Sample records for argentinian bufonid toads

  1. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey. (United States)

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram


    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between skin-parotoid secretions of bufonid toads might be remarkable candidates for anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities.

  2. Alkaloids from single skins of the Argentinian toad Melanophryniscus rubriventris (ANURA, BUFONIDAE): An unexpected variability in alkaloid profiles and a profusion of new structures. (United States)

    Garraffo, H Martin; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Vaira, Marcos; Quiroga, María F; Heit, Cecilia; Spande, Thomas F


    GC-MS analysis of single-skins of ten Melanophryniscus rubriventris toads (five collections of two toads each) captured during their breeding season in NW Argentina has revealed a total of 127 alkaloids of which 56 had not been previously detected in any frog or toad. Included among these new alkaloids are 23 new diastereomers of previously reported alkaloids. What is particularly distinguishing about the alkaloid profiles of these ten collections is the occurrence of many of the alkaloids, whether known or new to us, in only one of the ten skins sampled, despite two skins being obtained from each breeding site of the five populations. Many of the alkaloids are of classes known to have structures with branched-chains (e.g. pumiliotoxins and tricyclic structures) that are considered to derive from dietary mites. A large number of previously reported and new alkaloids are also of unclassified structures. Only a very few 3,5-disubstituted-indolizidine or -pyrrolizidine alkaloids are observed that have a straight-chain carbon skeleton and are likely derived from ant prey. The possible relationship of these collections made during the toad's brief breeding episodes to sequestration of dietary arthropods and individual alkaloid profiles is discussed.

  3. Niche overlap and resource partitioning among five sympatric bufonids (Anura, Bufonidae from northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I. Duré


    Full Text Available The niche overlap and resource partitioning were analyzed for five sympatric bufonids from Northeastern Argentina: Rhinella schneideri, R. bergi, R. fernandezae, R. granulosa, and Melanophryniscus cupreuscapularis. The primary objectives were to analyze the diet and pattern of coexistence relative to the microhabitats among species. The bufonids, which are primarily terrestrial, exhibited a preference for small, hard prey such as formicids or coleopterans. The smallest species preferably consumed ants, while R. schneideri preferred beetles. Significant differences were detected for the diets of these five species. In addition, significant overlap in the trophic niche was noted for all species except between R. granulosa and R. schneideri. Studying the diet behaviors and trophic parameters of sympatric species provides important data for understandingthe community and for the development of conservation guidelines.

  4. Recent fluctuations of the Argentinian glaciers (United States)

    Leiva, Juan Carlos


    Some of the results obtained in the glaciological research carried out since 1979 at the Argentinian Andes are shown in this paper. The research covers a wide latitudinal gap extending from the Agua Negra glacier in the province of San Juan to the Frı´as glacier situated at Mount Tronador. Agua Negra and Piloto glaciers show a very similar behavior of almost continuous retreat since 1965 while at the Plomo region a small advance period, starting in 1982, is observed in five of the 10 glaciers studied. Finally, the Frı´as glacier fluctuations record shows a very strong recession since 1850 only interrupted by the 1976 advance that continued in 1977.

  5. Argentinian doctors accused of spreading AIDS. (United States)

    Dyer, E


    The provincial ministry of health has taken over a dialysis center in La Plata, Argentina, following the discovery that at least 20 of the clinic's 34 regular patients have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Catheters of the clinic's dialysis machines were found to be contaminated with HIV. The 5 physicians associated with the Centro Modelo de Dialisis have been discharged for negligence. 20 of the regular patients also contracted hepatitis C. Argentinian law stipulates that filters for the same patient must be changed after 4 times and prohibits the use of the same vessel to administer medication to more than 1 patient. Testimony from nurses at the La Plata clinic revealed that filters were reused for several patients and basic sanitary procedures were not followed. In 1990, 33 kidney disease patients at a dialysis center in Cordoba became infected with HIV and it was discovered that filters had been used up to 8 times for different patients. The 5 La Plata physicians stand accused of "the culpable propagation of dangerous diseases."

  6. Chloride channels in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E


    A study of the voltage and time dependence of a transepithelial Cl- current in toad skin (Bufo bufo) by the voltage-clamp method leads to the conclusion that potential has a dual role for Cl- transport. One is to control the permeability of an apical membrane Cl-pathway, the other is to drive Cl...

  7. Diseases of frogs and toads (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.


    This chapter presents information on infectious diseases of free-living frogs and toads that have completed metamorphosis. The diseases discussed in this chapter pertain principally to sub-adult and adult frogs and toads that are at least 60-90 days removed from completion of metamorphosis. The main emphasis of this chapter is the diseases found in amphibians of Canada and the United States. Diseases of recent metamorphs, larvae and amphibian eggs are presented in the chapters Diseases of Amphibian Eggs and Embryos and Diseases of Tadpoles. The smallest disease agents (viruses and bacteria) are presented first, followed by fungi, protozoa, helminths and ectoparasites. Diseases presented in this chapter are Ranaviral (iridovirus) infection Lucke frog herpesvirus (kidney cancer) Frog erythrocytic virus West Nile virus Red-leg disease (bacterial septicemia) Salmonellosis Chytrid fungal infection Basidiobolus fungi Dermosporidiosis Ichthyophoniasis Dermocystidium & Dermomycoides Myxozoa Ribeiroia flukes and Amphibian malformations Clinostomum metacercaria Aspects of each disease are presented to assist the biologist with recognition of diseases in the field. Hence, the major emphases for identification of diseases are the epizootiological aspects (host species, life stage, casualty numbers, etc) and gross findings ('lesions'). Descriptions of the microscopical, ultrastructural and cultural characteristics of each infectious agent were considered beyond the scope of this text. Detailed cultural and microscopical features of these disease agents are available in other reviews (Taylor et al., 2001; Green, 2001). Some diseases, while common in captive and zoo amphibians, are exceptionally rare in free-living frogs and toads, and therefore are omitted from this review. Among the diseases not presented are infections by chlamydia and mycobacteria, which occur principally in captive colonies of African clawed frogs (Xenopus, Hymenochirus, et al.) and northern leopard frogs

  8. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K


    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...



    Zanasi, Cesare; Rota, Cosimo; Severi, Claudia; Demadonna, Anna


    The rapid expansion of Argentinian soy production, led by the increase in the international soy demand for food feed and biofuel production, deeply influenced the entire Argentinian society economy and environment. Genetically modified soy has become a strategic product for the Latin American country, strongly supporting the entire economy and the welfare state thanks to the income derived from soy production and export taxations. The influence of the GM soy production strongly modified in pa...

  10. Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads (United States)

    Tomazic, Iztok


    There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

  11. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa


    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  12. A review of the geology of the Argentinian Fuegian Andes (United States)

    Olivero, Eduardo B.; Martinioni, Daniel R.


    Seven stratigraphic units reflect the tectonic evolution of the Argentinian Fuegian Andes: Basement (Paleozoic-Jurassic); Lemaire Formation (Upper Jurassic); Yahgan-Beauvoir formations (Lower Cretaceous); Cerro Matrero Formation (Upper Cretaceous); Rı´o Claro Formation (Paleocene); La Despedida Group (Eocene); and Cabo Peña Formation (uppermost Eocene-Lower Oligocene). Basement rocks (garnet, quartz-sericite, and chlorite schists; and amphibolites) are unconformably covered by the Lemaire Formation (rhyolites; basalts; slates; and acidic volcaniclastic breccias, tuffs, conglomerates, and turbidites), formed during extensional tectonism. The post-rift Yahgan Formation (deep-marine black mudstones, andesitic volcaniclastic turbidites and tuffs) interfingers northward with the Beauvoir Formation (slope and platform black mudstones), and covers the Lemaire Formation unconformably. The Yahgan Formation represents an andesitic, volcaniclastic apron, coeval with a Pacific volcanic-arc, filling a marginal basin floored with oceanic crust. The Late Cretaceous compressional orogeny resulted in tectonic inversion, closure of the marginal basin, peak metamorphism and folding, and initial uplifting of the Fuegian Andes. By the latest Cretaceous-earliest Paleogene, the Andes were exposed to subaerial erosion, and the lowest Danian Rı´o Claro Formation bears clear evidence of an Andean clastic provenance. The Rı´o Claro Formation represents the first molasse deposits of the foreland stage of evolution of the Fuegian Andes. Earliest Paleogene north-verging thrust propagation deformed the Rı´o Claro Formation and older units, producing northward depocenter migration. La Despedida Group rests unconformably on the Rı´o Claro Formation and is involved in the thrust and fold belt. Important Eocene compression resulted in thrusting of central Andean basement schists and the Lemaire Formation over Lower Cretaceous and continental Paleogene rocks, respectively. In the

  13. Genetic polymorphism of milk protein loci in Argentinian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonvillani Adriana Gloria


    Full Text Available Some alleles of milk protein loci are associated with superior cheese production characteristics. The genetic polymorphism of the milk protein loci alphas1-casein, beta-casein, k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin was examined in Argentinian Holstein cattle. Samples from 12 herds of four regions of Córdoba were analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis. The chi² test was used to assess whether the populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genotypic diversity was analyzed by the Shannon-Weaver index. The observed genotypic frequencies were analyzed by Hedrick's genetic identity and the genetic distance of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were similar to those of other Holstein populations. The genotypic frequencies of the alphas1-casein and beta-casein loci were in equilibrium, whereas in some populations the k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin loci were not. According to the Shannon-Weaver index the total genetic diversity within each herd was greater than 96%. The high values of identity agreed with the low genetic distances among populations. We conclude that there is extensive genetic homogeneity in Holstein cattle in Córdoba Province and that it would be feasible to select for B alleles at the k-casein and b-lactoglobulin loci in order to improve the quality of milk available for cheese manufacturing.

  14. The Construction of National Memory Through Popular Culture. The Case of the Argentinian TV Show,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizondo Oviedo, María Verónica


    Full Text Available This article addresses the borders of the complex television sign through the analysis of the Argentinian TV show "Peter Capusotto y sus videos". In it we find that humor is used as a mechanism to dismantle binary hierarchic political and social oppositions. The program is presented as a musical and comedy TV show where concepts such as popular culture and mass culture are questioned through different false musicians. We focus our attention in the character of Bombita Rodríguez, el Palito Ortega montonero due to the controversy generated in the cultural scene by the fact of bringing up recent aspects of Argentinian history.

  15. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads (United States)

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.


    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Kinematics of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A three-dimensional motion force tester for animal was used to measure the reaction forces of the feet of a Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) against a horizontal solid surface on which it crawled. The motion behavior of the Chinese toad was recorded by a high-speed camera on line. The motor function of every foot was analyzed. It was found that the lateral force represents the control ability of side-to-side locomotion, controls the lateral movement, and maintains a stable state for the sustainable creeping gesture. The forefeet play the assistant role and the hind feet play the main role in driving. The normal force of the forefeet is significantly greater than that of the hind feet, so the forefeet play the main role in supporting the body and the hind feet play the assistant role. The normal force is significantly greater than the lateral force and the driving force as well. There is little change for the friction force and the support angle of the all four feet. The average value of the support angle is 70°–80°. The Chinese toad’s vola friction coefficient of the forefeet is less than that of the hind feet. The above results indicate that the difference in kinematics and the material characteristic of the contact skin of the Chinese toad. The results could be useful to the structure design and gait optimization of some robots.

  17. Final Critical Habitat for the Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) based on the description provided in the Federal...

  18. Foreign Policy and Political Culture: the Case of the Argentinian Democracy (1983-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Reficco


    Full Text Available Throughout the twelve years that have passed since the restoration of democracy in Argentina, the external political dynamics of the country experienced dramatic changes. We can distinguish between three periods structured according to clearly differentiated parametres: the search for independence (1983-1985, the change to realism (1985-1989 and the search to reconnect (1989-1995.At the same time, this evolution was accompanied by far-reaching transformations in the international system. These changes were reflected through the means of an emulative connection to Argentinian political life, modifying the terms of the consensus which sustained the external dynamics of the State. Argentinian political culture had to adapt itself to reality, to its own experience and to those signals coming from enviroment which indicated where -and where notitshould direct its energies in order to optimize results.From this re-reading of reality carried out by both political leaders and Argentinian public opinion, the president elected, regardless of the result of the 1989 elections, had instrumented a reorientation similar to the present one. In the same way, Menem’s successor will maintain, in broad termes, the current external dynamics in his country.

  19. Inadvertent Trypan Blue Staining of Posterior Capsule during Cataract Surgery Associated with “Argentinian Flag” Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Prinzi


    Full Text Available Trypan blue is common in visualizing the anterior capsule during cataract surgery. Inadvertent staining of the posterior capsule during phacoemulsification is a rare complication and there are few reports in the literature. The proposed mechanism of posterior capsule staining in previous reports includes a compromised zonular apparatus or iris retractors facilitating the posterior flow of trypan blue. We report the first case of trypan blue staining of the posterior capsule associated with the “Argentinian flag” sign. In our case, the “Argentinian flag” allowed the trypan blue to seep between the posterior capsule and the lens, staining the anterior surface of the posterior capsule.

  20. Determinants of Instrumental Extinction in Terrestrial Toads ("Bufo arenarum") (United States)

    Muzio, Ruben N.; Ruetti, Eliana; Papini, Mauricio R.


    Previous research in a water-reinforced instrumental training situation with toads ("Bufo arenarum") has shown that performance in both acquisition and extinction is poorer after partial, rather than continuous reinforcement training. In Experiment 1, the performance of a group receiving 24 trials on a 50% partial reinforcement schedule was poorer…

  1. Genetic differentiation between African and European Midwife Toads (Alytes, Discoglossidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; Szymura, J.M.


    Toads of the genus Alytes from the Rif mountains in Morocco are electrophoretically very similar to Iberian Alytes obstetricans (DieN = 0.07). Genetic distance estimates across the Straits of Gibraltar do not exceed the values found among European samples. The data point to relatively recent coloniz

  2. Behavior of toads, Bufo bufo, in a dynamic environment. (United States)

    Lychakov, D V


    Susceptibility to motion sickness was tested by exposing free moving toads to rotation of a stimulator modeled after an amusement park Ferris Wheel. The stimulator provided a gentle stimulation of frequency 0.25 Hz and centrifugal acceleration 0.143 g during 120 min or more without external visual cues. No emetic or prodromal behavioral response was elicited during or after rotation. During rotation the amount of motor activity in most toads increased evidently. The most active toads attempted to climb out of the test chamber. It was inferred that experimental rotation was rather a stressful stimulus which initiated an escape response. In addition, during rotation the number of eye retractions and urination incidences increased, but appetite after rotation was inhibited. During rotation the motionless toads performed small regular head movements with period equal to rotation period of stimulator. These oscillations were probably vestibular (otolith) reaction to oscillating acceleration. The proposed resonance hypothesis gives a general idea of why lower vertebrates are immune to motion sickness.

  3. The induction of neoplastic lesions by aflatoxin-B1 in the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis). (United States)

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A


    The carcinogenic activity of aflatoxin-B1, the metabolic product of the mold Aspergillus flavus (a commonly occurring contaminant of groundnuts and other foodstuffs), was tested using the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis). Injecting the toads with aflatoxin-B1 at a dose level of 0.01 mg/50 g body wt in 1 ml corn oil once a week for 15 weeks induced hepatocellular carcinomas in 19% of the experimental toads. Four toads developed tumors in the kidney due to metastases from the primary hepatocellular carcinomas.

  4. Fragility and environmental degradation in rural areas of the temperate arid argentinian diagonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Inés Gabella


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the climatic characteristics of Patagones district, located in the south of pampeana region (Argentina. We also determine its insertion into the temperate arid argentinian diagonal to understand it as a fragile area of climate transition, exposed to degradation processes derived from human action. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were combined in order to arrive to the objetive. The climatic characterization of the area was conducted by applying the water balance method and the calculation and analysis of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. It was found in Patagones district a permanent disconnection between natural and climatic conditions and the logics of capitalists’ production, which are not adapted to the natural conditions of the territory and have generated environmental degradation of the rural space.

  5. Study of the characteristic parameters of the normal voices of Argentinian speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Bonzi


    Full Text Available The voice laboratory permits to study the human voices using a method that is objective and noninvasive. In this work, we have studied the parameters of the human voice such as pitch, formant, jitter, shimmer and harmonic-noise ratio of a group of young people. This statistical information of parameters is obtained from Argentinian speakers. Received: 29 December 2013, Accepted: 27 May 2014; Reviewed by: J. Brum, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay; Edited by: E. Mizraji; DOI: Cite as: E V Bonzi, G B Grad, A M Maggi, M R Muñoz, Papers in Physics 6, 060002 (2014

  6. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis)


    Isioma Tongo; Lawrence Ezemonye; Uche Ochei


    The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxida...

  7. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California (United States)

    Gallegos, Elizabeth; Lyren, Lisa M.; Lovich, Robert E.; Mitrovich, Milan J.; Fisher, Robert N.


    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest.

  8. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo


    Full Text Available The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT, with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.

  9. Fatal attraction: adaptations to prey on native frogs imperil snakes after invasion of toxic toads. (United States)

    Hagman, Mattias; Phillips, Benjamin L; Shine, Richard


    Adaptations that enhance fitness in one situation can become liabilities if circumstances change. In tropical Australia, native snake species are vulnerable to the invasion of toxic cane toads. Death adders (Acanthophis praelongus) are ambush foragers that (i) attract vertebrate prey by caudal luring and (ii) handle anuran prey by killing the frog then waiting until the frog's chemical defences degrade before ingesting it. These tactics render death adders vulnerable to toxic cane toads (Bufo marinus), because toads elicit caudal luring more effectively than do native frogs, and are more readily attracted to the lure. Moreover, the strategy of delaying ingestion of a toad after the strike does not prevent fatal poisoning, because toad toxins (unlike those of native frogs) do not degrade shortly after the prey dies. In our laboratory and field trials, half of the death adders died after ingesting a toad, showing that the specialized predatory behaviours death adders use to capture and process prey render them vulnerable to this novel prey type. The toads' strong response to caudal luring also renders them less fit than native anurans (which largely ignored the lure): all toads bitten by adders died. Together, these results illustrate the dissonance in behavioural adaptations that can arise following the arrival of invasive species, and reveal the strong selection that occurs when mutually naive species first interact.

  10. Determining the effects of cattle grazing treatments on Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus in montane meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K McIlroy

    Full Text Available Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA, managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY. Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010, Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models.

  11. All-optical pseudorandom bit sequences generator based on TOADs (United States)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Chongqing; Wang, Fu; Li, Qiang


    A scheme for all-optical pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS) generator is demonstrated with optical logic gate 'XNOR' and all-optical wavelength converter based on cascaded Tera-Hertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOADs). Its feasibility is verified by generation of return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) 263-1 PRBS at the speed of 1 Gb/s with 10% duty radio. The high randomness of ultra-long cycle PRBS is validated by successfully passing the standard benchmark test.

  12. Argentinian pistachio oil and flour: a potential novel approach of pistachio nut utilization. (United States)

    Martínez, Marcela Lilian; Fabani, María Paula; Baroni, María Verónica; Huaman, Rocío Nahime Magrini; Ighani, Marcelo; Maestri, Damián M; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela Egly


    In order to searching a potential novel approach to pistachio utilization, the chemical and nutritional quality of oil and flour from natural, roasted, and salted roasted pistachios from Argentinian cultivars were evaluated. The pistachio oil has high contents of oleic and linoleic acid (53.5 - 55.3, 29 - 31.4 relative abundance, respectively), tocopherols (896 - 916 μg/g oil), carotenoids (48 - 56 μg/g oil) and chlorophylls (41 - 70 μg/g oil), being a good source for commercial edible oil production. The processing conditions did not affect significantly the fatty acid and minor composition of pistachio oil samples. The content of total phenolic (TP) and flavonoids (FL) was not significantly modified by the roasting process, whereas free radical scavenging (DPPH radical) and antioxidant power decreased in a 20% approximately. Furthermore, salted roasted pistachio flour (SRPF) showed a significant decrease in TP and FL content in comparison to others samples. The phenolic profile of pistachio flours evaluated by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS. The major compounds identified were (+)-catechin (38 - 65.6 μg/g PF d.w.), gallic acid (23 - 36 μg/g PF d.w.) and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (21 - 23 μg/g PF d.w.). The treatments effects on the phenolics constituents of pistachio flour. Roasting caused a significant reduction of some phenolics, gallic acid and (+)- catechin, and increased others, naringenin and luteolin. Salting and roasting of pistachio increased garlic acid and naringenin content.

  13. Remote Sensing of Snow as a Tool to Forecast Water Shortage in the Argentinian Dry Andes (United States)

    Delbart, Nicolas; Dunesme, Samuel; Lavie, Emilie; Madelin, Malika


    In the Argentinian Dry Andes the annual snow melt is the main source of superficial water and aquifer recharge, essential for the population of the oases. Interannual variability in the snow cover in the Andes mountains causes variability in the water volumes available. In this study we analyze the errors of a water discharge forecast method based on the MODIS MOD10A2 snow cover product, with regards to the mass anomalies estimated by GRACE satellite at the scale of four watersheds.Because the high-water period (September-April) discharge is directly related to the snow extent at the beginning of the snowmelt period, i.e. in September and October, we use MOD10A2 images to forecast the average high water season discharge. Despite an average uncertainty of 15%, uncertainty peaks to about 50% in several years. Comparison with mass anomalies retrieved GRACE satellite data suggests that overestimation of our forecast method comes from snowbed thickness interannual variations.

  14. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa (United States)

    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.


    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  15. Winter hibernation and UCHL1-p34cdc2 association in toad oocyte maturation competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Kuang

    Full Text Available Currently, it is believed that toad oocyte maturation is dependent on the physiological conditions of winter hibernation. Previous antibody-blocking experiments have demonstrated that toad ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (tUCHL1 is necessary for germinal vesicle breakdown during toad oocyte maturation. In this paper, we first supply evidence that tUCHL1 is highly evolutionarily conserved. Then, we exclude protein availability and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase enzyme activity as factors in the response of oocytes to winter hibernation. In the context of MPF (maturation promoting factor controlling oocyte maturation and to further understand the role of UCHL1 in oocyte maturation, we performed adsorption and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using toad oocyte protein extracts and determined that tUCHL1 is associated with MPF in toad oocytes. Recombinant tUCHL1 absorbed p34(cdc2, a component of MPF, in obviously larger quantities from mature oocytes than from immature oocytes, and p13(suc1 was isolated from tUCHL1 with a dependence on the ATP regeneration system, suggesting that still other functions may be involved in their association that require phosphorylation. In oocytes from hibernation-interrupted toads, the p34(cdc2 protein level was significantly lower than in oocytes from toads in artificial hibernation, providing an explanation for the different quantities isolated by recombinant tUCHL1 pull-down and, more importantly, identifying a mechanism involved in the toad oocyte's dependence on a low environmental temperature during winter hibernation. Therefore, in toads, tUCHL1 binds p34(cdc2 and plays a role in oocyte maturation. However, neither tUCHL1 nor cyclin B1 respond to low temperatures to facilitate oocyte maturation competence during winter hibernation.

  16. The accreditation process of careers in MERCOSUR: would the veterinary career in Uruguay achieve accreditation in accordance with the required standards of the Argentinian and Brazilian agencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Passarini


    Full Text Available MERCOSUR created the ARCU-SUR system as a regional mechanism for accreditation of undergraduate programmes. The Veterinary career in Uruguay achieved accreditation by ARCU-SUR in 2010. As re-accreditation approaches an evaluation of the career with the Brazilian and Argentinian national standards of accreditation was simulated due to their strong influence on the definition of the regional criteria. Institutional self-assessment was updated and compared with the accreditation indicators of the Brazilian and Argentinian agencies. The idea of quality of the accreditation system in Brazil emphasizes the training of the teaching staff while in Argentina emphasizes the teaching and learning processes. The career could achieve accreditation with the Argentinian parameters but should improve aspects of the academic training of their teachers to achieve accreditation in Brazil. This work made it possible to adjust the Development Plan of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.

  17. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ohler


    Full Text Available The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems.

  18. Sensory feedback and coordinating asymmetrical landing in toads. (United States)

    Cox, S M; Gillis, Gary B


    Coordinated landing requires anticipating the timing and magnitude of impact, which in turn requires sensory input. To better understand how cane toads, well known for coordinated landing, prioritize visual versus vestibular feedback during hopping, we recorded forelimb joint angle patterns and electromyographic data from five animals hopping under two conditions that were designed to force animals to land with one forelimb well before the other. In one condition, landing asymmetry was due to mid-air rolling, created by an unstable takeoff surface. In this condition, visual, vestibular and proprioceptive information could be used to predict asymmetric landing. In the other, animals took off normally, but landed asymmetrically because of a sloped landing surface. In this condition, sensory feedback provided conflicting information, and only visual feedback could appropriately predict the asymmetrical landing. During the roll treatment, when all sensory feedback could be used to predict an asymmetrical landing, pre-landing forelimb muscle activity and movement began earlier in the limb that landed first. However, no such asymmetries in forelimb preparation were apparent during hops onto sloped landings when only visual information could be used to predict landing asymmetry. These data suggest that toads prioritize vestibular or proprioceptive information over visual feedback to coordinate landing.

  19. The weight of «tradition» in multilateral commercial negotiations. The argentinian case during the Doha Round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Zelicovich


    Full Text Available The article studies the impact of ‘tradition’ as a variable inside the analyses of foreign policy. For that end, it considers a particular case, the participation of Argentina in multilateral commercial negotiations. The central argument signals that, for Argentina, the negotiating tradition has had an important role as a guidance in foreign policy actions regarding multilateral commercial negotiations, especially in the moments of crisis. In addition, that, within this tradition, the main variable in the configuration of Argentinian options has been the development strategy.

  20. Vascular aspects of water uptake mechanisms in the toad skin: perfusion, diffusion, confusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels; Viborg, Arne L; Hillyard, Stanley D


    Blood cell flow (BCF) in the water absorbing "seat patch" region of toad skin was measured with laser Doppler flow cytometry. BCF of dehydrated toads increased by a factor of 6-8 when water contact was made and declined gradually as toads rehydrated. Water absorption was initially stimulated...... and declined in parallel with BCF. Water absorption measured during the initial rehydration period did not correlate with BCF and hydrated toads injected with AVT increased water absorption without an increase in BCF indicating the lack of an obligate relation between blood flow and water absorption...... coupling explains the greater absorption from dilute salt solutions. Rehydration from 10 mM CaCl2 was stimulated above that of DI water by a similar degree as with 50 mM NaCl suggesting the anion might control water permeability of the skin....

  1. Towed Optical Assessment Device (TOAD) Data to Support Benthic Habitat Mapping since 2001 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  2. Temperature, hydric environment, and prior pathogen exposure alter the experimental severity of chytridiomycosis in boreal toads (United States)

    Murphy, Peter J.; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Corn, Paul Stephen


    Prevalence of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), implicated in amphibian population declines worldwide, is associated with habitat moisture and temperature, but few studies have varied these factors and measured the response to infection in amphibian hosts. We evaluated how varying humidity, contact with water, and temperature affected the manifestation of chytridiomycosis in boreal toads Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas and how prior exposure to Bd affects the likelihood of survival after re-exposure, such as may occur seasonally in long-lived species. Humidity did not affect survival or the degree of Bd infection, but a longer time in contact with water increased the likelihood of mortality. After exposure to ~106 Bd zoospores, all toads in continuous contact with water died within 30 d. Moreover, Bd-exposed toads that were disease-free after 64 d under dry conditions, developed lethal chytridiomycosis within 70 d of transfer to wet conditions. Toads in unheated aquaria (mean = 15°C) survived less than 48 d, while those in moderately heated aquaria (mean = 18°C) survived 115 d post-exposure and exhibited behavioral fever, selecting warmer sites across a temperature gradient. We also found benefits of prior Bd infection: previously exposed toads survived 3 times longer than Bd-naïve toads after re-exposure to 106 zoospores (89 vs. 30 d), but only when dry microenvironments were available. This study illustrates how the outcome of Bd infection in boreal toads is environmentally dependent: when continuously wet, high reinfection rates may overwhelm defenses, but periodic drying, moderate warming, and previous infection may allow infected toads to extend their survival.

  3. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis detected in Kihansi spray toads at a captive breeding facility (Kihansi, Tanzania). (United States)

    Makange, Mariam; Kulaya, Neema; Biseko, Emiliana; Kalenga, Parson; Mutagwaba, Severinus; Misinzo, Gerald


    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the aetiological agent of amphibian chytridiomycosis, a disease associated with global amphibian population declines. In November 2012, mass mortalities of Kihansi spray toads Nectophrynoides asperginis were observed at the Kihansi captive breeding facility, located in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Mortalities increased rapidly, and dead toads showed typical clinical signs of chytridiomycosis, including reddening of the skin that was especially evident on the toe pads. Treatment of toads with itraconazole rapidly reduced mortalities. Dead toads (n = 49) were collected and used to perform Bd-specific polymerase chain reaction and subsequent nucleotide sequencing. All toads collected at the facility were positive for Bd. The obtained Bd 5.8S rRNA gene and flanking internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) were not 100% identical to any other Bd sequences in GenBank, but closely resembled isolates from Ecuador, Japan, USA, Brazil, Korea, and South Africa. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting molecular characteristics of Bd isolated from the Udzungwa Mountains. Strict biosecurity measures at the breeding facility and in Kihansi spray wetlands where toads have been reintroduced have been implemented. Further studies on Bd epidemiology in the Udzungwa Mountains are recommended in order to understand its origin, prevalence, and molecular characteristics in wild amphibian populations. This will be important for conservation of several endemic amphibian species in the Udzungwa Mountains, which are part of the Eastern Arc Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot.

  4. Origin and genome evolution of polyploid green toads in Central Asia: evidence from microsatellite markers. (United States)

    Betto-Colliard, C; Sermier, R; Litvinchuk, S; Perrin, N; Stöck, M


    Polyploidization, which is expected to trigger major genomic reorganizations, occurs much less commonly in animals than in plants, possibly because of constraints imposed by sex-determination systems. We investigated the origins and consequences of allopolyploidization in Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) from Central Asia, with three ploidy levels and different modes of genome transmission (sexual versus clonal), to (i) establish a topology for the reticulate phylogeny in a species-rich radiation involving several closely related lineages and (ii) explore processes of genomic reorganization that may follow polyploidization. Sibship analyses based on 30 cross-amplifying microsatellite markers substantiated the maternal origins and revealed the paternal origins and relationships of subgenomes in allopolyploids. Analyses of the synteny of linkage groups identified three markers affected by translocation events, which occurred only within the paternally inherited subgenomes of allopolyploid toads and exclusively affected the linkage group that determines sex in several diploid species of the green toad radiation. Recombination rates did not differ between diploid and polyploid toad species, and were overall much reduced in males, independent of linkage group and ploidy levels. Clonally transmitted subgenomes in allotriploid toads provided support for strong genetic drift, presumably resulting from recombination arrest. The Palearctic green toad radiation seems to offer unique opportunities to investigate the consequences of polyploidization and clonal transmission on the dynamics of genomes in vertebrates.

  5. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Description of tadpole stages of the Malabar Tree Toad Pedostibes tuberculosis Gunther, 1875 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Dinesh


    Full Text Available Pedostibes tuberculosus, the Malabar tree toad, was described 137 years ago from the Malabar region (now the coastal parts of Kerala of the Western Ghats. Since the description of this arboreal toad, not much information is available on the natural history, breeding habits and life cycle except for its description, range of distribution and advertisement call details. In the present account, the tadpole stages of this toad from Gosner tadpole Stage 21 to 45 are presented and the phytotelmatic mode of life of this toad has been confirmed by locating the tadpoles within the Ochlandra reed culm.

  6. A challenge of regional integration: the Southern Argentinian pipeline enlargement; Desafio de integracao regional: ampliacao do gasoduto Sul-Argentino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardi, Oscar; Sosa, Damian [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Duarte Filho, Arno [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The enlargement of the pipelines of Southern Argentina comprised the construction of around 500 km of 30' and 36' loops in the first semester of 2005 and presented many peculiarities. It has been the first enlargement of the argentinian pipeline system since the country's default statement, in 2001, and it has been financed and built by a bi national Brazilian-Argentinian consortium. It has also been the first time that a governmental trusteeship has been used in such an enterprise in Argentina to guarantee the necessary funds. The increasing demand of natural gas to industries and power generation plants brought about by Argentina's recent growth has stated the sense of urgency: the construction must be on duty in June 2005, ready to increase de flow of gas to the Provincia de Buenos Aires and Great Buenos Aires regions. This has represented also a technical challenge, due to the small time to built the loops, the geographical distribution of the construction, which extends from Patagonia to the Great Buenos Aires region and the meteorological conditions of the period of the construction. The article describes the negotiations done to assemble the construction's financial and managerial frameworks, the building and the solutions found to face the challenge and to meet the deadline. (author)

  7. The All Optical New Universal Gate Using TOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Kumar Maity


    Full Text Available Since the seventies of the past century the reversible logic has originated as an unconventional form of computing. It is new relatively in the area of extensive applications in quantum computing, low power CMOS, DNA computing, digital signal processing (DSP, nanotechnology, communication, optical computing, computer graphics, bio information, etc .Here we present and configure a new TAND gate in all-optical domain and also in this paper we have explained their principle of operations and used a theoretical model to fulfil this task, finally supporting through numerical simulations. In the field of ultra-fast all-optical signal processing Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD, semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA-based, has an important function. The different logical (composing of Boolean function operations can be executed by designed circuits with TAND gate in the domain of universal logic-based information processing.

  8. Detection of single photons by toad and mouse rods. (United States)

    Reingruber, Jürgen; Pahlberg, Johan; Woodruff, Michael L; Sampath, Alapakkam P; Fain, Gordon L; Holcman, David


    Amphibian and mammalian rods can both detect single photons of light even though they differ greatly in physical dimensions, mammalian rods being much smaller in diameter than amphibian rods. To understand the changes in physiology and biochemistry required by such large differences in outer segment geometry, we developed a computational approach, taking into account the spatial organization of the outer segment divided into compartments, together with molecular dynamics simulations of the signaling cascade. We generated simulations of the single-photon response together with intrinsic background fluctuations in toad and mouse rods. Combining this computational approach with electrophysiological data from mouse rods, we determined key biochemical parameters. On average around one phosphodiesterase (PDE) molecule is spontaneously active per mouse compartment, similar to the value for toad, which is unexpected due to the much smaller diameter in mouse. A larger number of spontaneously active PDEs decreases dark noise, thereby improving detection of single photons; it also increases cGMP turnover, which accelerates the decay of the light response. These constraints explain the higher PDE density in mammalian compared with amphibian rods that compensates for the much smaller diameter of mammalian disks. We further find that the rate of cGMP hydrolysis by light-activated PDE is diffusion limited, which is not the case for spontaneously activated PDE. As a consequence, in the small outer segment of a mouse rod only a few activated PDEs are sufficient to generate a signal that overcomes noise, which permits a shorter lifetime of activated rhodopsin and greater temporal resolution.

  9. Influence of demography and environment on persistence in toad populations (United States)

    Lambert, Brad A.; Schorr, Robert A.; Schneider, Scott C.; Muths, Erin L.


    Effective conservation of rare species requires an understanding of how potential threats affect population dynamics. Unfortunately, information about population demographics prior to threats (i.e., baseline data) is lacking for many species. Perturbations, caused by climate change, disease, or other stressors can lead to population declines and heightened conservation concerns. Boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) have undergone rangewide declines due mostly to the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), with only a few sizable populations remaining in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, that are disease-free. Despite the apparent region-wide occurrence of Bd, our focal populations in central Colorado were disease free over a 14-year capture-mark-recapture study until the recent discovery of Bd at one of the sites. We used recapture data and the Pradel reverse-time model to assess the influence of environmental and site-specific conditions on survival and recruitment. We then forecast changes in the toad populations with 2 growth models; one using an average lambda value to initiate the projection, and one using the most recent value to capture potential effects of the incursion of disease into the system. Adult survival was consistently high at the 3 sites, whereas recruitment was more variable and markedly low at 1 site. We found that active season moisture, active season length, and breeding shallows were important factors in estimating recruitment. Population growth models indicated a slight increase at 1 site but decreasing trends at the 2 other sites, possibly influenced by low recruitment. Insight into declining species management can be gained from information on survival and recruitment and how site-specific environmental factors influence these demographic parameters. Our data are particularly useful because they provide baseline data on demographics in populations before a disease outbreak and enhance our ability to detect changes

  10. Determination of pesticide aerial drift and associated effects to the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson and Hutton National Wildlife Refuges and potential reintroduction sites (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad is confined to Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the decline of the toad are unknown, but it is...

  11. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads (United States)

    Pilliod, D.S.; Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Bartelt, P.E.; Corn, P.S.; Hossack, B.R.; Lambert, B.A.; Mccaffery, R.; Gaughan, C.


    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect of the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]; the agent of chytridiomycosis) on survival probability and population growth rate. Toads that were infected with Bd had lower average annual survival probability than uninfected individuals at sites where Bd was detected, which suggests chytridiomycosis may reduce survival by 31-42% in wild boreal toads. Toads that were negative for Bd at infected sites had survival probabilities comparable to toads at the uninfected site. Evidence that environmental covariates (particularly cold temperatures during the breeding season) influenced toad survival was weak. The number of individuals in diseased populations declined by 5-7%/year over the 6 years of the study, whereas the uninfected population had comparatively stable population growth. Our data suggest that the presence of Bd in these toad populations is not causing rapid population declines. Rather, chytridiomycosis appears to be functioning as a low-level, chronic disease whereby some infected individuals survive but the overall population effects are still negative. Our results show that some amphibian populations may be coexisting with Bd and highlight the importance of quantitative assessments of survival in diseased animal populations. Journal compilation. ?? 2010 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original US government works.

  12. Thermal ecology of the post-metamorphic Andean toad (Rhinella spinulosa) at elevation in the monte desert, Argentina. (United States)

    Sanabria, Eduardo A; Rodríguez, César Y; Vergara, Cristina; Ontivero, Emanuel; Banchig, Mariana; Navas, Ana L; Herrera-Morata, Mario A; Quiroga, Lorena B


    Rhinella spinulosa is an anuran toad species distributed latitudinal and altitudinal (1200-5000m) from Peru to Argentina, inhabiting mountain valleys in the Andes. Considering the broad range of habitats where they live, it is important to understand the thermal physiological mechanisms, thermal tolerances and physiological adaptations for surviving in rigorous environments. We investigated the thermal parameters (field body temperature, selected body temperature, locomotor performance in field and laboratory conditions, and thermal extremes) during diurnal activity for a population of juvenile, post-metamorphosed toads (Rhinella spinulosa) from the Monte Desert of San Juan, Argentina. Post-metamorphic toads are active from approximately 1100-1900 (in contrast to nocturnal adult toads). Our findings show that these toads have a wide thermal tolerance range, ranging from a critical thermal maximum of 36.9°C to crystallization temperatures below 0°C. During their active period, toads always showed suboptimal thermal conditions for locomotion. Despite the suboptimal condition for the locomotion, diurnal activity is likely to confer thermal advantages, allowing them to search for food and increase digestion and growth rates. We also found that the toads are capable of super-cooling, which prevents mortality from freezing when the environmental temperatures drop below 0°C. The environmental temperatures are below zero at night, when toads are inactive and take refuge under rocks. In summary, this toad population demonstrates high thermal plasticity, as shown by a relatively high level of activity sustained over a wide range of ambient temperature (~35°C). These thermal adaptations allow this species of juvenile toads to inhabit a wide range of altitudes and latitudes.

  13. Mapping the Relative Probability of Common Toad Occurrence in Terrestrial Lowland Farm Habitat in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie D Salazar

    Full Text Available The common toad (Bufo bufo is of increasing conservation concern in the United Kingdom (UK due to dramatic population declines occurring in the past century. Many of these population declines coincided with reductions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat availability and quality and have been primarily attributed to the effect of agricultural land conversion (of natural and semi-natural habitats to arable and pasture fields and pond drainage. However, there is little evidence available to link habitat availability with common toad population declines, especially when examined at a broad landscape scale. Assessing such patterns of population declines at the landscape scale, for instance, require an understanding of how this species uses terrestrial habitat.We intensively studied the terrestrial resource selection of a large population of common toads in Oxfordshire, England, UK. Adult common toads were fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags to allow detection in the terrestrial environment using a portable PIT antenna once toads left the pond and before going into hibernation (April/May-October 2012 and 2013. We developed a population-level resource selection function (RSF to assess the relative probability of toad occurrence in the terrestrial environment by collecting location data for 90 recaptured toads.The predicted relative probability of toad occurrence for this population was greatest in wooded habitat near to water bodies; relative probability of occurrence declined dramatically > 50 m from these habitats. Toads also tended to select habitat near to their breeding pond and toad occurrence was negatively related to urban environments.

  14. Isotopic and fluid-inclusion constraints on the formation of polymetallic vein deposits in the central Argentinian Patagonia (United States)

    Dejonghe, Léon; Darras, Benoît; Hughes, Guillermo; Muchez, Philippe; Scoates, James S.; Weis, Dominique


    The lead isotope compositions of galena and the fluid-inclusion systematics of nine barite-bearing polymetallic (Au, Ag, Pb, Zn) deposits of the central Argentinian Patagonia (Chubut and Rio Negro provinces) have been investigated to constrain the compositions and sources of the mineralizing fluids. Most of the deposits occur as veins, with less common wall-rock disseminations and/or stockworks, and are low-sulfidation epithermal deposits hosted in Jurassic volcanic rocks. Fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures (Th) from quartz and sphalerite from the deposits fall within the range of 100-300 °C, with the highest measured average temperatures for the most eastern deposits (Mina Angela - 298 °C; Cañadón Bagual - 343 °C). The salinities of the hydrothermal fluids at all deposits were low to moderate (≤10.4 equiv. wt% NaCl). Three groups of ore deposits can be defined on the basis of 206Pb/204Pb ratios for galena and these show a general decrease from west to east (from 18.506 to 18.000). The central Argentinian Patagonia deposits have distinctly less radiogenic lead isotope compositions than similar deposits from Peru and Chile, except for the porphyry copper deposits of central and southern Peru. Galena from the Mina Angela deposit is characterized by very low radiogenic lead isotope compositions (18.000Precambrian basement. The geographic trend in lead isotope compositions of both galena and whole rocks indicates a crustal contribution which increases eastwards, also reflected in the strontium-neodymium isotope systematics of the host lavas. Finally, due to the lack of precise age determinations for the central Patagonian polymetallic deposits, a potential link with Andean porphyry copper systems remains an open question.

  15. Population and habitat viability assessment for the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri): Final workshop report (United States)


    The Wyoming toad was discovered by Dr. George Baxter in 1946 and was originally known as Bufo hemiophrys baxteri until 1998 when it was given full species status as Bufo baxteri. The toad is thought to be a glacial relic always found only in the Laramie Basin. It was originally known from many breeding sites in the floodplains of the Big and Little Laramie Rivers. Later, after irrigation practices changed the nature of the floodpains, it was found along margins of ponds and small seepage lakes between 7,000 and 7,500 feet. Baxter and others monitored breeding sites for more than 30 years, with few toads seen or heard from 1975 to 1979. An extensive survey of the Laramie Basin in 1980 found only one population.

  16. Optimizing the performance of TOAD by changing the wavelength and power of control pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangsheng Wen(温亮生); Peng Zuo(左鹏); Jian Wu(伍剑); Jintong Lin(林金桐)


    The performance of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) has been studied by modelling the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in which the intraband effects had been taken into account.Numerical results are coincident with the experiment results. We interpret why there are three peaks in the switching window, which has never been reported before. In addition, we put forward the definition of the flatness of the switching window of TOAD for the first time By analysing the different phase of clockwise and counter clockwise signal pulse changed by SOA, appropriate peak power of control pulse and wavelength of signal and control pulse have been calculated in order to obtain large output power and flat switching window of TOAD.

  17. Effects of age, weight, hormones, and hibernation on breeding success in boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas). (United States)

    Roth, T L; Szymanski, D C; Keyster, E D


    The goals of this study were to test the effects of exogenous hormones and hibernation on breeding behavior and gamete release by boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas). Each year, a subset of 77 toads was hibernated and then paired with hibernated or nonhibernated mates and treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or left untreated. Amplexus and egg and sperm production were recorded. At 1 yr of age, only 19% of pairs exhibited amplexus, and no sperm or eggs were produced. At 2 and 3 yr of age, most male toads treated with LHRHa exhibited amplexus (56.9% and 100%, respectively). Among 2-yr-old males, amplexus was more prevalent (Pbreeding success, males should be hibernated and treated with LHRHa. In contrast, female productivity was enhanced by improving their body condition instead of subjecting them to hibernation prior to LHRHa treatment.

  18. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation (United States)

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver


    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad ( Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  19. Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping


    Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary


    Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the lim...

  20. The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) for the Argentinian, Scout-launched satelite de Aplicaciones Cienficas-1 (SAC-1) (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Crannell, Carol JO; Desai, Upendra D.; Orwig, Larry E.; Kiplinger, Alan L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Machado, Marcos; Wood, Kent


    The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) is one of four instruments on SAC-1, the Argentinian satellite being proposed for launch by NASA on a Scout rocket in 1992/3. The FIXS is designed to provide solar flare images at X-ray energies between 5 and 35 keV. Observations will be made on arcsecond size scales and subsecond time scales of the processes that modify the electron spectrum and the thermal distribution in flaring magnetic structures.

  1. [Lectin histochemistry of the Bufo marinus L. toad tongue]. (United States)

    González Elorriaga, M; Jaloveckas, D; Salazar de Candelle, M


    Lectin histochemistry at light microscope level was used in the tongue of the cane toad Bufo marinus to determine the distribution of sugar residues in glycoconjugates (GCs) previously localized and characterized by conventional histochemical techniques. Five horseradish-peroxidase (HRP) labeled-lectins, namely Con A, PNA, SBA, UEA-1 and WGS were used. Additionally, neuraminidase (N) treated sections before the staining procedures were used in order to dilucidate the presence of terminal sialic acid (SA). Sugar residues in GCs of the taste organ (TO) associated mucous cells stained more intensely with WGA than with Con A and UEA-1. All the sensory cells reacted with Con A and WGA but one type of them were characteristically labeled by UEA-1. The glycocalix (gc) of the TOs resulted intensely stained with Con A and with WGA and UEA-1 before and after N treatment. The GCs in the mucous-supporting cells of dorsal mucosae filiform papillae and folds reacted intensely with WGA and weakly with Con A. The ciliated cells (cic) were intense and characteristically stained with UEA-1 and WGA and moderately with Con A. The gc reacted more intensely with WGA than with Con A. Dorsal mucosae glands secretory cells mucins were characteristically stained with PNA, SBA and WGA besides Con A, while glandular ciliated cells showed the same staining pattern as in the filiform papillae. In the ventral mucosa all epithelium cells resulted stained with WGA and Con A, while differentiated goblet cells only reacted as well with UEA-1 and PNA before and after neuraminidase treatment. Unexpectedly, ciliated ventral mucosae cells did not react with UEA-1 but only with WGA and Con A. The results have shown that lectin histochemistry is an interesting tool to characterize similarities and differences in the lingual GCs sugar residues composition and distribution, particularly those located in epithelial cells.

  2. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus). (United States)

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B


    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and smaller in the toad. In contrast, granulated juxtaglomerular arteriolar myoephithelial cells were much more readily found and larger in the toad than in the axolotl. No consistent differences were noted in juxtaglomerular cells or their granules in response to changes in environmental chloride concentration.

  3. Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Qi


    Full Text Available Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini which was developed for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV and several types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action of Chansu, Huachansu, and their constituents within are not well reported. Existing studies have suggested that their anti-inflammation and anticancer potential were via targeting Nuclear Factor (NF-κB and its signalling pathways which are crucial hallmarks of inflammation and cancer in various experimental models. Here, we review some current studies of Chansu, Huachansu, and their compounds in terms of their use as both anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We also explored the potential use of toad glandular secretions and skin extractions as alternate resources for treating human cancers in combinational therapies.

  4. Etomidate anaesthesia by immersion in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis). (United States)

    d'Ovidio, D; Spadavecchia, C; Angeli, G; Adami, C


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of etomidate anaesthesia by immersion technique in Bombina orientalis. The study comprised two phases. The first phase was carried out to identify the etomidate concentration capable of producing anaesthetic induction, as well as surgical anaesthesia, in the toads. The second phase was aimed at testing that concentration in eight additional animals. Etomidate administered via immersion at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L produced effective anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads. The average duration of surgical anaesthesia was 20 min. All the toads enrolled in the study survived the anaesthesia and long-term complications did not occur. However, undesired side-effects, namely itching, myoclonus and prolonged recovery, were noticed during the perianaesthetic period. The authors concluded that etomidate anaesthesia by immersion, at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L, is suitable in oriental fire-bellied toads and produces anaesthesia of a depth and duration that is sufficient to allow the completion of various experimental procedures, without resulting in lethal complications. However, the occurrence of undesired side-effects opens a debate on the safety of this anaesthetic technique, and imposes the need for further investigation prior to proposing the latter for routine laboratory practice.

  5. Immune response varies with rate of dispersal in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P Brown

    Full Text Available What level of immunocompetence should an animal maintain while undertaking long-distance dispersal? Immune function (surveillance and response might be down-regulated during prolonged physical exertion due to energy depletion, and/or to avoid autoimmune reactions arising from damaged tissue. On the other hand, heightened immune vigilance might be favored if the organism encounters novel pathogens as it enters novel environments. We assessed the links between immune defense and long-distance movement in a population of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina in Australia. Toads were radio-tracked for seven days to measure their activity levels and were then captured and subjected to a suite of immune assays. Toads that moved further showed decreased bacteria-killing ability in their plasma and decreased phagocytic activity in their whole blood, but a heightened skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin. Baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels were unrelated to distance moved. Thus, long-distance movement in cane toads is associated with a dampened response in some systems and enhanced response in another. This pattern suggests that sustained activity is accompanied by trade-offs among immune components rather than an overall down or up-regulation. The finding that high mobility is accompanied by modification of the immune system has important implications for animal invasions.

  6. Baroreceptor control of heart rate in the awake toad: peripheral autonomic effectors and arterial baroreceptor areas. (United States)

    Bianchi-da-Silva, L M; Menescal-de-Oliveira, L; Hoffmann, A


    Systemic injection of sodium nitroprusside (30 microg/kg, i.v.) in the awake Bufo paracnemis toad induced a fall in arterial blood pressure and tachycardia. This tachycardia, but not the hypotension, was significantly reduced in toads with bilateral electrolytic lesion of the caudal and commissural regions of the solitary tract nucleus and in animals with transection of the spinal cord, 2 mm below the obex. This indicates that the tachycardia is reflex, depends on the integrity of the solitary tract nucleus and is due to descending spinal autonomic activation. Pretreatment with propranolol (4 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly reduced the tachycardia but did not block it completely, showing the importance of beta-adrenoceptors in its genesis. The reflex increase in heart rate induced by nitroprusside was not statistically significant in animals with bilateral section of the laryngeal nerve, whose baroreceptor fibers originate from the pulmocutaneous artery or in animals in which the bilateral section of the laryngeal nerve was performed together with section of the glossopharyngeal nerves, which incorporate fibers originating from the carotid labyrinth. The reduction of the reflex tachycardia was significant in toads with aortic arch denervation alone or combined with section of the laryngeal nerves or in animals with complete denervation of the three baroreceptors areas. These results suggest that the region of the aortic arch, when submitted to unloading, is the most important baroreceptor zone for cardiac compensation in toads.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYu-Feng; CHENGJiun; CHENGZhi-Ping


    The etTects of 23 amino acids on the membrane potential of toad ( Bufo bufo gargarizans ) oocytes and the mechanisms involved were investigated in vitro by means of microelectrode. At a concentration of I mmol/L-alanine, leucine and lyaine induced signfiant depolarization, and tryptophan provoked a marked hyperpolarization during

  8. [The comparative aspects of spatial ecology of lizards exemplified by the toad-headed lizards (Reptilia, Agamidae, Phrynocephalus)]. (United States)

    Semenov, D V


    The possibility of analysis of phylogenetic parameters of the spatial distribution of populations is discussed by an example of the agamid toad-headed lizards (Phrynocephalus). Summarizing both original and published data on the individual home ranges and the relocation of individuals of 30 populations from 12 species showed that differentiation of the type of spatial distribution is weak in toad-headed lizards. This observation confirms the idea that this clade of agamids is phylogenetically young and relatively recently radiated. At the interspecific level, positive correlation between home range size and body size was observed in the studied group. Such spatial parameters, shared by all toad-headed lizards, as relatively large size and weakly structured individual home ranges can be explained by the peculiarities of their reproduction features and their foraging mode. The individual type of space-usage in toad-headed does not fit the traditional scheme dividing all the lizards into the territorial Iguania and the nonterritorial Autarchoglossa.

  9. Determination of impacts on the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge from ammonium nitrate concentrations (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is found only as a reintroduced population at Mortenson NWR in the Laramie Plains of southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the...

  10. Correction of locality records for the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus) from the desert region of southern California (United States)

    Ervin, Edward L.; Beaman, Kent R.; Fisher, Robert N.


    The recovery strategy for an endangered species requires accurate knowledge of its distribution and geographic range. Although the best available information is used when developing a recovery plan, uncertainty often remains in regard to a species actual geographic extent. The arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus) occurs almost exclusively in coastal drainages, from Monterey County, California, south into northwestern Baja California, Mexico. Through field reconnaissance and the study of preserved museum specimens we determined that the four reported populations of the arroyo toad from the Sonoran Desert region of Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial counties, California are in error. Two additional sites in the Sonoran Desert are discussed regarding the possibility that the arroyo toad occurs there. We recommend the continued scrutiny of arroyo toad records to maintain a high level of accuracy of its distribution and geographic extent.

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility. (United States)

    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H


    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies.

  12. Corticosteroid responses of snakes to toxins from toads (bufadienolides) and plants (cardenolides) reflect differences in dietary specializations. (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shabnam; French, Susannah S; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Durham, Susan L; Kojima, Yosuke; Mori, Akira; Brodie, Edmund D; Savitzky, Alan H


    Toads are chemically defended by cardiotonic steroids known as bufadienolides. Resistance to the acute effects of bufadienolides in snakes that prey on toads is conferred by target-site insensitivity of the toxin's target enzyme, the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Previous studies have focused largely on the molecular mechanisms of resistance but have not investigated the physiological mechanisms or consequences of exposure to the toxins. Adrenal enlargement in snakes often is associated with specialization on a diet of toads. These endocrine glands are partly composed of interrenal tissue, which produces the corticosteroids corticosterone and aldosterone. Corticosterone is the main hormone released in response to stress in reptiles, and aldosterone plays an important role in maintaining ion balance through upregulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. We tested the endocrine response of select species of snakes to acute cardiotonic steroid exposure by measuring circulating aldosterone and corticosterone concentrations. We found that Rhabdophis tigrinus, which specializes on a diet of toads, responds with lower corticosterone and higher aldosterone compared to other species that exhibit target-site resistance to the toxins but do not specialize on toads. We also found differences between sexes in R. tigrinus, with males generally responding with higher corticosterone and aldosterone than females. This study provides evidence of physiological adaptations, beyond target-site resistance, associated with tolerance of bufadienolides in a specialized toad-eating snake.

