation of the cell mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased cell viability. The mechanism of rADI cytotoxicity in the presence of NMDA is caused by the inhibition of NO production via nNOS mediated by the NMDA receptor, which was abolished when extracellular arginine was absent, even in the presence of citrulline. rADI not only reduced NO production but also caused cellular toxicity in nNOS-activated SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting a dual role for rADI in NOS-mediated neurotoxicity.

  20. Research progress of arginine deiminase%精氨酸脱亚胺酶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛

    2012-01-01

    Arginine deiminase is a potential anticancer agent. Anticancer activity, chemical structure and chemical modification, as well as genes cloning and expression, of arginine deiminase is reviewed in this paper. It may supply useful information to arginine deiminase research and development.%精氨酸脱亚胺酶是一种具有重要应用前景的抗肿瘤酶类.结合国内外研究成果,综述了精氨酸脱亚胺酶的抗癌活性、分子结构、化学修饰以及精氨酸脱亚胺酶基因的克隆、表达等研究领域的进展,旨在为精氨酸脱亚胺酶的研究与开发提供借鉴.

  1. The T1405N carbamoyl phosphate synthetase polymorphism does not affect plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants.

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    Rob M J Moonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A C-to-A nucleotide transversion (T1405N in the gene that encodes carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1 has been associated with changes in plasma concentrations of L-arginine in term and near term infants but not in adults. In preterm infants homozygosity for the CPS1 Thr1405 variant (CC genotype was associated with an increased risk of having necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Plasma L-arginine concentrations are decreased in preterm infants with NEC. AIM: To examine the putative association between the CPS1 T1405N polymorphism and plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants. METHODS: Prospective multicenter cohort study. Plasma and DNA samples were collected from 128 preterm infants (<30 weeks between 6 and 12 hours after birth. Plasma amino acid and CPS1 T1405N polymorphism analysis were performed. RESULTS: Distribution of genotypes did not differ between the preterm (CC:CA:AA = 55.5%:33.6%:10.9%, n = 128 and term infants (CC:CA:AA = 54.2%:35.4%:10.4%, n = 96. There was no association between the CPS1 genotype and plasma L-arginine or L-citrulline concentration, or the ornithine to citrulline ratio, which varies inversely with CPS1 activity. Also the levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine were not significantly different among the three genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The present study in preterm infants did not confirm the earlier reported association between CPS1 genotype and L-arginine levels in term infants.

  2. The effects on plasma L-arginine levels of combined oral L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Morita, Masahiko; Hayashi, Toshio; Kamimura, Ayako

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of combining 1 g of l-citrulline and 1 g of l-arginine as oral supplementation on plasma l-arginine levels in healthy males. Oral l-citrulline plus l-arginine supplementation more efficiently increased plasma l-arginine levels than 2 g of l-citrulline or l-arginine, suggesting that oral l-citrulline and l-arginine increase plasma l-arginine levels more effectively in humans when combined.

  3. Structure, regulation, and putative function of the arginine deiminase system of Streptococcus suis.

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    Gruening, Petra; Fulde, Marcus; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important cause of infectious diseases in young pigs. Little is known about the virulence factors or protective antigens of S. suis. Recently, we have identified two proteins of the arginine deiminase system (ADS) of S. suis, which were temperature induced and expressed on the streptococcal surface (N. Winterhoff, R. Goethe, P. Gruening, M. Rohde, H. Kalisz, H. E. Smith, and P. Valentin-Weigand, J. Bacteriol. 184:6768-6776, 2002). In the present study, we analyzed the complete ADS of S. suis. Due to their homologies to the recently published S. gordonii ADS genes, the genes for arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyl-transferase, and carbamate kinase, which were previously designated adiS, octS, and ckS, respectively, were renamed arcA, arcB, and arcC, respectively. Our data revealed that arcA, arcB, and arcC of the S. suis ADS are transcribed from an operon (arcABC operon). Additionally, putative ADS-associated genes were cloned and sequenced which, however, did not belong to the arcABC operon. These were the flpS gene upstream of the arcABC operon with homology to the flp transcription regulator of S. gordonii and the arcD, arcT, arcH, and argR genes downstream of the arcABC operon with high homologies to a putative arginine-ornithine antiporter, a putative dipeptidase of S. gordonii, a putative beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase of S. pneumoniae, and a putative arginine repressor of S. gordonii, respectively. The transcriptional start point of the arcABC operon was determined, and promoter analysis provided evidence that multiple factors contribute to the regulation of the ADS. Thus, a putative binding site for a transcription regulator of the Crp/Fnr family, an ArgR-binding site, and two cis-acting catabolite response elements were identified in the promoter-operator region of the operon. Consistent with this, we could demonstrate that the ADS of S. suis is inducible by arginine and reduced O2 tension and subject to carbon catabolite

  4. Arginine specific aminopeptidase from Lactobacillus brevis

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    Arya Nandan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria contribute to the development of flavor during the ripening of cheese through the generation of short peptides and free amino acids, which directly or indirectly act as flavor precursors. Newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB as well as those procured from culture collection centers were screened for the production of various substrate specific aminopeptidases. Among all the strains screened, L. brevis (NRRL B-1836 was found to produce quantifiable amount of intracellular arginine specific aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.6. The productivity of arginine aminopeptidase in 5 L fermentor was 36 IU/L/h. The Luedeking and Piret model was tested for intracellular production of aminopeptidase and the data seemed to fit well, as the correlation coefficient was 0.9964 for MRS. The αAP and βAP was 0.4865 and 0.0046, respectively in MRS medium indicating that the yield was predominantly depended on growth. The culture produced lactic acid and also tolerated pH 2.0-3.0 and 0.3-0.5% bile salts, the most important probiotic features.

  5. L-arginine-induced experimental pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Péter Hegyi; Zoltán Rakonczay Jr; Réka Sári; Csaba Góg; János Lonovics; Tamás Takács; László Czakó

    2004-01-01

    Despite medical treatment, the lethality of severe acute pancreatitis is still high (20-30%). Therefore, it is very important to find good animal models to characterise the events of this severe disease. In 1984, Mizunuma et al.developed a new type of experimental necrotizing pancreatitis by intraperitoneal administration of a high dose of L-arginine in rats. This non-invasive model is highly reproducible and produces selective, dose-dependent acinar cell necrosis.Not only is this a good model to study the pathomechanisms of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, but it is also excellent to observe and influence the time course changes of the disease. By writing this review we iluminate some new aspects of cell physiology and pathology of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Unfortunately, the reviews about acute experimental pancreatitis usually did not discuss this model.Therefore, the aim of this manuscript was to summarise the observations and address some challenges for the future in L-arginine-induced pancreatitis.

  6. L-arginine-induced experimental pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Péter; Jr, Zoltán Rakonczay; Sári, Réka; Góg, Csaba; Lonovics, János; Takács, Tamás; Czakó, László

    2004-01-01

    Despite medical treatment, the lethality of severe acute pancreatitis is still high (20%-30%). Therefore, it is very important to find good animal models to characterise the events of this severe disease. In 1984, Mizunuma et al[1] developed a new type of experimental necrotizing pancreatitis by intraperitoneal administration of a high dose of L-arginine in rats. This non-invasive model is highly reproducible and produces selective, dose-dependent acinar cell necrosis. Not only is this a good model to study the pathomechanisms of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, but it is also excellent to observe and influence the time course changes of the disease. By writing this review we iluminate some new aspects of cell physiology and pathology of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Unfortunately, the reviews about acute experimental pancreatitis usually did not discuss this model. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript was to summarise the observations and address some challenges for the future in L-arginine-induced pancreatitis. PMID:15237423

  7. Retina maturation following administration of thyroxine in developing rats: effects on polyamine metabolism and glutamate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaione, S; Di Giorgio, R M; Nicotina, P A; Ientile, R

    1984-08-01

    The effects of subcutaneous daily treatment with thyroxine on cell proliferation, differentiation, polyamines, and gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism in the rat retina were studied during the first 20 postnatal days. The retinal layers of the treated rats displayed an enhanced cell differentiation which reached its maximum 9-12 days from birth; but this effect stopped very quickly and was finished by the 20th postnatal day. Primarily there was an increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity which was accompanied by an increase in putrescine, spermidine, and spermine levels. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was induced later than ODC; corresponding with the enhanced synaptogenesis, glutamate decarboxylase increased 15-fold between the fourth and 15th days. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that thyroxine may exert some of its effects by inducing the enzymes which regulate polyamine metabolism and synaptogenesis.

  8. Effect of gamma-glutamyl kinase gene knock-out on metabolism in L-arginine-producing strain Corynebacterium crenatum 8-193%γ-谷氨酰激酶基因敲除对产L-精氨酸钝齿棒杆菌8-193生理代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小曼; 赵智; 张英姿; 王宇; 丁久元

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为了阻断L-精氨酸合成的前体物L-谷氨酸的分支代谢途径,增加L-精氨酸合成的代谢流,构建钝齿棒杆菌8-193(Corynebacterium crenatum 8-193)γ-谷氨酰激酶(EC:2.7.2.11,γ-glutamyl kinase)基因proB敲除的菌株,并研究proB基因敲除对菌株生理特性的影响.[方法]运用PCR技术分别扩增proB基因的上游和下游序列,构建带有内部缺失的proB基因的敲除载体.经过两次同源重组,敲除C.crenatum 8-193的proB基因,构建菌株8-193-ΔproB,并用带有proB基因的表达载体对8-193-ΔproB进行互补验证.通过摇瓶发酵研究8-193-ΔproB的生理特性.[结果]PCR验证、γ-谷氨酰激酶酶活测定和营养缺陷型鉴定表明,获得了proB基因缺陷的菌株.摇瓶发酵结果表明,与出发菌株相比,8-193-ΔproB生物量降低9.6%,L-精氨酸产量提高13.6%.副产物中谷氨酸族和天冬氨酸族氨基酸含量升高;α-酮戊二酸、磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸和琥珀酸含量降低.proB基因敲除后,菌株的磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶和丙酮酸羧化酶活性提高.[结论]对谷氨酸分支代谢途径的阻断可以改善8-193菌株的葡萄糖利用和精氨酸合成能力.%[Objective] In order to optimize precursor supply for L-arginine biosynthesis, we constructed a Corynebacterium crenatum 8-193 mutant with gamma-glutamyl kinase gene (proB) in-frame deletion. The effects of proB knock-out on physiological characteristics of the mutant were investigated. [ Methods ] The upstream and downstream fragments of proB were cloned from C. Crenatum 8-193 chromosome and ligated to integration vector. The mutant C. Crenatum 8-193-△proB was obtained by homologous recombination. The mutant phenotype can be reversed by complementation with proB gene from the expression vector. The physiological characteristics of the mutant were investigated by measurement of the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPCx) and pyruvate carboxylase (PYC). [Results

  9. Arginine depletion by arginine deiminase does not affect whole protein metabolism or muscle fractional protein synthesis rate in mice.

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    Juan C Marini

    Full Text Available Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depletion can potentially exacerbate the progressive loss of body weight, and especially lean body mass, in cancer patients we determined the effect of arginine depletion by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20 on whole body protein synthesis and fractional protein synthesis rate in multiple tissues of mice. ADI-PEG 20 successfully depleted circulating arginine (<1 μmol/L, and increased citrulline concentration more than tenfold. Body weight and body composition, however, were not affected by ADI-PEG 20. Despite the depletion of arginine, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown were maintained in the ADI-PEG 20 treated mice. The fractional protein synthesis rate of muscle was also not affected by arginine depletion. Most tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas were able to maintain their fractional protein synthesis rate; however, the fractional protein synthesis rate of brain, thymus and testicles was reduced due to the ADI-PEG 20 treatment. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by the incorporation of ureido [14C]citrulline, which indicate the local conversion into arginine, into protein. In conclusion, the intracellular recycling pathway of citrulline is able to provide enough arginine to maintain protein synthesis rate and prevent the loss of lean body mass and body weight.

  10. Histone Arginine Methylation by PRMT7 Controls Germinal Center Formation via Regulating Bcl6 Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhengzhou; Mei, Mei; Zhang, Peizhun; Liu, Chunyi; He, Huacheng; Gao, Fei; Bao, Shilai

    2015-08-15

    B cells are the center of humoral immunity and produce Abs to protect against foreign Ags. B cell defects lead to diseases such as leukemia and lymphomas. Histone arginine methylation is important for regulating gene activation and silencing in cells. Although the process commonly exists in mammalian cells, its roles in B cells are unknown. To explore the effects of aberrant histone arginine methylation on B cells, we generated mice with a B cell-specific knockout of PRMT7, a member of the methyltransferases that mediate arginine methylation of histones. In this article, we showed that the loss of PRMT7 led to decreased mature marginal zone B cells and increased follicular B cells and promoted germinal center formation after immunization. Furthermore, mice lacking PRMT7 expression in B cells secreted low levels of IgG1 and IgA. Abnormal expression of germinal center genes (i.e., Bcl6, Prdm1, and Irf4) was detected in conditional knockout mice. By overexpressing PRMT7 in the Raji and A20 cell lines derived from B cell lymphomas, we validated the fact that PRMT7 negatively regulated Bcl6 expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR, we found that PRMT7 could recruit H4R3me1 and symmetric H4R3me2 to the Bcl6 promoter. These results provide evidence for the important roles played by PRMT7 in germinal center formation.

  11. Modular pathway engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for production of the glutamate-derived compounds ornithine, proline, putrescine, citrulline, and arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jaide V K; Eberhardt, Dorit; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-11-20

    The glutamate-derived bioproducts ornithine, citrulline, proline, putrescine, and arginine have applications in the food and feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. Corynebacterium glutamicum is not only an excellent producer of glutamate but also of glutamate-derived products. Here, engineering targets beneficial for ornithine production were identified and the advantage of rationally constructing a platform strain for the production of the amino acids citrulline, proline, and arginine, and the diamine putrescine was demonstrated. Feedback alleviation of N-acetylglutamate kinase, tuning of the promoter of glutamate dehydrogenase gene gdh, lowering expression of phosphoglucoisomerase gene pgi, along with the introduction of a second copy of the arginine biosynthesis operon argCJB(A49V,M54V)D into the chromosome resulted in a C. glutamicum strain producing ornithine with a yield of 0.52 g ornithine per g glucose, an increase of 71% as compared to the parental ΔargFRG strain. Strains capable of producing 0.41 g citrulline per g glucose, 0.29 g proline per g glucose, 0.30 g arginine per g glucose, and 0.17 g putrescine per g glucose were derived from the ornithine-producing platform strain by plasmid-based overexpression of appropriate pathway modules with one to three genes.

  12. A cyanase is transcriptionally regulated by arginine and involved in cyanate decomposition in Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2008-11-01

    Cyanase degrades toxic cyanate to NH3 and CO2 in a bicarbonate-dependent reaction. High concentrations of cyanate are fairly toxic to organisms. Here, we characterize a eukaryotic cyanase for the first time. We have isolated the cyn1 gene encoding a cyanase from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora and functionally characterized the cyn1 product after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed a predicted catalytic centre of three conserved amino-acids. A Deltacyn1 knockout in S. macrospora was totally devoid of cyanase activity and showed an increased sensitivity to exogenously supplied cyanate in an arginine-depleted medium, defects in ascospore germination, but no other obvious morphological phenotype. By means of real-time PCR we have demonstrated that the transcriptional level of cyn1 is markedly elevated in the presence of cyanate and down-regulated by addition of arginine. The putative functions of cyanase in fungi are discussed.

  13. Substrate activation of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase is abolished by mutation of cysteine 221 to serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburina, I; Gao, Y; Hu, Z; Jordan, F; Hohmann, S; Furey, W

    1994-05-10

    Brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1), a thiamin diphosphate and Mg(II)-dependent enzyme, isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses four cysteines/subunit at positions 69, 152, 221, and 222. Earlier studies conducted on a variant of the enzyme with a single Cys at position 221 (derived from a gene that was the product of spontaneous fusion) showed that this enzyme is still subject to substrate activation [Zeng, X., Farrenkopf, B., Hohmann, S., Jordan, F., Dyda, F., & Furey, W. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 2704-2709], indicating that if Cys was responsible for this activation, it had to be C221. To further test the hypothesis, the C221S and C222S single and the C221S-C222S double mutants were constructed. It is clearly shown that the mutation at C221, but not at C222, leads to abolished substrate activation according to a number of kinetic criteria, both steady state and pre steady state. On the basis of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme [Dyda, F., Furey, W., Swaminathan, S., Sax, M., Farrenkopf, B., Jordan, F. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 6165-6170], it is obvious that while C221 is located on the beta domain, whereas thiamin diphosphate is wedged at the interface of the alpha and gamma domains, addition of pyruvate or pyruvamide as a hemiketal adduct to the sulfur of C221 can easily bridge the gap between the beta and alpha domains. In fact, residues in one or both domains must be dislocated by this adduct formation. It is very likely that regulation as expressed in substrate activation is transmitted via this direct contact made between the two domains in the presence of the activator.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Glutamate Decarboxylase 1 Overexpression as a Poor Prognostic Factor in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Chao, Tung-Bo; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Tian, Yu-Feng; Chen, Tzu-Ju; Lee, Sung-Wei; He, Hong-Lin; Chang, I-Wei; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Lin, Ching-Yih; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) which serves as a rate-limiting enzyme involving in the production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), exists in the GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Little is known about the relevance of GAD1 to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Through data mining on a data set derived from a published transcriptome database, this study first identified GAD1 as a differentially upregulated gene in NPC. We aimed to evaluate GAD1 expression and its prognostic effect on patients with early and locoregionally advanced NPC. Methods: We evaluated GAD1 immunohistochemistry and performed an H-score analysis on biopsy specimens from 124 patients with nonmetastasized NPC receiving treatment. GAD1 overexpression was defined as an H score higher than the median value. The findings of such an analysis are correlated with clinicopathological behaviors and survival rates, namely disease-specific survival (DSS), distant-metastasis-free survival (DMeFS), and local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rates. Results: GAD1 overexpression was significantly associated with an increase in the primary tumor status (p < 0.001) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages III-IV (p = 0.002) and was a univariate predictor of adverse outcomes of DSS (p = 0.002), DMeFS (p < 0.0001), and LRFS (p = 0.001). In the multivariate comparison, in addition to advanced AJCC stages III-IV, GAD1 overexpression remained an independent prognosticator of short DSS (p = 0.004, hazard ratio = 2.234), DMeFS (p < 0.001, hazard ratio = 4.218), and LRFS (p = 0.013, hazard ratio = 2.441) rates. Conclusions: Our data reveal that GAD1 overexpression was correlated with advanced disease status and may thus be a critical prognostic indicator of poor outcomes in NPC and a potential therapeutic target to facilitate the development of effective treatment modalities. PMID:27698909

  15. AUTOANTIBODIES TO GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE AS A PATHOGENETIC MARKER OF TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Piven

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A new method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (in solid-phase ELISA format has been developed to determine concentrations of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, as well as an evidencebased methodology is proposed for its medical implications, as a quantitative pathogenetic predictive marker of autoimmune diagnostics in type 1 diabetes mellitus. This technique could be implied for serial production of diagnostic reagent kits, aimed for detection of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase by means of ELISA approach. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 257-260

  16. Directed arginine deiminase evolution for efficient inhibition of arginine-auxotrophic melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Zhu, Leilei; Lue, Hongqi; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    Arginine deiminase (ADI) is a therapeutic protein for cancer therapy of arginine-auxotrophic tumors. However, ADI's application as anticancer drug is hampered by its low activity for arginine under physiological conditions mainly due to its high "K M" (S₀.₅) values which are often 1 magnitude higher than the arginine concentration in blood (0.10-0.12 mM arginine in human plasma). Previous evolution campaigns were directed by us with the aim of boosting activity of PpADI (ADI from Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, k cat = 0.18 s(-1); S₀.₅ = 1.30 mM), and yielded variant M6 with slightly reduced S₀.₅ values and enhanced k cat (S₀.₅ = 0.81 mM; k cat = 11.64 s(-1)). In order to further reduce the S₀.₅ value and to increase the activity of PpADI at physiological arginine concentration, a more sensitive screening system based on ammonia detection in 96-well microtiter plate to reliably detect ≥0.005 mM ammonia was developed. After screening ~5,500 clones with the ammonia detection system (ADS) in two rounds of random mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis, variant M19 with increased k cat value (21.1 s(-1); 105.5-fold higher compared to WT) and reduced S₀.₅ value (0.35 mM compared to 0.81 mM (M6) and 1.30 mM (WT)) was identified. Improved performance of M19 was validated by determining IC₅₀ values for two melanoma cell lines. The IC₅₀ value for SK-MEL-28 dropped from 8.67 (WT) to 0.10 (M6) to 0.04 μg/mL (M19); the IC₅₀ values for G361 dropped from 4.85 (WT) to 0.12 (M6) to 0.05 μg/mL (M19).

  17. Enhancement of transfection efficiency for HeLa cells via incorporating arginine moiety into chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Arginine-rich peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their distinct internalization mechanism. It was reported that arginine and guanidino moieties were able to translocate through cell membranes and played a critical role in the process of membrane permeation. In this work, arginine was conjugated to the backbone of chitosan to form a novel chitosan derivative, arginine modified chitosan (Arg-CS). Arg-CS/DNA complexes were prepared according to the method of coacervation process. The physicochemical properties of Arg-CS and Arg-CS/DNA complexes were characterized and the transfection activity and efficiency mediated by Arg-CS/DNA complexes were investigated taking HeLa cells as target cells. Arg-CS was characterized by FTIR and 13C NMR. Arg-CS/DNA polyelectrolyte complexes were investigated by agarose gel retardation, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that the Arg-CS/DNA complexes started to form at N/P ratio of 2:1, and the size of particles varied from 100 to 180 nm. The cytotoxicity of Arg-CS and their complexes with plasmid DNA were determined by MTT assay for HeLa cells, and the results suggested that Arg-CS/DNA complexes were slightly less toxic than Arg-CS. Moreover, the derivative alone and their complexes showed significantly lower toxicity than PEI and PEI/DNA complexes, respectively. Taking HeLa cells as target cells and using pGL3-control as reporter gene, the luciferase expression mediated by Arg-CS was greatly enhanced to about 100 folds compared with the luciferase expression mediated by chitosan at different pH media. These results suggest that Arg-CS is a promising candidate as a safe and efficient vector for gene delivery and transfection.

  18. Deprivation of arginine by recombinant human arginase in prostate cancer cells

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    Hsueh Eddy C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant human arginase (rhArg has been developed for arginine deprivation therapy in cancer, and is currently under clinical investigation. During pre-clinical evaluation, rhArg has exhibited significant anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells deficient in the expression of ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT. Interestingly, a variety of cancer cells such as melanoma and prostate cancer deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS are sensitive to arginine deprivation by arginine deiminase. In this study, we investigated levels of gene expression of OCT and ASS, and the effects of rhArg in human prostate cancer cells: LNCaP (androgen-dependent, PC-3 and DU-145 (both androgen-independent. Results Quantitative real-time PCR showed minimal to absent gene expression of OCT, but ample expression of ASS expression in all 3 cell lines. Cell viability assay after 72-h exposure of rhArg showed all 3 lines had half maximal inhibitory concentration less than or equal to 0.02 U/ml. Addition of ornithine to cell culture media failed to rescue these cells from rhArg-mediated cytotoxicity. Decreased phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, a downstream effector of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, was noted in DU-145 and PC-3 after exposure to rhArg. Moreover, there was no significant apoptosis induction after arginine deprivation by rhArg in all 3 prostate cancer cell lines. Conclusion rhArg causes significant cytotoxicity in LNCaP, DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells which all demonstrate decreased OCT expression. Inhibition of mTOR manifested by hypophosphorylation of 4E-BP1 suggests autophagy is involved as alternative cell death mechanism. rhArg demonstrates a promising novel agent for prostate cancer treatment.

  19. A ROLE OF ARGININE DEIMINASE FROM STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES M49-16 IN PROMOTING INFECTION AND INHIBITION OF ENDOTHELIAL CELL PROLIFERATION

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    E. A. Starikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arginine deiminase is a bacterial enzyme that hydrolyses arginine with citrulline and ammonia formation. In recent years, increasing evidence is reported about in vitro and in vivo anti-angiogenic action of arginine deiminase from Mycoplasma spp. Our studies have shown that arginine deiminase from Streptococcus pyogenes M22 exerts similar effects, i.e., inhibits proliferation and other endothelial cell functions related to angiogenesis. To confirm a leading role of arginine deiminase, as a factor responsible for the anti-proliferative effect, we have constructed an isogenic S. pyogenes M49-16 mutant unable to express arginine deiminase. A comparative analysis of anti-proliferative activity of original S. pyogenes M49-16 strain and its isogenic mutant with arginine deiminase gene deletion (M49-16delAD was performed, using an endothelial EA.hy926 cell line. The bacterial supernatantes obtained by sonication of S. pyogenes M49-16 and M49-16delAD were tested. The ability of S. pyogenes M49-16 and M49-16delAD supernatantes to hydrolyze arginine was assessed. Moreover, we compared effects of the Streptococcus supernatantes upon proliferative activity of endothelial cells and their distribution through the cell cycle phases.Supernatantes from original S. pyogenes 49-16 strain were shown to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation to a significant degree (down to 50% of controls. This effect was due to its arginine hydrolyzing activity, i. e. addition of exogenous arginine to the medium resulted into recovery of the cell proliferation levels. The supernatante from S. pyogenes M49-16delAD showed a lower ability to hydrolyze arginine as compared to the supernatante of original strain. Culturing of endothelial cells supplied with S. pyogenes M49-16delAD supernatantes resulted into reduction of their proliferative activity by 10% of control values. Analysis of the cell cycle distribution was concordant with these results. S. pyogenes M49-16 supernatante

  20. Evaluation of Brachypodium distachyon L-Tyrosine Decarboxylase Using L-Tyrosine Over-Producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Noda

    Full Text Available To demonstrate that herbaceous biomass is a versatile gene resource, we focused on the model plant Brachypodium distachyon, and screened the B. distachyon for homologs of tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC, which is involved in the modification of aromatic compounds. A total of 5 candidate genes were identified in cDNA libraries of B. distachyon and were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to evaluate TDC expression and tyramine production. It is suggested that two TDCs encoded in the transcripts Bradi2g51120.1 and Bradi2g51170.1 have L-tyrosine decarboxylation activity. Bradi2g51170.1 was introduced into the L-tyrosine over-producing strain of S. cerevisiae that was constructed by the introduction of mutant genes that promote deregulated feedback inhibition. The amount of tyramine produced by the resulting transformant was 6.6-fold higher (approximately 200 mg/L than the control strain, indicating that B. distachyon TDC effectively converts L-tyrosine to tyramine. Our results suggest that B. distachyon possesses enzymes that are capable of modifying aromatic residues, and that S. cerevisiae is a suitable host for the production of L-tyrosine derivatives.

  1. The Escherichia coli TatABC system and a Bacillus subtilis TatAC-type system recognise three distinct targeting determinants in twin-arginine signal peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendel, Sharon; McCarthy, Andrew; Barnett, James P.; Eijlander, Robyn T.; Nenninger, Anja; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Robinson, Colin

    2008-01-01

    The Tat system transports folded proteins across bacterial and thylakoid membranes. In Gram-negative organisms, it is encoded by tatABC genes and the system recognizes substrates bearing signal peptides with a conserved twin-arginine motif. Most Gram-positive organisms lack a tatB gene, indicating m

  2. Crystal Structures of Apo and Liganded 4-Oxalocrotonate Decarboxylase Uncover a Structural Basis for the Metal-Assisted Decarboxylation of a Vinylogous β-Keto Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Samuel L; Coitinho, Juliana B; Costa, Débora M A; Araújo, Simara S; Whitman, Christian P; Nagem, Ronaldo A P

    2016-05-10

    The enzymes in the catechol meta-fission pathway have been studied for more than 50 years in several species of bacteria capable of degrading a number of aromatic compounds. In a related pathway, naphthalene, a toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is fully degraded to intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle by the soil bacteria Pseudomonas putida G7. In this organism, the 83 kb NAH7 plasmid carries several genes involved in this biotransformation process. One enzyme in this route, NahK, a 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase (4-OD), converts 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate to 2-hydroxy-2,4-pentadienoate using Mg(2+) as a cofactor. Efforts to study how 4-OD catalyzes this decarboxylation have been hampered because 4-OD is present in a complex with vinylpyruvate hydratase (VPH), which is the next enzyme in the same pathway. For the first time, a monomeric, stable, and active 4-OD has been expressed and purified in the absence of VPH. Crystal structures for NahK in the apo form and bonded with five substrate analogues were obtained using two distinct crystallization conditions. Analysis of the crystal structures implicates a lid domain in substrate binding and suggests roles for specific residues in a proposed reaction mechanism. In addition, we assign a possible function for the NahK N-terminal domain, which differs from most of the other members of the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase superfamily. Although the structural basis for metal-dependent β-keto acid decarboxylases has been reported, this is the first structural report for that of a vinylogous β-keto acid decarboxylase and the first crystal structure of a 4-OD.

  3. Phosphorylation of Ser-204 and Tyr-405 in human malonyl-CoA decarboxylase expressed in silkworm Bombyx mori regulates catalytic decarboxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Wook; Makishima, Yu; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Sungjo; Terzic, Andre; Chung, Shin-Kyo; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-11-01

    Decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD; EC 4.1.1.9) is a vital catalytic reaction of lipid metabolism. While it is established that phosphorylation of MCD modulates the enzymatic activity, the specific phosphorylation sites associated with the catalytic function have not been documented due to lack of sufficient production of MCD with proper post-translational modifications. Here, we used the silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid system to express human MCD (hMCD) and mapped phosphorylation effects on enzymatic function. Purified MCD from silkworm displayed post-translational phosphorylation and demonstrated coherent enzymatic activity with high yield (-200 μg/silkworm). Point mutations in putative phosphorylation sites, Ser-204 or Tyr-405 of hMCD, identified by bioinformatics and proteomics analyses reduced the catalytic activity, underscoring the functional significance of phosphorylation in modulating decarboxylase-based catalysis. Identified phosphorylated residues are distinct from the decarboxylation catalytic site, implicating a phosphorylation-induced global conformational change of MCD as responsible in altering catalytic function. We conclude that phosphorylation of Ser-204 and Tyr-405 regulates the decarboxylase function of hMCD leveraging the silkworm-based BmNPV bacmid expression system that offers a fail-safe eukaryotic production platform implementing proper post-translational modification such as phosphorylation.