  13. Use of local visual cues for spatial orientation in terrestrial toads (Rhinella arenarum): The role of distance to a goal. (United States)

    Daneri, M Florencia; Casanave, Emma B; Muzio, Rubén N


    The use of environmental visual cues for navigation is an ability present in many groups of animals. The effect of spatial proximity between a visual cue and a goal on reorientation in an environment has been studied in several vertebrate groups, but never previously in amphibians. In this study, we tested the use of local visual cues (beacons) to orient in an open field in the terrestrial toad (Rhinella arenarum). Experiment 1 showed that toads could orient in space using 2 cues located near the rewarded container. Experiment 2 used only 1 cue placed at different distances to the goal and revealed that learning speed was affected by the proximity to the goal (the closer the cue was to the goal, the faster toads learned its location). Experiment 3 showed that the position of a cue results in a different predictive value. Toads preferred cues located closer to the goal more than those located farther away as a reference for orientation. Present results revealed, for the first time, that (a) toads can learn to orient in an open space using visual cues, and that (b) the effect of spatial proximity between a cue and a goal, a learning phenomenon previously observed in other groups of animals such as mammals, birds, fish, and invertebrates, also affects orientation in amphibians. Thus, our results suggest that toads are able to employ spatial strategies that closely parallel those described in other vertebrate groups, supporting an early evolutionary origin for these spatial orientation skills.

  14. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.


    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw

  15. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid


    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......, and apparent leakage conductance was reduced. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to skin of fully salt-adapted toads increased the transepithelial Cl- conductance, and the time courses of voltage clamp currents became more like those of water-adapted toads. Apparent...... leakage conductance was increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  16. Depth perception in frogs and toads a study in neural computing

    CERN Document Server

    House, Donald


    Depth Perception in Frogs and Toads provides a comprehensive exploration of the phenomenon of depth perception in frogs and toads, as seen from a neuro-computational point of view. Perhaps the most important feature of the book is the development and presentation of two neurally realizable depth perception algorithms that utilize both monocular and binocular depth cues in a cooperative fashion. One of these algorithms is specialized for computation of depth maps for navigation, and the other for the selection and localization of a single prey for prey catching. The book is also unique in that it thoroughly reviews the known neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and behavioral data, and then synthesizes, organizes and interprets that information to explain a complex sensory-motor task. The book will be of special interest to that segment of the neural computing community interested in understanding natural neurocomputational structures, particularly to those working in perception and sensory-motor coordination. ...

  17. Variation in body size and metamorphic traits of Iberian spadefoot toads over a short geographic distance



    Determinants of geographic variation in body size are often poorly understood, especially in organisms with complex life cycles. We examined patterns of adult body size and metamorphic traits variation in Iberian spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) populations, which exhibit an extreme reduction in adult body size, 71.6% reduction in body mass, within just about 30 km at south-western Spain. We hypothesized that size at and time to metamorphosis would be predictive of the spatial pattern obs...

  18. Large male mating advantage in natterjack toads, Bufo calamita: Sexual selection or energetic constraints?



    Variation in the effect of male body size on mating success was studied in natterjack toads during two breeding seasons with different temporal patterns of reproductive activity. Larger males were more likely to mate than small males in the season with a single peak and continuous breeding activity, whereas random mating by size was found when reproduction occurred during several peaks separated by periods of inactivity. Playback tests did not reveal any consistent preference by females for c...

  19. Community of helminth parasites of thorny toad Rhinella Spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) of Peru


    Chero, Jhon; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCNNM), Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (UNFV), Lima; Cruces, Celso; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCNNM), Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (UNFV), Lima; Iannacone, José; Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad Animal (LEBA), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCNNM). Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (UNFV), Lima; Sáez, Gloria; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCNNM), Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (UNFV), Lima; Alvariño, Lorena; Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad Animal (LEBA), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCNNM). Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (UNFV), Lima; Luque, José; Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Curso de Pós-graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro – UFRRJ, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro; Morales, Víctor; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Ricardo Palma (URP), Lima


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the community of metazoan parasites of thorny toad Rhinella spinulosa of Peru and elucidate whether sex and the total length of the hosts amphibians are structuring their communities of parasites. Ninety specimens of R. spinulosa were acquired during May 2009 to October 2010. The body cavity, gastrointestinal tract, bladder, lungs and muscles were examined to search for metazoan parasites. Seven taxa of metazoan parasites were collected: one digenean [Gor...

  20. Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo). (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah A; Savitzky, Alan H


    The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands were compared to the arrangement of vessels in the dorsal skin of Rana sphenocephala (Ranidae), a frog that lacks parotoid glands. The parotoid glands of the four species of toads are supplied with blood by the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries and are drained by one or more branches of the internal jugular vein. The dorsal cutaneous artery supplies most of the blood to the parotoid glands in B. terrestris and B. valliceps. In B. alvarius and B. marinus, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries serve major roles in the blood supply of the glands. These patterns of blood flow have not been described previously for parotoid glands and conflict with earlier accounts for B. alvarius and B. marinus. The arteries and veins associated with the parotoid glands of toads are present in R. sphenocephala, but are arranged differently. In R. sphenocephala, the lateral cutaneous artery supplies the dorsal and lateral skin posterior to the shoulder region, whereas the dorsal cutaneous artery supplies the skin of the shoulder region. In toads, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries supply the skin of the shoulder region and ramify into subcutaneous capillaries that surround the secretory units of the parotoid glands. Extensive vasculature presumably is important for delivering cholesterol and other precursor molecules to the parotoid glands, where those compounds are converted into toxins.

  1. Modelling the extinction risk of isolated populations of natterjack toad Bufo calamita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meyer


    Full Text Available Many local populations of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Germany are endangered. Due to the fragmentation and destruction of natural habitats by man, toads have often been forced to switch to secondary habitats. The permanent existence of these habitats is uncertain. Habitat and area requirements have been investigated in various parts of Germany in recent years. Our study uses field observations from sites in Halle (Saxony-Anhalt and List (Schleswig-Holstein as a basis for analyses of the population dynamics under different environmental conditions. Deterministic trends of these populations are calculated with the help of a Leslie matrix consisting of average parameters for mortality and reproduction. For a more thorough analysis we use a stochastic simulation model in order to assess survival probabilities of local toad populations. This model also takes into account environmental fluctuations affecting mortality and reproduction. Using scenarios from different locations, a sensitivity analysis of the parameters indicates which management options are the most promising to preserve a population. Our results indicate that the mortality rates of juveniles and the availability of spawning ground have the greatest influence on a population’s survival. Consequently, habitat management should focus on these aspects. In addition, we investigate the risk of extinction for different reproductive strategies. Natterjack toad populations observed in the field actually follow a strategy with three breeding periods. We find that this strategy supports the survival of the population better than strategies with less periods, which are more likely to result in a complete breeding failure during one season.

  2. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus). (United States)

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Purucker, S Thomas


    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide availability and bioconcentration across soil types is not well understood. The present study was designed to compare uptake of 5 current-use pesticides (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, and pendimethalin) in American toads (Bufo americanus) from exposure on soils with significant organic matter content differences (14.1% = high organic matter and 3.1% = low organic matter). We placed toads on high- or low-organic matter soil after applying individual current-use pesticides on the soil surface for an 8-h exposure duration. Whole body tissue homogenates and soils were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine pesticide tissue and soil concentration, as well as bioconcentration factor in toads. Tissue concentrations were greater on the low-organic matter soil than the high-organic matter soil across all pesticides (average ± standard error; 1.23 ± 0.35 ppm and 0.78 ± 0.23 ppm, respectively), and bioconcentration was significantly higher for toads on the low-organic matter soil (analysis of covariance p = 0.002). Soil organic matter is known to play a significant role in the mobility of pesticides and bioavailability to living organisms. Agricultural soils typically have relatively lower organic matter content and serve as a functional habitat for amphibians. The potential for pesticide accumulation in amphibians moving throughout agricultural landscapes may be greater and should be considered in conservation and policy efforts. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2734-2741. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. All-Optical Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (toad) Based Binary Comparator:. a Proposal (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    Comparator determines whether a number is greater than, equals to or less than another number. It plays a significant role in fast central processing unit in all-optical scheme. In all-optical scheme here 1-bit binary comparator is proposed and described by Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch. Simulation result by Mathcad-7 is also given. Cascading technique of building up the n-bit binary comparator with this 1-bit comparator block is also proposed here.

  4. Storage and recovery of elastic potential energy powers ballistic prey capture in toads. (United States)

    Lappin, A Kristopher; Monroy, Jenna A; Pilarski, Jason Q; Zepnewski, Eric D; Pierotti, David J; Nishikawa, Kiisa C


    Ballistic tongue projection in toads is a remarkably fast and powerful movement. The goals of this study were to: (1) quantify in vivo power output and activity of the depressor mandibulae muscles that are responsible for ballistic mouth opening, which powers tongue projection; (2) quantify the elastic properties of the depressor mandibulae muscles and their series connective tissues using in situ muscle stimulation and force-lever studies; and (3) develop and test an elastic recoil model, based on the observed elastic properties of the depressor mandibulae muscles and series connective tissues, that accounts for displacement, velocity, acceleration and power output during ballistic mouth opening in toads. The results demonstrate that the depressor mandibulae muscles of toads are active for up to 250 ms prior to mouth opening. During this time, strains of up to 21.4% muscle resting length (ML) develop in the muscles and series connective tissues. At maximum isometric force, series connective tissues develop strains up to 14% ML, and the muscle itself develops strains up to 17.5% ML. When the mouth opens rapidly, the peak instantaneous power output of the depressor mandibulae muscles and series connective tissues can reach 9600 W kg(-1). The results suggest that: (1) elastic recoil of muscle itself can contribute significantly to the power of ballistic movements; (2) strain in series elastic elements of the depressor mandibulae muscle is too large to be borne entirely by the cross bridges and the actin-myosin filament lattice; and (3) central nervous control of ballistic tongue projection in toads likely requires the specification of relatively few parameters.

  5. Effects of weather on survival in populations of boreal toads in Colorado (United States)

    Scherer, R. D.; Muths, E.; Lambert, B.A.


    Understanding the relationships between animal population demography and the abiotic and biotic elements of the environments in which they live is a central objective in population ecology. For example, correlations between weather variables and the probability of survival in populations of temperate zone amphibians may be broadly applicable to several species if such correlations can be validated for multiple situations. This study focuses on the probability of survival and evaluates hypotheses based on six weather variables in three populations of Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) from central Colorado over eight years. In addition to suggesting a relationship between some weather variables and survival probability in Boreal Toad populations, this study uses robust methods and highlights the need for demographic estimates that are precise and have minimal bias. Capture-recapture methods were used to collect the data, and the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model in program MARK was used for analysis. The top models included minimum daily winter air temperature, and the sum of the model weights for these models was 0.956. Weaker support was found for the importance of snow depth and the amount of environmental moisture in winter in modeling survival probability. Minimum daily winter air temperature was positively correlated with the probability of survival in Boreal Toads at other sites in Colorado and has been identified as an important covariate in studies in other parts of the world. If air temperatures are an important component of survival for Boreal Toads or other amphibians, changes in climate may have profound impacts on populations. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  6. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus) (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.


    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  7. Efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole treatments in captive Houston toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis). (United States)

    Bianchi, Catherine M; Johnson, Cassidy B; Howard, Lauren L; Crump, Paul


    Effective disease monitoring and prevention is critical to the success of captive amphibian care. Nematodes, including the genera Rhabdias and Strongyloides, are known to contribute to mortality in captive amphibians and have been identified in the Houston Zoo's endangered Houston toad (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis) captive assurance colony. Five years of fecal data for the toad colony were compiled and analyzed in order to investigate the efficacy of two anthelminthic medications, fenbendazole (FBZ) and levamisole (LMS), which were used to control nematode infections. Both FBZ (dusted onto food items) and topical LMS (6.5 to 13.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of nematode eggs, larvae, and adults observed by fecal parasitologic examination. There were no significant differences between treatments, and egg reappearance periods were difficult to compare as a result of low sample size. No adverse effects from either anthelminthic treatment were observed. Both topical LMS and oral FBZ appear to be safe and efficacious treatments for the reduction of the internal nematode burden in captive Houston toads.

  8. Reduce torques and stick the landing: limb posture during landing in toads. (United States)

    Azizi, Emanuel; Larson, Neil P; Abbott, Emily M; Danos, Nicole


    A controlled landing, where an animal does not crash or topple, requires enough stability to allow muscles to effectively dissipate mechanical energy. Toads (Rhinella marina) are exemplary models for understanding the mechanics and motor control of landing given their ability to land consistently during bouts of continuous hopping. Previous studies in anurans have shown that ground reaction forces (GRFs) during landing are significantly higher compared with takeoff and can potentially impart large torques about the center of mass (COM), destabilizing the body at impact. We predict that in order to minimize such torques, toads will align their COM with the GRF vector during the aerial phase in anticipation of impact. We combined high-speed videography and force-plate ergometry to quantify torques at the COM and relate the magnitude of torques to limb posture at impact. We show that modulation of hindlimb posture can shift the position of the COM by about 20% of snout-vent length. Rapid hindlimb flexion during the aerial phase of a hop moved the COM anteriorly and reduced torque by aligning the COM with the GRF vector. We found that the addition of extrinsic loads did not significantly alter landing behavior but did change the torques experienced at impact. We conclude that anticipatory hindlimb flexion during the aerial phase of a hop is a critical feature of a mechanically stable landing that allows toads to quickly string together multiple, continuous hops.

  9. An electrophoretic study of myosin heavy chain expression in skeletal muscles of the toad Bufo marinus. (United States)

    Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, G M


    In this study we developed an SDS-PAGE protocol which for the first time separates effectively all myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms expected to be expressed in iliofibularis (IF), pyriformis (PYR), cruralis (CRU) and sartorius (SAR) muscles of the toad Bufo marinus on the basis of previously reported fibre type composition. The main feature of the method is the use of alanine instead of glycine both in the separating gel and in the running buffer. The correlation between the MHC isoform composition of IF, SAR and PYR muscles determined in this study and the previously reported fibre type composition of IF and SAR muscles in the toad and of PYR muscle in the frog was used to tentatively identify the MHC isoforms expressed by twitch fibre types 1, 2 and 3 and by tonic fibres. The alanine-SDS electrophoretic method was employed to examine changes in the MHC composition of IF, PYR, CRU and SAR muscles with the ontogenetic growth of the toad from post-natal life (body weight muscle observed in this study are in very good agreement with those in the fibre type composition of the developing IF muscle reported in the literature.

  10. Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Coelho

    Full Text Available Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airflow; and lung pressure. Coherence was also used to quantify the effects of chemoreceptor and pulmonary mechanoreceptor input on narial and glottal valve behavior on normoxic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic toads with both intact and bilaterally sectioned pulmonary vagi. We found a significant reduction in narial coherence in hypoxic vagotomized toads indicating that pulmonary mechanoreceptor feedback modulates narial opening duration. An unexpectedly high coherence between Pl and Pb during non-respiratory buccal oscillations in hypercapnic toads indicated more forceful use of the buccal pump. We concluded that the coherence function reveals behaviors that are not apparent through visual inspection of ventilatory time series.

  11. Goal orientation by geometric and feature cues: spatial learning in the terrestrial toad Rhinella arenarum. (United States)

    Sotelo, María Inés; Bingman, Verner Peter; Muzio, Rubén N


    Although of crucial importance in vertebrate evolution, amphibians are rarely considered in studies of comparative cognition. Using water as reward, we studied whether the terrestrial toad, Rhinella arenarum, is also capable of encoding geometric and feature information to navigate to a goal location. Experimental toads, partially dehydrated, were trained in either a white rectangular box (Geometry-only, Experiment 1) or in the same box with a removable colored panel (Geometry-Feature, Experiment 2) covering one wall. Four water containers were used, but only one (Geometry-Feature), or two in geometrically equivalent corners (Geometry-only), had water accessible to the trained animals. After learning to successfully locate the water reward, probe trials were carried out by changing the shape of the arena or the location of the feature cue. Probe tests revealed that, under the experimental conditions used, toads can use both geometry and feature to locate a goal location, but geometry is more potent as a navigational cue. The results generally agree with findings from other vertebrates and support the idea that at the behavioral-level geometric orientation is a conserved feature shared by all vertebrates.

  12. 越南的蟾蜍文化%Vietnamese Toad Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As a kind of animal which is familiar in the farming society and has the very ability of reproducing fast, toad has won the reverences and the worships of people. After thousands of years of history moving and changing, toad became to have abundant philosophy disposition, and bear the weight of the faraway remote antiquity consciousness. Besides, toad also has been blended into the vulgarism, folk song and mythology legend of Vietnam, deeply influencing the everyday language, vocabulary and culture of Vietnamese people.%作为一种以水稻耕作为主的农业社会常见的、具有超强的繁殖能力的动物,蟾蜍成为人们敬畏和崇拜的对象,数千年来的历史变迁,使蟾蜍的形象蕴含着丰富的哲理意向,承载着悠久的远古意识,融入了越南的俗语、民歌、神话传说中,嵌入了人们日常使用的语言、词汇中,形成蟾蜍文化现象。

  13. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus) (United States)

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.


    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. The effect of calcium withdrawal on the structure and function of the toad bladder. (United States)

    Hays, R M; Singer, B; Malamed, S


    Previous reports have indicated that calcium is necessary to support active sodium transport by the toad bladder, and may be required as well in the action of vasopressin on both toad bladder and frog skin. The structure and function of the toad bladder has been studied in the absence of calcium, and a reinterpretation of the previous findings now appears possible. When calcium is withdrawn from the bathing medium, epithelial cells detach from one another and eventually from their supporting tissue. The short-circuit current (the conventional means of determining active sodium transport) falls to zero, and vasopressin fails to exert its usual effect on short-circuit current and water permeability. However, employing an indirect method for the estimation of sodium transport (oxygen consumption), it is possible to show that vasopressin exerts its usual effect on Q(oo2) when sodium is present in the bathing medium. Hence, it appears that the epithelial cells maintain active sodium transport when calcium is rigorously excluded from the bathing medium, and continue to respond to vasopressin. The failure of conventional techniques to show this can be attributed to the structural alterations in the epithelial layer in the absence of calcium. These findings may provide a model for the physiologic action of calcium in epithelia such as the renal tubule.

  15. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Toad Venoms from Southern Amazon, Brazil (United States)

    Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho


    The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance (‘1’) identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance (‘1’) tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance ‘1’ showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds. PMID:27658592

  16. Total On-line Access Data System (TOADS): Phase II Final Report for the Period August 2002 - August 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuracko, K. L. [YAHSGS LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Parang, M. [YAHSGS LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Landguth, D. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coleman, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    TOADS (Total On-line Access Data System) is a new generation of real-time monitoring and information management system developed to support unattended environmental monitoring and long-term stewardship of U.S. Department of Energy facilities and sites. TOADS enables project managers, regulators, and stakeholders to view environmental monitoring information in realtime over the Internet. Deployment of TOADS at government facilities and sites will reduce the cost of monitoring while increasing confidence and trust in cleanup and long term stewardship activities. TOADS: Reliably interfaces with and acquires data from a wide variety of external databases, remote systems, and sensors such as contaminant monitors, area monitors, atmospheric condition monitors, visual surveillance systems, intrusion devices, motion detectors, fire/heat detection devices, and gas/vapor detectors; Provides notification and triggers alarms as appropriate; Performs QA/QC on data inputs and logs the status of instruments/devices; Provides a fully functional data management system capable of storing, analyzing, and reporting on data; Provides an easy-to-use Internet-based user interface that provides visualization of the site, data, and events; and Enables the community to monitor local environmental conditions in real time. During this Phase II STTR project, TOADS has been developed and successfully deployed for unattended facility, environmental, and radiological monitoring at a Department of Energy facility.

  17. Isolation breeds naivety: island living robs Australian varanid lizards of toad-toxin immunity via four-base-pair mutation. (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Mun, Hee-chang; Conigrave, Arthur D; Bray, Alessandra; Osterkamp, Jens; Halling, Petter; Madsen, Thomas


    Since their introduction to the toad-free Australian continent cane toads (Bufo marinus) have caused a dramatic increase in naïve varanid mortality when these large lizards attempt to feed on this toxic amphibian. In contrast Asian-African varanids, which have coevolved with toads, are resistant to toad toxin. Toad toxins, such as Bufalin target the H1-H2 domain of the α(1) subunit of the sodium-potassium-ATPase enzyme. Sequencing of this domain revealed identical nucleotide sequences in four Asian as well as in three African varanids, and identical sequences in all 11 Australian varanids. However, compared to the Asian-African varanids, the Australian varanids showed four-base-pair substitutions, resulting in the alteration in three of the 12 amino acids representing the H1-H2 domain. The phenotypic effect of the substitutions was investigated in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with the Australian and the Asian-African H1-H2 domains. The transfections resulted in an approximate 3000-fold reduction in resistance to Bufalin in the Australian HEK293 cells compared to the Asian-African HEK293 cells, demonstrating the critical role of this minor mutation in providing Bufalin resistance. Our study hence presents a clear link between genotype and phenotype, a critical step in understanding the evolution of phenotypic diversity.

  18. The interacting effects of ungulate hoofprints and predatory native ants on metamorph cane toads in tropical Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina, because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia.

  19. Foraging modality and plasticity in foraging traits determine the strength of competitive interactions among carnivorous plants, spiders and toads. (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Krupa, James J; Rohr, Jason R


    Foraging modalities (e.g. passive, sit-and-wait, active) and traits are plastic in some species, but the extent to which this plasticity affects interspecific competition remains unclear. Using a long-term laboratory mesocosm experiment, we quantified competition strength and the plasticity of foraging traits in a guild of generalist predators of arthropods with a range of foraging modalities. Each mesocosm contained eight passively foraging pink sundews, and we employed an experimental design where treatments were the presence or absence of a sit-and-wait foraging spider and actively foraging toad crossed with five levels of prey abundance. We hypothesized that actively foraging toads would outcompete the other species at low prey abundance, but that spiders and sundews would exhibit plasticity in foraging traits to compensate for strong competition when prey were limited. Results generally supported our hypotheses. Toads had a greater effect on sundews at low prey abundances, and toad presence caused spiders to locate webs higher above the ground. Additionally, the closer large spider webs were to the ground, the greater the trichome densities produced by sundews. Also, spider webs were larger with than without toads and as sundew numbers increased, and these effects were more prominent as resources became limited. Finally, spiders negatively affected toad growth only at low prey abundance. These findings highlight the long-term importance of foraging modality and plasticity of foraging traits in determining the strength of competition within and across taxonomic kingdoms. Future research should assess whether plasticity in foraging traits helps to maintain coexistence within this guild and whether foraging modality can be used as a trait to reliably predict the strength of competitive interactions.

  20. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A Pallister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  1. Geology and mammalian paleontology of the Horned Toad Hills, Mojave Desert, California, USA (United States)

    May, S.R.; Woodburne, M.O.; Lindsay, E.H.; Albright, L.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Wan, E.; Wahl, D.B.


    The Horned Toad Formation includes five lithostratigraphic members that record alluvial fan, fluvial, lake margin, and lacustrine deposition within a relatively small basin just south of the active Garlock fault during the late Miocene to early Pliocene. These sediments experienced northwest-southeast contractional deformation during the Pliocene-Pleistocene associated with basement-involved reverse faults. Member Two of the Horned Toad Formation has yielded 24 taxa of fossil mammals, referred to as the Warren Local Fauna, including Cryptotis sp., cf. Scapanus, Hypolagus vetus, Hypolagus edensis,? Spermophilus sp., Prothomomys warrenensis n. gen., n. sp., Perognathus sp., Repomys gustelyi, Postcopemys valensis, Peromyscus sp. A, Peromyscus sp. B, Jacobsomys dailyi n. sp., Borophagus cf. B. secundus, cf. Agriotherium, Machairodus sp. cf. M. coloradensis, Rhynchotherium sp. cf. R. edensis, Pliomastodon vexillarius, Dinohippus edensis, Teleoceras sp. cf. T. fossiger, cf. Prosthennops, Megatylopus sp. cf. M. matthewi, Hemiauchenia vera, Camelidae gen. et. sp. indet., and the antilocaprid cf. Sphenophalos. The majority of fossil localities are confined to a 20 m thick stratigraphic interval within a reversed polarity magnetozone. The fauna demonstrates affinity with other late Hemphillian faunas from California, Nevada, Nebraska, Texas, and Mexico. The Lawlor Tuff, dated elsewhere in California at 4.83 ?? 0.04 Ma and geochemically identified in the Horned Toad Formation, overlies most of the fossil mammal localities. Magnetic polarity data are correlated with Chrons 3n.3r, 3n.3n, and 3n.2r, suggesting an age of approximately 5.0 - 4.6 Ma. These constraints indicate an age for the late Hemphillian Warren Local Fauna of 4.85 - 5.0 Ma. ?? Society of Vertebrate Paleontology November 2011.

  2. Two novel antimicrobial peptides from skin venoms of spadefoot toad Megophrys minor. (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Ling; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Xuan; Kong, Yi


    Amphibian skin contains rich bioactive peptides. Especially, a large amount of antimicrobial peptides have been identified from amphibian skin secretions. Antimicrobial peptides display potent cytolytic activities against a range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi and play important defense roles. No antimicrobial peptides have been reported from toads belonging to the family of Pelobatidae. In this work, two novel antimicrobial peptides (Megin 1 and Megin 2) were purified and characterized from the skin venoms of spadefoot toad Megophrys minor (Pelobatidae, Anura, Amphibia). Megin 1 had an amino acid sequence of FLKGCWTKWYSLKPKCPF-NH2, which was composed of 18 amino acid residues and contained an intra-molecular disulfide bridge and an amidated C-terminus. Megin 2 had an amino acid sequence of FFVLKFLLKWAGKVGLEHLACKFKNWC, which was composed of 27 amino acid residues and contained an intra-molecular disulfide bridge. Both Megin 1 and Megin 2 showed potential antimicrobial abilities against bacteria and fungi. The MICs of Megin 1 against Escherichia coli, Bacillus dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans were 25, 3, 6.25, 3, and 50 μg·mL(-1), respectively. The corresponding MICs for Megin 2 were 6.25, 1.5, 12.5, 1.5, and 12.5 μg·mL(-1), respectively. They also exerted strong hemolytic activity against human and rabbit red cells. The results suggested that megin peptides in the toad skin of M. minor displayed toxic effects on both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. This was the first report of antimicrobial peptides from amphibians belonging to the family of Pelobatidae.

  3. Inducement of Sechenov inhibition by EtOH and NA in the Bufo toad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI RuXin; JIA ShanShan; LI YingZi; CAO Yin; CHENG XiuZhen; XIE ZuoPing


    Central inhibition, discovered by Sechenov in 1862, suggests that electrically stimulating the forebrain or medulla oblongata in frog generally suppresses reflexes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Using ethanol (EtOH), noradrenalin (NA), and other neurotransmitters in thalamic preparations, Sechenov inhibition was stimulated in Bufo toads in this study. The result showed that, similar to Sechenov inhibition, the acute application of EtOH or NA excited the thalamus and prolonged the latency of withdrawal reflex. Our study evidences the involvement of α-adrenoceptors in such central inhibition, and explains the role of acute EtOH application in the in-duction of reflex inhibition.

  4. A new gravimetric reference station in South America: The installation of the Superconducting Gravimeters SG038 at the Argentinian-German Geodetic Observatory AGGO (United States)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Nowak, Ilona; Hase, Hayo; Häfner, Michael; Güntner, Andreas; Reich, Marvin; Brunini, Claudio


    In April 2015, the Transportable Integrated Geodetic Observatory (TIGO) of BKG was moved from Concepcion / Chile to La Plata / Argentina and was inaugurated in July 2015 as the Argentinian-German Geodetic Observatory (AGGO). In December 2015 the superconducting gravimeter SG038 was set up. The new station is equipped with four stable pillars to serve as a reference station and comparison site for absolute gravimeters in the future. We report about the overland transportation of the SG with the sphere floating, its installation at the new site and the hydrological instrumentation to observe local water storage changes to model near field gravimetric effects. We give an outlook about the first months of gravity time series and assess the drift behaviour after transport.

  5. Modification of a prey catching response and the development of behavioral persistence in the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). (United States)

    Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric


    The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response.

  6. Behavioral and neural responses of toads to salt solutions correlate with basolateral membrane potential of epidermal cells of the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Baula, Victor; Tuttle, Wendy


    Dehydrated toads initiated water absorption response (WR) behavior and absorbed water from dilute NaCl solutions. With 200-250 mM NaCl, WR behavior and water absorption were both suppressed. With 200-250 mM Na-gluconate, WR initiation was significantly greater than with NaCl but water loss was gr...

  7. Alfaxalone-butorphanol versus alfaxalone-morphine combination for immersion anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis). (United States)

    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela


    Oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) are small semi-aquatic anuran species popular as both pets and laboratory animals. Although they are commonly anaesthetized to undergo clinical and experimental procedures, very little is known about their anaesthetic management. The aims of this prospective, randomized, cross-over experimental trial were to establish effective butorphanol and morphine concentrations to be added to alfaxalone for immersion anaesthesia (pilot study), and to compare the anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the two drug mixtures (alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine), in Bombina orientalis toads. For the actual trial, the toads were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: AB and AM, with seven animals in each group, which received alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine combinations, respectively, at the concentrations established during the pilot study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, von Frey filament threshold and response to nociceptive withdrawal (NWR), righting and myotactic reflexes were measured at 5 min intervals until return of righting reflex was observed. The investigator who carried out all the measurements was blinded to the treatment. Any undesired effect or complication was noted and recorded. The two treatments were found to be comparable in terms of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and occurrence of undesired effects. However, group AM resulted in lower NWR scores and higher von Frey filament thresholds than group AB. It is concluded that, at the investigated concentrations and in combination with alfaxalone by immersion, morphine provides better antinociception than butorphanol in oriental fire-bellied toads.

  8. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine. (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  9. Morphological and allozyme studies of midwife toads (genus Alytes), including the description of two new taxa from Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; García-París, M.


    Allozyme variation in 31 to 50 presumptive loci of 12 populations of European midwife toads of the genus Alytes show appreciable genetic divergences (DiNe from 0.29 to 0.72) among four groups. These groups correspond to A. cisternasii Boscá, 1879, A. obstetricans (Laurenti, 1768), A. muletensis (San

  10. The status and relationships of some East African Earless Toads (Anura, Bufonidae) with a description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grandison, A.G.C.


    INTRODUCTION In comparing some small Ethiopian Bufo with the descriptions, types and other examples of numerous forms from East and Central African countries I became very much aware of the confusion that exists in the taxonomy and of the need for a revision of this group of dwarf toads. Most of the

  11. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.


    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  12. Aversive and non-reward learning in the fire-bellied toad using familiar and unfamiliar prey stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ursula DICKE; Antje HEIDORN; Gerhard ROTH


    The present study investigated how snapping behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar prey is modified by reward omission and aversive conditioning in the fure-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.Toads were trained to snap at cricket images by rewarding them with live crickets.The task was learned,and the learning criterion (10 snapping responses within 2 minutes) was reached in all individuals investigated.Subsequent reward omission did not alter the frequency of snapping to the familiar cricket stimulus.Snapping decreased only in some individuals,when a mild foot shock was applied at snapping.However,at presentation of images of hitherto unfamiliar meal worms and foot-shock application at snapping to the stimulus,the majority of toads diminished snapping significantly.Snapping responses decreased more rapidly,when snapping at meal worms was not rewarded or a footshock was applied uncorrelated to the presentation of or snapping at meal worms.These results demonstrate that in toads familiarity and unfamiliarity of prey stimuli are important factors in aversive learning,because well-trained responses to familiar stimuli become immune against reward omission.Furthermore,at presentation of unfamiliar stimuli,omission of reward and uncorrelated footshock had a stronger aversive effect than correlated footshock [Current Zoology 57 (6):709-716,2011 ].

  13. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid


    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...

  14. Toxin-resistant isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase in snakes do not closely track dietary specialization on toads. (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shabnam; Gompert, Zachariah; Gonzalez, Jonathan; Takeuchi, Hirohiko; Mori, Akira; Savitzky, Alan H


    Toads are chemically defended by bufadienolides, a class of cardiotonic steroids that exert toxic effects by binding to and disabling the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases of cell membranes. Some predators, including a number of snakes, have evolved resistance to the toxic effects of bufadienolides and prey regularly on toads. Resistance in snakes to the acute effects of these toxins is conferred by at least two amino acid substitutions in the cardiotonic steroid binding pocket of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. We surveyed 100 species of snakes from a broad phylogenetic range for the presence or absence of resistance-conferring mutations. We found that such mutations occur in a much wider range of taxa than previously believed. Although all sequenced species known to consume toads exhibited the resistance mutations, many of the species possessing the mutations do not feed on toads, much less specialize on that food source. This suggests that either there is little performance cost associated with these mutations or they provide an unknown benefit. Furthermore, the distribution of the mutation among major clades of advanced snakes suggests that the origin of the mutation reflects evolutionary retention more than dietary constraint.

  15. Post-breeding habitat use by adult Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA (United States)

    Guscio, C.G.; Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Corn, P.S.


    Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial habitats with different burn severities to better understand factors related to the post-fire pulse in breeding activity. Toads used severely burned habitats more than expected and partially burned habitats less than expected. No toads were relocated in unburned habitat, but little of the study area was unburned and the expected number of observations in unburned habitat was < 3. High vagility of B. boreas and preference for open habitats may predispose this species to exploit recently disturbed landscapes. The long-term consequences of fire suppression likely have had different effects in different parts of the range of B. boreas. More information is needed, particularly in the northern Rocky Mountains, where toads are more likely to occupy habitats that have diverged from historic fire return intervals. Copyright ?? 2008. C. Gregory Guscio. All rights reserved.

  16. spatial distribution pattern of the steppe toad-headed lizard (phrynocephalus frontalis) and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    spatial distribution patterns are associated with life history and behavioral adaptations of animals.for studying the spatial distribution pattern of the steppe toad-headed lizard (phrynocephalusfrontalis) and its influencing factors,we conducted experiments in hunshandake sandy land in inner mongolia,china in july calculating the clustered indices,we found that the lizard was aggregately distributed when the sampling quadrat was smaller than 10 m × 10 m,and uniformly distributed when it was greater than 10 m × 10 m.the nearest neighbor rule showed a clustering distribution pattern for p frontalis and the distribution pattern was quadrat-sampling dependent.furthermore,the cluster was determined by environmental factors when the sampling quadrat was smaller than 20 m × 20 m,but it was determined by both environmental factors and characteristics of the lizard when it was larger than 20 m × 20 m.our results suggested that the steppe toad-headed lizards tended to aggregate into suitable habitat patches in desert areas.additionally,we discussed that the lizard aggregation could be potentially used as an indictor of movement of sand dunes.

  17. A novel ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase is involved in toad oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    p28, a 28kD protein from toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) oocytes, was identified by using p13suc1-agaroseaffinity chromatography. Sequence homology analysis of the full-length cDNA of p28 (Gene Bank accessionnumber: AF 314091) indicated that it encodes a protein containing 224 amino-acids with about 55% iden-tities and more than 70% positives to human, rat or mouse UCH-L1, and contains homological functionaldomains of UCH family. Anti-p28 monoclonal antibody, on injecting into the oocytes, could inhibit theprogesterone-induced resumption of meiotic division in a dose-dependent manner. The recombinant proteinp28 showed similar SDS/PAGE behaviors to the native one, and promoted ubiquitin ethyl ester hydrolysis,a classical catalytic reaction for ubiquitin carboxyl terminai hydrolases (UCHs). The results in this paperreveal that a novel protein, p28, exists in the toad oocytes, is a UCH L1 homolog, was engaged in theprocess of progesterone-induced oocyte maturation possibly through an involvement in protein turnover anddegradation.


    CHOI, J K


    The absorption of Thorotrast and saccharated iron oxide by the epithelium of the toad urinary bladder was studied by electron microscopy. Whether the toads were hydrated, dehydrated, or given Pitressin, no significant differences in transport of colloidal particles by epithelial cells were observed. This implies that these physiological factors had little effect on the transport of the tracer particles. Tracer particles were encountered in three types of epithelial cells which line the bladder lumen, but most frequently in the mitochondria-rich cells. Tracer materials were incorporated into the cytoplasm of epithelial cells after being adsorbed to the coating layer covering the luminal surface of the cells. In the intermediate stage (1 to 3 hours after introducing tracer) particles were present in small vesicles, tubules, and multivesicular bodies. In the later stages (up to 65 hours), the particles were more commonly seen to be densely packed within large membrane-bounded bodies which were often found near the Golgi region. These large bodies probably were formed by the fusion of small vesicles. Irrespective of the stages of absorption, no particles were found in the intercellular spaces or in the submucosa. Particles apparently did not penetrate the intercellular spaces of the epithelium beyond the level of the tight junction.

  19. Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping. (United States)

    Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary


    Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the limb as underlying elastic tissues become stretched. We hypothesized that during take-off, the knee regularly extends beyond this, allowing passive recoil to help drive limb flexion in mid-air. To test this, we used high-speed video and electromyography to record hindlimb kinematics and electrical activity in a hindlimb extensor (semimembranosus) and flexor (iliofibularis). We predicted that hops in which the knees extended further during take-off would require less knee flexor recruitment during recovery. Knees extended beyond 90° in over 80% of hops, and longer hops involved greater degrees of knee extension during take-off and more intense semimembranosus activity. However, knee flexion velocities during recovery were maintained despite a significant decrease in iliofibularis intensity in longer hops, results consistent with elastic recoil playing a role.

  20. Functional assessment of toad parotoid macroglands: a study based on poison replacement after mechanical compression. (United States)

    Jared, Simone G S; Jared, Carlos; Egami, Mizue I; Mailho-Fontana, Pedro L; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Antoniazzi, Marta M


    Toads have a pair of parotoid macroglands behind the eyes that secrete poison used in passive defence against predators. These macroglands are composed of juxtaposed alveoli, each one bearing a syncytial gland, all connected to the exterior by ducts. When the parotoids are bitten, the poison is expelled on the predator oral mucosa in the form of jets, causing several pharmacological actions. After poison release, the empty secretory syncytia immediately collapse in the interior of their respective alveoli and gradually start refilling. After parotoid manual compression, simulating a predator's bite, we studied, by means of morphological methods, the replacement of the poison inside the alveoli. The results showed that after compression, a considerable number of alveoli remained intact. In the alveoli that were effectively affected the recovery occurs in different levels, from total to punctual and often restrict to some areas of the syncytia. The severely affected alveoli seem not recover their original functional state. The fact that only a part of the parotoid alveoli is compressed during an attack seems to be crucial for toad survival, since the amphibian, after being bitten by a predator, do not lose all its poison stock, remaining protected in case of new attacks.

  1. Membrane potential plays a dual role for chloride transport across toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E


    The Cl- -current through toad skin epithelium depends on the potential in a way consistent with a potential-controlled Cl- permeability. Computer analysis of the Koefoed-Johnsen Ussing two-membrane model provided with constant membrane permeabilities indicates that the voltage- and time-dependent......The Cl- -current through toad skin epithelium depends on the potential in a way consistent with a potential-controlled Cl- permeability. Computer analysis of the Koefoed-Johnsen Ussing two-membrane model provided with constant membrane permeabilities indicates that the voltage- and time......-dependent currents are not caused by a trivial Goldmand-type rectification and ion redistributions following transepithelial potential pertubations. Extended with a dynamic Cl- permeability in the apical membrane according to a Hodgkin-Huxley kinetic scheme, the model predicts voltage clamp data which closely...... resemble experimental observations. This extension of the classic frog skin model implies that the Cl- permeability is activated by a voltage change caused by the inward Na+ current through the apical membrane....

  2. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mozer Sciani


    Full Text Available Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa and Rhinella (South America. Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although Rhinella and Rhaebo are related, species may share differences due to the diversity of environments that they live in. In this work, we have performed a biochemical characterization of the components of the poison of eight Rhinella species and one Rhaebo by means of RP-HPLC with either UV or MS detection and by SDS-PAGE, in order to verify whether phylogenetic and biological differences, such as habitat, diet, and defensive strategies, between them may also be reflected in poison composition. Although some components were common among the secretions, we were able to identify exclusive molecules to some species. The fact that closely related animals living in different habitats secrete different molecules into the skin is an indication that biological features, and not only evolution, seem to directly influence the skin secretion composition.

  3. Association preference and mechanism of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo melanostictus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lilly Margaret Eluvathingal; Bhagyashri A Shanbhag; Srinivas K Saidapur


    In experiments with specially designed choice tanks, tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus spend significantly greater amounts of time near kin than near non-kin. However, in the absence of kin members, they prefer to spend more time near non-kin rather than stay away in isolation in the opposite blank zone with no company. This implies that association of toad tadpoles with their kin is due to attraction rather than repulsion from non-kin. Experiments designed to elucidate the sensory basis of kin recognition showed that toad tadpoles recognize their kin based on chemical cues rather than visual cues. They can also discriminate between homospecific non-kin and heterospecific (Sphaerotheca breviceps) tadpoles since the tadpoles spent significantly greater amounts of time near the former than near the latter. These findings suggest that where kin members are unavailable, selection may have favoured living with non-kin so as to derive benefits from group living and that a phenotype-matching mechanism may operate for both kin and species discrimination in B. melanostictus.

  4. Larger body size at metamorphosis enhances survival, growth and performance of young cane toads (Rhinella marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors. To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran's body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water, and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual's long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of the lungworm, Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, in recently colonised cane toad (Rhinella marina) populations in tropical Australia. (United States)

    Pizzatto, Lígia; Kelehear, Crystal; Shine, Richard


    The impact of parasites on host populations depend upon parasite prevalence and intensity. Understanding how infection dynamics change through time following a host population's initial exposure to the parasite is fundamental to host-parasite biology. We studied an invasive host (the cane toad, Rhinella marina) currently undergoing range expansion - a process through which this host's range is expanding faster than that of its lung parasites (the nematode, Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala), such that hosts at the expanding range edge remain parasite-free for several years. It was predicted that parasite intensity and prevalence would be affected by host characteristics (e.g., size, sex), environmental conditions (e.g., seasons, habitat type), and time since parasite arrival in the newly established invading host population. Over 2,400 cane toads were sampled at 10 sites in recently established toad populations in the highly seasonal monsoonal tropics of northern Australia. The sampling spanned 14 consecutive 3 month seasons commencing in the early stages of lungworm establishment in those toad populations. Both parasite prevalence and intensity increased with host body size but were unaffected by host sex. Prevalence and intensity were highest during drier times of year and in drier habitats (i.e., sites lacking permanent waterbodies). These changes in parasite prevalence may reflect a trend for saturated soil to reduce parasite survival during the free-living infective stage, and to allow anuran hosts to disperse widely (thus reducing the transfer of directly transmitted parasites between hosts). Conversely, dry conditions induce toads to aggregate in moist dry-season refugia where conditions may be more conducive to direct transmission of infective parasitic larvae between hosts.

  6. CRED Optical Validation Data at the island of Ofu and Olosega in American Samoa, 2012 to support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using the Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), a sled equipped with underwater video camera, still camera and lights....

  7. CRED Optical Validation Data at the islands of Ofu and Olosega in American Samoa, 2004 to Support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  8. CRED Optical Validation Data at the island of Ta'u in American Samoa, 2006 to support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  9. Glycogen stability and glycogen phosphorylase activities in isolated skeletal muscles from rat and toad. (United States)

    Goodman, C A; Stephenson, G M


    There is increasing evidence that endogenous glycogen depletion may affect excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling events in vertebrate skeletal muscle. One approach employed in physiological investigations of E-C coupling involves the use of mechanically skinned, single fibre preparations obtained from tissues stored under paraffin oil, at room temperature (RT: 20-24 degrees C) and 4 degrees C for several hours. In the present study, we examined the effect of these storage conditions on the glycogen content in three muscles frequently used in research on E-C coupling: rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) and toad iliofibularis (IF). Glycogen content was determined fluorometrically in homogenates prepared from whole muscles, stored under paraffin oil for up to 6 h at RT or 4 degrees C. Control muscles and muscles stored for 0.5 and 6 h were also analysed for total phosphorylase (Phos(total)) and phosphorylase a (Phos a) activities. No significant change was observed in the glycogen content of EDL and SOL muscles stored at RT for 0.5 h. In rat muscles stored at RT for longer than 0.5 h, the glycogen content decreased to 67.6% (EDL) and 78.7% (SOL) of controls after 3 h and 25.3% (EDL) and 37.4% (SOL) after 6 h. Rat muscles stored at 4 degrees C retained 79.0% (EDL) and 92.5% (SOL) of glycogen after 3 h and 75.2% (EDL) and 61.1% (SOL) after 6 h. The glycogen content of IF muscles stored at RT or 4 degrees C for 6 h was not significantly different from controls. Phos(total) was unchanged in all muscles over the 6 h period, at both temperatures. Phos a was also unchanged in the toad IF muscles, but in rat muscles it decreased rapidly, particularly in EDL (4.1-fold after 0.5 h at RT). Taken together these results indicate that storage under paraffin oil for up to 6 h at RT or 4 degrees C is accompanied by minimal glycogen loss in toad IF muscles and by a time- and temperature-dependent glycogen loss in EDL and SOL muscles of the rat.

  10. Habitat suitability of patch types:A case study of the Yosemite toad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina T.LIANG; Thomas J.STOHLGREN


    Understanding patch variability is crucial in understanding the spatial population structure of wildlife species,especially for rare or threatened species.We used a well-tested maximum entropy species distribution model (Maxent) to map the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (= Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California.Twenty-six environmental variables were included in the model representing climate,topography,land cover type,and disturbance factors (e.g.,distances to agricultural lands,fire perimeters,and timber harvest areas) throughout the historic range of the toad.We then took a novel approach to the study of spatially structured populations by applying the species-environmental matching model separately for 49 consistently occupied sites of the Yosemite toad compared to 27 intermittently occupied sites.We found that the distribution of the entire population was highly predictable (AUC= 0.95±0.03 SD),and associated with low slopes,specific vegetation types (wet meadow,alpine-dwarf shrub,montane chaparral,red fir,and subalpine conifer),and warm temperatures.The consistently occupied sites were also associated with these same factors,and they were also highly predictable (AUC= 0.95±0.05 SD).However,the intermittently occupied sites were associated with distance to fire perimeter,a slightly different response to vegetation types,distance to timber harvests,and a much broader set of aspect classes (AUC = 0.90±0.11 SD).We conclude that many studies of species distributions may benefit by modeling spatially structured populations separately.Modeling and monitoring consistently-occupied sites may provide a realistic snapshot of current speciesenvironment relationships,important climatic and topographic patterns associated with species persistence patterns,and an understanding of the plasticity of the species to respond to varying climate regimes across its range.Meanwhile,modeling and monitoring of widely dispersing individuals and intermittently occupied

  11. 汉画蟾蜍图像源考及其象征意义%Toad Image Source in Han Dynasty Paintings and Symbolic Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are a large volume of images of toad in the paintings of Han Dynasty, basically two types. One type is toad symbolizing the moon. Since the history of toads as the "moon spirit" is long with variations there are mistakes as well as misunderstandings. Another type is toads as part of the West fairy q.ueen' s fairy land. From the view of iconography and archetypal criticism ,the study aims to clarify the developing line of the relation between toads and the moon as well as the symbolic meaning of toads in the West fairy queen' s fairy land.%汉代的画像艺术中存在着大量蟾蜍图像,这些图像大致可分为两类:一是作为月亮的代表。蟾蜍成为“月精”的历史久远且多有变动,因此造成一些讹误;二是作为西王母仙境的组成部分。文章运用图像学和原型批评方法,旨在厘清蟾月关系的发展脉络及蟾蜍在汉画西王母仙境中的象征意义。


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云芳; 樊小力


    Objective In drugs for invigorating blood circulation, to find a herb that can stimulate afferent discharge of muscle spindle. Methods A single muscle spindle was isolated from sartorial muscle of toad. Using air-gap technique, afferent discharge of the muscle spindle was recorded. Effects of Angelica Sinensis, Salvia Miltiorrhiza, and Safflower on afferent discharge of the muscle spindle were observed. Results Angelica Sinensis could distinctly increase afferent discharge frequency of the muscle spindle, and this increase was dose-dependent. But Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Safflower had no this excitatory effect. Conclusion It is known that Angelica Sinensis can invigorate blood circulation, and we have found its excitatory effect on muscle spindle which makes it possible to serve people with muscle atrophy if more evidences from clinical experiments are available.

  13. Advancement in research of anti-cancer effects of toad venom (ChanSu) and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Liu; Li-Xing Feng; Li-Hong Hu; Xuan Liu; De-An Guo


    Toad venom, called as ChanSu in China, is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) whose active components are mainly bufadienolides. ChanSu could exhibit cardiotonic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and, most importantly, anti-cancer effects. In the present review, reports about the in vitro, in vivo and clinical anti-cancer effects of ChanSu or its representative component, bufalin, were summarized. And, reported anti-cancer mechanisms of cardenolides, structure analogues of bufadienolides, were also introduced. Based on the results got from research of ChanSu/bufalin and the results from cardenolides, possible signal network related to the anti-cancer effects of ChanSu/bufalin was predicted. Furthermore, future potential use of ChanSu in anti-cancer therapy was discussed.

  14. Evolution of rapid development in spadefoot toads is unrelated to arid environments. (United States)

    Zeng, Cen; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Wiens, John J


    The extent to which species' life histories evolve to match climatic conditions is a critical question in evolutionary biology and ecology and as human activities rapidly modify global climate. GIS-based climatic data offer new opportunities to rigorously test this question. Superficially, the spadefoot toads of North America (Scaphiopodidae) seem to offer a classic example of adaptive life-history evolution: some species occur in extremely dry deserts and have evolved the shortest aquatic larval periods known among anurans. However, the relationships between the climatic conditions where spadefoots occur and the relevant life-history traits have not been explicitly tested. Here, we analyzed these relationships using GIS-based climatic data, published life-history data, and a time-calibrated phylogeny for pelobatoid frogs. Surprisingly, we find no significant relationships between life-history variables and precipitation or aridity levels where these species occur. Instead, rapid development in pelobatoids is strongly related to their small genome sizes and to phylogeny.

  15. All-optical repetition rate multiplication of pseudorandom bit sequences based on cascaded TOADs (United States)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Chongqing; Wang, Fu; Li, Qiang


    A scheme for all-optical repetition rate multiplication of pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS) is demonstrated with all-optical wavelength conversion and optical logic gate 'OR' based on cascaded Tera-Hertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexers (TOADs). Its feasibility is verified by multiplication experiments from 500 Mb/s to 4 Gb/s for 23-1 PRBS and from 1 Gb/s to 4 Gb/s for 27-1 PRBS. This scheme can be employed for rate multiplication for much longer cycle PRBS at much higher bit rate over 40 Gb/s when the time-delay, the loss and the dispersion of the optical delay line are all precisely managed. The upper limit of bit rate will be restricted by the recovery time of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) finally.

  16. Cytological evidence for population-specific sex chromosome heteromorphism in Palaearctic green toads (Amphibia, Anura)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Odierna; G Aprea; T Capriglione; S Castellano; E Balletto


    A chromosome study was carried out on a number of European and Central Asiatic diploid green toad populations by means of standard and various other chromosome banding and staining methods (Ag-NOR-, Q-, CMA3-, late replicating [LR] banding pattern, C- and sequential C-banding + CMA3 + DAPI). This study revealed the remarkable karyological uniformity of specimens from all populations, with the only exception being specimens from a Moldavian population, where one chromosome pair was heteromorphic. Though similar in shape, size and with an identical heterochromatin distribution, the difference in the heteromorphic pair was due to a large inverted segment on its long arms. This heteromorphism was restricted to females, suggesting a female heterogametic sex chromosome system of ZZ/ZW type at a very early step of differentiation.

  17. Density regulation in toad populations (Epidalea calamita, Bufotes viridis) by differential winter survival of juveniles. (United States)

    Sinsch, Ulrich; Schäfer, Alena M


    The size of amphibian populations varies considerably between years, so that systematic trends in dynamics are difficult to detect. Informed conservation management of presumably declining populations requires the identification of the most sensitive life stage. In temperate-zone anurans there is growing evidence that juveniles hibernating for the first time suffer from substantial winter losses. In two syntopic toads (Epidalea calamita, Bufotes viridis) we monitored survival of such juveniles during four consecutive winters in the natural habitat and in four temperature treatments (3°, 5 °C, 10°/15 °C or 20 °C, natural light-dark cycle) in temperature-controlled chambers during winter. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) winter mortality of juvenile toads which hibernate for the first time in their life is an important component of population dynamics, and that (2) mortality rates differed between the two species. Parameters quantified were size-dependent winter mortality and body condition of pre- and post-hibernating juveniles. Field data provided evidence for the important role of winter mortality of first-hibernators in population dynamics. Choice of hibernacula differed in E. calamita between small and medium-sized individuals and also between the two species suggesting distinct mortality risks. The inability of small E. calamita to reach frost-proof hibernacula by burrowing, and the exposure of small B. viridis to predators are the most probable causes of size-assortative winter mortality. In conclusion, E. calamita juveniles may benefit from rising average winter temperatures in the future by decreased risk of freezing to death, whereas predator-caused winter mortality of B. viridis juveniles will also depend on the effects of climate warming on predator phenology.

  18. Landscape associations of frog and toad species in Iowa and Wisconsin, U.S.A (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Olsen, D.A.; Mossman, M.J.; Hemesath, L.M.; Lannoo, M.J.; Kaiser, Hinrich; Casper, Gary S.; Bernstein, Neil P.


    Landscape habitat associations of frogs and toads in Iowa and Wisconsin were tested to determine whether they support or refute previous general habitat classifications. We examined which Midwestern species shared similar habitats to see if these associations were consistent across large geographic areas (states). Rana sylvatica (wood frog), Hyla versicolor (eastern gray treefrog), Pseudacris crucifer (spring peeper), and Acris crepitans (cricket frog) were identified as forest species, P. triseriata (chorus frog), H. chrysoscelis (Cope's gray treefrog), R. pipiens (leopard frog), and Bufo americanus (American toad) as grassland species, and R. catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), R. palustris (pickerel frog), and R. septentrionalis (mink frog) as lake or stream species. The best candidates to serve as bioindicators of habitat quality were the forest species R. sylvatica, H. versicolor, and P. crucifer, the grassland species R. pipiens and P. triseriata, and a cold water wetland species, R. palustris. Declines of P. crucifer, R. pipiens, and R. palustris populations in one or both states may reflect changes in habitat quality. Habitat and community associations of some species differed between states, indicating that these relationships may change across the range of a species. Acris crepitans may have shifted its habitat affinities from open habitats, recorded historically, to the more forested habitat associations we recorded. We suggest contaminants deserve more investigation regarding the abrupt and widespread declines of this species. Interspersion of different habitat types was positively associated with several species. A larger number of wetland patches may increase breeding opportunities and increase the probability of at least one site being suitable. We noted consistently negative associations between anuran species and urban development. Given the current trend of urban growth and increasing density of the human population, declines of

  19. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Stark

    Full Text Available Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later, to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  20. Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Xiang, Yang; Wu, Jianbo; Jiang, Ping; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun


    Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

  1. Absence of the trade-off between the size and number of offspring in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita)



    A trade-off between size and number of offspring was not found for females of similar sizes of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita). Moreover, for large females, clutches with higher number of eggs had larger eggs as well. This suggests that larger females produce more numerous and larger eggs because they potentially have more energy available for reproduction. Egg size diminished allometrically with clutch size. Egg size, however, did not increase offspring fitness. Therefore, this allometri...

  2. Tubular system volume changes in twitch fibres from toad and rat skeletal muscle assessed by confocal microscopy. (United States)

    Launikonis, Bradley S; Stephenson, D George


    The volume of the extracellular compartment (tubular system) within intact muscle fibres from cane toad and rat was measured under various conditions using confocal microscopy. Under physiological conditions at rest, the fractional volume of the tubular system (t-sys(Vol)) was 1.38 +/- 0.09 % (n = 17), 1.41 +/- 0.09 % (n = 12) and 0.83 +/- 0.07 % (n = 12) of the total fibre volume in the twitch fibres from toad iliofibularis muscle, rat extensor digitorum longus muscle and rat soleus muscle, respectively. In toad muscle fibres, the t-sys(Vol) decreased by 30 % when the tubular system was fully depolarized and decreased by 15 % when membrane cholesterol was depleted from the tubular system with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin but did not change as the sarcomere length was changed from 1.93 to 3.30 microm. There was also an increase by 30 % and a decrease by 25 % in t-sys(Vol) when toad fibres were equilibrated in solutions that were 2.5-fold hypertonic and 50 % hypotonic, respectively. When the changes in total fibre volume were taken into consideration, the t-sys(Vol) expressed as a percentage of the isotonic fibre volume did actually decrease as tonicity increased, revealing that the tubular system in intact fibres cannot be compressed below 0.9 % of the isotonic fibre volume. The results can be explained in terms of forces acting at the level of the tubular wall. These observations have important physiological implications showing that the tubular system is a dynamic membrane structure capable of changing its volume in response to the membrane potential, cholesterol depletion and osmotic stress but not when the sarcomere length is changed in resting muscle.

  3. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).


    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B


    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and sm...

  4. Effects of acute low temperature stress on the endocrine reactions of the Qinghai toad-headed lizard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunwang LI; Yuan GU; Songhua TANG; Hongxia FANG; Guohua JIANG; Zhigang JIANG


    Endocrinological action is generally thought to be a way for animals to respond to stress at low temperatures.To learn the role of hormones in eetotherms inhabiting alpine environments,we studied the effects of acute low temperature exposure on the endocrinological reactions of Qinghai toad-headed lizards in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.We monitored plasma corticosterone and insulin concentration of the lizards under five low temperature treatments.We found no significant difference in plasma corticosterone or insulin in lizards among our five different treatments.For males and females the correlation between plasma corticosterone and insulin concentrations was not significant.In contrast to other studies on reptiles at low altitude,we suggest that due to the alpine environment (low temperature and low oxygen concentration) they inhabit,Qinghai toad-headed lizards respond to experimental cold stress slightly to mobilize energy and live their vivid life.In addition,corticosterone and insulin of Qinghai toad-headed lizards are secreted independently along with low temperature treatments [Current Zoology 57 (6):775-780,2011].

  5. Effect of nifedipine on depolarization-induced force responses in skinned skeletal muscle fibres of rat and toad. (United States)

    Posterino, G S; Lamb, G D


    The effect of the dihydropyridine, nifedipine, on excitation-contraction coupling was compared in toad and rat skeletal muscle, using the mechanically skinned fibre technique, in order to understand better the apparently disparate results of previous studies and to examine recent proposals on the importance of certain intracellular factors in determining the efficacy of dihydropyridines. In twitch fibres from the iliofibularis muscle of the toad, 10 microM nifedipine completely inhibited depolarization-induced force responses within 30 s, without interfering with direct activation of the Ca(2+)-release channels by caffeine application or reduction of myoplasmic [Mg2+]. At low concentrations of nifedipine, inhibition was considerably augmented by repeated depolarizations, with half-maximal inhibition occurring at < 0.1 microM nifedipine. In contrast, in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) fibres 1 microM nifedipine had virtually no effect on depolarization-induced force responses, and 10 microM nifedipine caused only approximately 25% reduction in the responses, even upon repeated depolarizations. In rat fibres, 10 microM nifedipine shifted the steady-state force inactivation curve to more negative potentials by < 11 mV, whereas in toad fibres the potent inhibitory effect of nifedipine indicated a much larger shift. The inhibitory effect of nifedipine in rat fibres was little, if at all, increased by the absence of Ca2+ in the transverse tubular (t-) system, provided that the Ca2+ was replaced with sufficient Mg2+. The presence of the reducing agents dithiothreitol (10 mM) or glutathione (10 mM) in the solution bathing a toad skinned fibre did not reduce the inhibitory effect of nifedipine, suggesting that the potency of nifedipine in toad skinned fibres was not due to the washout of intracellular reducing agents. The results are considered in terms of a model that can account for the markedly different effects of nifedipine on the two putative functions of the

  6. Intoxicação por veneno de sapo em um canino Toad venom intoxication in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sonne


    Full Text Available O sapo do gênero Bufo possui nas suas glândulas paratóides uma secreção mucóide contendo toxinas como bufaginas e Bufotoxinas, que são esteróides cardiogênicos. Os cães podem atacar os sapos, entrando em contato com o veneno por meio das mucosas. Um canino, da raça Bulldog Francês, foi encaminhado ao Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS para a necropsia com histórico de provável intoxicação por veneno de sapo. Na necropsia o canino apresentava pulmões aumentados de volume, avermelhados e com edema, e rins de coloração vermelho-escura. As alterações microscópicas indicaram congestão, hemorragia e edema pulmonar. Nos rins, no baço e nos linfonodos foi observada congestão. As análises toxicológicas para os venenos de rotina foram negativas. Porém, a investigação do veneno de sapo a partir de cromatografia por camada delgada e gasosa demonstrou resultado positivo, revelando ser esta a causa da morte do canino.The toads of the genus Bufo produce, in their parotoid glands, a mucoid secretion containing toxins such as bufagins and Bufotoxins, which are cardiogenic steroids. The mucous membranes of dogs can absorb this venom when they attack the toads. A French bulldog with a history of probable toad venom intoxication was referred to Veterinary Pathology Section of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS for necropsy. The necropsy revealed enlarged, reddish, edematous lungs, and kidneys displaying a dark red color. The microscopic alterations indicated the presence of congestion, hemorrhage, and pulmonary edema. Congestion was observed in the kidneys, spleen and lymph nodes. The routine toxicological analyses for venom detection were negative. Nevertheless, the toad venom test result was positive as assessed by thin layer and gas chromatography, indicating that toad venom intoxication was the cause of death.

  7. New species of beaked toad, Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae, from the State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Caramaschi


    Full Text Available A new species of beaked toad, Rhinella, is described from Itacaré (14°17'S, 38°60'W; 13 m altitude, State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Rhinella skuki sp. nov. is related to R. boulengeri and distinguished by the size small (SVL 26.2 mm in male; head longer than wide; snout, viewed from above, long, narrow, spatulate, with lateral borders parallel and rounded tip; in profile, long, strongly acute; parotoid glands large, rounded; tympanum concealed; dorsum rugose, with rounded tubercles uniformly distributed; vocal sac and vocal slits absent; fingers slender, not webbed nor ridged; first finger hypertrophied, with a rounded nuptial pad on the inner surface; toes slender, slightly fringed; webbing absent; ground color of dorsal surfaces dark brownish gray with an interorbital bar and dorsolateral blotches clear brownish gray, leaving an apparent pattern of arrows on dorsum; venter and ventral surfaces of arms and thighs cream with diffuse gray stains and dots; gular region and chest dark brownish gray.

  8. keratinized nuptial spines are used for male combat in the emei moustache toad (leptobrachium boringii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    we describe the natural history and reproductive behaviour of the emei moustache toad (leptobrachium boringii)with an emphasis on the development of keratinized nuptial spines in males and document combat behaviour for the first time in this species.between february and march of 2011,19 female and 43 male l.boringii from mount emei unesco world heritage site,sichuan,china were observed throughout the breeding season.this species exhibits male-biased sexual size dimorphism (ssd)with limited evidence of paternal care (nest guarding by males).prior to the breeding season males grow 10-16 keratinized spines on their upper lip,which fall off once the season has ended.throughout the breeding season males construct and defend aquatic nests where they produce advertisement calls to attract females.during this time we documented 14 cases involving a total of 22 males where males used their moustaches for aggressive interaction.combat typically occurred at the beginning of the season when males would compete for a limited number of available nest sites.neither male body size,nor body condition significantly affects the outcome of an aggressive interaction,suggesting that size may not be the only factor influencing an individual's chance of victory.our evidence for male competition and aggression,along with observed paternal care are potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of male-biased ssd observed in this species.

  9. Studies on the physiological function of spermine in the process of progesterone induced toad oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Spermidine or spermine but not putrescine inhibited progesterone induced Bufo bufo gargarizans oocyte maturation.The ID50 for spermine inhibition via intra -oocyte microinjection on maturation induced by progesterone was 6.8mM(100nl).Spermine could inhibit MPF induced toad oocyte maturation with a much higher ID50.A 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated during the process of progesterone induced oocyte maturation .Spermine selectively promoted the level of phosphorylation of this protein in both progesterone-stimulated and hormone-untreated oocytes.The extent of its dephosphorylation was fairly Correlated with the percentage of GVBD in the hormone stimulated oocytes.The level of endogenous spermine was reduced by 28% between the perod of 0.40 GVBD50 and 0.60 GVBD50,at which 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated.Spermine inhibited progesterone-stimulated protein synthesis in almost the same dose dependent manner as its inhititory effect on the hormone-induced maturation,The endogenous spermine regulated 55 kD protein dephosphorylation which may trigger the increase of protein dephosphorylation which may trigger the increase of protein synthesis and in turn promote the activation of MPF,It is possible that 55 kD protein may be one of the components of messenger ribonucleoprotein(mRNP) particles.

  10. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sakr


    Full Text Available The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55 and postmetamorphic (66 stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63 displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  11. Analysis of heart rate control to assess thermal sensitivity responses in Brazilian toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E.S. Natali


    Full Text Available In anurans, changes in ambient temperature influence body temperature and, therefore, energy consumption. These changes ultimately affect energy supply and, consequently, heart rate (HR. Typically, anurans living in different thermal environments have different thermal sensitivities, and these cannot be distinguished by changes in HR. We hypothesized that Rhinella jimi (a toad from a xeric environment that lives in a wide range of temperatures would have a lower thermal sensitivity regarding cardiac control than R. icterica (originally from a tropical forest environment with a more restricted range of ambient temperatures. Thermal sensitivity was assessed by comparing animals housed at 15° and 25°C. Cardiac control was estimated by heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate complexity (HRC. Differences in HRV between the two temperatures were not significant (P=0.214 for R. icterica and P=0.328 for R. jimi, whereas HRC differences were. All specimens but one R. jimi had a lower HRC at 15°C (all P<0.01. These results indicate that R. jimi has a lower thermal sensitivity and that cardiac control is not completely dependent on the thermal environment because HRC was not consistently different between temperatures in all R. jimi specimens. This result indicates a lack of evolutive trade-offs among temperatures given that heart rate control at 25°C is potentially not a constraint to heart rate control at 15°C.

  12. Analysis of heart rate control to assess thermal sensitivity responses in Brazilian toads. (United States)

    Natali, J E S; Santos, B T; Rodrigues, V H; Chauí-Berlinck, J G


    In anurans, changes in ambient temperature influence body temperature and, therefore, energy consumption. These changes ultimately affect energy supply and, consequently, heart rate (HR). Typically, anurans living in different thermal environments have different thermal sensitivities, and these cannot be distinguished by changes in HR. We hypothesized that Rhinella jimi (a toad from a xeric environment that lives in a wide range of temperatures) would have a lower thermal sensitivity regarding cardiac control than R. icterica (originally from a tropical forest environment with a more restricted range of ambient temperatures). Thermal sensitivity was assessed by comparing animals housed at 15° and 25°C. Cardiac control was estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate complexity (HRC). Differences in HRV between the two temperatures were not significant (P=0.214 for R. icterica and P=0.328 for R. jimi), whereas HRC differences were. All specimens but one R. jimi had a lower HRC at 15°C (all P<0.01). These results indicate that R. jimi has a lower thermal sensitivity and that cardiac control is not completely dependent on the thermal environment because HRC was not consistently different between temperatures in all R. jimi specimens. This result indicates a lack of evolutive trade-offs among temperatures given that heart rate control at 25°C is potentially not a constraint to heart rate control at 15°C.

  13. Effects of diltiazem on skinned skeletal muscle fibers of the African clawed toad. (United States)

    Ishizuka, T; Endo, M


    To examine the effects of diltiazem and its l-cis isomer (which possesses only a weak Ca++-antagonistic action) on the contractile system and the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle, we used skinned fibers isolated from iliofibularis muscle of the African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis. Diltiazem showed the following effects: an increase in the Ca++ sensitivity of the contractile system, a decrease in the maximal tension developed in a saturating concentration of Ca++, an inhibition of Ca++ uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, an inhibition of Ca++ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum by caffeine, and an increase in the Ca++ permeability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. The effects of the l-cis isomer were similar to those of diltiazem, and the potencies of the two substances were nearly equal, except with respect to the effect on the Ca++ release induced by caffeine: the l-cis isomer potentiated this type of Ca++ release. Diltiazem's effects on amphibian skinned skeletal muscle fibers may not be related qualitatively or quantitatively to the Ca++-antagonistic actions of the drug on mammalian cardiac and smooth muscles. The pharmacological spectrum of diltiazem on skinned skeletal muscle fibers is similar to that of some local anesthetics.

  14. A maternal effect mediates rapid population divergence and character displacement in spadefoot toads. (United States)

    Pfennig, David W; Martin, Ryan A


    Despite long-standing interest in character displacement, little is known of its underlying proximate causes. Here, we explore the role of maternal effects in character displacement. We specifically investigated whether differences in maternal body condition mediate divergence in the expression of resource-use traits between populations of spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata) that occur in sympatry with a heterospecific competitor and those that occur in allopatry. In sympatry, S. multiplicata is forced by its competitor onto a less profitable resource. As a result, sympatric females mature in poorer condition and invest less into offspring. Consequently, their offspring produce a resource-use phenotype that minimizes competition with the other species and that also differs from the phenotype produced in allopatry. These differences in trait expression between allopatry and sympatry disappear once mothers are equilibrated in body condition in the laboratory. Thus, a condition-dependent maternal effect mediates population divergence and character displacement. Such effects potentially buffer populations from extinction (via competitive exclusion) while genetic changes accumulate, which produce divergent traits in the absence of the maternal effect. Maternal effects may therefore often be important in determining the initial direction and rate of evolution during the early stages of character displacement.

  15. The toxicity of glyphosate alone and glyphosate-surfactant mixtures to western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tadpoles. (United States)

    Vincent, Kim; Davidson, Carlos


    Pesticide choice based on toxicity to nontarget wildlife is reliant on available toxicity data. Despite a number of recent studies examining the effects of glyphosate on amphibians, very few have aimed to understand the toxicological effects of glyphosate in combination with surfactants as it is commonly applied in the field. Land managers interested in making pesticide choices based on minimizing impacts to nontarget wildlife are hindered by a lack of published toxicity data. Short-term acute toxicity trials were conducted for glyphosate in the form of isopropylamine salt (IPA) alone and mixed with 2 surfactants: Agri-dex and Competitor with western toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] boreas) tadpoles. Glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor was 6 times more toxic than glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex, and both mixtures were more toxic than glyphosate IPA alone. The median lethal concentrations reported for 24-h and 48-h exposures were 8279 mg/L (24 h) and 6392 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA alone; 5092 mg/L (24 h) and 4254 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex; and 853 mg/L (24 h) and 711 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor. The present study indicates that the toxicity of a tank mix may be greatly increased by the addition of surfactants and may vary widely depending on the specific surfactant.

  16. The cane or marine toad, Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae): two genetically and morphologically distinct species. (United States)

    Acevedo, Aldemar A; Lampo, Margarita; Cipriani, Roberto


    Rhinella marina is a Neotropical toad that has been introduced widely worldwide. Its toxic effects to frog-eating predators threaten the native and domestic fauna of some regions where it has been introduced. Despite previous studies suggesting two genetically distinct cryptic species within R. marina, one east and one west of the Andes, its taxonomic status remained unresolved due to the absence of morphological complementary evidence. For the first time, data from two mitochondrial genes (ND3 and CR) and 23 morphometric landmarks are combined to evaluate the taxonomic status of this species. Our results support the hypothesis of two separate evolutionary lineages within R. marina and demonstrate that these lineages have significantly diverged in skull shape. We identified two distinct morphotypes, one eastern and one Andean western, with no overlapping morphospaces. The geographic pattern of genetic variation was consistent with a stable structured population with no evidence of recent demographic or geographic expansions. The concordance between the observed geographic patterns in morphometric and genic traits calls for the recognition of two species under R. marina name.

  17. Vocalizations in juvenile anurans: common spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus) regularly emit calls before sexual maturity. (United States)

    Ten Hagen, Leonie; Rodríguez, Ariel; Menke, Norbert; Göcking, Christian; Bisping, Michael; Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Ziegler, Thomas; Bonkowski, Michael; Vences, Miguel


    Acoustic communication is prominent in adult anuran amphibians, in reproductive, territorial and defensive contexts. In contrast, reports on vocalizations of juvenile anurans are rare and anecdotal, and their function unstudied. We here provide conclusive evidence for vocalizations in juvenile spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus) in very early terrestrial stages. While the aquatic tadpoles did not emit sounds, first vocalizations of metamorphs were heard as early as in stages 42-43, and calls were regularly emitted from stage 44 on, often from specimens still bearing extensive tail stubs. Three main types of calls could be distinguished, of which one consists of a series of short notes, one of a typically single longer and pulsed note, and one of a single tonal note. In experimental setups, the number of calls per froglet increased with density of individuals and after feeding, while on the contrary calls were not elicited by playback. The function of these juvenile calls remains unclarified, but they might reflect a general arousal in the context of feeding. Further evidence is necessary to test whether such feeding calls could confer a signal to conspecifics and thus might represent intraspecific acoustic communication in these immature terrestrial amphibians.

  18. Buforins: histone H2A-derived antimicrobial peptides from toad stomach. (United States)

    Cho, Ju Hyun; Sung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sun Chang


    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute an important component of the innate immune system in a variety of organisms. Buforin I is a 39-amino acid AMP that was first isolated from the stomach tissue of the Asian toad Bufo bufo gargarizans. Buforin II is a 21-amino acid peptide that is derived from buforin I and displays an even more potent antimicrobial activity than its parent AMP. Both peptides share complete sequence identity with the N-terminal region of histone H2A that interacts directly with nucleic acids. Buforin I is generated from histone H2A by pepsin-directed proteolysis in the cytoplasm of gastric gland cells. After secretion into the gastric lumen, buforin I remains adhered to the mucous biofilm that lines the stomach, thus providing a protective antimicrobial coat. Buforins, which house a helix-hinge-helix domain, kill a microorganism by entering the cell without membrane permeabilization and thus binding to nucleic acids. The proline hinge is crucial for the cell penetrating activity of buforins. Buforins also are known to possess anti-endotoxin and anticancer activities, thus making these peptides attractive reagents for pharmaceutical applications. This review describes the role of buforins in innate host defense; future research paradigms; and use of these agents as human therapeutics.

  19. El concilio Vaticano II y su impacto en el campo episcopal argentino The Second Vatican Council and its impact on argentinian Episcopal field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Margaria


    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca explorar el impacto que tuvo el Concilio Vaticano II en la Iglesia Católica Argentina, haciendo especial hincapié en el campo de los obispos, desde una perspectiva socio-religiosa que pretende dar cuenta de la complejidad del campo católico. Para ello nos parece adecuado utilizar la noción de "campo" en términos bourdianos. Consideramos que hablar de "campo religioso" nos permite concebir el catolicismo como un espacio social dinámico y atravesado por constantes conflictos y luchas llevadas a cabo por grupos de agentes que intentan dominar dicho campo. Esto nos permitirá caracterizar las diversas posturas que el Concilio acentuará en el catolicismo argentino, actuando de este modo como un propulsor y legitimador de reflexiones y conflictos que existían previamente.This article examines the impact that Second Vatican Council had on argentinian Catholic Church, with special emphasis on the Bishops field, from a socio-religious perspective that seeks to explain the complexity of Catholic field. Therefore, it seems appropriate to use the Pierre Bourdieu's notion of "field". We believe that talk about "religious field" allows us to conceive Catholicism as a dynamic social space spanned by constant conflicts and struggles carried out by groups of agents who tried to dominate the field. Again, this allows us to characterize the positions that the Council emphasized in the Argentine Catholicism, acting as a propellant and legitimizing ideas and conflicts that existed previously.

  20. Effects of inhibition gastric acid secretion on arterial acid-base status during digestion in the toad Bufo marinus. (United States)

    Andersen, Johnnie B; Andrade, Denis V; Wang, Tobias


    Digestion affects acid-base status, because the net transfer of HCl from the blood to the stomach lumen leads to an increase in HCO3(-) levels in both extra- and intracellular compartments. The increase in plasma [HCO3(-)], the alkaline tide, is particularly pronounced in amphibians and reptiles, but is not associated with an increased arterial pH, because of a concomitant rise in arterial PCO2 caused by a relative hypoventilation. In this study, we investigate whether the postprandial increase in PaCO2 of the toad Bufo marinus represents a compensatory response to the increased plasma [HCO3(-)] or a state-dependent change in the control of pulmonary ventilation. To this end, we successfully prevented the alkaline tide, by inhibiting gastric acid secretion with omeprazole, and compared the response to that of untreated toads determined in our laboratory during the same period. In addition, we used vascular infusions of bicarbonate to mimic the alkaline tide in fasting animals. Omeprazole did not affect blood gases, acid-base and haematological parameters in fasting toads, but abolished the postprandial increase in plasma [HCO3(-)] and the rise in arterial PCO2 that normally peaks 48 h into the digestive period. Vascular infusion of HCO3(-), that mimicked the postprandial rise in plasma [HCO3(-)], led to a progressive respiratory compensation of arterial pH through increased arterial PCO2. Thus, irrespective of whether the metabolic alkalosis is caused by gastric acid secretion in response to a meal or experimental infusion of bicarbonate, arterial pH is being maintained by an increased arterial PCO2. It seems, therefore, that the elevated PCO2, occuring during the postprandial period, constitutes of a regulated response to maintain pH rather than a state-dependent change in ventilatory control.

  1. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Tanner, George W. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States)


    Cathryn H. Greenberg and George W. Tanner. 2004. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions. J. Herp. 38(4):569-577. Abstract: Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) require fish-free, isolated, ephemeral ponds for breeding but otherwise inhabit the surrounding uplands, commonly xeric longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana). Hence both pond and upland conditions can potentially affect their breeding biology, and population persistence. Hardwood invasion due to fire suppression in sandhills could alter upland and pond suitability by higher hardwood density and increased transpiration. In this paper we explore breeding and neonatal emigration movements in relation to weather, hydrological conditions of ponds, and surrounding upland matrices. We use 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in 2 upland matrices: regularly-burned, savanna-like sandhills (n = 4), and hardwood-invaded sandhills (n = 4). Neither adult nor neonate captures differed between ponds within the 2 upland matrices, suggesting that they are tolerant of upland heterogeneity created by fire frequency. Explosive breeding occurred during 9 periods and in all seasons; adults were captured rarely otherwise. At a landscape-level rainfall, maximum change in barometric pressure, and an interaction between those 2 variables were significant predictors of explosive breeding. At a pond-level, rainfall, change in pond depth during the month prior to breeding, and days since a pond was last dry were significant predictors of adult captures. Transformation date, rather than weather, was associated with neonatal emigrations, which usually were complete within a week. Movement by first-captured adults and neonates was directional, but adult emigrations were apparently not always toward their origin. Our results suggest that

  2. Patterns of Genetic Variability in Island Populations of the Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) from the Mouth of the Amazon (United States)

    Bessa-Silva, Adam Rick; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Sodré, Davidson; da Cunha, Divino Bruno; Hadad, Dante; Asp, Nils Edvin; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Sequeira, Fernando


    The Amazonian coast has several unique geological characteristics resulting from the interaction between drainage pattern of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the most extensive and sedimentologically dynamic regions of the world, with a large number of continental islands mostly formed less than 10,000 years ago. The natural distribution of the cane toad (Rhinella marina), one of the world’s most successful invasive species, in this complex Amazonian system provides an intriguing model for the investigation of the effects of isolation or the combined effects of isolation and habitat dynamic changes on patterns of genetic variability and population differentiation. We used nine fast-evolving microsatellite loci to contrast patterns of genetic variability in six coastal (three mainlands and three islands) populations of the cane toad near the mouth of the Amazon River. Results from Bayesian multilocus clustering approach and Discriminant Analyses of Principal Component were congruent in showing that each island population was genetically differentiated from the mainland populations. All FST values obtained from all pairwise comparisons were significant, ranging from 0.048 to 0.186. Estimates of both recent and historical gene flow were not significantly different from zero across all population pairs, except the two mainland populations inhabiting continuous habitats. Patterns of population differentiation, with a high level of population substructure and absence/restricted gene flow, suggested that island populations of R. marina are likely isolated since the Holocene sea-level rise. However, considering the similar levels of genetic variability found in both island and mainland populations, it is reliable to assume that they were also isolated for longer periods. Given the genetic uniqueness of each cane toad population, together with the high natural vulnerability of the coastal regions and intense human pressures, we suggest that these

  3. Electrophysiological properties of the tongue epithelium of the toad Bufo marinus. (United States)

    Baker, Timothy K; Rios, Karina; Hillyard, Stanley D


    The dorsal lingual epithelium from the tongue of the toad Bufo marinus was mounted in an Ussing-type chamber, and the short-circuit current (I(sc)) was measured using a low-noise voltage clamp. With NaCl Ringer bathing the mucosal and serosal surfaces of the isolated tissue, an outwardly directed (mucosa-positive) I(sc) was measured that averaged -10.71+/-0.82 microA cm(-2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=24) with a resistance of 615+/-152 Omega cm(2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=10). Substitution of chloride with sulfate as the anion produced no significant change in I(sc). Fluctuation analysis with either NaCl or Na(2)SO(4) Ringer bathing both sides of the tissue revealed a spontaneous Lorentzian component, suggesting that the I(sc) was the result of K(+) secretion through spontaneously fluctuating channels in the apical membrane of the epithelium. This hypothesis was supported by the reversible inhibition of I(sc) by Ba(2+) added to the mucosal Ringer. Analysis of the kinetics of Ba(2+) inhibition of I(sc) indicates that there might be more than one type of K(+) channel carrying the I(sc). This hypothesis was supported by power spectra obtained with a serosa-to-mucosa K(+) gradient, which could be fitted to two Lorentzian components. At present, the K(+) secretory current cannot be localized to taste cells or other cells that might be associated with the secretion of saliva or mucus. Nonetheless, the resulting increase in [K(+)] in fluid bathing the mucosal surface of the tongue could presumably affect the sensitivity of the taste cells. These results contrast with those from the mammalian tongue, in which a mucosa-negative I(sc) results from amiloride-sensitive Na(+) transport.

  4. Phylogeography of the fire-bellied toads Bombina: independent Pleistocene histories inferred from mitochondrial genomes. (United States)

    Hofman, Sebastian; Spolsky, Christina; Uzzell, Thomas; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Babik, Wiesław; Szymura, Jacek M


    The fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata, interbreed in a long, narrow zone maintained by a balance between selection and dispersal. Hybridization takes place between local, genetically differentiated groups. To quantify divergence between these groups and reconstruct their history and demography, we analysed nucleotide variation at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1096 bp) in 364 individuals from 156 sites representing the entire range of both species. Three distinct clades with high sequence divergence (K2P = 8-11%) were distinguished. One clade grouped B. bombina haplotypes; the two other clades grouped B. variegata haplotypes. One B. variegata clade included only Carpathian individuals; the other represented B. variegata from the southwestern parts of its distribution: Southern and Western Europe (Balkano-Western lineage), Apennines, and the Rhodope Mountains. Differentiation between the Carpathian and Balkano-Western lineages, K2P approximately 8%, approached interspecific divergence. Deep divergence among European Bombina lineages suggests their preglacial origin, and implies long and largely independent evolutionary histories of the species. Multiple glacial refugia were identified in the lowlands adjoining the Black Sea, in the Carpathians, in the Balkans, and in the Apennines. The results of the nested clade and demographic analyses suggest drastic reductions of population sizes during the last glacial period, and significant demographic growth related to postglacial colonization. Inferred history, supported by fossil evidence, demonstrates that Bombina ranges underwent repeated contractions and expansions. Geographical concordance between morphology, allozymes, and mtDNA shows that previous episodes of interspecific hybridization have left no detectable mtDNA introgression. Either the admixed populations went extinct, or selection against hybrids hindered mtDNA gene flow in ancient hybrid zones.

  5. Age structure, growth and longevity in the common toad, Rhinella arenarum, from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa de L. Bionda


    Full Text Available Age structure, growth and longevity was determined in the common toad, Rhinella arenarum, from a suburban pond located in the Pampa plains, central Argentina during two breeding seasons, in 2000 and 2008 by using skeletochronology, which relies on the analysis of the annual lines of arrested growth (LAGs in bones. Both females and males were captured in 2008, while only males were recorded in 2000. Females were significantly larger than males. Mean population age was 2.4 ± 0.9 years in 2000. In 2008, the difference in age was not significant between the sexes (Males: 3.0 ± 0.7, n = 21; Females: 2.6 ± 0.9, n = 12, neither between males in 2000 and 2008. The longevity in males of 2000 was 6 LAGs and exceeded that of males (5 LAGs and females (4 LAGs in 2008. Von Bertalanffy curves showed that the growth coefficient in the males of 2000 (K = 2.97 ± 0.47 was almost double that of females (K = 1.21 ± 0.10 and males (K = 1.01 ± 0.14 of 2008. Males and females Rhinella arenarum show different morphological and life history traits and the year of sampling can significantly influence the estimation of the studied parameters such as age at maturity and growth rates.

  6. Spatial and temporal ecology of eastern spadefoot toads on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathyrn, H.; Tanner, George, W.


    Effective amphibian conservation must consider population and landscape processes, but information at multiple scales is rare. We explore spatial and temporal patterns of breeding and recruitment by Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii), using 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in longleaf pine-wiregrass sandhills. Breeding events (>25 adults at a pond within a month) occurred 23 times on nine occasions at seven of the eight study ponds, but substantial recruitment(>100 metamorphs) followed only five events. Recruitment ranged from 0-4,648 among ponds. Only four ponds functioned as population ''sources'', but only during some years. The other ponds, and even ''source'' ponds during some years, functioned either as ''sinks'', where breeding occurred with no resulting recruitment, or were not used at all for breeding. Most recruitment occurred during four years. Recruitment was correlated with adult breeding effort, but only during some years. Recaptures were rare, and inter-pond exchange of adults was minimal and short-distance (< 130 m; 1 was 416 m). Most (83.5%) individuals captured were metamorphs, and 15.9% were > 51 mm (est. > 4 years). We conservatively estimated a 7-year lifespan. Adult ''population'' trends clearly reflected breeding effort rather than numbers per se; capture rates fluctuated dramatically among years, but showed no overall trends during the 9-year study. Our paper provides empiracle information that can be used to generate realistic metapopulation models for S. holbrookii as a tool in conservation planning.

  7. Microsatellite analysis of the natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita ) in Denmark: populations are islands in a fragmented landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten E.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Briggs, Lars;


    The European natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) has declined rapidly in recent years, primarily due to loss of habitat, and in Denmark it is estimated that 50% of the isolated populations are lost each decade. To efficiently manage and conserve this species and its genetic diversity, knowledge...

  8. The influence of ambient salinity and temperature on lipid metabolism in toad (Bufo bufo) skin. Is phosphatidylethanolamine an endogenous regulator of ion channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Willumsen, Niels J.


    Incorporation of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate into frog (Rana temporaria) skin phospholipids in vitro was positively correlated to skin MR cell density. Transport across toad (Bufo bufo) skin and incorporation into skin phospholipids of the radioactive tracers were independent of transepithe...

  9. Quantifying anuran microhabitat use to infer the potential for parasite transmission between invasive cane toads and two species of Australian native frogs. (United States)

    Pizzatto, Lígia; Both, Camila; Shine, Richard


    Parasites that are carried by invasive species can infect native taxa, with devastating consequences. In Australia, invading cane toads (Rhinella marina) carry lungworm parasites (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) that (based on previous laboratory studies) can infect native treefrogs (Litoria caerulea and L. splendida). To assess the potential of parasite transmission from the invader to the native species (and from one infected native frog to another), we used surveys and radiotelemetry to quantify anuran microhabitat use, and proximity to other anurans, in two sites in tropical Australia. Unsurprisingly, treefrogs spent much of their time off the ground (especially by day, and in undisturbed forests) but terrestrial activity was common at night (especially in anthropogenically modified habitats). Microhabitat overlap between cane toads and frogs was generally low, except at night in disturbed areas, whereas overlap between the two frog species was high. The situations of highest overlap, and hence with the greatest danger of parasite transmission, involve aggregations of frogs within crevices by day, and use of open ground by all three anuran species at night. Overall, microhabitat divergence between toads and frogs should reduce, but not eliminate, the transmission of lungworms from invasive toads to vulnerable native frogs.

  10. Contrasting patterns of quantitative and neutral genetic variation in locally adapted populations of the natterjack toad, Bufo calamita. (United States)

    Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Tejedo, Miguel


    The relative importance of natural selection and genetic drift in determining patterns of phenotypic diversity observed in nature is still unclear. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is one of a few amphibian species capable of breeding in saline ponds, even though water salinity represents a considerable stress for them. Results from two common-garden experiments showed a pattern of geographic variation in embryonic salinity tolerance among populations from either fresh or brackish environments, consistent with the hypothesis of local adaptation. Full-sib analysis showed increased variation in survival among sibships within population for all populations as osmotic stress was increased (broad-sense heritability increased as salinity raised). Nevertheless, toads native to the brackish water environment had the highest overall survival under brackish conditions. Levels of population genetic differentiation for salinity tolerance were higher than those of neutral genetic differentiation, the latter obtained through the analysis of eight microsatellite loci. Microsatellite markers also revealed little population differentiation, lack of an isolation-by-distance pattern, and moderate gene flow connecting the populations. Therefore, environmental stress tolerance appears to have evolved in absence of geographic isolation, and consequently we reject the null hypothesis of neutral differentiation.

  11. Influence of sprint speed and body size on predator avoidance in New Mexican spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). (United States)

    Arendt, Jeffrey David


    Predator-prey interactions play an important role in community dynamics and may be important for promoting genetic diversification. Diversification may be especially important when prey species have multiple anti-predator strategies available, but these strategies conflict with each other. For example, rapid sprint speed and large size are both thought to decrease vulnerability to many predators. A physiological trade-off between swimming speed and growth rate has been documented in many aquatic species and, as a result, individual genotypes may employ one strategy or the other, but not both. Although rapid sprint speed is often assumed to decrease vulnerability to predators, this has only rarely been tested. Here I provide evidence that both rapid sprint speed and large size in tadpoles of the New Mexico spadefoot toad (Spea multiplicata) decreases predation risk from carnivore morphs of its congener the Great Plains spadefoot toad (Spea bombifrons). Such conflicts, coupled with spatio-temporal variation in predation pressure, may be important in maintaining genetic variation for trade-offs.

  12. Acute toxicity of arsenic and oxidative stress responses in the embryonic development of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum. (United States)

    Mardirosian, Mariana Noelia; Lascano, Cecilia Inés; Ferrari, Ana; Bongiovanni, Guillermina Azucena; Venturino, Andrés


    Arsenic (As), a natural element of ecological relevance, is found in natural water sources throughout Argentina in concentrations between 0.01 mg/L and 15 mg/L. The autochthonous toad Rhinella arenarum was selected to study the acute toxicity of As and the biochemical responses elicited by the exposure to As in water during its embryonic development. The median lethal concentration (LC50) value averaged 24.3 mg/L As and remained constant along the embryonic development. However, As toxicity drastically decreased when embryos were exposed from heartbeat-stage on day 4 of development, suggesting the onset of detoxification mechanisms. Given the environmental concentrations of As in Argentina, there is a probability of exceeding lethal levels at 1% of sites. Arsenic at sublethal concentrations caused a significant decrease in the total antioxidant potential but generated an increase in endogenous glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. This protective response might prevent a deeper decline in the antioxidant system and further oxidative damage. Alternatively, it might be linked to As conjugation with GSH for its excretion. The authors conclude that toad embryos are more sensitive to As during early developmental stages and that relatively high concentrations of this toxic element are required to elicit mortality, but oxidative stress may be an adverse effect at sublethal concentrations.

  13. Spitzer Observations of Var Her 04: Possible Detection of Dust Formation in a Super-Outbursting TOAD

    CERN Document Server

    Ciardi, D R; Hoard, D W; Howell, S B; Van Belle, G T; Ciardi, David R.; Wachter, Stefanie; Howell, Steve B.; Belle, Gerard T. van


    We present four MIPS (24 \\micron) and two IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 \\micron) Spitzer observations of the newly discovered Tremendous Outburst Amplitude Dwarf nova (TOAD) Var Her 04 during decline from super-outburst. The four MIPS observations span 271 days and the two IRAC observations span 211 days. Along the line-of-sight to Var Her 04, there is a foreground M-star within 1\\arcsec of the variable; as a result, all of the Spitzer photometry presented in this paper is a blend of the foreground M-star and Var Her 04. We estimate the quiescent level of the TOAD to be $\\Delta V=4-5$ magnitudes below that of the M-star. Based upon the spectral energy distribution and the 2MASS colors, we find the M-star to be an M3.5V dwarf at a distance of 80-130 pc. Based upon its outburst amplitude and quiescent apparent magnitude, we estimate the distance to Var Her 04 to be 200-400 pc, suggesting that the line-of-sight foreground star is physically unrelated to the cataclysmic variable. All of the Spitzer photometry is c...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛驰; 王翰章


    Toad red blood cells were used to measure regional bone blood flow in the canine mandibular ramus.The blood cells were labelled with sodium pertechnetate and fixed in 10% formalin;they were 22×15 μm in size and had a specific gravity close to that of dog red blood cells.These cells had no discernible effect on systemic hemody-namics after injection,did not agglutinate,were well mixed and evenly distributed throughout the body,and were completely extracted in one circulation through the mandible.The mandibular ramus was divided into six regions,and the blood flow rates in each were found to be similar to those reported in previous studies with radiolabelled carbonized,microspheres.Furthermore,the blood flow distribution pattern of the mandibular ramus determined in this study was identical to that of our previous study using the bone-seeking radionuclide method.We suggest that radiolabelled toad red blood cells are an ideal marker for measuring regional blood flow in the canine mandible.

  15. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada (United States)

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca Ann


    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth, and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only 2 parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimilewas significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  16. The effect of supplementation with vitamin A on serum and liver concentrations in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur) and its lack of impact on brown skin disease. (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher; Lentini, Andrew; Berkvens, Charlene; Crawshaw, Graham


    "Brown skin disease" (BSD) is a clinical syndrome of dysecdysis, chronic weight loss and death, previously reported in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur). Although vitamin A deficiency has been suggested, its cause remains unknown and multiple treatments have failed to prevent or reverse the condition. This study compared the efficacy of vitamin A supplementation, administered in different forms and by different routes, in 48 captive born Puerto Rican crested toads fed from metamorphosis on gut-loaded, dusted, commercially raised crickets. Forty-five toads started to show clinical signs of BSD at 9 months of age; all toads were treated orally with an oil-based vitamin A formulation twice weekly for 2 months but continued to deteriorate. Two treatment groups were then compared: Animals in one group (n=19) received 2 IU injectable vitamin A (Aquasol-A) per gram bodyweight subcutaneously twice weekly for 3 months with no change in diet. Toads in the other group (n=22) received a single oral dose of vitamins A, D3 , and E, and were fed on earthworms and crickets gut-loaded with produce and a finely-ground alfalfa-based pellet, dusted with the same vitamin/mineral supplement. All affected animals developed severe BSD equally and died during, or were euthanized at the end of, the treatment regimen, with no clinical improvement. Animals supplemented with Aquasol-A had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations compared with the other treatment group, whereas serum retinol concentrations showed no significant difference. Vitamin A supplementation does not appear a successful treatment once BSD symptoms have developed.

  17. Microfluorometric analyses of glycogen in freshly dissected, single skeletal muscle fibres of the cane toad using a mechanically skinned fibre preparation. (United States)

    Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, D G; Stephenson, G M


    The main objective of this study was to analyse glycogen in single muscle fibres, using a recently developed microfluorometric method which detects subpicomol amounts of NADPH, glucose and glycogen (as glucosyl units) (detection limit 0.16-0.17 pmol in a 25 nl sample) without fluorochrome amplification. The fibres were freshly dissected from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of the cane toad (Bufo marinus), and were mechanically skinned under paraffin oil to gain access to the intracellular compartments. The results show that (1) glycogen concentrations in toad skeletal muscle fibres range between 25.8 and 369 mmol glucosyl units/litre fibre volume; (2) there is a large variation in glycogen content between individual fibres from the iliofibularis muscle of one animal; (3) there are seasonal differences in the glycogen content of toad single muscle fibres; (4) the total amount of glycogen in single muscle fibres of the toad does not decrease significantly when storing the tissue, under paraffin oil, at 20-25 degree C for up to 6 h or at 4 degree C for up to 24 h; and (5) 15-26% of fibre glycogen can be washed in an aqueous solution at pH 5-7, within 5 min, while 74-85% of fibre glycogen remains associated with the washed skinned fibre, even after 40 min exposure of the skinned fibre preparation to the aqueous environment. The retention of most glycogen in the fibre preparation after mechanical removal of the plasma membrane and extensive washing indicates that in toad skeletal muscle fibres the largest proportion of glycogen is tightly bound to intracellular structures. The results also show that the skinned muscle fibre preparation is well suited for microfluorometric glycogen determination, since low molecular weight non-glycogen contributors to the fluorescence signal can be removed from the myoplasmic space prior to the glycogen hydrolysis step.

  18. Glycogen content and excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically skinned muscle fibres of the cane toad. (United States)

    Stephenson, D G; Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, G M


    1. Mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the relationship between fibre glycogen content and fibre capacity to respond to transverse tubular (T-) system depolarization. 2. A large proportion of total fibre glycogen remained in mechanically skinned muscle fibres exposed to aqueous solutions. This glycogen pool (about 80% of total fibre glycogen) was very stable when the preparation was incubated in a rigor solution (pH 7.0) but decreased gradually at a rate of 0.59+/-0.20% min-1 in a relaxing solution (200 nM [Ca2+]). The rate was considerably higher (2.66+/-0.38% min(-1)) when the preparations were exposed to 30 microM [Ca2+]. An even greater rate of glycogen loss was found after T-system depolarization-induced contractions. The Ca2+-dependent loss of fibre glycogen was caused by endogenous glycogenolytic processes. 3. Silver stained SDS gels of components eluted into relaxing solution from single skinned fibres revealed a rapid (2 min) loss of parvalbumin and at least 10 other proteins varying in molecular mass between 10 and 80 kDa but there was essentially no loss of myosin heavy and light chains and actin. Subsequent elution for a further 30 min in either relaxing or maximally Ca2+-activating solution did not result in additional, appreciable detectable loss of fibre protein. 4. Depletion of fibre glycogen was associated with loss of fibre ability to respond to T-system depolarization even though the bathing solutions contained high levels of ATP (8 mM) and creatine phosphate (10 mM). 5. The capacity of mechanically skinned fibres to respond to T-system depolarization was highly positively correlated (Pmuscle to respond to T-system depolarization is related directly or indirectly to the non-washable glycogen pool in fibres, (ii) this relationship holds for conditions where glycogen is not required as a source of energy and (iii) the mechanically skinned fibre

  19. Effect of saponin treatment on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat, cane toad and crustacean (yabby) skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G


    1. Mechanically skinned fibres from skeletal muscles of the rat, toad and yabby were used to investigate the effect of saponin treatment on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ loading properties. The SR was loaded submaximally under control conditions before and after treatment with saponin and SR Ca2+ was released with caffeine. 2. Treatment with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin greatly reduced the SR Ca2+ loading ability of skinned fibres from the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat with a rate constant of 0.24 min-1. Saponin concentrations up to 150 micrograms ml-1 and increased exposure time up to 30 min did not further reduce the SR Ca2+ loading ability of the SR, which indicates that the inhibitory action of 10-150 micrograms ml-1 saponin is not dose dependent. The effect of saponin was also not dependent on the state of polarization of the transverse-tubular system. 3. Treatment with saponin at concentrations up to 100 micrograms ml-1 for 30 min did not affect the Ca2+ loading ability of SR in skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch portion of the toad iliofibularis muscle but SR Ca2+ loading ability decreased markedly with a time constant of 0.22 min-1 in the presence of 150 micrograms ml-1 saponin. 4. The saponin dependent increase in permeability could be reversed in both rat and toad fibres by short treatment with 6 microM Ruthenium Red, a potent SR Ca2+ channel blocker, suggesting that saponin does affect the SR Ca2+ channel properties in mammalian and anuran skeletal muscle. 5. Treatment of skinned fibres of long sarcomere length (> 6 microns) from the claw muscle of the yabby (a freshwater decapod crustacean) with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin for 30 min abolished the ability of the SR to load Ca2+, indicating that saponin affects differently the SR from skeletal muscles of mammals, anurans and crustaceans. 6. It is concluded that at relatively low concentrations, saponin causes inhibition of the skeletal SR Ca2+ loading ability in a species

  20. Relationship between depolarization-induced force responses and Ca2+ content in skeletal muscle fibres of rat and toad. (United States)

    Owen, V J; Lamb, G D; Stephenson, D G; Fryer, M W


    1. The relationship between the total Ca2+ content of a muscle fibre and the magnitude of the force response to depolarization was examined in mechanically skinned fibres from the iliofibularis muscle of the toad and the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat. The response to depolarization in each skinned fibre was assessed either at the endogenous level of Ca2+ content or after depleting the fibre of Ca2+ to some degree. Ca2+ content was determined by a fibre lysing technique. 2. In both muscle types, the total Ca2+ content could be reduced from the endogenous level of approximately 1.3 mmol l-1 (expressed relative to intact fibre volume) to approximately 0.25 mmol l-1 by either depolarization or caffeine application in the presence of Ca2+ chelators, showing that the great majority of the Ca2+ was stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Chelation of Ca2+ in the transverse tubular (T-) system, either by exposure of fibres to EGTA before skinning or by permeabilizing the T-system with saponin after skinning, reduced the lower limit of Ca2+ content to < or = 0.12 mmol l-1, indicating that 10-20% of the total fibre Ca2+ resided in the T-system. 3. In toad fibres, both the peak and the area (i.e. time integral) of the force response to depolarization were reduced by any reduction in SR Ca2+ content, with both decreasing to zero in an approximately linear manner as the SR Ca2+ content was reduced to < 15% of the endogenous level. In rat fibres, the peak size of the force response was less affected by small decreases in SR content, but both the peak and area of the response decreased to zero with greater depletion. In partially depleted toad fibres, inhibition of SR Ca2+ uptake potentiated the force response to depolarization almost 2-fold. 4. The results show that in this skinned fibre preparation: (a) T-system depolarization and caffeine application can each virtually fully deplete the SR of Ca2+, irrespective of any putative inhibitory effect of SR depletion

  1. Checklist and Simple Identification Key for Frogs and Toads from District IV of The MADA Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia. (United States)

    Jaafar, Ibrahim; Chai, Teoh Chia; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md


    A survey was conducted to catalogue the diversity of anurans in District IV of the Muda Agriculture Development Authority Scheme (MADA) in Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia, from July 1996 to January 1997. Eight species of anurans from three families were present in the study area. Of these, the Common Grass Frog (Fejevarya limnocharis) was the most abundant, followed by Mangrove Frog (Fejevarya cancrivora), Long-legged Frog (Hylarana macrodactyla), and Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). Puddle Frog (Occidozyga lima), Taiwanese Giant Frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), and Banded Bullfrog (Kaluola pulchra) were rare during the sampling period, and only one Paddy Frog (Hylarana erythraea) was captured. A simple identification key for the anurans of this area is included for use by scientists and laymen alike.

  2. A Mathematical Model of Solute Coupled Water Transport in Toad Intestine Incorporating Recirculation of the Actively Transported Solute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    A mathematical model of an absorbing leaky epithelium is developed for analysis of solute coupled water transport. The non-charged driving solute diffuses into cells and is pumped from cells into the lateral intercellular space (lis). All membranes contain water channels with the solute passing...... concentration of fluid emerging from lis is then significantly larger than the concentration in lis. Thus, in absence of external driving forces the model generates isotonic transport provided a component of the solute flux emerging downstream lis is taken up by cells through the serosal membrane and pumped...... back into lis, i.e., the solute would have to be recirculated. With input variables from toad intestine (Nedergaard, S., E.H. Larsen, and H.H. Ussing, J. Membr. Biol. 168:241-251), computations predict that 60-80% of the pumped flux stems from serosal bath in agreement with the experimental estimate...

  3. Aerobic scope and cardiovascular oxygen transport is not compromised at high temperatures in the toad Rhinella marina. (United States)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Andersen, Jonas L; Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Pil B M; Hansen, Kasper; Ozolina, Karlina; Wang, Tobias


    Numerous recent studies convincingly correlate the upper thermal tolerance limit of aquatic ectothermic animals to reduced aerobic scope, and ascribe the decline in aerobic scope to failure of the cardiovascular system at high temperatures. In the present study we investigate whether this 'aerobic scope model' applies to an air-breathing and semi-terrestrial vertebrate Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus). To quantify aerobic scope, we measured resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. To include potential effects of acclimation, three groups of toads were acclimated chronically at 20, 25 and 30°C, respectively. The absolute difference between resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption increased progressively with temperature and there was no significant decrease in aerobic scope, even at temperature immediately below the lethal limit (41-42°C). Haematological and cardiorespiratory variables were measured at rest and immediately after maximal activity at benign (30°C) and critically high (40°C) temperatures. Within this temperature interval, both resting and active heart rate increased, and there was no indication of respiratory failure, judged from high arterial oxygen saturation, P(O2) and [Hb(O2)]. With the exception of elevated resting metabolic rate for cold-acclimated toads, we found few differences in the thermal responses between acclimation groups with regard to the cardiometabolic parameters. In conclusion, we found no evidence for temperature-induced cardiorespiratory failure in R. marina, indicating that maintenance of aerobic scope and oxygen transport is unrelated to the upper thermal limit of this air-breathing semi-terrestrial vertebrate.

  4. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.


    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  5. Sexual selection in cane toads Rhinella marina: A male’s body size affects his success and his tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley BOWCOCK, Gregory P. BROWN, Richard SHINE


    Full Text Available Male body size can play an important role in the mating systems of anuran amphibians. We conducted laboratory-based trials with cane toads Rhinella (Bufo marina from an invasive population in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia, to clarify the effects of a male's body size on his reproductive success and behavior (mate choice. Males were stimulated with a synthetic hormone to induce reproductive readiness. Larger body size enhanced a male toad's ability to displace a smaller rival from amplexus, apparently because of physical strength: more force was required to dislodge a larger than a smaller amplectant male. A male’s body size also affected his mate-choice criteria. Males of all body sizes were as likely to attempt amplexus with another male as with a female of the same size, and preferred larger rather than smaller sexual targets. However, this size preference was stronger in larger males and hence, amplexus was size-assortative. This pattern broke down when males were given access to already-amplectant male-female pairs: males of all body sizes readily attempted amplexus with the pair, with no size discrimination. An amplectant pair provides a larger visual stimulus, and prolonged amplexus provides a strong cue for sex identification (one of the individuals involved is almost certainly a female. Thus, a male cane toad’s body size affects both his ability to defeat rivals in physical struggles over females, and the criteria he uses when selecting potential mates, but the impacts of that selectivity depend upon the context in which mating occurs [Current Zoology 59 (6: 747–753, 2013].

  6. Effects of membrane cholesterol manipulation on excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle of the toad. (United States)

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G


    1. Single mechanically skinned fibres and intact bundles of fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the effects of membrane cholesterol manipulation on excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. The cholesterol content of membranes was manipulated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD). 2. In mechanically skinned fibres, depletion of membrane cholesterol with MbetaCD caused a dose- and time-dependent decrease in transverse tubular (t)-system depolarization-induced force responses (TSDIFRs). TSDIFRs were completely abolished within 2 min in the presence of 10 mM MbetaCD but were not affected after 2 min in the presence of a 10 mM MbetaCD-1 mM cholesterol complex. There was a very steep dependence between the change in TSDIFRs and the MbetaCD : cholesterol ratio at 10 mM MbetaCD, indicating that the inhibitory effect of MbetaCD was due to membrane cholesterol depletion and not to a pharmacological effect of the agent. Tetanic responses in bundles of intact fibres were abolished after 3-4 h in the presence of 10 mM MbetaCD. 3. The duration of TSDIFRs increased markedly soon (< 2 min) after application of 10 mM MbetaCD and 10 mM MbetaCD-cholesterol complexes, but the Ca(2+) activation properties of the contractile apparatus were minimally affected by 10 mM MbetaCD. The Ca(2+) handling abilities of the sarcoplasmic reticulum appeared to be modified after 10 min exposure to 10 mM MbetaCD. 4. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the integrity of the t-system was not compromised by either intra- or extracellular application of 10 mM MbetaCD and that a large [Ca(2+)] gradient was maintained across the t-system. 5. Membrane cholesterol depletion caused rapid depolarization of the polarized t-system as shown independently by spontaneous TSDIFRs induced by MbetaCD and by changes in the fluorescence intensity of an anionic potentiometric dye (DiBAC(4)(3)) in the presence of MbetaCD. This rapid depolarization of

  7. Toad radiation reveals into-India dispersal as a source of endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossuyt Franky


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible source of endemism on the subcontinent. Using c. 6000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we investigated the evolutionary history and biogeography of true toads (Bufonidae, a group that colonized the Indian Subcontinent after the Indo-Asia collision. Results Contrary to previous studies, Old World toads were recovered as a nested clade within New World Bufonidae, indicating a single colonization event. Species currently classified as Ansonia and Pedostibes were both recovered as being non-monophyletic, providing evidence for the independent origin of torrential and arboreal ecomorphs on the Indian subcontinent and in South-East Asia. Our analyses also revealed a previously unrecognized adaptive radiation of toads containing a variety of larval and adult ecomorphs. Molecular dating estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate that the early diversification of this clade happened in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Conclusion Paleoclimate reconstructions have shown that the Early Neogene of India was marked by major environmental changes, with the transition from a zonal- to the current monsoon-dominated climate. After arrival in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot, toads diversified in situ, with only one lineage able to successfully disperse out of these mountains. Consequently, higher taxonomic level endemism on the Indian Subcontinent is not only the result of Cretaceous isolation, but also of invasion

  8. On Saozi Noodle, Toad Butter and the Chinese Character"de"%(月肃)子面、蟾酥及“的”字三议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    "臊子面"应为"(月肃)子面",这可以从许多古籍记载中看得出来。蟾酥的制作通常是于夏秋捕捉癞蛤蟆,后去内脏,撑开晒干,用瓷匙刮癞蛤蟆的表面,促使其分泌浆液,再盛于瓷器内,干燥后就称为蟾酥。上古至清,"的"字的含义指姬妾宫人来了月经,不用口说,以红色丹砂、胭脂或其它红、绛、玄、蛾黄色颜料点在额中,意即避开房事。%"Saozi Noodle"should have been written in another way,which can be seen from many ancient books.The making of toad butter usually begins with summer and autumn when people try to catch a toad,gut it and air its dead body.Afterward the surface of toad is to be scraped with a porcelain spoon for the secreting of thick liquid to be put in a porcelain vessel.Wait until it is dried when it is called toad butter.Ever since antiquity,the meaning of"de"refers to the menstruation period of concubines and people in the imperial court.When this happens,the females don’t have to tell but put a dot made up of red cinnabar,rouge or other colors such as red,purple,black or yellow,which indicates the avoidance of having sexual intercourse.