  4. Association between violent aggression and arginine vasoPressin recePtor and oxytocin recePtor gene PolymorPhism in male adolescents%精氨酸加压素受体和催产素受体基因多态性与男性青少年暴力攻击行为的关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 乔屹; 禹顺英; 邵阳; 张燃; 谢斌

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨精氨酸加压素受体(AVPR1A、AVPR1B)和催产素受体(OXTR)基因多态性在青少年男性暴力攻击行为发生中的作用,并进一步分析基因与基因的交互作用。方法:采用 SNaPshot 基因分型技术对138名暴力攻击行为男性少教人员(暴力组)、98名非暴力男性少教人员(非暴力组)以及153名正常成年男性(正常组)的 AVPR1A( rs1042615)、AVPR1B( rs28632197)、OXTR( rs13316193、rs2254298、rs53576、rs2268498、rs237885)进行基因分型检测,分析3组间的等位基因和基因型频率。采用多因子降维法(MDR)构建影响暴力攻击行为发生的基因-基因间交互作用模型。结果:暴力组AVPR1B 基因 rs28632197位点 A 等位基因频率明显高于非暴力组和正常组(P 均﹤0.017),OR 值分别为2.24及2.63,95% CI 分别为(1.45~3.47)和(1.78~3.88);暴力组与非暴力组及正常组在基因型分布差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05),暴力组含 A 等位基因的基因型(AA/ AG)明显高于非暴力组和正常组(P ﹤0.017);其余位点组间差异无统计学意义。AVPR1B(rs28632197)与 OXTR(rs53576)在暴力攻击行为的发生中存在基因间交互作用。结论:AVPR1B 基因多态性可能与暴力攻击行为相关;AVPR1B 与OXTR 基因的交互作用可能增加暴力攻击行为的发生风险。%ObJective:To study the association between arginine vasopressin receptor and oxytocin recep-tor gene polymorphism with violent aggression in male adolescents,and to explore the gene interaction. Method:Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms ( AVPR1A rs1042615, AVPR1B rs28632197, OXTR rs13316193,rs2254298,rs53576,rs2268498,rs237885)were detected using SNaPshot genotyping assay for 138 young male violent offenders(violent aggression group),98 non-violence young male offenders(non-violent group)and 153 normal adult controls(normal group). The distribution of

  5. Glucocorticoids modulate the response of ornithine decarboxylase to unilateral removal of the dorsal hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kloet, E R; Cousin, M A; Veldhuis, H D; Voorhuis, T D; Lando, D

    1983-01-01

    The effect of unilateral removal of the dorsal hippocampus and of glucocorticoid administration was measured on the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in the remaining contralateral hippocampus lobe. Unilateral hippocampectomy (Hx) resulted in a rapid rise of ODC activity in the contralateral

  6. The Degradation of 14C-Glutamic Acid by L-Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Charles M; Dayan, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Describes procedures and semi-micro reaction apparatus (carbon dioxide trap) to demonstrate how a particular enzyme (L-Glutamic acid decarboxylase) may be used to determine the site or sites of labeling in its substrate (carbon-14 labeled glutamic acid). Includes calculations, solutions, and reagents used. (Author/SK)

  7. Evidence for the existence of mammalian acetoacetate decarboxylase: with special reference to human blood serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, Gerard J. van; Koorevaar, Gerrit

    1972-01-01

    In this article evidence is presented for the existence of mammalian acetoacetate decarboxylase (acetoacetate carboxy-lyase: E.G. 4.1.1.4). From experiments with human blood serum the presence of a non-ultrafiltrable activator, accelerating the decomposition of acetoacetate into acetone and carbon d

  8. Production of dopamine by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase cells after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Liqun; Wienecke, Jacob; Hultborn, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) cells are widely distributed in the spinal cord and their functions are largely unknown. We have previously found that AADC cells in the spinal cord could increase their ability to produce serotonin from 5-hydroxytryptophan after spinal cord injury (SCI)...

  9. Clinical and biochemical features of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, L.; Ngu, L.H.; Keng, W.T.; Ch'ng, G.S.; Choy, Y.S.; Hwu, W.L.; Lee, W.T.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Verbeek, M.M.; Wassenberg, T.; Regal, L.; Orcesi, S.; Tonduti, D.; Accorsi, P.; Testard, H.; Abdenur, J.E.; Tay, S.; Allen, G.F.; Heales, S.; Kern, I.; Kato, M.; Burlina, A.; Manegold, C.; Hoffmann, G.F.; Blau, N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the current treatment; clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings; and clinical follow-up of patients with aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency. METHOD: Clinical and biochemical data of 78 patients with AADC deficiency were tabulated in a database of pediat

  10. Structural and Mechanistic Studies on Klebsiella pneumoniae 2-Oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline Decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

    2010-11-12

    The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin was recently shown to proceed via three enzymatic steps. The final conversion is a decarboxylation of the unstable intermediate 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) and is catalyzed by OHCU decarboxylase. Here we present the structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase in unliganded form and with bound allantoin. These structures provide evidence that ligand binding organizes the active site residues for catalysis. Modeling of the substrate and intermediates provides additional support for this hypothesis. In addition we characterize the steady state kinetics of this enzyme and report the first OHCU decarboxylase inhibitor, allopurinol, a structural isomer of hypoxanthine. This molecule is a competitive inhibitor of K. pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase with a K{sub i} of 30 {+-} 2 {micro}m. Circular dichroism measurements confirm structural observations that this inhibitor disrupts the necessary organization of the active site. Our structural and biochemical studies also provide further insights into the mechanism of catalysis of OHCU decarboxylation.

  11. Molecular analysis of the glutamate decarboxylase locus in Streptococcus thermophilus ST110

    Science.gov (United States)

    GABA ('-aminobutyric acid) is generated from glutamate by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and characterized by hypotensive, diuretic and tranquilizing effects in humans and animals. The production of GABA by lactic acid starter bacteria would enhance the functionality of fermented da...

  12. Environmental pH determines citrulline and ornithine release through the arginine deiminase pathway in Lactobacillus fermentum IMDO 130101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, G; Rimaux, T; Weckx, S; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2009-11-15

    Sourdough lactic acid bacteria (LAB) need to be adapted to a highly acidic and, therefore, challenging environment. Different mechanisms are employed to enhance competitiveness, among which conversion of arginine into ornithine through the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway is an important one. A combined molecular and kinetic approach of the ADI pathway in Lactobacillus fermentum IMDO 130101, a highly competitive sourdough LAB strain, identified mechanisms with advantageous technological effects and quantified the impact of these effects. First, molecular analysis of the arcBCAD operon of 4.8 kb revealed the genes encoding the enzymes ornithine transcarbamoylase, carbamate kinase, arginine deiminase, and an arginine/ornithine (A/O) antiporter, respectively, with an additional A/O antiporter 702.5 kb downstream of the ADI operon. The latter could play a role in citrulline transport. Second, pH-controlled batch fermentations were carried out, generating data for the development of a mathematical model to describe the temporal evolution of the three amino acids involved in the ADI pathway (arginine, citrulline, and ornithine) as a result of the activity of these enzymes and transporter(s). Free arginine in the medium was converted completely into a mixture of citrulline and ornithine under all conditions tested. However, the ratio between these end-products and the pattern of their formation showed variation as a function of environmental pH. Under optimal pH conditions for growth, citrulline release and some further conversion into ornithine was observed. When growing under sub-optimal pH conditions, ornithine was the main product of the ADI pathway. These kinetic data suggest a role in adaptation of L. fermentum IMDO 130101 to growth under sub-optimal conditions.

  13. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario U Manto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibodies. We found that glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7 and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15 recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10 or limbic encephalitis (n = 4. We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibody representing this epitope specificity (1 disrupted in vitro the association of glutamate decarboxylase with γ-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles, (2 depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect, (3 significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task, (4 markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm, and (5 induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of glutamate decarboxylase by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such glutamate decarboxylase antibodies could be envisioned.

  14. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal

    2011-09-21

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP\\'s indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine\\'s preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine\\'s interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  15. Arginine transport in Streptococcus lactis is catalyzed by a cationic exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Poolman, Bert; Kiewiet, Rense; Konings, Wil N.

    1987-01-01

    Streptococcus lactis metabolizes arginine via the arginine deiminase pathway to ornithine, CO2, NH3, and ATP. The translocation of arginine and ornithine has been studied using membrane vesicles of galactose/arginine-grown cells of S. lactis fused with cytochrome c oxidase proteoliposomes by the fre

  16. Enhanced triterpene accumulation in Panax ginseng hairy roots overexpressing mevalonate-5-pyrophosphate decarboxylase and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Bok; Uddin, Md Romij; Lee, Sanghyun; Kim, Soo-Un; Park, Sang Un

    2014-10-17

    To elucidate the function of mevalonate-5-pyrophosphate decarboxylase (MVD) and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) in triterpene biosynthesis, the genes governing the expression of these enzymes were transformed into Panax ginseng hairy roots. All the transgenic lines showed higher expression levels of PgMVD and PgFPS than that by the wild-type control. Among the hairy root lines transformed with PgMVD, M18 showed the highest level of transcription compared to the control (14.5-fold higher). Transcriptions of F11 and F20 transformed with PgFPS showed 11.1-fold higher level compared with control. In triterpene analysis, M25 of PgMVD produced 4.4-fold higher stigmasterol content (138.95 μg/100 mg, dry weight [DW]) than that by the control; F17 of PgFPS showed the highest total ginsenoside (36.42 mg/g DW) content, which was 2.4-fold higher compared with control. Our results indicate that metabolic engineering in P. ginseng was successfully achieved through Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation and that the accumulation of phytosterols and ginsenosides was enhanced by introducing the PgMVD and PgFPS genes into the hairy roots of the plant. Our results suggest that PgMVD and PgFPS play an important role in the triterpene biosynthesis of P. ginseng.

  17. Overexpression and optimization of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 for high gamma-aminobutyric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajabadi, Naser; Baradaran, Ali; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Rahim, Raha A; Bakar, Fatimah A; Manap, Mohd Yazid A; Mohammed, Abdulkarim S; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important bioactive compound biosynthesized by microorganisms through decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). In this study, a full-length GAD gene was obtained by cloning the template deoxyribonucleic acid to pTZ57R/T vector. The open reading frame of the GAD gene showed the cloned gene was composed of 1410 nucleotides and encoded a 469 amino acids protein. To improve the GABA-production, the GAD gene was cloned into pMG36e-LbGAD, and then expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 cells. The overexpression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and GAD activity, showing a 53 KDa protein with the enzyme activity increased by sevenfold compared with the original GAD activity. The optimal fermentation conditions for GABA production established using response surface methodology were at glutamic acid concentration of 497.973 mM, temperature 36°C, pH 5.31 and time 60 h. Under the conditions, maximum GABA concentration obtained (11.09 mM) was comparable with the predicted value by the model at 11.23 mM. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful cloning (clone-back) and overexpression of the LbGAD gene from L. plantarum to L. plantarum cells. The recombinant Lactobacillus could be used as a starter culture for direct incorporation into a food system during fermentation for production of GABA-rich products.

  18. Control of enzyme synthesis in the arginine deiminase pathway of Streptococcus faecalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, J.P.; Wargnies, B; Stalon, V

    1982-01-01

    The formation of the arginine deiminase pathway enzymes in Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 11700 was investigated. The addition of arginine to growing cells resulted in the coinduction of arginine diminase (EC 3.5.3.6), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (EC 2.1.3.3), and carbamate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3). Growth on glucose-arginine or on glucose-fumarate-arginine produced a decrease in the specific activity of the arginine fermentation system. Aeration had a weak repressing effect on the arginine deimin...

  19. L-Arginine Pathway in COPD Patients with Acute Exacerbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzsics, Istvan; Nagy, Lajos; Keki, Sandor

    2016-01-01

    (ADMA, SDMA) is related to hypoxia. In COPD, a rise in ADMA results in a shift of L-arginine breakdown, contributing to airway obstruction. We aimed to compare serum levels of ADMA, SDMA and L-arginine in patients with and without AECOPD. METHODS: L-arginine metabolites quantified by high......-performance liquid chromatography in venous blood samples and partial capillary oxygen pressure were prospectively investigated in 32 patients with COPD, 12 with AECOPD and 30 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Both ADMA and SDMA were significantly higher in AECOPD compared to stable COPD (p = 0.004 and p ....001, respectively). Oxygen content in capillaries correlated with serum ADMA concentration. However, the concentration of L-arginine was not different between AECOPD and stable COPD. Both ADMA and SDMA separated AECOPD with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC: 0.81, p = 0.001; AUC: 0.91, p

  20. Plant PRMTs Broaden the Scope of Arginine Methylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayaz Ahmad; Xiaofeng Cao

    2012-01-01

    Post-translational methylation at arginine residues is one of the most important covalent modifications of proteins,involved in a myriad of essential cellular processes in eukaryotes,such as transcriptional regulation,RNA processing,signal transduction,and DNA repair.Methylation at arginine residues is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs).PRMTs have been extensively studied in various taxa and there is a growing tendency to unveil their functional importance in plants.Recent studies in plants revealed that this evolutionarily conserved family of enzymes regulates essential traits including vegetative growth,flowering time,circadian cycle,and response to high medium salinity and ABA.In this review,we highlight recent advances in the field of posttranslational arginine methylation with special emphasis on the roles and future prospects of this modification in plants.

  1. A binding site for activation by the Bacillus subtilis AhrC protein, a repressor/activator of arginine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingel, U; Miller, C M; North, A K; Stockley, P G; Baumberg, S

    1995-08-21

    In Bacillus subtilis, the AhrC protein represses genes encoding enzymes of arginine biosynthesis and activates those mediating its catabolism. To determine how this repressor also functions as an activator, we attempted to clone catabolic genes by searching for insertions of the Tn917-lacZ transposon that express AhrC-dependent, arginine-inducible beta-galactosidase activity. One such isolate was obtained. The region upstream of lacZ was subcloned in Escherichia coli in such a way that it could be replaced in the B. subtilis chromosome after appropriate manipulation. Analysis of exonuclease III-derived deletions located an AhrC-dependent, arginine-inducible promoter to within a ca. 1.9 kb fragment. The sequence revealed: the 3' end of an ORF homologous to gdh genes encoding glutamate dehydrogenase, with highest homology to the homologue from Clostridium difficile; the 5' end of an ORF homologous to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding delta 1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH), an enzyme of arginine catabolism; and just upstream of the latter, a sequence with homology to known AhrC binding sites in the upstream part of the biosynthetic argCJBD-cpa-F cluster. The same region has also been sequenced by others as part of the B. subtilis genome sequencing project, revealing that the P5CDH gene is the first in a cluster termed rocABC. Restriction fragments containing the putative AhrC-binding sequence, but not those lacking it, showed retarded electrophoretic mobility in the presence of purified AhrC. A 277 bp AhrC-binding fragment also showed anomalous mobility in the absence of AhrC, consistent with its being intrinsically bent. DNAse I footprinting localized AhrC binding to bp -16/-22 to +1 (the transcription startpoint). Such a location for an activator binding site, i.e. overlapping the transcription start, is unusual.

  2. Role of arginine in the stabilization of proteins against aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Brian M; Wang, Daniel I C; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2005-03-29

    The amino acid arginine is frequently used as a solution additive to stabilize proteins against aggregation, especially in the process of protein refolding. Despite arginine's prevalence, the mechanism by which it stabilizes proteins is not presently understood. We propose that arginine deters aggregation by slowing protein-protein association reactions, with only a small concomitant effect on protein folding. The associated rate effect was observed experimentally in association of globular proteins (insulin and a monoclonal anti-insulin) and in refolding of carbonic anhydrase. We suggest that this effect arises because arginine is preferentially excluded from protein-protein encounter complexes but not from dissociated protein molecules. Such an effect is predicted by our gap effect theory [Baynes and Trout (2004) Biophys. J. 87, 1631] for "neutral crowder" additives such as arginine which are significantly larger than water but have only a small effect on the free energies of isolated protein molecules. The effect of arginine on refolding of carbonic anhydrase was also shown to be consistent with this hypothesis.

  3. Geometry of guanidinium groups in arginines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinska, Maura; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The restraints in common usage today have been obtained based on small molecule X-ray crystal structures available 25 years ago and recent reports have shown that the values of bond lengths and valence angles can be, in fact, significantly different from those stored in libraries, for example for the peptide bond or the histidine ring geometry. We showed that almost 50% of outliers found in protein validation reports released in the Protein Data Bank on 23 March 2016 come from geometry of guanidine groups in arginines. Therefore, structures of small molecules and atomic resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive new target values for the geometry of this group. The most significant difference was found for NE-CZ-NH1 and NE-CZ-NH2 angles, showing that the guanidinium group is not symmetric. The NE-CZ-NH1 angle is larger, 121.5(10)˚, than NE-CZ-NH2, 119.2(10)˚, due to the repulsive interaction between NH1 and CD1 atom.

  4. Fluorometric enzymatic assay of L-arginine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasyuk, Nataliya; Gayda, Galina; Yepremyan, Hasmik; Stepien, Agnieszka; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2017-01-01

    The enzymes of L-arginine (further - Arg) metabolism are promising tools for elaboration of selective methods for quantitative Arg analysis. In our study we propose an enzymatic method for Arg assay based on fluorometric monitoring of ammonia, a final product of Arg splitting by human liver arginase I (further - arginase), isolated from the recombinant yeast strain, and commercial urease. The selective analysis of ammonia (at 415 nm under excitation at 360 nm) is based on reaction with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) in the presence of sulfite in alkali medium: these conditions permit to avoid the reaction of OPA with any amino acid. A linearity range of the fluorometric arginase-urease-OPA method is from 100 nM to 6 μМ with a limit of detection of 34 nM Arg. The method was used for the quantitative determination of Arg in the pooled sample of blood serum. The obtained results proved to be in a good correlation with the reference enzymatic method and literature data. The proposed arginase-urease-OPA method being sensitive, economical, selective and suitable for both routine and micro-volume formats, can be used in clinical diagnostics for the simultaneous determination of Arg as well as urea and ammonia in serum samples.

  5. Arginine vasopressin and copeptin in perinatology

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    Katrina Suzanne Evers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arginine vasopressin (AVP plays a major role in the homeostasis of fluid balance, vascular tonus and the regulation of the endocrine stress response. The measurement of AVP levels is difficult due to its short half-life and laborious method of detection. Copeptin is a more stable peptide derived from the same precursor molecule, is released in an equimolar ratio to AVP and has a very similar response to osmotic, hemodynamic and stress-related stimuli. In fact, copeptin has been propagated as surrogate marker to indirectly determine circulating AVP concentrations in various conditions. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge on AVP and copeptin in perinatology with a particular focus on the baby’s transition from placenta to lung breathing. We performed a systematic review of the literature on fetal stress hormone levels, including norepinephrine, cortisol, AVP and copeptin, in regard to birth stress. Finally, diagnostic and therapeutic options for copeptin measurement and AVP functions are discussed.

  6. The arginine deiminase system facilitates environmental adaptability of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus through pH adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Xinyi; Zhang, Ping; Ma, Zhe; Lin, Huixing; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-06-01

    The arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a secondary metabolic system found in many different bacterial pathogens and it is often associated with virulence. Here, a systematic study of ADS functions in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) was performed. Transcriptional levels of ADS operon genes were observed to be significantly increased when SEZ was grown under acidic conditions. We constructed arcA and arcD deletion mutants (SEZ ΔarcA and SEZ ΔarcD, respectively) and found that SEZ ΔarcA was unable to metabolize arginine and synthesize ammonia; however, arcD deletion resulted in an initial decrease in arginine consumption and ammonia production, followed by recovery to the levels of wild-type SEZ after 24 h of cultivation. Cell extracts of SEZ ΔarcA showed no arginine deiminase (AD) activity, whereas no difference in AD activity between SEZ ΔarcD and wild-type SEZ was observed. SEZ survival tests demonstrated a significant decrease in survival for SEZ ΔarcA, when compared with wild-type SEZ, under acidic conditions and in epithelial cells. These findings indicate that ADS in SEZ contributes to environmental adaptability via ammonia synthesis to reduce pH stress.

  7. The use of nucleosides and arginine as alternative energy sources by coagulase-negative staphylococci in view of meat fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, M; Van der Mijnsbrugge, A; Sánchez Mainar, M; Balzarini, T; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2014-05-01

    The ability of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) to use alternative energy sources in meat may partially explain their occurrence in fermented meats. Of 61 CNS strains tested, all metabolized adenosine and inosine in a meat simulation medium (MSM). The ability to catabolize arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway varied between strains. All tested strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis possessed an arcA gene and showed ADI activity, whereas other species, such as Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus, did not. Arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), as in the positive control S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, were uncommon and only found in Staphylococcus xylosus 3PA6 (sausage isolate) and Staphylococcus chromogenes G222 (teat apex isolate). Monoculture experiments were performed in MSM with S. carnosus 833 and SS3-4, S. xylosus G211, and S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 and 2S7-4. At all pH values tested (5.3, 5.8, and 6.5), the strains of S. carnosus catabolized arginine faster than the strains of S. xylosus and S. epidermidis. Only at pH 6.5 could a low ADI activity be found for S. xylosus G211. Increased ADI activity occurred in the case of the ACME-positive S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, when compared to the ACME-negative S. epidermidis 2S7-4.

  8. Plasma arginine and ornithine are the main citrulline precursors in mice infused with arginine-free diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Juan C; Didelija, Inka Cajo; Castillo, Leticia; Lee, Brendan

    2010-08-01

    Dietary arginine is the main dietary precursor for citrulline synthesis, but it is not known if other precursors can compensate when arginine is absent in the diet. To address this question, the contributions of plasma and dietary precursors were determined by using multitracer protocols in conscious mice infused i.g. either an arginine-sufficient diet [Arg(+)] or an arginine-free diet [Arg(-)]. The plasma entry rate of citrulline and arginine did not differ between the 2 diet groups (156 +/- 6 and 564 +/- 30 micromol kg(-1) h(-1), respectively); however, the entry rate of ornithine was greater in the mice fed the Arg(+) than the Arg(-) diet (332 +/- 33 vs. 180 +/- 16 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). There was a greater utilization of plasma ornithine for the synthesis of citrulline (49 +/- 4 vs. 36 +/- 3 micromol kg(-1) h(-1), 30 +/- 3% vs. 24 +/- 2% of citrulline entry rate) in the mice fed the Arg(-) diet than the Arg(+) diet. The utilization of plasma arginine did not differ between the 2 diet groups for citrulline synthesis, either through plasma ornithine (approximately 29 +/- 3 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)) or at the site of citrulline synthesis (approximately 12 +/- 3 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). The contribution of dietary proline to the synthesis of citrulline was mainly at the site of citrulline production (17 +/- 1 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)), rather than through plasma ornithine (5 +/- 0.4 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). Dietary glutamine was utilized only at the site of citrulline synthesis (4 +/- 0.2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). Dietary glutamine and proline made a greater contribution to the synthesis of citrulline in mice fed the Arg(-) diet but remained minor sources for citrulline production. Plasma arginine and ornithine are able to support citrulline synthesis during arginine-free feeding.

  9. Novel arginine deiminase-based method to assay L-arginine in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasyuk, N Ye; Gayda, G Z; Fayura, L R; Boretskyy, Y R; Gonchar, M V; Sibirny, A A

    2016-06-15

    A highly selective and sensitive enzymatic method for the quantitative determination of L-arginine (Arg) has been developed. The method is based on the use of recombinant bacterial arginine deiminase (ADI) isolated from the cells of a recombinant strain Escherichia coli and o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) as a chemical reagent. Ammonia, the product of the enzymatic digestion of Arg by ADI, reacts with OPA and forms in the presence of sulfite a product, which can be detected by spectrophotometry (S) and fluorometry (F). The linear concentration range for Arg assay in the final reaction mixture varies for ADI-OPA-F variant of the method from 0.35 μM to 24 μM with the detection limit of 0.25 μM. For ADI-OPA-S variant of the assay, the linearity varies from 0.7 μM to 50 μM with the detection limit of 0.55 μM. The new method was tested on real samples of wines and juices. A high correlation (R=0.978) was shown for the results obtained with the proposed and the reference enzymatic method.

  10. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements with hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate can be used to detect the expression of transgenic pyruvate decarboxylase activity in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzien, Piotr; Tee, Sui‐Seng; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Lyons, Scott K.; Larkin, Timothy J.; Timm, Kerstin N.; Hu, De‐En; Wright, Alan; Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Serrao, Eva M.; Marco‐Rius, Irene; Mannion, Elizabeth; D'Santos, Paula; Kennedy, Brett W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization can increase the sensitivity of the 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiment by at least four orders of magnitude and offers a novel approach to the development of MRI gene reporters based on enzymes that metabolize 13C‐labeled tracers. We describe here a gene reporter based on the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1), which catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvate to produce acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. Methods Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis (zmPDC) and a mutant that lacked enzyme activity were expressed using an inducible promoter in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. Enzyme activity was measured in the cells and in xenografts derived from the cells using 13C MRS measurements of the conversion of hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate to H13 CO3–. Results Induction of zmPDC expression in the cells and in the xenografts derived from them resulted in an approximately two‐fold increase in the H13 CO3–/[1‐13C] pyruvate signal ratio following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate. Conclusion We have demonstrated the feasibility of using zmPDC as an in vivo reporter gene for use with hyperpolarized 13C MRS. Magn Reson Med 76:391–401, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26388418

  11. Increase of histidine decarboxylase activity in mice hypothalamus after intracerebroventricular administration of lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, M; Mochizuki, T; Cacabelos, R; Yamatodani, A

    1993-10-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of lipopolysaccharide on histidine decarboxylase activity and histamine content in the hypothalamus were investigated in male mice of ddY strain in vivo. Two-fold increase in histidine decarboxylase activity (HDC) was observed 4 h after administration of 50 mcg lipopolysaccharide, and HDC activity returned to the basal level within 12 h after injection. Furthermore, histamine contents showed a slight decrease at 1 and 2 h and a mild increase at 12 h after administration. However, changes in histamine content were not statistically significant. These results suggest that the increase of HDC activity in the hypothalamus by lipopolysaccharide may be involved in the central neuroimmune responses.

  12. A coenzyme-independent decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade for the efficient synthesis of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Miura, Misa; Kino, Kuniki

    2014-10-13

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavor compounds in the world as well as a promising versatile building block. The biotechnological production of vanillin from plant-derived ferulic acid has attracted much attention as a new alternative to chemical synthesis. One limitation of the known metabolic pathway to vanillin is its requirement for expensive coenzymes. Here, we developed a novel route to vanillin from ferulic acid that does not require any coenzymes. This artificial pathway consists of a coenzyme-independent decarboxylase and a coenzyme-independent oxygenase. When Escherichia coli cells harboring the decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade were incubated with ferulic acid, the cells efficiently synthesized vanillin (8.0 mM, 1.2 g L(-1) ) via 4-vinylguaiacol in one pot, without the generation of any detectable aromatic by-products. The efficient method described here might be applicable to the synthesis of other high-value chemicals from plant-derived aromatics.

  13. The effect of arginine on oral biofilm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M M; Browngardt, C; Xiaohui, X; Klepac-Ceraj, V; Paster, B J; Burne, R A

    2014-02-01

    Alkali production by oral bacteria via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) increases the pH of oral biofilms and reduces the risk for development of carious lesions. This study tested the hypothesis that increased availability of arginine in the oral environment through an exogenous source enhances the ADS activity levels in saliva and dental plaque. Saliva and supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 19 caries-free (CF) individuals (DMFT = 0) and 19 caries-active (CA) individuals (DMFT ≥ 2) before and after treatment, which comprised the use of a fluoride-free toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, or a regular fluoride-containing toothpaste twice daily for 4 weeks. ADS activity was measured by quantification of ammonia produced from arginine by oral samples at baseline, after washout period, 4 weeks of treatment, and 2 weeks post-treatment. Higher ADS activity levels were observed in plaque samples from CF compared to those of CA individuals (P = 0.048) at baseline. The use of the arginine toothpaste significantly increased ADS activity in plaque of CA individuals (P = 0.026). The plaque microbial profiles of CA treated with the arginine toothpaste showed a shift in bacterial composition to a healthier community, more similar to that of CF individuals. Thus, an anti-caries effect may be expected from arginine-containing formulations due in large part to the enhancement of ADS activity levels and potential favorable modification to the composition of the oral microbiome.

  14. L-Arginine Supplementation and Metabolism in Asthma

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    Angela Linderholm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available L-Arginine, the amino acid substrate for nitric oxide synthase, has been tested as a therapeutic intervention in a variety of chronic diseases and is commonly used as a nutritional supplement. In this study, we hypothesized that a subset of moderate to severe persistent asthma patients would benefit from supplementation with L-arginine by transiently increasing nitric oxide levels, resulting in bronchodilation and a reduction in inflammation. The pilot study consisted of a 3 month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-arginine (0.05 g/kg twice daily in patients with moderate to severe asthma. We measured spirometry, exhaled breath nitric oxide, serum arginine metabolites, questionnaire scores, daily medication use and PEFR with the primary endpoint being the number of minor exacerbations at three months. Interim analysis of the 20 subjects showed no difference in the number of exacerbations, exhaled nitric oxide levels or lung function between groups, though participants in the L-arginine group had higher serum L-arginine at day 60 (2.0 ± 0.6 × 10−3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 × 10−3 µmol/L, p < 0.05, ornithine at day 30 (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 µmol/L serum, p < 0.05 and ADMA at day 30 (6.0 ± 1.5 × 10−1 vs. 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10−1 µmol/L serum, p < 0.05 on average compared to the placebo group. The study was terminated prematurely. Supplementing asthma subjects with L-arginine increases plasma levels; whether subgroups might benefit from such supplementation requires further study.