  9. Volunteer Conservation Action Data Reveals Large-Scale and Long-Term Negative Population Trends of a Widespread Amphibian, the Common Toad (Bufo bufo) (United States)

    Petrovan, Silviu O.


    Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe’s most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Millions of toads were moved by volunteers across roads during this period in an effort to protect them from road traffic. For Switzerland, we additionally estimated trends for the common frog (Rana temporaria), a similarly widespread and common amphibian species. We used state-space models to account for variability in detection and effort and included only populations with at least 5 years of data; 153 populations for the UK and 141 for Switzerland. Common toads declined continuously in each decade in both countries since the 1980s. Given the declines, this common species almost qualifies for International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red-listing over this period despite volunteer conservation efforts. Reasons for the declines and wider impacts remain unknown. By contrast, common frog populations were stable or increasing in Switzerland, although there was evidence of declines after 2003. “Toads on Roads” schemes are vital citizen conservation action projects, and the data from such projects can be used for large scale trend estimations of widespread amphibians. We highlight the need for increased research into the status of common amphibian species in addition to conservation efforts focusing on rare and threatened species. PMID:27706154

  10. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen


    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  11. Intoxicación aguda en perro por toxinas de sapo (Bufo bufo - Acute intoxication in a dog by toxins of a toad (Bufo bufo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Palacios, O´Connor, Rocío


    Full Text Available ResumenLas intoxicaciones por toxinas de sapo no son frecuentes en España y su incidencia es mayor en primavera y verano. En este trabajo describimos un caso de intoxicación aguda de una perra de 4 años de edad tras la aprehensión de un sapo (Bufo bufo en la zona de Huelva. Los signos de una intoxicación comenzaron a los 15 minutos de entrar en contacto con el sapo muriendo a las 3 horas sin responder al tratamiento suministrado (corticoides, atropina, fluidoterapia y acepromazina. Aunque el diagnóstico fue precoz, a pesar del tratamiento se produjo la muerte en 3 horas.SummaryIntoxications by toad toxins are not frequent in Spain, and its incidence is greater in spring and summer. In this work it is described a case of an acute intoxication of a dog of 4 years old by toad toxins (Bufo bufo in the area of Huelva. The animal began to show signs of intoxication 15 minutes after the contact with the toad, dying 3 hours later without any response to the provided treatment (corticoids, atropine, fluidotherapy and acepromazine. Although the diagnosis was precocious and the treatment was administrated, after 3 hours the animal died.

  12. Genetic structure and origin of a tetraploid toad species Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 (Amphibia, Bufonidae) from central Asia: Description of biochemical polymorphism and comparison of heterozygosity levels in diploid and tetraploid species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezhzherin, S.V.; Pisanets, E.M. [Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine)


    Comparison of individual variation at 24 biochemical loci in members of the species complex of Palearctic green toads showed that the heterozygosity of the tetraploid species Bufo danatensis (H{sub obs} = 0.45) was significantly higher than that of the diploid species B. viridis, B. sp., and B. raddei (H{sub obs} = 0.009 - 0.103). Such difference can be explained only by a hybrid origin of the tetraploid species. Individual electrophoretic variability of the polyploid toad species is associated with an allelic variation that is manifested in constantly heterozygous spectra as the gene dosage effect. At the population level, this phenomenon found in Pamir toads is caused by irregular meiosis in founders of the population or by directional changes in gene regulation. Genotypic distributions in zones of contact of the diploid and tetraploid taxons demonstrate the possibility of restricted introgressive hybridization.

  13. Life history variation among geographically close populations of the toad-headed lizard (Phrynocephalus przewalskii): Exploring environmental and physiological associations (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-Gao; Zhao, Jia-Ming; Sun, Bao-Jun


    Geographic variation in life history traits has been extensively studied along latitudinal and altitudinal clines, but life history variation among geographically close populations has received much less attention. We collected gravid female toad-headed lizards (Phrynocephalus przewalskii) and environmental data from three localities (Alxa Zuoqi, Alxa Youqi, and Shandan) across the Gobi desert in China, to examine among-population differences in reproductive strategies. The precipitation was significantly lower in Alxa Youqi than Alxa Zouqi and Shandan. Food availability was highest in Shandan, lowest in Alxa Zuoqi, with Alxa Youqi in between. Females from Shandan population were larger and produced more and larger eggs than their counterparts from the other two populations. Incubation period also differed among the populations, with the lowest incubation period in Alxa Youqi population, and the longest incubation period in Alxa Zuoqi population. Our data on the physiological mechanisms of incubation period indicated that the shortened incubation period in Alxa Youqi population was due to advanced embryogenesis completed prior to oviposition rather than higher embryonic heart rates during incubation. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that geographically close populations can show different reproductive strategies if environmental factors vary among these populations.

  14. Beta-adrenergic activation of solute coupled water uptake by toad skin epithelium results in near-isosmotic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert; Larsen, Erik Hviid


    (V) decreased to 0.50+/-0.15 nL cm(-2) x s(-1), which is significantly different from zero. Isoproterenol decreased the osmotic concentration of the transported fluid, C(osm) approximately 2 x I(SC)(Eqv)/J(V), from 351+/-72 to 227+/-28 mOsm (Ringer's solution: 252.8 mOsm). J(V) depicted a saturating function......(V) with a [Na+] of the transported fluid of 130+/-24 mM ([Na+]Ringer's solution = 117.4 mM). Addition of bumetanide to the inside solution reduced J(V). Water was transported uphill and J(V) reversed at an excess outside osmotic concentration, deltaC(S,rev) = 28.9+/-3.9 mOsm, amiloride decreased delta......Transepithelial potential (V(T)), conductance (G(T)), and water flow (J(V)) were measured simultaneously with good time resolution (min) in isolated toad (Bufo bufo) skin epithelium with Ringer on both sides. Inside application of 5 microM isoproterenol resulted in the fast increase in G(T) from 1...

  15. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Ferreira


    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  16. Widespread convergence in toxin resistance by predictable molecular evolution


    Ujvari, Beata; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Sunagar, Kartik; Arbuckle, Kevin; Wüster, Wolfgang; Lo, Nathan; O’Meally, Denis; Beckmann, Christa; King, Glenn F.; Deplazes, Evelyne; Madsen, Thomas


    Convergence has strong bearing on the fundamental debate about whether evolution is stochastic and unpredictable or subject to constraints. Here we show that, in certain circumstances, evolution can be highly predictable. We demonstrate that several lineages of insects, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals have utilized the same molecular solution, via the process of convergence, to evolve resistance to toxic cardiac glycosides produced defensively by plants and bufonid toads. The repeatability ...

  17. Ion transport mechanisms in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo: microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana


    It is not clear how and whether terrestrial amphibians handle NaCl transport in the distal nephron. Therefore, we studied ion transport in isolated perfused collecting tubules and ducts from toad, Bufo bufo, by means of microelectrodes. No qualitative difference in basolateral cell membrane...... and amiloride application showed a small apical Na+ conductance. Arginine vasotocin depolarized Vbl. The small apical Na+ conductance indicates that the collecting duct system contributes little to NaCl reabsorption when compared to aquatic amphibians. In contrast, Vbl rapidly depolarized upon lowering of [Na...

  18. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia): how to prioritize species and populations? (United States)

    Zank, Caroline; Becker, Fernando Gertum; Abadie, Michelle; Baldo, Diego; Maneyro, Raúl; Borges-Martins, Márcio


    We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080) for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas) did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080), M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3) were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080); nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  19. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia: how to prioritize species and populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Zank

    Full Text Available We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080 for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080, M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3 were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080; nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  20. Thermal effects on the dynamics and motor control of ballistic prey capture in toads: maintaining high performance at low temperature. (United States)

    Deban, Stephen M; Lappin, A Kristopher


    Temperature has a strong influence on biological rates, including the contractile rate properties of muscle and thereby the velocity, acceleration and power of muscle-powered movements. We hypothesized that the dynamics of movements powered by elastic recoil have a lower thermal dependence than muscle-powered movements. We examined the prey capture behavior of toads (Bufo terrestris) using high speed imaging and electromyography to compare the effects of body temperature (11-35°C) on the kinematics, dynamics and motor control of two types of movement: (1) ballistic mouth opening and tongue projection, which are powered by elastic recoil, and (2) non-ballistic prey transport, including tongue retraction and mouth closing, which are powered directly by muscle contraction. Over 11-25°C, temperature coefficients of ballistic mouth opening and tongue projection dynamics (Q(10) of 0.99-1.25) were not significantly different from 1.00 and were consistently lower than those of prey transport movements (Q(10) of 1.77-2.26), supporting our main hypothesis. The depressor mandibulae muscle, which is responsible for ballistic mouth opening and tongue projection via the recovery of elastic strain energy stored by the muscle prior to the onset of the movement, was activated earlier and for a longer duration at lower temperatures (Q(10) of 2.29-2.41), consistent with a slowing of its contractile rates. Muscle recruitment was unaffected by temperature, as revealed by the lack of thermal dependence in the intensity of activity of both the jaw depressor and jaw levator muscles (Q(10) of 0.754-1.12). Over the 20-35°C range, lower thermal dependence was found for the dynamics of non-elastic movements and the motor control of both elastic and non-elastic movements, in accord with a plateau of high performance found in other systems.

  1. Disruption of excitation-contraction coupling and titin by endogenous Ca2+-activated proteases in toad muscle fibres. (United States)

    Verburg, Esther; Murphy, Robyn M; Stephenson, D George; Lamb, Graham D


    This study investigated the effects of elevated, physiological levels of intracellular free [Ca(2+)] on depolarization-induced force responses, and on passive and active force production by the contractile apparatus in mechanically skinned fibres of toad iliofibularis muscle. Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling was retained after skinning and force responses could be elicited by depolarization of the transverse-tubular (T-) system. Raising the cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] to approximately 1 microm or above for 3 min caused an irreversible reduction in the depolarization-induced force response by interrupting the coupling between the voltage sensors in the T-system and the Ca(2+) release channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This uncoupling showed a steep [Ca(2+)] dependency, with 50% uncoupling at approximately 1.9 microm Ca(2+). The uncoupling occurring with 2 microm Ca(2+) was largely prevented by the calpain inhibitor leupeptin (1 mm). Raising the cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] above 1 microm also caused an irreversible decline in passive force production in stretched skinned fibres in a manner graded by [Ca(2+)], though at a much slower relative rate than loss of coupling. The progressive loss of passive force could be rapidly stopped by lowering [Ca(2+)] to 10 nm, and was almost completely inhibited by 1 mm leupeptin but not by 10 microm calpastatin. Muscle homogenates preactivated by Ca(2+) exposure also evidently contained a diffusible factor that caused damage to passive force production in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Western blotting showed that: (a) calpain-3 was present in the skinned fibres and was activated by the Ca(2+)exposure, and (b) the Ca(2+) exposure in stretched skinned fibres resulted in proteolysis of titin. We conclude that the disruption of EC coupling occurring at elevated levels of [Ca(2+)] is likely to be caused at least in part by Ca(2+)-activated proteases, most likely by calpain-3, though a role of calpain-1 is not excluded.

  2. Population structure, historical biogeography and demographic history of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis in the Tsinling Mountains of Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Meng

    Full Text Available Population genetic structure, historical biogeography and historical demography of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis were studied using the combined data mtDNA cytochrome b (cyt b and the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI as the molecular markers. This species has high genetic variation. There was a significant genetic differentiation among most populations. Three lineages were detected. The phylogenetic relationship analyses and the SAMOVA (spatial analysis of molecular variance results showed significant phylogeographic structure. 82.15% genetic variation occurred among populations whereas differentiation within populations only contributed 17.85% to the total. Mantel test results showed a significant correlation between the pairwise calculated genetic distance and pairwise calculated geographical distance of the populations (regression coefficient  = 0.001286, correlation coefficient  = 0.77051, p (rrand≥robs  = 0.0185<0.05, indicating the existence of isolation-by-distance pattern of genetic divergence for cyt b + COI sequence, which suggests that the distribution of genetic variation is due to geographical separation rather than natural selection. The population expansion or contraction and genetic differentiation between populations or lineages could be explained by topography and the repetitive uplifts of the Tsinling Mountains and the climatic cycles during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene. S. ningshanensis experienced a rapid population expansion about 40,000 years before present. The current decline in population size was probably caused by anthropogenic disturbance. Current populations of S. ningshanensis are from different refugia though the location of these refugia could not be determined in our study. Topography, climatic changes and repetitive population expansion/contraction together led to the high level of genetic variation in S. ningshanensis. A total of three management units (MUs was determined

  3. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the Bidderian and ovarian follicles of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus analyzed by lectin histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Farias

    Full Text Available The Bidder's organ and ovary of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus were studied by light microscopy, using hematoxylin-eosin (HE and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining. The expression and distribution of carbohydrate moieties was analyzed by lectin histochemistry, using 8 lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: Ulex europaeus (UEA I, Lens culinaris (LCA, Erythrina cristagalli (ECA, Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Ricinus communis (RCA I, Aleuria aurantia (AAA, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and Glycine maximum (SBA. The results showed that the Bidderian zona pellucida presented alpha-mannose, alpha-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. The Bidderian follicular cells showed the presence of beta-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In the extracellular matrix, alpha-mannose and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues were detected. The ovarian zona pellucida showed alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues, and alpha-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were detected in the follicular cells. Thus, the zona pellucida in both organs contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. alpha-L-fucose residues were detected in the zona pellucida of both organs, using different lectins. Considering that beta-D-galactose residue was absent from ovary but present in the Bidder's organ, this sugar residue may play an important role in follicle development, blocking the Bidderian follicles and preventing further development of the Bidder's organ into a functional ovary.

  4. Ontogeny of corticotropin-releasing factor effects on locomotion and foraging in the Western spadefoot toad (Spea hammondii). (United States)

    Crespi, Erica J; Denver, Robert J


    We investigated the effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and corticosterone (CORT) on foraging and locomotion in Western spadefoot toad (Spea hammondii) tadpoles and juveniles to assess the behavioral functions of these hormones throughout development. We administered intracerebroventricular injections of ovine CRF or CRF receptor antagonist alphahelical CRF((9-41)) to tadpoles and juveniles, and observed behavior within 1.5 h after injection. In both premetamorphic (Gosner stage 33) and prometamorphic (Gosner stages 35-37) tadpoles, CRF injections increased locomotion and decreased foraging. Injections of alphahelical CRF((9-41)) reduced locomotion but did not affect foraging in premetamorphic tadpoles, but dramatically increased foraging in prometamorphic tadpoles compared to both placebo and uninjected controls. Similarly, alphahelical CRF((9-41)) injections stimulated food intake and prey-catching behavior in juveniles. These results suggest that in later-staged amphibians, endogenous CRF secretion modulates feeding by exerting a suppressive effect on appetite. By contrast to the inhibitory effect of CRF, 3-h exposure to CORT (500 nM added to the aquarium water) stimulated foraging in prometamorphic tadpoles. These tadpoles also exhibited a CORT-mediated increase in foraging 6 h after CRF injection, which was associated with elevated whole-body CORT content and blocked by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist (RU486) injections. Thus, exogenous CRF influences locomotion and foraging in both pre- and prometamorphic tadpoles, but endogenous CRF secretion in relatively unstressed animals does not affect foraging until prometamorphic stages. Furthermore, the opposing actions of CRF and CORT on foraging suggest that they are important regulators of energy balance and food intake in amphibians throughout development.

  5. A vertebrate reproductive system involving three ploidy levels: hybrid origin of triploids in a contact zone of diploid and tetraploid palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup). (United States)

    Stöck, Matthias; Ustinova, Jana; Lamatsch, Dunja K; Schartl, Manfred; Perrin, Nicolas; Moritz, Craig


    The rise and consequences of polyploidy in vertebrates, whose origin was associated with genome duplications, may be best studied in natural diploid and polyploid populations. In a diploid/tetraploid (2n/4n) geographic contact zone of Palearctic green toads in northern Kyrgyzstan, we examine 4ns and triploids (3n) of unknown genetic composition and origins. Using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence, and nuclear microsatellite markers in 84 individuals, we show that 4n (Bufo pewzowi) are allopolyploids, with a geographically proximate 2n species (B. turanensis) being their maternal ancestor and their paternal ancestor as yet unidentified. Local 3n forms arise through hybridization. Adult 3n mature males (B. turanensis mtDNA) have 2n mothers and 4n fathers, but seem distinguishable by nuclear profiles from partly aneuploid 3n tadpoles (with B. pewzowi mtDNA). These observations suggest multiple pathways to the formation of triploids in the contact zone, involving both reciprocal origins. To explain the phenomena in the system, we favor a hypothesis where 3n males (with B. turanensis mtDNA) backcross with 4n and 2n females. Together with previous studies of a separately evolved, sexually reproducing 3n lineage, these observations reveal complex reproductive interactions among toads of different ploidy levels and multiple pathways to the evolution of polyploid lineages.

  6. Vitamin A values of wild-caught Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and marine toads (Rhinella marina) in whole body, liver, and serum. (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen E; Fleming, Greg; Terrell, Scott; Smith, Dustin; Ridgley, Frank; Valdes, Eduardo V


    Recent issues surrounding captive amphibians are often nutritionally related problems, such as hypovitaminosis A. Although supplementation of frogs with vitamin A is a topic of investigation, the underlying issue is understanding vitamin A metabolism in amphibian species. To develop a range of "normal" vitamin A concentrations for captive amphibians, baseline vitamin A concentrations must be established in wild amphibian species. In this study, two species, Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis; n = 59) and marine toads (Rhinella marina; n = 20) were collected from the wild as part of an invasive species control program at Zoo Miami, Miami, Florida. Serum, liver, and whole body samples were analyzed for vitamin A content. The Cuban tree frogs showed higher concentrations on average of vitamin A in serum (82.8 ppb), liver (248.3 IU/g), and whole body (5474.7 IU/kg) samples compared with marine toads (60.1 ppb; 105.3 IU/g; 940.7 IU/kg, respectively), but differences were not significant (P = 0.22). What can be considered "normal" values of vitamin A concentrations across different amphibian species requires further investigation. Although all amphibians collected in this study appeared healthy, a larger sample size of animals, with known health histories and diets, may provide stronger evidence of normal expectations.

  7. Disruption of excitation–contraction coupling and titin by endogenous Ca2+-activated proteases in toad muscle fibres (United States)

    Verburg, Esther; Murphy, Robyn M; Stephenson, D George; Lamb, Graham D


    This study investigated the effects of elevated, physiological levels of intracellular free [Ca2+] on depolarization-induced force responses, and on passive and active force production by the contractile apparatus in mechanically skinned fibres of toad iliofibularis muscle. Excitation–contraction (EC) coupling was retained after skinning and force responses could be elicited by depolarization of the transverse-tubular (T-) system. Raising the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] to ∼1 μm or above for 3 min caused an irreversible reduction in the depolarization-induced force response by interrupting the coupling between the voltage sensors in the T-system and the Ca2+ release channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This uncoupling showed a steep [Ca2+] dependency, with 50% uncoupling at ∼1.9 μm Ca2+. The uncoupling occurring with 2 μm Ca2+ was largely prevented by the calpain inhibitor leupeptin (1 mm). Raising the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] above 1 μm also caused an irreversible decline in passive force production in stretched skinned fibres in a manner graded by [Ca2+], though at a much slower relative rate than loss of coupling. The progressive loss of passive force could be rapidly stopped by lowering [Ca2+] to 10 nm, and was almost completely inhibited by 1 mm leupeptin but not by 10 μm calpastatin. Muscle homogenates preactivated by Ca2+ exposure also evidently contained a diffusible factor that caused damage to passive force production in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Western blotting showed that: (a) calpain-3 was present in the skinned fibres and was activated by the Ca2+exposure, and (b) the Ca2+ exposure in stretched skinned fibres resulted in proteolysis of titin. We conclude that the disruption of EC coupling occurring at elevated levels of [Ca2+] is likely to be caused at least in part by Ca2+-activated proteases, most likely by calpain-3, though a role of calpain-1 is not excluded. PMID:15746171

  8. Regulation of cyclic GMP metabolism in toad photoreceptors. Definition of the metabolic events subserving photoexcited and attenuated states. (United States)

    Dawis, S M; Graeff, R M; Heyman, R A; Walseth, T F; Goldberg, N D


    Photoreceptor metabolism of cGMP and its regulation were characterized in isolated toad retinas by determining the intensity and time dependence of light-induced changes in the following metabolic parameters: cGMP hydrolytic flux determined by the rate of 18O incorporation from 18O-water into retinal guanine nucleotide alpha-phosphoryls; changes in the total (protein-bound and unbound) concentrations of the guanine nucleotide metabolic intermediates; and changes in the concentration of metabolic (unbound) GDP calculated from the fraction of the alpha-GDP that undergoes labeling with 18O. The latter is interpreted to reflect the state of the equilibrium between GDP- and GTP-complexed forms of G-protein. With narrow band 500 nm light that preferentially stimulates red rod photoreceptors, a range of intensities covering approximately 5 log units produced increases of over 10-fold in cGMP metabolic flux. However, the characteristics of the cGMP metabolic response over the first 2.5 log units of intensity are readily distinguishable from those at higher intensities which exhibit progressive attenuation by an intensity- and time-dependent process. Over the range of low intensities (0.6-3 log photons.micron-2.s-1) the metabolic response is characterized by 1) increases in cGMP hydrolytic flux of up to 8-fold as a logarithmic function of intensity of photic stimulation that are sustained for at least 200 s; 2) small increases or no change in the concentration of total cGMP; 3) large increases of up to 10-fold in the concentration of metabolically active GDP as a linear function of intensity with no significant change in the tissue concentrations of total GDP or GTP; and 4) amplification of the photosignal by the metabolism of approximately 10,000 molecules of cGMP per photoisomerization with the major site of amplification at the level of the interaction of bleached rhodopsin with G-protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Changes in serum and urinary corticosterone and testosterone during short-term capture and handling in the cane toad (Rhinella marina). (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John; Hero, Jean-Marc


    Non-invasive endocrine monitoring with minimally invasive biological samples, such as urine, is being used widely for conservation biology research on amphibians. Currently, it is unknown how closely urinary measurements correspond with the traditional serum hormone measurements. We compared urinary and serum concentrations of corticosterone (CORT) and testosterone (T) in adult male cane toads (Rhinella marina) using a standard capture and handling (short-term stressor) protocol. Free-living male cane toads were captured and sampled for baseline urine (0h) with a second urine sample taken at 0.5h and hourly between 1 and 8h. A single blood sample was collected from each toad after the final urine sampling and capture handling. The mean serum CORT concentration increased between 0 and 0.5h, reaching the highest level between 6 and 8h. The mean urinary CORT concentration increased with a lag-time of 1h and continued to increase up to 8h. The mean level of serum T decreased between 0 and 7h and increased between 7 and 8h. Mean urinary T concentration decreased with a lag-time of 0.5h. Urinary T levels did not change between 4 and 8h. Mean serum T levels reached 50% of the original 0h value at 1h while mean serum CORT levels reached 200% of the original 0h value within 0.5h. Mean urinary T levels reached 50% of the original 0h value within 3h while mean urinary CORT levels reached 200% of the original 0h value within 3h. The inter-individual variation in baseline serum and urinary CORT and T levels were highly comparable, suggesting that baseline urine sample provides a reliable indicator of the physiological status of the animal. Overall, the results have demonstrated that urine sampling and standard capture handling protocol provide reliable measures of baseline corticosterone and testosterone, as well as short-term stress hormone responses in amphibians.

  10. Peptide IC-20, encoded by skin kininogen-1 of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, antagonizes bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives were to determine if the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata, in common with other related species, contains a bradykinin inhibitor peptide and to isolate and structurally characterize this peptide. Materials and Methods: Lyophilized skin secretion obtained from this toad was subjected to reverse phase HPLC fractionation with subsequent bioassay of fractions for antagonism of the bradykinin activity using an isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle preparation. Subsequently, the primary structure of the peptide was established by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectroscopy, and molecular cloning, following which a synthetic replicate was chemically synthesised for bioassay. Results: A single peptide of molecular mass 2300.92 Da was resolved in HPLC fractions of skin secretion and its primary structure determined as IYNAIWP-KH-NK-KPGLL-. Database interrogation with this sequence indicated that this peptide was encoded by skin kininogen-1 previously cloned from B. variegata. The blank cycles were occupied by cysteinyl (C residues and the peptide was located toward the C-terminus of the skin kininogen, and flanked N-terminally by a classical -KR- propeptide convertase processing site. The peptide was named IC-20 in accordance (I = N-terminal isoleucine, C = C-terminal cysteine, 20 = number of residues. Like the natural peptide, its synthetic replicate displayed an antagonism of bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Conclusion: IC-20 represents a novel bradykinin antagonizing peptide from amphibian skin secretions and is the third such peptide found to be co-encoded with bradykinins within skin kininogens.

  11. Effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the specific dynamic action of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Faulkner, Angela C


    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the accumulated energy expended on all physiological processes associated with meal digestion, is strongly influenced by features of both the meal and the organism. We assessed the effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the postprandial metabolic response and calculated SDA of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Peak postprandial rates of O(2) consumption (.V(O2)) and CO(2) production (.V(CO2)) and SDA increased with meal size (5%-20% of body mass). Postprandial metabolism was impacted by meal type; the digestion of hard-bodied superworms (Zophobas larva) and crickets was more costly than the digestion of soft-bodied earthworms and juvenile rats. An increase in body temperature (from 20 degrees to 35 degrees C) altered the postprandial metabolic profile, decreasing its duration and increasing its magnitude, but did not effect SDA, with the cost of meal digestion remaining constant across body temperatures. Allometric mass exponents were 0.69 for standard metabolic rate, 0.85 for peak postprandial .V(O2), and 1.02 for SDA; therefore, the factorial scope of peak postprandial .V(O2) increased with body mass. The mass of nutritive organs (stomach, liver, intestines, and kidneys) accounted for 38% and 20% of the variation in peak postprandial .V(O2) and SDA, respectively. Toads forced to exercise experienced 25-fold increases in .V(O2) much greater than the 5.5-fold increase experience during digestion. Controlling for meal size, meal type, and body temperature, the specific dynamic responses of B. marinus are similar to those of the congeneric Bufo alvarius, Bufo boreas, Bufo terrestris, and Bufo woodhouseii.

  12. The genetics of amphibian decline: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data (United States)

    Shaffer, H. Bradley; Fellers, Gary M.; Magee, Allison; Voss, S. Randal


    We present a comprehensive survey of genetic variation across the range of the narrowly distributed endemic Yosemite toad Bufo canorus, a declining amphibian restricted to the Sierra Nevada of California. Based on 322 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data, we found limited support for the monophyly of B. canorus and its closely related congener B. exsul to the exclusion of the widespread western toad B. boreas. However, B. exsul was always phylogenetically nested within B. canorus, suggesting that the latter may not be monophyletic. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis of 372 individual B. canorus from 28 localities in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks revealed no shared haplotypes among these two regions and lead us to interpret these two parks as distinct management units for B. canorus. Within Yosemite, we found significant genetic substructure both at the level of major drainages and among breeding ponds. Kings Canyon samples show a different pattern, with substantial variation among breeding sites, but no substructure among drainages. Across the range of B. canorus as well as among Yosemite ponds, we found an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of a stepping stone model of migration. However, in Kings Canyon we found no hint of such a pattern, suggesting that movement patterns of toads may be quite different in these nearby parklands. Our data imply that management for B. canorus should focus at the individual pond level, and effective management may necessitate reintroductions if local extirpations occur. A brief review of other pond-breeding anurans suggests that highly structured populations are often the case, and thus that our results for B. canorus may be general for other species of frogs and toads.

  13. Effect of drying methods on the free and conjugated bufadienolide content in toad venom determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry coupled with a pattern recognition approach. (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Gong, Yan; Ma, Hongyue; Wang, Honglan; Qian, Dawei; Wen, Hongmei; Liu, Rui; Duan, Jinao; Wu, Qinan


    Drying is a useful technique for extending the shelf-life of biological products and enabling long-term storage; however, improper drying can reduce the chemical quality of the products. In this study, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and multivariate statistical analysis to investigate the effects of four drying methods (V: vacuum-drying at 60°C, F: freeze-drying, H: air-drying at 60°C and R: air-drying at room temperature) on the levels of 36 bufadienolides in toad venom. Vacuum-drying at 60°C produced the highest quality dried toad venom in terms of total bufadienolide content, whereas traditional air-drying at room temperature (RT) to dehydrate the toad venom led to a dramatic loss in free and conjugated bufadienolides, reaching up to 60% and 70%, respectively. Assaying for free bufadienolides ranked the drying methods as V≈F>H>R, whereas assaying for conjugated bufadienolides slightly changed the order to V>F≈H>R. Furthermore, we identified 21 bufadienolides as biomarkers responsible for the decline in the quality of dried toad venom, whose loss varied from 1.5-fold to 100-fold. Of these biomarkers, group I bufadienolides that contain 16-OAc (e.g., cinobufagin and its hydroxyl or arginine ester derivatives) were characteristic components and were reduced to trace levels (loss of more than 10-fold) following traditional air-drying at RT. This might be attributed to the fact that most enzyme-sensitive bufadienolides were biotransformed or degraded at room temperature but were retained using other drying methods.

  14. 经腹壁静脉给药建立蟾蜍高钾血症动物模型的研究%Research on injection through the abdominal vein to establish hyperkalemia model of toad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍健; 苏兴利; 王爽


    目的:建立在体蟾蜍心脏高钾血症(hyperkalemia)动物模型,现察血钾升高时蟾蜍Ⅱ导联心电图(electrocardiographⅡ,ECGⅡ)的影响.方法:经腹壁静脉注射0.2%氯化钾(KCl)使蟾蜍血钾浓度升高,并记录ECGⅡ.结果:注射0.2%KCI后ECG立即显示心率减慢,P-R间期延长,QRS波群增宽变低,T波明显高尖.结论:经腹壁静脉给药建立蟾蜍急性高钾血症所致ECG的改变与哺乳动物高钾血症有相似之处;与其他高钾血症动物模型比较,本方法具有操作简便快速、实验结果稳定、成本低廉的优势.%Objective To construct the toad cardiac muscle model of hyperkalemia and observe the effect of hyperkalemia on electrocardiogram Ⅱ ( ECG Ⅱ).Methods 0.2 % potassium chloride was injected via the abdominal vein to establish the hyperkalemia model of toad muscle cell.ECG Ⅱ was synchronously recorded.Results After 0.2 % KCI was injected, heart rate was slowed down, P-R interval was extended, QRS was broad and slowly and T peak became higher.Conclusion The toad model of hyperkalemia could be established by injection of 0.2% KCI via the abdominal vein, and the changes of ECG in toad are similar to mammal.Compared with other methods of animal models, the method has advantages of simple and rapid operations, stable results and low cost.

  15. 蟾蜍壶菌病病原遗传分化研究%Genetic Differentiation of the Pathogen of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Toads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾朝辉; 白世卓; 朱蕴绮; 王晓龙


    壶菌病为近年发现的两栖类动物重要传染病,对野生和养殖种群危害极大,为确定药用经济动物蟾蜍历史上壶菌病感染情况,提高养殖蟾蜍疾病防治水平,选取某博物馆馆藏采集于四川的蟾蜍标本32只,利用Taqman—MGB荧光探针定量PCR技术进行壶菌检测,并对定量PCR产物克隆、测序,通过序列比对和系统发育分析判定其来源。最终得到定量PCR标准曲线:Y=-3.0X+32.39;相关系数R0=0.9996;检测结果为阳性样本12只,检出率37.5%。同时系统发育分析表明,我国的壶菌存在一定程度的分化,一类与北美洲、南美洲、欧洲菌株呈现高度的亲缘关系;另一类则表现出与世界其他地区分布的壶菌有明显的不同,显示其独特性。这提示我国蟾蜍壶菌病的防制应更具针对性,不可盲目照搬国外经验。%The chytridiomycosis is a significant emerging disease of amphibians in recent years which seriuosly does harm to the wild and breeding population. To ascertain the condition of the Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection history in the population of toad, the medicinal economic animal, and enhance the prevention for this disease, 32 toad specimen collected from Sichwan keeping in a museum were assayed by Taqman-MGB fluorescence probe quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Besides, the products of QPCR were cloned and sequenced to identify the origin of the pathogen by sequence alignment and phylogenetie analysis. Finally we got the standard curve: Y = - 3.0X + 32.39 and the related coefficient: R2 = 0.999 6. Total 12 positive samples reported the detec- tion rate as 37.5 %. Meanwhile the phylogenetic analysis indicated that a certain extent differentiation of the chytrid fungi in our country exists. One kind of the tested strain showed highly genetic relationship with the strains from the North America, South America

  16. Nacionalismo territorialista en textos escolares: representaciones de la Patagonia en la dictadura militar argentina (1966-1983 Territorialist nationalism in school textbooks: representations of Patagonia in Argentinian military dictatorship (1966-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Jaramillo


    . Recent investigations focusing on the reality at schools have emphasized the textbooks' importance in the construction of national identities, and also of identities of socio-cultural, socio-ethnical, and regional.This article starts from a historiographical inquiry about school textbooks with the intent of reconstructing the various discursive textual and iconographic accounts in which Patagonia was represented in the primary schools of the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén during the Argentinian dictatorship periods of 1966-1973 and 1976-1983. In essence, a group of narratives about Patagonia and its inhabitants was brought forward based on three cores of meaning: that of the indigenous, uncultivated and desert territory; that of the promise of progress and tourism; and that of national sovereignty. We shall argue that nationwide school textbooks of eminently political, but also ethnical and racial, slants became means of formation and, above all, auxiliary devices in the shaping of an ideological, political and pedagogical line proper to the military catholic nationalism.

  17. Temperature seems to be an important factor when assessing effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on egg and tadpole growth of Common toads (Bufo bufo; Amphibia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Baier


    Full Text Available Glyphosate-based herbicide formulations are broadly used in agriculture, silviculture, horticulture as well as in private gardens all over the world, thus posing the risk of potential contamination of nearby aquatic bodies inhabited by amphibians. Concurrently, climate change can be expected to alter the temperature of amphibian breeding sites. However, while either glyphosate-based herbicides or temperature have been shown to separately affect the development of amphibians, very little is known on possible interactive effects. We studied the impact of herbicide concentrations and temperature on growth and development of eggs and tadpoles of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L.. We hypothesized that (i eggs would be better protected against herbicides than tadpoles because of their jelly coating, (ii that higher temperatures would reduce potential herbicide effects because of an accelerated growth and a lower sensitivity of larger specimens. We conducted one experiment starting with eggs (Gosner stage, GS 9 and another experiment starting with tadpoles (GS 21-24 using a full factorial design with 5 concentrations of the herbicide formulation Roundup® LB Plus (0 mg acid equivalent L-1, 0.5 mg a.e. L-1, 1.0 mg a.e. L-1 or 1.5 mg a.e. L-1 and a pulse treatment with 3-4 times addition of 0.5 a.e. mg L-1 over the course of several weeks and two temperature levels (15°C and 20°C. Contrary to our expectation, our results showed that toad eggs are more sensitive to herbicides than tadpoles leading to an averaged 31% increase in total length, tail length and body length compared to the herbicide-free control. Tadpole morphology, development or mortality was not influenced by herbicides. Higher temperature accelerated growth of both eggs and tadpoles. This is among the first study showing interactive effects between herbicides and temperature especially for egg development resulting in more pronounced herbicide effects at lower temperatures than at higher

  18. Hybridization and massive mtDNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Horacio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical perspective that interspecific hybridization in animals is rare has been changing due to a growing list of empirical examples showing the occurrence of gene flow between closely related species. Using sequence data from cyt b mitochondrial gene and three intron nuclear genes (RPL9, c-myc, and RPL3 we investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and divergence between two closely related toad species R. marina and R. schneideri. By comparing levels of differentiation at nuclear and mtDNA levels we were able to describe patterns of introgression and infer the history of hybridization between these species. Results All nuclear loci are essentially concordant in revealing two well differentiated groups of haplotypes, corresponding to the morphologically-defined species R. marina and R. schneideri. Mitochondrial DNA analysis also revealed two well-differentiated groups of haplotypes but, in stark contrast with the nuclear genealogies, all R. schneideri sequences are clustered with sequences of R. marina from the right Amazon bank (RAB, while R. marina sequences from the left Amazon bank (LAB are monophyletic. An Isolation-with-Migration (IM analysis using nuclear data showed that R. marina and R. schneideri diverged at ≈ 1.69 Myr (early Pleistocene, while R. marina populations from LAB and RAB diverged at ≈ 0.33 Myr (middle Pleistocene. This time of divergence is not consistent with the split between LAB and RAB populations obtained with mtDNA data (≈ 1.59 Myr, which is notably similar to the estimate obtained with nuclear genes between R. marina and R. schneideri. Coalescent simulations of mtDNA phylogeny under the speciation history inferred from nuclear genes rejected the hypothesis of incomplete lineage sorting to explain the conflicting signal between mtDNA and nuclear-based phylogenies. Conclusions The cytonuclear discordance seems to reflect the occurrence of interspecific hybridization between these

  19. The Malvinas War from the Argentinian Viewpoint (United States)


    maneuver with Uruguay to begin Operation "Rosario", as it was named in secret code. D Day was established to be April 1, with two other alternative dates...Hermes and the Invincible. The following considerations have been excerpted from the book, Historia del Conflicto del Atlan- tiFS that was written in...and Sir Galahad. The report only mentioned three more ships damaged, with very short explanations. In the afore mentioned book Historia del Conflicto

  20. Different morphologic formation patterns of dark patches in the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). (United States)

    Guangming, Gan; Tao, Zhao; Chao, Li; Moyan, Zhao


    The black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans), two relatively distantly related species, live in different habitats with different adaptive dark patches. To explain the formation of dark patches, the distribution patterns of melanin granules were examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin granules were produced and gathered into the "cap" structures on top of the nuclei in most epidermal cells. The "cap" structures may play a role in forming the dorsal dark patches coupled with three-layer melanophores, which can give rise to three layers of interconnected melanin networks in the dorsal dermis in P. nigromaculata. Epidermal melanocytes are rare and do not have a definitive role in forming dorsal dark patches in either P. nigromaculata or B. gargarizans. In B. gargarizans, the dermal melanophores only give rise to a single-layered melanin network, which hardly results in dark patches in the dorsal skin. However, the dermal melanophores migrate twice and form into pseudostratified networks, leading to dark patch formation in the ventral skin in B. gargarizans. The melanin granules precisely coregulate dark patches in the dermis and/or epidermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans. The dark patch formation depends on melanin granules in the epidermis or/and dermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans.

  1. Effects of temperature on embryonic and larval development and growth in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita in a semi-arid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanuy, D.


    Full Text Available Temperature affects the duration of embryonic and larval periods in amphibians. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis is especially important in amphibian populations of Mediterranean semi-arid zones where temperatures are high and precipitation is low, increasing the rate of pond desiccation. In order to test the influence of water temperature on the larval development and growth of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, we collected two spawns in a semi¿arid zone at Balaguer (Lleida, NE Iberian peninsula. Approximately 50 (+/-10 eggs (stage 14-16 were raised in the lab at different temperature conditions: 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25ºC with 12:12 photoperiod. The results show a lengthening of development time with decreasing temperatures and a better survival performance of B. calamita to high temperatures. However, mean size at metamorphosis was not different across treatments, thus, suggesting that this population of B. calamita requires a minimum size to complete the metamorphosis. This study is the first approach to examine the effects that climatic factors have on the growth and development of B. calamita in semi-arid zones.

  2. Low temperature induces oocytes p34cdc2 synthesis and accumulation—the acquisition of competence to resume meiosis in toad oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Full grown oocytes derived from Bufo Bufo gargarizans rearing at high temperature environment (24℃), never underwent GVBD after progesterone treatment.No p34cdc2 Hl kinase activity was detected in the oocytes after progesterone stimulation or OA microinjection;Western blotting analysis showed that the level of p34cdc2 and p33 in the oocytes are significantly lower than those in the oocytes derived from the hibernating toads (below 10℃).35S-Met incorporation analysis showed that when the oocytes were incubated at 6℃,synthesis of about thirty defferent polypeptides was promoted or induced,including p34cdc2 and some other p13suc1-binding proteins.All these results indicated that a low temperature environment is essential for the oocytes of Bufo Bufo gargarizans to express and stord some cell cycle drivers and its regulators,and to gain the maturation competence.These results will also provide a nwe clue for explaining the molecular mechanisms why gametogenesis of some organisms depends on a relative low temperature and how to maintain the geographical distribution of some animals.

  3. Chemical skin defence in the Eastern fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: an ultrastructural approach to the mechanism of poison gland rehabilitation after discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Quagliata


    Full Text Available Type I serous glands in the skin of the Eastern yellow-bellied toad Bombina orientalis released their product massively after 10-3 M nor-adrenalin (NA stimulation, mimicking orthosympathetic control on poison emission in chemical skin defence. Features of cutaneous glands involved in this bulk discharge were observed under light and electron microscopes. Furthermore, restoration of depleted glands was followed after 1, 2 and 3 weeks, and compared with serous biosynthesis during larval gland development. Bulk discharge was caused by contraction of myoepithelial cells (mecs encircling the secretory units. Mec compression dramatically affected the secretory unit, but parts of this syncytial cytoplasm were saved from degeneration and cooperated in gland renewal with stem cells from the gland neck. These adenoblasts underwent proliferation and secretory cytodifferentiation, until merging with the syncytium. Cytoplasm that had resumed secretory activity showed the features typical of larval gland development: the endoplasmic reticulum (rer cisterns were aligned in close parallel arrangement and Golgi stacks released minute type I granules. Secretory rehabilitation led to increasing amounts of granule content. In the meantime, rough cisterns decreased in number and assumed the less ordered pattern described in control specimens. Data collected in the present study revealed that chemical skin defence in anurans is a multi-factorial mechanism involving specific activities: mechanical from mecs, biosynthetic from secretory syncytium and proliferative from intercalated stem cells.

  4. Structural and functional analogs of the novel mammalian neuropeptide, neuromedin S (NmS), in the dermal venoms of Eurasian bombinid toads. (United States)

    Chen, Tianbao; Zhou, Mei; Walker, Brian; Harriot, Pat; Mori, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Shaw, Chris


    We report the isolation and structural characterization of two neuromedin S (NmS) analogs, (NmS-17 and NmS-33), from the dermal venoms of Eurasian bombinid toads. NmS is a novel neuromedin U (NmU)-related peptide with potent anorexigenic and circadian rhythm-modulating properties recently discovered in mammals. Cloning of NmS precursor-encoding cDNAs from skin venom-derived libraries revealed the presence of a high degree of transcript splice variation comparable to that found previously for NmU in both amphibian skin and mammalian brain. Synthetic replicates of both amphibian NmS peptides evoked robust and dose-dependent transient increases in intracellular calcium ion concentrations in CHO cells that had been stably transfected with either FM-3/GPR66 or FM-4/TGR-1 human NmU receptors. The potency and efficacy of these amphibian skin peptides at such receptors were comparable to those observed with human NmS and rat NmS. These data show that NmS and NmU genes had already diverged at the level of the Amphibia and that differential splicing of their transcribed mRNAs has been highly conserved throughout tetrapod vertebrate evolution indicative of fundamental biological function. NmS is additionally a novel neuropeptide homolog that can be added to the biologically active peptide arsenal of amphibian venom/defensive skin secretions.

  5. Influence of geology and human activity on the genetic structure and demography of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). (United States)

    Fong, Jonathan J; Li, Pi-Peng; Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Zheng-Yan; Leaché, Adam D; Min, Mi-Sook; Waldman, Bruce


    The Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) is a commonly used study organism, but knowledge of its evolutionary history is incomplete. We analyze sequence data from four genetic markers (mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome b, and 12S-16S rRNA; nuDNA gene encoding recombination activating gene 2) from 188 individuals across its range in Northeast Asia to elucidate phylogeographic patterns and to identify the historic events that shaped its evolutionary history. Although morphologically similar across its range, B. orientalis exhibits phylogeographic structure, which we infer was shaped by geologic, climatic, and anthropogenic events. Phylogenetic and divergence-dating analyses recover four genetically distinct groups of B. orientalis: Lineage 1-Shandong Province and Beijing (China); Lineage 2-Bukhan Mountain (Korea); Lineage 3-Russia, Northeast China, and northern South Korea; and Lineage 4-South Korea. Lineage 2 was previously unknown. Additionally, we discover an area of secondary contact on the Korean Peninsula, and infer a single dispersal event as the origin of the insular Jeju population. Skyline plots estimate different population histories for the four lineages: Lineages 1 and 2 experienced population decreases, Lineage 3 remained stable, while Lineage 4 experienced a sharp increase during the Holocene. The timing of the population expansion of Lineage 4 coincides with the advent of rice cultivation, which may have facilitated the increase in population size by providing additional breeding habitat.

  6. Small frogs get their worms first: the role of nonodonate arthropods in the recruitment of Haematoloechus coloradensis and Haematoloechus complexus in newly metamorphosed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, and woodhouse's toads, Bufo woodhousii. (United States)

    Bolek, Matthew G; Janovy, John


    Studies on the life cycles and epizootiology of North American frog lung flukes indicate that most species utilize odonates as second intermediate hosts; adult frogs become infected by ingesting odonate intermediate hosts. Newly metamorphosed frogs are rarely infected with these parasites, predominantly because they are gape-limited predators that cannot feed on large intermediate hosts such as dragonflies. We examined the role of the frog diet and potential intermediate hosts in the recruitment of the frog lung fluke, Haematoloechus coloradensis, to metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii), and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from western Nebraska. Because of the uncertain validity of H. coloradensis as a distinct species from Haematoloechus complexus, morphological characters of both species were reevaluated and the life cycles of both species were completed in the laboratory. The morphological data on H. coloradensis and H. coimplexus indicate that they differ in their oral sucker to pharynx ratio, uterine loop distribution, and placement of vitelline follicles. However, in terms of their life cycles, both species are quite similar in their use of physid snails as first intermediate hosts, a wide range of nonodonate and odonate arthropods as second intermediate hosts, and leopard frogs and toads as definitive hosts. These results indicate that H. coloradensis and H. complexus are generalists at the second intermediate host level and might be able to infect newly metamorphosed leopard frogs and toads by using small nonodonate arthropods more commonly than other frog lung fluke species. Comparisons of population structure of adult flukes in newly metamorphosed leopard frogs indicate that the generalist nature of H. coloradensis metacercariae enables it to colonize young of the year leopard frogs more commonly than other Haematoloechus spp. that only use odonates as second intermediate hosts. In this respect, the

  7. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.;


    studied in toads (Bufo bufo) immediately before, and after 2,7, and 14 days exposure to distilled water. General epidermal structure was not affected. However, the numbers of MRCs per mm2 (DMRC) increased throughout the experiment as revealed by staining of epidermal sheets with AgNO3 (Ag) or methylene...... blue (MB). Part of the increased DMRC was accounted for by an increase in MRC subpopulation(s) that stained neither with Ag nor MB. The cell birth rate (Kb) decreased and cell loss by moulting (Kd) increased without any significant change in epidermal cell pool size, indicating a reduced apoptotic rate...

  8. Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina E. Rosenberg


    Full Text Available There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibodies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood cells (SRBC in the anuran Bufo arenarum after six weekly injections of sublethal doses of lead (50, as lead acetate. Natural antibodies (natural heteroagglutinins were also quantified against SRBC. Both assessments were carried out employing an ELISA method developed to this end, measuring absorbance (A. For natural anti-SRBC antibodies in both control (C and Pb treated (T toads, there was a non significant tendency to increase the initial absorbances (C initial: 0.69±0.39 A; T initial: 0.54±0.30 A, relative to those registered at the end of the experiments (C final: 0.89±0.49 A; T final: 0.76±0.31A; the T/C ratios also did not show changes. The only significant difference was found between initial and final samples from lead-treated toads (pExiste evidencia de que los niveles de metal ambientales afectan la función inmune. En el caso particular del impacto de metales pesados, la información disponible sugiere que el sistema inmune es un blanco para la exposición a bajas dosis de Pb. Entre los vertebrados, se ha mostrado que los anfibios son capaces de formar anticuerpos contra una variedad de antígenos, que causan diversas respuestas, tales como respuesta anafiláctica y rechazo de injertos. En este estudio, la producción de anticuerpos fue evaluada contra eritrocitos de oveja (EO en el anuro Bufo arenarum, luego de seis inyecciones semanales de dosis subletales de plomo (50, como acetato de Pb. Los anticuerpos naturales

  9. Glycopattern analysis and structure of the egg extra-cellular matrix in the Apennine yellow-bellied toad, Bombina pachypus (Anura: Bombinatoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Scillitani


    Full Text Available We studied the glycopatterns and ultrastructure of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM of the egg of theApennine yellow-bellied toad Bombina pachypus, by light and electron microscopy in order to determine structure,chemical composition and function. Histochemical techniques in light microscopy included PAS and AlcianBlue pH 2.5 and 1.0, performed also after b-elimination. Lectin-binding was tested with nine lectins (AAA,ConA, DBA, HPA, LTA, PNA, SBA, UEA-I, WGA. An inner fertilization envelope (FE and five jelly layers(J1–J5 were observed, differing in histochemical staining, lectin binding and ultrastructure. Most glycans wereO-linked, with many glucosamylated and fucosylated residues. The fertilization envelope presented a perivitellinespace and a fertilization layer, with mostly neutral glycans. The jelly layers consisted of fibers and granules,whose number and orientation differed between layers. Fibers were densely packed in J1 and J4 layers,whereas a looser arrangement was observed in the other layers. Jelly-layer glycans were mostly acidic and particularlyabundant in the J1 and J4 layers. In the J1, J2 and J5 layers, neutral, N-linked glycans were also observed.Mannosylated and/or glucosylated as well as galactosyl/galactosaminylated residues were more abundant in theouter layers. Many microorganisms were observed in the J5 layer. We believe that, apart from their functions inthe fertilization process, acidic and fucosylated glycans could act as a barrier against pathogen penetration.

  10. Strong reproductive barriers in a narrow hybrid zone of West-Mediterranean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup with Plio-Pleistocene divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin Nicolas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One key question in evolutionary biology deals with the mode and rate at which reproductive isolation accumulates during allopatric speciation. Little is known about secondary contacts of recently diverged anuran species. Here we conduct a multi-locus field study to investigate a contact zone between two lineages of green toads with an estimated divergence time of 2.7 My, and report results from preliminary experimental crosses. Results The Sicilian endemic Bufo siculus and the Italian mainland-origin B. balearicus form a narrow hybrid zone east of Mt. Etna. Despite bidirectional mtDNA introgression over a ca. 40 km North-South cline, no F1 hybrids could be found, and nuclear genomes display almost no admixture. Populations from each side of the contact zone showed depressed genetic diversity and very strong differentiation (FST = 0.52. Preliminary experimental crosses point to a slightly reduced fitness in F1 hybrids, a strong hybrid breakdown in backcrossed offspring (F1 x parental, with very few reaching metamorphosis and a complete and early mortality in F2 (F1 x F1. Conclusion Genetic patterns at the contact zone are molded by drift and selection. Local effective sizes are reduced by the geography and history of the contact zone, B. balearicus populations being at the front wave of a recent expansion (late Pleistocene. Selection against hybrids likely results from intrinsic genomic causes (disruption of coadapted sets of genes in backcrosses and F2-hybrids, possibly reinforced by local adaptation (the ranges of the two taxa roughly coincide with the borders of semiarid and arid climates. The absence of F1 in the field might be due to premating isolation mechanisms. Our results, show that these lineages have evolved almost complete reproductive isolation after some 2.7 My of divergence, contrasting sharply with evidence from laboratory experiments that some anuran species may still produce viable F1 offspring after > 20

  11. Synergy between glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides during acute exposures in tadpoles of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum. (United States)

    Brodeur, Julie Céline; Poliserpi, María Belén; D'Andrea, María Florencia; Sánchez, Marisol


    The herbicide glyphosate and the insecticide cypermethrin are key pesticides of modern management in soy and corn cultures. Although these pesticides are likely to co-occur in ephemeral ponds or aquatic systems supporting amphibian wildlife, the toxicological interactions prevailing in mixtures of these two pesticides have been little studied. The current study evaluated the toxicity of equitoxic and non-equitoxic binary mixtures of glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides to tadpoles of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum. Two different combinations of commercial products were tested: glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® and glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin®. When tested individually, the formulations presented the following 96 h-LC50s: Glifosato Atanor® 19.4 mg ae L(-1) and Glifoglex 72.8 mg ae L(-1), Xiper® 6.8 mg L(-1) and Glextrin® 30.2 mg L(-1). Equitoxic and non-equitoxic mixtures were significantly synergic in both combinations of commercial products tested. The magnitude of the synergy (factor by which toxicity differed from concentration addition) was constant at around twofold for all tested proportions of the glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin® mixture; whereas the magnitude of the synergy varied between 4 and 9 times in the glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® mixture. These results call for more research to be promptly undertaken in order to understand the mechanisms behind the synergy observed and to identify and quantify the extent of its environmental impacts.

  12. Binding of adrenergic ligands to liver plasma membrane preparations from the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum; the toad, Xenopus laevis; and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. (United States)

    Janssens, P A; Grigg, J A


    The beta-adrenergic ligand iodocyanopindolol (ICP) bound specifically to hepatic plasma membrane preparations from the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Bmax, 40 fmol/mg protein (P) at free concentration above 140 pM; KD, 42 pM); the toad, Xenopus laevis (Bmax, 200 fmol/mg P at 1 nM; KD, 300 pM); and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Bmax, 100 fmol/mg P at 5 nM). For the lungfish, the Scatchard plot was curved showing two classes of binding site with KD's of 20 and 500 pM. Neither the alpha 1-adrenergic ligand prazosin nor the alpha 2-adrenergic ligand yohimbine bound specifically to hepatic membrane preparations from any of the three species. Several adrenergic ligands displaced ICP from hepatic membrane preparations of all three species with KD's of Axolotl--propranolol, 50 nM; isoprenaline, 600 nM; adrenaline, 10 microM; phenylephrine, 20 microM; noradrenaline, 40 microM; and phentolamine, greater than 100 microM; X. laevis--propranolol, 30 nM; isoprenaline, 100 microM; adrenaline, 200 microM; noradrenaline, 300 microM; phenylephrine, 1 mM; and phentolamine, greater than 1 mM; N. forsteri,--propranolol, 25 nM; isoprenaline, 1 microM; adrenaline, 20 microM; phenylephrine, 35 microM; noradrenaline, 600 microM; and phentolamine, 400 microM. These findings suggest that alpha-adrenergic receptors are not present in hepatic plasma membrane preparations from these three species and that the hepatic actions of catecholamines are mediated via beta-adrenergic receptors. The order of binding of the beta-adrenergic ligands suggests that the receptors are of the beta 2 type.

  13. Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) a new filaria parasitizing Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae) in Mexico. (United States)

    García-Prieto, Luis; Ruiz-Torres, Nallely; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Merlo-Serna, Aldo


    A new nematode species, Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. (Onchocercidae), is described from specimens found in the body cavity of the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Linnaeus) (Anura, Bufonidae), in the Laguna de Coyuca, Guerrero, in the Pacific slope of Mexico. The new species differs from the other nine species of Foleyellides by infecting bufonid anurans and by the number and arrangement of caudal papillae. Other distinguishing feature of the new species is the size of the left spicule (0.16-0.23 long), the smallest recorded among the species included in the genus. Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. is the second known species of the genus recorded from amphibians of Mexico.

  14. Blood lead levels, δ-ALAD inhibition, and hemoglobin content in blood of giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess lead exposure in three areas surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico. (United States)

    Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César Arturo; González-Mille, Donaji Josefina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván


    The Coatzacoalcos Region in Veracruz, Mexico houses one of the most important industrial complexes in Mexico and Latin America. Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which represents a great risk to human health and ecosystems. Amphibian populations have been recognized as biomonitors of changes in environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to measure exposure to lead and evaluate hematological and biochemical effects in specimens of giant toads (Rhinella marina) taken from three areas surrounding an industrial complex in the Coatzacoalcos River downstream. Lead levels in toads' blood are between 10.8 and 70.6 μg/dL and are significantly higher in industrial sites. We have found a significant decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity in blood from 35.3 to 78 % for the urban-industrial and industrial sites, respectively. In addition, we have identified a strong inverse relationship between the δ-ALAD activity and the blood lead levels (r = -0.84, p < 0.001). Hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels, as well as the condition factor, are found to be lower at industrial sites compared with the reference sites. Our results suggest that the R. marina can be considered a good biomonitor of the δ-ALAD activity inhibition and hematological alterations at low lead concentrations.

  15. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia and associated algae are altered by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Baier


    Full Text Available Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1 on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C. Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%, induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails and reduced algae diversity (−6%. Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl +66%, length-to-width ratio +4% and decreased algae diversity (−21%. No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological

  16. 花背蟾蜍皮肤结构及其抗氧化和免疫功能的研究%Microstructure of toad (Bufo raddei) andits antioxidant and immune function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤娟; 李丕鹏; 陆宇燕


    In order to understand the skin structure and function of the toad (Bufo raddei),the conventional paraffin section technique and ELISA were adopted to observe the microstructural characteristics of its dorsal skin,ventral skin and skin glands;and determine the contents of SOD,CAT,MDA,TLR4 andβD-1 of the dorsal skin and ventral skin, respectively.The results show that the toad skin structures are similar to other amphibians.That is the ventral cuticle thicker than the dorsal,the dorsal epidermis and dermis thicker than the ventral,granular glands mainly in the dorsal skin,and mucous glands in the ventral skin.SOD and TLR4 examined in the ventral skin are higher than in the dorsal skin,CAT containing in the dorsal skin is higher than in the ventral skin,but MDA andβD-1 are similar in these two areas.In conclusion,the structures and related protein levels of the toad skin closely adapt to the living environment,and have the antioxidant capacities and natural immune functions.%为了深入了解花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei Strauch)皮肤显微结构及其相关功能,利用石蜡切片及酶联免疫吸附反应技术,观察了花背蟾蜍背腹侧皮肤及其皮肤腺的显微结构特点,分别测定了背、腹侧皮肤中 SOD、CAT、MDA、TLR4和βD-1含量。结果:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构与其他两栖类皮肤结构基本相同,其角质层腹侧较背侧厚,表皮和真皮背侧较腹侧厚;颗粒腺主要存在于背侧,而黏液腺主要存在于腹侧。SOD和TLR4含量腹侧皮肤高于背侧皮肤;CAT含量背侧皮肤较腹侧高;MDA和βD-1含量在背腹皮肤中相近。结论:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构和相关蛋白水平能够较好的适应其生境,并具有一定的抗氧化能力和天然免疫功能。


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌媛; 江建平


    对世界蟾蜍科动物的分类现状做了概述,并对我国原定名为鳞皮游蟾Nectophryne scalptus Liu and Hu(1973)及叶昌媛等(1978)将其改为鳞皮厚蹼蟾Pelophryne scalptus(Frost,1985订正种名为scalpta)的海南标本做了进一步研究,与现有蟾蜍科各属、特别是与东南亚地区的几个特有属的特征做了对比研究.结果表明:原定名为鳞皮游蟾Nectophryne scalptus的海南标本应代表一个新属即小蟾属Parapelophryne gen.nov,因此原定名为鳞皮游蟾(或鳞皮厚蹼蟾)的标本为新属的成员,即种名应改为鳞皮小蟾Parapelophryne scalpta(Liu and Hu).

  18. The plasticizer bisphenol A affects somatic and sexual development, but differently in pipid, hylid and bufonid anurans. (United States)

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Kekenj, David; Gajewski, Franz; Krüger, Angela; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias


    Due to their terrestrial habitats and aquatic reproduction, many amphibians are both very vulnerable and highly suitable bioindicators. The plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most produced chemical substances worldwide, and knowledge on its impacts on humans and animals is mounting. BPA is used for the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and found in a multitude of consumer products. Studies on BPA have involved mammals, fish and the fully aquatic anuran model Xenopus laevis. However, our knowledge about the sexual development of non-model, often semi-terrestrial anuran amphibians remains poor. Using a recently developed experimental design, we simultaneously applied BPA to two non-model species (Hyla arborea, Hylidae; Bufo viridis, Bufonidae) and the model X. laevis (Pipidae), compared their genetic and phenotypic sex for detection of sex reversals, and studied sexual development, focusing on anatomical and histological features of gonads. We compared three concentrations of BPA (0.023, 2.28 and 228 μg/L) to control groups in a high-standard flow-through-system, and tested whether conclusions, drawn from the model species, can be extrapolated to non-model anurans. In contrast to previous studies on fish and Xenopus, often involving dosages much higher than most environmental pollution data, we show that BPA causes neither the development of mixed sex nor of sex-reversed individuals (few, seemingly BPA-independent sex reversals) in all focal species. However, environmentally relevant concentrations, as low as 0.023 μg/L, were sufficient to provoke species-specific anatomically and histologically detectable impairments of gonads, and affected morphological traits of metamorphs. As the intensity of these effects differed between the three species, our data imply that BPA diversely affects amphibians with different evolutionary history, sex determination systems and larval ecologies. These results highlight the role of amphibians as a sensitive group that is responsive to environmental pollution.

  19. 催产素对蟾蜍离体坐骨神经-腓肠肌收缩的影响%Effect of Oxytocin on the Isolated Toad Sciatic Nerve Gastrocnemius Contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓霞; 付立波


    采用常规方法剥离制备神经-腓肠肌标本,分别用浸有0.5%、1%和1.5%催产素的纱布浸润标本,浸润5min后,测量蟾蜍坐骨神经-腓肠肌的阈强度(mv)、收缩幅度(g)以及收缩潜伏期(ms),与放入正常任氏液作比较。经0.5%的催产素浸润后,腓肠肌的阈强度无明显变化,收缩幅度增大,且潜伏期时间缩短;经1%的催产素浸润后,腓肠肌的阈强度减小,收缩幅度增大,潜伏期时间相应缩短;而经1.5%浓度的催产素浸润后,腓肠肌的阈强度、收缩幅度以及潜伏期均无明显变化。较低浓度催产素可以提高骨骼肌收缩的兴奋性,但受药物剂量的限制。超过一定范围,骨骼肌收缩不随催产素浓度变化或随浓度增加骨骼肌的收缩能力相应减弱。%Objective:To investigate the effect of oxytocin effect on isolated toad sciatic nerve gastrocnemius on -their contractile activi-ty.Methods:Method for preparing specimen gastrocnemius nerve -using conventional stripping process for the preparation of specimens, the gastrocnemius muscle of toad sciatic nerve -, respectively 0.5%, 1%and 1.5%leaching oxytocin gauze infiltration specimens, af-ter infiltration 5 minutes, measure the toad sciatic nerve of gastrocnemius threshold intensity ( mv) , contraction amplitude ( g) , and con-traction latency (MS).Results:After 0.5%of oxytocin after the invasion (P>0.05), the threshold intensity of gastrocnemius muscle had no obvious change, contraction amplitude increases, and shorten the latency time.After 1%of oxytocin after infiltration, reduce the threshold intensity of gastrocnemius muscle contraction amplitude increases, the contraction latencythe time gets shorter.The 1.5%con-centrations of oxytocin after the invasion (P>0.05), gastrocnemius muscle contraction amplitude and latency, threshold intensity had no obvious change.Conclusion:Contraction of the skeletal muscle affected by oxytocin


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁德; 李云鸿; 陈强


    应用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)-UV检测了不同季节荒漠沙蜥(Phrynocephalus przewalskii)松果体内褪黑激素的含量.结果显示,其高峰值发生在春季,为1 017±209 pg/pineal.低峰值出现在冬季(实验室内冬眠,2~4℃),为355±68.5 pg/pineal,秋季的含量(735±133.7 pg/pineal)高于夏季的含量(597±94.9 pg/pineal).表明荒漠沙蜥松果体褪黑激素含量呈现明显的年周期节律并与光周期和生殖周期的年节律基本相符.%Seasonal variation in the pineal melatonin content of toad-headed lizards was determined by HPLC. The highest melatonin content (1 017±209 pg/pineal) occurred in spring and the lowest (335±68.5 pg/pineal) in winter. Melatonin levels in autumn (735±133 pg/pineal) were higher than in summer (597±94.9 pg/pineal). We conclude that pineal melatonin content has remarkable seasonal variation that coincides with photoperiod and reproductive rhythms.

  1. New Karyological and Morphometric Data on Poorly Known Bufo surdus and Bufo luristanicus in Comparison with Data of Diploid Green Toads of the Bufo viridis Complex from South of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh FAKHARZAEH; Jamshid DARVISH; Haji Gholi KAMI; Fereshteh GHASEMZADEH; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI


    Previous studies on the Bufo viridis complex, which is distributed broadly across Iran, are incomplete and restricted to a few regions or a few samples. In this paper a new detailed study on the B. viridis complex in southern of Iran (from West to East) is presented. The analysis of 18 morphometric characters with univariate and multivariate methods reveals significant differences between three members of the B. viridis complex namely B. variabilis, B. luristanicus, and B. surdus distributed in southern part of Iran. Our result help to resolve an old taxonomic problem about B. surdus subgroup (taxa closely related to B. surdus) conifrming that B. luristanicus and B. surdus are distinct species. Moreover, for the ifrst time we report and describe karyotype details of B. luristanicus and B. surdus which conifrmed that they are diploid. Karyological studies demonstrate that all toads from three mentioned species have 2n=22 chromosomes. These chromosomes are arranged into two groups. First group has six large chromosomes and the second group is composed of five small chromosomes. These chromosomes are metacentric or submetacentric. The number of submetacentric chromosomes is different in three mentioned species of B. viridis complex. Neither sexual heteromorphism, nor secondary constriction was observed in any pairs of chromosomes.

  2. USO PREHISPÁNICO DE LAS PALMERAS SYAGRUS ROMANZOFFIANA Y BUTIA YATAY EN EL NORDESTE ARGENTINO: APORTES DESDE LA ETNOGRAFÍA Y LA BIOMETRÍA / Prehispanic use of Syagrus romanzoffiana and Butia yatay palms in the Argentinian Northeast: contributions from eth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Bonomo


    Full Text Available La distribución meridional de las palmeras de la familia Arecaceae (=Palmae en Sudamérica alcanza el sur de la cuenca del Plata. Este artículo se centra en dos especies de esta familia, Syagrus romanzoffiana y Butia yatay, cuyos micro y macrorrestos se han preservado en los sitios arqueológicos del Holoceno tardío en el Nordeste argentino. El registro arqueológico indica que fueron importantes para la alimentación y, seguramente, en la tecnología. Además, grupos etnográficos pertenecientes a distintos troncos lingüísticos (tupí, macro-jê, guaycurú muestran que estos vegetales tuvieron un rol central en el Plata. A pesar de ello, hasta el presente estudio no se había efectuado en el Nordeste un análisis sistemático y desde distintas líneas de trabajo que permitan incrementar la información taxonómica y económica que se puede obtener de los restos de ambas palmeras. A partir de la revisión de la literatura etnográfica, la determinación de la utilidad neta de los frutos y el estudio de los atributos cuali-cuantitativos de los endocarpos, se establecen los usos potenciales de este recurso y la productividad de sus frutos y se brindan herramientas para la identificación taxonómica. Todo ello permite profundizar los conocimientos sobre la utilización prehispánicas de las palmeras en la región. Palabras clave: cuenca del Plata; Arecaceae; productividad de los frutos; identificación taxonómica. Prehispanic use of Syagrus romanzoffiana and Butia yatay palms in the Argentinian Northeast: contributions from ethnography and biometrics Abstract The southern distribution of the Arecaceae palm family (=Palmae in southern South America reached the La Plata Basin. This paper focuses on two species of this family, Syagrus romanzoffiana and Butia yatay which micro and macro-remains have been preserved in Late Holocene archaeological sites in the Argentinean Northeast. The archaeological record indicates that they were important in

  3. Characteristics of the relative refractory period of compound active potential of sciatic stem in toads%蟾蜍坐骨神经复合动作电位相对不应期的特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华; 曲瑞瑶; 童学红


    背景:神经纤维疾病的患者经常被推荐做复合动作电位相对不应期的测定,但其在不同刺激条件下的特性始终并未完全证实.目的:通过蟾蜍坐骨神经复合动作电位的实验,更加全面地阐述复合动作电位相对不应期爆发动作电位的特点.设计:随机非对照的实验研究.地点和对象:由首都医科大学实验动物中心提供的6只蟾蜍,在同一生理学实验室被处死来做实验.干预:以不同的刺激强度和组合方式刺激神经.主要观察指标:用NSA-Ⅲ医学信号处理系统记录相对不应期发生动作电位的幅度.结果:在相对不应期的同一时刻,较强的刺激会引起较大幅度的复合动作电位,并且在同样的刺激强度下,不会产生太大变化.结论:在同一时期对相对不应期的刺激可引起不同阈值的神经纤维不同概率性的兴奋,但它们可以固定的概率性叠加,以形成稳定的动作电位.此外,神经干中A类神经纤维的最短绝对不应期可以通过足够强的刺激来测定.%BACKGROUND: The measure of "relative refractory period of compound action potential" is commonly recommended for patients with nervous fiber diseases. But its characteristics with different intensities of stimulus have not been completely proved.OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the characteristics of action potential occurring in "relative refractory period of compound action potential" from the experiment of compound action potential of sciatic stem in toads.DESIGN: A randomly uncontrolled trial study.SETTING and MATERIALS: Six toads were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Capital University of Medical Sciences and were killed for experiment at the same physiology laboratory.INTERVENTIONS: The sciatic stems were stimulated with different intensities and combinations.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The amplitudes of action potential occurring in relative refractory period were recorded by NSA-Ⅲ medical signal processing system

  4. 蟾蜍Caveolin-1的生物信息学分析及其在肌肉组织中的表达%Bioinformatics analysis of Caveolin-1 in toad and its expression in muscle tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张叶军; 解文放; 李洪艳; 崔玉影; 邹伟


    The Caveolin-1 protein sequence of Xenopus laevis in GenBank was obtained and its struc-ture and function were predicted through various bioinformatics analysis softwares . The results showed that Caveolin-1 of toad and mammals have similar structures and functions .Total protein from muscle tissues of Bufo gargarizans was extracted and the Caveolin-1 had been detected through Western Blot by mouse anti-human Caveolin-1 polyclonal antibody .It was suggested that Caveolin-1 is highly conserved in the long biological evolution process ,and maintains its function as a signal transduction center .%在GenBank中获得非洲爪蟾Caveolin-1蛋白序列,通过多种生物信息学分析软件对其进行分析,预测其结构和功能。以成年中华大蟾蜍为实验材料,提取蟾蜍不同肌肉组织的总蛋白,通过Western Blot技术检测Caveolin-1在肌肉组织中的表达。结果表明:蟾蜍的Caveolin-1与哺乳动物Caveolin-1有着相似的结构和功能;利用本实验室已有的抗人Caveolin-1多克隆抗体在中华大蟾蜍的不同肌肉组织中检测到了Caveolin-1的表达,从另一个角度验证了Caveolin-1的保守性。

  5. Education Policies and Organizational Structures in Argentinian Secondary Schools (United States)

    Vicente, María Eugenia


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the link between public education policies and institutional practices in Argentina throughout history and today. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology used is in line with socio-educational management studies oriented to analyse educational practices qualitatively from an institutional…

  6. [Physical activity and health habits in Argentinian undergraduates]. (United States)

    Pérez Ugidos, Guillermo; Laíño, Fernando A; Zelarayán, Julio; Márquez, Sara


    Objetivo: El deterioro de los hábitos saludables en los jóvenes, particularmente universitarios, justifica su investigación en dichas poblaciones. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar los niveles de actividad física en estudiantes de la Universidad Nacional de La Matanza (Argentina), intentando describir grupos homogéneos según características demográficas, de hábitos de salud y de percepción de bienestar, e identificando el nivel de actividad física que mejor describa a cada uno de los grupos. Metodología: Participaron 554 estudiantes (281 varones y 273 mujeres) de distintas carreras a los que se aplicó el Cuestionario Global de Actividad Física (GPAQ) y un instrumento sobre hábitos de salud, percepción de felicidad y diversas variables demográficas. Se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y variabilidad, así como los percentiles P25 y P75, para todas las variables. Se realizó una segmentación mediante análisis de clusters jerárquico, con un análisis de factores previo. Resultados: El 79,8% de los estudiantes, y el 97,2% de aquellos que cursaban Educación Física cumplían con las recomendaciones de realización de actividad física. Los alumnos que se identificaban con un nivel de actividad física alto eran los que cursaban en turno diurno, no consumían tabaco, alcohol ni drogas, no trabajaban, no tenían hijos ni pareja estable, y poseían un nivel socio- económico medio. Conclusiones: Se sugiere la necesidad de una sólida intervención educativa por parte de las universidades para fomentar hábitos saludables y la realización regular de actividad física, ya que tienen una responsabilidad social primaria respecto a estas problemáticas.

  7. FLORA ARGENTINA: NOVEDADES EN PRIMULACEAE Argentinian flora: novelties in Primulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Tressens


    Full Text Available

    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., especie no mencionada previamente para la Argentina,
    es citada, descripta e ilustrada. Se señala por primera vez A. arvensis L., ampliamente
    extendida en la Argentina, para las provincias de Corrientes y Misiones. Se incluye una clave
    para la identificación de las cuatro especies de Anagallis presentes en el país
    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., species not previously mentioned for Argentina is
    recorded, described and illustrated. A. arvensis L., largely widespread in Argentina, is reported
    for the first time from Corrientes and Misiones provinces. A key for the identification of the four
    species of Anagallis present in the country is also included

  8. Spatial econometrics: an application to obesity indicators in Argentinian provinces


    Viego, Valentina; Temporelli, Karina


    Despite their vigorous expansion in the last 30 years in the field of econometrics, spatial models are still not widely disseminated in the empirical literature in Argentina focused on quantitative aspects of regional scope. This paper aims to present the central lines of spatial econometric analysis applied to the problem of overweight in the population and its determinants. We use provincial data from the National Survey on Risk Factors. The results show that conventional econometric tools ...

  9. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs (United States)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  10. [Bioethics in the new Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code]. (United States)

    Bergel, Salvador Darío


    Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents.

  11. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Argentinian plants. (United States)

    Debenedetti, S; Muschietti, L; van Baren, C; Clavin, M; Broussalis, A; Martino, V; Houghton, P J; Warhurst, D; Steele, J


    Fifteen extracts from nine selected Argentine medicinal plants were tested for their antiplasmodial activity in vitro by assessing their ability to inhibit the uptake of [3H]-hypoxanthine into the Plasmodium falciparum K1 pyrimethamine/chloroquine resistant strain. The methanol extract of Satureja parvifolia showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 3 microg/ml). Inhibition of the growth of P. falciparum was also observed with aqueous extracts of Buddleja globosa and S. parvifolia.

  12. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology]. (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R


    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  13. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from Uruguay Una nueva especie de Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Maneyro


    Full Text Available A new species of bufonid toad of the genus Melanophryniscus from northern Uruguay is described. It is included in the M. moreirae group and its external morphology is similar to Melanophryniscus sanmartini. Melanophryniscus sp. nov. is distinguished by having a light brown dorsal coloration with six darker longitudinal glandular ridges on the dorsal surface of the body and the gular region uniformly black.Se describe una nueva especie de anuro bufónido del género Melanophryniscus, procedente del norte de Uruguay. La nueva especie se incluye en el grupo M. moreirae y es similar, en cuanto a su morfología externa, con Melanophryniscus sanmartini. Melanophryniscus sp. nov. se distingue por presentar una coloración dorsal castaño clara con seis cordones glandulares longitudinales más oscuros en la superficie dorsal del cuerpo y la región gular de color negro uniforme.

  14. 蟾酥固体脂质纳米粒包封率测定%Determination of entrapment efficiencies of cinobufagin and resibufogenin in the toad venom solid lipid nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素娟; 张永太; 申利娜; 王志; 冯年平


    Objective:To determine the entrapment efficiencies (EE) of cinobufagin (CBG) and resibufogenin (RBG) in the toad venom solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by evaluation of the effects of ultrafiltration membrane type,adsorbability and penetration for nanoparticles.Methods:Different types of ultrafiltration membranes were selected to investigate the appropriate molecular weight cut-off (MWCO),and then the membrane adsorbability for various concentrations of the SLN suspensions.The penetrability of SLN through membrane was evaluated as well.Results:The EEs of CBG (92.62 ±1.22)% and RBG (91.07 ±0.46)% were the highest as determined by the ultrafiltration membrane with MWCO of 10 kDa.The selected ultrafiltration membrane showed little adsorbability for CBG and RBG,and could effectively intercept SLN.With the optimized method,the determined EEs of CBG and RBG were (91.94 ± 0.72) % and (92.38 ± 0.65) %,respectively.Conclusion:MWCO of the ultrafiltration membrane has great influence on the determination of EE of SLN,and the selected ultrafiltration membrane with MWCO of 10 kDa can be applied in determination of EEs of CBG and RBG in the SLN.%目的:考察超滤膜型号、吸附性、透过能力对蟾酥固体脂质纳米粒(SLN)包封率(EE)测定的影响,确定包封率测定方法.方法:分别选择不同截留相对分子质量超滤膜进行考察,优选适宜型号超滤膜,评价其对不同浓度SLN混悬液中药物的吸附性,并考察其对SLN的透过能力,综合评价超滤膜在蟾酥固体脂质纳米粒的包封率测定中的适应性.结果:截留相对分子质量为10 kDa的超滤膜测定所得药物包封率较高,华蟾酥毒基与脂蟾毒配基包封率分别为(92.62±1.22)%和(91.07±0.46)%;超滤膜对所测指标性成分基本无吸附,且可以有效截留SLN;采用优选的超滤膜测定方法,测得3批蟾酥SLN样品中CBG与RBG的包封率分别为(91.94±0.72)%和(92.38±0.65)%.结论:超滤膜孔径对SLN混悬

  15. Middle Breton prezeffan 'vermin, toad, lizard'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Richardt


    Middelbretonsk prezeffan, hidtil set som en uforklaret variant af preffan 'kryb' (diminutiv af preff 'orm'), tolkes nu i stedet som et selvstændigt leksem. Det afledes af et ældre *pezreffan, som svarer direkte til kornisk pedrevan 'firben'. En videre analyse identificerer første del af ordet som...

  16. Toads Give You Warts--Not! (United States)

    Tomasek, Terry; Matthews, Catherine E.


    The authors provide activities through which teachers can share experiences in the outdoors with young children and teach them about herpetology, the study of amphibians and reptiles. Outdoor activities include observation, classification, and mapping. The authors also include activities for the classroom, including connections between the science…

  17. Arroyo Toad Range - CWHR [ds612 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model...

  18. Anxiety and depression assessment and psychological behavior intervention for diabetic patients with skin infection treated by external application of fresh toad skin%糖尿病皮肤感染鲜蟾皮外敷治疗中焦虑抑郁评估与心理行为干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉; 张晓义; 施美娟


    Objective To explore the influence of psychological behavior intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression, blood sugar level and therapeutic effect in diabetic patients with skin infection treated by external application of fresh toad skin. Methods 50 diabetic patients with skin infection were selected, and their emotional status were assessed by the comprehensive Hospital Anxiety and Depression measurement scale (HAD). Levels of anxiety, depression and blood sugar were compared before and after the intervention, and the therapeutic effects were compared between patients with external application of fresh toad skin and patients with conventional processing as well. Results Diabetic patients with skin infection had a higher incidence rate of anxiety and depression. After implementation of psychological behavior intervention, the HAD score decreased significantly (P<0.05), the blood sugar level also decreased significantly (P<0.05). Healing condition of infected skin in patients with external application of fresh toad skin was better than patients with conventional processing. Conclusion Application of HAD and psychological behavior intervention in diabetic patients with skin infection can improve prognosis of diabetes combined with skin infection, so it is worthy of clinical attention.%目的 探讨心理行为干预对糖尿病皮肤感染鲜蟾皮外敷患者焦虑抑郁症状、血糖水平和治疗效果的影响.方法 选择50例糖尿病合并皮肤感染患者为研究对象,采用综合医院焦虑抑郁情绪测定量表(HAD)评定其情绪状况,比较干预前后患者的焦虑抑郁及血糖水平情况,并比较采取鲜蟾皮外敷患者和常规处理感染患者的疗效.结果 糖尿病合并皮肤感染患者有较高的焦虑抑郁发生率,实施心理行为干预后HAD评分较干预前有显著降低(P<0.05),血糖水平也相应明显下降(P<0.05),且鲜蟾皮外敷患者较常规处理皮肤感染患者的愈合状况

  19. 鲜蟾皮外敷促进糖尿病大鼠皮肤溃疡愈合的实验研究%An experimental study of the promotion of healing of skin ulcers in diabetic rats by external application of fresh toad skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓义; 唐祝奇; 刘春; 朱晓晖; 印彤; 王粹芳; 崔世维


    Objective: To study the effect of the treatment of skin ulcers in diabetic rats by external application of fresh toad skin and its possible mechanism of action. Methods: 42 male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups:the normal control group (12 rats), the diabetic skin ulcers model group (15 rats), and the diabetic skin ulcers treatment group (15 rats). A model of skin ulcers in rats was created, then fresh toad skin was applied on these ulcer sites, and how the ulcers got healed was observed. Pathologically, the wounded tissue structures around the ulcers were observed at the 2nd and 3rd weekends, and immunohistochemically, the expression of the wounded tissue vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was observed. Results: Ulcers began to shrink after 2 weeks and scab after 3 weeks in the diabetic model group. By contrast, in the diabetic treatment group, the expression of VEGF was increased (15.6±2.2 μg/g vs. 48.3±4.2 μg/g, P<0.05) at the end of 2 weeks and sustained to the end of 3 weeks (19.5±3.2μg/g vs. 10.9±2.7μg/g, P<0.05), and meanwhile the wound healing cycle was shortened. Conclusions:External application of fresh toad skin can increase the expression of the wounded tissues VEGF and promote the healing of skin ulcers in diabetic rats.%目的:研究鲜蟾皮外敷对糖尿病大鼠皮肤溃疡的治疗作用及作用机制。方法:清洁级雄性SD大鼠42只,分为3组:正常对照组(12只)、糖尿病皮肤溃疡模型组(15只)、糖尿病皮肤溃疡治疗组(15只)。建立缺损性皮肤溃疡大鼠模型,鲜蟾皮外敷溃疡部位,观察溃疡愈合情况;大体病理观察第2、3周末溃疡组织结构,免疫组化观察血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)的表达,酶联免疫反应技术测定组织中VEGF含量。结果:模型组2周溃疡开始缩小,3周结痂,与对照组相比VEGF表达降低(15.6±2.2μg/g vs.48.3±4.2μg/g, P<0.05);与模型组相比,治疗组2

  20. How Preussag Became TUI : Kissing Too Many Toads Can Make You a Toad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dittmann (Ingolf); E.G. Maug (Ernst); C. Schneider (Christoph)


    textabstractIn the period 1997-2004, Preussag, a diversified German conglomerate of old economy businesses, changed itself into TUI, a company focused almost entirely on tourism and logistics. This paper analyzes how this strategy was executed and how it contributed to Preussag's underperformance of

  1. [Consensus on antimicrobial sensitivity tests in gram-positive cocci. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology]. (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Predari, S C; Corso, A; Lopardo, H; Casellas, J M; Bantar, C; Couto, E; Galas, M; Goldberg, M; Gutkind, G; Kovensky Pupko, J; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Pasterán, F; Radice, M; Soloaga, R


    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is mainly performed in Argentina by disk diffusion method, following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommendations. We worked out new recommendations for the reporting and interpretation of this test when dealing with gram-positive cocci, in accordance to local trends and epidemiology. General considerations for performing the diffusion assay, quality control, and an update on susceptibility testing for gram-positive cocci are reported in this first document. The present update should be considered as a group of recommendations summarized by Argentinean experts and as the result of a consensus meeting coordinated by the Subcomisión de Antimicrobianos of the Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (Asociación Argentina de Microbiología). Experts in antimicrobial agents were convened in order to prepare this final document. These recommendations take into account local needs, affordability and availability to be used in current practice, tending to contribute to the correct antimicrobial treatment election, according to the particular microorganism and the infection sites.

  2. A simple and effective auxiliary device for detection of physiologic func-tion on isolated sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius in toads%检测蟾蜍离体坐骨神经和腓肠肌生理功能的简便有效辅助装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔弘; 宋婷婷; 陶媛媛; 幺雨含; 李影; 金惠珍; 李秀国


    目的:设计一种检测蟾蜍离体坐骨神经动作电位和腓肠肌张力的简便有效辅助装置,并分析其实用性。方法:制作由固定坐骨神经和腓肠肌的坐骨神经槽和器官池组成的实验装置(L 形管)。将蟾蜍离体坐骨神经-腓肠肌标本置于 L 形管中,利用 BL-420S 生物机能实验系统检测坐骨神经动作电位和腓肠肌张力。标本随机分为正常对照组、利多卡因神经组和肌肉组,每组6个标本。利多卡因组(0.05、0.2和1 g/L)用相应浓度的利多卡因处理后再用任氏液冲洗,通过分析其对神经和骨骼肌的可逆性麻醉作用,验证装置的实用性。结果:通过将标本固定于 L 形管,能够同时检测坐骨神经动作电位和腓肠肌张力曲线,且易于更换坐骨神经槽和器官池内液体。与对照组比较,0.05和0.2 g/L 利多卡因使坐骨神经的阈强度和最大刺激强度显著性增高(P <0.05),绝对不应期延长(P <0.01),传导速度减慢(P <0.01),1 g/L 利多卡因完全阻滞神经传导。1 g/L 利多卡因使腓肠肌的静息张力显著性升高(P <0.01),最大单收缩幅度显著性降低(P <0.01),但阈强度和最大刺激强度无统计学差异。冲洗后,坐骨神经和腓肠肌的观察指标完全或部分恢复到对照组水平。结论:作为辅助装置,L 形管能够使蟾蜍离体坐骨神经动作电位和腓肠肌收缩性的检测更为便利。%AIM: To design a simple and effective auxiliary device for detection of the compound action poten-tial (CAP) and the force on the isolated sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius in toads, and to investigate its practicability. METHODS: A simple “L” shape device (L tube), which was composed of a nerve chamber and an organ bath, was made for fixing the isolated sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius.After fixing, the sciatic CAP and the gastrocnemius force were

  3. Key aspects of the Argentinian decision not to contribute to the UN operation in Lebanon



    El objetivo del trabajo es dar una breve reseña de los acontecimientos recientes de las operaciones de Israel en el Líbano, analizar la respuesta multilateral al mismo, así como las observaciones que, sobre el mismo, realizaron las cancillerías argentina y brasileña. En base a esas observaciones, evaluar críticamente la decisión argentina de no participar en la operación de Naciones Unidas en el Líbano. The aim of this work is to provide a brief summary of recent events as regards Israeli ...

  4. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire in Argentinian young people and adults. (United States)

    Pilatti, Angelina; Tuzinkievich, Francisco Benjamín


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, in a sample of young people and adults from the general community, the psychometric properties of two models developed for assessing gambling motives (Gambling Motives Questionnaire and Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial; GMQ and GMQ-F). Specifically, a confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to assess the fit of the two models to the data. Internal consistency of the scales was then analyzed. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to analyze the utility of gambling motives for predicting levels of gambling problem severity. The final sample was made up of 341 young people and adults, aged 18 to 60, who reported any gambling activity during the last six months. The maximum likelihood (ML) method with robust Satorra-Bentler correction was used to evaluate the fit of the models to the data. The results indicated that both the GMQ and the GMQ-F models show a reasonable fit to the data. All scales have adequate internal consistency values. Enhancement, coping and financial gambling motives were associated with greater severity of gambling problems. Overall, the results indicate that both models have adequate psychometric properties, though the GMQ-F appears to provide a more comprehensive alternative for assessing gambling motives in the general community.

  5. LD50 and repellent effects of essential oils from Argentinian wild plant species on Varroa destructor. (United States)

    Ruffinengo, Sergio; Eguaras, Martin; Floris, Ignazio; Faverin, Claudia; Bailac, Pedro; Ponzi, Marta


    The repellent and acaricidal effects of some essential oils from the most typical wild plant species of northern Patagonia, Argentina, on Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated using a complete exposure test. Honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and mites (five specimens of each per dish) were introduced in petri dishes having different oil concentrations (from 0.1 to 25 micro per cage). Survival of bees and mites was registered after 24, 48, and 72 h. An attraction/repellence test was performed using a wax tube impregnated with essential oil and another tube containing wax only. The lowest LD50 values for mites were registered for Acantholippia seriphioides (A. Gray) Mold. (1.27 microl per cage) and Schinus molle L. (2.65 microl per cage) after 24 h, and for Wedelia glauca (Ortega) O. Hoffm. ex Hicken (0.59 microl per cage) and A. seriphioides (1.09 microl per cage) after 72 h of treatment. The oil with the highest selectivity ratio (A. mellifera LD50/V. destructor LD50) was the one extracted from S. molle (>16). Oils of Lippia junelliana (Mold.) Troncoso, Minthostachys mollis (HBK) Grieseb., and Lippia turbinata Grieseb. mixed with wax had repellent properties. None of the oils tested had attractive effects on Varroa mites.

  6. Initial English Language Teacher Education: Processes and Tensions towards a Unifying Curriculum in an Argentinian Province (United States)

    Banegas, Dario Luis


    In this reflective piece I discuss the process of developing a new unifying initial English language teacher education curriculum in the province of Chubut (Argentina). Trainers and trainees from different institutions were called to work on it with the aim of democratising curriculum development and enhancing involvement among agents. In the…

  7. Comparison of allele frequencies of eight STR loci from Argentinian Amerindian and European populations. (United States)

    Sala, A; Penacino, G; Corach, D


    Eight STR systems (THO1, FABP, VWA, FES/FPS, HPRTB, F13A1, CSF1PO, and D6S366) were investigated in different ethnic groups of Argentina. Allele and genotype frequencies, power of exclusion, and discriminative power were investigated. Hardy-Weinberg expectations were calculated from heterozygosity levels. FST and G tests demonstrated that significant differences exist among the investigated populations for some of the eight STRs markers. The Wichi Indians are clearly separated from the Mapuche and Tehuelche, who in turn are closer to the European population, suggesting non-Amerindian admixture.

  8. Social protest and its representations in the Argentinian press: 1996-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Artese


    Full Text Available This article presents the main findings of a research on the relation between physical confrontations and its interpretations in six episodes of protest between 1996 and 2002 in Argentina. In this period a profound economic and employment crisis affected most of the country's population. Consequently, it was a period in which a general increase of the cycle of social protests took place.Employing tools provided by Critical Discourse Analysis, we analyze the properties attributed to each of the six protests and repressive reaction of the State, through statements published by the press.The main objective is to review the field of dispute over the meaning of the actions and characteristics of the interpretations published at the precise moments that the institutional violence was applied, as the beginning of an explanation to the criminalization of protest.

  9. Natural Resources and Local Development: The Argentinian Oilseed Complex and Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Scialabba


    Full Text Available Argentina is very rich in natural resources, particularly those linked to the oilseed production. Global demand and improved means of production, have resulted in a mature and developed production infrastructure geared toward export. This generates not just revenue, but also has other positive effects, such as the creation of jobs and sustainable development. In this context, biofuel production adds multidimensional value to the vegetable oil industry and generations many spin-off industries.

  10. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri populations in Argentinian vineyards and ochratoxin A contamination. (United States)

    Chiotta, María L; Ponsone, María L; Sosa, Débora M; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía N


    Aspergillus section Nigri are described as the main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in grapes and wine worldwide. The knowledge of the factors affecting grape contamination by species included in this section and OTA production is essential to be able to reduce their presence, not only to improve wine quality, but also to maintain their safety. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the incidence of Aspergillus section Nigri species harvested in different grape-growing regions from Argentina, their ability to produce OTA, to correlate with meteorological conditions and geographical coordinates with their prevalence and to evaluate the OTA natural occurrence in grapes and wines. The morphological identification showed that Aspergillus niger aggregate species were the most prevalent ones, followed by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus uniseriate. These populations were confirmed through using AFLP markers and sequencing and, Aspergillus tubingensis was separated from A. niger aggregate. Climatic factors, altitude, longitude and latitude have influenced on the distribution of species included in the section. A. carbonarius and A. niger were OTA producers but differed in their OTA producing ability. Temperature was the factor which influenced the most over the highest incidence of A. carbonarius in La Rioja and San Juan regions. The trellis system in vineyards and drip irrigation also influenced the species isolation. The OTA levels detected in grapes and wines were low, but grape variety was more important in susceptibility to fungal infection and OTA levels.

  11. Diseases and remedies in modern city: environmental perspectives of argentinian eugenism between the mundial wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo, Gustavo


    Full Text Available During the inter - war period it consolidate in Argentina a tendency to pathologize the modern city, understood like an ill organism that produced and was consequence phisical and moral decadency
    of its habitants. The interruption of external inmigration contributed with new information for a strategy of regeneration that tried to establish from eugenesics directed to articulate the populationism with the territorial distribution, in the certainty that counteracted country the evils that generated the life modern. The work reviews the impact of this ideology in the different spheres and the way in which has integrated the cultural politic of the fascism and taked part of the corpus with which the biotipology looked to give scientific legitimacy.

    Durante el período de entreguerras se consolidó en Argentina una tendencia a patologizar la ciudad moderna, entendida como un organismo enfermo que producía y a su vez era consecuencia de la decadencia física y moral de sus habitantes. La interrupción de la inmigración externa aportó nuevos datos para una estrategia de regeneración que pugnó por establecer, desde la eugenesia, medidas dirigidas a articular el poblacionismo con la distribución territorial, en la certeza de que el campo contrarrestaría los males que generaba la vida moderna. El trabajo repasa el impacto de esta ideología en distintas esferas y el modo en que ella se recepcionó junto a la política cultural del fascismo y formó parte del corpus con el que la biotipología buscó darle legitimidad científica.

  12. Performance of an Argentinian acid-activated bentonite in the bleaching of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foletto E.L.


    Full Text Available In this work, a bentonite clay from Mendoza, Argentina was activated with H2SO4 (4 and 8 N at 90ºC for 2 and 3.5 hours. Under these conditions several cations were removed from the octahedral sheet (Mg, Al, and Fe and the DTA-TGA curves of the solids obtained after treatment were modified. Treatment time and acid concentration increased the degree of destruction of the bentonite structure. Activated samples were tested in order to verify their capacity to bleach soybean oil and were compared to a standard commercial bleaching clay. Treated samples are more efficient in bleaching than the standard.

  13. ENCOMS: Argentinian survey in cost of illness and unmet needs in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celica Ysrraelit


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the cost of multiple sclerosis (MS patients in Argentina categorized by disease severity using a societal perspective. Method: Cross-sectional study including MS patients from 21 MS centers in 12 cities of Argentina. Patients were stratified by disease severity using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS (group 1 with EDSS score between 0 and 3; group 2 with EDSS >3 and 3 and <7, and USD 50,712 (95%CI 47,825-62,104 for patients with EDSS ≥7. Conclusions: This is the first Argentine study evaluating the costs of MS considering disease severity.

  14. Effects of urban green areas on air temperature in a medium-sized Argentinian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra S. Coronel


    Full Text Available Urban climate is the result of both atmospheric and geographic factors affecting a region, as well as the morphology, structures and human activities in a city. Urban vegetation in particular affects this climate at a local scale and provides many other social, economic and ecological benefits. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of different green areas used for urban and periurban agriculture and forestry activities (UPAF on daily atmospheric temperature and the required degrees of cooling or refrigerating temperature. Comfort temperatures were defined using a range 18-24°C and analyzed using actual measured as well as forecasted temperatures using a future scenario. Actual temperatures were recorded from September 2013 to August 2014 using digital sensors across eight sites in Rosario, Argentina: three in the central core with no vegetation, one in the central core with street trees, one in an urban agriculture site, one in a public park and two in periurban agricultural areas. Results show that air temperature in the central core with no vegetation were higher than those in other sites with vegetation during day and night, with the exception of the temperatures measured at the central core site with street trees. Findings also show that temperature effects in urban agricultural gardens of approximately 0.2 ha were similar to those of gardens and public parks 2-3 ha in size. Three UPAF types were classified according to cooling degree days, which decreased in order from (1 central core with no trees; (2 central core with street trees and public parks; and (3 urban and periurban agriculture areas. Conversely, the opposite trends for heating degree days were found. Results from this study can be used for integrating UPAF measures into climate change mitigation and urban planning policies in medium-sized cities in the developing world.

  15. Synopsis of the Argentinian scarab genus Pseudogeniates Ohaus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jameson


    Full Text Available The scarab beetle genus Pseudogeniates Ohaus (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Rutelini is endemic to Argentina. The genus includes three species: P. cordobaensis Soula, P. intermedius Ohaus, and P. richterianus Ohaus. We characterize the genus, provide a key to species, redescribe and diagnose each species, provide spatial and temporal distributions, and discuss distributions of the species in relation to eco-regions and areas of endemism in Argentina.

  16. Argentinian multi-wavelength scanning Raman lidar to observe night sky atmospheric transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Pallotta, Juan; Otero, Lidia; Chouza, Fernando; Raul, Delia; Gonzalez, Francisco; Etchegoyen, Alberto; Quel, Eduardo


    This paper discusses the multi-wavelength scanning Raman lidar being built at Lidar Division, CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET) in the frame of the Argentinean Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) collaboration to measure the spectral characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles to provide better transmission calculations at the future CTA site. This lidar emits short laser pulses of 7-9 ns at 355, 532 and 1064 nm at 50 Hz with nominal energy of 125 mJ at 1064 nm. This wavelengths are also used to retrieve the atmospheric (air, aerosol and clouds) backscattered radiation in the UV, VIS and IR ranges. Raman capabilities were added in the UV and VIS wavelengths to retrieve the spectral characteristics of the aerosol extinction and the water vapor profile. Due to the expected low aerosol optical depth of the future site, the short observation period as well as the extension of the observation, an enhanced collection area is required. This system uses six 40 cm f/2.5 newtonian telescopes to avoid dealing with...

  17. Evidences of Reliability and Validity of the Dispositional Envy Scale in Argentinian Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Jeannette Mola


    Full Text Available The emotional experience of envy goes through different cultures. However, few instruments have been developed for its measurement. Smith et al. (1999 proposed the Dispositional Envy Scale (DES, which has shown good validity properties, stability and internal consistency in psychometric studies conducted with U.S. and Brazilian samples. This research aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of validity and reliability of the DES with samples of participants from Cordoba, Argentina, university students (n = 399 and adults from general population (n = 316. Furthermore, the Psychological Entitlement Scale and the Subjective Happiness Scale were applied. Analysis of exploratory and confirmatory factor structure provided evidence about the unidimensionality of the scale. Evidence of adequate internal consistency was obtained. Besides, envy was positively related to entitlement and it was negatively related to subjective happiness.

  18. [Supratentorial cavernous malformations in an Argentinian institution: experience with surgical treatment]. (United States)

    Vergara, G E; Cervio, A; Farez, M; Mormandi, R; Condomi-Alcorta, S; Salvat, J


    Introduccion. Las malformaciones cavernosas son lesiones vasculares del sistema nervioso central constituidas por endotelio sinusoidal que forma capilares agrupados o cavernas que carecen de los elementos tipicos de una pared arterial madura y ausencia de tejido neural interpuesto. El endotelio esta rodeado por una densa capa de fibras colagenas que dejan pequeñas hendiduras por las que se extravasa hemosiderina. Se comunican con el sistema vascular a muy baja presion y su tratamiento puede ser por microcirugia o radiocirugia. Objetivos. Analizar las malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales tratadas quirurgicamente en nuestra institucion (FLENI), determinar la epidemiologia y las caracteristicas intrinsecas, estudiar la clinica de presentacion, determinar las indicaciones quirurgicas y complicaciones, y establecer el pronostico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo analitico de historias clinicas e imagenes de pacientes operados de malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales en la FLENI desde enero de 1996 hasta diciembre de 2013. Resultados. Evaluamos a 51 pacientes, de 34 años de media, seguidos durante una media de 30 meses. El 1,96% de los pacientes presento diagnostico incidental y el resto mostro sintomas. El 23,52% presento hemorragia en el momento del diagnostico. En todas las cirugias se logro una exeresis total de las malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales. Se observo un caso de meningitis postoperatoria. Conclusiones. La tasa de sangrado de las malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales en nuestro medio es del 1,38% por paciente por año. El tratamiento quirurgico es eficaz para erradicar o disminuir los sintomas y para evitar un posible resangrado. Presenta una tasa muy baja de complicaciones y un pronostico neurologico favorable.

  19. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of an Argentinian squash (Cucurbita moschata). (United States)

    González, E; Montenegro, M A; Nazareno, M A; López de Mishima, B A


    The carotenoid composition of butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) cultivated in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, was determined. The main carotenoids isolated were identified as beta-carotene (beta,beta-carotene), alpha-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene), and lutein (beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) and the minor carotenoids, as phytofluene (7,8,11,12,7',8'-hexahydro-psi,psi-carotene), zeta-carotene (7,8,7',8'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-carotene), neurosporene (7,8-dihydro-psi,psi-carotene), violaxanthin (5,6,5',6'- diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) and neoxanthin (5,6-epoxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta- carotene-3,5,3'-triol). In some samples, 5,6,5',6'-beta-carotene diepoxide, (5,6,5',6'-diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene) and flavoxanthin (5,8-epoxy-5,8-dihydro-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) were detected. The presence of cis-isomers of beta,beta-carotene was also detected by HPLC. The vitamin A value obtained was 432 micrograms RE/100 g fresh sample, which indicates that this vegetable is an important source of provitamin A.

  20. Souring in low-temperature surface facilities of two high-temperature Argentinian oil fields. (United States)

    Agrawal, Akhil; An, Dongshan; Cavallaro, Adriana; Voordouw, Gerrit


    Produced waters from the Barrancas and Chihuido de la Salina (CHLS) fields in Argentina had higher concentrations of sulfate than were found in the injection waters, suggesting that the formation waters in these reservoirs had a high sulfate concentration and that sulfate-reducing bacteria were inactive downhole. Incubation of produced waters with produced oil gave rapid reduction of sulfate to sulfide (souring) at 37 °C, some at 60 °C, but none at 80 °C. Alkylbenzenes and alkanes served as electron donor, especially in incubations with CHLS oil. Dilution with water to decrease the ionic strength or addition of inorganic phosphate did not increase souring at 37 or 60 °C. These results indicate that souring in these reservoirs is limited by the reservoir temperature (80 °C for the Barrancas and 65-70 °C for the CHLS field) and that souring may accelerate in surface facilities where the oil-water mixture cools. As a result, significant sulfide concentrations are present in these surface facilities. The activity and presence of chemolithotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira, which represented 85% of the microbial community in a water plant in the Barrancas field, indicated reoxidation of sulfide and sulfur to sulfate. The presence of these bacteria offers potential for souring control by microbial oxidation in aboveground facilities, provided that formation of corrosive sulfur can be avoided.

  1. Teaduslikud töötoad osutusid magnetiks / Martin Pau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pau, Martin, 1975-


    Haridus- ja teadusministeeriumilt teaduse ja tehnoloogia populariseerimise eest preemia saanud maaülikooli doktorantide projekti «Elus teadus» õpitubades osales esimese kolme kuuga üle 800 koolilapse

  2. Sex chromosome diversity in Armenian toad grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea, Pamphagidae) (United States)

    Bugrov, Alexander G.; Jetybayev, Ilyas E.; Karagyan, Gayane H.; Rubtsov, Nicolay B.


    Abstract Although previous cytogenetic analysis of Pamphagidae grasshoppers pointed to considerable karyotype uniformity among most of the species in the family, our study of species from Armenia has discovered other, previously unknown karyotypes, differing from the standard for Pamphagidae mainly in having unusual sets of sex chromosomes. Asiotmethis turritus (Fischer von Waldheim, 1833), Paranocaracris rubripes (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846), and Nocaracris cyanipes (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846) were found to have the karyotype 2n♂=16+neo-XY and 2n♀=16+neo-XX, the neo-X chromosome being the result of centromeric fusion of an ancient acrocentric X chromosome and a large acrocentric autosome. The karyotype of Paranothrotes opacus (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1882) was found to be 2n♂=14+X1X2Y and 2n♀=14+X1X1X2X2., the result of an additional chromosome rearrangement involving translocation of the neo-Y and another large autosome. Furthermore, evolution of the sex chromosomes in these species has involved different variants of heterochromatinization and miniaturization of the neo-Y. The karyotype of Eremopeza festiva (Saussure, 1884), in turn, appeared to have the standard sex determination system described earlier for Pamphagidae grasshoppers, 2n♂=18+X0 and 2n♀=18+XX, but all the chromosomes of this species were found to have small second C-positive arms. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n DNA repeats to yield new data on the structural organization of chromosomes in the species studied, we found that for most of them, clusters of repeats homologous to 18S rDNA localize on two, three or four pairs of autosomes and on the X. In Eremopeza festiva, however, FISH with labelled 18S rDNA painted C-positive regions of all autosomes and the X chromosome; clusters of telomeric repeats localized primarily on the ends of the chromosome arms. Overall, we conclude that the different stages of neo-Y degradation revealed in the Pamphagidae species studied make the family a very promising and useful model for studying sex chromosome evolution. PMID:27186337

  3. Ion transport by mitochondria-rich cells in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, H H; Spring, K R


    rate limiting for the uptake of KCl when Ki is significantly lower than its physiological value. It is concluded that the voltage-activated Cl currents flow through the m.r. cells and that swelling is caused by an uptake of Cl ions from the apical bath and K ions from the serosal bath. Bilateral....... Unilateral exposure to a Cl-free solution did not prevent ouabain-induced cell swelling. It is concluded that m.r. cells have an amiloride-blockable Na conductance in the apical membrane, a ouabain-sensitive Na pump in the basolateral membrane, and a passive Cl permeability in both membranes. From...... the initial rate of ouabain-induced cell volume increase the active Na current carried by a single m.r. cell was estimated to be 9.9 +/- 1.3 pA. Voltage clamping of the preparation in the physiological range of potentials (0 to -100 mV, serosa grounded) resulted in a cell volume increase with a time course...

  4. Disappearance of boreal toads in Colorado: A contaminant investigation (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Population sizes of many, but not all, amphibian species have experienced declines on all six continents on which they occur (Phillips 1990, Vial and Saylor 1993)....

  5. Sodium recirculation and isotonic transport in toad small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Signe Nielsen; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, Hans H.


    Small intestine; leaky epithelia; solute-coupled water transport; Na*O+ recirculation; lateral intercellular space; flux ratio analysi......Small intestine; leaky epithelia; solute-coupled water transport; Na*O+ recirculation; lateral intercellular space; flux ratio analysi...

  6. All-Optical Reversible Hybrid New Gate using TOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Kumar Maity


    Full Text Available Reversible logic is emerged as a promising computing paradigm with applications in low-power CMOS, quantum computing, optical computing and nanotechnology. Optical logic gates become potential component to work at macroscopic (light pulses carry information, or quantum (single photon carries information levels with high efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of Hybrid new gate realization in all-optical domain. Simulation results verify the functionality of the gate as well as reversibility. Approximate insertion power loss in dB is also reported for the Gaussian incident and control pulse.

  7. A Stylistic Analysis of Philip Larkin’s Toads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yanli


    This paper analyzes the stylistic features of the poem “Toads” written by Philip Larkin. This paper focuses on the stylistic features: lexis, grammar, rhetorical devices, phonetics and so on. At the end of this paper, some interpretations wil be made to il ustrate the importance of stylistics to poetry appreciation.

  8. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru. (United States)

    Moravec, Jiří; Lehr, Edgar; Cusi, Juan Carlos; Córdova, Jesús H; Gvoždík, Václav


    We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru). The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data) and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5-65.5 mm, n = 5), moderately developed cranial crests, absence of neural crest of vertebrae, absence of bone protrusion at angle of jaw, presence of lateral rows of enlarged tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. In addition, based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses of selected Rhinella species we propose the monophylum containing R. chavin, R. festae, R. macrorhina, R. manu, R. nesiotes, R. rostrata, and R. yanachaga as a new species group under the name Rhinella festae species group.