  15. Potential ergogenic effects of arginine and creatine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Børsheim, Elisabet; Wolfe, Robert R

    2004-10-01

    The rationale for the use of nutritional supplements to enhance exercise capacity is based on the assumption that they will confer an ergogenic effect above and beyond that afforded by regular food ingestion alone. The proposed or advertised ergogenic effect of many supplements is based on a presumptive metabolic pathway and may not necessarily translate to quantifiable changes in a variable as broadly defined as exercise performance. L-arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that has received considerable attention due to potential effects on growth hormone secretion and nitric oxide production. In some clinical circumstances (e.g., burn injury, sepsis) in which the demand for arginine cannot be fully met by de novo synthesis and normal dietary intake, exogenous arginine has been shown to facilitate the maintenance of lean body mass and functional capacity. However, the evidence that supplemental arginine may also confer an ergogenic effect in normal healthy individuals is less compelling. In contrast to arginine, numerous studies have reported that supplementation with the arginine metabolite creatine facilitates an increase in anaerobic work capacity and muscle mass when accompanied by resistance training programs in both normal and patient populations. Whereas improvement in the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis is largely responsible for improvements in acute work capacity, the direct effect of creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle protein synthesis is less clear. The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of arginine and its metabolite creatine in the context of a nutrition supplement for use in conjunction with an exercise stimulus in both healthy and patient populations.

  16. Cell density-correlated induction of pyruvate decarboxylase under aerobic conditions in the yeast Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, M; Klinner, U

    2001-01-01

    During the aerobic batch cultivation of P. stipitis CBS 5776 with glucose, pyruvate decarboxylase was activated in a cell number-correlated manner. Activation started when a cell number between 7 x 10(7) and x 10(8) cells ml(-1) was reached and the enzyme activity increased during further cultivation. This induction might have been triggered either by an unknown quorum sensing system or by a shortage of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA.

  17. Perturbation of the Monomer-Monomer Interfaces of the Benzoylformate Decarboxylase Tetramer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Forest H.; Rogers, Megan P.; Paul, Lake N.; McLeish, Michael J. [IUPUI; (Purdue)

    2014-08-14

    The X-ray structure of benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 shows it to be a tetramer. This was believed to be typical of all thiamin diphosphate-dependent decarboxylases until recently when the structure of KdcA, a branched-chain 2-keto acid decarboxylase from Lactococcus lactis, showed it to be a homodimer. This lent credence to earlier unfolding experiments on pyruvate decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that indicated that it might be active as a dimer. To investigate this possibility in BFDC, we sought to shift the equilibrium toward dimer formation. Point mutations were made in the noncatalytic monomer–monomer interfaces, but these had a minimal effect on both tetramer formation and catalytic activity. Subsequently, the R141E/Y288A/A306F variant was shown by analytical ultracentrifugation to be partially dimeric. It was also found to be catalytically inactive. Further experiments revealed that just two mutations, R141E and A306F, were sufficient to markedly alter the dimer–tetramer equilibrium and to provide an ~450-fold decrease in kcat. Equilibrium denaturation studies suggested that the residual activity was possibly due to the presence of residual tetramer. The structures of the R141E and A306F variants, determined to <1.5 Å resolution, hinted that disruption of the monomer interfaces will be accompanied by movement of a loop containing Leu109 and Leu110. As these residues contribute to the hydrophobicity of the active site and the correct positioning of the substrate, it seems that tetramer formation may well be critical to the catalytic activity of BFDC.

  18. Characterization of a Novel Putative S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase-Like Protein from Leishmania donovani.

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    Saurabh Pratap Singh

    Full Text Available In addition to the S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AD present in all organisms, trypanosomatids including Leishmania spp. possess an additional copy, annotated as the putative S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase-like proenzyme (ADL. Phylogenetic analysis confirms that ADL is unique to trypanosomatids and has several unique features such as lack of autocatalytic cleavage and a distinct evolutionary lineage, even from trypanosomatid ADs. In Trypanosoma ADL was found to be enzymaticaly dead but plays an essential regulatory role by forming a heterodimer complex with AD. However, no structural or functional information is available about ADL from Leishmania spp. Here, in this study, we report the cloning, expression, purification, structural and functional characterization of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani ADL using biophysical, biochemical and computational techniques. Biophysical studies show that, L. donovani ADL binds S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and putrescine which are natural substrates of AD. Computational modeling and docking studies showed that in comparison to the ADs of other organisms including human, residues involved in putrescine binding are partially conserved while the SAM binding residues are significantly different. In silico protein-protein interaction study reveals that L. donovani ADL can interact with AD. These results indicate that L. donovani ADL posses a novel substrate binding property and may play an essential role in polyamine biosynthesis with a different mode of function from known proteins of the S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase super family.

  19. Experimental Evidence and In Silico Identification of Tryptophan Decarboxylase in Citrus Genus

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    Luigi De Masi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC converts tryptophan into tryptamine, precursor of indolealkylamine alkaloids. The recent finding of tryptamine metabolites in Citrus plants leads to hypothesize the existence of TDC activity in this genus. Here, we report for the first time that, in Citrus x limon seedlings, deuterium labeled tryptophan is decarboxylated into tryptamine, from which successively deuterated N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine is formed. These results give an evidence of the occurrence of the TDC activity and the successive methylation pathway of the tryptamine produced from the tryptophan decarboxylation. In addition, with the aim to identify the genetic basis for the presence of TDC, we carried out a sequence similarity search for TDC in the Citrus genomes using as a probe the TDC sequence reported for the plant Catharanthus roseus. We analyzed the genomes of both Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis, available in public database, and identified putative protein sequences of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Similarly, 42 aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase sequences from 23 plant species were extracted from public databases. Potential sequence signatures for functional TDC were then identified. With this research, we propose for the first time a putative protein sequence for TDC in the genus Citrus.

  20. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of p-coumaric acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum

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    Rodríguez, Héctor; Rivas, Blanca de las; Muñoz, Rosario [Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Mancheño, José M., E-mail: xjosemi@iqfr.csic.es [Grupo de Cristalografía Macromolecular y Biología Estructural, Instituto Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-04-01

    The enzyme p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from L. plantarum has been recombinantly expressed, purified and crystallized. The structure has been solved at 2.04 Å resolution by the molecular-replacement method. The substrate-inducible p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from Lactobacillus plantarum has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and confirmed to possess decarboxylase activity. The recombinant His{sub 6}-tagged enzyme was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 12%(w/v) 2-propanol, 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0 with 0.1 M barium chloride as an additive. Diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.04 Å resolution. Crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 43.15, c = 231.86 Å. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.36 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 48% solvent content, which is consistent with the presence of two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure of PDC has been determined by the molecular-replacement method. Currently, the structure of PDC complexed with substrate analogues is in progress, with the aim of elucidating the structural basis of the catalytic mechanism.

  1. Tissue and regional distribution of cysteic acid decarboxylase. A new assay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J Y; Moss, L G; Chen, M S

    1979-04-01

    A sensitive and rapid assay method method for cysteic acid decarboxylase was develped which combined the selectivity of ion exchange resin (a complete retention of the substrate, cysteic acid, and exclusion of the product, taurine) with the speed of a vacuum filtration. The synthesis and purification of 35S-labeled cysteic acid were described. The validity of the assay was established by the identification of the reaction product as taurine. With this new method, the decarboxylase activity was measured in discrete regions of bovine brain. Putamen had the highest activity, 172 pmol taurine formed/min/mg protein (100%), followed by caudate nucleus, 90%; cerebral cortex, 82%; hypothalamus, 81%; cerebellar cortex, 79%; cerebellar peduncle, 59%; thalamus, 42%; brain stem, 25%; pons, 10%; and corpus callosum, 3%. The decarboxylase activity in various mouse tissues was also determined as follows: liver, 403; brain, 145; kidney, 143; spinal cord, 59; lung, 21; and spleen, 10 pmol taurine formed/min/mg. No activity could be detected in skeleton muscle and heart, suggesting a different biosynthetic pathway for taurine synthesis in these tissues. The advantages and disadvantages of the new assay method are also discussed.

  2. Regulation of human ornithine decarboxylase expression following prolonged quiescence: role for the c-Myc/Max protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, A; Wu, S; Hickok, N J; Soprano, D R; Soprano, K J

    1995-02-01

    WI-38 cells can remain quiescent for long periods of time and still be induced to reenter the cell cycle by the addition of fresh serum. However, the longer these cells remain growth arrested, the more time they require to enter S phase. This prolongation of the prereplicative phase has been localized to a point early in G1, after the induction of "immediate early" G1 genes such as c-fos and c-jun but before maximal expression of "early" G1 genes such as ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Understanding the molecular basis for ODC mRNA induction can therefore provide information about the molecular events which regulate the progression of cells out of long-term quiescence into G1 and subsequently into DNA synthesis. Studies utilizing electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) of nuclear extracts from short- and long-term quiescent WI-38 cells identified a region of the human ODC promoter at -491 bp to -474 bp which exhibited a protein binding pattern that correlated with the temporal pattern of ODC mRNA expression. The presence of a CACGTG element within this fragment, studies with antibodies against c-Myc and Max, the use of purified recombinant c-Myc protein in the mobility shift assay, and antisense studies suggest that these proteins can specifically bind this portion of the human ODC promoter in a manner consistent with growth-associated modulation of the expression of ODC and other early G1 genes following prolonged quiescence. These studies suggest a role for the c-Myc/Max protein complex in regulating events involved in the progression of cells out of long-term quiescence into G1 and subsequently into S.

  3. Starmerella bombicola influences the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase level during mixed wine fermentation

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    Milanovic Vesna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of a multistarter fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts has been proposed to simulate natural must fermentation and to confer greater complexity and specificity to wine. In this context, the combined use of S. cerevisiae and immobilized Starmerella bombicola cells (formerly Candida stellata was assayed to enhance glycerol concentration, reduce ethanol content and to improve the analytical composition of wine. In order to investigate yeast metabolic interaction during controlled mixed fermentation and to evaluate the influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae, the gene expression and enzymatic activity of two key enzymes of the alcoholic fermentation pathway such as pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc1 and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1 were studied. Results The presence of S. bombicola immobilized cells in a mixed fermentation trial confirmed an increase in fermentation rate, a combined consumption of glucose and fructose, an increase in glycerol and a reduction in the production of ethanol as well as a modification in the fermentation of by products. The alcoholic fermentation of S. cerevisiae was also influenced by S. bombicola immobilized cells. Indeed, Pdc1 activity in mixed fermentation was lower than that exhibited in pure culture while Adh1 activity showed an opposite behavior. The expression of both PDC1 and ADH1 genes was highly induced at the initial phase of fermentation. The expression level of PDC1 at the end of fermentation was much higher in pure culture while ADH1 level was similar in both pure and mixed fermentations. Conclusion In mixed fermentation, S. bombicola immobilized cells greatly affected the fermentation behavior of S. cerevisiae and the analytical composition of wine. The influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae was not limited to a simple additive contribution. Indeed, its presence caused metabolic modifications during S. cerevisiae fermentation

  4. Starmerella bombicola influences the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase level during mixed wine fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of a multistarter fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts has been proposed to simulate natural must fermentation and to confer greater complexity and specificity to wine. In this context, the combined use of S. cerevisiae and immobilized Starmerella bombicola cells (formerly Candida stellata) was assayed to enhance glycerol concentration, reduce ethanol content and to improve the analytical composition of wine. In order to investigate yeast metabolic interaction during controlled mixed fermentation and to evaluate the influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae, the gene expression and enzymatic activity of two key enzymes of the alcoholic fermentation pathway such as pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc1) and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1) were studied. Results The presence of S. bombicola immobilized cells in a mixed fermentation trial confirmed an increase in fermentation rate, a combined consumption of glucose and fructose, an increase in glycerol and a reduction in the production of ethanol as well as a modification in the fermentation of by products. The alcoholic fermentation of S. cerevisiae was also influenced by S. bombicola immobilized cells. Indeed, Pdc1 activity in mixed fermentation was lower than that exhibited in pure culture while Adh1 activity showed an opposite behavior. The expression of both PDC1 and ADH1 genes was highly induced at the initial phase of fermentation. The expression level of PDC1 at the end of fermentation was much higher in pure culture while ADH1 level was similar in both pure and mixed fermentations. Conclusion In mixed fermentation, S. bombicola immobilized cells greatly affected the fermentation behavior of S. cerevisiae and the analytical composition of wine. The influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae was not limited to a simple additive contribution. Indeed, its presence caused metabolic modifications during S. cerevisiae fermentation causing variation in the gene

  5. Genetic diversity of arginine catabolic mobile element in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Miragaia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone USA300 contains a novel mobile genetic element, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME, that contributes to its enhanced capacity to grow and survive within the host. Although ACME appears to have been transferred into USA300 from S. epidermidis, the genetic diversity of ACME in the latter species remains poorly characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of ACME, 127 geographically diverse S. epidermidis isolates representing 86 different multilocus sequence types (STs were characterized. ACME was found in 51% (65/127 of S. epidermidis isolates. The vast majority (57/65 of ACME-containing isolates belonged to the predominant S. epidermidis clonal complex CC2. ACME was often found in association with different allotypes of staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec which also encodes the recombinase function that facilities mobilization ACME from the S. epidermidis chromosome. Restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR scanning and DNA sequencing allowed for identification of 39 distinct ACME genetic variants that differ from one another in gene content, thereby revealing a hitherto uncharacterized genetic diversity within ACME. All but one ACME variants were represented by a single S. epidermidis isolate; the singular variant, termed ACME-I.02, was found in 27 isolates, all of which belonged to the CC2 lineage. An evolutionary model constructed based on the eBURST algorithm revealed that ACME-I.02 was acquired at least on 15 different occasions by strains belonging to the CC2 lineage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ACME-I.02 in diverse S. epidermidis isolates were nearly identical in sequence to the prototypical ACME found in USA300 MRSA clone, providing further evidence for the interspecies transfer of ACME from S. epidermidis into USA300.

  6. Glutamine, arginine, and leucine signaling in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Rhoads, J; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Glutamine and leucine are abundant constituents of plant and animal proteins, whereas the content of arginine in foods and physiological fluids varies greatly. Besides their role in protein synthesis, these three amino acids individually activate signaling pathway to promote protein synthesis and possibly inhibit autophagy-mediated protein degradation in intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, glutamine and arginine stimulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 (s6) kinase pathways, respectively, to enhance mucosal cell migration and restitution. Moreover, through the nitric oxide-dependent cGMP signaling cascade, arginine regulates multiple physiological events in the intestine that are beneficial for cell homeostasis and survival. Available evidence from both in vitro and in vivo animal studies shows that glutamine and arginine promote cell proliferation and exert differential cytoprotective effects in response to nutrient deprivation, oxidative injury, stress, and immunological challenge. Additionally, when nitric oxide is available, leucine increases the migration of intestinal cells. Therefore, through cellular signaling mechanisms, arginine, glutamine, and leucine play crucial roles in intestinal growth, integrity, and function.

  7. Arginine Metabolism in Bacterial Pathogenesis and Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance to infectious diseases is a significant global concern for health care organizations; along with aging populations and increasing cancer rates, it represents a great burden for government healthcare systems. Therefore, the development of therapies against bacterial infection and cancer is an important strategy for healthcare research. Pathogenic bacteria and cancer have developed a broad range of sophisticated strategies to survive or propagate inside a host and cause infection or spread disease. Bacteria can employ their own metabolism pathways to obtain nutrients from the host cells in order to survive. Similarly, cancer cells can dysregulate normal human cell metabolic pathways so that they can grow and spread. One common feature of the adaption and disruption of metabolic pathways observed in bacterial and cancer cell growth is amino acid pathways; these have recently been targeted as a novel approach to manage bacterial infections and cancer therapy. In particular, arginine metabolism has been illustrated to be important not only for bacterial pathogenesis but also for cancer therapy. Therefore, greater insights into arginine metabolism of pathogenic bacteria and cancer cells would provide possible targets for controlling of bacterial infection and cancer treatment. This review will summarize the recent progress on the relationship of arginine metabolism with bacterial pathogenesis and cancer therapy, with a particular focus on arginase and arginine deiminase pathways of arginine catabolism.

  8. Arginine and citrulline supplementation in sports and exercise: ergogenic nutrients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    Dietary L-citrulline malate supplements may increase levels of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, although this response has not been related to an improvement in athletic performance. NO plays an important role in many functions in the body regulating vasodilatation, blood flow, mitochondrial respiration and platelet function. L-Arginine is the main precursor of NO via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Additionally, L-citrulline has been indicated to be a second NO donor in the NOS-dependent pathway, since it can be converted to L-arginine. The importance of L-citrulline as an ergogenic support derives from the fact that L-citrulline is not subject to pre-systemic elimination and, consequently, could be a more efficient way to elevate extracellular levels of L-arginine by itself. L-Citrulline malate can develop beneficial effects on the elimination of NH(3) in the course of recovery from exhaustive muscular exercise and also as an effective precursor of L-arginine and creatine. Dietary supplementation with L-citrulline alone does not improve exercise performance. The ergogenic response of L-citrulline or L-arginine supplements depends on the training status of the subjects. Studies involving untrained or moderately healthy subjects showed that NO donors could improve tolerance to aerobic and anaerobic exercise. However, when highly-trained subjects were supplemented, no positive effect on performance was indicated.

  9. The determination of potential ammonification in soil by arginine method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresović Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper investigations were carried out on two soil types (vertisol and brown forest soil with different doses of applied N-fertilizer: diameter, N60 N90; N120 and N250. The potential ammonification in soil was obtained by arginine method. The following properties of soil were determined: pH value organic C, available NH4-N and mobile-Al. The pH value in vertisol was 3.75-4.07; mobile-Al was 0.67-4.90 mg/100g; % organic C 1.38-1.46 and the content of available nitrogen was 4.4-11.2 ppm. The amount of released NH4-N by arginine ammonification in this soil type was very low [(-0.12-0.27mg/g-1h-1]. Correlation coefficients between released NH4-N from arginine and soil pH were (-0.96*, mobile Al - (-0.99**, applied fertilizer doses - (-0.95*. In brown forest soil the amount of released NH4-N by arginine ammonification was greater than in vertisol, ranging from 3.16 to 7.11mg/g-1h-1. Correlation coefficients between soil properties and released NH4-N from arginine were not statistically significant.

  10. Determination of l-arginine and NG, NG - and NG, NG' -dimethyl-L-arginine in plasma by liquid chromatography as AccQ-Fluor fluorescent derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heresztyn, Tamila; Worthley, Matthew I; Horowitz, John D

    2004-06-15

    A new HPLC assay for the detection of L-arginine, NG, NG-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) and NG, NG' -dimethyl-L-arginine (SDMA) in plasma using the derivatisation reagent AccQ-Fluor (6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate) is described. The fluorescent derivatives produced are extremely stable enabling routine processing of large numbers of samples. Arginine and its metabolites are extracted from plasma on strong cation exchange (SCX) cartridges with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA) as internal standard, derivatised and separated on a C18 column with acetonitrile in 0.1M sodium acetate buffer pH 6. Separation of the stereoisomers ADMA and SDMA was excellent and improvements to the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure enabled good recovery (>80%) of arginine, ADMA and SDMA. The utility of the method is exemplified by comparison of plasma concentrations of ADMA, SDMA and arginine in healthy volunteers and diabetic/ischaemic patients.

  11. Mitochondria: role of citrulline and arginine supplementation in MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Chanprasert, Sirisak; Craigen, William J; Scaglia, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and generate most of the cellular energy. Mitochondrial disorders result from dysfunctional mitochondria that are unable to generate sufficient ATP to meet the energy needs of various organs. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a frequent maternally inherited mitochondrial disorder. There is growing evidence that nitric oxide (NO) deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome and results in impaired blood perfusion that contributes significantly to several complications including stroke-like episodes, myopathy, and lactic acidosis. Both arginine and citrulline act as NO precursors and their administration results in increased NO production and hence can potentially have therapeutic utility in MELAS syndrome. Citrulline raises NO production to a greater extent than arginine, therefore, citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect. Controlled studies assessing the effects of arginine or citrulline supplementation on different clinical aspects of MELAS syndrome are needed.

  12. Renal cell carcinoma does not express argininosuccinate synthetase and is highly sensitive to arginine deprivation via arginine deiminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Cheol-Yong; Shim, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-Ho; Lee, Ju-Han; Won, Nam-Hee; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, In-Sun; Yoon, Duck-Ki; Min, Bon-Hong

    2007-02-15

    Recently, pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI; EC 3.5.3.6) has been used to treat the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or melanoma, in which the level of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) activity is low or undetectable. The efficacy of its antitumor activity largely depends on the level of intracellular ASS, which enables tumor cells to recycle citrulline to arginine. Thus, we examined the expression levels of ASS in various cancer cells and found that it is low in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells, rendering the cells highly sensitive to arginine deprivation by ADI treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in biopsy specimens from RCC patients (n = 98), the expression of ASS is highly demonstrated in the epithelium of normal proximal tubule but not seen in tumor cells. Furthermore, RCC cells treated with ADI showed remarkable growth retardation in a dose dependent manner. ADI also exerted in vivo antiproliferative effect on the allografted renal cell carcinoma (RENCA) tumor cells and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Histological examination of the tumors revealed that tumor angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were significantly diminished by ADI administration. Therefore, these findings suggest that arginine deprivation by ADI could provide a beneficial strategy for the treatment of RCC in ways of inhibitions of arginine availability and neovascularization.

  13. The ornithine decarboxylase, NO-synthase activities and phospho-c-Jun content under experimental gastric mucosa malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Tymoshenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ornithine decarboxylase is the first and key regulatory enzyme in synthesis of polyamines, which are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation, so its aberrant regulation is reported to play a role in neoplastic transformation and tumours growth. That's why, there were analysed some major links of metabolic pathways that are closely related to tumorigenesis: ornithine decarboxylase, and the NADPH-dependent enzyme nitric oxide synthase, the nuclear phosphoprotein c-Jun, that could play an important role in the development of gastric cancer malignancy.The gastric carcinogenesis was initiated in rats by 10-week replacement of drinking water by 0.01% N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine solution, at the same time they were redefined on the diet containing 5% NaCl. After this period expiry the animals were fed with standard diet till the end of the 24th week. The gastric mucosa cells were extracted at the end of the 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th, 18th and 24th week and underwent biochemical examinations. It was established the elevated phospho-c-Jun content, ornithine decarboxylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities from 6th to 24th week of gastric cancer development compared to the control references. The increasing of ornithine decarboxylase activity could probably be caused by the growth of phospho-c-Jun, it is also belonging to an ornithine decarboxylase transactivation effects. Thus, it was shown that the increase of ornithine decarboxylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities, phospho-c-Jun and nitrite-ions accumulation in gastric mucosa epithelial cells were associated with the gastric malignant progression. The complex relationships between the examined enzymes and transcription activator that pointed to an aggravation of pathological disturbances due to reciprocal action between ornithine decarboxylase and c-Jun and nitric oxide synthase participation. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(4.000: 596-604

  14. Citrulline Supplementation Improves Organ Perfusion and Arginine Availability under Conditions with Enhanced Arginase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina A.P. Wijnands

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced arginase-induced arginine consumption is believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease-induced end organ failure. Enhancement of arginine availability with l-arginine supplementation exhibited less consistent results; however, l-citrulline, the precursor of l-arginine, may be a promising alternative. In this study, we determined the effects of l-citrulline compared to l-arginine supplementation on arginine-nitric oxide (NO metabolism, arginine availability and microcirculation in a murine model with acutely-enhanced arginase activity. The effects were measured in six groups of mice (n = 8 each injected intraperitoneally with sterile saline or arginase (1000 IE/mouse with or without being separately injected with l-citrulline or l-arginine 1 h prior to assessment of the microcirculation with side stream dark-field (SDF-imaging or in vivo NO-production with electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. Arginase injection caused a decrease in plasma and tissue arginine concentrations. l-arginine and l-citrulline supplementation both enhanced plasma and tissue arginine concentrations in arginase-injected mice. However, only the citrulline supplementation increased NO production and improved microcirculatory flow in arginase-injected mice. In conclusion, the present study provides for the first time in vivo experimental evidence that l-citrulline, and not l-arginine supplementation, improves the end organ microcirculation during conditions with acute arginase-induced arginine deficiency by increasing the NO concentration in tissues.

  15. Peptidomimetics as protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabocchi, Andrea; Pala, Nicolino; Krimmelbein, Ilga; Menchi, Gloria; Guarna, Antonio; Sechi, Mario; Dreker, Tobias; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carta, Fabrizio

    2015-06-01

    The protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a calcium-dependent enzyme, which catalyses the irreversible conversion of peptidyl-arginines into peptidyl-citrullines and plays an important role in several diseases such as in the rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jacob's disease and cancer. In this study, we report the inhibition profiles and computational docking toward the PAD4 enzyme of a series of 1,2,3-triazole peptidomimetic-based derivatives incorporating the β-phenylalanine and guanidine scaffolds. Several effective, low micromolar PAD4 inhibitors are reported in this study.

  16. Arginine residues in the C-terminal and their relationship with the analgesic activity of the toxin from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK AGP-SYPU1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Song, Yong-Bo; Yang, Guang-Zhao; Cui, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Shan; Liu, Yan-Feng; Ma, Yan; Wu, Chun-Fu; Zhang, Jing-Hai

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the functional role of arginines in the C-terminal (65-67) of BmK AGP-SYPU1, an analgesic peptide from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. Using site-directed mutagenesis, arginines at the C-terminal (65-66) were deleted or added to the C-terminal (67). The genes for three mutants of BmK AGP-SYPU1 were obtained by PCR. An analgesic activity assay was used to evaluate the role of arginine residues in the analgesic activity. The three-dimensional structure of BmK AGP-SYPU1 was established by homology modeling. As a result, we showed that the arginines in the C-terminal are crucial for the analgesic activity and may be located at analgesic functional sites. Our work has implications for further modification of scorpion toxins to obtain new analgesic peptides with enhanced activity.

  17. Salt bridge stabilization of charged zwitterionic arginine aggregates in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, R R; Hodyss, R; Beauchamp, J L

    2001-04-18

    The discovery of several new unusually stable aggregates of arginine that are intermolecularly bound by salt bridges is reported. Quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry provides evidence for the stability of arginine in the zwitterionic state, where the protonated guanidinium group of one arginine interacts strongly with the carboxylate of another to form stable noncovalent complexes, coordinated to either a cation or anion. Clusters of arginine with itself, sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, chloride, fluoride, bromide, iodide, and nitrate are observed. DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G level are used to assess the structures and energetics of particularly prominent clusters. An examination of mixtures of D-arginine with isotopically labeled L-arginine indicates that the stability of these clusters does not depend on arginine enantiomeric purity. The cyclic trimers of arginine, capped with either Cl(-) or NO(3)(-), possess exceptional stability.

  18. Contents of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin immunoreativity in the spleen and thymus during a chronic inflammatory stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdrey, H.S.; Lightman, S.L.; Harbuz, M.S.;

    1994-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin......Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin...

  19. The Arginine/ADMA Ratio Is Related to the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits When Giving a Combined Therapy with Atorvastatine and Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia J. H. Brinkmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with arginine in combination with atorvastatin is more efficient in reducing the size of an atherosclerotic plaque than treatment with a statin or arginine alone in homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits. We evaluated the mechanism behind this feature by exploring the role of the arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA ratio, which is the substrate and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and thereby nitric oxide (NO, respectively. Methods: Rabbits were fed either an arginine diet (group A, n = 9, standard rabbit chow plus atorvastatin (group S, n = 8, standard rabbit chow plus an arginine diet with atorvastatin (group SA, n = 8 or standard rabbit chow (group C, n = 9 as control. Blood was sampled and the aorta was harvested for topographic and histological analysis. Plasma levels of arginine, ADMA, cholesterol and nitric oxide were determined and the arginine/ADMA ratio was calculated. Results: The decrease in ADMA levels over time was significantly correlated to fewer aortic lesions in the distal aorta and total aorta. The arginine/ADMA ratio was correlated to cholesterol levels and decrease in cholesterol levels over time in the SA group. A lower arginine/ADMA ratio was significantly correlated to lower NO levels in the S and C group. Discussion: A balance between arginine and ADMA is an important indicator in the prevention of the development of atherosclerotic plaques.

  20. AS1411 alters the localization of a complex containing protein arginine methyltransferase 5 and nucleolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yun; Girvan, Allicia C; Casson, Lavona K; Pierce, William M; Qian, Mingwei; Thomas, Shelia D; Bates, Paula J

    2007-11-01

    AS1411 is a quadruplex-forming oligonucleotide aptamer that targets nucleolin. It is currently in clinical trials as a treatment for various cancers. We have proposed that AS1411 inhibits cancer cell proliferation by affecting the activities of certain nucleolin-containing complexes. Here, we report that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA), is a nucleolin-associated protein whose localization and activity are altered by AS1411. Levels of PRMT5 were found to be decreased in the nucleus of AS1411-treated DU145 human prostate cancer cells, but increased in the cytoplasm. These changes were dependent on nucleolin and were not observed in cells pretreated with nucleolin-specific small interfering RNA. Treatment with AS1411 altered levels of PRMT5 activity (assessed by sDMA levels) in accord with changes in its localization. In addition, our data indicate that nucleolin itself is a substrate for PRMT5 and that distribution of sDMA-modified nucleolin is altered by AS1411. Because histone arginine methylation by PRMT5 causes transcriptional repression, we also examined expression of selected PRMT5 target genes in AS1411-treated cells. For some genes, including cyclin E2 and tumor suppressor ST7, a significant up-regulation was noted, which corresponded with decreased PRMT5 association with the gene promoter. We conclude that nucleolin is a novel binding partner and substrate for PRMT5, and that AS1411 causes relocalization of the nucleolin-PRMT5 complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Consequently, the nuclear activity of PRMT5 is decreased, leading to derepression of some PRMT5 target genes, which may contribute to the biological effects of AS1411.

  1. Functional and molecular effects of arginine butyrate and prednisone on muscle and heart in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo D Guerron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of promising therapeutic interventions for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is increasing rapidly. One of the proposed strategies is to use drugs that are known to act by multiple different mechanisms including inducing of homologous fetal form of adult genes, for example utrophin in place of dystrophin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have treated mdx mice with arginine butyrate, prednisone, or a combination of arginine butyrate and prednisone for 6 months, beginning at 3 months of age, and have comprehensively evaluated the functional, biochemical, histological, and molecular effects of the treatments in this DMD model. Arginine butyrate treatment improved grip strength and decreased fibrosis in the gastrocnemius muscle, but did not produce significant improvement in muscle and cardiac histology, heart function, behavioral measurements, or serum creatine kinase levels. In contrast, 6 months of chronic continuous prednisone treatment resulted in deterioration in functional, histological, and biochemical measures. Arginine butyrate-treated mice gene expression profiling experiments revealed that several genes that control cell proliferation, growth and differentiation are differentially expressed consistent with its histone deacetylase inhibitory activity when compared to control (saline-treated mdx mice. Prednisone and combination treated groups showed alterations in the expression of genes that control fibrosis, inflammation, myogenesis and atrophy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that 6 months treatment with arginine butyrate can produce modest beneficial effects on dystrophic pathology in mdx mice by reducing fibrosis and promoting muscle function while chronic continuous treatment with prednisone showed deleterious effects to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Our results clearly indicate the usefulness of multiple assays systems to monitor both beneficial and toxic effects of drugs with

  2. High plasma arginine concentrations in critically ill patients suffering from hepatic failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Nijveldt (Robin); M.P.C. Siroen; B. van der Hoven (Ben); T. Teerlink (Tom); H.A. Prins (Hubert); A.R.J. Girbes (Armand); P.A.M. van Leeuwen

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In physiological conditions, the liver plays an important role in the regulation of plasma arginine concentrations by taking up large amounts of arginine from the hepatic circulation. When hepatic failure is present, arginine metabolism may be disturbed. Therefore, we hypothes

  3. Intestinal trophic effect of enteral arginine is independent of blood flow in neonatal piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arginine is an indispensable amino acid in neonates. Arginine is synthesized by gut epithelial cells and may have a protective role in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis. We hypothesized our method included that enteral arginine is a stimulus for intestinal blood flow and subsequent mucosal growth...

  4. Theoretical insights into catalytic mechanism of protein arginine methyltransferase 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihan Zhang

    Full Text Available Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1, the major arginine asymmetric dimethylation enzyme in mammals, is emerging as a potential drug target for cancer and cardiovascular disease. Understanding the catalytic mechanism of PRMT1 will facilitate inhibitor design. However, detailed mechanisms of the methyl transfer process and substrate deprotonation of PRMT1 remain unclear. In this study, we present a theoretical study on PRMT1 catalyzed arginine dimethylation by employing molecular dynamics (MD simulation and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM calculation. Ternary complex models, composed of PRMT1, peptide substrate, and S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet as cofactor, were constructed and verified by 30-ns MD simulation. The snapshots selected from the MD trajectory were applied for the QM/MM calculation. The typical SN2-favored transition states of the first and second methyl transfers were identified from the potential energy profile. Deprotonation of substrate arginine occurs immediately after methyl transfer, and the carboxylate group of E144 acts as proton acceptor. Furthermore, natural bond orbital analysis and electrostatic potential calculation showed that E144 facilitates the charge redistribution during the reaction and reduces the energy barrier. In this study, we propose the detailed mechanism of PRMT1-catalyzed asymmetric dimethylation, which increases insight on the small-molecule effectors design, and enables further investigations into the physiological function of this family.

  5. Arginine dimethylation products in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram E. El-Sadek

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Disturbed serum levels of arginine and its dimethyl derivatives may underlie development and/or progression of CKD. Elevated serum SDMA level is strongly correlated with impaired kidney functions and could be considered as a predictor for kidney functions deterioration and CKD progression.

  6. The tribulations of toothpaste trials: Unethical arginine dentifrice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D; Naimi-Akbar, A; Astvaldsdottir, A

    2015-12-18

    Arginine toothpaste is being promoted as being more efficacious than conventional fluoride-only toothpaste. Recent revelations concerning the design and conduct of the clinical trials conducted on schoolchildren in China and Thailand cast serious doubt on these claims. This paper describes and analyses the ethical and design flaws affecting these studies.

  7. Cellular target recognition of perfluoroalkyl acids: In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effects on lysine decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sufang; Lv, Qiyan; Yang, Yu, E-mail: yuyang@rcees.ac.cn; Guo, Liang-Hong, E-mail: LHGuo@rcees.ac.cn; Wan, Bin; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-10-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to bind with hepatic peroxisome proliferator receptor α, estrogen receptors and human serum albumin and subsequently cause some toxic effects. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) plays an important role in cell growth and developmental processes. In this study, the inhibitory effect of 16 PFAAs, including 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 3 perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), on lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity was investigated. The inhibition constants obtained in fluorescence enzyme assays fall in the range of 2.960 μM to 290.8 μM for targeted PFCAs, and 41.22 μM to 67.44 μM for targeted PFSAs. The inhibitory effect of PFCAs increased significantly with carbon chain (7–18 carbons), whereas the short chain PFCAs (less than 7 carbons) did not show any effect. Circular dichroism results showed that PFAA binding induced significant protein secondary structural changes. Molecular docking revealed that the inhibitory effect could be rationalized well by the cleft binding mode as well as the size, substituent group and hydrophobic characteristics of the PFAAs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, three selected PFAAs inhibited LDC activity in HepG2 cells, and subsequently resulted in the decreased cadaverine level in the exposed cells, suggesting that LDC may be a possible target of PFAAs for their in vivo toxic effects. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effects of PFAAs on lysine decarboxylase activity were evaluated. • Four different methods were employed to investigate the mechanisms. • The long chain PFAAs showed inhibitory effect compare with 4–6 carbon chain. • The long chain PFAAs bound with LDC differently from the short ones. • The results in cells correlate with those obtained from fluorescence assay.

  8. Apraxia in anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase-associated stiff person syndrome: link to corticobasal degeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lauren N; Subramony, S H; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is associated with asymmetrical rigidity as well as asymmetrical limb-kinetic and ideomotor apraxia. Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is characterized by muscle stiffness and gait difficulties. Whereas patients with CBS have several forms of pathology, many patients with SPS have glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-ab), but these 2 disorders have not been reported to coexist. We report 2 patients with GAD-ab-positive SPS who also had signs suggestive of CBS, including asymmetrical limb rigidity associated with both asymmetrical limb-kinetic and ideomotor apraxia. Future studies should evaluate patients with CBS for GAD-ab and people with SPS for signs of CBS.

  9. Acquisition of a heat stable enzyme; S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from selenomonas ruminantium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyong Cheol; Park, Sang Hyun [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kamio, Yoshiyuku [Division of Bioscience and Biotechnology for Future Bioindustries, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    In Selenomoans ruminantium, a strictly anaerobic and gram negative bacterium, cadaverine and putrescine are the essential constituents of its peptidoglycan. S. ruminantium does not contain both free and bound types of lipoprotein, but it contains cadaverine as a component of its peptidoglycan. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is a key enzyme for a synthesis of spermidine and spermine in S. ruminantium. The crude extract of S. ruminantium was preincubated at 100 degrees Celcius and its SAMDC activity was measured by using a {sup 14}C labeled substrate. We report here on a heat stable SAMDC which is able to withstand a temperature up to 100 degrees Celcius.

  10. Alterations in cerebellar glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in a genetic model of torsion dystonia (rat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmans, G A; Beales, M; Lorden, J F; Gordon, J H

    1984-07-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity was studied in specific brain regions of a newly identified genetic (rat) model of human torsion dystonia. GAD activity was found to be significantly increased in the deep cerebellar nuclei of dystonic rats at 16, 20, and 24 days of age. GAD activity in the other regions examined (vermis, cerebellar hemispheres, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus) did not differ from that of age-matched normal littermate controls. Diazepam treatment significantly reduced the frequency of dystonic movements in the mutant.

  11. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-positive paraneoplastic stiff limb syndrome associated with carcinoma of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stiff limb syndrome (SLS is a rare "focal" variant of stiff person syndrome which presents with rigidity and painful spasms of a distal limb, and abnormal fixed foot or hand postures. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab are variably present in most cases. Most reported cases of SLS are unassociated with cancer. We describe a patient with SLS as a paraneoplastic manifestation of breast carcinoma, in whom GAD-Ab was present. The patient responded very well to oral diazepam, baclofen and steroids.This is the third reported case of SLS as a paraneoplastic accompaniment to cancer.

  12. Fluorimetric assay for ornithine decarboxylase by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, K; Kai, M; Kohashi, K; Ohkura, Y

    1980-12-05

    A highly sensitive method for the assay of ornithine decarboxylase in sample solutions prepared from rat tissue homogenate is described which employs high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Putrescine formed from ornithine under the optimal conditions for the enzyme reaction is treated by Cellex P column chromatography for clean-up and converted into the fluorescamine derivative in the presence of cupric ion which inhibits the reaction of interfering amines with fluorescamine. The derivative is separated by reversed-phase chromatography on LiChrosorb RP-18 with linear gradient elution. The lower limit of detection for putrescine formed enzymatically is 5 pmol.

  13. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-positive paraneoplastic stiff limb syndrome associated with carcinoma of the breast

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Stiff limb syndrome (SLS) is a rare "focal" variant of stiff person syndrome which presents with rigidity and painful spasms of a distal limb, and abnormal fixed foot or hand postures. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab) are variably present in most cases. Most reported cases of SLS are unassociated with cancer. We describe a patient with SLS as a paraneoplastic manifestation of breast carcinoma, in whom GAD-Ab was present. The patient responded very well to oral diazepam, ba...

  14. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-positive paraneoplastic stiff limb syndrome associated with carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj A; Ichaporia, Nasli R

    2010-01-01

    Stiff limb syndrome (SLS) is a rare "focal" variant of stiff person syndrome which presents with rigidity and painful spasms of a distal limb, and abnormal fixed foot or hand postures. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab) are variably present in most cases. Most reported cases of SLS are unassociated with cancer. We describe a patient with SLS as a paraneoplastic manifestation of breast carcinoma, in whom GAD-Ab was present. The patient responded very well to oral diazepam, baclofen and steroids.This is the third reported case of SLS as a paraneoplastic accompaniment to cancer.

  15. Effects of glutamate decarboxylase and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter on the bioconversion of GABA in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vo, Tam Dinh; Kim, Tae Wan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-essential amino acid and a precursor of pyrrolidone, a monomer of nylon 4. GABA can be biosynthesized through the decarboxylation of L: -glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase. In this study, the effects of glutamate decarboxylase (gadA, gadB), glutamate/GABA antiporter (gadC) and GABA aminotransferase (gabT) on GABA production were investigated in Escherichia coli. Glutamate decarboxylase was overexpressed alone or with the glutamate/GABA antiporter to enhance GABA synthesis. GABA aminotransferase, which redirects GABA into the TCA cycle, was knock-out mutated. When gadB and gadC were co-overexpressed in the gabT mutant strain, a final GABA concentration of 5.46 g/l was obtained from 10 g/l of monosodium glutamate (MSG), which corresponded to a GABA yield of 89.5%.

  16. Arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang-fang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guang-kuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2014-04-10

    Virus-host interaction is important for virus infection. White spot syndrome virus VP14 contains transmembrane and signal peptides domain, which is considered to be important for virus infection. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP14 with host cell. A new shrimp protein (arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvAK) is selected and its localization in shrimp cells is also confirmed. Cellular localization of LvAK protein in shrimp hemocytes showed that LvAK was primarily located at the periphery of hemocytes and was scarcely detectable in the nucleus. Tissue distribution indicated that arginine kinase gene was spread commonly in the tissues and was highly present in shrimp muscle tissue. The expression of LvAK mRNA in muscle was significantly up-regulated after WSSV stimulation. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that LvAK interacted with VP14 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Injection of LvAK protein enhanced the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). These results showed that LvAK is involved in WSSV infection. Future research on this topic will help to reveal the molecular mechanism of WSSV infection.

  17. Circadian variation of plasma arginine vasopressin concentration, or arginine vasopressin in enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, T; Kasahara, T; Uchiyama, M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to determine a relationship between primary nocturnal enuresis and arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion. The first study compared 24-h AVP secretion profiles of enuretic (n = 9) and non-enuretic children (n = 8). Blood samples were collected at 1-h intervals for 24 h. In the second study, nocturnal AVP secretion in group A (n = 40)--with low urinary osmotic pressure (UOP) and large nocturnal urine output (NUO)--was compared with that in group D (n = 11) with normal UOP and small NUO. Plasma AVP levels were measured at 30-min intervals, immediately after falling asleep until 06.00 the following morning. The results of the first study showed that the plasma AVP level was significantly lower (p < 0.05-0.001) in the enuretic group between 23.00 and 04.00. The second study showed that group A had significantly lower AVP levels (p < 0.05-0.001) than group D throughout the night. The mean AVP level during night sleep was 0.64 +/- 0.23 pg/ml in group A and 1.43 +/- 0.66 pg/ml in group D. The results of the first study suggest that decreased nocturnal AVP secretion is a cause of bedwetting. However, the results of the second study suggest that nocturnal enuresis cannot be explained by a decrease in nocturnal AVP secretion alone.

  18. Relation Analysis of Synovial Anti-Citrullinated Epitope Peptide Expression and Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase 4 Gene in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient%类风湿关节炎患者滑膜抗环瓜氨酸肽表位表达与肽酰基精氨酸脱亚氨酶4基因的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小辉; 喻伟; 杨菲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation of synovial anti-citrullinated epitope peptide(CCP)expression and peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PADI4)gene in the rheumatoid arthritis patient.Methods From February 2013 to 2015 in Dongfeng General Hospital Affiliated to Hubei University,selected 110 patients with rheumatoid arthritis as the observation group, and selected 110 healthy people at the same period in this hospital for medical examination as the control group,both groups were given the synovial CCP expression positive rate and PADI4 gene expression detecting and correlation analysis.Results The synovial anti-CCP expression positive rates in the observation group and the control group were 70.9% and 9.1% re-spectively,and the observation group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05).The PADI4-104 genotype expression frequency compared between the observation group and control group,the difference were statistically significant (P<0.05).The G/G expression was more in the observation group,while the control group was more wit the C/G expres-sion.Pearson correlation analysis showed that in the observation group,synovial CCP positive expression were significant correlated to the expression of genotype PADI4-104 (r=0.344,P<0.05).Logistic regression analysis showed PADI4-104 genotype frequency were the main factors for the synovial CCP epitope expression (P<0.05).Conclusion The rheumatoid arthritis was more with synovial anti-CCP positive expression.There were also PADI4 polymorphism disorder expression, and clear correlation between the two.Thus impact the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis.%目的探讨类风湿关节炎患者滑膜抗环瓜氨酸肽(CCP)表位表达与肽酰基精氨酸脱亚氨酶4(PADI4)基因的相关性。方法2013年2月~2015年选择在湖北医药学院附属东风医院风湿免疫科住院的类风湿关节炎患者110例作为观察组,同期选择在该院进行体检的健康者110例作为对照

  19. Enzymatic production of l-citrulline by hydrolysis of the guanidinium group of l-arginine with recombinant arginine deiminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Sun, Xia; Chen, Xiulai; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Liming

    2015-08-20

    In this study, a simple, efficient enzymatic production process for the environmentally friendly synthesis of l-citrulline from l-arginine was developed using arginine deiminase (ADI) from Lactococcus lactis. Following overexpression of L. lactis ADI in Escherichia. coli BL21 (DE3) and experimental evolution using error-prone PCR, mutant FMME106 was obtained with a Km for l-arginine of 3.5mM and a specific activity of 195.7U/mg. This mutant exhibited a maximal conversion of 92.6% and achieved a final l-citrulline concentration of 176.9g/L under optimal conditions (190g/L l-arginine, 15g/L whole-cell biocatalyst treated with 2% isopropanol for 30min, 50°C, pH 7.2, 8h). The average l-citrulline synthesis rate of 22.1g/L/h is considerably higher than that reported for other similar biocatalytic approaches, therefore the process developed in the present work has great potential for large-scale production of l-citrulline.

  20. Engineering an arginine catabolizing bioconjugate: Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of PEGylated derivatives of arginine deiminase from Mycoplasma arthritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maoliang; Basu, Amartya; Palm, Thomas; Hua, Jack; Youngster, Stephen; Hwang, Lisa; Liu, Hsien-Ching; Li, Xiguang; Peng, Ping; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Zhihua; Longley, Clifford; Mehlig, Mary; Borowski, Virna; Sai, Prakash; Viswanathan, Manickam; Jang, Eun; Petti, Gerald; Liu, Sam; Yang, Karen; Filpula, David

    2006-01-01

    Arginine is an important metabolite in the normal function of several biological systems, and arginine deprivation has been investigated in animal models and human clinical trials for its effects on inhibition of tumor growth, angiogenesis, or nitric oxide synthesis. In order to design an optimal arginine-catabolizing enzyme bioconjugate, a novel recombinant arginine deiminase (ADI) from Mycoplasma arthritidis was prepared, and multi-PEGylated derivatives were examined for enzymatic and biochemical properties in vitro, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior in rats and mice. ADI bioconjugates constructed with 12 kDa or 20 kDa monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) polymers with linear succinimidyl carbonate linkers were investigated via intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous administration in rodents. The selected PEG-ADI compounds have 22 +/- 2 PEG strands per protein dimer, providing an additional molecular mass of about 0.2-0.5 x 10(6) Da and prolonging the plasma mean residence time of the enzyme over 30-fold in mice. Prolonged plasma arginine deprivation was demonstrated with each injection route for these bioconjugates. Pharmacokinetic analysis employed parallel measurement of enzyme activity in bioassays and enzyme assays and demonstrated a correlation with the pharmacodynamic analysis of plasma arginine concentrations. Either ADI bioconjugate depressed plasma arginine to undetectable levels for 10 days when administered intravenously at 5 IU per mouse, while the subcutaneous and intramuscular routes exhibited only slightly reduced potency. Both bioconjugates exhibited potent growth inhibition of several cultured tumor lines that are deficient in the anabolic enzyme, argininosuccinate synthetase. Investigations of structure-activity optimization for PEGylated ADI compounds revealed a benefit to constraining the PEG size and number of attachments to both conserve catabolic activity and streamline manufacturing of the experimental therapeutics

  1. Effect of methylation on the side-chain pKa value of arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evich, Marina; Stroeva, Ekaterina; Zheng, Yujun George; Germann, Markus W

    2016-02-01

    Arginine methylation is important in biological systems. Recent studies link the deregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases with certain cancers. To assess the impact of methylation on interaction with other biomolecules, the pKa values of methylated arginine variants were determined using NMR data. The pKa values of monomethylated, symmetrically dimethylated, and asymmetrically dimethylated arginine are similar to the unmodified arginine (14.2 ± 0.4). Although the pKa value has not been significantly affected by methylation, consequences of methylation include changes in charge distribution and steric effects, suggesting alternative mechanisms for recognition.

  2. Analysis of an Alanine/Arginine Mixture by Using TLC/FTIR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied TLC/FTIR coupled with mapping technique to analyze an alanine/arginine mixture. Narrow band TLC plates prepared by using AgI as a stationary phase were used to separate alanine and arginine. The distribution of alanine and arginine spots was manifested by a 3D chromatogram. Alanine and arginine can be successfully separated by the narrow band TLC plate. In addition, the FTIR spectra of the separated alanine and arginine spots on the narrow band TLC plate are roughly the same as the corresponding reference IR spectra.

  3. Role of ornithine decarboxylase in regulation of estrogen receptor alpha expression and growth in human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingsong; Jin, Lihua; Casero, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that specific polyamine analogues, oligoamines, down-regulated the activity of a key polyamine biosynthesis enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and suppressed expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in human breast cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying the potential regulation of ERα expression by polyamine metabolism has not been explored. Here, we demonstrated that RNAi-mediated knockdown of ODC (ODC KD) down-regulated the polyamine pool, and hindered growth in ERα-positive MCF7 and T47D and ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. ODC KD significantly induced the expression and activity of the key polyamine catabolism enzymes, spermine oxidase (SMO) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT). However, ODC KD-induced growth inhibition could not be reversed by exogenous spermidine or overexpression of antizyme inhibitor (AZI), suggesting that regulation of ODC on cell proliferation may involve the signaling pathways independent of polyamine metabolism. In MCF7 and T47D cells, ODC KD, but not DFMO treatment, diminished the mRNA and protein expression of ERα. Overexpression of antizyme (AZ), an ODC inhibitory protein, suppressed ERα expression, suggesting that ODC plays an important role in regulation of ERα expression. Decrease of ERα expression by ODC siRNA altered the mRNA expression of a subset of ERα response genes. Our previous analysis showed that oligoamines disrupt the binding of Sp1 family members to an ERα minimal promoter element containing GC/CA-rich boxes. By using DNA affinity precipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified ZBTB7A, MeCP2, PARP-1, AP2, and MAZ as co-factors of Sp1 family members that are associated with the ERα minimal promoter element. Taken together, these data provide insight into a novel antiestrogenic mechanism for polyamine biosynthesis enzymes in breast cancer. PMID:22976807

  4. Combined administration of testosterone plus an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor as a selective prostate-sparing anabolic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Ravi; Costello, James C; Singh, Rajan; Gupta, Vandana; Spina, Catherine S; Toraldo, Gianluca; Jang, Hyeran; Li, Hu; Serra, Carlo; Guo, Wen; Chauhan, Pratibha; Narula, Navjot S; Guarneri, Tyler; Ergun, Ayla; Travison, Thomas G; Collins, James J; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-04-01

    Because of its anabolic effects on muscle, testosterone is being explored as a function-promoting anabolic therapy for functional limitations associated with aging; however, concerns about testosterone's adverse effects on prostate have inspired efforts to develop strategies that selectively increase muscle mass while sparing the prostate. Testosterone's promyogenic effects are mediated through upregulation of follistatin. We show here that the administration of recombinant follistatin (rFst) increased muscle mass in mice, but had no effect on prostate mass. Consistent with the results of rFst administration, follistatin transgenic mice with constitutively elevated follistatin levels displayed greater muscle mass than controls, but had similar prostate weights. To elucidate signaling pathways regulated differentially by testosterone and rFst in prostate and muscle, we performed microarray analysis of mRNAs from prostate and levator ani of castrated male mice treated with vehicle, testosterone, or rFst. Testosterone and rFst shared the regulation of many transcripts in levator ani; however, in prostate, 593 transcripts in several growth-promoting pathways were differentially expressed after testosterone treatment, while rFst showed a negligible effect with only 9 transcripts differentially expressed. Among pathways that were differentially responsive to testosterone in prostate, we identified ornithine decarboxylase (Odc1), an enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, as a testosterone-responsive gene that is unresponsive to rFst. Accordingly, we administered testosterone with and without α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an Odc1 inhibitor, to castrated mice. DFMO selectively blocked testosterone's effects on prostate, but did not affect testosterone's anabolic effects on muscle. Co-administration of testosterone and Odc1 inhibitor presents a novel therapeutic strategy for prostate-sparing anabolic therapy.

  5. Functionality of promoter microsatellites of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A): implications for autism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tansey, Katherine E

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5\\'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour. Methods We examined four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3803107, rs1042615, rs3741865, rs11174815) and three microsatellites (RS3, RS1 and AVR) at the AVPR1A gene for association in an autism cohort from Ireland. Two 5\\'-flanking region polymorphisms in the human AVPR1A, RS3 and RS1, were also tested for their effect on relative promoter activity. Results The short alleles of RS1 and the SNP rs11174815 show weak association with autism in the Irish population (P = 0.036 and P = 0.008, respectively). Both RS1 and RS3 showed differences in relative promoter activity by length. Shorter repeat alleles of RS1 and RS3 decreased relative promoter activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Conclusions These aligning results can be interpreted as a functional route for this association, namely that shorter alleles of RS1 lead to decreased AVPR1A transcription, which may proffer increased susceptibility to the autism phenotype.

  6. Functionality of promoter microsatellites of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A: implications for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansey Katherine E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour. Methods We examined four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs3803107, rs1042615, rs3741865, rs11174815 and three microsatellites (RS3, RS1 and AVR at the AVPR1A gene for association in an autism cohort from Ireland. Two 5'-flanking region polymorphisms in the human AVPR1A, RS3 and RS1, were also tested for their effect on relative promoter activity. Results The short alleles of RS1 and the SNP rs11174815 show weak association with autism in the Irish population (P = 0.036 and P = 0.008, respectively. Both RS1 and RS3 showed differences in relative promoter activity by length. Shorter repeat alleles of RS1 and RS3 decreased relative promoter activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Conclusions These aligning results can be interpreted as a functional route for this association, namely that shorter alleles of RS1 lead to decreased AVPR1A transcription, which may proffer increased susceptibility to the autism phenotype.

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum protein targeting of phospholamban: a common role for an N-terminal di-arginine motif in ER retention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phospholamban (PLN is an effective inhibitor of the sarco(endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-ATPase, which transports Ca(2+ into the SR lumen, leading to muscle relaxation. A mutation of PLN in which one of the di-arginine residues at positions 13 and 14 was deleted led to a severe, early onset dilated cardiomyopathy. Here we were interested in determining the cellular mechanisms involved in this disease-causing mutation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Mutations deleting codons for either or both Arg13 or Arg14 resulted in the mislocalization of PLN from the ER. Our data show that PLN is recycled via the retrograde Golgi to ER membrane traffic pathway involving COP-I vesicles, since co-immunoprecipitation assays determined that COP I interactions are dependent on an intact di-arginine motif as PLN RDelta14 did not co-precipitate with COP I containing vesicles. Bioinformatic analysis determined that the di-arginine motif is present in the first 25 residues in a large number of all ER/SR Gene Ontology (GO annotated proteins. Mutations in the di-arginine motif of the Sigma 1-type opioid receptor, the beta-subunit of the signal recognition particle receptor, and Sterol-O-acyltransferase, three proteins identified in our bioinformatic screen also caused mislocalization of these known ER-resident proteins. CONCLUSION: We conclude that PLN is enriched in the ER due to COP I-mediated transport that is dependent on its intact di-arginine motif and that the N-terminal di-arginine motif may act as a general ER retrieval sequence.

  8. Arginine-deficient diets alter plasma and tissue amino acids in young and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, K L; Hartman, W J; Ronnenberg, A; Prior, R L

    1991-10-01

    Blood and urine metabolites were measured in two experiments for young (2-mo-old) and aged (20-mo-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats fed arginine-devoid diets made isonitrogenous to a control 1.12% arginine diet by adding alanine or glycine. Diet, fed for 7 or 13 d, had little effect on urinary or plasma ammonia and urea. Urinary orotate excretion was more than 40-fold higher in rats fed the arginine-deficient diets (P less than 0.01) in both experiments. Source of nonessential N (alanine or glycine) in the arginine-deficient diets did not alter orotic acid excretion or plasma or urine ammonia or urea. Changes in plasma arginine, alanine and glycine concentrations reflected the levels of these amino acids in the diet. Tissue ornithine levels reflected dietary arginine level, but tissue citrulline was unaffected by dietary arginine. Glutamate and glutamine were greater in the plasma and liver of rats fed arginine-deficient diets. Plasma concentrations of glutamate and glutamine were positively correlated with urinary orotic acid excretion (P less than 0.05) and ornithine and arginine were negatively correlated with orotic acid excretion (P less than 0.01). Increased tissue glutamine may be related to the greater orotate excretion in rats fed arginine-devoid diets. The metabolic responses to dietary arginine deficiency were similar in young and aged rats. In general, concentrations of amino acids in plasma, liver and spleen were higher in aged rats.

  9. Arginine starvation in colorectal carcinoma cells: Sensing, impact on translation control and cell cycle distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynnytska-Myronovska, Bozhena O; Kurlishchuk, Yuliya; Chen, Oleh; Bobak, Yaroslav; Dittfeld, Claudia; Hüther, Melanie; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A; Stasyk, Oleh V

    2016-02-01

    Tumor cells rely on a continued exogenous nutrient supply in order to maintain a high proliferative activity. Although a strong dependence of some tumor types on exogenous arginine sources has been reported, the mechanisms of arginine sensing by tumor cells and the impact of changes in arginine availability on translation and cell cycle regulation are not fully understood. The results presented herein state that human colorectal carcinoma cells rapidly exhaust the internal arginine sources in the absence of exogenous arginine and repress global translation by activation of the GCN2-mediated pathway and inhibition of mTOR signaling. Tumor suppressor protein p53 activation and G1/G0 cell cycle arrest support cell survival upon prolonged arginine starvation. Cells with the mutant or deleted TP53 fail to stop cell cycle progression at defined cell cycle checkpoints which appears to be associated with reduced recovery after durable metabolic stress triggered by arginine withdrawal.

  10. Rational design of ornithine decarboxylase with high catalytic activity for the production of putrescine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyang; Kyeong, Hyun-Ho; Choi, Jung Min; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2014-09-01

    Putrescine finds wide industrial applications in the synthesis of polymers, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and surfactants. Owing to economic and environmental concerns, the microbial production of putrescine has attracted a great deal of attention, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is known to be a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Herein, we present the design of ODC from Escherichia coli with high catalytic efficiency using a structure-based rational approach. Through a substrate docking into the model structure of the enzyme, we first selected residues that might lead to an increase in catalytic activity. Of the selected residues that are located in the α-helix and the loops constituting the substrate entry site, a mutational analysis of the single mutants identified two key residues, I163 and E165. A combination of two single mutations resulted in a 62.5-fold increase in the catalytic efficiency when compared with the wild-type enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations of the best mutant revealed that the substrate entry site becomes more flexible through mutations, while stabilizing the formation of the dimeric interface of the enzyme. Our approach can be applied to the design of other decarboxylases with high catalytic efficiency for the production of various chemicals through bio-based processes.