  9. Obesity, overweight and socioeconomic conditions. The Argentinian CASE Obesidad, sobrepeso y condiciones socioeconómicas. El caso argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Viego


    Full Text Available Obesity has been classified by the World Health Organization as a worldwide epidemic. This issue is a growing field in economics due to pathologies associated with overweight, the significant impact on healthcare costs and consequent deterioration of welfare. This paper shows the analysis of the results from the National Survey of Risk Factors in order to identify the role of socioeconomic conditions of obesity and overweight based on panel data models. The results indicate that the income level and sedentary lifestyle have positively influenced obesity and overweight, whereas the education and medical coverage are not relevant when explaining the differences between provinces in overweight prevalence, but become significant in the obesity rates variationsLa obesidad ha sido clasificada por la OMS como epidemia mundial. Su estudio ocupa un lugar destacado en la Economía de la Salud debido a su impacto sobre los costos sanitarios y deterioro de la calidad de vida. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo estableciendo la incidencia de las condiciones socioeconómicas sobre indicadores de obesidad y sobrepeso en las provincias  argentinas. Se estimó un modelo con datos de panel donde el indicador testigo de la proporción de población con problemas de peso depende de variables socioeconómicas y de variables de conducta. Los resultados indican que el nivel de ingreso y el sedentarismo tienen una influencia positiva sobre la obesidad y el sobrepeso mientras que la educación y la cobertura médica no resultan relevantes en la explicación de las diferencias entre provincias en la proporción de población con sobrepeso, pero sí se vuelven significativas para explicar las variaciones en la tasa de obesidad

  10. Fish assemblages in a small temperate estuary on the Argentinian coast: spatial variation, environmental influence and relevance as nursery area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Solari


    Full Text Available AbstractThe effects of different environmental variables on the fish community structure were evaluated in a small temperate estuary. The biological and environmental data were collected bimonthly between 2007 and 2009 along the main estuarine axis. Multivariate analyses were applied (CLUSTER, SIMPER, CCA to determine the spatial structure of fish community and to estimate the environmental influence on it. A total of 48 species of "teleost" fishes were observed, with the families Characidae and Sciaenidae presenting the largest number of species, 90% of the catches being juveniles. The fish community was overwhelmingly dominated by one species (Micropogonias furnieri, 88.9%, and only four species contributed more than 1% of total catch (Odontesthes argentinensis5.4%, Brevoortia aurea 1.1%, Paralonchurus brasiliensis 1.1%, and Mugil platanus 1.0%. Estuarine and freshwater stragglers dominated in number of species, followed by freshwater migrants and marine migrants. Three areas with different fish assemblages, with distinctive species and functional guilds, were defined along the main axis. The occurrence and spatial spread of these areas were linked to spatial variation in salinity, which was consistently influenced by discharge from the Río de la Plata and local precipitation. The results highlight the importance of shallow environments as nursery areas and permit emphasis on their susceptibility to environmental changes.

  11. The Marxist debate on Latin-American colonial modes of production within Argentinian intelligencia (1890-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Daniela Bosch Alessio


    Full Text Available The debate on the nature of colonial economy has gone beyond the field of historical materialism. Nevertheless, most of the participants in the debate have been Marxists who took as their starting point the concept of “mode of production” or “socioeconomic formation”. This paper focuses on the question of the origins of capitalism and the roots of Latin-American backwardness. While there were intellectuals who affirmed the predominantly feudal character of colonization, others defined it as “colonial capitalism”. This paper compares the materialist hypotheses about the colonial modes of production in the Río de la Plata economic area in order to examine the different Marxist historiographical currents about the origins and development of capitalism in Argentina.

  12. Argentinian phlebotomine fauna, new records of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) for the country and the province of Chaco. (United States)

    Szelag, Enrique A; Filho, Jose D Andrade; Rosa, Juan R; Parras, Matias A; Quintana, Maria G; Quintana, Maria G; Salomon, Oscar D


    Sand flies are insects of medical and veterinary importance, because some species are able to transmit several pathogens such as Bartonella spp., Phlebovirus spp., and protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania (Ross). They are widely distributed in the Americas, with recordings ranging from Canada to Argentina. Approximately 500 Phlebotominae species are known in the Americas, of which it is considered that at least 56 are involved in the transmission of leishmaniasis (Maroli et al. 2012). Previous studies have shown that the phlebotomine fauna in Argentina consists of 32 species distributed in 14 provinces (Quintana et al. 2012; Sábio et al. 2015; Salomón et al. 2010). Of these species, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto), Ny. whitmani (Antunes & Countinho), Cortelezzii complex [Evandromyia cortelezzii (Brèthes) - Ev. sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho)], Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar) and Migonemyia migonei (França) have been found with DNA of Leishmania spp. (Moya et al. 2015). Five new records of species in the province of Chaco, obtained from different projects carried out between 2001 and 2015, four of which are also new records for Argentina, are described in this article. Their importance as potential vectors and the correct determination of the sympatric species is also discussed.

  13. Irony, Humour and Cynicism in Relation to Memory. A Contrastive Analysis between the Argentinian and the Mexican Literary Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaensen, B.Y.A.


    Making fun of traumatic experiences is a delicate issue. However, Freud has worked on the cathartic function of the joke (1905), and Andréa Lauterwein, in her edited volume Rire, Mémoire, Shoah (2009) insisted on the presence and relevance of laughter in the memory of the Shoah. In the context of La

  14. Late Glacial-Holocene climatic transition record at the Argentinian Andean piedmont between 33–34° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Mehl


    Full Text Available The Arroyo La Estacada (~33°28' S, 69°02' W, eastern Andean piedmont of Argentina, cuts through an extensive piedmont aggradational unit composed of a dominant late Pleistocene–early Holocene (LP–EH alluvial sequence including several paleosols. The arroyo sedimentary record exhibits a paleosol developed affecting the topmost part of likely Lateglacial aeolian deposits aggraded into a floodplain environment by the end of the late Pleistocene. The paleosol shows variable grade of development in the outcrops along the arroyo probably in relation to fluvial valley paleotopography. Organic matter humification, carbonate accumulation and redox processes were the dominant processes associated with paleosol formation. By the early Holocene, when the formation of the paleosol ended, alluvial aggradation renewed and a higher frequency of flooding events could have affected the arroyo's floodplain environment. A period of relative landscape stability in the Arroyo La Estacada basin is inferred from the paleosol developed by the LP–EH transition in response to a climatic amelioration in the Andes cordillera piedmont after the Late Glacial arid conditions. The renewal of early Holocene alluvial aggradation was probably influenced by the South American Monsoon and resulted in a change in the sedimentary dynamics of the arroyo. The analyzed Late Glacial-Holocene alluvial record of the Andean piedmont constitutes a suitable record of the LP–EH climatic transition at the extra Andean region of Argentina. It is in agreement with regional paleoclimatic evidence along the southern tip of the South American continent, where other sedimentary sequences record similar late Quaternary paleoenvironmental changes over both fluvial and interfluvial areas.

  15. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population


    Francisco Cabrera-Chávez; Dezar, Gimena V. A.; Anna P. Islas-Zamorano; Jesús G. Espinoza-Alderete; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J.; Dalia Magaña-Ordorica; Noé Ontiveros


    Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]): self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS) ...

  16. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population (United States)

    Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Dezar, Gimena V. A.; Islas-Zamorano, Anna P.; Espinoza-Alderete, Jesús G.; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J.; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Ontiveros, Noé


    Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]): self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS) 7.61% (6.2–9.2), SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2–2.7), celiac disease 0.58% (0.3–1.2), wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12–0.84), self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS) 6.28% (5.1–7.8), SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5–1.6), and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1–7.9). SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001) and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001). Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier. Conclusion: In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population. PMID:28117706

  17. The stabbing of Amelia (or how was extinguished the married women discrimination from the argentinian telephone service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Barrancos


    Full Text Available This paper highlights the tracks of Amelia C. Her life story as switchboard is relevant to understand the women' s discrimination in laboral market in the early twentieth century. This article will be focused on the marital satatus as pattern of female exclusion. The strategy used by Amelia against that pattern, although individual and even desperate, detonated a series of revisions of existing legislation that were supported by different groups in society. The corpus is based on records of the telephone company in which Amelia was employed for several years and the impact of their strategies in the local press.

  18. Killer phenotype of indigenous yeasts isolated from Argentinian wine cellars and their potential starter cultures for winemaking. (United States)

    de Ullivarri, Miguel Fernández; Mendoza, Lucía M; Raya, Raúl R; Farías, Marta E


    Of 31 yeasts, from different surfaces of two cellars from the northwest region of Argentina, 11 expressed killer activity against the sensitive strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae P351. Five of these killer yeasts were identified as S. cerevisiae by phenotypic tests and PCR-RFLP analysis. Two S. cerevisiae killer strains, Cf5 and Cf8, were selected based on their excellent kinetic and enological properties as potential autochthonous mixed starter cultures to be used during wine fermentation. They could dominate the natural microbiota in fermentation vats and keep the typical sensorial characteristics of the wine of this region.

  19. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity and tuberculosis in a hospital from the Argentinian northeast: cross-sectional study


    Alfredo Sebastián Golemba; Francisco Gastón Emmanuel Ferreyra; Ricardo Enrique Martearena; Fernando Ramón Achinelli


    INTRODUCCIÓN La hepatotoxicidad es un efecto adverso grave debido al tratamiento antituberculoso. OBJETIVOS El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la prevalencia, las formas de presentación y evolución de pacientes con hepatotoxicidad por antifímicos. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo. Se incluyeron historias clínicas de pacientes mayores de 16 años, desde el 1 de enero de 2011 hasta el 30 junio de 2014 en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del Hospital Á...

  20. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity and tuberculosis in a hospital from the Argentinian northeast: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Sebastián Golemba


    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN La hepatotoxicidad es un efecto adverso grave debido al tratamiento antituberculoso. OBJETIVOS El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la prevalencia, las formas de presentación y evolución de pacientes con hepatotoxicidad por antifímicos. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo. Se incluyeron historias clínicas de pacientes mayores de 16 años, desde el 1 de enero de 2011 hasta el 30 junio de 2014 en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del Hospital Ángela I. de Llano, de Corrientes, Argentina. RESULTADOS Durante el período estudiado se diagnosticaron 118 pacientes con tuberculosis. El 7,6% (nueve pacientes, seis hombres y tres mujeres desarrolló hepatotoxicidad, de carácter hepatocelular en seis y colestásico en tres. La media de edad fue 34,6 años ± 14,3. Todos recibieron triple asociación y etambutol diariamente. Se los internó, en promedio 16 días (rango 4 a 37. Cuatro se encontraban asintomáticos, tres presentaron anorexia, náuseas y vómitos, y dos ictericia. El intervalo entre el inicio del tratamiento y la manifestación clínica fue en promedio de 9,6 días (rango 2 a 23. El intervalo entre el inicio y la suspensión del tratamiento fue en promedio 15,2 días (rango 3 a 48. Ninguno requirió trasplante hepático ni se registró ningún óbito. CONCLUSIONES La hepatotoxicidad por antifímicos se ha asociado a factores como edad mayor de 35 años, sexo femenino, embarazo, desnutrición, alcoholismo, presencia de virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, hepatopatía previa, tratamiento diario, diabetes, insuficiencia renal, tratamiento combinado. Debido a la escasez de registros regionales, esta casuística podría ser el inicio para la creación de registros, a nivel regional y/o nacional, de efectos adversos, el establecimiento de programas de farmacovigilancia que contribuyan a la búsqueda activa de esta complicación, y el desarrollo de guías para unificar conceptos y protocolos de tratamiento específicos.

  1. Concentration dependence of halide fluxes and selectivity of the anion pathway in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harck, A F; Larsen, Erik Hviid


    mV (apical bath negative). The active sodium currents were eliminated by replacing external Na+ with K+. With [Cl-]o varying between 1.45 mM and 110 mM (gluconate substitution) and [I-]o = 3 mM, the total clamping current (y) and the sum of halide currents (x), estimated from flux measurements, were...

  2. The role of hind limb flexor muscles during swimming in the toad, Bufo marinus. (United States)

    Gillis, Gary B


    Most work examining muscle function during anuran locomotion has focused largely on the roles of major hind limb extensors during jumping and swimming. Nevertheless, the recovery phase of anuran locomotion likely plays a critical role in locomotor performance, especially in the aquatic environment, where flexing limbs can increase drag on the swimming animal. In this study, I use kinematic and electromyographic analyses to explore the roles of four anatomical flexor muscles in the hind limb of Bufo marinus during swimming: m. iliacus externus, a hip flexor; mm. iliofibularis and semitendinosus, knee flexors; and m. tibialis anticus longus, an ankle flexor. Two general questions are addressed: (1) What role, if any, do these flexors play during limb extension? and (2) How do limb flexors control limb flexion? Musculus iliacus externus exhibits a large burst of EMG activity early in limb extension and shows low levels of activity during recovery. Both m. iliofibularis and m. semitendinosus are biphasically active, with relatively short but intense bursts during limb extension followed by longer and typically weaker secondary bursts during recovery. Musculus tibialis anticus longus becomes active mid way through recovery and remains active through the start of extension in the next stroke. In conclusion, flexors at all three joints exhibit some activity during limb extension, indicating that they play a role in mediating limb movements during propulsion. Further, recovery is controlled by a complex pattern of flexor activation timing, but muscle intensities are generally lower, suggesting relatively low force requirements during this phase of swimming.

  3. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus). (United States)

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide a...

  4. NHE-1 sequence and expression in toad, snake and fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steffen Nyegaard; Wang, Tobias; Kristensen, Torsten

    Red blood cells (RBC) from reptiles appear not to express regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon shrinkage (Kristensen et al., 2008). In other vertebrates, the RVI response is primarily mediated by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and we, therefore decided to investigate whether red cell...

  5. Within- and among-population variation in chytridiomycosis-induced mortality in the toad Alytes obstetricans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursina Tobler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chytridiomycosis is a fungal disease linked to local and global extinctions of amphibians. Susceptibility to chytridiomycosis varies greatly between amphibian species, but little is known about between- and within-population variability. However, this kind of variability is the basis for the evolution of tolerance and resistance evolution to disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a common garden experiment, we measured mortality after metamorphosis of Alytes obstetricans naturally infected with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Mortality rates differed significantly among populations and ranged from 27 to 90%. Within populations, mortality strongly depended on mass at and time through metamorphosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although we cannot rule out that the differences observed resulted from differences in skin microbiota, different pathogen strains or environmental effects experienced by the host or the pathogen prior to the start of the experiment, we argue that genetic differences between populations are a likely source of at least part of this variation. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing differences in survival between and within populations under constant laboratory conditions. Assuming that some of this intraspecific variation has a genetic basis, this may suggest that there is the potential for the evolution of resistance or tolerance, which might allow population persistence.

  6. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of inorganic phosphate handling in the toad Bufo bufo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Werner, Andreas; Hansen, Sofie M;


    (i) absorption across skin and intestine. An initial fragment of a NaPi-II type transporter was amplified from kidney, and the full-length sequence was obtained. The protein showed the molecular hallmarks of NaPi-IIb transporters. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes the clone showed unusual pH dependence......, but apparent affinity constants for P(i) and Na(+) were in the range of other NaPi-II transporters. Expression profiling showed that the transporter was present in skin, intestine and kidney. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays on dissected renal tubules indicated expression...... in the collecting duct system. Collecting tubules and ducts were isolated, perfused and microelectrode recordings showed electrogenic P(i) transport in apical and basolateral membranes. Taken together, our results show that P(i) is handled by intestine, kidney and skin. The presently cloned NaPi-IIb is a likely...

  7. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos. (United States)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan


    The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC50 and EC50 for malformation of nickel after 168h of treatment were 33.8μM and 5.4μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1-10μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26-31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by disrupting calcium-dependent myogenesis in developing B. orientalis embryos.

  8. Cane Toad or Computer Mouse? Real and Computer-Simulated Laboratory Exercises in Physiology Classes (United States)

    West, Jan; Veenstra, Anneke


    Traditional practical classes in many countries are being rationalised to reduce costs. The challenge for university educators is to provide students with the opportunity to reinforce theoretical concepts by running something other than a traditional practical program. One alternative is to replace wet labs with comparable computer simulations.…

  9. 75 FR 37358 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad (United States)


    ... alter the description or distribution of the animals), and the designation of critical habitat for the... extinction of the species. In making that determination, the legislative history is clear that the Secretary... Construction Battalion One Seabees, 1\\st\\ Marine Expeditionary Force Training and Experimentation...

  10. 76 FR 7245 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad (United States)


    ...), wild pigs were found to negatively affect almost all aspects of ecosystem structure and function. Their... colonized by invasive weeds. In addition to rooting and habitat alteration, wild pigs prey on reptiles and... threat that feral pigs (Sus scrofa) pose not only to amphibians in general, but in particular to...

  11. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P


    of the steady-state conductance and the steady-state chloride current reveal that the chloride pathway has maximum conductance for V approximately -80 mV (outside of the skin being negative) and approaches a non-conducting safe for V greater than 0 mV. This strong outward going rectification is a steady......-compartment model indicate that the strong steady-state chloride current rectification cannot be obtained if only the intracellular chloride concentration and the membrane potentials are allowed to vary ("Goldman-rectification"). It is suggested, therefore, that the premeability of the chloride pathway varies...

  12. Watch Out for the Under Toad : Role and Method of Interdisciplinary Contextualisation in Comparative Legal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mak (Elaine)


    textabstractThis article studies the significance of insights from non- legal disciplines (such as political science, economics, and sociology) for comparative legal research and the methodology connected with such ‘interdisciplinary contextualisation’. Based on a theoretical analysis concerning the

  13. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide Bioconcentration in American Toads (Bufo Americanus) (United States)

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides...

  14. A curious case of herbivory in the common toad Rhinella arenarum during hibernation in captivity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzi, Andrea Gabriela


    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente nota es documentar un comportamiento curioso ocurrido con un grupo de animales adultos de Rhinella arenarum que fueron mantenidos en condiciones de hibernación artificial en el laboratorio durante abril-julio del 2012.

  15. Psychometric properties of the attitudes toward gay men scale in Argentinian context: The influence of sex, authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Etchezahar


    Full Text Available Even though prejudice toward male homosexuality is one of the main reasons for discrimination in Argentina, there is no valid measure to assess it. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men Scale (ATG and to examine the influence of sex, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Data were collected with a convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students from University of Buenos Aires. Analysis of the data showed adequate psychometric properties for the ATG Scale and the moderating effect of sex, right wing uthoritarianism and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Implications of these findings were discussed.

  16. Identification of human intestinal parasites affecting an asymptomatic peri-urban Argentinian population using multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction


    Cimino, Rubén O.; Jeun, Rebecca; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Pamela S.; Vargas, Paola; Echazú, Adriana; Bryan, Patricia E.; Nasser,Julio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Mejia, Rojelio


    Background In resource-limited countries, stool microscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths and/or intestinal protozoa). However, sensitivity and specificity is low. Improved diagnosis of intestinal parasites is especially important for accurate measurements of prevalence and intensity of infections in endemic areas. Methods The study was carried out in Orán, Argentina. A total of 99 stool samples from a local surveillance campaign were ana...

  17. Energy crisis and rationing: a comparison between the argentinian and brazilian programs; Crisis energetica y racionamiento: los programas de Argentina y Brasil, una comparacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbiztondo, Santiago; Navajas, Fernando [Fundacion de Investigaciones Economicas Latinoamericanas (FIEL)(Argentina)


    Although they have been equitable compared, the energy policies taken by Brazil and Argentina as a solution to the energy crisis lived by each one of these countries in years 2001 and 2002, they have enormous differences in terms of the real problem and nature of the established measures. Firstly the central aspects of the demand rationing mechanism adopted by Brazil for the electrical crisis of 2001 are presented. Afterwards the measures adopted in Argentina during the 2004 crisis in the electricity and natural gas rationing are discussed. From this exhibition of facts, comparisons are made and conclusions extracted looking forward to clarify the important differences separating both cases, differences that as the study reveals meant for the Argentine scheme the breach of the expected objectives. In the last section the changes implemented in the Argentine scheme are reflected during year 2005 to counteract the bad results obtained, nevertheless this modifications attacked only in a partial way the original program weaknesses. [Spanish] Si bien han sido comparadas equitativamente, las politicas energeticas tomadas por Brasil y Argentina como solucion a las crisis energeticas vividas por cada uno en el 2001 y 2004 presentan enormes diferencias a nivel de problema real y naturaleza de las medidas establecidas. Primeramente son presentados los aspectos centrales del mecanismo de racionamiento de la demanda adoptados por Brasil en la crisis electrica de 2001. Luego se comentan las medidas adoptadas en Argentina durante su crisis en el ano 2004 en el racionamiento de electricidad y gas natural. A partir de esta exposicion de hechos se realizan comparaciones y se extraen conclusiones que buscan clarificar las importantes diferencias que separan a ambos casos, diferencias que, como revela el estudio, significaron para el esquema argentino el incumplimiento de los objetivos esperados. En la ultima seccion se reflejan los cambios implementados en el esquema argentino durante el ano 2005 para contrarrestar los malos resultados obtenidos, sin embargo, estas modificaciones atacaron solo de manera parcial las debilidades del programa original.

  18. α6β4 Integrin Genetic Variations (A380T and R1281W) and Breast Cancer Risk in an Argentinian Population. (United States)

    Acosta, Karina Beatriz; Lorenzini Campos, Melina Noelia; Etcheverry, Susana Beatriz; Zapata, Pedro Dario


    The α6β4 integrin is composed of the α6 and β4 subunits that are encoded by the ITGα6 and the ITGβ4 genes, respectively. The α6β4 main function is to intervene in lamination and epithelia integrity maintenance by cell-matrix interactions. This integrin appears to have importance in breast cancer malignancy, as well as other epithelial carcinomas. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential role of ITGα6 (A380T) and ITGβ4 (R1281W) genetic variations in breast cancer susceptibility, in a female population from the northeast region of Argentina (Misiones). We performed a case-control study of 85 breast cancer patients and 113 cancer-free controls. Genotyping was performed by RFLP-PCR. For ITGα6 (A380T) single nucleotide polymorphism, a high frequency of heterozygous genotype GA in cases compared to controls was observed, achieving values of 48% and 49%, respectively. No association between the A380T SNP and breast cancer development was found (Odds Ratio = 0.92; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.52-1.63; p = 0.884). In conclusion, we did not find evidence of an association between A380T (ITGα6) and the risk of developing breast cancer. The results represent the first report of these genetic variations in breast cancer; therefore, they are an important contribution to the literature.

  19. Short-term evaluation of the impact of a fortified food aid program on the micronutrient nutritional status of Argentinian pregnant women. (United States)

    Malpeli, Agustina; Ferrari, María Guillermina; Varea, Ana; Falivene, Mariana; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Vojkovic, María; Carmuega, Estéban; Disalvo, Liliana; Apezteguía, María; Pereyras, Silvia; Tournier, Andrea; Vogliolo, Daniel; Gonzalez, Horacio F


    We studied the impact of a food supplementation program (Plan Más Vida (PMV)) on the micronutrient nutritional condition of pregnant women from low-income families 1 year after its implementation. The food program provided supplementary diet (wheat and maize--fortified flour, rice or sugar, and fortified soup). We performed a prospective, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, evaluating pregnant women at baseline (n = 164) and 1 year after PMV implementation (n = 108). Biochemical tests (hemogram, ferritin, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid), anthropometric assessments (weight and height), and dietary surveys (24 h recall) were performed at the two study points. One year after PMV implementation, no significant changes in anthropometric values were observed. Folic acid deficiency and the risk of vitamin A deficiency (retinol, 20-30 μg/dl) decreased significantly (35.8 to 6.1 % and 64 to 41 %, respectively; p < 0.000). Anemia and prevalence of iron and zinc deficiency values did not change. Diet survey results showed that although nutrient intake increased significantly, it was still below recommendations. Implementation of the PMV and of the government nutritional strategies had a high impact on the prevalence of folic acid deficiency. We also observed a decrease in the risk of vitamin A deficiency, and no impact on iron and zinc nutritional status. Adherence to the specific fortified food (soup) was not good and intra-family dilution and distribution of food was high.

  20. Management of Protected Areas and Its Effect on an Ecosystem Function: Removal of Prosopis flexuosa Seeds by Mammals in Argentinian Drylands (United States)

    Campos, Valeria E.; Miguel, Florencia; Cona, Mónica I.


    The ecological function of animal seed dispersal depends on species interactions and can be affected by drivers such as the management interventions applied to protected areas. This study was conducted in two protected areas in the Monte Desert: a fenced reserve with grazing exclusion and absence of large native mammals (the Man and Biosphere Ñacuñán Reserve; FR) and an unfenced reserve with low densities of large native and domestic animals (Ischigualasto Park; UFR). The study focuses on Prosopis flexuosa seed removal by different functional mammal groups: “seed predators”, “scatter-hoarders”, and “opportunistic frugivores”. Under both interventions, the relative contribution to seed removal by different functional mammal groups was assessed, as well as how these groups respond to habitat heterogeneity (i.e. vegetation structure) at different spatial scales. Camera traps were used to identify mammal species removing P. flexuosa seeds and to quantify seed removal; remote sensing data helped analyze habitat heterogeneity. In the FR, the major fruit removers were a seed predator (Graomys griseoflavus) and a scatter-hoarder (Microcavia asutralis). In the UFR, the main seed removers were the opportunistic frugivores (Lycalopex griseus and Dolichotis patagonum), who removed more seeds than the seed predator in the FR. The FR shows higher habitat homogeneity than the UFR, and functional groups respond differently to habitat heterogeneity at different spatial scales. In the FR, because large herbivores are locally extinct (e.g. Lama guanicoe) and domestic herbivores are excluded, important functions of large herbivores are missing, such as the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity, which provides habitats for medium-sized opportunistic frugivores with consequent improvement of quality and quantity of seed dispersal services. In the UFR, with low densities of large herbivores, probably one important ecosystem function this group performs is to increase habitat heterogeneity, allowing for the activity of medium-sized mammals who, behaving as opportunistic frugivores, did the most significant seed removal. PMID:27655222

  1. “All men were born in Jerusalem”. Mith and gospel in the stories about the origen of humans among the toba (Qom of the Argentinian Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Carmen Tola


    Full Text Available Parallelisms between stories of biblical inspiration and myths that describe the origins of the human beings, their corporal transformations and the differences between diverse types of beings can be found in contemporary narrations of the Toba people (Qom of the Argentinean Gran Chaco. Events described in the Bible are usually spun with elements of the mythical past of Toba people, therefore generating a biblical reading of the indigenous past and new readings on the human origins, of the differences between beings and of the importance of the body in the constitution of human specificity. This paper examines some of these narrations where myths and Biblical stories are interlaced giving rise to new notions of body and person.

  2. α6β4 Integrin Genetic Variations (A380T and R1281W) and Breast Cancer Risk in an Argentinian Population (United States)

    Acosta, Karina Beatriz; Lorenzini Campos, Melina Noelia; Etcheverry, Susana Beatriz; Zapata, Pedro Dario


    The α6β4 integrin is composed of the α6 and β4 subunits that are encoded by the ITGα6 and the ITGβ4 genes, respectively. The α6β4 main function is to intervene in lamination and epithelia integrity maintenance by cell-matrix interactions. This integrin appears to have importance in breast cancer malignancy, as well as other epithelial carcinomas. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential role of ITGα6 (A380T) and ITGβ4 (R1281W) genetic variations in breast cancer susceptibility, in a female population from the northeast region of Argentina (Misiones). We performed a case-control study of 85 breast cancer patients and 113 cancer-free controls. Genotyping was performed by RFLP-PCR. For ITGα6 (A380T) single nucleotide polymorphism, a high frequency of heterozygous genotype GA in cases compared to controls was observed, achieving values of 48% and 49%, respectively. No association between the A380T SNP and breast cancer development was found (Odds Ratio = 0.92; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.52–1.63; p = 0.884). In conclusion, we did not find evidence of an association between A380T (ITGα6) and the risk of developing breast cancer. The results represent the first report of these genetic variations in breast cancer; therefore, they are an important contribution to the literature. PMID:27763564

  3. Biomarker Analysis of American Toad (Anaxyrus Americanus) and Grey Tree Frog (Hyla Versicolor) Tadpoles Following Exposure to Atrazine (United States)

    To better understand the mode of action of atrazine in amphibians, we utilized mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to investigate the biochemical changes in two species of larval amphibians exposed to atrazine. Our objectives were to 1) Use changes in endogenous metabolites to f...

  4. A curious case of herbivory in the common toad Rhinella arenarum arenarum during hibernation in captivity conditions


    Jungblut, Lucas David; Pozzi, Andrea Gabriela; Paz, Dante Agustin


    Fil: Jungblut, Lucas David. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Neurociencias; Argentina; Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental; Argentina; Fil: Pozzi, Andrea Gabriela. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad U...

  5. Tracking Amendments to Legislation and Other Political Texts with a Novel Minimum-Edit-Distance Algorithm: DocuToads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansson, Henrik Alf Jonas; Cross, James


    Political scientists often nd themselves tracking amendments to political texts. As different actors weigh in, texts change as they are drafted and redrafted, reflecting political preferences and power. This study provides a novel solution to the problem of detecting amendments to political text......) and substantive amount of amendments made between version of texts. To illustrate the usefulness and eciency of the approach we replicate two existing studies from the field of legislative studies. Our results demonstrate that minimum edit distance methods can produce superior measures of text amendments to hand...


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. The role of common toads in the winter diet of recolonising Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García-Díaz


    Full Text Available Importanza del rospo comune nella dieta invernale di una popolazione di lontra (Lutra lutra in espansione.
    Tramite analisi dei resti fecali, abbiamo evidenziato il ruolo fondamentale degli anfibi nella dieta invernale della lontra Lutra lutra in stagni artificiali della Spagna nord-occidentale. I numerosi “laghi di cava” presenti nell’area umida di Ribeiras do Louro e Gandaras de Budiño sono stati monitorati nel 2007-2009. Il rospo comune (Bufo bufo era la principale preda della lontra, costituendo l’88% della biomassa consumata, mentre il gambero americano Procambarus clarkii e i pesci erano prede secondarie. I nostri risultati contrastano con la ben nota preferenza della lontra per le rane rispetto al rospo. Il mantenimento della popolazione di lontra nel bacino del fiume Louro dipende strettamente dalla corretta gestione degli stagni artificiali.

  8. Postcranial osteogenesis of the helmeted water toad Calyptocephalella gayi (Neobatrachia: Calyptocephalellidae) with comments on the osteology of australobatrachians. (United States)

    Muzzopappa, Paula; Pugener, L Analía; Báez, Ana María


    Calyptocephalella gayi is one of over 6,000 neobatrachians arranged into two main groups, Hyloides and Ranoides. Phylogenetically, C. gayi is placed in Australobatrachia, a Gondwanan clade that is either the most basal clade of Hyloides or the sister group of Hyloidea, depending on the cladistic hypothesis; as such, this species is a key taxon in the study of the early evolution of Neobatrachia. The ontogeny of the postcranial skeleton of C. gayi is described in this article. The description is based on pattern of chondrification and ossification of skeletal elements in a growth series of tadpoles, on juveniles and adult individuals. Particular attention was devoted to some developmental aspects and morphological traits of the adult skeleton. The body of Presacral Vertebra VIII is formed from three centers of ossification, in contrast to the usual two dorsolateral centers observed in the remaining vertebrae of C. gayi, as well as in most anuran taxa for which the development of the axial skeleton is known. Each half of the pelvic girdle arises from a single cartilaginous element. The early development of the autopodia of both the forelimb and hindlimb includes the presence of an additional chondral element, which occurs during the formation of Distal Carpal 5 and the transient formation of Distal Tarsal 4 before the latter is incorporated in the cartilaginous distal end of the fibular. Some osteological aspects of other australobatrachian anurans also are reviewed (e.g., presence of intervertebral discs) based on reports in the literature, as well as first hand observations. In the course of this study, it became evident that further osteological studies are needed to formulate a clear picture of the evolution of skeletal characters not only within Australobatrachia, but also within Neobatrachia.

  9. Mechanisms of adreno- and cholinoreceptors in isolated pulmonary and systemic vasculature of the cane toad (Rhinella marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pil Birkefeldt Møller; Wang, Tobias; Brøndum, Emil Toft

    site of regulation of resistance and therefore holds the capacity to control blood flow and pressure. This vascular control allows amphibians to regulate their shunt, i.e. partially bypassing either the pulmonary or systemic circuit. Shunting in amphibians has been studied due to their multiple...

  10. Comparative pathology and ecological implications of two myxosporean parasites in native Australian frogs and the invasive cane toad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Hartigan

    Full Text Available Myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus axonis and C. australis are pathogens of native and exotic Australian frog species. The pathology and ecological outcomes of infection with these parasites were investigated in this study. Gliosis was correlated to Cystodiscus axonis plasmodia in the brains of (9/60 tadpoles and (3/9 adult endangered Green and golden bell frogs using ordinal regression. Severe host reactions to C. axonis (haemorrhage, necrosis, and vasulitis were observed in the brains of threatened Southern bell frogs (8/8, critically endangered Booroolong frogs (15/44 and Yellow spotted bell frogs (3/3. Severe brain lesions were associated with behavioural changes, neurological dysfunction, and spontaneous death. Both C. axonis and C. australis develop in the bile ducts of tadpoles, the plasmodia were significantly associated with biliary hyperplasia, inflammation and the loss of hepatocytes in (34/72 Green and golden bell frog tadpoles using ordinal regression. These lesions were so severe that in some cases 70% of the total liver was diseased. Normal liver function in tadpoles is necessary for metamorphosis, metabolism, and immune function. We postulate that this extensive liver damage would have significant host health impacts. Severe hepatic myxosporidiosis was more prevalent in tadpoles examined in autumn and winter (overwintered, suggestive of delayed metamorphosis in infected tadpoles, which would have serious flow-on effects in small populations. We compared the sensitivity of histopathology and species-specific PCR in the detection of C. australis and C. axonis. PCR was determined to be the most sensitive method (detection limit 1 myxospore equivalent of ribosomal DNA. Histology, however, had the advantage of assessing the impact of the parasite on the host. It was concluded that these parasites have the potential for significant ecological impacts, because of their high prevalence of infection and their ability to cause disease in some frogs.

  11. Wyoming toad, Bufo hemiophrys baxteri, habitat use and hibernaculum research project with the use of telemetry : Annual report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report is on a two year study, started in 1998, to evaluate the daily and seasonal habitat use to determine the location of the hibemaculum of the...

  12. Morphological re-evaluation of the parotoid glands of Bufo ictericus (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, de P.G.; Felsemburgh, F.A.; Azevedo, R.A.; Brito-Gitirana, de L.


    Multicellular glands in the amphibian integument represent a signifi cant evolutionary advance over those of fi shes. Bufonids have parotoid glands, symmetrically disposed in a post-orbital position. Their secretion may contribute to protection against predators and parasites. This study provides a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Callegaro


    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda el análisis discursivo de la exposición de motivos de la Ley 22285/80, que legisla acerca de la radiodifusión en Argentina. La misma, surgida en el contexto de la dictadura militar y firmada por Jorge R. Videla, Emilio E. Massera y Albano Harguindeguy, carece de la legitimidad proveniente del lugar de producción en la medida en que no emana de institución democrática alguna. Mediante la aplicación de instrumentos teóricos provenientes del Análisis del Discurso Argumentativo, se pretende dar cuenta de las estrategias discursivas que despliega el texto para constituirse en locutor legítimo, en la medida en que carece del ethos prediscursivo necesario. No obstante, el revelamiento de las formas lingüísticas y los procedimientos argumentativos permiten dar cuenta de la realidad implicada en dicha norma, más allá de los numerosos procedimientos que pretenden enmarcar la comunicación en una realidad democrática inexistente. La apelación a entimemas, que recurren al saber de la creencia y a la autoridad de la doxa, no logra encubrir los objetivos de control sobre las comunicaciones y asegura la perdurabilidad de esta ley, aún vigente luego de varias décadas de gobiernos constitucionales.This paper aproaches a discursive analysis of the preliminary recitals in the 22285/80 Law, which regulates radio broadcasts in Argentina. It was enacted within a context of military dictatorship and was signed by Jorge R. Videla, Emilio E. Massera and Albano Harguindeguy. It lacks the legitimacy that should come from the production site, since it wasn't promulgated by any democratic institution. By using theoretical tools from Argumentative Discourse Analysis, we intend to evidence the discursive strategies displayed in the text in order to become a legitimate speaker, given its lack of the necessary pre-discursive ethos. Nevertheless, the change of lingüistic forms and argumentative procedures sheds light on the reality involved in this Law, beyond the many techniques that attempt to frame communication in a nonexistent democratic reality. The use of enthymemes, which appeal to the belief's knowledge and the norm's authority, does not manage to hide the controlling purposes over communications and assures the endurance of this law, still in force after several decades of constitutional governments.

  14. Technical Problems and Political Uses of National Assessments in the Argentinian Educational System Problemas Técnicos y Usos Políticos de las Evaluaciones Nacionales en el Sistema Educativo Argentino.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Gvirtz


    Full Text Available This article presents results from different research investigations which have explored the relations between the technical and the political dimension of the assessment of educational systems. The case study taken on for this matter is the national evaluation system in force in Argentina since 1993. In the first part we present some technical problems which the implementation of this system has encountered in this country. In the second part we carry out an analysis of these technical inconveniences, within the political context of educational reform in which the evaluation system arises and develops. In addition, we present an analysis of the effective use of the information provided by the evaluations. Finally, in the conclusions, we present some considerations on the role of national evaluations in educational reform contexts, and on the prospects of their consolidation as systems which inform in a valid and reliable form about the course of education in the mid and long term. Este artículo presenta resultados de investigaciones que han explorado las relaciones entre la dimensión técnica y la dimensión política de la evaluación de sistemas educativos, tomando como caso el sistema de exámenes nacionales vigente en la Argentina desde 1993. En la primera parte del trabajo exponemos algunos problemas técnicos que ha presentado la puesta en marcha del sistema de evaluación nacional en el mencionado país. En la segunda parte realizamos una lectura de estos inconvenientes técnicos en el marco del contexto político de reforma educativa en el que el sistema de evaluación surge y se desarrolla. Asimismo, analizamos los usos efectivos que se han hecho de la información provista por las evaluaciones. Por último, en las conclusiones, presentamos reflexiones acerca de la función de las evaluaciones nacionales en contextos de reforma educativa, y de las posibilidades de su consolidación como sistemas que informen de forma válida y confiable sobre la marcha de la educación en el mediano y largo plazo.

  15. ELIAS EN LA 12. UNA APROXIMACIÓN ELIASIANA A LA VIOLENCIA EN EL FÚTBOL EN LA ARGENTINA / Elias in "La 12". An elisian approach to violence in argentinian football.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Daskal


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo proponemos una reflexión sobre el fenómeno de la violencia en el fútbol, a partir de herramientas conceptuales de la sociología de Norbert Elias. Esta reflexión implica un doble recorrido. Primero indagaremos sobre la relación entre violencia y deporte, en el marco de la concepción de lo que Elias llamó “proceso de la civilización”, para luego analizar los trabajos posteriores que el sociólogo alemán realizó junto a Eric Dunning sobre la particular temática de la violencia en el fútbol. Habiendo desglosado mínimamente estas dos posibilidades, usaremos la experiencia etnográfica para describir las particularidades del fenómeno en el caso argentino, para terminar estableciendo un diálogo entre los datos etnográficos y la mirada eliasiana. AbstractWe propose in these articles to reflect on the phenomenon of violence in Argentine soccer using some conceptual work tools of Norbert Elias. This reflection involves a dual path. First, we will investigate the relationship between violence and sport in the context of conception of what Norbert Elias called the "process of civilization", and then, analyze the subsequent work performed alongside German sociologist Eric Dunning on the particular issue of violence in soccer. Having minimally broken these two possibilities, we will use ethnographic experience to describe the peculiarities of the phenomenon in Argentina, finally establishing a dialogue between the ethnographic data and eliasiana point of view.

  16. Estimación bayesiana de componentes de (covarianza en Brangus argentino para caracteres de res mediante el algoritmo FCG Bayesian estimation of (co variance components in Argentinian Brangus for carcass traits using the FCG algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. C. Cantet


    Full Text Available Se emplearon los datos de 2273 toritos y vaquillonas Brangus para estimar las heredabilidades (h² y las correlaciones aditivas y ambientales de caracteres de calidad de carne medidos por ultrasonido. Los registros provenían del programa de evaluación genética de la Asociación Argentina de Brangus. Los caracteres medidos fueron el área del ojo del bife (AOB, el marmoreado (MB, la grasa dorsal (GD y la grasa de cadera (GC. La edad media de los animales al momento de la medición fue 641 días en machos y 685 días en hembras. Los parámetros genéticos y ambientales fueron estimados mediante un algoritmo bayesiano conjugado. Los valores estimados de h² fueron 0,22, 0,16, 0,12 y 0,21, para AOB, GD, CC y MB, respectivamente. En términos generales, las estimaciones de las correlaciones genéticas y ambientales se encontraron cercanas a la cifra media de la literatura. Si bien los valores estimados de h² fueron inferiores al promedio de la investigación realizada en vacunos para carne, la variabilidad encontrada es suficiente como para que la respuesta a la selección por estos caracteres - empleando predicciones de los valores de cría calculadas con los parámetros estimados - sea moderadamente efectiva.Data on 2273 Brangus young bulls and heifers were used to estimate heritabilities (h² and genetics and environmental correlations for ultrasound carcass measures. Records were from the genetic evaluation program of Asociación Argentina de Brangus. Traits measured were rib-eye area (AOB, marbling (MB, back-fat thickness (GD, and hip-fat thickness (GC. Average ages of measure were 641 days in males and 685 in females. The genetic and environmental dispersion parameters were estimated by a conjugate Bayesian algorithm (FCG. Estimates of h² were 0,22, 0,16, 0,12, and 0,21, for AOB, GD, CC, and MB, respectively. In general, estimates of genetic and environmental correlations were close to the average published values. Even tough estimates of h² were below the average of published estimates for beef cattle, the additive genetic variation found in the current study would lead to a moderate response to selection - using predictions of breeding value that are calculated with the estimate parameters.

  17. Políticas públicas de inclusión en la educación superior los casos de Argentina y Brasil Public policies for inclusion in higher education the Argentinian and Brazilian cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chiroleu


    Full Text Available Las políticas inclusivas en la educación superior se orientan a lograr que las instituciones contengan una diversidad racial, cultural y sexual semejante a la que existe en el seno de la sociedad, en procura de remediar discriminaciones históricas que han conducido a la situación de desigualdad por la que atraviesan esos grupos. En este sentido, la implementación en algunos países de Políticas de Acción Afirmativa en el ámbito de la educación superior procura una mayor integración social en sociedades caracterizadas por fragmentaciones de diferente naturaleza. En este trabajo nos proponemos abordar desde una perspectiva comparativa los alcances de las políticas públicas de inclusión en la universidad que se desarrollan en Argentina y Brasil, enmarcándolas en los rasgos diferenciales de sus estructuras sociales y sus sistemas de Educación superior.Inclusive policies in higher education are planned to achieve racial, cultural and sexual diversity in institutions, similarly to social diversity itself. Such policies are intended to repair historical discrimination that has contributed to the unequal situation those groups have been facing. For such, the establishment of Affirmative Action Policies in the higher education field in some countries is intended to achieve greater social integration in societies that are usually characterized by fragmentation of different kinds. The purpose of this paper is to address, from a comparative perspective, the advances of public policies for university inclusion in Argentina and Brazil, considering the differences between their social structures and higher education systems.

  18. La privatización de la educación Argentina: un largo proceso de expansión y naturalización Privatization of Argentinian education: an enduring process of expansion and naturalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Vior


    Full Text Available En el artículo se revisan los momentos más importantes de la política educacional en Argentina en relación con el proceso de privatización de la vida social. Despejando algunas hipótesis habituales, se analiza ese proceso como resultado del modo en que se fueron resolviendo las demandas concretas de los grupos, fracciones o clases a lo largo de la historia nacional, culminando en la consolidación de un sólido sector de proveedores privados de educación, al amparo de medidas que le aseguran el financiamiento estatal y la presencia de sus intereses en la elaboración de la política educativa pública. Se interpreta el sentido del proceso en el marco del reacomodamiento de los intereses dominantes en esta etapa de recomposición capitalista, que realiza su hegemonía mediante la naturalización de las diversas formas de privatización de la educación nacional, tanto históricas como "novedosas", y oculta sus efectos concretos: la devaluación de la educación pública como bien universal y del papel del Estado como garante de su distribución igualitaria.In this paper the most important moments of the educational policy in Argentine, related to the privatization process of social life, are reviewed. Putting aside some commonplace hypothesis, this process is analyzed as a consequence of the ways involved in the response to demands from classes or groups along the history of our country. This process led to the strengthening of a group of private suppliers of educational services, protected by measures that guarantee the financial support from the State and the presence of their interests when public education policies are prepared. The meaning of this process is considered within the frame of resetting the predominant forces in the present period of capitalism. Its hegemony is settled making the different forms of privatization -traditional or new of the national education system look natural, and hiding their real effects: the devaluation of public education as a universal value and of the role of the State to guarantee that education is equally distributed.

  19. Fotografías de indígenas en manuales escolares argentinos: representaciones visuales y connotaciones textuales Photographs of indigenous people in argentinian school textbooks: visual representations and textual connotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Saletta


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las fotografías de pueblos originarios argentinos utilizadas en manuales escolares de 2o y 3o ciclo publicados por dos editoriales: Santillana y Aique. Se presentan los resultados de un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de 93 fotografías correspondientes a 38 manuales publicados entre los anos 2000 y 2005. Se reconoce qué tipo de imágenes son utilizadas, la presencia o no de cultura material autóctona, la utilización de epígrafes y la adscripción étnica de los retratados. Se concluye que existe una representación diferencial a favor de aquellas imágenes que muestran pueblos originarios con su cultura material, pero, al mismo tiempo, una utilización de un lenguaje que emplea términos como "aborigen", que implica un sesgo homogeneizador. Las fotografías son empleadas sólo en su función denotativa, mientras que se deja de lado la connotación visual en privilegio de la textual. La información presente en epígrafes y textos que acompanan a las imágenes no cumple con los requisitos necesarios de precisión y rigurosidad.The aim of this paper is to analyze photographs of native people in Argentinean primary and secondary school textbooks published by two companies, Santillana and Aique. Results from quantitative and qualitative analyses of 93 images taken from 38 school text books published between 2000 and 2005 are presented. Type of image used, presence of autochthonous material culture, use of epigraphs, and the ethnic adscription of the subjects portrayed are analyzed. It is concluded that there is differential representation in favor of those images showing native people with their material culture, although the use of language that contains derogative terms such as "aborigen" (i.e., native people at the same time clearly indicates an homogenizing bias. Images are used mostly denotatively, while textual connotation is privileged over visual connotation. Information on the epigraphs and texts accompanying an image do not fulfill the requirements of thoroughness and accuracy, thus reducing the images to illustrations rather than useful documents.

  20. Drug: D06750 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D06750 Toad venom Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Amphibians D06750 Toad venom PubChem: 47208401 ...

  1. Mechanisms of ion transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of Bufo bufo as revealed by microelectrode recordings in isolated perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana


    amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad......amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad...

  2. On The Identity Of Some Toads Of The Genus Bufo From Ecuador, With Additional Remarks On Andinophryne Colomai Hoogmoed, 1985 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.


    Study of the type specimens of B. caeruleostictus Günther, 1859 and B. chanchanensis Fowler, 1913, and of fresh material showed that B. chanchanensis is a junior subjective synonym of B. caeruleostictus. Probably it is a member of the B. guttatus group. B. caeruleocellatus Fowler, 1913 is a junior s

  3. Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto



    There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibodies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood ce...

  4. Comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for analysis of toad skin. (United States)

    Li, Jia-Fu; Yan, Xia; Wu, Yun-Long; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen; Qiu, Ying-Kun


    An analytical two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC × RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed thermal evaporation assisted adsorption (TEAA) interface. This novel TEAA interface with heating temperature above solvent boiling point allowed fast removal of organic NPLC solvent and successfully solved the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved rapid on-line solvent exchange between the two dimensions within a short modulation time of 190 s and was applied in the analysis of an extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans. This is the first time to realize the on-line comprehensive analysis of a moderate polar natural product by coupling NPLC with reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). To be highlighted, with the TEAA interface, the 2D NPLC × RPLC system provided excellent resolution and orthogonality (75.2%), when compared with that of 2D RPLC × RPLC.

  5. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of toad venom. (United States)

    Li, Jia-Fu; Fang, Hua; Yan, Xia; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Yun-Long; Qiu, Ying-Kun


    An on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC×RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed vacuum evaporation assisted adsorption (VEAA) interface, allowing fast removal of NPLC solvent in the vacuum condition and successfully solving the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved on-line solvent exchange within the two dimensions and its performance was illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude extract from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Within separation time of ∼20h, 19 compounds were obtained with high purity in a single run. With the VEAA interface, the 2D system exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and automation compared with conventional methods, indicating its promising application in the routine separation process for complicated natural products.

  6. Membrane potentials and intracellular Cl- activity of toad skin epithelium in relation to activation and deactivation of the transepithelial Cl- conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, N J; Larsen, Erik Hviid


    M in skins from animals adapted to distilled water. Both Va and acCl were found to be positively correlated with Isc (r = 0.66 and r = 0.70, respectively). In eight epithelia from animals adapted to dry milieu/tap water Va and acCl were measured with KCl Ringer's on the outside during activation...... V was stepped back to 40 mV, Va instantaneously shifted to -67.8 +/- 3.9 mV while acCl and fRa remained constant during deactivation of GCl. Similar results were obtained in epithelia impaled from the serosal side. In 12 skins from animals adapted to either tap water or distilled water the density...... zero.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  7. Intoxicación aguda en perro por toxinas de sapo (Bufo bufo) - Acute intoxication in a dog by toxins of a toad (Bufo bufo)



    ResumenLas intoxicaciones por toxinas de sapo no son frecuentes en España y su incidencia es mayor en primavera y verano. En este trabajo describimos un caso de intoxicación aguda de una perra de 4 años de edad tras la aprehensión de un sapo (Bufo bufo) en la zona de Huelva. Los signos de una intoxicación comenzaron a los 15 minutos de entrar en contacto con el sapo muriendo a las 3 horas sin responder al tratamiento suministrado (corticoides, atropina, fluidoterapia y acepromazina). Aunque e...

  8. Acute toxicity of the synthetic pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin on the tadpoles of variable green toad, Bufotes variabilis (Amphibia:Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Gürkan


    Full Text Available In this study, acute toxic effects of alpha-cypermethrin were investigated in the tadpoles of Bufotes variabilis (Pallas, 1769. Tadpoles at Gosner stage 19 were exposed to 0, 0.1, 5 and 10 µgl-1 of alpha-cypermethrin concentrations for 96 hours. Mortality, the changes in some morphological measurements (snout-vent length, body width, tail length, and wet weight, morphological anomalies and behavioral changes were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The 96 hours LC50 value was calculated as 15.62 µgl-1. Such morphological changes as axial anomaly, visceral edema, deformation of the mouth, and tail deformation were observed in 83% and 95% of the tadpoles in the groups treated with 5 and 10 µgl-1 of alpha-cypermethrin. Behavioral changes such as shortening of the swimming distance and immobility were recorded in all tadpoles exposed to alpha-cypermethrin. When all findings were evaluated totally, it was concluded that alpha-cypermethrin had negative effects on the development of the tadpoles of B. variabilis

  9. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Boyadzhiev


    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  10. Advertisement call of species of the genus Frostius Cannatella 1986 (Anura: Bufonidae)


    Flora A. Juncá; David L. Röhr; Ricardo Lourenço-de-Moraes; Flávio J.M. Santos; Airan S. Protázio; Ednei A. Mercês; Mirco Solé


    Frostius pernambucensis and F. erythrophthalmus are cryptic bufonid species recognized mainly by the iris color: yellow in F. permambucensis and red in F. erythrophthalmus. However, field studies showed that the iris color of F. erythrophthalmus could vary between yellow and red. To improve the recognition of these species we described the advertisement call of Frostius pernambucensis and Frostius erythrophthalmus and we tested if call characteristics are influenced by temperature, male size ...

  11. Molecular phylogeny and morphometric analyses reveal deep divergence between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest species of Dendrophryniscus. (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Recoder, Renato; Teixeira, Mauro; Cassimiro, José; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Camacho, Agustín; Damasceno, Roberta; Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Moritz, Craig; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut


    Dendrophryniscus is an early diverging clade of bufonids represented by few small-bodied species distributed in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. We used mitochondrial (414 bp of 12S, 575 bp of 16S genes) and nuclear DNA (785 bp of RAG-1) to investigate phylogenetic relationships and the timing of diversification within the genus. These molecular data were gathered from 23 specimens from 19 populations, including eight out of the 10 nominal species of the genus as well as Rhinella boulengeri. Analyses also included sequences of representatives of 18 other bufonid genera that were publically available. We also examined morphological characters to analyze differences within Dendrophryniscus. We found deep genetic divergence between an Amazonian and an Atlantic Forest clade, dating back to Eocene. Morphological data corroborate this distinction. We thus propose to assign the Amazonian species to a new genus, Amazonella. The species currently named R. boulengeri, which has been previously assigned to the genus Rhamphophryne, is shown to be closely related to Dendrophryniscus species. Our findings illustrate cryptic trends in bufonid morphological evolution, and point to a deep history of persistence and diversification within the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests. We discuss our results in light of available paleoecological data and the biogeographic patterns observed in other similarly distributed groups.

  12. Lino Baranao, President of the National Agency for the Promotion of Science and Technology in Argentina, toured the ATLAS experiment's underground cavern during his visit to CERN on 9 May

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    Picture 01 : Here he is seen with ATLAS spokesperson, Peter Jenni (left), and the ATLAS Muon System project leader, Giora Mikenberg, listening to Karina Loureiro (right), an Argentinian student at the University of Wisconsin

  13. Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma rotundatum ticks parasitizing Rhinella jimi from northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Horta, Mauricio C; Saraiva, Danilo G; Oliveira, Glauber M B; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B


    This study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma rotundatum ticks collected from toads (Rhinella jimi) in the Brazilian Caatinga biome, an unique semiarid region of South America. Tick infestations were observed in 57.8% toads (26/45); mean infestation: 1.6 ticks/toad. DNA extraction from 42 ticks (6 larvae, 22 nymphs and 11 female adults) was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting Rickettsia organisms, which were detected in 100% of the ticks. Amplicons' DNA sequences were identical to each other and 99% identical to Rickettsia bellii from GenBank. DNA samples extracted from the blood of the 45 toads were negative by rickettsia-PCR protocols.

  14. 78 FR 17224 - Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed South Puget Sound Prairie Habitat Conservation Plan... (United States)


    ... marmorata affinus), western toad (Bufo boreas), mardon skipper (Polites mardon), Puget blue butterfly... curtus), rose checker mallow (Sidalcea malviflora virgata), small-flowered trillium (Trillium...