  11. Hypothalamic L-Histidine Decarboxylase Is Up-Regulated During Chronic REM Sleep Deprivation of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gloria E.; Koban, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A competition of neurobehavioral drives of sleep and wakefulness occurs during sleep deprivation. When enforced chronically, subjects must remain awake. This study examines histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus in response to enforced wakefulness in rats. We tested the hypothesis that the rate-limiting enzyme for histamine biosynthesis, L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), would be up-regulated during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) because histamine plays a major role in maintaining wakefulness. Archived brain tissues of male Sprague Dawley rats from a previous study were used. Rats had been subjected to REM-SD by the flowerpot paradigm for 5, 10, or 15 days. For immunocytochemistry, rats were transcardially perfused with acrolein-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of L-HDC; separate controls used carbodiimide-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of histamine. Immunolocalization of histamine within the tuberomammillary nucleus was validated using carbodiimide. Because HDC antiserum has cross-reactivity with other decarboxylases at high antibody concentrations, titrations localized L-HDC to only tuberomammillary nucleus at a dilution of ≥ 1:300,000. REM-SD increased immunoreactive HDC by day 5 and it remained elevated in both dorsal and ventral aspects of the tuberomammillary complex. Our results suggest that up-regulation of L-HDC within the tuberomammillary complex during chronic REM-SD may be responsible for maintaining wakefulness. PMID:27997552

  12. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Ding, H; Robinson, H; Christensen, B; Li, J

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  13. Isotope effect studies of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent histidine decarboxylase from Morganella morganii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abell, L.M.; O' Leary, M.H.

    1988-08-09

    The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent histidine decarboxylase from Morganella morganii shows a nitrogen isotope effect k/sup 14//k/sup 15/ = 0.9770 +/- 0.0021, a carbon isotope effect k/sup 12//k/sup 13/ = 1.0308 +/- 0.0006, and a carbon isotope effect for L-(..cap alpha..-/sup 2/H)histidine of 1.0333 +/- 0.0001 at pH 6.3, 37/sup 0/C. These results indicate that the overall decarboxylation rate is limited jointly by the rate of Schiff base interchange and by the rate of decarboxylation. Although the observed isotope effects are quite different from those for the analogous glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli, the intrinsic isotope effects for the two enzymes are essentially the same. The difference in observed isotope effects occurs because of a roughly twofold difference in the partitioning of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-substrate Schiff base between decarboxylation and Schiff base interchange. The observed nitrogen isotope effect requires that the imine nitrogen in this Schiff base is protonated. Comparison of carbon isotope effects for deuteriated and undeuteriated substrates reveals that the deuterium isotope effect on the decarboxylation step is about 1.20; thus, in the transition state for the decarboxylation step, the carbon-carbon bond is about two-thirds broken.

  14. Isobutanol production in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of 2-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase and valine biosynthetic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Heong; Seo, Seung-Oh; Bae, Yi-Hyun; Nan, Hong; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2012-11-01

    Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce advanced biofuels such as isobutanol has received much attention because this yeast has a natural capacity to produce higher alcohols. In this study, construction of isobutanol production systems was attempted by overexpression of effective 2-keto acid decarboxylase (KDC) and combinatorial overexpression of valine biosynthetic enzymes in S. cerevisiae D452-2. Among the six putative KDC enzymes from various microorganisms, 2-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase (Kivd) from L. lactis subsp. lactis KACC 13877 was identified as the most suitable KDC for isobutanol production in the yeast. Isobutanol production by the engineered S. cerevisiae was assessed in micro-aerobic batch fermentations using glucose as a sole carbon source. 93 mg/L isobutanol was produced in the Kivd overexpressing strain, which corresponds to a fourfold improvement as compared with the control strain. Isobutanol production was further enhanced to 151 mg/L by additional overexpression of acetolactate synthase (Ilv2p), acetohydroxyacid reductoisomerase (Ilv5p), and dihydroxyacid dehydratase (Ilv3p) in the cytosol.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments of arylmalonate decarboxylase from Alcaligenes bronchisepticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasako, Masayoshi, E-mail: nakasako@phys.keio.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); The RIKEN Harima Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Obata, Rika; Okubo, Ryosuke; Nakayama, Shyuichi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, Kenji; Ohta, Hiromichi [Department of Biosciences and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Crystals of arylmalonate decarboxylase from A. bronchisepticus were obtained which diffracted X-rays to a resolution of at least 3.0 Å. Arylmalonate decarboxylase catalyses the enantioselective decarboxylation of α-aryl-α-methylmalonates to produce optically pure α-arylpropionates. The enzyme was crystallized with ammonium sulfate under alkaline pH conditions with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the enantioselective reaction. X-ray diffraction data collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at cryogenic temperature showed that the crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.13, b = 99.62, c = 139.64 Å. This suggested that the asymmetric unit would contain between four and six molecules. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed that the enzyme exists as a monomer in solution. Thus, the assembly of molecules in the asymmetric unit was likely to have been induced during the crystallization process.

  16. Arginine, soy isoflavone and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose have protective effects against obesity in broiler breeder hens fed on high-energy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Zaghari, M; Ganjkhanloo, M; Ghaziani, F

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of arginine, soy isoflavone (ISF) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on obesity in broiler breeder hens. 2. A total of 320 Cobb 500 hens, 45 weeks of age, were assigned to 64 floor pens. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomised design in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2 × 2 × 2) with 4 replicates of 5 hens in each pen. Factors included two concentrations of HPMC (0 and 1%), two concentrations of arginine (8.4 and 12 g/kg), two concentrations of ISF (zero and three times more than that present in basal diets) and two contents of energy (11.7 and 14.6 MJ/kg). Performance criteria and blood characteristics of hens were measured during the experimental period. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined in the liver at 55 weeks of age. 3. Hens given high-energy diets showed increased BW (body weight), ovary weight and abdominal fat pad and enhanced plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, haemoglobin, haematocrit and low lymphocyte percentages. The expression of malic enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) increased and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) decreased with increasing energy content of diets. Arginine addition decreased TG, cholesterol and A1-c haemoglobin concentration and increased PPARα, PPARγ and iNOS expression. Inclusion of ISF and HPMC decreased BW, egg weight, plasma TG, cholesterol and increased egg production and also enhanced PPARγ and iNOS expression. Significant interactions were observed between energy concentration and ISF and HPMC on BW. 4. The results of the current study revealed that ISF, HPMC and arginine have beneficial effects on controlling the metabolism of obese broiler breeder hens and using a mix of these products minimises the harmful effects of obesity.

  17. Adaptation to a long term (4 weeks) arginine- and precursor (glutamate, proline and aspartate)-free diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is not known whether arginine homeostasis is negatively affected by a "long-term" dietary restriction of arginine and its major precursors in healthy adults. To assess the effects of a 4-week arginine- and precursor-free dietary intake on the regulatory mechanisms of arginine homeostasis in healt...

  18. Restoration of impaired nitric oxide production in MELAS syndrome with citrulline and arginine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Hsu, Jean W; Emrick, Lisa T; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Craigen, William J; Jahoor, Farook; Scaglia, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most common mitochondrial disorders. Although the pathogenesis of stroke-like episodes remains unclear, it has been suggested that mitochondrial proliferation may result in endothelial dysfunction and decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability leading to cerebral ischemic events. This study aimed to assess NO production in subjects with MELAS syndrome and the effect of the NO precursors arginine and citrulline. Using stable isotope infusion techniques, we assessed arginine, citrulline, and NO metabolism in control subjects and subjects with MELAS syndrome before and after arginine or citrulline supplementation. The results showed that subjects with MELAS had lower NO synthesis rate associated with reduced citrulline flux, de novo arginine synthesis rate, and plasma arginine and citrulline concentrations, and higher plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentration and arginine clearance. We conclude that the observed impaired NO production is due to multiple factors including elevated ADMA, higher arginine clearance, and, most importantly, decreased de novo arginine synthesis secondary to decreased citrulline availability. Arginine and, to a greater extent, citrulline supplementation increased the de novo arginine synthesis rate, the plasma concentrations and flux of arginine and citrulline, and NO production. De novo arginine synthesis increased markedly with citrulline supplementation, explaining the superior efficacy of citrulline in increasing NO production. The improvement in NO production with arginine or citrulline supplementation supports their use in MELAS and suggests that citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect than arginine. These findings can have a broader relevance for other disorders marked by perturbations in NO metabolism.

  19. 鸟氨酸脱羧酶抗酶抑制子基因在小鼠发育过程中的作用%Ornithine Decarboxylase Antizyme Inhibitor (Oazin) Induces Mouse Death at Newborn Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗蓉; 黄婷婷; 黄爱龙; 汤华

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to identify the function of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor (Oazin) gene in mouse development.Methods We have generated Oazin gene inhibited mice by using gene trapping method. The expression pattern of Oazin in the mutant line was analyzed with Western blot, RT-PCR and X-gal staining. Heterozygous mutant mice were mated and all offsprings in different developmental stage were genotyped with PCR.Results The expression of Oazin gene was inhibited in mutant mice. And all homozygous mutant mice were dead at P0 stage.Conclusion The results demonstrated that ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor is a lethal gene and plays a crucial role in mouse surviving.%目的 探索鸟氨酸脱羧酶抗酶抑制子基因在小鼠发育过程中的功能.方法 用特殊的基因诱捕载体(gene trapping vector)制作了鸟氨酸脱羧酶抗酶抑制子基因敲除小鼠.用Western印迹、RT-PCR、X-gal染色方法分析该基因在突变小鼠体内的表达.PCR法鉴定小鼠不同发育时期的基因型.结果 鸟氨酸脱羧酶抗酶抑制子基因在纯合型突变小鼠体内被抑制后,纯合型突变小鼠在出生后死亡.结论 鸟氨酸脱羧酶抗酶抑制子基因是致死基因,对小鼠生存有不可缺少的作用.

  20. l-Arginine Enhances Resistance against Oxidative Stress and Heat Stress in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heran Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of l-arginine (l-Arg in vivo, and its effect on enhancing resistance to oxidative stress and heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated. C. elegans, a worm model popularly used in molecular and developmental biology, was used in the present study. Here, we report that l-Arg, at a concentration of 1 mM, prolonged C. elegans life by 26.98% and 37.02% under oxidative and heat stress, respectively. Further experiments indicated that the longevity-extending effects of l-Arg may be exerted by its free radical scavenging capacity and the upregulation of aging-associated gene expression in worms. This work is important in the context of numerous recent studies that concluded that environment stresses are associated with an increased population death rate.

  1. Increasing the potency of a cytotoxin with an arginine graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Stephen M; Rutkoski, Thomas J; Kung, Vanessa M; Groeschl, Ryan T; Raines, Ronald T

    2007-10-01

    Variants and homologs of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) can exhibit cytotoxic activity. This toxicity relies on cellular internalization of the enzyme. Residues Glu49 and Asp53 form an anionic patch on the surface of RNase A. We find that replacing these two residues with arginine does not affect catalytic activity or affinity for the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) protein. This 'arginine graft' does, however, increase toxicity towards human cancer cells. Appending a nonaarginine domain to this cationic variant results in an additional increase in cytotoxicity, providing one of the most cytotoxic known variants of RNase A. These findings correlate the potency of a ribonuclease with its deliverance of ribonucleolytic activity to the cytosol, and indicate a rational means to enhance the efficacy of ribonucleases and other cytotoxic proteins.

  2. Arginine and Nitric Oxide Pathways in Obesity-Associated Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Holguin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a comorbidity that adversely affects asthma severity and control by mechanisms that are not fully understood. This review will discuss evidence supporting a role for nitric oxide (NO as a potential mechanistic link between obesity and late-onset asthma (>12 years. Several studies have shown that there is an inverse association between increasing body mass index (BMI and reduced exhaled NO. Newer evidence suggests that a potential explanation for this paradoxical relationship is related to nitric oxide synthase (NOS uncoupling, which occurs due to an imbalance between L-arginine (NOS substrate and its endogenous inhibitor, asymmetric di-methyl arginine (ADMA. The review will propose a theoretical framework to understand the relevance of this pathway and how it may differ between early and late-onset obese asthmatics. Finally, the paper will discuss potential new therapeutic approaches, based on these paradigms, for improving the respiratory health of obese subjects with asthma.

  3. Cloning and molecular evolution research of porcine GAD65 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hao; SONG Yuefen; LI Li; LIU Di

    2007-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) has been found in animal and higher plant tissues as well as in yeasts and microorganisms.In animals the enzyme plays an important role in central nervous system activity because the enzyme substrate glutamic acid is a mediator of excitation process and the product, gamma-aminobutyric acid, is the most important mediator of inhibition process in the central nervous system. GAD65 is one form of the glutamate decarboxylases (GAD), GAD65 has been identified as a major autoantigen in type 1 diabetes, so the GAD65 gene of porcine was cloned by RT-PCR method to construct phylogenetic tree, the homology of 13glutamate decarboxylases (GAD) of different origin was analyzed by multiple alignment.

  4. In vitro Characterization of Phenylacetate Decarboxylase, a Novel Enzyme Catalyzing Toluene Biosynthesis in an Anaerobic Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, K; Saville, R; Phelan, R M; Tringe, S G; Petzold, C J; Keasling, J D; Beller, H R

    2016-08-10

    Anaerobic bacterial biosynthesis of toluene from phenylacetate was reported more than two decades ago, but the biochemistry underlying this novel metabolism has never been elucidated. Here we report results of in vitro characterization studies of a novel phenylacetate decarboxylase from an anaerobic, sewage-derived enrichment culture that quantitatively produces toluene from phenylacetate; complementary metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses are also presented. Among the noteworthy findings is that this enzyme is not the well-characterized clostridial p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase (CsdBC). However, the toluene synthase under study appears to be able to catalyze both phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation. Observations suggesting that phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation in complex cell-free extracts were catalyzed by the same enzyme include the following: (i) the specific activity for both substrates was comparable in cell-free extracts, (ii) the two activities displayed identical behavior during chromatographic separation of cell-free extracts, (iii) both activities were irreversibly inactivated upon exposure to O2, and (iv) both activities were similarly inhibited by an amide analog of p-hydroxyphenylacetate. Based upon these and other data, we hypothesize that the toluene synthase reaction involves a glycyl radical decarboxylase. This first-time study of the phenylacetate decarboxylase reaction constitutes an important step in understanding and ultimately harnessing it for making bio-based toluene.

  5. Insulin and phorbol myristic acetate induce ornithine decarboxylase in Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S A; Esau, B; Koontz, J W

    1988-11-01

    Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells respond to insulin or to tumor promoting phorbol esters with an increase in ornithine decarboxylase enzyme activity. This occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner with both types of agonist. We report here that the increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity with optimal concentrations of both agonists is additive. Furthermore, the initial increase is dependent on continued RNA and protein synthesis. We also find that both of these agonists cause an increase in mRNA coding for ornithine decarboxylase in a time- and dose-dependent manner which suggests that the increase in enzyme activity can be accounted for by the increase in transcript levels. The difference in the time course of induction by the agonists, the additivity of induction by the two agonists, the differential sensitivity of induction to cycloheximide and RNA synthesis inhibitors, and the observation that phorbol myristic acetate causes a further increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity and transcript levels in cells already maximally induced by insulin suggest that these two agonists act through separate mechanisms.

  6. CONFIRMATIONAL IDENTIFICATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, A COMPARISON OF GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC ASSAYS FOR GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE AND B-D-GLUCURONIDASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotypic and phenotypic assays for glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and B-D-glucuronidase (GUD) were compared for their abilities to detect various strains of Escherichia coli and to discriminate among other bacterial species. Test strains included nonpathogenic E.coli, three major...

  7. Crystal structure of shrimp arginine kinase in binary complex with arginine-a molecular view of the phosphagen precursor binding to the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; García-Orozco, Karina D; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Velázquez-Contreras, Enrique F; Criscitiello, Michael F; Brieba, Luis G; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2013-12-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a key enzyme for energetic balance in invertebrates. Although AK is a well-studied system that provides fast energy to invertebrates using the phosphagen phospho-arginine, the structural details on the AK-arginine binary complex interaction remain unclear. Herein, we determined two crystal structures of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) arginine kinase, one in binary complex with arginine (LvAK-Arg) and a ternary transition state analog complex (TSAC). We found that the arginine guanidinium group makes ionic contacts with Glu225, Cys271 and a network of ordered water molecules. On the zwitterionic side of the amino acid, the backbone amide nitrogens of Gly64 and Val65 coordinate the arginine carboxylate. Glu314, one of proposed acid-base catalytic residues, did not interact with arginine in the binary complex. This residue is located in the flexible loop 310-320 that covers the active site and only stabilizes in the LvAK-TSAC. This is the first binary complex crystal structure of a guanidine kinase in complex with the guanidine substrate and could give insights into the nature of the early steps of phosphagen biosynthesis.

  8. PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation controls ATXN2L localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaehler, Christian; Guenther, Anika; Uhlich, Anja; Krobitsch, Sylvia, E-mail: krobitsc@molgen.mpg.de

    2015-05-15

    Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that is of importance in diverse cellular processes. Recent proteomic mass spectrometry studies reported arginine methylation of ataxin-2-like (ATXN2L), the paralog of ataxin-2, a protein that is implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. Here, we investigated the methylation state of ATXN2L and its significance for ATXN2L localization. We first confirmed that ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo, and observed that the nuclear localization of ATXN2L is altered under methylation inhibition. We further discovered that ATXN2L associates with the protein arginine-N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1). Finally, we showed that neither mutation of the arginine–glycine-rich motifs of ATXN2L nor methylation inhibition alters ATXN2L localization to stress granules, suggesting that methylation of ATXN2L is probably not mandatory. - Highlights: • ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo. • ATXN2L interacts with PRMT1 under normal and stress conditions. • PRMT1-mediated dimethylation of ATXN2L controls its nuclear localization. • ATXN2L localization to stress granules appears independent of its methylation state.

  9. Effects of L-Arginine on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Pork Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunliu Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of L-arginine on physicochemical and sensory properties of pork sausage. CL decreased while pH increased with L-arginine levels (p<0.05. WHC increased at 0.8% L-arginine, but decreased at 0.2% L-arginine, compared with the control. L* decreased while a* increased at 0.4-0.8% L-arginine, compared with the control. Hardness, springiness and chewiness increased at 0.2-0.8% L-arginine (p<0.05, compared with the control. SEM illustrated that the addition of 0.6% L-arginine induced myofibrillar proteins to form a more smooth, compact and uniform gel matrix. DSC disclosed that the addition of 0.6% L-arginine increased the two thermal transition temperatures (Tp. The sample containing 0.6% L-arginine had higher sensory color, flavor, mouthfeel and slice traits than the control. Therefore, L-arginine showed a potential for improvement of yield, texture and sensory qualities of pork sausage.

  10. The twin-arginine subunit C in Oscarella: origin, evolution, and potential functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Walker; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2013-09-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is a protein transport system that moves completely folded proteins across lipid membranes. Genes encoding components of the pathway have been found in the genomes of many Bacteria, Archaea, and eukaryotic organelles including chloroplasts, plant mitochondria, and the mitochondria of many protists. However, with a single exception, Tat genes are absent from the mitochondrial genomes of all animals. The only exception comes from the homoscleromorph sponges in the family Oscarellidae, whose mitochondrial genomes encode a gene for tatC, the largest subunit of the complex. Here, we explore the origin and evolution of the mitochondrial tatC gene in Oscarellidae, and use bioinformatic approaches to evaluate its functional significance. We conclude that tatC in Homoscleromorpha sponges was likely inherited from the ancestral proto-mitochondrial genome, implying multiple independent losses of the mitochondrial Tat pathway during the evolution of opisthokonts. In addition, bioinformatic evidence suggests that tatC comprises the entire Tat pathway in Oscarellidae, and that the Rieske Fe/S protein of mitochondrial complex III is its likely substrate.

  11. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme induces hypomethylation of genome DNA and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2 in human oral cancer cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylation of CpG islands of genome DNA and lysine residues of histone H3 and H4 tails regulates gene transcription. Inhibition of polyamine synthesis by ornithine decarboxylase antizyme-1 (OAZ in human oral cancer cell line resulted in accumulation of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM, which acts as a competitive inhibitor of methylation reactions. We anticipated that accumulation of dcSAM impaired methylation reactions and resulted in hypomethylation of genome DNA and histone tails. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Global methylation state of genome DNA and lysine residues of histone H3 and H4 tails were assayed by Methylation by Isoschizomers (MIAMI method and western blotting, respectively, in the presence or absence of OAZ expression. Ectopic expression of OAZ mediated hypomethylation of CpG islands of genome DNA and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2. Protein level of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B and histone H3K9me specific methyltransferase G9a were down-regulated in OAZ transfectant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: OAZ induced hypomethylation of CpG islands of global genome DNA and H3K9me2 by down-regulating DNMT3B and G9a protein level. Hypomethylation of CpG islands of genome DNA and histone H3K9me2 is a potent mechanism of induction of the genes related to tumor suppression and DNA double strand break repair.

  12. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol in pyruvate decarboxylase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae through optimizing ratio of glucose/galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Ji; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Soo-Jung; Seo, Seung-Oh; Lane, Stephan; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Galactose and glucose are two of the most abundant monomeric sugars in hydrolysates of marine biomasses. While Saccharomyces cerevisiae can ferment galactose, its uptake is tightly controlled in the presence of glucose by catabolite repression. It is desirable to construct engineered strains capable of simultaneous utilization of glucose and galactose for producing biofuels and chemicals from marine biomass. The MTH1 gene coding for transcription factor in glucose signaling was mutated in a pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient S. cerevisiae expressing heterologous 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) biosynthetic genes. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain consumed glucose and galactose simultaneously and produced 2,3-BD as a major product. Total sugar consumption rates increased with a low ratio of glucose/galactose, though, occurrence of the glucose depletion in a fed-batch fermentation decreased 2,3-BD production substantially. Through optimizing the profiles of sugar concentrations in a fed-batch cultivation with the engineered strain, 99.1 ± 1.7 g/L 2,3-BD was produced in 143 hours with a yield of 0.353 ± 0.022 g 2,3-BD/g sugars. This result suggests that simultaneous and efficient utilization of glucose and galactose by the engineered yeast might be applicable to the economical production of not only 2,3-BD, but also other biofuels and chemicals from marine biomass.

  13. HosA, a MarR Family Transcriptional Regulator, Represses Nonoxidative Hydroxyarylic Acid Decarboxylase Operon and Is Modulated by 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ajit; Ranjan, Akash

    2016-02-23

    Members of the Multiple antibiotic resistance Regulator (MarR) family of DNA binding proteins regulate transcription of a wide array of genes required for virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria. The present study reports the molecular characterization of HosA (Homologue of SlyA), a MarR protein, with respect to its target gene, DNA recognition motif, and nature of its ligand. Through a comparative genomics approach, we demonstrate that hosA is in synteny with nonoxidative hydroxyarylic acid decarboxylase (HAD) operon and is present exclusively within the mutS-rpoS polymorphic region in nine different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family. Using molecular biology and biochemical approach, we demonstrate that HosA binds to a palindromic sequence downstream to the transcription start site of divergently transcribed nonoxidative HAD operon and represses its expression. Furthermore, in silico analysis showed that the recognition motif for HosA is highly conserved in the upstream region of divergently transcribed operon in different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family. A systematic chemical search for the physiological ligand revealed that 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) interacts with HosA and derepresses HosA mediated repression of the nonoxidative HAD operon. Based on our study, we propose a model for molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of nonoxidative HAD operon by HosA in Enterobacteriaceae family.

  14. Effects of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, polyamines, amino acids, and weak bases (amines and ammonia) on development and ribosomal RNA synthesis in Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Koichiro; Aso, Mai; Kondo, Takeshi; Takai, Jun-Ichi; Yoshida, Junki; Mishina, Takamichi; Fuchimukai, Kota; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Kariya, Taro; Tashiro, Kosuke; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2010-02-01

    We have been studying control mechanisms of gene expression in early embryogenesis in a South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis, especially during the period of midblastula transition (MBT), or the transition from the phase of active cell division (cleavage stage) to the phase of extensive morphogenesis (post-blastular stages). We first found that ribosomal RNA synthesis is initiated shortly after MBT in Xenopus embryos and those weak bases, such as amines and ammonium ion, selectively inhibit the initiation and subsequent activation of rRNA synthesis. We then found that rapidly labeled heterogeneous mRNA-like RNA is synthesized in embryos at pre-MBT stage. We then performed cloning and expression studies of several genes, such as those for activin receptors, follistatin and aldolases, and then reached the studies of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), a key enzyme in polyamine metabolism. Here, we cloned a Xenopus SAMDC cDNA and performed experiments to overexpress the in vitro-synthesized SAMDC mRNA in Xenopus early embryos, and found that the maternally preset program of apoptosis occurs in cleavage stage embryos, which is executed when embryos reach the stage of MBT. In the present article, we first summarize results on SAMDC and the maternal program of apoptosis, and then describe our studies on small-molecular-weight substances like polyamines, amino acids, and amines in Xenopus embryos. Finally, we summarize our studies on weak bases, especially on ammonium ion, as the specific inhibitor of ribosomal RNA synthesis in Xenopus embryonic cells.

  15. Induction of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase mRNA by interleukin-1 beta and prostaglandin E2 in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X M; Juorio, A V; Boulton, A A

    1994-05-01

    Aromatic 1-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is involved in the synthesis of the putative neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). We report here that the gene expression of AADC can be regulated by interleukin (IL) 1-beta and prostaglandin (PG) E2 in PC12 cells. The cells were treated with different doses of IL 1-beta and PGE2 for 3 days. Slot blot hybridization was performed to detect AADC mRNA and Western immunoblot to detect AADC protein. The cDNA probe for rat AADC was generated by the PCR method. IL 1-beta and PGE2 produced a dose- and time-dependent up-regulation in AADC mRNA levels (up to 200% of the control values) which was followed by a stable increase in AADC protein. The data further support the suggestion that AADC is a regulated enzyme and that the regulation occurs at the level of gene expression. Because IL-1 is synthesized, and acts locally, within the brain to influence neuronal and glial functions, it has been proposed to be a mediator with both beneficial and detrimental responses to inflammation and injury. The regulation of AADC by IL-1 may indicate a possible involvement for AADC in neuronal injury and recovery. Since IL-1 promotes PGE2 formation, its effects may be occurring by increasing level of PGE2.

  16. In vitro Characterization of Phenylacetate Decarboxylase, a Novel Enzyme Catalyzing Toluene Biosynthesis in an Anaerobic Microbial Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zargar, K.; Saville, R.; Phelan, R. M.;

    2016-01-01

    an anaerobic, sewage-derived enrichment culture that quantitatively produces toluene from phenylacetate; complementary metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses are also presented. Among the noteworthy findings is that this enzyme is not the well-characterized clostridial p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase (Csd...... similarly inhibited by an amide analog of p-hydroxyphenylacetate. Based upon these and other data, we hypothesize that the toluene synthase reaction involves a glycyl radical decarboxylase. This first-time study of the phenylacetate decarboxylase reaction constitutes an important step in understanding...

  17. Preliminary crystallographic data for the thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase from brewers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyda, F; Furey, W; Swaminathan, S; Sax, M; Farrenkopf, B; Jordan, F

    1990-10-15

    Single crystals of the thiamin diphosphate (the vitamin B1 coenzyme)-dependent enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) from brewers' yeast have been grown using polyethylene glycol as a precipitating agent. Crystals of the homotetrameric version alpha 4 of the holoenzyme are triclinic, space group P1, with cell constants a = 81.0, b = 82.4, c = 116.6 A, alpha = 69.5 beta = 72.6, gamma = 62.4 degrees. The crystals are reasonably stable in a rotating anode x-ray beam and diffract to at least 2.5 A resolution. The Vm value of 2.55 A/dalton is consistent with a unit cell containing four subunits with mass of approximately 60 kDa each. Rotation function results with native data indicate strong non-crystallographic 222 symmetry relating the four identical subunits, thus density averaging methods are likely to play a role in the structure determination.

  18. Immunotherapy-responsive limbic encephalitis with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, Ioannis; Alexopoulos, Harry; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Akrivou, Sofia; Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Katsiva, Vassiliki; Lyrakos, Georgios; Gekas, Georgios; Dalakas, Marinos C

    2014-08-15

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) has been recently identified as a target of humoral autoimmunity in a small subgroup of patients with non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (NPLE). We present a patient with NPLE and positive anti-GAD antibodies who showed significant improvement after long-term immunotherapy. A 48-year old female was admitted with a two-year history of anterograde amnesia and seizures. Brain MRI revealed bilateral lesions of medial temporal lobes. Screening for anti-neuronal antibodies showed high anti-GAD titers in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with strong evidence of intrathecal production. The patient received treatment with prednisolone and long-term plasma exchange. During a 12-month follow-up, she exhibited complete seizure remission and an improvement in memory and visuo-spatial skills. Anti-GAD antibodies may serve as a useful marker to identify a subset of NPLE patients that respond to immunoregulatory treatment.

  19. Ornithine decarboxylase, mitogen-activated protein kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expressions in human colon tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takahiro Nemoto; Shunichiro Kubota; Hideyuki Ishida; Nobuo Murata; Daijo Hashimoto

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expressions of omithine decarboxylase (ODC), MMP-2, and Erk, and their relationship in human colon tumors.METHODS: ODC activity, MMP-2 expression, and mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase activity (Erk phosphorylation) were determined in 58 surgically removed human colon tumors and their adjacent normal tissues, using [1-14C]-ornithine as a substrate, ELISA assay, and Western blotting, respectively.RESULTS: ODC activity, MMP-2 expression, and Erk phosphorylation were significantly elevated in colon tumors, compared to those in adjacent normal tissues. A significant correlation was observed between ODC activities and MMP-2 levels.CONCLUSION: This is the first report showing a significant correlation between ODC activities and MMP-2 levels in human colon tumors. As MMP-2 is involved in cancer invasion and metastasis, and colon cancer overexpresses ODC, suppression of ODC expression may be a rational approach to treat colon cancer which overexpresses ODC.

  20. Molecular mechanism of allosteric substrate activation in a thiamine diphosphate-dependent decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versées, Wim; Spaepen, Stijn; Wood, Martin D H; Leeper, Finian J; Vanderleyden, Jos; Steyaert, Jan

    2007-11-30

    Thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes are involved in a wide variety of metabolic pathways. The molecular mechanism behind active site communication and substrate activation, observed in some of these enzymes, has since long been an area of debate. Here, we report the crystal structures of a phenylpyruvate decarboxylase in complex with its substrates and a covalent reaction intermediate analogue. These structures reveal the regulatory site and unveil the mechanism of allosteric substrate activation. This signal transduction relies on quaternary structure reorganizations, domain rotations, and a pathway of local conformational changes that are relayed from the regulatory site to the active site. The current findings thus uncover the molecular mechanism by which the binding of a substrate in the regulatory site is linked to the mounting of the catalytic machinery in the active site in this thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme.

  1. The importance of SERINE DECARBOXYLASE1 (SDC1) and ethanolamine biosynthesis during embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Ian Sofian; Liu, Yu-Chi; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-11-01

    In plants, ethanolamine is considered a precursor for the synthesis of choline, which is an essential dietary nutrient for animals. An enzyme serine decarboxylase (SDC) has been identified and characterized in Arabidopsis, which directly converts serine to ethanolamine, a precursor to phosphorylethanolamine and its subsequent metabolites in plants. However, the importance of SDC and ethanolamine production in plant growth and development remains unclear. Here, we show that SDC is required for ethanolamine biosynthesis in vivo and essential in plant embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. The knockout of SDC1 caused an embryonic lethal defect due to the developmental arrest of the embryos at the heart stage. During embryo development, the expression was observed at the later stages, at which developmental defect occurred in the knockout mutant. Overexpression of SDC1 in planta increased levels of ethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine both in leaves and siliques. These results suggest that SDC1 plays an essential role in ethanolamine biosynthesis during the embryogenesis in Arabidopsis.

  2. Structural determinants for the inhibitory ligands of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza-Avina, Maria Elena; Wei, Lianhu; Liu, Yan; Poduch, Ewa; Bello, Angelica M.; Mishra, Ram K.; Pai, Emil F.; Kotra, Lakshmi P. (TGRI); (Toronto)

    2010-06-14

    In recent years, orotidine-5{prime}-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) has gained renewed attention as a drug target. As a part of continuing efforts to design novel inhibitors of ODCase, we undertook a comprehensive study of potent, structurally diverse ligands of ODCase and analyzed their structural interactions in the active site of ODCase. These ligands comprise of pyrazole or pyrimidine nucleotides including the mononucleotide derivatives of pyrazofurin, barbiturate ribonucleoside, and 5-cyanouridine, as well as, in a computational approach, 1,4-dihydropyridine-based non-nucleoside inhibitors such as nifedipine and nimodipine. All these ligands bind in the active site of ODCase exhibiting distinct interactions paving the way to design novel inhibitors against this interesting enzyme. We propose an empirical model for the ligand structure for rational modifications in new drug design and potentially new lead structures.

  3. Glutamate alteration of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in GABAergic neurons: the role of cysteine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerie, Hubert; Le Roux, Peter D

    2008-09-01

    Brain cell vulnerability to neurologic insults varies greatly, depending on their neuronal subpopulation. Among cells that survive a pathological insult such as ischemia or brain trauma, some may undergo morphological and/or biochemical changes that could compromise brain function. We previously reported that surviving cortical GABAergic neurons exposed to glutamate in vitro displayed an NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated alteration in the levels of the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67) [Monnerie, H., Le Roux, P., 2007. Reduced dendrite growth and altered glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65- and 67-kDa isoform protein expression from mouse cortical GABAergic neurons following excitotoxic injury in vitro. Exp. Neurol. 205, 367-382]. In this study, we examined the mechanisms by which glutamate excitotoxicity caused a change in cortical GABAergic neurons' GAD protein levels. Removing extracellular calcium prevented the NMDAR-mediated decrease in GAD protein levels, measured using Western blot techniques, whereas inhibiting calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels had no effect. Glutamate's effect on GAD protein isoforms was significantly attenuated by preincubation with the cysteine protease inhibitor N-Acetyl-L-Leucyl-L-Leucyl-L-norleucinal (ALLN). Using class-specific protease inhibitors, we observed that ALLN's effect resulted from the blockade of calpain and cathepsin protease activities. Cell-free proteolysis assay confirmed that both proteases were involved in glutamate-induced alteration in GAD protein levels. Together these results suggest that glutamate-induced excitotoxic stimulation of NMDAR in cultured cortical neurons leads to altered GAD protein levels from GABAergic neurons through intracellular calcium increase and protease activation including calpain and cathepsin. Biochemical alterations in surviving cortical GABAergic neurons in various disease states may contribute to the altered balance between excitation

  4. Proteome-wide analysis of arginine monomethylation reveals widespread occurrence in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara C; Sylvestersen, Kathrine B; Mund, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    as coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1)] or PRMT1 increased the RNA binding function of HNRNPUL1. High-content single-cell imaging additionally revealed that knocking down CARM1 promoted the nuclear accumulation of SRSF2, independent of cell cycle phase. Collectively, the presented human...... kidney 293 cells, indicating that the occurrence of this modification is comparable to phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. A site-level conservation analysis revealed that arginine methylation sites are less evolutionarily conserved compared to arginines that were not identified as modified...... to the frequency of somatic mutations at arginine methylation sites throughout the proteome, we observed that somatic mutations were common at arginine methylation sites in proteins involved in mRNA splicing. Furthermore, in HeLa and U2OS cells, we found that distinct arginine methyltransferases differentially...

  5. Inhibition of Protein Aggregation: Supramolecular Assemblies of Arginine Hold the Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Utpal; Hariprasad, Gururao; Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Manral, Pallavi; Das, Taposh K.; Pasha, Santosh; Mann, Anita; Ganguli, Munia; Verma, Amit K.; Bhat, Rajiv; Chandrayan, Sanjeev Kumar; Ahmed, Shubbir; Sharma, Sujata; Kaur, Punit; Singh, Tej P.; Srinivasan, Alagiri

    2007-01-01

    Background Aggregation of unfolded proteins occurs mainly through the exposed hydrophobic surfaces. Any mechanism of inhibition of this aggregation should explain the prevention of these hydrophobic interactions. Though arginine is prevalently used as an aggregation suppressor, its mechanism of action is not clearly understood. We propose a mechanism based on the hydrophobic interactions of arginine. Methodology We have analyzed arginine solution for its hydrotropic effect by pyrene solubility and the presence of hydrophobic environment by 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid fluorescence. Mass spectroscopic analyses show that arginine forms molecular clusters in the gas phase and the cluster composition is dependent on the solution conditions. Light scattering studies indicate that arginine exists as clusters in solution. In the presence of arginine, the reverse phase chromatographic elution profile of Alzheimer's amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) peptide is modified. Changes in the hydrodynamic volume of Aβ1-42 in the presence of arginine measured by size exclusion chromatography show that arginine binds to Aβ1-42. Arginine increases the solubility of Aβ1-42 peptide in aqueous medium. It decreases the aggregation of Aβ1-42 as observed by atomic force microscopy. Conclusions Based on our experimental results we propose that molecular clusters of arginine in aqueous solutions display a hydrophobic surface by the alignment of its three methylene groups. The hydrophobic surfaces present on the proteins interact with the hydrophobic surface presented by the arginine clusters. The masking of hydrophobic surface inhibits protein-protein aggregation. This mechanism is also responsible for the hydrotropic effect of arginine on various compounds. It is also explained why other amino acids fail to inhibit the protein aggregation. PMID:18000547

  6. Inhibition of protein aggregation: supramolecular assemblies of arginine hold the key.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aggregation of unfolded proteins occurs mainly through the exposed hydrophobic surfaces. Any mechanism of inhibition of this aggregation should explain the prevention of these hydrophobic interactions. Though arginine is prevalently used as an aggregation suppressor, its mechanism of action is not clearly understood. We propose a mechanism based on the hydrophobic interactions of arginine. METHODOLOGY: We have analyzed arginine solution for its hydrotropic effect by pyrene solubility and the presence of hydrophobic environment by 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid fluorescence. Mass spectroscopic analyses show that arginine forms molecular clusters in the gas phase and the cluster composition is dependent on the solution conditions. Light scattering studies indicate that arginine exists as clusters in solution. In the presence of arginine, the reverse phase chromatographic elution profile of Alzheimer's amyloid beta 1-42 (Abeta(1-42 peptide is modified. Changes in the hydrodynamic volume of Abeta(1-42 in the presence of arginine measured by size exclusion chromatography show that arginine binds to Abeta(1-42. Arginine increases the solubility of Abeta(1-42 peptide in aqueous medium. It decreases the aggregation of Abeta(1-42 as observed by atomic force microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our experimental results we propose that molecular clusters of arginine in aqueous solutions display a hydrophobic surface by the alignment of its three methylene groups. The hydrophobic surfaces present on the proteins interact with the hydrophobic surface presented by the arginine clusters. The masking of hydrophobic surface inhibits protein-protein aggregation. This mechanism is also responsible for the hydrotropic effect of arginine on various compounds. It is also explained why other amino acids fail to inhibit the protein aggregation.

  7. Arginine synthesis from enteral glutamine in healthy adults in the fed state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Chris; Rafii, Mahroukh; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies have documented transfer of labeled nitrogen from [2-(15)N]glutamine to citrulline and arginine in fasting human adults. Conversely, in neonates and piglets we have shown no synthesis of arginine from [2-(15)N]glutamate, and others have shown in mice that glutamine is a nitrogen, but not a carbon donor, for arginine synthesis. Therefore, we performed a multitracer study to determine whether glutamine is a nitrogen and/or carbon donor for arginine in healthy adult men. Two glutamine tracers, 2-(15)N and 1-(13)C, were given enterally to five healthy men fed a standardized milkshake diet. There was no difference in plasma enrichments between the two glutamine tracers. 1-(13)C isotopomers of citrulline and arginine were synthesized from [1-(13)C]glutamine. Three isotopomers each of citrulline and arginine were synthesized from the [2-(15)N]glutamine tracer: 2-(15)N, 5-(15)N, and 2,5-(15)N(2). Significantly greater enrichment was found of both [5-(15)N]arginine (0.75%) and citrulline (3.98%) compared with [2-(15)N]arginine (0.44%) and [2-(15)N]citrulline (2.62%), indicating the amino NH(2) from glutamine is mostly transferred to arginine and citrulline by transamination. Similarly, the enrichment of the 1-(13)C isotopomers was significantly less than the 2-(15)N isotopomers, suggesting rapid formation of α-ketoglutarate and recycling of the nitrogen label. Our results show that the carbon for 50% of newly synthesized arginine comes from dietary glutamine but that glutamine acts primarily as a nitrogen donor for arginine synthesis. Hence, studies using [2-(15)N]glutamine will overestimate arginine synthesis rates.

  8. Vasodilator effects of L-arginine are stereospecific and augmented by insulin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinger, Susanne; Sieder, Anna; Strametz, Jeanette; Bayerle-Eder, Michaela; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2003-06-01

    The amino acid l-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, induces vasodilation in vivo, but the mechanism behind this effect is unclear. There is, however, some evidence to assume that the l-arginine membrane transport capacity is dependent on insulin plasma levels. We hypothesized that vasodilator effects of l-arginine may be dependent on insulin plasma levels. Accordingly, we performed two randomized, double-blind crossover studies in healthy male subjects. In protocol 1 (n = 15), subjects received an infusion of insulin (6 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1) for 120 min) or placebo and, during the last 30 min, l-arginine or d-arginine (1 g/min for 30 min) x In protocol 2 (n = 8), subjects received l-arginine in stepwise increasing doses in the presence (1.5 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or absence of insulin. Renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were assessed by the para-aminohippurate and inulin plasma clearance methods, respectively. Pulsatile choroidal blood flow was assessed with laser interferometric measurement of fundus pulsation, and mean flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery was measured with Doppler sonography. l-arginine, but not d-arginine, significantly increased renal and ocular hemodynamic parameters. Coinfusion of l-arginine with insulin caused a dose-dependent leftward shift of the vasodilator effect of l-arginine. This stereospecific renal and ocular vasodilator potency of l-arginine is enhanced by insulin, which may result from facilitated l-arginine membrane transport, enhanced intracellular NO formation, or increased NO bioavailability.

  9. The Role of Autophagy with Arginine Deiminase as a Novel Prostate Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Summary 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 July 2008 – 30 June 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Role of Autophagy with Arginine Deiminase as a Novel... arginine deiminase ; autophagy; caspase-independent apoptosis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...deprivation as an anti-cancer therapy has historically been met with limited success. The development of pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20

  10. Arginine Consumption by the Intestinal Parasite Giardia intestinalis Reduces Proliferation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Britta Stadelmann; Merino, María C.; Lo Persson; Staffan G Svärd

    2012-01-01

    In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the host´s production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consu...

  11. The arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD contributes to biological fitness of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulde, Marcus; Willenborg, Joerg; Huber, Claudia; Hitzmann, Angela; Willms, Daniela; Seitz, Maren; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD) is part of the Arginine Deiminase System (ADS), a catabolic, energy-providing pathway found in a variety of different bacterial species, including the porcine zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. The ADS has recently been shown to play a role in the pathogenicity of S. suis, in particular in its survival in host cells. The contribution of arginine and arginine transport mediated by ArcD, however, has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we showed by experiments using [U-(13)C6]arginine as a tracer molecule that S. suis is auxotrophic for arginine and that bacterial growth depends on the uptake of extracellular arginine. To further study the role of ArcD in arginine metabolism, we generated an arcD-specific mutant strain and characterized its growth compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, a virulent serotype 2 strain. The mutant strain showed a markedly reduced growth in chemically defined media supplemented with arginine when compared to the WT strain, suggesting that ArcD promotes arginine uptake. To further evaluate the in vivo relevance of ArcD, we studied the intracellular bacterial survival of the arcD mutant strain in an epithelial cell culture infection model. The mutant strain was substantially attenuated, and its reduced intracellular survival rate correlated with a lower ability to neutralize the acidified environment. Based on these results, we propose that ArcD, by its function as an arginine-ornithine antiporter, is important for supplying arginine as substrate of the ADS and, thereby, contributes to biological fitness and virulence of S. suis in the host.

  12. The arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD contributes to biological fitness of Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eFulde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD is part of the Arginine Deiminase System (ADS, a catabolic, energy-providing pathway found in a variety of different bacterial species, including the porcine zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. The ADS has recently been shown to play a role in the pathogenicity of S. suis, in particular in its survival in host cells. The contribution of arginine and arginine transport mediated by ArcD, however, has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we showed by experiments using [U-13C6]arginine as a tracer molecule that S. suis is auxotrophic for arginine and that bacterial growth depends on the uptake of extracellular arginine. To further study the role of ArcD in arginine metabolism, we generated an arcD-specific mutant strain and characterized its growth compared to the wild-type (WT strain, a virulent serotype 2 strain. The mutant strain showed a markedly reduced growth rate in chemically defined media supplemented with arginine when compared to the WT strain, indicating that ArcD promotes arginine uptake. To further evaluate the in vivo relevance of ArcD, we studied the intracellular bacterial survival of the arcD mutant strain in an epithelial cell culture infection model. The mutant strain was substantially attenuated, and its reduced intracellular survival rate correlated with a lower ability to neutralize the acidified environment. Based on these results, we propose that ArcD, by its function as an arginine-ornithine antiporter, is important for supplying arginine as substrate of the ADS and, thereby, contributes to biological fitness and virulence of S. suis in the host.

  13. A putative transport protein is involved in citrulline excretion and re-uptake during arginine deiminase pathway activity by Lactobacillus sakei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaux, Tom; Rivière, Audrey; Hebert, Elvira María; Mozzi, Fernanda; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Arginine conversion through the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway is a common metabolic trait of Lactobacillus sakei which is ascribed to an arc operon and which inquisitively involves citrulline excretion and re-uptake. The aim of this study was to verify whether a putative transport protein (encoded by the PTP gene) plays a role in citrulline-into-ornithine conversion by L. sakei strains. This was achieved through a combination of fermentation experiments, gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and construction of a PTP knock-out mutant. Expression of the PTP gene was modulated by environmental pH and was highest in the end-exponential or mid-exponential growth phase for L. sakei strains CTC 494 and 23K, respectively. In contrast to known genes of the arc operon, the PTP gene showed low expression at pH 7.0, in agreement with the finding that citrulline-into-ornithine conversion is inhibited at this pH. The presence of additional energy sources also influenced ADI pathway activity, in particular by decreasing citrulline-into-ornithine conversion. Further insight into the functionality of the PTP gene was obtained with a knock-out mutant of L. sakei CTC 494 impaired in the PTP gene, which displayed inhibition in its ability to convert extracellular citrulline into ornithine. In conclusion, results indicated that the PTP gene may putatively encode a citrulline/ornithine antiporter.

  14. Acute Escherichia coli endotoxaemia decreases the plasma l-arginine/asymmetrical dimethylarginine ratio in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayer, Friedrich; Namiranian, Khodadad; Pleiner, Johannes; Schaller, Georg; Wolzt, Michael

    2004-06-01

    Acute inflammation impairs vascular function. Based on the association between endothelial dysfunction and plasma concentrations of L-arginine and the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor ADMA (asymmetrical dimethylarginine), we hypothesized that the ratio between L-arginine and ADMA could be affected by experimental inflammation. Plasma concentrations of L-arginine, ADMA and SDMA (symmetrical dimethylarginine) were studied at baseline and 3.5 h after intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin [LPS (lipopolysaccharide), 20 units/kg of body mass; n =8] or placebo ( n =9) in healthy males. L-Arginine and dimethylarginines were quantified after solid-phase extraction by reversed-phase HPLC. Body temperature, heart rate and leucocyte count increased after LPS administration ( P <0.01 for all). LPS administration decreased plasma concentrations of L-arginine from 66 micromol/l [95% CI (confidence interval): 56, 88] at baseline to 48 micromol/l (CI: 40, 60) after 3.5 h ( P <0.02), but did not affect ADMA and SDMA concentrations. Consequently, the L-arginine/ADMA ratio declined significantly from a median of 159 (CI: 137, 193) to 135 (CI: 103, 146); a decrease of 25 (CI: -68, -13; P <0.02). L-Arginine, ADMA, SDMA and the L-arginine/ADMA ratio remained constant over time in controls. Acute inflammation reduces the L-arginine/ADMA ratio which could contribute to impaired vascular function.

  15. Implications of the role of reactive cystein in arginine kinase: reactivation kinetics of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-modified arginine kinase reactivated by dithiothreitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ji-Cheng; Cheng, Yuan; Hui, En-Fu; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2004-04-30

    The reduction of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-modified arginine kinase by dithiothreitol has been investigated using the kinetic theory of the substrate reaction during modification of enzyme activity. The results show that the modified arginine kinase can be fully reactivated by an excess concentration of dithiothreitol in a monophasic kinetic course. The presence of ATP or the transition-state analog markedly slows the apparent reactivation rate constant, while arginine shows no effect. The results of ultraviolet (UV) difference and intrinsic fluorescence spectra indicate that the substrate arginine-ADP-Mg2+ can induce conformational changes of the modified enzyme but adding NO3- cannot induce further changes that occur with the native enzyme. The reactive cysteines' location and role in the catalysis of arginine kinase are discussed. It is suggested that the cysteine may be located in the hinge region of the two domains of arginine kinase. The reactive cysteine of arginine kinase may play an important role not in the binding to the transition-state analog but in the conformational changes caused by the transition-state analog.

  16. Mechanistic studies of protein arginine deiminase 2: evidence for a substrate-assisted mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyton, Christina J; Knuckley, Bryan; Jones, Justin E; Lewallen, Daniel M; Thompson, Paul R

    2014-07-15

    Citrullination, which is catalyzed by protein arginine deiminases (PADs 1-4 and 6), is a post-translational modification (PTM) that effectively neutralizes the positive charge of a guanidinium group by its replacement with a neutral urea. Given the sequence similarity of PAD2 across mammalian species and the genomic organization of the PAD2 gene, PAD2 is predicted to be the ancestral homologue of the PADs. Although PAD2 has long been known to play a role in myelination, it has only recently been linked to other cellular processes, including gene transcription and macrophage extracellular trap formation. For example, PAD2 deiminates histone H3 at R26, and this PTM leads to the increased transcription of more than 200 genes under the control of the estrogen receptor. Given that our understanding of PAD2 biology remains incomplete, we initiated mechanistic studies on this enzyme to aid the development of PAD2-specific inhibitors. Herein, we report that the substrate specificity and calcium dependence of PAD2 are similar to those of PADs 1, 3, and 4. However, unlike those isozymes, PAD2 appears to use a substrate-assisted mechanism of catalysis in which the positively charged substrate guanidinium depresses the pKa of the nucleophilic cysteine. By contrast, PADs 1, 3, and 4 use a reverse-protonation mechanism. These mechanistic differences will aid the development of isozyme-specific inhibitors.

  17. 变形假单胞菌精氨酸脱亚胺酶基因序列分析及其表达载体构建%Sequence analysis of the gene encoding arginine deiminase from Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and construction of its prokaryotic expression vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振伟; 倪晔; 郑璞; 刘咏梅; 徐岩; 孙志浩

    2008-01-01

    通过分子克隆手段获得了变形假单胞菌(Pseudomonas plecoglossicida CGMCC2039)精氨酸脱亚胺酶(arginine deirninasa,简称ADI)基因序列,并将扩增的ADI基因片段插入表达载体pET28a中,构建了ADI的重组表达载体.核苷酸序列分析显示该基因开放阅读框为1254 bp,编码417个氨基酸.Blast分析显示它与其他假单胞茵属菌种具有很高的同源性.SDS-PAGE结果显示出分子量大小为48.5 kDa的明显的蛋白质特异性条带,并具有酶活.该载体的构建为该基因在大肠杆菌中的表达、纯化和抗肿瘤活性研究奠定了基础.

  18. Intravenous Selenium Modulates L-Arginine-Induced Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Hardman

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Oxidative stress is understood to have a critical role in the development of acinar injury in experimental acute pancreatitis. We have previously demonstrated that compound multiple antioxidant therapy ameliorates end-organ damage in the intra-peritoneal L-arginine rat model. As the principal co-factor for glutathione, selenium is a key constituent of multiple antioxidant preparations. Objective The intention of this study was to investigate the effect of selenium on pancreatic and remote organ injury in a wellvalidated experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to one of 3 groups (n=5/group and sacrificed at 72 hours. Acute pancreatitis was induced by 250 mg per 100 g body weight of 20% L-arginine hydrochloride in 0.15 mol/L sodium chloride. Group allocations were: Group 1, control; Group 2, acute pancreatitis; Group 3, selenium. Main outcome measures Serum amylase, anti-oxidant levels, bronchoalveolar lavage protein, lung myeloperoxidase activity, and histological assessment of pancreatic injury. Results L-arginine induced acute pancreatitis characterised by oedema, neutrophil infiltration, acinar cell degranulation and elevated serum amylase. Selenium treatment was associated with reduced pancreatic oedema and inflammatory cell infiltration. Acinar degranulation and dilatation were completely absent. A reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage protein content was also demonstrated. Conclusion Intravenous selenium given 24 hours after induction of experimental acute pancreatitis was associated with a reduction in the histological stigmata of pancreatic injury and a dramatic reduction in broncho-alveolar lavage protein content. Serum selenium fell during the course of experimental acute pancreatitis and this effect was not reversed by exogenous selenium supplementation.

  19. Mechanistic studies on transcriptional coactivator protein arginine methyltransferase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Heather L; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia I; Clarke, Steven; Thompson, Paul R

    2011-04-26

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to the guanidinium group of arginine residues in a number of important cell signaling proteins. PRMT1 is the founding member of this family, and its activity appears to be dysregulated in heart disease and cancer. To begin to characterize the catalytic mechanism of this isozyme, we assessed the effects of mutating a number of highly conserved active site residues (i.e., Y39, R54, E100, E144, E153, M155, and H293), which are believed to play key roles in SAM recognition, substrate binding, and catalysis. The results of these studies, as well as pH-rate studies, and the determination of solvent isotope effects (SIEs) indicate that M155 plays a critical role in both SAM binding and the processivity of the reaction but is not responsible for the regiospecific formation of asymmetrically dimethylated arginine (ADMA). Additionally, mutagenesis studies on H293, combined with pH studies and the lack of a normal SIE, do not support a role for this residue as a general base. Furthermore, the lack of a normal SIE with either the wild type or catalytically impaired mutants suggests that general acid/base catalysis is not important for promoting methyl transfer. This result, combined with the fact that the E144A/E153A double mutant retains considerably more activity then the single mutants alone, suggests that the PRMT1-catalyzed reaction is primarily driven by bringing the substrate guanidinium into the proximity of the S-methyl group of SAM and that the prior deprotonation of the substrate guanidinium is not required for methyl transfer.

  20. Analysis of Two Putative Candida albicans Phosphopantothenoylcysteine Decarboxylase / Protein Phosphatase Z Regulatory Subunits Reveals an Unexpected Distribution of Functional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrényi, Katalin; Molero, Cristina; Kónya, Zoltán; Erdődi, Ferenc; Ariño, Joaquin; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase Z (Ppz) is a fungus specific enzyme that regulates cell wall integrity, cation homeostasis and oxidative stress response. Work on Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown that the enzyme is inhibited by Hal3/Vhs3 moonlighting proteins that together with Cab3 constitute the essential phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC) enzyme. In Candida albicans CaPpz1 is also involved in the morphological changes and infectiveness of this opportunistic human pathogen. To reveal the CaPpz1 regulatory context we searched the C. albicans database and identified two genes that, based on the structure of their S. cerevisiae counterparts, were termed CaHal3 and CaCab3. By pull down analysis and phosphatase assays we demonstrated that both of the bacterially expressed recombinant proteins were able to bind and inhibit CaPpz1 as well as its C-terminal catalytic domain (CaPpz1-Cter) with comparable efficiency. The binding and inhibition were always more pronounced with CaPpz1-Cter, indicating a protective effect against inhibition by the N-terminal domain in the full length protein. The functions of the C. albicans proteins were tested by their overexpression in S. cerevisiae. Contrary to expectations we found that only CaCab3 and not CaHal3 rescued the phenotypic traits that are related to phosphatase inhibition by ScHal3, such as tolerance to LiCl or hygromycin B, requirement for external K+ concentrations, or growth in a MAP kinase deficient slt2 background. On the other hand, both of the Candida proteins turned out to be essential PPCDC components and behaved as their S. cerevisiae counterparts: expression of CaCab3 and CaHal3 rescued the cab3 and hal3 vhs3 S. cerevisiae mutations, respectively. Thus, both CaHal3 and CaCab3 retained the PPCDC related functions and have the potential for CaPpz1 inhibition in vitro. The fact that only CaCab3 exhibits its phosphatase regulatory potential in vivo suggests that in C. albicans CaCab3, but not CaHal3, acts as a

  1. Danish children born with glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and islet antigen-2 autoantibodies at birth had an increased risk to develop type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eising, Stefanie; Nilsson, Anita; Carstensen, Bendix;

    2011-01-01

    A large, population-based case-control cohort was used to test the hypothesis that glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65) and islet antigen-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A) at birth predict type 1 diabetes.......A large, population-based case-control cohort was used to test the hypothesis that glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65) and islet antigen-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A) at birth predict type 1 diabetes....

  2. Arginine metabolising enzymes as therapeutic tools for Alzheimer's disease: peptidyl arginine deiminase catalyses fibrillogenesis of beta-amyloid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlake, Peter; Whiteley, Chris G

    2010-06-01

    The accumulation of arginine in the cerebrospinal fluid and brains of patients suffering from acute neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, point to defects in the metabolic pathways involving this amino acids. The deposits of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques perhaps as a consequence of fibrillogenesis of beta-amyloid peptides has also been shown to be a hallmark in the aetiology of certain neurodegenerative diseases. Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD II) is an enzyme that uses arginine as a substrate and we now show that PAD II not only binds with the peptides Abeta(1-40), Abeta(22-35), Abeta(17-28), Abeta(25-35) and Abeta(32-35) but assists in the proteolytic degradation of these peptides with the concomitant formation of insoluble fibrils. PAD was purified in 12.5% yield and 137 fold with a specific activity of 59 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) from bovine brain by chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sephacel. Characterisation of the enzyme gave a pH and temperature optima of 7.5 degrees C and 68 degrees C, respectively, and the enzyme lost 50% activity within 38 min at this temperature. Michaelis-Menten kinetics established a V(max) and K(m) of 1.57 micromol min(-1) ml(-1) and 1.35 mM, respectively, with N-benzoyl arginine ethyl ester as substrate. Kinetic analysis was used to measure the affinity (K(i)) of the amyloid peptides to PAD with values between 1.4 and 4.6 microM. The formation of Abeta fibrils was rate limiting involving an initial lag time of about 24 h that was dependent on the concentration of the amyloid peptides. Turbidity measurements at 400 nm, Congo Red assay and Thioflavin-T staining fluorescence were used to establish the aggregation kinetics of PAD-induced fibril formation.