  15. La Dimensión Global y Sexual de la Ciudadanía en América Latina y los Derechos Humanos- El Caso Argentino (The Global and Sexual Aspects of Citizenship and Human Rights in Latin America: The Argentinian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bartolomei


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of sexual violence against women during the past military dictatorships in Latin America, especially in Argentina, and some consequences in the current practice of their sexual and reproductive rights. It analyzes the extent the exercise of sexuality has a connection with the exercise of power, which organizes, manages, and prioritizes behavior depending on a political, social and cultural project, in a context of time and space. This means that the public and private, power and sexuality depend on the idea of the nation, class, race and religion, and consequently implies the political control of reproduction and the family model, including expressions of gender sexual violence. The paper discusses feminist theoretical concepts, such as the concept of gender and nation from an intersectional perspective (Yuval Davis, the idea of post colonialism and decolonization of feminism (Mohanty, and the relationship between gender and globalization (Fraser. Este artículo debate el tema de la violencia sexual contra las mujeres durante las últimas dictaduras militares en América Latina, especialmente el caso argentino y sus efectos en el ejercicio actual de los derechos sexuales. En él se analiza cómo el ejercicio de la sexualidad tiene una relación con el poder, el cual organiza, gestiona, y jerarquiza conductas según un proyecto político, social y cultural, en un contexto determinado. Lo público y lo privado, el poder y la sexualidad en relación a los conceptos de patria, clase, raza y religión, y con ello el control político de la reproducción y del modelo de familia, y de la violencia sexual. En el análisis se discuten concepciones teóricas feministas, como el concepto de género y nación desde la perspectiva interseccional de Yuval Davis, la idea de postcolonialidad y descolonización del feminismo de Mohanty, y la relación entre género y globalización de Fraser. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN:

  16. Infancia, dibujos animados y televisión pública. La difusión de valores y contravalores en la producción española y argentina Childhood, cartoons and public television. The diffusion of the values and disvalues in the Spanish and Argentinian production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fabbro


    Full Text Available La exposición a los medios 'cultiva' la forma de comprender el mundo asentando creencias, representaciones mentales y actitudes que llegan a modificar la concepción de la realidad. Ante esta situación, la audiencia infantil es la que más interesa ya que consume productos audiovisuales en un momento de formación en la que preocupa qué ven en televisión y cómo lo interpretan. Por ello, y por ser un público vulnerable que aprende y aprehende lo que les viene impuesto, el objetivo de este trabajo es comprobar el compromiso de la televisión pública en España y Argentina por producir contenidos adecuados para los niños y niñas. Mediante una metodología cualitativa, y usando como herramienta de abordaje el análisis de contenido, se ha podido demostrar que ambos países difunden programas infantiles basados en valores. Aunque este trabajo tiene las limitaciones propias de un diseño experimental basado en un número de observaciones limitadas, los resultados son relevantes para demostrar que desde la perspectiva del discurso televisivo como informador y formador, la televisión pública de ambos países contribuye al enriquecimiento cognitivo de los niños y niñas que los consume, potenciando así la educación en valores. The media exposure ‘cultivate’ the way to understand the world by setting beliefs, mental representations and attitudes that change the conception of reality. In this situation, childish audience is the most interesting one because it consumes audiovisual products in a formative stage in which it worries what they watch on TV and how they interpret it. By then, being a vulnerable audience that learn and apprehend what is imposed to them, the aim of this study is to confirm the agreement of the public television in Spain and Argentina to produce suited contents for children. By a qualitative methodology, and by using the analysis of content as a tool, it has been shown that both countries broadcast children programmes based on values. Although this study has its own limitations of experimental design based on a limited number of observations, the results are important for demonstrating that from the perspective of the television speech as reporter and former, public television of both countries contribute to children’s cognitive knowledge that consume it, strengthening to education on values.

  17. Comportamiento de reubicación del alimento de Eucranium, escarabajo estercolero endémico de la Argentina y comparación con Scarabaeus (Pachysoma del sudoeste de África (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae Food relocation and nesting behavior of the Argentinian dung beetle genus Eucranium and comparison with the southwest African Scarabaeus (Pachysoma (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico C. Ocampo


    Full Text Available Se describe el comportamiento de reubicación del alimento del género sudamericano Eucranium Brullé basado en observaciones en su ambiente natural. La preferencia de alimento, el modo de transportarlo, preferencia de hábitat, y período de actividad en la superficie son discutidos para dos especies: E. arachnoides Brullé y E. planicolle Burmeister. La biología y comportamiento de relocación del alimento de Eucranium es comparado con la biología y comportamiento del subgénero del sudoeste de África Scarabaeus (Pachysoma MacLeay, el cual es similar morfológicamente. La convergencia adaptativa a los ambientes áridos de Eucranium y S. (Pachysoma son discutidas.The food relocation and nesting behavior of the South American genus Eucranium Brullé is described based on observations carried out under natural conditions. Food preference, food transportation, period of surface activity, and habitat preference are described for two species, E. arachnoides Brullé and E. planicolle Burmeister. The biology and food relocation behavior of Eucranium is compared with that of the morphologically similar South African subgenus Scarabaeus (Pachysoma MacLeay. The convergent adaptations to psamophilous habitats of Eucranium and S. (Pachysoma are discussed.

  18. Estudio transversal clínico y epidemiológico de la enfermedad de Chagas en una área rural del Nordeste Argentino Clinical and epidemiological transversal study on Chagas' disease in a rural area of the Argentinian Northeastern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Bar


    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene por objeto analizar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas, electrocardiográficas y radiológicas de una población de seropositivos y seronegativos al Trypanosoma cruzi en una área rural del Departamento San Miguel, provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. Se seleccionaron 132 pobladores (58 hombres y 74 mujeres de todos los grupos etareos para la realización de un examen clínico y cardiovascular. Se registraron síntomas y signos compatibles con afección cardíaca, tensión arterial, electrocardiograma de 12 derivaciones y radiografía anteroposterior de tórax. En la signo-sintomatología, anomalías electrocardiográficas y en las alteraciones radiográficas detectadas, no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre seropositivos y seronegativos. Se concluye que si bien en la población objeto de estudio la infección chagásica no se asoció a mayor prevalencia de cardiopatía, cabe destacar que los pacientes chagásicos pertenecían a un grupo etareo muy joven con un 54,0% de ellos menores de 20 años y que el 45,0% de los pacientes mayores de 41 años tenían alteraciones electrocardiográficas.The main goal was to know the epidemiologic, clinical, electrocardiographic and radiologic characteristics among a population of seropositives and seronegatives to Trypanosoma cruzi in a rural area of the Departament of San Miguel, province of Corrientes, Argentina. One hundred and thirty-two patients of different ages: 2-79 years old were researched (58 males, 74 females. In order to make a thorough assessment clinical evaluation and cardiologic testing were carried out. Signs and symptoms consistent with heart disease, blood pressure, 12-lead ECG registry and chest x-ray (PA view were registered. In signs and symptoms, abnormal ECG patterns and radiologic abnormalities, non-significant statistic difference were observed. Although we were unable to find a significant relationship between chagasic infection and a higher prevalence for heart disease, it is important to stress the fact that 54.0% of the studied population was largely composed of very young patients whose ages were less than 20 years old, and 45.0% of those older than 41 years showed ECG abnormalities.

  19. TAFONOMÍA DE RESTOS ÓSEOS PROVENIENTES DE EGAGRÓPILAS DE CORAGYPS ATRATUS (JOTE DE CABEZA NEGRA EN EL NOROESTE DE LA PATAGONIA ARGENTINA/Taphonomy of bones remains from pellets of Coragyps Atratus (black vulture in the northwest of the argentinian Patag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ballejo


    Full Text Available Existen diversos estudios actualísticos en tafonomía sobre restos de presas de diferentes especies de aves raptoras. Sin embargo, este tipo de trabajos en aves carroñeras ha sido escasamente considerado hasta el momento en Argentina, a pesar que ellas cumplen un papel fundamental en la alteración y transporte de cadáveres. Coragyps atratus (jote de cabeza negra tiene la particularidad de formar posaderos comunales cercanos a áreas de actividades humanas y de alimentarse de animales de todos los tamaños, por lo que pueden interferir en la formación de sitios arqueológicos. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis tafonómico sobre los restos óseos recuperados de egagrópilas de C. atratus en el Noroeste patagónico, con el fin de generar herramientas que permitan identificar a estas aves como posibles agentes acumuladores. Se recolectaron 469 egagrópilas distribuidas en tres posaderos del Noroeste patagónico. Se identificaron los elementos recuperados y se evaluaron los grados de alteraciones por ácidos gástricos. Lepus europaeus y Ovis aries dominaron las muestras. Los elementos más representativos pertenecen al autopodio, principalmente falanges. Todos ellos muestran signos de digestión, que van desde porosidades superficiales, perforaciones y fracturas, con la desaparición de la médula en el caso de varias falanges; denotando diferencias en relación al tamaño de la presa consumida. Abstract There are several actualistic taphonomic studies regarding different species of birds of prey. However, the studies focus on scavenger birds have been scarcely considered in Argentina, despite the fact that they play a fundamental role in the alteration and transportation of carcasses. A peculiar characteristic of Coragyps atratus (black vulture is that it builds communal roosts near places where human activities are developed and it feeds on animals of varying size, which may interfere with the formation of archaeological sites. The aim of this study is to perform a taphonomic analysis of the bones remains retrieved from pellets of C. atratus in the Northwest of Patagonia, with the purpose of creating tools that allow the identification of these birds as possible accumulator agents. 469 pellets, distributed in the three roosts of the patagonic norhtwest, were gathered. The elements retrieved were identified and the degrees of alterations caused by gastric acids were evaluated. Lepus europaeus and Ovis aries predominate in the samples. The main elements belong to the articular bones, mainly phalanges. They all show signs of digestion, from surface porosities to perforations and fractures, and in the case of several phalanges, the disappearance of marrow, denoting differences regarding the size of the ingested prey.

  20. La política social y la recomposición material del consenso: la centralidad de los programas de Transferencia de Renta Condicionada: el caso argentino Social policy and the material reform of the agreement: the central character of the programs of Conditioned Income Transfer: the Argentinian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fernández Soto


    Full Text Available En el marco de una estrategia global de recomposición material del consenso, analizamos el programa de Transferencia de Renta Condicionada, Asignación Universal por hijo para protección social (AUH en Argentina. Desde una perspectiva amplia y compleja de análisis de la política social, identificamos problemas en relación a la orientación y sentido ético político que persigue, en un contexto de disputa de las perspectivas de protección social. Analizamos algunas tensiones centrales: la relación de las condiciones y formas de organización del trabajo y las desigualdades contemporáneas con las formas de protección social; el papel de las condicionalidades y las tensiones con perspectivas universalistas.In the context of an overall strategy of material reform of the agreement, we have analyzed the program of Conditioned Income Transfer, Universal Allocation per Child for social protection (AUH - Asignación Universal per hijo in Argentina. From a broad and complex analysis of the social policy, we have identified problems related to the orientation and political ethical sense in a disputing context of the perspectives of social protection. We have analyzed some central tensions: the relationship between the conditions and forms of work organization and inequalities and the contemporary forms of social protection; the role of conditions and tensions and the universal perspective.

  1. GARGANTA SECA Y ARENA EN LAS BOTAS: PROSPECTANDO ANTECEDENTES ARQUEOLÓGICOS DE LAS TIERRAS ÁRIDAS DEL NORESTE MENDOCINO (CENTRO OESTE ARGENTINO (Dry throat and sand in the boots: Prospecting archaeological backgrounds of the Mendoza Northeastern drylands, Argentinian Center South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Chiavazza


    Full Text Available Aquí se presenta un detallado estado de las investigaciones arqueológicas desarrolladas en el noreste de la provincia argentina de Mendoza. Esta zona es objeto de estudios desde principios del siglo XX. Sin embargo los pulsos de la investigación han registrado etapas de abandono total y de intervenciones selectivas. Los investigadores han partido de los trabajos precedentes para explicar por extensión las modalidades de asentamiento en la totalidad del territorio norte y, sobre todo, del occidente montañoso, que era donde concentraban sus campañas. Esto acabó generando un cuadro de antecedentes desequilibrado y superficial en el conocimiento de dicha área, con implicaciones en el cuadro interpretativo general de la prehistoria local. En este caso, indagamos las posibles causas que dieron lugar a tal proceso, sus vínculos con los enfoques teóricos y metodologías dominantes a lo largo del siglo XX y su relación con la selección de zonas para llevar a cabo estudios de campo en el norte de la provincia. Reflexionamos críticamente sobre los alcances, límites y posibilidades que ofrece la región para profundizar los análisis arqueológicos del poblamiento prehispánico en relación con las condiciones del ambiente y los procesos históricos documentados, proponiendo discutir los enfoques que basan sus explicaciones en hechos dados por sentados y que merecerían antes una discusión en base a la evidencia disponible. ENGLISH: Here is a detailed state of archaeological research developed in the northeastern Argentine province of Mendoza. This area is the subject of studies since the early twentieth century. However, the pulses of the investigation have been stages of total abandonment and selective interventions. This ended up creating an unbalanced picture of history and superficial knowledge of that area, with implications for the general picture of prehistory interpreted locally. In this case, we investigate the possible causes leading to this process, their ties with the dominant theoretical approaches and methodologies throughout the twentieth century and their relationship with the selection of areas to conduct field studies in northern province. We reflect critically on the scope, limits and possibilities of the region for further archaeological analysis of prehistoric settlement to discuss approaches that base their explanations on facts taken for granted and which deserve before a discussion based on the evidence available.

  2. A New Horn Toad Megophrys sangzhiensis from Hunan,China (Amphibia,Anura)%中国湖南角蟾科一新种——桑植角蟾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江建平; 叶昌媛; 费梁


    对采集于湖南桑植县天平山的角蟾标本(CIB200078)与同域分布的相近种尾突角蟾(Megophrys caudoprocta Shen,1994)标本及其他相近种标本比较后发现,该角蟾标本在形态上明显不同于其他物种.其形态特征与尾突角蟾相比:体形小,体长54.7mm;上眼脸外缘三角形突起小;体腹面后部有斑点;犁骨棱弱,末端不膨大,也无犁骨齿;雄性第一、二指背面黑婚刺相对较大,有声囊.与棘指角蟾相比:肛孔上方有一个向后突出的尾突,腹面观可见;雄性第一、二指背面黑婚刺相对较小而密.故将其订为新种:桑植角蟾Megophrys sangzhiensis sp.nov..

  3. Effects of Shaoyao gancao decoction on the compound action potential of toad's sciatic nerves%芍药甘草汤对蟾蜍坐骨神经动作电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮莉莎; 谷勇; 侯杰荣



  4. Effect of guiding electrode spacing on the duration of the toad sciatic nerve trunk action potential%引导电极间距对蟾蜍坐骨神经干动作电位时程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  5. Effect of hyperkalemia on ECGⅡ and monophasic action potential of toad cardiac muscles%蟾蜍高钾血症动物模型实验方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德森; 彭吉霞; 郭俐宏; 王星文; 朱克刚


    目的 利用在体蟾蜍心脏建立模拟高钾血症(hyperkalemia)动物模型,观察高血钾对蟾蜍Ⅱ导联心电图(electrocardiograph,ECGⅡ)及心室肌单向动作电位(monophasic action potential,MAP)的影响.方法 本实验经咽淋巴囊注射10%氯化钾(KCl)使蟾蜍心肌细胞外液中钾含量急剧升高,同步记录MAP和ECGⅡ.结果 注射10%KCl 10 min后MAP的二相(坪)动作电位时程延长,心率减慢,ECG显示p-R间期延长,QRS波群增宽变低,T波明显高尖,部分动物T波变低或消失.与给药前相比各记录指标差异显著(P<0.05).结论 咽淋巴囊注射10%KCl可致蟾蜍急性高钾血症且ECG改变与哺乳动物高钾血症有相似之处.

  6. Does greater thermal plasticity facilitate range expansion of an invasive terrestrial anuran into higher latitudes? (United States)

    Winwood-Smith, Hugh S; Alton, Lesley A; Franklin, Craig E; White, Craig R


    Temperature has pervasive effects on physiological processes and is critical in setting species distribution limits. Since invading Australia, cane toads have spread rapidly across low latitudes, but slowly into higher latitudes. Low temperature is the likely factor limiting high-latitude advancement. Several previous attempts have been made to predict future cane toad distributions in Australia, but understanding the potential contribution of phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to future range expansion remains challenging. Previous research demonstrates the considerable thermal metabolic plasticity of the cane toad, but suggests limited thermal plasticity of locomotor performance. Additionally, the oxygen-limited thermal tolerance hypothesis predicts that reduced aerobic scope sets thermal limits for ectotherm performance. Metabolic plasticity, locomotor performance and aerobic scope are therefore predicted targets of natural selection as cane toads invade colder regions. We measured these traits at temperatures of 10, 15, 22.5 and 30°C in low- and high-latitude toads acclimated to 15 and 30°C, to test the hypothesis that cane toads have adapted to cooler temperatures. High-latitude toads show increased metabolic plasticity and higher resting metabolic rates at lower temperatures. Burst locomotor performance was worse for high-latitude toads. Other traits showed no regional differences. We conclude that increased metabolic plasticity may facilitate invasion into higher latitudes by maintaining critical physiological functions at lower temperatures.

  7. Cattle grazing and conservation of a meadow-dependent amphibian species in the Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Roche

    Full Text Available World-wide population declines have sharpened concern for amphibian conservation on working landscapes. Across the Sierra Nevada's national forest lands, where almost half of native amphibian species are considered at risk, permitted livestock grazing is a notably controversial agricultural activity. Cattle (Bos taurus grazing is thought to degrade the quality, and thus reduce occupancy, of meadow breeding habitat for amphibian species of concern such as the endemic Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] canorus. However, there is currently little quantitative information correlating cattle grazing intensity, meadow breeding habitat quality, and toad use of meadow habitat. We surveyed biotic and abiotic factors influencing cattle utilization and toad occupancy across 24 Sierra Nevada meadows to establish these correlations and inform conservation planning efforts. We utilized both traditional regression models and Bayesian structural equation modeling to investigate potential drivers of meadow habitat use by cattle and Yosemite toads. Cattle use was negatively related to meadow wetness, while toad occupancy was positively related. In mid and late season (mid July-mid September grazing periods, cattle selected for higher forage quality diets associated with vegetation in relatively drier meadows, whereas toads were more prevalent in wetter meadows. Because cattle and toads largely occupied divergent zones along the moisture gradient, the potential for indirect or direct negative effects is likely minimized via a partitioning of the meadow habitat. During the early season, when habitat use overlap was highest, overall low grazing levels resulted in no detectable impacts on toad occupancy. Bayesian structural equation analyses supported the hypothesis that meadow hydrology influenced toad meadow occupancy, while cattle grazing intensity did not. These findings suggest cattle production and amphibian conservation can be compatible goals within this

  8. University Statistics. Third Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Giba


    Full Text Available Based on the CONEAU document "Accredited postgraduate courses in the Argentinian Republic-2013” the state of university graduate programs accredited under the provisions of Law No. 24,512 on Higher Education (SLE is analyzed, as compared in numb  ers to previous calls.

  9. FCH_ANAXYRUS_CALIFORNICUS_20110209 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas (in general) of critical habitat designated for the arroyo toad. NOTE: THIS DATA SET INCLUDES APPROXIMATELY 900 ACRES OF LAND...

  10. Põhjamaised peegeldused Sagadis ja Viinistul / Kersti Sepper ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepper, Kersti


    Fenno-Ugria Asutuse korraldatud rahvusvahelisest festivalist "Põhjamaade peegeldused". Sagadi mõisas toimusid skulptuuri ehk maakunsti, keraamika ja graafika töötoad. Nimetatud eesti ja välisosalejad

  11. Filmifestival õpetas ise filme looma / Aarne Mäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäe, Aarne, 1967-


    30. sept. - 3. okt. Rakvere Exclusiveì ööklubis toimunud Põhjamaade ja Baltikumi noorte videofilmide filmifestivali "Visions of Light" raames tegutsesid ka töötoad : Eesti nukufilmi töötuba ja "Video netis"

  12. Dynamic characterization of silicon nanowires using a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer-based pump-probe scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Cleary, C. S.; Dailey, J. M.;


    Dynamic phase and amplitude all-optical responses of silicon nanowires are characterized using a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based pump-probe scheme. Ultra-fast recovery is observed for moderate pump powers....

  13. 77 FR 9200 - Los Padres National Forest: California; Environmental Impact Statement for the Removal of the... (United States)


    ... getting crews and suppression resources down into the canyons to do it. (2) There are few suitable areas... trampling of arroyo toads and vegetation. Applicators would avoid walking or stepping in water, to...

  14. Instruction Manual and Frog Survey Protocols for Region 1 National Wildlife Refuges, East-side Zone (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This manual is intended to assist biologists wishing to conduct surveys for frogs and toads. The document includes detailed information on how to conduct surveys,...

  15. 77 FR 21920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern... (United States)


    ...; Keinath and McGee 2005, p. 22), except for the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Wet Mountains, and Pikes Peak... boreal toad was known to occur in three Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, localities: Lagunitas,...

  16. Detection of the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Russia (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Andrey N.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Charles, Kaylene M.; Nebergall, Emily E.; Olson, Deanna H.


    In a population of the European common toad Bufo bufo from a rural pond in the region of Lake Glubokoe Regional Reserve in Moscow province, Russia, unexplained mass mortality events involving larvae and metamorphs have been observed over a monitoring period of >20 yr. We tested toads from this and a nearby site for the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv). Both pathogens were detected, and at the rural pond site, with the above-noted losses and decline in toad breeding success, 40% of B. bufo metamorphs were Bd positive, 46% were Rv positive and 20% were co-infected with both pathogens. Toad metamorphs from a neighbouring water body were also Bd and Rv positive (25 and 55%, respectively). This is the first confirmation of these pathogens in Russia. Questions remain as to the origins of these pathogens in Russia and their roles in documented mass mortality events.

  17. Harbingers of Spring (United States)

    Serrao, John


    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  18. Valge fungi uus tulemine / Kersti Pikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikk, Kersti


    Peeter Tambu projekteeritud valge "eestiaegne" funk eramu, kus avatud planeeringu asemel on paraja suurusega eraldi toad, esikohal ruumide otstarbekus ja ratsionaalsus. Arhitekt on kujundanud interjööri ja mööbli

  19. Inventory of frog species in the South Carolina Sandhills with a focus on the pine barrens treefrog and the gopher frog (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal is to conduct an inventory of frogs and toads at the Carolina Sandhills NWR and adjoining lands. Special emphasis is to locate the pine barrens treefrog and...

  20. Amphibian abnormalities on National Wildlife Refuges (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact sheet outlines a study done to 1) find the percentage of abnormal frogs and toads on the nation’s National Wildlife Refuges and 2) determine how the...

  1. Disease in a dynamic landscape: host behavior and wildfire reduce amphibian chytrid infection (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Ware, Joy L.; Corn, Paul Stephen


    Disturbances are often expected to magnify effects of disease, but these effects may depend on the ecology, behavior, and life history of both hosts and pathogens. In many ecosystems, wildfire is the dominant natural disturbance and thus could directly or indirectly affect dynamics of many diseases. To determine how probability of infection by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) varies relative to habitat use by individuals, wildfire, and host characteristics, we sampled 404 boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) across Glacier National Park, Montana (USA). Bd causes chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease linked with widespread amphibian declines, including the boreal toad. Probability of infection was similar for females and the combined group of males and juveniles. However, only 9% of terrestrial toads were infected compared to >30% of aquatic toads, and toads captured in recently burned areas were half as likely to be infected as toads in unburned areas. We suspect these large differences in infection reflect habitat choices by individuals that affect pathogen exposure and persistence, especially in burned forests where warm, arid conditions could limit Bd growth. Our results show that natural disturbances such as wildfire and the resulting diverse habitats can influence infection across large landscapes, potentially maintaining local refuges and host behaviors that facilitate evolution of disease resistance.

  2. Dietary alkaloid sequestration in a poison frog: an experimental test of alkaloid uptake in Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Bufonidae). (United States)

    Hantak, Maggie M; Grant, Taran; Reinsch, Sherri; McGinnity, Dale; Loring, Marjorie; Toyooka, Naoki; Saporito, Ralph A


    Several lineages of brightly colored anurans independently evolved the ability to secrete alkaloid-containing defensive chemicals from granular glands in the skin. These species, collectively referred to as 'poison frogs,' form a polyphyletic assemblage that includes some species of Dendrobatidae, Mantellidae, Myobatrachidae, Bufonidae, and Eleutherodactylidae. The ability to sequester alkaloids from dietary arthropods has been demonstrated experimentally in most poison frog lineages but not in bufonid or eleutherodactylid poison frogs. As with other poison frogs, species of the genus Melanophryniscus (Bufonidae) consume large numbers of mites and ants, suggesting they might also sequester defensive alkaloids from dietary sources. To test this hypothesis, fruit flies dusted with alkaloid/nutritional supplement powder were fed to individual Melanophryniscus stelzneri in two experiments. In the first experiment, the alkaloids 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine 235B' and decahydroquinoline were administered to three individuals for 104 days. In the second experiment, the alkaloids 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine 239Q and decahydroquinoline were given to three frogs for 153 days. Control frogs were fed fruit flies dusted only with nutritional supplement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses revealed that skin secretions of all experimental frogs contained alkaloids, whereas those of all control frogs lacked alkaloids. Uptake of decahydroquinoline was greater than uptake of 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine, and uptake of 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine was greater than uptake of decahydroquinoline, suggesting greater uptake efficiency of certain alkaloids. Frogs in the second experiment accumulated a greater amount of alkaloid, which corresponds to the longer duration and greater number of alkaloid-dusted fruit flies that were consumed. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that bufonid poison frogs sequester alkaloid-based defenses from dietary

  3. Influence of caffeine on the isolated heart and action potential of sciatic nerve of toad%咖啡碱对蟾蜍坐骨神经干动作电位和离体心脏活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟心慧; 王志华; 吴清华; 杨洪


    目的:观察咖啡碱对中华大蟾蜍离体坐骨神经干及离体心脏的影响;方法:采用细胞外电极引导法和离体心脏灌流法;结果:咖啡碱处理后,坐骨神经干动作电位幅度显著或极显著高于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.01);咖啡碱处理使心率明显加快,20 mg/ml时显著增加心肌收缩力;结论:咖啡碱有兴奋神经及强心作用.

  4. The Test Observation of Electrical Physiology about the Exhausted Recovery of a Toad's Calf Intestines Muscle Specimen by Acupuncture%关于针刺对蟾蜍腓肠肌标本疲劳恢复的电生理实验观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  5. Relationship between the genetic structure of the Andean toad Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae and the northern Chile landscape (21°- 24° S Relación entre la estructura genética del sapo andino Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae y el paisaje del norte de Chile (21°- 24° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We analyzed the relationship of landscape and environmental features on the genetic differentiation of Rhinella spinulosa (Wiegmann, 1834 in the Altiplano of Antofagasta (Chile. We performed three types of analyses at different spatial scales: (1 Considering all populations; (2 Grouping populations by watershed and by sub-watershed; and (3 Using the results of a spatial analysis of molecular variation (SAMOVA. Landscape features were incorporated using Geographic Information Systems, with three hypothetical dispersal models: (1 Euclidean distance (null model; (2 Least cost based on wetland locations; and (3 Least cost based on least slopes. We also included differences in temperature, precipitation and altitude among localities. The Akaike information criterion was used to select the best model and the relative importance of each variable in the model was estimated with partial regressions. We found a high genetic differentiation among populations (Fst = 0.693 and isolation by distance (r = 0.767. AMOVA showed that the watersheds explained 8.67 % of the genetic variance and sub-watersheds 35.99 %. At the largest spatial scale, considering all populations, the model that best explained genetic differentiation included Euclidean distance, altitude and annual precipitation. At a smaller scale, in two of three sub-watersheds (Río San Pedro and Salar de Atacama the genetic differentiation was best explained by landscape variables (principally temperature and altitude. At the smallest scale, considering those populations that have diverged recently detected by SAMOVA, the genetic differentiation was best explained by the wetland-based route and annual precipitation. This approach revealed the importance of landscape features in the colonization of R. spinulosa in this zone.Se evaluó la relación entre las características del paisaje y ambientales y la diferenciación genética de Rhinella spinulosa en el altiplano de la Región de Antofagasta (Chile. Para esto se realizaron tres tipos de análisis a diferentes escalas espaciales: (1 considerando todas las poblaciones; (2 agrupando las poblaciones por cuencas y por subcuencas; y (3 utilizando los resultados del análisis espacial de variación molecular (SAMOVA. Las características del paisaje se incorporaron diseñando tres modelos hipotéticos de dispersión con los Sistemas de Información Geográfico: (1 distancia euclidiana (modelo nulo; (2 de menor costo basado en la localización de los humedales; y (3 de menor costo basado en las pendientes menores. Además, se incluyeron las diferencias en temperatura, precipitación y altitud entre localidades. Para seleccionar el modelo que mejor explicara la diferenciación genética se utilizó el Criterio de Información de Akaike y se estimó la importancia relativa de cada variable del modelo seleccionado utilizando regresiones parciales. Se encontró una alta diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones (Fst = 0.693 y un patrón claro de aislamiento por distancia (r = 0.767. El análisis AMOVA mostró que las cuencas explicaron un 8.67 % de la varianza genética y las subcuencas un 35.99 %. A mayor escala espacial, considerando todas las poblaciones, el mejor modelo que explicó la diferenciación genética incluyó las variables distancia euclidiana, altitud y precipitación anual. A menor escala, en dos de las tres subcuencas (Río San Pedro y Salar de Atacama la diferenciación genética fue mejor explicada por variables del paisaje (temperatura y altitud, principalmente. A menor escala, considerando las poblaciones que han divergido recientemente detectadas por SAMOVA, la diferenciación genética fue mejor explicada por la ruta basada en humedales y la precipitación anual. Esta aproximación muestra la importancia de las características del paisaje en la colonización de R. spinulosa en esta zona.

  6. Representaciones Sociales de la Historia Universal: Posicionamientos Diferenciales en Función de la Ideología Política, Religiosidad y Nacionalismo en una Muestra Argentina/RepresentationsSocial Representations of Universal History: Differential Positioning at the Service of Political Ideology, Religiosity and Nationalism in the Argentinian Context/Representações Sociais da História Universal: Posicionamentos Diferenciados em função da Ideologia Política, da Religiosidade e do Nacionalismo numa Amostra Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mariel Sosa


    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar las representaciones sociales de la historia a través de los sentimientos que despiertan 24 personajes de la historia universal, se administró una versión modificada del cuestionario construido por Liu et al. (2005 a una muestra intencional (n=369 de Argentina (55.7% mujeres, medad=36.20, deedad=11.16. El análisis de conglomerados no jerárquico arrojó 4 grupos en función de la religiosidad, el nacionalismo y el posicionamiento ideológico de los participantes. Por su parte, del análisis de clúster jerárquico, en función de los sentimientos hacia los personajes, se desprendieron 2 conglomerados denominados héroes y villanos. Los personajes religiosos y políticos son los que mayor disenso suscitan.

  7. Sublethal effects of endosulfan and diazinon pesticides on glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in various tissues of adult amphibians (Bufo regularis). (United States)

    Ezemonye, Lawrence; Tongo, Isioma


    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) plays a key role in cellular detoxification of various xenobiotic chemical, especially pesticides. The study was carried out to assess the effects of the organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan and the organophosphate pesticide, diazinon on the activity of GST of different tissues in the African common toad, Bufo regularis. Toads were exposed for 28 days to varying levels of the pesticides: 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 microg L(-1) for the sublethal test. Activity of GST of toads exposed to the pesticides differentially increased significantly with increasing concentrations. The highest enhancement in GST activity was recorded in the liver followed by the brain, serum, GIT and lungs for both pesticide exposures. The differential increase in GST activity was tissue and pesticide specific. Liver GST increased up to 366% in endosulfan exposed toads and 393% in diazinon exposed toads in the highest concentration (0.04 microg L(-1)). Diazinon pesticide from this study proved to be more toxic than endosulfan pesticide.

  8. A New Time-Based Algorithm for Positioning Mobile Terminals in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Barcelo-Arroyo


    Full Text Available This paper presents a positioning algorithm, named time of arrival to time difference of arrival (TOAD, which computes time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA measurements from the messages that time-of-arrival (TOA stations in sight exchange while their positioning processes are running. This study addresses the accuracy of the TOAD algorithm in two different environments: line-of-sight (LOS and non-line-of-sight (NLOS. Simulation is used to set up a wireless network. The Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares algorithm is used to compute the positions in both TOA and TOAD stations. Results indicate that the TOAD algorithm increases the root mean square error (RMSE of the positioning error in LOS scenarios by 10 to 20% compared with the RMSE achieved by TOA. This drop in accuracy contrasts with the results for the NLOS scenarios. The RMSE of TOAD in such scenarios is at least 10% lower than that achieved by TOA. This result is specially important since this latter scenario is the most common. Consequently, this novel technique therefore improves the scalability and integrity of TOA techniques based on RTT, making it possible for the stations to position themselves without injecting traffic and with QoS figures close and most times better than that achieved by TOA.

  9. Adrenocortical stress responses influence an invasive vertebrate's fitness in an extreme environment. (United States)

    Jessop, Tim S; Letnic, Mike; Webb, Jonathan K; Dempster, Tim


    Continued range expansion into physiologically challenging environments requires invasive species to maintain adaptive phenotypic performance. The adrenocortical stress response, governed in part by glucocorticoid hormones, influences physiological and behavioural responses of vertebrates to environmental stressors. However, any adaptive role of this response in invasive populations that are expanding into extreme environments is currently unclear. We experimentally manipulated the adrenocortical stress response of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) to investigate its effect on phenotypic performance and fitness at the species' range front in the Tanami Desert, Australia. Here, toads are vulnerable to overheating and dehydration during the annual hot-dry season and display elevated plasma corticosterone levels indicative of severe environmental stress. By comparing unmanipulated control toads with toads whose adrenocortical stress response was manipulated to increase acute physiological stress responsiveness, we found that control toads had significantly reduced daily evaporative water loss and higher survival relative to the experimental animals. The adrenocortical stress response hence appears essential in facilitating complex phenotypic performance and setting fitness trajectories of individuals from invasive species during range expansion.

  10. The Factors of Soldier’s Load (United States)


    Acceslon For NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB Uncinnotinced cl Jy.... .............................. Distibution I Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Availabilty o . 1994 -- T...wisdom than on mission requirements or usage rates. The commander of the 82d Airborne Division’s lead battalion to relieve the Rangers on Grenada...Further exacerbating the situation were the losses of essential helicopters and fuel stores due to Argentinian air attack. The end result was soldiers

  11. Wladimiro Acosta y la vivienda colectiva (1928 - 1935) : su aporte a la innovación arqueológica y tipológica en América Latina



    VVladimiro Acosta (WA) was a Russian architect with centro-european modem studies. His moving to Latin America in 1928 he meant one of the most significant contributions to Argentinian architecture. Since his arrival until 1935 he would develop ten social housing prototypes, which although they were never built they still represent one of the main and most complete studies on housing unit. The hypothesis which leads this thesis shows these prototypes as one of the most significant contributio...

  12. La invención de los ancestros: el «patagón antiguo» y la construcción discursiva de un pasado nacional remoto para la Argentina (1870-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Floria, Pedro


    Full Text Available We intend to demonstrate that the existence of an «Antique Patagon» was an idea stemming from the political need —at the end of the 19th Century— of imagining a remote past for the young Argentinian nation. This article studies in historical context a group of anthropological writings of the 1870’s and 1880’s. Firstly, those of the Argentinian F.P. Moreno and the German-Argentinian H. Burmeister. Secondly, those of the Argentinian E. Zeballos. The former show the relation between nationalist interests and the scientifical debates of the time; the latter are the historical narrative corresponding to those interests.

    Nos proponemos demostrar que la idea de la existencia de un «patagón antiguo» respondió a la necesidad política de imaginar, a fines del siglo XIX, un pasado remoto para la joven nación argentina. Estudiamos en su contexto histórico una serie de trabajos antropológicos de las décadas de 1870 y 1880, del argentino F.P. Moreno y del alemán-argentino H. Burmeister, y de escritos de divulgación del argentino E.S. Zeballos. Los primeros muestran la relación entre los intereses nacionalistas y los debates científicos vigentes en la época; los segundos constituyen el relato histórico funcional a aquellos intereses.

  13. Military Vaccines in Today’s Environment (United States)


    HIV-AIDS, Chikungunya , Rift Valley fever, Argentinian hemorrhagic fever, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), have been developed and...against the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus, which was developed by the Army in the 1970s, was transferred to French scientists for further study...after an explosive outbreak of Chikungunya in the Indian Ocean Islands in 2006.5,6 The live-attenuated Chikungunya vaccine was previously evaluated

  14. Future healthcare professionals’ knowledge about the Argentinean abortion law


    Provenzano-Castro, Belén; Oizerovich, Silvia; Stray-Pedersen, Babill


    Objectives We assessed healthcare students’ knowledge and opinions on Argentinian abortion law and identified differences between first- and final-year healthcare students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, self-administered anonymous questionnaires were administered to 760 first- and 695 final-year students from different fields of study (medicine, midwifery, nursing, radiology, nutrition, speech therapy, and physiotherapy) of the School of Medicine at the University of Buenos Aires, in...

  15. Ethical, legal and social issues in restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and suppression of identity in Argentina


    Penchaszadeh,Victor B.


    Human genetic identification has been increasingly associated with the preservation, defence and reparation of human rights, in particular the right to genetic identity. The Argentinian military dictatorship of 1976–1983 engaged in a savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance, torture, assassination and appropriation of children of the disappeared with suppression of their identity. The ethical, legal and social nuances in the use of forensic ge...

  16. A través de la yerba mate: etnicidad y racionalidad económica entre los trabajadores rurales paraguayos en la industria de la construcción de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro del Águila


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the process by which rural workers migrate from Paraguay to work in the Argentinian construction industry. There is some evidence that the migration process changes not only the lives of migrants but, in a profound way, their economic rationality. Employing an ethnographic perspective we contrast the work experiences of Paraguayan migrants at origin and at their point of arrival. The article casts light on the profound overlap between ethnicity, work and economic rationality.

  17. Estudio de los procesos biotecnológicos de acetificación para la producción de vinagre de naranja y vinagre de arándanos.


    Davies,Cristina Verónica


    [EN] The province of Entre Ríos, in Argentina, has been characterized by citrus production for decades and more recently, by blueberry production. A high percentage (15-25 %) of Argentinian orange production has been derived to industry due to the difficulty to commercialize in more profitable trades, in the last five years. In addition, the increasing volume of blueberries not suitable to export, with limited presence in the domestic market and few industrialization possibilities, has caused...

  18. The influence of culture on parental styles in social vulnerability contexts


    Richaud, María Cristina; Mestre, María Vicenta; Lemos, Viviana Noemí; Tur, Ana; Ghiglione, María Eva; Samper, Paula


    The objectives of this study are: (a) to analyze if the relationship between parenting dimensions and children adjustment regarding coping strategies are similar in Argentinian and Spanish samples within poverty contexts; (b) to compare parental dimensions in the two groups studied, and (c) to determine the efficiency of parenting through the study of their influence in children coping strategies. The Graffar-Méndez Castellano Scale (Méndez-Castellano & Méndez, 1994), that brings a socioecono...

  19. Merging medical humanism and technology. (United States)

    Armentano, R; de Forteza, E


    Dr. René Gerónimo Favaloro (12 July 1923 to 29 July 2000) was an Argentinian cardiovascular surgeon who revolutionized the field with his pioneering contributions, the most remarkable being the standardization of the coronary artery bypass surgery, performed for the first time in 1967. This technique, today one of the most commonly performed major operations, improved and saved the lives of countless patients with ischemic heart disease throughout the world and gained him international recognition.

  20. Juan César García: social medicine as project and endeavor. (United States)

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte


    This paper analyses some aspects of the trajectory of the Argentinian physician and sociologist Juan César García (1932-1984) in the field of Latin American Social Medicine. Three dimensions constituting his basic orientations are highlighted: the elaboration of systematic and reflective social thought; a critical attitude in questioning teaching and professional practices; a commitment to the institutionalization and dissemination of health knowledge.

  1. Estudio citogenético del ganado bovino Criollo Argentino biotipo Patagónico


    Género, Enrique Rubén; Moreno-Millán, M; Rumiano, F.J.


    Twenty five animals belonging to the Argentinian Creole breed cattle Patagonic biotype, biotype originated only by the natural selection by the reasons of geographical isolation, were cytogenetically studied. The analized animals were not carrier of chromosomic alterations involved on the fertility, as the 1/29 robertsonian translocation. That would explain the high fertility observed in these animals in relation with other American Creole breeds in which was observed the presence of this tra...

  2. Third-Party Opportunism and the (In)Efficiency of Public Contracts (United States)


    in Brazil, 3.25 in Colombia, 3.05 in Chile, and 1.99 in Mexico . See Carlson and Payne (2003). 32 The low accountability of the empleo público en 26 páıses de América Latina y el Caribe. In K. Echebarria (Ed.), Red de gestión y transparencia de la poĺıtica pública

  3. Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos: Publications and status of described taxa. (United States)

    Signorelli, Javier H; Urteaga, Diego; Teso, Valeria


    Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos was an Argentinian malacologist working in the "Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo" at La Plata University where she taught invertebrate zoology between 1947 and 1990. Her scientific publications are listed in chronological order. Described genus-group and species-group taxa are listed. Information about the type locality and type material, and taxonomic remarks are also provided. Finally, type material of all described taxa was requested and, when located, illustrated.

  4. Fingerprint of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two populations of southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens). (United States)

    Marsili, L; Fossi, M C; Casini, S; Savelli, C; Jimenez, B; Junin, M; Castello, H


    The fingerprint of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in biopsy, fur, blood, liver and faeces of live and dead specimens of two Argentinian population of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens). One colony lives in Mar del Plata harbour which is particularly polluted with petroleum, the second (control) colony lives at Punta Bermeja (Patagonia). The highest concentrations of the five carcinogenic PAHs were found in the Mar del Plata sea lions.

  5. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas


    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  6. Melancholy in Market Account by Sergio Raimondi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Julio Molina


    Full Text Available The article describes the relationships between literature and symbolic market in Poesía civil by the Argentinian poet Sergio Raimondi, in the context of globalization. We considre that they are organized around a melancholic regime that redefines them. The “regime” category reintroduces the studies by Roger Chartier in Escribir las prácticas, when he points out that that Foucauldian notion refers to the relationship between the discourse and their practices.

  7. El liberalismo conservador y la ideología del Proceso de Reorganización Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Morresi


    Full Text Available This article aims to show that the political ideas of the selfnamed "National Reorganization Process -Proceso de Reorganización Nacional [PRN]" -were structured within the ideological frame offered by conservative-liberalism. Through the study of some of the ideologicalpromoters of the PRN, it is argued that conservative-liberalism served as merger of the different types of argentinian rights and laid the foundations for the neoliberal ideas that were impelled afer the dictatorship period

  8. Effects of Roads on Amphibian Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, T.

    to have experienced the wonders of early summer sunrises in the field - and the joy of thawing out frozen fingers after hours of field work around freezing point. Amphibian populations are declining. This worrying fact is what has initiated this work. Some fifty years ago, the life history of frogs...... is the result of my three year PhD study at the National Environmental Research Institute, Kalø, and University of Copenhagen. Funded by NERI, the Danish Research Academy, and the Danish Road Directorate, it has dealt mainly with the effects of traffic and roads on amphibian populations. The Spadefoot toad...... of Spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus Laur.) II The effect of road kills on amphibian populations III Simulating viability of a Spadefoot toad (P. fuscus) metapopulation in a landscape fragmented by a road The manuscripts are preceded by a synopsis which sums up the work and puts it into a broader perspective...

  9. Desiccation risk drives the spatial ecology of an invasive anuran (Rhinella marina in the Australian semi-desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Tingley

    Full Text Available Some invasive species flourish in places that impose challenges very different from those faced in their native geographic ranges. Cane toads (Rhinella marina are native to tropical and subtropical habitats of South and Central America, but have colonised extremely arid regions over the course of their Australian invasion. We radio-tracked 44 adult cane toads at a semi-arid invasion front to investigate how this invasive anuran has managed to expand its geographic range into arid areas that lie outside of its native climatic niche. As predicted from their low physiological control over rates of evaporative water loss, toads selected diurnal shelter sites that were consistently cooler and damper (and thus, conferred lower water loss rates than nearby random sites. Desiccation risk also had a profound influence on rates of daily movement. Under wet conditions, toads that were far from water moved further between shelter sites than did conspecifics that remained close to water, presumably in an attempt to reach permanent water sources. However, this relationship was reversed under dry conditions, such that only toads that were close to permanent water bodies made substantial daily movements. Toads that were far from water bodies also travelled along straighter paths than did conspecifics that generally remained close to water. Thus, behavioural flexibility--in particular, an ability to exploit spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the availability of moist conditions--has allowed this invasive anuran to successfully colonize arid habitats in Australia. This finding illustrates that risk assessment protocols need to recognise that under some circumstances an introduced species may be able to thrive in conditions far removed from any that it experiences in its native range.

  10. Advanced Subsystems Status Monitor. (United States)


    algorithms in a fashion analogous to human learning , by monitoring the consistency and effec- tiveness of the human operator’s responses. In view of...ou ill t wX Converer O~t~t133 Itectite.-Ot TABLE 16. CONTINUED. PAIM4(IN PSIONIIS MISSION PHASE ENVIROMENT OISPLAV FOWtAl ram AC toad Meter ff DC toad...annoying, or distracting during NOE flight? Eng./X4SN instnuments in new A/C. f, , tic marks difficult and time consuming to Interpret. Electrical

  11. All-optical adder/subtractor based on tera-hertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip Kumar Gayen; Rajat Kumar Pal; Jitendra Nath Roy


    An all-optical adder/subtractor (A/S) unit with the help of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) is proposed.Tile all-optical A/S unit with a set of all-optical full-adders and optical exclusive-ORs (XORs),can be used to perform a fast central processor unit using optical hardware components.We try to exploit the advantages of TOAD-based optical switch to design an integrated all-optical circuit which can perform binary addition and subtraction.With computer simulation results confirming the described methods,conclusions are given.

  12. Green Thumbs: A Kid's Activity Guide to Indoor and Outdoor Gardening. (United States)

    Carlson, Laurie

    This guide contains indoor and outdoor gardening activities for children. The activities teach children how plants live and grow; how the weather, temperature, and seasons affect all living things; how living things come out of seeds and soil; how the birds, earthworms, bees, and toads help in the garden; and how the whole environment works…

  13. Feleucins: Novel Bombinin Precursor-Encoded Nonapeptide Amides from the Skin Secretion of Bombina variegata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Bai


    Full Text Available The first amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide (AMP to be identified was named bombinin, reflecting its origin from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata. Bombinins and their related peptides, the bombinin Hs, were subsequently reported from other bombinid toads. Molecular cloning of bombinin-encoding cDNAs from skin found that bombinins and bombinin Hs were coencoded on the same precursor proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning of two novel cDNAs from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library of B. variegata whose open-reading frames each encode a novel bombinin (GIGGALLNVGKVALKGLAKGLAEHFANamide and a C-terminally located single copy of a novel nonapeptide (FLGLLGGLLamide or FLGLIGSLLamide. These novel nonapeptides were named feleucin-BV1 and feleucin-BV2, respectively. The novel bombinin exhibited 89% identity to homologues from the toads, B. microdeladigitora and B. maxima. The feleucins exhibited no identity with any amphibian AMP archived in databases. Synthetic feleucins exhibited a weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus (128–256 mg/L but feleucin-BV1 exhibited a synergistic action with the novel bombinin. The present report clearly demonstrates that the skin secretions of bombinid toads continue to represent a source of peptides of novel structure that could provide templates for the design of therapeutics.

  14. The Forgotten ‘Coastal Forests' of Mtwara, Tanzania: A Biologically Impoverished and Yet Important Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegner, Guilia; Howell, Kim M.; Davenport, Tim R.;


    -Swahilian Brachystegia Woodland. Some Coastal Forest endemic and threatened species, however, occur in the degraded forest patches, such as east coast akalat Sheppardia gunningi, Reichenow's batis Batis mixta reichenowi, spotted flat-lizard Platysaurus maculatus, woodland toad Mertensophryne micranotis and the shrub...

  15. Effect of atrazine and fenitrothion at no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on amphibian and mammalian corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG). (United States)

    Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J


    This study determines the effect of atrazine and fenitrothion no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on the binding of corticosterone (B) to corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG) in an amphibian and a mammal. Plasma from five cane toads and five Wistar rats was exposed to atrazine and fenitrothion at the NOEL approved for Australian fresh water residues and by the World Health Organization (WHO). The concentration required to displace 50% (IC50) of B binding to CBG was determined by a competitive microdialysis protein assay. Competition studies showed that both atrazine and fenitrothion at NOEL are able to compete with B for CBG binding sites in toad and rat plasma. The IC50 levels for atrazine in toads and rats were 0.004 nmol/l and 0.09 nmol/l respectively. In the case of fenitrothion the IC50 level found in toads was 0.007 nmol/l, and 0.025 nmol/l in rats. Plasma dilution curves showed parallelism with the curve of B, demonstrating that these agro-chemicals are competitively inhibiting binding to CBG. The displacement of B by atrazine and fenitrothion would affect the total:free ratio of B and consequently disrupt the normal stress response. This is the first time that the potential disruptive effect of atrazine and fenitrothion on B-CBG interaction at the NOELs has been demonstrated in amphibian and mammalian models.

  16. Kassinurme mägedes toimusid Elendili päeva pidustused ehk Tolkieni sõprade suvelaager / Ilmar Pajumägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajumägi, Ilmar


    J. R. R. Tolkieni triloogia "Sõrmuste isand" sai tänavu 50 aastaseks. Sellega seoses korraldasid muinasjutusõbrad 18.-21. aug. Jõgeva lähedal Kassinurme mägedes LARPi (Live Action Role Play). Toimusid ka mitmed teemaga seotud töötoad, õpitoad ja loengud

  17. The effect of DDT and dieldrin on myelinated nerve fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercken, J. van den


    The effects of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, DDT and dieldrin, on myelinated nerve fibres of the clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, were studied by recording compound action nerve fibres, and membrane potentials of single nodes of Ranvier. The effect of DDT (5 × 10−4 M) was found to be exclusi

  18. Negative temperature coefficient of the action of DDT in a sense organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercken, J. van den; Akkermans, L.M.A.


    DDT induced repetitive spontaneuos activity inthe afferent nerve fibers of the lateral-line organ of the clawed toad, Xenopus laevis. The action of DDT increased markedly with lowered temperature. This temperature-effect was easily reversible. The results demonstrate that DDT has a definite negative

  19. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 41. Part 1 (United States)


    toad surfacings. [VERGLIMIT —der Stand der Erfahrungen mit euhemmenden Fahr - bahnbelagszusätzen], Johannes, H., International Road Fede-ation (IRF...meteorology). Meteorologi- cal data, Pollution. 41-3571 Snow depth and incidence of a snowmold disease on mountain big sagebrush. Sturgcs. D.L

  20. 75 FR 42040 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the... (United States)


    ... substantial information to indicate the petitioned action may be warranted, and we announced the initiation of... areas they can use for shelter, including burrows, debris piles, spaces under logs or rocks, and areas... benefit Amargosa toads (STORM-OV 2009a, pp. 1-3). Trespass Seep is a low-flow spring site without...

  1. On the presence of Bufo nasicus Werner in Guiana, with a redescription of the species on the basis of recently collected material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.


    During research on material recently collected in Guyana and in Venezuelan Guiana, several specimens of the rare toad Bufo nasicus Werner, thus far only known from the holotype without known origin, were discovered. On the basis of this material the species is redescribed and some notes on its natur

  2. Täpne arhitektuur : ACADIA aastakonverents Cooper Unioni arhitektuurikoolis / Veronika Valk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valk, Veronika, 1976-


    Septembris 2010 toimunud ACADIA aastakonverentsist New Yorgis. Konverents, töötoad ja näitus pakkusid parameetrilise projekteerimise spetsialistidele üle maailma lava, kus arhitektuuri uusi suundi arutada ja oma praktika üle mõtteid vahetada

  3. National Science Resources Center Project to Improve Science Teaching in Elementary Schools. Appendix C. Elementary Science Information Database (United States)


    life cycles ; lizards ; reptiles ; snakes ; toads ; turtles AN LET’S HEAR IT FOR HEWPS! is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of reptiles and... thermoregulation AN The SKIN TEMPERATURE module consists of four activity folios, entitled Map Your Temperature, Out in the Cold, The Great Heat

  4. Ermitaazh läheb Amsterdami / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-


    Peterburi Ermitaazhi filiaali avamisest Amstelhofis Hollandis. Avanäitusel veebruaris 2004 saab tutvuda ligi sajakonna Musta mere regioonist pärit antiikkreeka kuldehtega. Filiaali rajamise II faasist. Ermitaazhil on toad Somerset House'is Londonis, kollektsioonide jagamise leping Guggenheimiga New Yorgis ja Kunsthistorisches Museumiga Viinis

  5. Our Zoo to You (United States)

    Wickless, Mimi; Brooks, David W.; Abuloum, Amjad; Mancuso, Brian; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M.; Mayo, Lois


    An innovative zoo outreach program, Our Zoo to You, places zoo animals in local classrooms for extended observation periods. With guidance and support from zoo staff, students are able to safely experience a variety of animals, including geckos, snakes, legless lizards, horned toads, ringneck doves, ferrets, hedgehogs, African brown millipedes,…

  6. Microelectronic neural bridge for signal regeneration and function rebuilding over two separate nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Xiaoyan; Wang Zhigong; Xie Shushan; Huang Zonghao [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lue Xiaoying, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)


    According to the feature of neural signals, a micro-electronic neural bridge (MENB) has been designed. It consists of two electrode arrays for neural signal detection and functional electrical stimulation (FES), and a microelectronic circuit for signal amplifying, processing, and FES driving. The core of the system is realized in 0.5-{mu}m CMOS technology and used in animal experiments. A special experimental strategy has been designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system. With the help of the MENB, the withdrawal reflex function of the left/right leg of one spinal toad has been rebuilt in the corresponding leg of another spinal toad. According to the coherence analysis between the source and regenerated neural signals, the controlled spinal toad's sciatic nerve signal is delayed by 0.72 ms in relation to the sciatic nerve signal of the source spinal toad and the cross-correlation function reaches a value of 0.73. This shows that the regenerated signal is correlated with the source sciatic signal significantly and the neural activities involved in reflex function have been regenerated. The experiment demonstrates that the MENB is useful in rebuilding the neural function between nerves of different bodies. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. 78 FR 20352 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications (United States)


    ... Applicant: Bat Conservation International, Austin, Texas. Applicant requests a new permit for research and... (Dermochelys coriacea) Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) Permit TE-98704A Applicant: Dogs for Conservation... Houston toads (Bufo houstonensis) from the Houston Zoo for work with training dogs how to detect...