  3. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  4. Computational, structural, and kinetic evidence that Vibrio vulnificus FrsA is not a cofactor-independent pyruvate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Whitney F; Brunk, Elizabeth; Desai, Bijoy J; Fedorov, Alexander A; Almo, Steven C; Gerlt, John A; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Richards, Nigel G J

    2013-03-19

    The fermentation-respiration switch (FrsA) protein in Vibrio vulnificus was recently reported to catalyze the cofactor-independent decarboxylation of pyruvate. We now report quantum mechanical/molecular mechenical calculations that examine the energetics of C-C bond cleavage for a pyruvate molecule bound within the putative active site of FrsA. These calculations suggest that the barrier to C-C bond cleavage in the bound substrate is 28 kcal/mol, which is similar to that estimated for the uncatalyzed decarboxylation of pyruvate in water at 25 °C. In agreement with the theoretical predictions, no pyruvate decarboxylase activity was detected for recombinant FrsA protein that could be crystallized and structurally characterized. These results suggest that the functional annotation of FrsA as a cofactor-independent pyruvate decarboxylase is incorrect.

  5. The carB gene encoding the large subunit of carbamoylphosphate synthetase from Lactococcus lactis is transcribed monocistronically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    the requirement for carbamoylphosphate in pyrimidine biosynthesis through degradation by the arginine deiminase pathway. The expression of the carB gene is subject to regulation at the level of transcription by pyrimidines most probably by an attenuator mechanism. Upstream of the carB gene, an open reading frame...... to be an isolated transcriptional unit. Carbamoylphosphate is a precursor in the biosynthesis of both pyrimidine nucleotides and arginine. By mutant analysis L. lactis is shown to possess only one carB gene; the same gene product is thus required for both biosynthetic pathways. Furthermore, arginine may satisfy...

  6. The Role of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases in Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs mediate the methylation of a number of protein substrates of arginine residues and serve critical functions in many cellular responses, including cancer development, progression, and aggressiveness, T-lymphocyte activation, and hepatic gluconeogenesis. There are nine members of the PRMT family, which are divided into 4 types (types I–IV. Although most PRMTs do not require posttranslational modification (PTM to be activated, fine-tuning modifications, such as interactions between cofactor proteins, subcellular compartmentalization, and regulation of RNA, via micro-RNAs, seem to be required. Inflammation is an essential defense reaction of the body to eliminate harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens. However, chronic inflammation can eventually cause several types of diseases, including some cancers, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. Therefore, inflammation responses should be well modulated. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of PRMTs in the control of inflammation. More specifically, we review the roles of four PRMTs (CARM1, PRMT1, PRMT5, and PRMT6 in modulating inflammation responses, particularly in terms of modulating the transcriptional factors or cofactors related to inflammation. Based on the regulatory roles known so far, we propose that PRMTs should be considered one of the target molecule groups that modulate inflammatory responses.

  7. An allosteric inhibitor of protein arginine methyltransferase 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarheyeva, Alena; Senisterra, Guillermo; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Dong, Aiping; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Wasney, Gregory A; Chau, Irene; Marcellus, Richard; Hajian, Taraneh; Liu, Feng; Korboukh, Ilia; Smil, David; Bolshan, Yuri; Min, Jinrong; Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Loppnau, Peter; Poda, Gennadiy; Griffin, Carly; Aman, Ahmed; Brown, Peter J; Jin, Jian; Al-Awar, Rima; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Schapira, Matthieu; Vedadi, Masoud

    2012-08-01

    PRMT3, a protein arginine methyltransferase, has been shown to influence ribosomal biosynthesis by catalyzing the dimethylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S2. Although PRMT3 has been reported to be a cytosolic protein, it has been shown to methylate histone H4 peptide (H4 1-24) in vitro. Here, we report the identification of a PRMT3 inhibitor (1-(benzo[d][1,2,3]thiadiazol-6-yl)-3-(2-cyclohexenylethyl)urea; compound 1) with IC50 value of 2.5 μM by screening a library of 16,000 compounds using H4 (1-24) peptide as a substrate. The crystal structure of PRMT3 in complex with compound 1 as well as kinetic analysis reveals an allosteric mechanism of inhibition. Mutating PRMT3 residues within the allosteric site or using compound 1 analogs that disrupt interactions with allosteric site residues both abrogated binding and inhibitory activity. These data demonstrate an allosteric mechanism for inhibition of protein arginine methyltransferases, an emerging class of therapeutic targets.

  8. Pegylated Arginine Deiminase Downregulates Colitis in Murine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helieh S. Oz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arginine deiminase (ADI, an arginine-metabolizing enzyme involved in cell signaling, is dysregulated in multiple inflammatory diseases and cancers. We hypothesized that pegylated ADI (ADI-PEG provide protection against colitis. Methods. Dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in IL-10-deficient and BALB/c (WT mice. ADI-PEG was administered i.p., and inflammatory mediators and pathology were evaluated. Results. Acute colitis in mice was manifested by increases in inflammatory biomarkers, such as serum amyloid A (SAA, P<0.001, IL-12 p40, and disease index (3-Fold. In contrast, ADI-PEG significantly decreased clinical disease index, SAA levels, and inflammatory cytokines in blood as well as in colonic explants. Animals developed moderate (2.2±0.3 WT to severe (3.6±0.5 IL-10 deficient colonic pathology; and ADI-PEG treatment significantly improved the severity of colitis (P<0.05. Marked infiltration of CD68+ macrophages and iNOS expression were detected in colonic submucosa in colitic animals but not detected in ADI-PEG-treated animals. Conclusion. ADI-PEG attenuated inflammatory responses by suppression of macrophage infiltration and iNOS expression in colitic animals. ADI-PEG can serve as a potential therapeutic value in IBD.

  9. Arginine Silicate Inositol Complex Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Ali Said; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Oguzhan; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Komorowski, James Richard; Ali, Shakir; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-10-14

    Arginine silicate inositol (ASI) complex is a composition of arginine, silicon, and inositol that has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular health. This study reports the effects of an ASI ointment on wound healing in rats. A full-thickness excision wound was created by using a disposable 5 mm diameter skin punch biopsy tool. In this placebo-controlled study, the treatment group's wound areas were covered by 4 or 10 % ASI ointments twice a day for 5, 10, or 15 days. The rats were sacrificed either 5, 10, or 15 days after the wounds were created, and biopsy samples were taken for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Granulation tissue appeared significantly faster in the ASI-treated groups than in the control groups (P B cells (NF-κB), and various cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) measured in this study showed a significant fall in expression level in ASI-treated wounds. The results suggest that topical application of ASI ointment (especially 4 % concentration) has beneficial effects on the healing response of an excisional wound.

  10. Differential effect of functional olfactory bulb deafferentation on tyrosine hydroxylase and glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA levels in rodent juxtaglomerular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D M; Grillo, M; Margolis, F L; Joh, T H; Baker, H

    1991-09-08

    Expression of the dopaminergic phenotype in olfactory bulb (OB) juxtaglomerular neurons (constituting a population of periglomerular and external tufted cells) is dependent upon functional innervation by peripheral olfactory receptors. Loss of functional input in rodents, by either peripheral deafferentation or deprivation of odorant access, results in a profound decrease in the expression of juxtaglomerular tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). We have examined the effects of such treatments on the expression of the neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which is colocalized with TH in the majority of TH-containing juxtaglomerular neurons. Following either chemically induced OB deafferentation in adult mice or unilateral odor deprivation in neonatal rats, steady-state OB GAD messenger RNA levels remained essentially unchanged as assessed by Northern blot analysis 20-40 days after treatment. These results were confirmed by in situ hybridization analysis, which demonstrated a profound loss of juxtaglomerular TH messenger RNA but no accompanying decrease in regionally colocalized GAD message. Since GAD is found in nearly all dopaminergic OB cells, the preservation of juxtaglomerular GAD message implies that olfactory receptor neurons exert a differential transneuronal regulation of TH and GAD gene transcription.

  11. Oxidative Status of DJ-1-dependent Activation of Dopamine Synthesis through Interaction of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and 4-Dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) Decarboxylase with DJ-1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shizuma; Taira, Takahiro; Niki, Takeshi; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Maita, Chinatsu; Maita, Hiroshi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is caused by loss of dopamine, which is synthesized from tyrosine by two enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and 4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC). DJ-1 is a causative gene for the familial form of PD, but little is known about the roles of DJ-1 in dopamine synthesis. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to TH and DDC and positively regulated their activities in human dopaminergic cells. Mutants of DJ-1 found in PD patients, including heterozygous mutants, lost their activity and worked as dominant-negative forms toward wild-type DJ-1. When cells were treated with H2O2, 6-hydroxydopamine, or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, changes in activities of TH and DDC accompanied by oxidation of cysteine 106 of DJ-1 occurred. It was found that DJ-1 possessing Cys-106 with SH and SOH forms was active and that DJ-1 possessing Cys-106 with SO2H and SO3H forms was inactive in terms of stimulation of TH and DDC activities. These findings indicate an essential role of DJ-1 in dopamine synthesis and contribution of DJ-1 to the sporadic form of PD. PMID:19703902

  12. Styrene production from a biomass-derived carbon source using a coculture system of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase-expressing Streptomyces lividans transformants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ryosuke; Noda, Shuhei; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-12-01

    To produce styrene from a biomass-derived carbon source, Streptomyces lividans was adopted as a host strain. The gene encoding ferulic acid decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (FDC1) was introduced into S. lividans, and the resulting S. lividans transformant successfully expressed FDC1 and converted trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to styrene. A key factor in styrene production using microbes is the recovery of volatile styrene. In the present study, we selected polystyrene resin beads XRD-4 as the absorbent agent to recover styrene produced using S. lividans transformants, which enabled recovery of styrene from the culture broth. For styrene production from biomass-derived carbon sources, S. lividans/FDC1 was cultured together with S. lividans/p-encP, which we previously reported as a CA-producing S. lividans strain. This coculture system combined with the recovery of styrene using XAD-4 allowed the production of styrene from glucose, cellobiose, or xylo-oligosaccharide, respectively.

  13. Characterization of glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum and its C-terminal function for the pH dependence of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Mi; Kim, Hana; Joo, Yunhye; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2014-12-17

    The gadB gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme exhibited maximal activity at 40 °C and pH 5.0. The 3D model structure of L. plantarum GAD proposed that its C-terminal region (Ile454-Thr468) may play an important role in the pH dependence of catalysis. Accordingly, C-terminally truncated (Δ3 and Δ11 residues) mutants were generated and their enzyme activities compared with that of the wild-type enzyme at different pH values. Unlike the wild-type GAD, the mutants showed pronounced catalytic activity in a broad pH range of 4.0-8.0, suggesting that the C-terminal region is involved in the pH dependence of GAD activity. Therefore, this study may provide effective target regions for engineering pH dependence of GAD activity, thereby meeting industrial demands for the production of γ-aminobutyrate in a broad range of pH values.

  14. Supplementation with l-arginine stabilizes plasma arginine and nitric oxide metabolites, suppresses elevated liver enzymes and peroxidation in sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, S I; Ogungbemi, S O; Kehinde, M O; Anigbogu, C N

    2016-06-01

    The effect of l-arginine on liver function in SCD has received little or no attention. The effect of a chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine (1gm/day for 6 weeks) on some liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites was studied in 20 normal (non-sickle cell anaemia; NSCA) subjects and 20 sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects. Ten milliliters of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), plasma total bilirubin concentration [TB], malondialdehyde concentration [MDA] and nitric oxide metabolites concentration [NOx]. Before supplementation, ALT, AST, ALP (pconcentration and nitric oxide metabolites levels in NSCA and SCA subjects. Responses in SCA subjects to l-arginine were more sensitive than in NSCA subjects.

  15. Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1...

  16. Enteral L-Arginine and Glutamine Supplementation for Prevention of NEC in Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shimi, M S; Awad, H A; Abdelwahed, M A; Mohamed, M H; Khafagy, S M; Saleh, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Evaluating the efficacy and safety of arginine and glutamine supplementation in decreasing the incidence of NEC among preterm neonates. Methods. Prospective case-control study done on 75 preterm neonates ≤34 weeks, divided equally into L-arginine group receiving enteral L-arginine, glutamine group receiving enteral glutamine, and control group. Serum L-arginine and glutamine levels were measured at time of enrollment (sample 1), after 14 days of enrollment (sample 2), and at time of diagnosis of NEC (sample 3). Results. The incidence of NEC was 9.3%. There was no difference in the frequency of NEC between L-arginine and control groups (P > 0.05). NEC was not detected in glutamine group; L-arginine concentrations were significantly lower in arginine group than control group in both samples while glutamine concentrations were comparable in glutamine and control groups in both samples. No significant difference was found between groups as regards number of septic episodes, duration to reach full oral intake, or duration of hospital stay. Conclusion. Enteral L-arginine supplementation did not seem to reduce the incidence of NEC. Enteral glutamine may have a preventive role against NEC if supplied early to preterm neonates. However, larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. This work is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01263041).

  17. Enteral L-Arginine and Glutamine Supplementation for Prevention of NEC in Preterm Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. El-Shimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluating the efficacy and safety of arginine and glutamine supplementation in decreasing the incidence of NEC among preterm neonates. Methods. Prospective case-control study done on 75 preterm neonates ≤34 weeks, divided equally into L-arginine group receiving enteral L-arginine, glutamine group receiving enteral glutamine, and control group. Serum L-arginine and glutamine levels were measured at time of enrollment (sample 1, after 14 days of enrollment (sample 2, and at time of diagnosis of NEC (sample 3. Results. The incidence of NEC was 9.3%. There was no difference in the frequency of NEC between L-arginine and control groups (P>0.05. NEC was not detected in glutamine group; L-arginine concentrations were significantly lower in arginine group than control group in both samples while glutamine concentrations were comparable in glutamine and control groups in both samples. No significant difference was found between groups as regards number of septic episodes, duration to reach full oral intake, or duration of hospital stay. Conclusion. Enteral L-arginine supplementation did not seem to reduce the incidence of NEC. Enteral glutamine may have a preventive role against NEC if supplied early to preterm neonates. However, larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. This work is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01263041.

  18. Facilitation of peptide fibre formation by arginine-phosphate/carboxylate interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Krishna Prasad; Sandeep Verma

    2008-01-01

    This study describes peptide fibre formation in a hexapeptide, derived from the V3 loop of HIV-1, mediated by the interactions between arginine residues and phosphate/carboxylate anions. This charge neutralization approach was further confirmed when the deletion of arginine residue from the hexapeptide sequence resulted in fibre formation, which was studied by a combination of microscopic techniques.

  19. Structural diversity in twin-arginine signal peptide-binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maillard, J.; Spronk, C.A.E.M.; Buchanan, G.; Lyall, V.; Richardson, D.J.; Palmer, T.; Vuister, G.W.; Sargent, F.

    2007-01-01

    The twin-arginine transport (Tat) system is dedicated to the translocation of folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Proteins are targeted to the Tat system by signal peptides containing a twin-arginine motif. In Escherichia coli, many Tat substrates bind redox-active cofactors i

  20. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Qing; He, ShuJiao; Zhou, ZeJian

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common subtype of liver cancer. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 was shown to be upregulated in various cancers. However, the role of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma progression remains incompletely understood. We investigated the clinical and functional significance of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in a series of clinical hepatocellular carcinoma samples and a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. We performed suppression analysis of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 using small interfering RNA to determine the biological roles of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition indicators was verified by western blotting in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines after small interfering RNA treatment. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 expression was found to be significantly upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and clinical tissues. Moreover, downregulation of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by small interfering RNA could inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. These results indicate that protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 may contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma progression and serves as a promising target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

  1. Arginine does not exacerbate markers of inflammation in cocultures of human enterocytes and leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Negrier, I.; Neveux, N.

    2007-01-01

    Enteral arginine supplementation in the critically ill has become a matter of controversy. In this study, we investigated effects of the addition of 0.4 and 1.2 mmol/L arginine in a coculture model on markers of inflammation, enterocyte layer integrity, and amino acid transport. In this model, a ...

  2. Effect of L-arginine, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA and the association of L-arginine and DMSA on tissue lead mobilization and blood pressure level in plumbism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvezzi C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb-induced hypertension is characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS and a decrease in nitric oxide (NO. In the present study we evaluated the effect of L-arginine (NO precursor, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a chelating agent and ROS scavenger, and the association of L-arginine/DMSA on tissue Pb mobilization and blood pressure levels in plumbism. Tissue Pb levels and blood pressure evolution were evaluated in rats exposed to: 1 Pb (750 ppm, in drinking water, for 70 days, 2 Pb plus water for 30 more days, 3 Pb plus DMSA (50 mg kg-1 day-1, po, L-arginine (0.6%, in drinking water, and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA for 30 more days, and 4 their respective matching controls. Pb exposure increased Pb levels in the blood, liver, femur, kidney and aorta. Pb levels in tissues decreased after cessation of Pb administration, except in the aorta. These levels did not reach those observed in nonintoxicated rats. All treatments mobilized Pb from the kidney, femur and liver. Pb mobilization from the aorta was only effective with the L-arginine/DMSA treatment. Blood Pb concentrations in Pb-treated groups were not different from those of the Pb/water group. Pb increased blood pressure starting from the 5th week. L-arginine and DMSA treatments (4th week and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA (3rd and 4th weeks decreased blood pressure levels of intoxicated rats. These levels did not reach those of nonintoxicated rats. Treatment with L-arginine/DMSA was more effective than the isolated treatments in mobilizing Pb from tissues and in reducing the blood pressure of intoxicated rats.

  3. Giardia duodenalis arginine deiminase modulates the phenotype and cytokine secretion of human dendritic cells by depletion of arginine and formation of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Stefanie; Renner Viveros, Pablo; Seeber, Frank; Klotz, Christian; Ignatius, Ralf; Aebischer, Toni

    2013-07-01

    Depletion of arginine is a recognized strategy that pathogens use to evade immune effector mechanisms. Depletion depends on microbial enzymes such as arginases, which are considered virulence factors. The effect is mostly interpreted as being a consequence of successful competition with host enzymes for the substrate. However, both arginases and arginine deiminases (ADI) have been associated with pathogen virulence. Both deplete arginine, but their reaction products differ. An ADI has been implicated in the virulence of Giardia duodenalis, an intestinal parasite that infects humans and animals, causing significant morbidity. Dendritic cells (DC) play a critical role in host defense and also in a murine G. duodenalis infection model. The functional properties of these innate immune cells depend on the milieu in which they are activated. Here, the dependence of the response of these cells on arginine was studied by using Giardia ADI and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocyte-derived DC. Arginine depletion by ADI significantly increased tumor necrosis factor alpha and decreased interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12p40 secretion. It also reduced the upregulation of surface CD83 and CD86 molecules, which are involved in cell-cell interactions. Arginine depletion also reduced the phosphorylation of S6 kinase in DC, suggesting the involvement of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. The changes were due to arginine depletion and the formation of reaction products, in particular, ammonium ions. Comparison of NH(4)(+) and urea revealed distinct immunomodulatory activities of these products of deiminases and arginases, respectively. The data suggest that a better understanding of the role of arginine-depleting pathogen enzymes for immune evasion will have to take enzyme class and reaction products into consideration.

  4. Giardia duodenalis Arginine Deiminase Modulates the Phenotype and Cytokine Secretion of Human Dendritic Cells by Depletion of Arginine and Formation of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Stefanie; Renner Viveros, Pablo; Seeber, Frank; Klotz, Christian; Ignatius, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Depletion of arginine is a recognized strategy that pathogens use to evade immune effector mechanisms. Depletion depends on microbial enzymes such as arginases, which are considered virulence factors. The effect is mostly interpreted as being a consequence of successful competition with host enzymes for the substrate. However, both arginases and arginine deiminases (ADI) have been associated with pathogen virulence. Both deplete arginine, but their reaction products differ. An ADI has been implicated in the virulence of Giardia duodenalis, an intestinal parasite that infects humans and animals, causing significant morbidity. Dendritic cells (DC) play a critical role in host defense and also in a murine G. duodenalis infection model. The functional properties of these innate immune cells depend on the milieu in which they are activated. Here, the dependence of the response of these cells on arginine was studied by using Giardia ADI and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocyte-derived DC. Arginine depletion by ADI significantly increased tumor necrosis factor alpha and decreased interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12p40 secretion. It also reduced the upregulation of surface CD83 and CD86 molecules, which are involved in cell-cell interactions. Arginine depletion also reduced the phosphorylation of S6 kinase in DC, suggesting the involvement of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. The changes were due to arginine depletion and the formation of reaction products, in particular, ammonium ions. Comparison of NH4+ and urea revealed distinct immunomodulatory activities of these products of deiminases and arginases, respectively. The data suggest that a better understanding of the role of arginine-depleting pathogen enzymes for immune evasion will have to take enzyme class and reaction products into consideration. PMID:23589577

  5. Overexpression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/C-4 decarboxylases causes growth defects possibly due to abnormal auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Gyusik; Fujioka, Shozo; Takatsuto, Suguru; Choe, Sunghwa

    2012-07-01

    Sterols play crucial roles as membrane components and precursors of steroid hormones (e.g., brassinosteroids, BR). Within membranes, sterols regulate membrane permeability and fluidity by interacting with other lipids and proteins. Sterols are frequently enriched in detergent-insoluble membranes (DIMs), which organize molecules involved in specialized signaling processes, including auxin transporters. To be fully functional, the two methyl groups at the C-4 position of cycloartenol, a precursor of plant sterols, must be removed by bifunctional 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/C-4 decarboxylases (3βHSD/D). To understand the role of 3βHSD/D in Arabidopsis development, we analyzed the phenotypes of knock-out mutants and overexpression lines of two 3βHSD/D genes (At1g47290 and At2g26260). Neither single nor double knock-out mutants displayed a noticeable phenotype; however, overexpression consistently resulted in plants with wrinkled leaves and short inflorescence internodes. Interestingly, the internode growth defects were opportunistic; even within a plant, some stems were more severely affected than others. Endogenous levels of BRs were not altered in the overexpression lines, suggesting that the growth defect is not primarily due to a flaw in BR biosynthesis. To determine if overexpression of the sterol biosynthetic genes affects the functions of membrane-localized auxin transporters, we subjected plants to the auxin efflux carrier inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Where-as the gravity vectors of wild-type roots became randomly scattered in response to NPA treatment, those of the overexpression lines continued to grow in the direction of gravity. Overexpression of the two Arabidopsis 3βHSD/D genes thus appears to affect auxin transporter activity, possibly by altering sterol composition in the membranes.

  6. Sexually dimorphic expression of glutamate decarboxylase mRNA in the hypothalamus of the deep sea armed grenadier, Coryphaenoides (Nematonurus) armatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, V L; Bosma, P T; Collins, M; Priede, I G; Docherty, K

    2000-11-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), is a key enzyme in the central nervous system (CNS) that synthesizes the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glutamate. Our previous phylogenetic studies on the evolution of this enzyme indicates that there are at least two distinct forms: GAD65 and GAD67. They are the products of separate genes and probably derive from a common ancestral GAD gene following gene duplication prior to the emergence of the teleosts more than 200 Myr ago. Furthermore, a third GAD-like molecule, GAD3, discovered in the armed grenadier, Coryphaenoides (Nematonurus) armatus, is equally divergent from both GAD65 and GAD67. Specimens of C. (N.) armatus were collected by trawl at a depth of 4,000 m in the Porcupine Seabight (Northeastern Atlantic), and brains dissected and frozen for RNA extraction. All three GAD forms are found in the cerebellum, telencephalon and hypothalamus. Semiquantitative PCR analysis showed that males and females have similar levels of expression of GAD67 and GAD3 in the tissues studied. Independent of the sex examined, the levels of expression of GAD65 and GAD67 in the cerebellum were approximately half that in the telencephalon. GAD3 levels were approximately 30% higher in the cerebellum than in either the telencephalon or hypothalamus. In contrast to GAD67 and GAD3, hypothalamic expression of GAD65 mRNA is 1.8 times higher (p < 0.05) in males than in females. These data indicate that the expression of GAD65, a key enzyme for the synthesis of GABA is sexually dimorphic in females and males of C. (N.) armatus.

  7. PELA microspheres with encapsulated arginine-chitosan/pBMP-2 nanoparticles induce pBMP-2 controlled-release, transfected osteoblastic progenitor cells, and promoted osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolong; Qiu, Sujun; Zhang, Yuxian; Yin, Jie; Min, Shaoxiong

    2017-03-01

    Repair of the bone injury remains a challenge in clinical practices. Recent progress in tissue engineering and therapeutic gene delivery systems have led to promising new strategies for successful acceleration of bone repair process. The aim of this study was to create a controlled-release system to slowly release the arginine-chitosan/plasmid DNA nanoparticles encoding BMP-2 gene (Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs), efficiently transfect osteoblastic progenitor cells, secrete functional BMP-2 protein, and promote osteogenic differentiation. In this study, chitosan was conjugated with arginine to generate arginine-chitosan polymer (Arg-CS) for gene delivery. Mix the Arg-CS with pBMP-2 to condense pBMP-2 into nano-sized particles. In vitro transfection assays demonstrated that the transfection efficiency of Arg-CS/pBMP-2 nanoparticles and the expression level of BMP-2 was obviously exceed control groups. Further, PELA microspheres as the controlled-release carrier for the nanoparticles were used to encapsulate Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs. We demonstrated that the Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs could slowly release from the PELA microspheres at least for 42 d. During the co-culture with the PELA microspheres, the content of BMP-2 protein secreted by MC3T3-E1 reached the peak at 7 d. After 21d, the secretion of BMP-2 protein still maintain a higher level. The alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and osteogenesis-related gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR analysis all showed the PELA microspheres entrapping with Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs can obviously induce the osteogenic differentiation. The results indicated that the Arg-CS is a suitable gene vector which can promote the gene transfection. And the novel PELA microspheres-nanoparticle controlled-release system has potential clinical application in the future after further research.

  8. Oxytocin and arginine vasopressin receptor evolution: implications for adaptive novelties in placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Pamela; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa R.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Vargas-Pinilla, Pedro; Viscardi, Lucas Henriques; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Henkes, Luiz E.; Bortolini, Maria Catira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and arginine vasopressin receptors (AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2) are paralogous genes that emerged through duplication events; along the evolutionary timeline, owing to speciation, numerous orthologues emerged as well. In order to elucidate the evolutionary forces that shaped these four genes in placental mammals and to reveal specific aspects of their protein structures, 35 species were selected. Specifically, we investigated their molecular evolutionary history and intrinsic protein disorder content, and identified the presence of short linear interaction motifs. OXTR seems to be under evolutionary constraint in placental mammals, whereas AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 exhibit higher evolutionary rates, suggesting that they have been under relaxed or experienced positive selection. In addition, we describe here, for the first time, that the OXTR, AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 mammalian orthologues preserve their disorder content, while this condition varies among the paralogues. Finally, our results reveal the presence of short linear interaction motifs, indicating possible functional adaptations related to physiological and/or behavioral taxa-specific traits. PMID:27505307

  9. Oxytocin and arginine vasopressin receptor evolution: implications for adaptive novelties in placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Paré

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxytocin receptor (OXTR and arginine vasopressin receptors (AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 are paralogous genes that emerged through duplication events; along the evolutionary timeline, owing to speciation, numerous orthologues emerged as well. In order to elucidate the evolutionary forces that shaped these four genes in placental mammals and to reveal specific aspects of their protein structures, 35 species were selected. Specifically, we investigated their molecular evolutionary history and intrinsic protein disorder content, and identified the presence of short linear interaction motifs. OXTR seems to be under evolutionary constraint in placental mammals, whereas AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 exhibit higher evolutionary rates, suggesting that they have been under relaxed or experienced positive selection. In addition, we describe here, for the first time, that the OXTR, AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 mammalian orthologues preserve their disorder content, while this condition varies among the paralogues. Finally, our results reveal the presence of short linear interaction motifs, indicating possible functional adaptations related to physiological and/or behavioral taxa-specific traits.

  10. The twin arginine protein transport pathway exports multiple virulence proteins in the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Madhumita V; Mann, Stefan G; Antelmann, Haike; Widdick, David A; Fyans, Joanna K; Chandra, Govind; Hutchings, Matthew I; Toth, Ian; Hecker, Michael; Loria, Rosemary; Palmer, Tracy

    2010-07-01

    Summary Streptomyces scabies is one of a group of organisms that causes the economically important disease potato scab. Analysis of the S. scabies genome sequence indicates that it is likely to secrete many proteins via the twin arginine protein transport (Tat) pathway, including several proteins whose coding sequences may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer and share a common ancestor with proteins in other plant pathogens. Inactivation of the S. scabies Tat pathway resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes including slower growth rate and increased permeability of the cell envelope. Comparison of the extracellular proteome of the wild type and DeltatatC strains identified 73 predicted secretory proteins that were present in reduced amounts in the tatC mutant strain, and 47 Tat substrates were verified using a Tat reporter assay. The DeltatatC strain was almost completely avirulent on Arabidopsis seedlings and was delayed in attaching to the root tip relative to the wild-type strain. Genes encoding 14 candidate Tat substrates were individually inactivated, and seven of these mutants were reduced in virulence compared with the wild-type strain. We conclude that the Tat pathway secretes multiple proteins that are required for full virulence.

  11. A rigorous method for multigenic families' functional annotation: the peptidyl arginine deiminase (PADs proteins family example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background large scale and reliable proteins' functional annotation is a major challenge in modern biology. Phylogenetic analyses have been shown to be important for such tasks. However, up to now, phylogenetic annotation did not take into account expression data (i.e. ESTs, Microarrays, SAGE, .... Therefore, integrating such data, like ESTs in phylogenetic annotation could be a major advance in post genomic analyses. We developed an approach enabling the combination of expression data and phylogenetic analysis. To illustrate our method, we used an example protein family, the peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADs, probably implied in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Results the analysis was performed as follows: we built a phylogeny of PAD proteins from the NCBI's NR protein database. We completed the phylogenetic reconstruction of PADs using an enlarged sequence database containing translations of ESTs contigs. We then extracted all corresponding expression data contained in EST database This analysis allowed us 1/To extend the spectrum of homologs-containing species and to improve the reconstruction of genes' evolutionary history. 2/To deduce an accurate gene expression pattern for each member of this protein family. 3/To show a correlation between paralogous sequences' evolution rate and pattern of tissular expression. Conclusion coupling phylogenetic reconstruction and expression data is a promising way of analysis that could be applied to all multigenic families to investigate the relationship between molecular and transcriptional evolution and to improve functional annotation.