  8. Mesoamerican Indigenous Society at the Millennium: Historic and Contemporary Perspectives. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala). (United States)

    Wittmann, Teresa

    This curriculum unit combines folk tales and art from Guatemala and Mexico. The unit introduces students to traditional stories and local art of the indigenous people, as well as some details about the culture and geography of the area. It contains four lesson plans: (1) "The Race of Toad and Deer" (Guatemala), mask and play, grades 2-4;…

  9. What Do Amphibians Have to Offer?: Students Monitor and Map Amphibians in Local Pond Habitats (United States)

    Eareckson, Lee Anne


    Students value participation in meaningful research. They feel empowered when they effect positive change in their communities. They also have a strong affinity for frogs and toads, although they vehemently deny this at the start of the school year. In addition, most students recognize the value of using computer technology to solve world…

  10. All about Amphibians. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape]. (United States)


    This videotape teaches children about their favorite amphibious creatures, as well as amphibians' nearest cousins--toads, newts, and salamanders. Young students discover how these amazing creatures can live both in and out of water, learn about the amphibious life cycle, and compare the differences between amphibians and reptiles. This videotape…

  11. Responding to Amphibian Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendelson III, J.R.; Lips, K.R.; Gagliardo, R.W.; Rabb, G.B.; Collins, J.P.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Daszak, P.; Ibáñez D., R.; Zippel, K.C.; Lawson, D.P.; Wright, K.M.; Stuart, S.N.; Gascon, C.; da Silva, H.R.; Burrowes, P.A.; Joglar, R.L.; La Marca, E.; Lötters, S.; du Preez, L.H.; Weldon, C.; Hyatt, A.; Rodriguez-Mahecha, J.V.; Hunt, S.; Robertson, H.; Lock, B.; Raxworthy, C.J.; Frost, D.R.; Lacy, R.C.; Alford, R.A.; Campbell, J.A.; Parra-Olea, G.; Bolaños, F.; Calvo Domingo, J.J.; Halliday, T.; Murphy, J.B.; Wake, M.H.; Coloma, L.A.; Kuzmin, S.L.; Price, M.S.; Howell, K.M.; Lau, M.; Pethiyagoda, R.; Boone, M.; Lannoo, M.J.; Blaustein, A.R.; Dobson, A.; Griffiths, R.A.; Crump, M.L.; Wake, D.B.; Brodie Jr, E.D.


    In their Policy Forum "Confronting amphibian declines and extinctions" (7 July, p. 48), J. R. Mendelson III and colleagues offer a strategy for "stopping" the widespread losses of frogs, toads, and salamanders. Disease research and captive breeding figure prominently in their call for action.

  12. Vertebral number is highly evolvable in salamanders and newts (family Salamandridae) and variably associated with climatic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; Beukema, W.; Galis, F.; Ivanović, A.


    In vertebrates, the relative proportion of the number of trunk and caudal vertebrae is an important determinant of body shape. While among amphibians frogs and toads show low variation in vertebrae numbers, in salamanders the numbers of trunk and caudal vertebrae vary widely, giving rise to phenotyp

  13. Environmental Assessment: Grade and Pave Shoulders on Runway 15/33 Westover Air Reserve Base, MA (United States)


    s toad, redback salamander , and eastern spotted newt. Common reptiles include the eastern garter 18 snake, northern ringneck snake, black racer...burned grasslands. This allows grassland species to move to suitable habitat and later recolonize the burned habitat once it has regenerated (Vernegaard

  14. JPRS Report. Science & Technology: China. (United States)


    facilitation. I. Introduction There has been great progress since McCulloch and Pitts proposed the first neuron mathematical model for single-neuron...Pattern Recognition and Stimulus Specific Habituation in Toads, Biological Cybernetics, 51(1985), 223-237. 11. McCulloch , W. S., et al., A Logical

  15. Myths. (United States)

    Wheat, Maxwell Corydon, Jr.


    Deals with various myths about animals and plants. Discusses bats (not blind), toads (do not cause warts), dragonflies (will not sew up your mouth), horseshoe crabs (will not sting with their tails), owls (not so smart), and goldenrod (does not cause hayfever). (MH)

  16. Final Environmental Assessment for National Air & Space Intelligence Center and US Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Field Training Activities at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio (United States)


    amphibians (4 frogs, a toad, and a salamander), 36 fishes, 14 mussels, 35 butterflies, 8 moths, 15 odonates ( dragonflies and damselflies), 6...environments. Most species of amphibians, reptiles, and dragonflies documented at WPAFB have been found in or near aquatic habitats. Habitat specialists

  17. Microelectronic neural bridge for signal regeneration and function rebuilding over two separate nerves*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Xiaoyan; Wang Zhigong; Lü Xiaoying; Xie Shushan; Huang Zonghao


    According to the feature of neural signals, a micro-electronic neural bridge (MENB) has been designed.It consists of two electrode arrays for neural signal detection and functional electrical stimulation (FES), and a microelectronic circuit for signal amplifying, processing, and FES driving. The core of the system is realized in 0.5-μm CMOS technology and used in animal experiments. A special experimental strategy has been designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system. With the help of the MENB, the withdrawal reflex function of the left/right leg of one spinal toad has been rebuilt in the corresponding leg of another spinal toad. According to the coherence analysis between the source and regenerated neural signals, the controlled spinal toad's sciatic nerve signal is delayed by 0.72 ms in relation to the sciatic nerve signal of the source spinal toad and the cross-correlation function reaches a value of 0.73. This shows that the regenerated signal is correlated with the source sciatic signal significantly and the neural activities involved in reflex function have been regenerated. The experiment demonstrates that the MENB is useful in rebuilding the neural function between nerves of different bodies.

  18. "mina usun sõna..." : [luuletused] / Maarja Kangro, Mart Kangur, Lauri Kitsnik jt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Sisu: "mina usun sõna..." ; Tüdruk heitis mulle silma (Silmapartii) ; "Helista siis mulle. Hoolimata sellest, mis kell ma täna magama..." ; Tärkab ; Toad ; "Tee sees on augud. Maa sees on augud..." ; "Puuk on perses. Ai-ai, valus on..." ; Päärätik ; Pliidikütt ; "Ukrainlannast põetaja..." ; Stereonurr ; "Luuletused..."

  19. Plasticity in the melanotrope neuroendocrine interface of Xenopus laevis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenks, B.G.; Kidane, A.H.; Scheenen, W.J.; Roubos, E.W.


    Melanotrope cells of the amphibian pituitary pars intermedia produce alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a peptide which causes skin darkening during adaptation to a dark background. The secretory activity of the melanotrope of the South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis is regulated

  20. Historical biogeography of Western Palaearctic pelobatid and pelodytid frogs: a molecular phylogenetic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veith, M.; Fromhage, L.; Kosuch, J.; Vences, M.


    Spadefoot toads (Pelobates) and Parsley frogs (Pelodytes) are an enigmatic group of Western Palaearctic anurans. In the genus Pelobates, a fossorial lifestyle has enforced a conserved bauplan that masks their intraspecific evolutionary history. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S and

  1. Characterization and regulation of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels in neuroendocrine melanotrope cells of Xenopus laevis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.Y.


    To investigate the way by which multiple incoming neurochemical messengers control second messenger systems to evoke an unambiguous neuronal output, melanotrope neuroendocrine cells in the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland of the South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis were studied. Researches

  2. Optimisation of an oviposition protocol employing human chorionic and pregnant mare serum gonadotropins in the Barred Frog Mixophyes fasciolatus (Myobatrachidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clulow John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protocols for the hormonal induction of ovulation and oviposition are essential tools for managing threatened amphibians with assisted reproduction, but responses vary greatly between species and even broad taxon groups. Consequently, it is necessary to assess effectiveness of such protocols in representative species when new taxa become targets for induction. The threatened genus Mixophyes (family Myobatrachidae has amongst the highest proportion of endangered species of all the Australian amphibians. This study developed and optimised the induction of oviposition in a non-threatened member of this taxon, the great barred frog (Mixophyes fasciolatus. Methods Gravid female M. fasciolatus were induced to oviposit on one or more occasions by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG with or without priming with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG. Treatments involved variations in hormone doses and combinations (administered via injection into the dorsal lymph sacs, and timing of administration. Pituitary homogenates from an unrelated bufonid species (Rhinella marina were also examined with hCG. Results When injected alone, hCG (900 to 1400 IU induced oviposition. However, priming with two time dependent doses of PMSG (50 IU, 25 IU increased responses, with lower doses of hCG (200 IU. Priming increased response rates in females from around 30% (hCG alone to more than 50% (p = 0.035, and up to 67%. Increasing the interval between the first PMSG dose and first hCG dose from 3 to 6 days also produced significant improvement (p Conclusions This study found that M. fasciolatus is amongst the few amphibian species (including Xenopus (Silurana and some bufonids that respond well to the induction of ovulation utilising mammalian gonadotropins (hCG. The optimal protocol for M. fasciolatus involved two priming doses of PMSG (50 IU and 25 IU administered at 6 and 4 days respectively, prior to two doses of hCG (100 IU, 24

  3. La identidad lingüística argentina a través de Borges y Puig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thon, Sonia


    Full Text Available The identity of the Argentinian linguistic expression has been studied in depth by many literary critics and linguists who demonstrated the close relationship that exists between language, ideology, and socio-historic context; especially, when incorporating the concept of oral and colloquial language to the narrative discourse. We are basing this paper on the studies of authors such as: Beatriz Sarlo, Walter Bruno Berg, Wolf Oesterreicher, Maria Zulema Kulikowsi, and others in order to situate two Argentinian writers, Jorge Luis Borges and Manuel Puig, within their historic period in order to reveal how their personal and social anxieties impacted the perception of their work as representative of the Argentinian language.

    La identidad de la expresión lingüistica argentina ha sido estudiada a fondo por numerosos críticos literarios y lingüistas que demostraron la estrecha relación que existe entre lengua, ideología y contexto socio-histórico, especialmente al incorporarse al discurso narrativo el concepto de oralidad y “coloquialidad”. En este ensayo nos basaremos en estudios de autores tales como Beatriz Sarlo, Walter Bruno Berg, Wolf Oesterreicher, María Zulema Kulikowski, entre otros, para situar a dos escritores argentinos, Jorge Luis Borges y Manuel Puig, dentro de su época y revelar cómo sus ansiedades personales y sociales impactaron la percepción de su obra como representativa de lo que se considera el lenguaje argentino.

  4. El poder de la prensa, la prensa del poder : reflexión entorno al periodismo afroargentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Arsène Yao


    Full Text Available Le grand développement de la presse qui se produisit en Argentine à partir de 1850 se caractérisa en particulier par l'émergence d'une presse afro-argentine très active, dont l'objectif était de défendre les intérêts de la communauté noire. Cet article essaie de déterminer si les Argentins d'origine africaine prirent conscience du pouvoir de la presse écrite, comme moyen de divulgation de leurs idées. Par ailleurs, il met en évidence les accointances des journaux afroargentins avec la classe politique de l'époque, démontrant ainsi à quel point ils furent instrumentalisés par le pouvoir en place.El despegue periodístico que se produjo en Argentina durante la década de 1850 vio la aparición de una activa prensa afroargentina defensora de los intereses de la comunidad negra. Este artículo pretende analizar en qué medida los argentinos de origen africano fueron conscientes del poder de la prensa escrita como medio de divulgación de sus ideas. Subraya por otra parte el acercamiento de los periódicos afroargentinos a la clase política convirtiéndose en instrumentos del poder político.In the 1850's appeared an Afro-Argentinian activist press, which defended the black community interests. In this paper the author tries to evaluate if the Argentinians of African origin realized the full power of the written press as a way of spreading their ideas.Therefore, he explains the conversion of the Afro-Argentinians newspapers as political instruments.

  5. [Democracy and conflict in pluralist contexts: an interview with Chantal Mouffe]. (United States)

    Mouffe, Chantal; Ramos, Aura Helena; de Oliveira, Anna Luiza A R Martins; de Oliveira, Gustavo Gilson S; de Mesquita, Rui Gomes de Mattos


    Chantal Mouffe, along with Argentinian political theorist Ernesto Laclau (1935-2014), laid down the bases of discourse theory in 1985. She later developed her work by exploring in more detail how discourse theory formulations influence the analysis of contemporary democracies. Approaching conflict as a product of the encounter with difference, Mouffe sees it as an indelible part of the constitution of social relationships. In this encounter with the author, we seek to reflect upon certain themes and problematics that are central to her work, and upon the implications of her theory for the field of contemporary education.

  6. QUBIC Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Stolpovskiy, Mikhail


    QUBIC is a ground-based experiment, currently under construction, that uses the novel bolometric interferometry technology. It is dedicated to measure the primordial B-modes of CMB. As a bolometric interferometer, QUBIC has high sensitivity and good systematics control. Dust contamination is controlled by operating with two bands -- 150 and 220 GHz. There are two possible sites for QUBIC: either Concordia station in Antarctic or in the Argentinian Puna desert. It is planned to see the first light in 2018-2019.

  7. Little Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis


    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  8. Territorial (DisOrdering in Salta. A look into the context prior to the Territory Planning of Native Forests in the Province of Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schmidt


    Full Text Available In this article, we look into the characteristics of production in the Province of Salta during the years prior to the approval of National Law No. 26,331 of "Minimum Budget for Environmental Protection of Native Forests" and to the implementation of policies of Territory Planning of Native Forests. We begin briefly describing the transformations occurred in the Argentinian countryside since the early 1970, and go on characterizing such process and its specific features in the east of Salta, where the agricultural border in the last decades has rapidly gained ground over territories in the past considered marginal for agricultural and livestock business production

  9. El estereotipo invisible: imágenes del afrodescendiente en la narrativa argentina del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier De Navascués


    Full Text Available This paper deals with different images of Black minorities inArgentinian Literature during XIX th. century. At first, Afrodescendants numbered almost 25 % of the population. However, in comparison with other ethnic groups, such as the "gauchos",there are not literary works mainly concerned with Afroargentinian people. They only appear as secondary characters and they are reduced to one or two common places: the loyal servant o the brave soldier, for instance.Ideological motivs could explain this absence. In fact, Black peoplewere exluded from a political agenda created by criollistintellectuals from the historical origins of the Nation.

  10. Sangre de amor correspondido: reflexões sobre um caso de autotradução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia dos Santos Menezes


    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper we will discuss about a case of autotranslation by the Argentinian writer Manuel Puig who elaboreteded himself the translation to Spanish of his novel Sangue de amor correspondido which was written in Portuguese. We will talk about the concepts of “retextualização”, model reader and model author, as well as ideal reader and ideal author. We will relate such concepts to the autotranslation for then relate them to the mentioned case of Puig, analyzing some examples of this in his novel.

  11. Paisaje sociopolítico y beligerancia en el valle de Hualfín (Catamarca, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Wynveldt.


    Full Text Available In this article we propose an operative definition of landscape that includes not only its material aspects but also its capability to signify and direct social relationships. This concept is applied, focusing on the spatial dimension, to the study of three archaeological sites in the Argentinian Northwest, belonging to the Regional Development Period (1000-1480/Inka (1480-1535. Analyzing information related to the landscape, we interpret sociopolitical aspects concerning the inhabitants of the Hualfin Valley in a period characterized by confict and warfare.

  12. Post-Colony/Post-Dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Obarrio


    Full Text Available This essay focuses on two questions. On a general level: the relevance of postcolonial studies, after Twentieth century's second half, in the historical processes and the political cultures of the global South - concentrating on the exploration of the Argentinian position related to its Latin American regional context. More specifically, the article stresses the comparative perspective's importance to analyze the tension between postcolony/postdictatorship and the democratic transition. These questions are read within contemporary violent processes of primitive accumulation of capital, with its specific death's technologies.

  13. The Genetic Diversity of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Peru. (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Pollett, Simon; Ghersi, Bruno; Silva, Maria; Simons, Mark P; Icochea, Eliana; Gonzalez, Armando E; Segovia, Karen; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Bausch, Daniel G


    Our understanding of the global ecology of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) is impeded by historically low levels of viral surveillance in Latin America. Through sampling and whole-genome sequencing of 31 AIVs from wild birds in Peru, we identified 10 HA subtypes (H1-H4, H6-H7, H10-H13) and 8 NA subtypes (N1-N3, N5-N9). The majority of Peruvian AIVs were closely related to AIVs found in North America. However, unusual reassortants, including a H13 virus containing a PA segment related to extremely divergent Argentinian viruses, suggest that substantial AIV diversity circulates undetected throughout South America.

  14. Xaimaca de Ricardo Güiraldes: La escritura del bibelot americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Bocchino


    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of a typed copy of Xaimaca, with corrections made by Ricardo Güiraldes and Adelina del Carril, probably the last draft before it was sent to the printing press, this article recovers a writing process that enables us to read the patient building of an autonomous and self-sufficient aesthetics, long meditated in relation to the intellectual field surrounding the writer and laying the foundations for a literature to come. Returning to this text provides the chance to re-examine Güiraldes's place within the network of Argentinian literature

  15. Genealogy of a rural elite: anthropological elucidation of a practice of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Hernández


    Full Text Available In this article the notion of elite is examined as a conceptual tool to analyze the power relationships like they are build in the contemporary Argentinian agro-rural world. For this purpose we studied a specific group, the innovative entrepreneurs enrolled in the agribusiness model, assembled in Asociación Argentina de Productores en Siembra Directa (AAPRESID. Through the ethnographic material generated within the scope of an anthropological fieldwork (2003-2007, it will be analyzed the way in which the identity of elite as a legitimacy factor for the material and symbolic position occupied in the rural scenario

  16. 15 June 2009 - President of the Argentine Nation C. Fernández visiting ATLAS experimental area.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Tirage 1:President of the Argentine Nation, C. Fernández and Minister of Science, Technology and Innovative Production,L. Barañao Tirage 2-8:Arrival greetings Tirage 9-12:Introduction to CERN's activities by Director-General, R. Heuer Tirage 13-15:Signature of the guest book Tirage 16-25:M. Benedetti,R. Heuer and L.Barañao sit for the signature of the Agreement Tirage 26-33: Meeting with Argentinian scientists at CERN

  17. National Agriculture Society (SNA and fruit-crops development in Chile, 1838- 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste


    Full Text Available Since its beginning in 1938, the National Agriculture Society (SNA began publishing journals with agriculture-related topics. This generated a singular feature-length documentary from which those devoted to fruit growing are examined in this work. Three-hundred articles referred to plant’s cultivation practices, diseases and pests infestations, fruit conservation, and the export business. North American and Argentinian, among others, references are mentioned in these articles. The SNA contributions to fruit-crops growing in Chile were significant, which became evident in the 1936 census

  18. Apocalissi teosofiche in Las fuerzas extrañas di Leopoldo Lugones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Cattarulla


    Full Text Available In 1906 the Argentinian author Leopoldo Lugones published Las fuerzas extranas. In this collection of short stories Lugones places his interests in spiritism and science at the service of fiction and modernist prose. Lugones furthermore embraces aesthetically the theosophic doctrine envisaging a quest for absolute perfection through a process of renewal and reincarnation of the individual; it is within this framework that a number of apocalyptic episodes found in Las fuerzas extrañas are to be interpreted, pointing as they do in an intertextual game to specific Biblical passages which illustrate the theosophic stand of the author.

  19. Rappresentazioni e (intraducibilità del delirio: Informe sobre ciegos di Alberto Breccia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Nanni


    Full Text Available The essay proposes an analysis of the relationship between text and images in Informe sobre ciegos (1991 by Alberto Breccia. In his obstinate renunciation to unnecessary words, or surplus signs, and by employing graphic devices that convey a "telluric and formless" world, Breccia interprets and illustrates – without making it comprehensible – the self-destructive delirious state of Fernando Vidal, one of the most controversial and fascinating characters in Argentinian literature. In particular, the essay focuses on the conspiracy – at the level of both form and content – and on the graphic (untranslatability of his delirium.

  20. Arte e Historia en los festejos del Centenario de la Revolución de Mayo en Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Malosetti Costa


    Full Text Available Among the broad panorama of celebrations organized to commemorate the Revolution of May in 1910 Buenos Aires, the National History Museum developed a broad project of production and circulation of images and texts. Through iconography and monumental sculpture this project had the aim of constructing a hegemonic story of national history. In this article we discuss about the scope and limits of these initiatives to strength a canonical model of historical imagery, in their tension with other ideas about Argentinian art in the international context.

  1. Manuel Gálvez, crítico de arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Muñoz


    Full Text Available Between 1912 and 1914, Manuel Gálvez was in charge of the artistic section of Nosotros magazine. The critics he published there were contemporary to the institutionalization process that began with the inauguration of the Fine Arts Annual Salons. An intellectual of the Centenary generation, Galvez fought for the establishment of an Argentinian national art rooted in the principles of Realism. The artistic nationalism sustained by Gálvez had its best expression in the regionalist works of Jorge Bermúdez.

  2. Advertisement call of species of the genus Frostius Cannatella 1986 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora A. Juncá


    Full Text Available Frostius pernambucensis and F. erythrophthalmus are cryptic bufonid species recognized mainly by the iris color: yellow in F. permambucensis and red in F. erythrophthalmus. However, field studies showed that the iris color of F. erythrophthalmus could vary between yellow and red. To improve the recognition of these species we described the advertisement call of Frostius pernambucensis and Frostius erythrophthalmus and we tested if call characteristics are influenced by temperature, male size and perch height. We also report on a physical interaction between two males of F. pernambucensis and the associated vocalization, suggesting that F. pernambucensis has not a territorial call or encounter call. Comparing the advertisement calls, the call of F. pernambucensis was lower, shorter and with a smaller number of notes than the call of F. erythrophthalmus. Dominant frequency and fundamental frequency variation of the F. pernambucensis advertisement call were related to the male’s size, while the call emission rate was related to air temperature. However, we could not find relationship among the acoustic characteristic of F. erythrophthalmus and male size or temperature.

  3. Cranial features of dendrobatid larvae (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae). (United States)

    Haas, A


    The larval neurocranium and visceral arches of seven dendrobatid species representing four genera are described, based on cleared-and-stained and serially sectioned specimens. A variety of characters is shared by all seven species. Larval features do not substantiate the assumption of close ranoid affinities of the Dendrobatidae. Instead dendrobatid larvae share features such as the special quadripartite cartilago suprarostralis, the lack of the larval processus oticus, the presence of three foramina acustica, and the lack of a foramen perilymphaticum accessorius with many bufonoid larvae. The first of these characters is unique to bufonids, hylids, dendrobatids, and some New World leptodactylids; the other characters also occur in pelobatids and are presumably plesiomorphic for the Neobatrachia. The free proximal ends of Ceratobranchialia II and III are an autapomorphy of the Dendrobatidae supporting the monophyly of the family. Some features of the cranium are paedomorphic: low cartilago orbitalis, lack of connection between cartilage orbitalis and otic capsule (most species), and vestigal taeniae tecti. New anatomical terms are introduced.

  4. A model to inform management actions as a response to chytridiomycosis-associated decline (United States)

    Converse, Sarah; Bailey, Larissa L.; Mosher, Brittany A.; Funk, W. Chris; Gerber, Brian D.; Muths, Erin L.


    Decision-analytic models provide forecasts of how systems of interest will respond to management. These models can be parameterized using empirical data, but sometimes require information elicited from experts. When evaluating the effects of disease in species translocation programs, expert judgment is likely to play a role because complete empirical information will rarely be available. We illustrate development of a decision-analytic model built to inform decision-making regarding translocations and other management actions for the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas), a species with declines linked to chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Using the model, we explored the management implications of major uncertainties in this system, including whether there is a genetic basis for resistance to pathogenic infection by Bd, how translocation can best be implemented, and the effectiveness of efforts to reduce the spread of Bd. Our modeling exercise suggested that while selection for resistance to pathogenic infectionDecision-analytic models provide forecasts of how systems of interest will respond to management. These models can be parameterized using empirical data, but sometimes require information elicited from experts. When evaluating the effects of disease in species translocation programs, expert judgment is likely to play a role because complete empirical information will rarely be available. We illustrate development of a decision-analytic model built to inform decision-making regarding translocations and other management actions for the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas), a species with declines linked to chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Using the model, we explored the management implications of major uncertainties in this system, including whether there is a genetic basis for resistance to pathogenic infection by Bd, how translocation can best be implemented, and the effectiveness of efforts to

  5. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T. (Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX (USA))


    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing (3H)arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM.

  6. Las elecciones presidenciales en Argentina: ¿menemismo o victoria de Menem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DELAMATA


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Gabriela Delamata realiza un interesante análisis de la política argentina actual, partiendo de los resultados electorales de 1995. Estas elecciones consolidaron el liderazgo del peronista Carlos Menem, ilustraron el sostenido crecimiento de la colación Frepaso desde abril de 1994 y el fuerte retroceso de la Unión Cívica Radical. Sobre estas bases, Delamata reconstruye el sistema político argentino en torno a cuestiones tales como la estabilidad menemista, la existencia de una política alternativa del Frepaso y la regresión de la UCR.ABSTRACT: Gabriela Delamata realizes an interesting analysis of the current Argentinian politics starting from the 1995 electoral results. These elections which consolidated the leadership of peronist Carlos Menem, illustrated the sustained increase of the coalition Frepaso from april 1994 and the strong withdrawal of Unión Cívica Radical (UCR. Upon these facts, Delamata rebuilds the Argentinian political system around issues such as the stability of menemist vote, the existente of a political alternative in Frepaso and the retreat of UCR.

  7. La construcción de la subjetividad. El impacto de las políticas sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mabel Briuoli


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es abordar el modo complejo en que la realidad social impacta en la construcción de la subjetividad. Los ejes de análisis son los siguientes: La Construcción De La Subjetividad. Las funciones simbólicas que permiten dicho proceso psíquico. Los Nuevos Sujetos y Territorios de la precariedad y la desafiliación. Los Lazos Sociales. Nuevos roles. Declive de las instituciones y de los dispositivos de la Ley. Viejas Problemáticas planteadas Como Nuevas en el contexto actual: Desocupación, robo, adicciones, problemáticas escolares, los hijos de desaparecidos. Lo complejo de la realidad a la que nos enfrentamos en la vida cotidiana. Necesidad de revisar nuestras miradas e intervenciones.___________________ABSTRACT:The research has the purpose of analyzing the influence of the Army institutions during the return to the argentinian democratic system in 1983. It tries to study the way in which the Army influenced in the speeches of the electoral campaign, the political decisions put in practice by the Alfonsin Administration in military order, the Argentinian Forces imbalances, the disposition (or not of subordinating to the civil power and their role during the mutinies between 1987 and 1989, ideas that will allow an adequate analysis of the abilities and fragilities of the government strategies in the military sphere.

  8. Fuerzas Armadas y transición democrática. Argentina, 1983-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Alberto Masi Rius


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo procura analizar el grado de influencia que las instituciones militares tuvieron en la apertura democrática argentina en 1983. Se analizará la modalidad en que las Fuerzas Armadas influyeron en los discursos en la campaña electoral, las medidas implementadas por la Administración Alfonsín en materia militar, los desequilibrios internos del Ejército Argentino, la disposición (o no de las Fuerzas de subordinarse al poder civil y el rol que las mismas desempeñaron en los levantamientos de 1987 y 1989, líneas que permitirán una adecuado análisis de los aciertos y fragilidades de las estrategias de gobierno en la esfera castrense.______________________ABSTRACT:The research has the purpose of analyzing the influence of the Army institutions during the return to the argentinian democratic system in 1983. It tries to study the way in which the Army influenced in the speeches of the electoral campaign, the political decisions put in practice by the Alfonsin Administration in military order, the Argentinian Forces imbalances, the disposition (or not of subordinating to the civil power and their role during the mutinies between 1987 and 1989, ideas that will allow an adequate analysis of the abilities and fragilities of the government strategies in the military sphere.


    Rodríguez López, Santiago; Colantonio, Sonia E; Celton, Dora E


    This study aimed to evaluate educational and income inequalities in self-reported health (SRH), and physical functioning (limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL)/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)), among 60-year-old and older adults in Argentina. Using cross-sectional data from the Argentinian National Survey on Quality of Life of Older Adults 2012 (Encuesta Nacional sobre Calidad de Vida de Adultos Mayores, ENCaViAM), gender-specific socioeconomic inequalities in SRH and ADL and IADL limitations were studied in relation to educational level and household per capita income. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) - an index of the relative size of socioeconomic inequalities in health - was used. Socioeconomic inequalities in the studied health indicators were found - except for limitations in ADL among women - favouring socially advantaged groups. The results remained largely significant after full adjustment, suggesting that educational and income inequalities, mainly in SRH and IADL, were robust and somehow independent of age, marital status, physical activity, the use of several medications, depression and the occurrence of falls. The findings add to the existing knowledge on the relative size of the socioeconomic inequalities in subjective health indicators among Argentinian older adults, which are to the detriment of lower socioeconomic groups. The results could be used to inform planning interventions aimed at decreasing socioeconomic inequalities in health, to the benefit of socially disadvantaged adults.

  10. Actitudes hacia la democracia de las élites parlamentarias argentina y peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de aquella premisa que sostiene que la presencia de valores y actitudes democráticas en los ciudadanos como en las élites políticas son importantes para el surgimiento, estabilidad y consolidación de un régimen democrático; la autora analiza las actitudes hacia la democracia de los diputados argentinos y peruanos. Con este objetivo presenta los datos resultantes de la investigación de "Elites Parlamentarias en América Latina" y a partir de ellos sugiere que las orientaciones hacia la democracia de los diputados argentinos se podrían considerar como más "democráticas" que la de los diputados peruanos.ABSTRACT: Based on the perspective that democratic values and orientations among citizens and elites are imporant for the rise, stability and consolidation of democratic regimes, Flavia Freidenberg analyses the attitudes towards democracy of Argentinian and Peruvian parliamentarians. With this purpose, Freidenberg analyses data from the Research on Parliamentarian Elites in Latin america, and shows that the democratic values of Argentinian parliamentarians are stronger than those of Peruvian.

  11. O galego como lingua de contacto co castelán riopratense: unha relación esquecida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Sinner


    Full Text Available Unlike contact between Spanish and other languages such as Catalan, contact between Galician and Spanish, two closely related Ibero-Romance languages, has hardly been studied at all. Studies of contact between Galician and American Spanish are rarer still. While contact between Spanish and immigrant languages such as Italian, French, German or even Danish in the Rio de la Plata area and Argentina in particular has been the topic of numerous studies, Spanish-Galician contact is generally ignored. The main focus of the present article is the curious fact that the Galician language has never attracted the attention of Argentinian linguists and scholars in Hispanic Linguistics, not even in the area within the latter dedicated specifically to Argentina’s national language. This fact seems to be related to gen- eral cultural prejudice against Galicians in the Rio de la Plata area. Examples are presented of the influence of Galician on Argentinian Spanish. The article is based on a detailed study of the existing linguistic literature and a number of recent empirical studies in the framework of a research project on language contact among Ibero- -Romance Languages in the Department for Applied Linguistics and Translation Studies at Leipzig University.

  12. Evolution of dispersal and life history interact to drive accelerating spread of an invasive species. (United States)

    Perkins, T Alex; Phillips, Benjamin L; Baskett, Marissa L; Hastings, Alan


    Populations on the edge of an expanding range are subject to unique evolutionary pressures acting on their life-history and dispersal traits. Empirical evidence and theory suggest that traits there can evolve rapidly enough to interact with ecological dynamics, potentially giving rise to accelerating spread. Nevertheless, which of several evolutionary mechanisms drive this interaction between evolution and spread remains an open question. We propose an integrated theoretical framework for partitioning the contributions of different evolutionary mechanisms to accelerating spread, and we apply this model to invasive cane toads in northern Australia. In doing so, we identify a previously unrecognised evolutionary process that involves an interaction between life-history and dispersal evolution during range shift. In roughly equal parts, life-history evolution, dispersal evolution and their interaction led to a doubling of distance spread by cane toads in our model, highlighting the potential importance of multiple evolutionary processes in the dynamics of range expansion.

  13. Studies of Annual and Seasonal Variations in Four Species of Reptiles and Amphibians at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.C.; Nelson, E.I.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.; Haarmann, T.K.


    Baseline studies of reptiles and amphibians of the Pajarito wetlands at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been conducted by the Ecology group since 1990. With the data gathered from 1990-1997 (excluding 1992), we examined the annual and seasonal population changes of four species of reptiles and amphibians over the past seven years. The four species studied are the Woodhouse toad (Bufo woodhousii), the western chorus frog (Pseudacris triseriata), the many-lined skink (Eunzeces nudtivirgatus), and the plateau striped whiptail lizard (Cnemidophorus velox). Statistical analyses indicate a significant change on a seasonal basis for the western chorus frog and the many-lined skink. Results indicate a significant difference in the annual population of the Woodhouse toad.

  14. Amphibian monitoring in the Atchafalaya Basin (United States)

    Waddle, Hardin


    Amphibians are a diverse group of animals that includes frogs, toads, and salamanders. They are adapted to living in a variety of habitats, but most require water for at least one life stage. Amphibians have recently become a worldwide conservation concern because of declines and extinctions even in remote protected areas previously thought to be safe from the pressures of habitat loss and degradation. Amphibians are an important part of ecosystem dynamics because they can be quite abundant and serve both as a predator of smaller organisms and as prey to a suite of vertebrate predators. Their permeable skin and aquatic life history also make them useful as indicators of ecosystem health. Since 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey has been studying the frog and toad species inhabiting the Atchafalaya Basin to monitor for population declines and to better understand how the species are potentially affected by disease, environmental contaminants, and climate change.

  15. Studies of annual and seasonal variations in four species of reptiles and amphibians at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.I.; Haarmann, T.; Keller, D.C.; Foxx, T.


    Baseline studies of reptiles and amphibians of the Pajarito wetlands at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been conducted by the Ecology group since 1990. With the gathered data from 1990--1997 (excluding 1992), they plan to determine if patterns can be found in the annual and seasonal population changes of four species of reptiles and amphibians over the past seven years. The four species studied are the Woodhouse toad, the western chorus frog, the many-linked skink, and the plateau striped whiptail lizard. Statistical analysis results show that significant changes occurred on a seasonal basis for the western chorus frog and the many-lined skink. Results indicate a significant difference in the annual population of the Woodhouse toad.

  16. [Quod medicina aliis, aliis est acre venenum**--venoms as a source of anticancer agents]. (United States)

    Kucińska, Małgorzata; Ruciński, Piotr; Murias, Marek


    Natural product derived from plants and animals were used in folk medicine for centuries. The venoms produced by animals for hunting of self-defence are rich in bioactive compounds with broad spectrum of biological activity. The papers presents the most promising compounds isolated from venoms of snakes, scorpions and toads. For these compounds both: mechanism of anticancer activity as well as possibilities of clinical use are presented.

  17. Developmental alterations and osmoregulatory physiology of a larval anuran under osmotic stress



    Water salinity represents an environmental stress for many species. Amphibians are particularly sensitive because they are generally poor osmoregulators, and most species are completely absent from brackish and saline environments. We experimentally examined the effect of different salinity levels on larvae of the toad Bufo calamita L., a species that occupies freshwater ponds but can also breed in brackish ponds. Two independent experiments are reported here. In both experiments, tadpoles un...

  18. Viikingipäevad Käsmus Vana-Jüri neemel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    5.-6. augustil viikingipäevade raames toimivad töötoad: pronksivalu (Harvi Varkki), tinavalu, sepatöö (Mart Salumaa), keraamika ja maapõletus (Eelin Tiidema), nahktöö (Aarne Vaik), pronks- ja hõbeehted (Toomas Mägi alias Mäga), muinasehted (Meelis Säre alias Vanakaru), tekstiil ja puutööd

  19. Säästva renoveerimise meistrikursused : SRIK-Tallinn (Väike-Patarei 3, Tallinn) / Toomas Tallo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tallo, Toomas, 1940-


    Rein Tedrekulli koolitustsükkel (loengud Väike-Patarei 3, töötoad Liivalaia 19a): vanade uste restaureerimine - 1. III loeng, 5. III töötuba; vanade akende restaureerimine - 8. III loeng, 12. III töötuba; vana mööbli restaureerimine - 15. III loeng, 19. III töötuba. Siidimaali sissejuhatav kursus: 18. III Väike-Patarei 3 töötuba, mida juhendab kunstnik Evi Vares

  20. Tarbekunstnike ülevaatenäitus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    28. juunist Tarbekunstimuuseumis näitus "Enampakkumine. Eesti tarbekunst 2002". Osaleb 74 kunstnikku. Eksponeeritud Ivo Lille klaasobjekt "Märklaud" (hõbemedal Kanazawas, 2001), Jaan Pärna kuldfiligraanist ehted (hõbemedal Benvenuto Cellini nim. ehtekunsti konkursil), Ülle Raadiku tekstiilkollaazh "Sõnumid olnust" (III preemia triennaalilt "European Quilt", 2000). 10., 11. ja 12. VII töötoad "Kolme päevaga kunstnikuks!"

  1. Effects of Mg2+ on Ca2+ handling by the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skinned skeletal and cardiac muscle fibres. (United States)

    Kabbara, A A; Stephenson, D G


    The influence of myoplasmic Mg2+ (0.05-10 mM) on Ca2+ accumulation (net Ca2+ flux) and Ca2+ uptake (pump-driven Ca2+ influx) by the intact sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was studied in skinned fibres from the toad iliofibularis muscle (twitch portion), rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle (fast twitch), rat soleus muscle (slow twitch) and rat cardiac trabeculae. Ca2+ accumulation was optimal between 1 and 3 mM Mg2+ in toad fibres and reached a plateau between 1 and 10 mM Mg2+ in the rat EDL fibres and between 3 and 10 mM Mg2+ in the rat cardiac fibres. In soleus fibres, optimal Ca2+ accumulation occurred at 10 mM Mg2+. The same trend was obtained with all preparations at 0.3 and 1 microM Ca2+. Experiments with 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone, a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+ pump, revealed a marked Ca2+ efflux from the SR of toad iliofibularis fibres in the presence of 0.2 microM Ca2+ and 1 mM Mg2+. Further experiments indicated that the SR Ca2+ leak could be blocked by 10 microM ruthenium red without affecting the SR Ca2+ pump and this allowed separation between SR Ca2+ uptake and SR Ca2+ accumulation. At 0.3 microM Ca2+, Ca2+ uptake was optimal with 1 mM Mg2+ in the toad iliofibularis and rat EDL fibres and between 1 and 10 mM Mg2+ in the rat soleus and trabeculae preparations. At higher [Ca2+] (1 microM), Ca2+ uptake was optimal with 1 mM Mg2+ in the iliofibularis fibres and between 1 and 3 mM Mg2+ in the EDL fibres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Pilot Plant Demonstration of a Sulfide Precipitation Process for Metal-Finishing Wastewater Treatment. (United States)


    TOAD Metal-Finishing Wastewater Treatment System 6 3 View of Portion of Treatment System 7 4 Section of Treatment System, Showing Clearwell 7 5 Filter... Clearwell Effluent Suspended Solids 21 10 Effluent Oil and Grease 22 1 1 Dewatered Sludge Solids 23 12 Operating Time, Wastewater Flows, and Volume of...showing clearwell . S S S - - - - - - - - - - S 0C C0 CL U. * 4 Figure 6. Control panel. c. Flow Equalization. The effluents from the cyanide

  3. Studies on the Effects of Deltamethrin on Sodium Net Transport Through the in vivo Amphibian Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The action of micromolar concentrations of Deltamethrin on sodium net transport through the in vivo skin of the South American toad Bufo arenarum was studied.The effect or pure ethanolic insecticide solutions and commercial formulations when applied on the mucosal surface was assayed.Deltamethrin provoked a concentration-independent inhibition;the highest inhibition was found at the lowest concentrations.At highest concentrations of the insecticide the Jn Na was not altered.

  4. Maternal Investment Influences Expression of Resource Polymorphism in Amphibians: Implications for the Evolution of Novel Resource-Use Phenotypes



    Maternal effects--where an individual's phenotype is influenced by the phenotype or environment of its mother--are taxonomically and ecologically widespread. Yet, their role in the origin of novel, complex traits remains unclear. Here we investigate the role of maternal effects in influencing the induction of a novel resource-use phenotype. Spadefoot toad tadpoles, Spea multiplicata, often deviate from their normal development and produce a morphologically distinctive carnivore-morph phenotyp...

  5. Environmental Assessment for Alternate Water Supply System, Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Newport News, Virginia (United States)


    occur along stream corridors. The study area is approximately 30 feet above sea level and the topography is flat. The majority of the land in the...Action is in a forest compartment whose management includes performing annual inspections for insect and disease control. Wildlife Resources...Pleistodon spp.) and box turtles (Terrapene carolina). Amphibians observed in the area include Fowler’s toad (Anaxyrus fowleri), marbled

  6. Developmental reversal in neuropeptide Y action on feeding in an amphibian. (United States)

    Crespi, Erica J; Denver, Robert J


    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in the hypothalamus where it exerts orexigenic actions within the feeding control circuit. While NPY stimulates feeding in juvenile and adult animals, it is not known whether NPY influences food intake at earlier life stages. We investigated a role for NPY in regulating feeding at two stages of the life cycle of an amphibian, the Western spadefoot toad Spea hammondii. We administered NPY by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection to juvenile toads or prometamorphic tadpoles, and monitored locomotion, feeding behavior and/or food intake. Injection of NPY (20 or 200 ng/g BW) into juvenile toads decreased the latency to, and increased the number of strikes at prey, and the number of crickets eaten compared to uninjected or vehicle-injected controls. By contrast, injection of NPY (0.02-20 ng/g BW) into prometamorphic tadpoles caused a dose-dependent decrease in time spent foraging compared to controls. Blocking NPY signaling in the prometamorphic tadpole brain by i.c.v. injection of a general NPY receptor antagonist increased foraging, and partly blocked the action of exogenous NPY on foraging. Taken together, our findings show a developmental reversal in NPY actions on feeding in an amphibian, with the peptide having a characteristic orexigenic action in the juvenile toad, but an inhibitory action on foraging in the prometamorphic tadpole. The anorexigenic action of NPY in the tadpole correlates with a decrease in feeding that occurs at metamorphic climax when the tadpole's gut and cranium remodels for the transition to a carnivorous diet.

  7. Environmental Assessment: Tree Removal to Improve FAA Radar Coverage, Youngstown Air Reserve Station (United States)


    Trees would ultimately regenerate , particularly if aggressive invasive species were controlled . The Proposed Action would result in a major loss of the...include toads, frogs, and salamanders . A wide range of birds from Canada geese to common song birds are found within and near the Project Study Area...drainage. As the vegetation at the site regenerates over a three to five or more year period, site hydrology would return to the current conditions

  8. Environmental Assessment of the Construction of the Joint Use Small Arms Range for the 934th Airlift Wing at Minneapolis-St. paul International Airport Air Reserve Station, Minnesota (United States)


    design must preclude escape of both direct-fired projectiles and ricochets. “Blue sky ” should not be visible from any firing position or as one...travels downrange towards the target. Overhead baffles prevent “blue sky ” visibility. The bullet trap at the existing small arms range has exposed... starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Other species might include the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) (934 AW

  9. Environmental Assessment of Proposed Mixed-Use Business Park on an Enchanced Use Lease at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota (United States)


    Although no formal survey has been conducted for amphibians and reptiles on the base, two reptiles and four amphibians have been observed at...are the American toad (Bufo americanus), and wood frog (Rana sylvatica). Reptiles observed on base include the common garter snake (Thamnophis...original peoples of North and South America (including Central America ) and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment;  Asian – A

  10. Immediate and lag effects of pesticide exposure on parasite resistance in larval amphibians. (United States)

    Pochini, Katherine M; Hoverman, Jason T


    Across host-parasite systems, there is evidence that pesticide exposure increases parasite loads and mortality following infection. However, whether these effects are driven by reductions in host resistance to infection or slower rates of parasite clearance is often unclear. Using controlled laboratory experiments, we examined the ability of larval northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) to resist and clear trematode (Echinoparyphium sp.) infections following exposure to the insecticide carbaryl. Northern leopard frogs exposed to 1 mg L-1 of carbaryl had 61% higher parasite loads compared with unexposed individuals, while there was no immediate effect of carbaryl on parasite encystment in American toads. However, when tadpoles were exposed to carbaryl and moved to freshwater for 14 days before the parasite challenge, we recovered 37 and 63% more parasites from carbaryl-exposed northern leopard frogs and American toads, respectively, compared with the control. No effects on clearance were found for either species. Collectively, our results suggest that pesticide exposure can reduce the ability of amphibians to resist parasite infections and that these effects can persist weeks following exposure. It is critical for researchers to incorporate species interactions into toxicity studies to improve our understanding of how contaminants affect ecological communities.

  11. Effect of chloride on Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres. (United States)

    Coonan, J R; Lamb, G D


    The effect of intracellular Cl- on Ca2+ release in mechanically skinned fibres of rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and toad iliofibularis muscles was examined under physiological conditions of myoplasmic [Mg2+] and [ATP] and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ loading. Both in rat and toad fibres, the presence of 20 mM Cl- in the myoplasm increased Ca2+ leakage from the SR at pCa (i.e. -log10 [Ca2+]) 6.7, but not at pCa 8. Ca2+ uptake was not significantly affected by the presence of Cl-. This Ca2+-dependent effect of Cl- on Ca2+ leakage was most likely due to a direct action on the ryanodine receptor/Ca2+ release channel, and could influence channel sensitivity and the resting [Ca2+] in muscle fibres in vivo. In contrast to this effect, acute addition of 20 mM Cl- to the myoplasm caused a 40-50% reduction in Ca2+ release in response to a low caffeine concentration both in toad and rat fibres. One possible explanation for this latter effect is that the addition of Cl- induces a potential across the SR (lumen negative) which might reduce Ca2+ release via several different mechanisms.

  12. Sympatric Masticophis flagellum and Coluber constrictor select vertebrate prey at different levels of taxonomy (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.


    Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhip) and Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer) are widespread North American snakes with similar foraging modes and habits. Little is known about the selection of prey by either species, and despite their apparently similar foraging habits, comparative studies of the foraging ecology of sympatric M. flagellum and C. constrictor are lacking. We examined the foraging ecology and prey selection of these actively foraging snakes in xeric, open-canopied Florida scrub habitat by defining prey availability separately for each snake to elucidate mechanisms underlying geographic, temporal, and interspecific variation in predator diets. Nineteen percent of M. flagellum and 28% of C. constrictor contained stomach contents, and most snakes contained only one prey item. Mean relative prey mass for both species was less than 10%. Larger C. constrictor consumed larger prey than small individuals, but this relationship disappeared when prey size was scaled to snake size. Masticophis flagellum was selective at the prey category level, and positively selected lizards and mammals; however, within these categories it consumed prey species in proportion to their availability. In contrast, C. constrictor preyed upon prey categories opportunistically, but was selective with regard to species. Specifically, C. constrictor positively selected Hyla femoralis (Pine Woods Treefrog) and negatively selected Bufo querclcus (Oak Toad), B. terrestris (Southern Toad), and Gastrophryne carolinensis (Eastern Narrowmouth Toad). Thus, despite their similar foraging habits, M. flagellum and C. constrictor select different prey and are selective of prey at different levels of taxonomy. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  13. Analgesia Synergism of Essential Oil from Pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium and Verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Wu


    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the synergistic analgesic effect of essential oil of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc. (EOZ and verapamil (Ver. Method. The qualitative and quantitative composition of EOZ were determined with gas chromatography/Mass spectrometer. The interaction between EOZ and Ver in antinociceptive activity was evaluated by using acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and tail flick tests in mice and in isolated toad sciatic nerve test. Results. Linalool, limonene, and sabinene are the major components of EOZ. EOZ (middle-dose: 40 mg·kg−1, high-dose: 80 mg·kg−1 and EOZ + Ver (Each dose group have remarkable analgesic effects on pain in mice induced by acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and tail flick tests. Low-dose EOZ (20 mg·kg−1 had no analgesic action, but when it is combined with Ver it has shown significant antinociception. Verapamil has a faint analgesic effect but was not able to inhibit action potential transmission in toad sciatic nerve. EOZ (0.2% and EOZ + Ver (0.2% + 0.05% also inhibited action potential transmission in toad sciatic nerve. Combination of EOZ with Ver had a greater analgesic effect and inhibition of nerve action potential transmission compared to its components EOZ and Ver. Conclusion. The combination of EOZ with Ver produces a synergistic analgesic effect.

  14. 外用蟾酥在肿瘤治疗中的应用%Topical application of venenum bufonis application in tumor treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷子斐; 张慧卿; 苏永华


    Toad venom, as a chinese traditional medicine, can relieve cancer pain and treat skin cancer, cervical cancer and penis cancer effectively when externally used, which has been demonstrated by a great deal of clinical researches. Toad venom is of vital importance in the treatment of cancer, and its clinical application is worth to be introduced. However, the dosage and indications of toad venom should be strictly controlled in order to ensure the safe and effective drug-use in pa-tien ts.%综述了外用蟾酥在治疗体表肿瘤及癌痛中的应用,认为其对皮肤癌、宫颈癌、阴茎癌等肿瘤具有良好治疗作用,在肿瘤治疗中具有重要意义,但在临床外用蟾酥时,需要控制剂量,并严格掌握其适应症,保证临床用药的安全有效.

  15. Proton pump activity is required for active uptake of chloride in isolated amphibian skin exposed to freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels J.; Larsen, Erik Hviid


    Net proton secretion and unidirectional chloride fluxes were measured in isolated skin of toads (Bufo bufo) and frogs (Rana esculenta) mounted in an Ussing chamber and exposed to a Ringer's solution on the serosal side and a freshwater-like solution (1-3 mM Cl-) on the external side. Active proto...... active Cl- uptake in fresh water by creating a favourable gradient for an apical HCO3- exit in exchange for external Cl-. The data also suggest that a carbonic anhydrase activity provides H+ and HCO3- for apically co-expressed proton pumps and Cl-/HCO3- exchangers....... of a rheogenic proton pump. Cl- influx was 37.4-7.5 pmol·cm-2·s-1 (n=14) in frog skin and 19.5-3.5 pmol·cm-2·s-1 (n=11) in toad skin. In toad skin, the mean Cl- flux ratio was larger than expected for simple electro-diffusion. In 8 of 11 sets of paired skins, influx was greater than the efflux indicating active......-type proton pump (V-ATPase) inhibitor, significantly reduced proton secretion in frog skin. In addition, concanamycin A (1 µM) significantly reduced Cl- influx in frog skin. We suggest that the active proton secretion and Cl- influx are coupled. We hypothesise that an apical V-ATPase is capable of energising...

  16. OASIS is Automated Statistical Inference for Segmentation, with applications to multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation in MRI. (United States)

    Sweeney, Elizabeth M; Shinohara, Russell T; Shiee, Navid; Mateen, Farrah J; Chudgar, Avni A; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Calabresi, Peter A; Pham, Dzung L; Reich, Daniel S; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to detect lesions in the brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and is essential for diagnosing the disease and monitoring its progression. In practice, lesion load is often quantified by either manual or semi-automated segmentation of MRI, which is time-consuming, costly, and associated with large inter- and intra-observer variability. We propose OASIS is Automated Statistical Inference for Segmentation (OASIS), an automated statistical method for segmenting MS lesions in MRI studies. We use logistic regression models incorporating multiple MRI modalities to estimate voxel-level probabilities of lesion presence. Intensity-normalized T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and proton density volumes from 131 MRI studies (98 MS subjects, 33 healthy subjects) with manual lesion segmentations were used to train and validate our model. Within this set, OASIS detected lesions with a partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for clinically relevant false positive rates of 1% and below of 0.59% (95% CI; [0.50%, 0.67%]) at the voxel level. An experienced MS neuroradiologist compared these segmentations to those produced by LesionTOADS, an image segmentation software that provides segmentation of both lesions and normal brain structures. For lesions, OASIS out-performed LesionTOADS in 74% (95% CI: [65%, 82%]) of cases for the 98 MS subjects. To further validate the method, we applied OASIS to 169 MRI studies acquired at a separate center. The neuroradiologist again compared the OASIS segmentations to those from LesionTOADS. For lesions, OASIS ranked higher than LesionTOADS in 77% (95% CI: [71%, 83%]) of cases. For a randomly selected subset of 50 of these studies, one additional radiologist and one neurologist also scored the images. Within this set, the neuroradiologist ranked OASIS higher than LesionTOADS in 76% (95% CI: [64%, 88%]) of cases, the neurologist 66% (95% CI: [52%, 78

  17. [School museums, collections, and elementary teaching of the natural sciences in late XIX century Argentina]. (United States)

    García, Susana V


    In this study we analyze the organization of natural science teaching within the Argentinian school context starting with teaching practices and material support in the late XIX century. By that time, school staff and teachers fostered modernization and nationalization of teaching by using collections with national issues and the foundation of museums within the schools. In particular, we examine the official debates over the mineralogical collections offered for sale by the naturalist Enrique de Carlés, and the "school museums" by professors Pedro Scalabrini and Guillermo Navarro. These account for the tension between searching for modern didactic materials associated with foreign models, and the importance of counting on elements that represented the country nature and industry.

  18. Between agreements and disagreements. Use of the Pragmatic Sanction to avoid the abuse of unequal marriages in the province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fuentes-Barragán


    Full Text Available This article deals with the repercussions produced by the implementation of the consecutive versions of the “Real Pragmática de Matrimonios” [Royal sanction for marriage] in the Vice-royalty of Río de la Plata and, more speciically, in the Province of Buenos Aires, since its irst American proclamation in 1778 until the dawn of emancipation. We will analyze both the role of parents, supported by the Crown to decide the matrimonial fate of their children, as well as the reaction of the latter, who saw their rights limited and had to disobey their parents in order to become responsible for their own lives. After analyzing documents from various kinds of Argentinian historical iles, relevant historiographical variations are obtained. Those variations are meaningful, as they help us to explore the fascinating reality typiied by prejudice, family interests and individual feelings in the late colonial period.

  19. Prenatal management of anencephaly. (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Erdman, Joanna N; Hevia, Martin; Dickens, Bernard M


    About a third of anencephalic fetuses are born alive, but they are not conscious or viable, and soon die. This neural tube defect can be limited by dietary consumption of foliates, and detected prenatally by ultrasound and other means. Many laws permit abortion, on this indication or on the effects of pregnancy and prospects of delivery on a woman's physical or mental health. However, abortion is limited under some legal systems, particularly in South America. To avoid criminal liability, physicians will not terminate pregnancies, by induced birth or abortion, without prior judicial approval. Argentinian courts have developed means to resolve these cases, but responses of Brazilian courts are less clear. Ethical concerns relate to late-term abortion, meaning after the point of fetal viability, but since anencephalic fetuses are nonviable, many ethical concerns are overcome. Professional guidance is provided by several professional and institutional codes on management of anencephalic pregnancies.

  20. Benvenuto Terracini y Demetrio Gazdaru: dos lecturas desplazadas del archivo glotológico de Graziadio Isaia Ascoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bentivegna


    Full Text Available In this paper we aim to focus on two readings on the work of Italian linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli produced by European linguists settled in Argentina: Italian Benvenuto Terracini, professor of Linguistics in the University of Tucumán between 1941 and 1946, and Rumanian Demetrio Gazdaru, who taught linguistic courses in different Argentinian universities from 1949 to 1973. We understand such rereadings as a key instance in the respective designs of a history of language studies which both specialists carry out in Argentina. Besides, we interrogate such rereadings as two interventions on the definition of a legitimate linguistic knowledge production from peripheral places, in so far as they establish a Romance tradition alternative to the different Hispanic inscriptions hegemonic in academic discourses on language in Argentina.