  12. Cell transcytosing poly-arginine coated magnetic nanovector for safe and effective siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseh, Omid; Kievit, Forrest M; Mok, Hyejung; Ayesh, Joseph; Clark, Cassra; Fang, Chen; Leung, Matthew; Arami, Hamed; Park, James O; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-08-01

    Lack of safe and effective carriers for delivery of RNA therapeutics remains a barrier to its broad clinical application. We report the development of a cell tanscytosing magnetic nanovector engineered as an siRNA carrier. Iron oxide nanoparticles were modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), small interfering RNA (siRNA), and a cationic polymer layer. Three nanovector formulations with cationic polymer coatings of poly-arginine (pArg), polylysine (pLys), and polyethylenimine (PEI), respectively, were prepared. The three nanovector formulations where evaluated for safety and ability to promote gene silencing in three types of cancer cells C6/GFP(+), MCF7/GFP(+), and TC2/GFP(+), mimicking human cancers of the brain, breast, and prostate, respectively. Cell viability and fluorescence quantification assays revealed that pArg-coated nanovectors were most effective in promoting gene knockdown and least toxic of the three nanovector formulations tested. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of nanovector treated cells further demonstrated that pArg-coated nanovectors enter cells through cell transcytosis, while pLys and PEI coated nanovectors enter cells endocytosis. Our findings suggest that NPs engineered to exploit the cell transcytosis intracellular trafficking pathway may offer a more safe and efficient route for siRNA delivery.

  13. Effects of a chronic l-arginine supplementation on the arginase pathway in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Guglielmetti, Anne-Sophie; Tournier-Nappey, Maude; Martin, Hélène; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Marie, Christine; Demougeot, Céline

    2017-04-01

    While ageing is frequently associated with l-arginine deficiency, clinical and experimental studies provided controversial data on the interest of a chronic l-arginine supplementation with beneficial, no or even deleterious effects. It was hypothesized that these discrepancies might relate to a deviation of l-arginine metabolism towards production of l-ornithine rather than nitric oxide as a result of age-induced increase in arginase activity. This study investigated the effect of ageing on arginase activity/expression in target tissues and determined whether l-arginine supplementation modulated the effect of ageing on arginase activity. Arginase activity and expression were measured in the heart, vessel, brain, lung, kidney and liver in young rats (3-months old) and aged Wistar rats (22-24-months-old) with or without l-arginine supplementation (2.25% in drinking water for 6weeks). Plasma levels of l-arginine and l-ornithine were quantified in order to calculate the plasma l-arginine/l-ornithine ratio, considered as a reflection of arginase activity. Cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate) and aortic vascular reactivity were also studied. Ageing dramatically reduced plasma l-arginine and l-arginine/l-ornithine ratio, decreased liver and kidney arginase activities but did not change activities in other tissues. l-Arginine supplementation normalized plasma l-arginine and l-arginine/l-ornithine ratio, improved endothelial function and decreased systolic blood pressure. These effects were associated with decreased arginase activity in aorta along with no change in the other tissues except in the lung in which activity was increased. A strong mismatch was therefore observed between arginase activity and expression in analyzed tissues. The present study reveals that ageing selectively changes arginase activity in clearance tissues, but does not support a role of the arginase pathway in the potential deleterious effect of the l-arginine supplementation in

  14. A novel mutation affecting the arginine-137 residue of AVPR2 in dizygous twins leads to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and attenuated urine exosome aquaporin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Gitte R; Hansen, Louise H; Nielsen, Maria R; Fagerberg, Christina; Dieperink, Hans; Rittig, Søren; Jensen, Boye L

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor gene AVPR2 may cause X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by defective apical insertion of aquaporin-2 in the renal collecting duct principal cell. Substitution mutations with exchange of arginine at codon 137 can cause nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis or congenital X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We present a novel mutation in codon 137 within AVPR2 with substitution of glycine for arginine in male dizygotic twins. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was demonstrated by water deprivation test and resistance to vasopressin administration. While a similar urine exosome release rate was shown between probands and controls by western blotting for the marker ALIX, there was a selective decrease in exosome aquaporin-2 versus aquaporin-1 protein in probands compared to controls.

  15. The pituitary hormones arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II and oxytocin-neurophysin I show close linkage with interleukin-1 on mouse chromosome 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, J.C.; Nelson, K.K.; Siracusa, L.D. (Jefferson Cancer Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Battey, J. (National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) are posterior pituitary hormones. AVP is involved in fluid homeostasis, while OXT is involved in lactation and parturition. AVP is derived from a larger precursor, prepro-arginine-vasopressin-neurophysin II (prepro-AVP-NP II; AVP), and is physically linked to prepro-oxytocin-neurophysin I (prepro-OXT-NPI1; OXT). The genes for AVP and OXT are separated by only 12 kb of DNA in humans, whereas in the mouse 3.5 kb of intergenic sequence lies between Avp and Oxt. Interspecific backcross analysis has now been used to map the Avp/Oxt complex to chromosome 2 in the mouse. This map position confirms and extends the known region of linkage conservation between mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 20. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Activity and Structure Changes of Arginine Kinase from Shrimp Feneropenaeus chinensis Muscle in Trifluoroethanol Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于振行; 高丹; 潘继承; 陆捷; 周海梦

    2003-01-01

    Trifluoroethanol has often been used in protein folding studies.The changes in activity and unfolding of arginine kinase from shrimp Feneropenaeus chinensis muscle during denaturation in different concentrations of trifuoroethanol were investigated using far-ultraviolet circular dichroism and fluorescence emission spectra.Arginine kinase was inactivated in trifluoroethanol solutions.The tertiary and secondary structures of arginine kinase were also destroyed in the trifluoroethanol solutions.The unfolding and inactivation courses were measured and compared.Inactivation occurred prior to unfolding, which suggests that the arginine kinase active site is more easily damaged by the denaturant than the enzyme as a whole.The result also indicates that the arginine kinase active site is situated in a limited and flexible region of the enzyme molecule.

  17. Preharvest L-arginine treatment induced postharvest disease resistance to Botrysis cinerea in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Sheng, Jiping; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Jian; Lv, Shengnan; Liu, Lingyi; Shen, Lin

    2011-06-22

    L-arginine is the precursor of nitric oxide (NO). In order to examine the influence of L-arginine on tomato fruit resistance, preharvest green mature tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum cv. No. 4 Zhongshu) were treated with 0.5, 1, and 5 mM L-arginine. The reduced lesion size (in diameter) on fruit caused by Botrytis cinerea, as well as activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Chitinase (CHI), β-1,3-glucanase (GLU), and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), was compared between L-arginine treated fruits and untreated fruits. We found that induced resistance increased and reached the highest level at 3-6 days after treatment. Endogenous NO concentrations were positively correlated with PAL, PPO, CHI, and GLU activities after treatment with Pearson coefficients of 0.71, 0.94, 0.97, and 0.87, respectively. These results indicate that arginine induces disease resistance via its effects on NO biosynthesis and defensive enzyme activity.

  18. Potentiality of application of the conductometric L-arginine biosensors for the real sample analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffrezic-Renault N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine an influence of serum components on the L-arginine biosensor sensitivity and to formulate practical recommendations for its reliable analysis. Methods. The L-arginine biosensor comprised arginase and urease co-immobilized by cross-linking. Results. The biosensor specificity was investigated based on a series of representative studies (namely, through urea determination in the serum; inhibitory effect studies of mercury ions; high temperature treatment of sensors; studying the biosensor sensitivity to the serum treated by enzymes, and selectivity studies. It was found that the response of the biosensor to the serum injections was determined by high sensitivity of the L-arginine biosensor toward not only to L-arginine but also toward two other basic amino acids (L-lysine and L-histidine. Conclusions. A detailed procedure of optimization of the conductometric biosensor for L-arginine determination in blood serum has been proposed.

  19. A role for serotonin in the antidepressant activity of NG-Nitro-L-arginine, in the rat forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliucci, Valentina; Buckley, Kathleen Niamh; Nunan, John; O'Shea, Karen; Harkin, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    The present study determined regional serotonin (5-HT) synthesis and metabolism changes associated with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) and the influence of 5-HT receptor blockade in the antidepressant-like actions of L-NA in the forced swimming test (FST). Regional effects of L-NA (5,10 and 20mg/kg i.p.) on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activity, the rate limiting enzyme for 5-HT synthesis, were determined by measuring accumulation of the transient intermediate 5-hydoxytryptophan (5-HTP) following in vivo administration of the amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, NSD 1015 (100mg/kg). L-NA (5-20mg/kg) dose dependently increased 5-HTP accumulation, particularly in the amygdaloid cortex, following exposure to the FST. L-NA also provoked an increase in regional brain 5-HIAA concentrations and in the 5-HIAA:5-HT metabolism ratio. Co-treatment with NSD-1015 failed to consistently modify the antidepressant-like effects of L-NA in the FST. Sub-active doses of L-NA (1mg/kg) and the 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (2.5mg/kg) acted synergistically to increase swimming in the test. Co-treatment with the non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist metergoline (1, 2 and 4mg/kg), attenuated the L-NA (20mg/kg)-induced reduction in immobility and increase in swimming behaviours. Metergoline alone however provoked an increase in immobility and reduction in swimming behaviours in the test. A similar response was obtained following co-treatment with the preferential 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin (5mg/kg) and the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist RO-430440 (5mg/kg). Co-treatment with the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (0.3mg/kg) or the 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist GR 127935 (4mg/kg) failed to influence the antidepressant-like activity of L-NA. Taken together these data provide further support for a role for 5-HT in the antidepressant-like properties of NOS inhibitors.

  20. Stationary phase expression of the arginine biosynthetic operon argCBH in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is elevated in response to nutrient limitation, stress or arginine restriction. Though control of the pathway in response to arginine limitation is largely modulated by the ArgR repressor, other factors may be involved in increased stationary phase and stress expression. Results In this study, we report that expression of the argCBH operon is induced in stationary phase cultures and is reduced in strains possessing a mutation in rpoS, which encodes an alternative sigma factor. Using strains carrying defined argR, and rpoS mutations, we evaluated the relative contributions of these two regulators to the expression of argH using operon-lacZ fusions. While ArgR was the main factor responsible for modulating expression of argCBH, RpoS was also required for full expression of this biosynthetic operon at low arginine concentrations (below 60 μM L-arginine, a level at which growth of an arginine auxotroph was limited by arginine. When the argCBH operon was fully de-repressed (arginine limited, levels of expression were only one third of those observed in ΔargR mutants, indicating that the argCBH operon is partially repressed by ArgR even in the absence of arginine. In addition, argCBH expression was 30-fold higher in ΔargR mutants relative to levels found in wild type, fully-repressed strains, and this expression was independent of RpoS. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that both derepression and positive control by RpoS are required for full control of arginine biosynthesis in stationary phase cultures of E. coli.

  1. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel coactivator of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Yuichiro, E-mail: ykanno@phar.toho-u.ac.jp; Inajima, Jun; Kato, Sayaka; Matsumoto, Maika; Tokumoto, Chikako; Kure, Yuki; Inouye, Yoshio

    2015-03-27

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Furthermore, the PRMT-dependent induction of a CAR reporter gene, which was independent of methyltransferase activity, was enhanced in the presence of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) or DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase DP97. Using tetracycline inducible-hCAR system in HepG2 cells, we showed that knockdown of PRMT5 with small interfering RNA suppressed tetracycline -induced mRNA expression of CYP2B6 but not of CYP2C9 or CYP3A4. PRMT5 enhanced phenobarbital-mediated transactivation of a phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM)-driven reporter gene in co-operation with PGC-1α in rat primary hepatocytes. Based on these findings, we suggest PRMT5 to be a gene (or promoter)-selective coactivator of CAR by mediating the formation of complexes between hCAR and appropriate coactivators. - Highlights: • Nuclear receptor CAR interact with PRMT5. • PRMT5 enhances transcriptional activity of CAR. • PRMT5 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1, DP97 or PGC1α. • PRMT5 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR.

  2. Solvent-derived protons in catalysis by brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Washabaugh, M W

    1995-10-31

    Catalysis of proton transfer to thiamin diphosphate (TDP) and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate (HETDP) by pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was investigated by determining the solvent discrimination tritium isotope effect, (kH/kT)disc, on the reaction of pyruvate to form acetaldehyde in the presence of the nonsubstrate allosteric effector pyruvamide. The fractionation factors for TDP C(2)-L (phi C(2) = 0.98 +/- 0.06) and HETDP C(alpha)-L (phi C(alpha) = 1.01 +/- 0.07) (L = H or D) do not contribute significantly to observed enzymic isotopic discrimination. The value of (kH/kT)disc = 1.0 for reprotonation of TDP C(2)-L under single-turnover conditions ([E] > [S]) is consistent with C(2)-hydron transfer via a catalytic group (phi = 1) equilibrated with solvent. [1-L]Acetaldehyde formation under transient steady-state ([E] or = 1.2) provides significant intramolecular catalysis in the enzyme-bound coenzyme.

  3. Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-06-25

    The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T. maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC.

  4. Measurement of activity for S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase using radioisotope {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyong Cheol; Park, Sang Hyun [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kamio, Yoshiyuku [Division of Bioscience and Biotechnology for Future Bioindustries, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    Polyamines are essential for normal cell growth and have important physiological function. They are polycationic compounds that are present in all biological materials. Also, they have been implicated in a wide variety of biological reactions. Generally, putrescine and spermidine are contained high amount in prokaryote, but spermidine and spermine are in eukaryote, respectively. However, S. ruminantium cells contain the polyamins such as spermidine and spermine. Addition of an aminopropyl group to putrescine conducts to the synthesis of spermidine. Aminopropyl group is derived from the dcSAM, a decarboxylation of S-adenosylmethionine, through action of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC). We suggested that S. ruminantium has a different pathway compare with prokaryote for polyamine synthesis. Assay for SAMDC activity was used {sup 14}C labeled substrate. Key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines, SAMDC, was purified from S. ruminantium and characterized. The enzyme was purified about 1,259-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity with a specific activity of 1.89×10{sup -5} kat kg'-{sup 1} of protein.

  5. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 expression by a distinct population of mouse vestibular supporting cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo eRusso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The function of the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD is to convert glutamate in -aminobutyric acid (GABA.GAD exists as two major isoforms, termed GAD65 and GAD67,.that are usually expressed in GABA-containing neurons in the central nervous system. GAD65 has been proposed to be associated with GABA exocytosis whereas GAD67 with GABA metabolism. In the present immunofluorescence study, we have investigated the presence of the two GAD isoforms in the semicircular canal cristae of wild type and GAD67-GFP knock-in mice. While no evidence for GAD65 expression was found, GAD67 was detected in a distinct population of peripherally-located supporting cells, but not in hair cells or in centrally-located supporting cells. GABA, on the other hand, was found in all supporting cells. The present result indicate that only a discrete population of supporting cells use GAD67 to synthesize GABA. This is the first report of a marker that allows to distinguish two populations of supporting cells in the vestibular epithelium. On the other hand, the lack of GABA and GAD enzymes in hair cells excludes its involvement in afferent transmission.

  6. Characterization of striatal neurons expressing high levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesselet, M F; Robbins, E

    1989-07-17

    Two types of labelled cells are detected in sections of rat and mouse striata processed for in situ hybridization histochemistry with 35S-radiolabelled RNA probes complementary to the messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the synthesis enzyme for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): numerous lightly, and fewer very densely labelled neurons. In order to determine whether the densely labelled cells correspond to the striatal somatostatinergic neurons with which they share morphological characteristics, the presence of GAD mRNA was examined in brain sections processed successively for dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase histochemistry, a marker of striatal somatostatinergic neurons, and in situ hybridization histochemistry. In addition, the distribution of GABAergic interneurons was analyzed with regard to striatal compartments (striosomes) indicated by patches of dense opiate binding sites. The results show that NADPH diaphorase activity and GAD mRNA do not co-exist in striatal neurons. Furthermore, in contrast to the somatostatinergic neurons which are almost exclusively located in the extrastriosomal matrix, densely labelled GAD cells were present both in the striosomes and the matrix, further suggesting that GABAergic and somatostatinergic neurons form two distinct interneuronal systems in the striatum of rats and mice.

  7. Characterization of an avian histidine decarboxylase and localization of histaminergic neurons in the chicken brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Yuki; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Maejima, Sho; Taniuchi, Shusuke; Masuda, Keiko; Shikano, Kenshiro; Kondo, Kunihiro; Furumitsu, Megumi; Ukena, Kazuyoshi

    2014-08-22

    In mammals, it is established that histamine is a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. It is produced by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus. However, HDC as well as histaminergic neurons have not yet been characterized in the avian brain. We have cloned the cDNA for HDC from the chicken hypothalamus and demonstrated that the chicken HDC sequence is highly homologous to the mammalian counterpart, and that the expressed protein shows high enzymatic activity. The expression of HDC mRNA at various sites in the brain was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the HDC mRNA was highly expressed in the hypothalamic infundibulum. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that the cells containing HDC mRNA were localized in the medial mammillary nucleus of the hypothalamic infundibulum. Intracerebroventricular injection of histamine in chicks resulted in inhibition of feeding behavior. This is the first report of the characterization of histaminergic neurons in the avian brain, and our findings indicate that neuronal histamine exerts anorexigenic effects in chicks.

  8. Immobilization and characterization of benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida on spherical silica carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Stephanie; Kara, Selin; Long, Wei Sing; Liese, Andreas; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2011-08-01

    If an adequate biocatalyst is identified for a specific reaction, immobilization is one possibility to further improve its properties. The immobilization allows easy recycling, improves the enzyme performance, and it often enhances the stability of the enzyme. In this work, the immobilization of the benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD) variant, BFD A460I-F464I, from Pseudomonas putida was accomplished on spherical silica. Silicagel is characterized by its high mechanical stability, which allows its application in different reactor types without restrictions. The covalently bound enzyme was characterized in terms of its activity, stability, and kinetics for the formation of chiral 2-hydroxypropiophenone (2-HPP) from benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Moreover, temperature as well as pressure dependency of immobilized BFD A460I-F464I activity and enantioselectivity were analyzed. The used wide-pore silicagel shows a good accessibility of the immobilized enzyme. The activity of the immobilized BFD A460I-F464I variant was determined to be 70% related to the activity of the free enzyme. Thereby, the enantioselectivity of the enzyme was not influenced by the immobilization. In addition, a pressure-induced change in stereoselectivity was found both for the free and for the immobilized enzyme. With increasing pressure, the enantiomeric excess (ee) of (R)-2-HPP can be increased from 44% (0.1 MPa) to 76% (200 MPa) for the free enzyme and from 43% (0.1 MPa) to 66% (200 MPa) for the immobilized enzyme.

  9. Ornithine decarboxylase expression in the small intestine of broilers submitted to feed restriction and glutamine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Fischer da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Six hundred and forty one-day-old Cobb male broilers were used to evaluate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC expression in the mucosa of the small intestine. Birds were submitted to early feed restriction from 7 to 14 days of age. The provided feed was supplemented with glutamine. A completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used (with or without glutamine, with or without feed restriction. Restricted-fed birds were fed at 30% the amount of the ad libitum fed group from 7 to 14 days of age. Glutamine was added at the level of 1% in the diet supplied from 1 to 28 days of age. Protein concentration in the small intestine mucosa was determined, and ODC expression at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age was evaluated by dot blotting. ODC was present in the mucosa of broilers, and the presence of glutamine in the diet increased ODC activation. Glutamine prevented mucosa atrophy by stimulating protein synthesis, and was effective against the effects of feed restriction. Dot blotting can be used to quantify ODC expression in the intestinal mucosa of broilers.

  10. Highly active and stable oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na⁺ pump complex for structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Michio; Li, Xiaodan

    2015-11-01

    The oxaloacetate decarboxylase primary Na(+) pump (Oad) produces energy for the surviving of some pathogenic bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Oad composes of three subunits: Oad-α, a biotinylated soluble subunit and catalyzes the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate; Oad-β, a transmembrane subunit and functions as a Na(+) pump; and Oad-γ, a single transmembrane α-helical anchor subunit and assembles Oad-α/β/γ complex. The molecular mechanism of Oad complex coupling the exothermic decarboxylation to generate the Na(+) electrochemical gradient remains unsolved. Our biophysical and biochemical studies suggested that the stoichiometry of Oad complex from Vibrio cholerae composed of α, β, γ in 4:2:2 stoichiometry not that of 4:4:4. The high-resolution structure determination of the Oad complex would reveal the energetic transformation mechanism from the catalytical soluble α subunit to membrane β subunit. Sufficient amount stable, conformational homogenous and active Oad complex with the right stoichiometry is the prerequisite for structural analysis. Here we report an easy and reproducible protocol to obtain high quantity and quality Oad complex protein for structural analysis.

  11. Developmental changes of glutamate acid decarboxylase 67 in mouse brain after hypoxia ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-Lin XU; Chang-Lian ZHU; Xiao-Yang WANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the developmental changes of glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 ( GAD-67, a GABA synthetic enzyme) in normal and hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain. Methods C57/BL6 mice on postnatal day (P) 5, 9, 21and 60, corresponding developmentally to premature, term, juvenile and adult human brain were investigated by using both Western blot and immunohistochemistry methods either in normal condition or after hypoxic ischemic insult. Results The immunoreactivity of GAD67 was up regulated with brain development and significant difference was seen between mature (P21, P60) and immature (P5, P9) brain. GAD67 immunoreactivity decreased in the ipsilateral hemisphere in all the ages after hypoxia ischemia (HI) insult, but, significant decrease was only seen in the immature brain. Double labeling of GAD67 and cell death marker, TUNEL, in the cortex at 8h post-HI in the P9 mice showed that (15.6 ±7.0)%TUNEL positive cells were GAD67 positive which was higher than that of P60 mice. Conclusion These data suggest that GABAergic neurons in immature brain were more vulnerable to HI insult than that of mature brain.

  12. Enzyme Architecture: The Activating Oxydianion Binding Domain for Orotidine 5′-Monophophate Decarboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Krisztina; Amyes, Tina L.; Richard, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase catalyzes the decarboxylation of truncated substrate (1-β-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid (EO) to form (1-β-D-erythrofuranosyl)uracil (EU). This enzymecatalyzed reaction is activated by tetrahedral oxydianions, which bind weakly to unliganded OMPDC and tightly to the enzyme-transition state complex, with the following intrinsic oxydianion binding energies (kcal/mole): SO32−, −8.3; HPO32−, −7.7; S2O32−, −4.6; SO42−, −4.5; HOPO32−, −3.0; HOAsO32−, no activation detected. We propose that oxydianion and orotate binding domains perform complementary functions in catalysis of decarboxylation reactions. (1) The orotate binding domain carries out decarboxylation of the orotate ring. (2) The activating oxydianion binding domain has the cryptic function of utilizing binding interactions with tetrahedral inorganic oxydianions to drive an enzyme conformational change that results in the stabilization of transition states at the distant orotate domain. PMID:24274746

  13. Enzyme architecture: the activating oxydianion binding domain for orotidine 5'-monophophate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Krisztina; Amyes, Tina L; Richard, John P

    2013-12-11

    Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase catalyzes the decarboxylation of truncated substrate (1-β-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid to form (1-β-D-erythrofuranosyl)uracil. This enzyme-catalyzed reaction is activated by tetrahedral oxydianions, which bind weakly to unliganded OMPDC and tightly to the enzyme-transition state complex, with the following intrinsic oxydianion binding energies (kcal/mol): SO3(2-), -8.3; HPO3(2-), -7.7; S2O3(2-), -4.6; SO4(2-), -4.5; HOPO3(2-), -3.0; HOAsO3(2-), no activation detected. We propose that the oxydianion and orotate binding domains of OMPDC perform complementary functions in catalysis of decarboxylation reactions: (1) The orotate binding domain carries out decarboxylation of the orotate ring. (2) The activating oxydianion binding domain has the cryptic function of utilizing binding interactions with tetrahedral inorganic oxydianions to drive an enzyme conformational change that results in the stabilization of transition states at the distant orotate domain.

  14. Molecular characterization of Mtb-OMP decarboxylase by modeling, docking and dynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudana, P; Babajan, B; Chaitanya, M; Anuradha, C M; Shobharani, C; Chikati, Rajasekar; Kumar, Chitta Suresh; Rao, K R S Sambasiva; Poda, Sudhakar

    2012-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), the second most deadly disease in the world is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In the present work a unique enzyme of Mtb orotidine 5' monophosphate decarboxylase (Mtb-OMP Decase) is selected as drug target due to its indispensible role in biosynthesis of pyrimidines. The present work is focused on understanding the structural and functional aspects of Mtb-OMP Decase at molecular level. Due to absence of crystal structure, the 3D structure of Mtb-OMP Decase was predicted by MODELLER9V7 using a known structural template 3L52. Energy minimization and refinement of the developed 3D model was carried out with Gromacs 3.2.1 and the optimized homology model was validated by PROCHECK,WHAT-IF and PROSA2003. Further, the surface active site amino acids were quantified by WHAT-IF pocket. The exact binding interactions of the ligands, 6-idiouridine 5' monophosphate and its designed analogues with the receptor Mtb-OMP Decase were predicted by docking analysis with AUTODOCK 4.0. This would be helpful in understanding the blockade mechanism of OMP Decase and provide a candidate lead for the discovery of Mtb-OMP Decase inhibitors, which may bring insights into outcome new therapy to treat drug resistant Mtb.

  15. Role of the Sulfonium Center in Determining the Ligand Specificity of Human S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bale, Shridhar; Brooks, Wesley; Hanes, Jeremiah W.; Mahesan, Arnold M.; Guida, Wayne C.; Ealick, Steven E.; (Moffitt); (Cornell)

    2009-08-13

    S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. Inhibition of this pathway and subsequent depletion of polyamine levels is a viable strategy for cancer chemotherapy and for the treatment of parasitic diseases. Substrate analogue inhibitors display an absolute requirement for a positive charge at the position equivalent to the sulfonium of S-adenosylmethionine. We investigated the ligand specificity of AdoMetDC through crystallography, quantum chemical calculations, and stopped-flow experiments. We determined crystal structures of the enzyme cocrystallized with 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-dimethylthioadenosine and 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-(N-dimethyl)amino-8-methyladenosine. The crystal structures revealed a favorable cation-{pi} interaction between the ligand and the aromatic side chains of Phe7 and Phe223. The estimated stabilization from this interaction is 4.5 kcal/mol as determined by quantum chemical calculations. Stopped-flow kinetic experiments showed that the rate of the substrate binding to the enzyme greatly depends on Phe7 and Phe223, thus supporting the importance of the cation-{pi} interaction.

  16. Partial purification and characterization of a novel histidine decarboxylase from Enterobacter aerogenes DL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Aili; Tian, Mixia

    2015-08-18

    Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) from Enterobacter aerogenes DL-1 was purified in a three-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed a single protein band of 52.4 kD on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimum pH for HDC activity was 6.5, and the enzyme was stable between pH 4 and 8. Enterobacter aerogenes HDC had optimal activity at 40°C and retained most of its activity between 4 and 50°C. HDC activity was reduced in the presence of numerous tested compounds. Particularly with SDS, it significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited enzyme activity. Conversely, Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) showed prominent activation effects (p < 0.01) with activity increasing to 117.20% and 123.42%, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot showed that K m and V max values of the enzyme for L-histidine were 0.21 mM and 71.39 µmol/min, respectively. In comparison with most HDCs from other microorganisms and animals, HDC from E. aerogenes DL-1 displayed higher affinity and greater reaction velocity toward L-histidine.

  17. [Enhancing glutamate decarboxylase activity by site-directed mutagenesis: an insight from Ramachandran plot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Piyu; Huang, Jun; Hu, Sheng; Zhao, Weirui; Lü, Changjiang; Yu, Kai; Lei, Yinlin; Wang, Jinbo; Mei, Lehe

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) can catalyze the decarboxylation of glutamate into γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and is the only enzyme of GABA biosynthesis. Improving GAD activity and thermostability will be helpful for the highly efficient biosynthesis of GABA. According to the Ramachandran plot information of GAD 1407 three-dimensional structure from Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC No. 1306, we identified the unstable site K413 as the mutation target, constructed the mutant GAD by site-directed mutagenesis and measured the thermostability and activity of the wide type and mutant GAD. Mutant K413A led to a remarkably slower inactivation rate, and its half-life at 50 °C reached 105 min which was 2.1-fold higher than the wild type GAD1407. Moreover, mutant K413I exhibited 1.6-fold higher activity in comparison with the wide type GAD1407, although it had little improvement in thermostability of GAD. Ramachandran plot can be considered as a potential approach to increase GAD thermostability and activity.

  18. Substrate Shuttling Between Active Sites of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase in Not Required to Generate Coproporphyrinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.; Warby, C; Whitby, F; Kushner, J; Hill, C

    2009-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D; EC 4.1.1.37), the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is required for the production of heme, vitamin B12, siroheme, and chlorophyll precursors. URO-D catalyzes the sequential decarboxylation of four acetate side chains in the pyrrole groups of uroporphyrinogen to produce coproporphyrinogen. URO-D is a stable homodimer, with the active-site clefts of the two subunits adjacent to each other. It has been hypothesized that the two catalytic centers interact functionally, perhaps by shuttling of reaction intermediates between subunits. We tested this hypothesis by construction of a single-chain protein (single-chain URO-D) in which the two subunits were connected by a flexible linker. The crystal structure of this protein was shown to be superimposable with wild-type activity and to have comparable catalytic activity. Mutations that impaired one or the other of the two active sites of single-chain URO-D resulted in approximately half of wild-type activity. The distributions of reaction intermediates were the same for mutant and wild-type sequences and were unaltered in a competition experiment using I and III isomer substrates. These observations indicate that communication between active sites is not required for enzyme function and suggest that the dimeric structure of URO-D is required to achieve conformational stability and to create a large active-site cleft.